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Sample records for early neural development

  1. Socioeconomic disadvantage and neural development from infancy through early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Lun Hung, Galen; Hahn, Jill; Alamiri, Bibi; Buka, Stephen L; Goldstein, Jill M; Laird, Nan; Nelson, Charles A; Smoller, Jordan W; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early social experiences are believed to shape neurodevelopment, with potentially lifelong consequences. Yet minimal evidence exists regarding the role of the social environment on children’s neural functioning, a core domain of neurodevelopment. Methods: We analysed data from 36 443 participants in the United States Collaborative Perinatal Project, a socioeconomically diverse pregnancy cohort conducted between 1959 and 1974. Study outcomes included: physician (neurologist or paediatrician)-rated neurological abnormality neonatally and thereafter at 4 months and 1 and 7 years; indicators of neurological hard signs and soft signs; and indicators of autonomic nervous system function. Results: Children born to socioeconomically disadvantaged parents were more likely to exhibit neurological abnormalities at 4 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 1.37], 1 year (OR = 1.35; CI = 1.17, 1.56), and 7 years (OR = 1.67; CI = 1.48, 1.89), and more likely to exhibit neurological hard signs (OR = 1.39; CI = 1.10, 1.76), soft signs (OR = 1.26; CI = 1.09, 1.45) and autonomic nervous system dysfunctions at 7 years. Pregnancy and delivery complications, themselves associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, did not account for the higher risks of neurological abnormalities among disadvantaged children. Conclusions: Parental socioeconomic disadvantage was, independently from pregnancy and delivery complications, associated with abnormal child neural development during the first 7 years of life. These findings reinforce the importance of the early environment for neurodevelopment generally, and expand knowledge regarding the domains of neurodevelopment affected by environmental conditions. Further work is needed to determine the mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage with children’s neural functioning, the timing of such mechanisms and their potential reversibility. PMID:26675752

  2. Socioeconomic disadvantage and neural development from infancy through early childhood.

    PubMed

    Chin-Lun Hung, Galen; Hahn, Jill; Alamiri, Bibi; Buka, Stephen L; Goldstein, Jill M; Laird, Nan; Nelson, Charles A; Smoller, Jordan W; Gilman, Stephen E

    2015-12-01

    Early social experiences are believed to shape neurodevelopment, with potentially lifelong consequences. Yet minimal evidence exists regarding the role of the social environment on children's neural functioning, a core domain of neurodevelopment. We analysed data from 36 443 participants in the United States Collaborative Perinatal Project, a socioeconomically diverse pregnancy cohort conducted between 1959 and 1974. Study outcomes included: physician (neurologist or paediatrician)-rated neurological abnormality neonatally and thereafter at 4 months and 1 and 7 years; indicators of neurological hard signs and soft signs; and indicators of autonomic nervous system function. Children born to socioeconomically disadvantaged parents were more likely to exhibit neurological abnormalities at 4 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06, 1.37], 1 year (OR = 1.35; CI = 1.17, 1.56), and 7 years (OR = 1.67; CI = 1.48, 1.89), and more likely to exhibit neurological hard signs (OR = 1.39; CI = 1.10, 1.76), soft signs (OR = 1.26; CI = 1.09, 1.45) and autonomic nervous system dysfunctions at 7 years. Pregnancy and delivery complications, themselves associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, did not account for the higher risks of neurological abnormalities among disadvantaged children. Parental socioeconomic disadvantage was, independently from pregnancy and delivery complications, associated with abnormal child neural development during the first 7 years of life. These findings reinforce the importance of the early environment for neurodevelopment generally, and expand knowledge regarding the domains of neurodevelopment affected by environmental conditions. Further work is needed to determine the mechanisms linking socioeconomic disadvantage with children's neural functioning, the timing of such mechanisms and their potential reversibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International

  3. Development of a neural network for early detection of renal osteodystrophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shirley N.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Adler, Ronald; Niklason, Loren T.; Chang, Chair-Li

    1991-07-01

    Bone erosion presenting as subperiosteal resorption on the phalanges of the hand is an early manifestation of hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure. At present, the diagnosis is made by trained radiologists through visual inspection of hand radiographs. In this study, a neural network is being developed to assess the feasibility of computer-aided detection of these changes. A two-pass approach is adopted. The digitized image is first compressed by a Laplacian pyramid compact code. The first neural network locates the region of interest using vertical projections along the phalanges and then the horizontal projections across the phalanges. A second neural network is used to classify texture variations of trabecular patterns in the region using a concurrence matrix as the input to a two-dimensional sensor layer to detect the degree of associated osteopenia. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  4. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  5. Early warning of illegal development for protected areas by integrating cellular automata with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Lao, Chunhua; Liu, Yilun; Liu, Xiaoping; Chen, Yimin; Li, Shaoying; Ai, Bing; He, Zijian

    2013-11-30

    Ecological security has become a major issue under fast urbanization in China. As the first two cities in this country, Shenzhen and Dongguan issued the ordinance of Eco-designated Line of Control (ELC) to "wire" ecologically important areas for strict protection in 2005 and 2009 respectively. Early warning systems (EWS) are a useful tool for assisting the implementation ELC. In this study, a multi-model approach is proposed for the early warning of illegal development by integrating cellular automata (CA) and artificial neural networks (ANN). The objective is to prevent the ecological risks or catastrophe caused by such development at an early stage. The integrated model is calibrated by using the empirical information from both remote sensing and handheld GPS (global positioning systems). The MAR indicator which is the ratio of missing alarms to all the warnings is proposed for better assessment of the model performance. It is found that the fast urban development has caused significant threats to natural-area protection in the study area. The integration of CA, ANN and GPS provides a powerful tool for describing and predicting illegal development which is in highly non-linear and fragmented forms. The comparison shows that this multi-model approach has much better performances than the single-model approach for the early warning. Compared with the single models of CA and ANN, this integrated multi-model can improve the value of MAR by 65.48% and 5.17% respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Blastomere biopsy influences epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development, which impacts neural development and function in resulting mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yibo; Lv, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Dong, Guoying; Yu, Yang; Cui, Yiqiang; Tong, Man; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Zuomin; Zhu, Hui; Zhou, Qi; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-05-01

    Blastomere biopsy is used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis; however, the long-term implications on the offspring are poorly characterized. We previously reported a high risk of memory defects in adult biopsied mice. Here, we assessed nervous function of aged biopsied mice and further investigated the mechanism of neural impairment after biopsy. We found that aged biopsied mice had poorer spatial learning ability, increased neuron degeneration, and altered expression of proteins involved in neural degeneration or dysfunction in the brain compared to aged control mice. Furthermore, the MeDIP assay indicated a genome-wide low methylation in the brains of adult biopsied mice when compared to the controls, and most of the genes containing differentially methylated loci in promoter regions were associated with neural disorders. When we further compared the genomic DNA methylation profiles of 7.5-days postconception (dpc) embryos between the biopsy and control group, we found the whole genome low methylation in the biopsied group, suggesting that blastomere biopsy was an obstacle to de novo methylation during early embryo development. Further analysis on mRNA profiles of 4.5-dpc embryos indicated that reduced expression of de novo methylation genes in biopsied embryos may impact de novo methylation. In conclusion, we demonstrate an abnormal neural development and function in mice generated after blastomere biopsy. The impaired epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development may be the latent mechanism contributing to the impairment of the nervous system in the biopsied mice, which results in a hypomethylation status in their brains.

  7. Monoamine Oxidases Regulate Telencephalic Neural Progenitors in Late Embryonic and Early Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aiwu; Scott, Anna L.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Chen, Kevin; Ouyang, Xin; Lathia, Justin D.; Mughal, Mohamed; Cadet, Jean Lud; Mattson, Mark P.; Shih, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters play major roles in regulating a range of brain functions in adults and increasing evidence suggests roles for monoamines in brain development. Here we show that mice lacking the monoamine metabolic enzymes MAO A and MAO B (MAO AB-deficient mice) exhibit diminished proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the developing telencephalon beginning in late gestation [embryonic day (E) 17.5], a deficit that persists in neonatal and adult mice. These mice showed significantly increased monoamine levels and anxiety-like behaviors as adults. Assessments of markers of intermediate progenitor cells (IPC) and mitosis showed that NSC in the subventricular zone (SVZ), but not in the ventricular zone, are reduced in MAO AB-deficient mice. A developmental time course of monoamines in frontal cortical tissues revealed increased serotonin levels as early as E14.5, and a further large increase was found between E17.5 and postnatal day 2. Administration of an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis (parachlorophenylalanine) between E14.5 and E19.5 restored the IPC numbers and SVZ thickness, suggesting the role of serotonin in the suppression of IPC proliferation. Studies of neurosphere cultures prepared from the telencephalon at different embryonic and postnatal ages showed that serotonin stimulates proliferation in wild-type, but not in MAO AB-deficient, NSC. Together, these results suggest that a MAO-dependent long-lasting alteration in the proliferation capacity of NSC occurs late in embryonic development and is mediated by serotonin. Our findings reveal novel roles for MAOs and serotonin in the regulation of IPC proliferation in the developing brain. PMID:20702706

  8. Characterization of Early Cortical Neural Network Development in Multiwell Microelectrode Array Plates

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the development of neural network activity using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings made in multi-well MEA plates (mwMEAs) over the first 12 days in vitro (DIV). In primary cortical cultures made from postnatal rats, action potential spiking activity was essentiall...

  9. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Its Role in Early Neural Development and in Adult and Aged Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Lombó, Carla; Gonsebatt, María E.

    2016-01-01

    The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals triggered by energy, stress, oxygen levels, and growth factors. It regulates ribosome biogenesis, mRNA translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. mTOR participates in various functions of the brain, such as synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, memory, and learning. mTOR is present during early neural development and participates in axon and dendrite development, neuron differentiation, and gliogenesis, among other processes. Furthermore, mTOR has been shown to modulate lifespan in multiple organisms. This protein is an important energy sensor that is present throughout our lifetime its role must be precisely described in order to develop therapeutic strategies and prevent diseases of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to present our current understanding of the functions of mTOR in neural development, the adult brain and aging. PMID:27378854

  10. The effects of levetiracetam on neural tube development in the early stage of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Guvenc, Yahya; Dalgic, Ali; Billur, Deniz; Karaoglu, Derya; Aydin, Sevim; Daglioglu, Ergun; Ozdol, Cagatay; Nacar, Osman Arikan; Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Belen, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a new generation antiepileptic agent, levetiracetam, on the neural tube development in a chick embryo model that corresponds to the first month of vertebral development in mammals. Forty-five Atabey® breed fertilized chicken eggs with no specific pathogens were randomly divided into 5 groups. All of the eggs were incubated at 37.8±2°C and 60±5 % relative humidity in an incubator. Group A was control group. The other eggs were applied physiological saline and drugs at a volume of 10 μL by the in ovo method at the 28th hour of the incubation period. Group B was given distilled water; Group C, physiological saline; Group D, Levetiracetam (L8668) at a dose equivalent to the treatment dose for humans (10 mg/ kg), and Group E, Levetiracetam (L8668) at a dose of 10 times the treatment dose. The embryos in all of the groups were removed from the shells at the 48th hour and morphologically and histologically evaluated. Of the 45 embryos incubated, neural tubes of 41 were closed and the embryos displayed normal development. Levetiracetam, at a dose equivalent to human treatment dose and 10 times the treatment dose, was shown not to cause neural tube defects in chick embryos.

  11. PSD-95 is post-transcriptionally repressed during early neural development by PTBP1 and PTBP2.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sika; Gray, Erin E; Chawla, Geetanjali; Porse, Bo Torben; O'Dell, Thomas J; Black, Douglas L

    2012-01-15

    Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) is essential for synaptic maturation and plasticity. Although its synaptic regulation has been widely studied, the control of PSD-95 cellular expression is not understood. We found that Psd-95 was controlled post-transcriptionally during neural development. Psd-95 was transcribed early in mouse embryonic brain, but most of its product transcripts were degraded. The polypyrimidine tract binding proteins PTBP1 and PTBP2 repressed Psd-95 (also known as Dlg4) exon 18 splicing, leading to premature translation termination and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The loss of first PTBP1 and then of PTBP2 during embryonic development allowed splicing of exon 18 and expression of PSD-95 late in neuronal maturation. Re-expression of PTBP1 or PTBP2 in differentiated neurons inhibited PSD-95 expression and impaired the development of glutamatergic synapses. Thus, expression of PSD-95 during early neural development is controlled at the RNA level by two PTB proteins whose sequential downregulation is necessary for synapse maturation.

  12. Neural tube and other developmental anomalies in the guinea pig following maternal hyperthermia during early neural tube development.

    PubMed

    Cawdell-Smith, J; Upfold, J; Edwards, M; Smith, M

    1992-01-01

    Guinea pigs were exposed to hyperthermia for 1 hr once or twice on day 11, 12, 13, or 14 (E11-E14) of pregnancy. The mean rectal temperatures were elevated by 3.4 degrees C-4.0 degrees C. This treatment resulted in a marked elevation of rates of resorption and developmental defects in embryos examined at day E23. The defects observed were those affecting the neural tube (NTD) (exencephaly, encephaloceles, and microphthalmia), kyphosis/scoliosis, branchial arch defects, and pericardial edema. Embryos with NTD and kyphosis/scoliosis have not been found among newborn guinea pigs to date following maternal heat exposure on days E12-E14. It appears that embryos with these defects are filtered out by resorption or abortion by days E30-E35.

  13. An early role for sonic hedgehog from foregut endoderm in jaw development: ensuring neural crest cell survival.

    PubMed

    Brito, José M; Teillet, Marie-Aimée; Le Douarin, Nicole M

    2006-08-01

    We have investigated the role of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the development of facial structures by depriving chicken embryos of the most anterior sources of this morphogen, including the prechordal plate and the anterior ventral endoderm of the foregut, before the onset of neural crest cell (NCC) migration to the first branchial arch (BA1). The entire forehead, including the foregut endoderm, was removed at 5- to 10-somite stage (ss), which led to the absence of the lower jaw when the operation was performed before 7-ss. If the embryos were deprived of their forehead at 8- to 10-ss, they were later on endowed with a lower beak. In embryos that were operated on early, the NCCs migrated normally to BA1 but were subjected to massive apoptosis a few hours later. Cell death did not occur when forehead excision was performed at a later stage. In this case, onward expression of Shh in the ventral foregut endoderm extended caudally over the excision limit, and we hypothesized that absence of Shh production by the endoderm in embryos that were operated on early could be responsible for the NCC apoptosis and the failure of BA1 development. We thus provided exogenous Shh to the embryos that were operated on before 7-ss. In this case, the development of the lower jaw was rescued. Therefore, Shh derived from the ventral foregut endoderm ensures the survival of NCCs at a critical stage of BA1 development.

  14. Marijuana, Spice ‘herbal high’, and early neural development: implications for rescheduling and legalization

    PubMed Central

    Psychoyos, Delphine; Vinod, K. Yaragudri

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug by pregnant women in the world. In utero exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for anencephaly and neurobehavioural deficiencies in the offspring, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, and memory impairment. Recent studies demonstrate that the developing central nervous system (CNS) is susceptible to the effects of Δ9-THC and other cannabimimetics, including the psychoactive ingredients of the branded product ‘Spice’ branded products. These exocannabinoids interfere with the function of an endocannabinoid (eCB) system, present in the developing CNS from E12.5 (week 5 of gestation in humans), and required for proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neurons. Until recently, it was not known whether the eCB system is also present in the developing CNS during the initial stages of its ontogeny, i.e. from E7.0 onwards (week 2 of gestation in humans), and if so, whether this system is also susceptible to the action of exocannabinoids. Here, we review current data, in which the presence of an eCB system during the initial stage of development of the CNS is demonstrated. Furthermore, we focus on recent advances on the effect of canabimimetics on early gestation. The relevance of these findings and potential adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to ‘high potency’ marijuana, Spice branded products and/or cannabinoid research chemicals during this period is discussed. Finally, we address the implication of these findings in terms of the potential dangers of synthetic cannabinoid use during pregnancy, and the ongoing debate over legalization of marijuana. PMID:22887867

  15. Intergenerational neural mediators of early-life anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Fox, Andrew S; Oler, Jonathan A; Shackman, Alexander J; Shelton, Steven E; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; McKay, D Reese; Converse, Alexander K; Alexander, Andrew; Davidson, Richard J; Blangero, John; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kalin, Ned H

    2015-07-21

    Understanding the heritability of neural systems linked to psychopathology is not sufficient to implicate them as intergenerational neural mediators. By closely examining how individual differences in neural phenotypes and psychopathology cosegregate as they fall through the family tree, we can identify the brain systems that underlie the parent-to-child transmission of psychopathology. Although research has identified genes and neural circuits that contribute to the risk of developing anxiety and depression, the specific neural systems that mediate the inborn risk for these debilitating disorders remain unknown. In a sample of 592 young rhesus monkeys that are part of an extended multigenerational pedigree, we demonstrate that metabolism within a tripartite prefrontal-limbic-midbrain circuit mediates some of the inborn risk for developing anxiety and depression. Importantly, although brain volume is highly heritable early in life, it is brain metabolism-not brain structure-that is the critical intermediary between genetics and the childhood risk to develop stress-related psychopathology.

  16. Characterization of Early Cortical Neural Network ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We examined the development of neural network activity using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings made in multi-well MEA plates (mwMEAs) over the first 12 days in vitro (DIV). In primary cortical cultures made from postnatal rats, action potential spiking activity was essentially absent on DIV 2 and developed rapidly between DIV 5 and 12. Spiking activity was primarily sporadic and unorganized at early DIV, and became progressively more organized with time in culture, with bursting parameters, synchrony and network bursting increasing between DIV 5 and 12. We selected 12 features to describe network activity and principal components analysis using these features demonstrated a general segregation of data by age at both the well and plate levels. Using a combination of random forest classifiers and Support Vector Machines, we demonstrated that 4 features (CV of within burst ISI, CV of IBI, network spike rate and burst rate) were sufficient to predict the age (either DIV 5, 7, 9 or 12) of each well recording with >65% accuracy. When restricting the classification problem to a binary decision, we found that classification improved dramatically, e.g. 95% accuracy for discriminating DIV 5 vs DIV 12 wells. Further, we present a novel resampling approach to determine the number of wells that might be needed for conducting comparisons of different treatments using mwMEA plates. Overall, these results demonstrate that network development on mwMEA plates is similar to

  17. Function of FEZF1 during early neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Su, Pei; Lu, Lisha; Feng, Zicen; Wang, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiaxi

    2018-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanism underlying human neural development has been hampered due to lack of a cellular system and complicated ethical issues. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an invaluable model for dissecting human development because of unlimited self-renewal and the capacity to differentiate into nearly all cell types in the human body. In this study, using a chemical defined neural induction protocol and molecular profiling, we identified Fez family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) as a potential regulator of early human neural development. FEZF1 is rapidly up-regulated during neural differentiation in hESCs and expressed before PAX6, a well-established marker of early human neural induction. We generated FEZF1-knockout H1 hESC lines using CRISPR-CAS9 technology and found that depletion of FEZF1 abrogates neural differentiation of hESCs. Moreover, loss of FEZF1 impairs the pluripotency exit of hESCs during neural specification, which partially explains the neural induction defect caused by FEZF1 deletion. However, enforced expression of FEZF1 itself fails to drive neural differentiation in hESCs, suggesting that FEZF1 is necessary but not sufficient for neural differentiation from hESCs. Taken together, our findings identify one of the earliest regulators expressed upon neural induction and provide insight into early neural development in human.

  18. Neural-Network-Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Todd A.

    1993-01-01

    NETS, software tool for development and evaluation of neural networks, provides simulation of neural-network algorithms plus computing environment for development of such algorithms. Uses back-propagation learning method for all of networks it creates. Enables user to customize patterns of connections between layers of network. Also provides features for saving, during learning process, values of weights, providing more-precise control over learning process. Written in ANSI standard C language. Machine-independent version (MSC-21588) includes only code for command-line-interface version of NETS 3.0.

  19. [Early warning on measles through the neural networks].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Ding, Chun; Wei, Shan-bo; Chen, Bang-hua; Liu, Pu-lin; Luo, Tong-yong; Wang, Jia-gang; Pan, Zhi-wei; Lu, Jun-an

    2011-01-01

    To discuss the effects on early warning of measles, using the neural networks. Based on the available data through monthly and weekly reports on measles from January 1986 to August 2006 in Wuhan city. The modal was developed using the neural networks to predict and analyze the prevalence and incidence of measles. When the dynamic time series modal was established with back propagation (BP) networks consisting of two layers, if p was assigned as 9, the convergence speed was acceptable and the correlation coefficient was equal to 0.85. It was more acceptable for monthly forecasting the specific value, but better for weekly forecasting the classification under probabilistic neural networks (PNN). When data was big enough to serve the purpose, it seemed more feasible for early warning using the two-layer BP networks. However, when data was not enough, then PNN could be used for the purpose of prediction. This method seemed feasible to be used in the system for early warning.

  20. The Evolution and Development of Neural Superposition

    PubMed Central

    Agi, Egemen; Langen, Marion; Altschuler, Steven J.; Wu, Lani F.; Zimmermann, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Visual systems have a rich history as model systems for the discovery and understanding of basic principles underlying neuronal connectivity. The compound eyes of insects consist of up to thousands of small unit eyes that are connected by photoreceptor axons to set up a visual map in the brain. The photoreceptor axon terminals thereby represent neighboring points seen in the environment in neighboring synaptic units in the brain. Neural superposition is a special case of such a wiring principle, where photoreceptors from different unit eyes that receive the same input converge upon the same synaptic units in the brain. This wiring principle is remarkable, because each photoreceptor in a single unit eye receives different input and each individual axon, among thousands others in the brain, must be sorted together with those few axons that have the same input. Key aspects of neural superposition have been described as early as 1907. Since then neuroscientists, evolutionary and developmental biologists have been fascinated by how such a complicated wiring principle could evolve, how it is genetically encoded, and how it is developmentally realized. In this review article, we will discuss current ideas about the evolutionary origin and developmental program of neural superposition. Our goal is to identify in what way the special case of neural superposition can help us answer more general questions about the evolution and development of genetically “hard-wired” synaptic connectivity in the brain. PMID:24912630

  1. The evolution and development of neural superposition.

    PubMed

    Agi, Egemen; Langen, Marion; Altschuler, Steven J; Wu, Lani F; Zimmermann, Timo; Hiesinger, Peter Robin

    2014-01-01

    Visual systems have a rich history as model systems for the discovery and understanding of basic principles underlying neuronal connectivity. The compound eyes of insects consist of up to thousands of small unit eyes that are connected by photoreceptor axons to set up a visual map in the brain. The photoreceptor axon terminals thereby represent neighboring points seen in the environment in neighboring synaptic units in the brain. Neural superposition is a special case of such a wiring principle, where photoreceptors from different unit eyes that receive the same input converge upon the same synaptic units in the brain. This wiring principle is remarkable, because each photoreceptor in a single unit eye receives different input and each individual axon, among thousands others in the brain, must be sorted together with those few axons that have the same input. Key aspects of neural superposition have been described as early as 1907. Since then neuroscientists, evolutionary and developmental biologists have been fascinated by how such a complicated wiring principle could evolve, how it is genetically encoded, and how it is developmentally realized. In this review article, we will discuss current ideas about the evolutionary origin and developmental program of neural superposition. Our goal is to identify in what way the special case of neural superposition can help us answer more general questions about the evolution and development of genetically "hard-wired" synaptic connectivity in the brain.

  2. Stressor and Glucocorticoid-Dependent Induction of the Immediate Early Gene Krüppel-Like Factor 9: Implications for Neural Development and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Bonett, Ronald M.; Hu, Fang; Bagamasbad, Pia; Denver, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) is a thyroid hormone-induced, immediate early gene implicated in neural development in vertebrates. We analyzed stressor and glucocorticoid (GC)-dependent regulation of KLF9 expression in the brain of the frog Xenopus laevis, and investigated a possible role for KLF9 in neuronal differentiation. Exposure to shaking/confinement stressor increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration, and KLF9 immunoreactivity in several brain regions, which included the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, anterior preoptic area (homologous to the mammalian paraventricular nucleus), and optic tectum (homologous to the mammalian superior colliculus). The stressor-induced KLF9 mRNA expression in the brain was blocked by pretreatment with the GC receptor antagonist RU486, or mimicked by injection of CORT. Treatment with CORT also caused a rapid and dose-dependent increase in KLF9 mRNA in X. laevis XTC-2 cells that was resistant to inhibition of protein synthesis. The action of CORT on KLF9 expression in XTC-2 cells was blocked by RU486, but not by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone. To test for functional consequences of up-regulation of KLF9, we introduced a KLF9 expression plasmid into living tadpole brain by electroporation-mediated gene transfer. Forced expression of KLF9 in tadpole brain caused an increase in Golgi-stained cells, reflective of neuronal differentiation/maturation. Our results support that KLF9 is a direct, GC receptor target gene that is induced by stress, and functions as an intermediary in the actions of GCs on brain gene expression and neuronal structure. PMID:19036875

  3. Early perception and structural identity: neural implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligomenides, Panos A.

    1992-03-01

    It is suggested that there exists a minimal set of rules for the perceptual composition of the unending variety of spatio-temporal patterns in our perceptual world. Driven by perceptual discernment of "sudden change" and "unexpectedness", these rules specify conditions (such as co-linearity and virtual continuation) for perceptual grouping and for recursive compositions of perceptual "modalities" and "signatures". Beginning with a smallset of primitive perceptual elements, selected contextually at some relevant level of abstraction, perceptual compositions can graduate to an unlimited variety of spatiotemporal signatures, scenes and activities. Local discernible elements, often perceptually ambiguous by themselves, may be integrated into spatiotemporal compositions, which generate unambiguous perceptual separations between "figure" and "ground". The definition of computational algorithms for the effective instantiation of the rules of perceptual grouping remains a principal problem. In this paper we present our approach for solving the problem of perceptual recognition within the confines of one-D variational profiles. More specifically, concerning "early" (pre-attentive) recognition, we define the "structural identity of a k-norm, k ∈ K,"--SkID--as a tool for discerning and locating the instantiation of spatiotemporal objects or events. The SkID profile also serves a s a reference coordinate framework for the "perceptual focusing of attention" and the eventual assessment of resemblance. Neural network implementations of pre-attentive and attentive recognition are also discussed briefly. Our principles are exemplified by application to one-D perceptual profiles, which allows simplicity of definitions and of the rules of perceptual composition.

  4. The Effects of GABAergic Polarity Changes on Episodic Neural Network Activity in Developing Neural Systems.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Wilfredo; Bertram, Richard; Tabak, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Early in development, neural systems have primarily excitatory coupling, where even GABAergic synapses are excitatory. Many of these systems exhibit spontaneous episodes of activity that have been characterized through both experimental and computational studies. As development progress the neural system goes through many changes, including synaptic remodeling, intrinsic plasticity in the ion channel expression, and a transformation of GABAergic synapses from excitatory to inhibitory. What effect each of these, and other, changes have on the network behavior is hard to know from experimental studies since they all happen in parallel. One advantage of a computational approach is that one has the ability to study developmental changes in isolation. Here, we examine the effects of GABAergic synapse polarity change on the spontaneous activity of both a mean field and a neural network model that has both glutamatergic and GABAergic coupling, representative of a developing neural network. We find some intuitive behavioral changes as the GABAergic neurons go from excitatory to inhibitory, shared by both models, such as a decrease in the duration of episodes. We also find some paradoxical changes in the activity that are only present in the neural network model. In particular, we find that during early development the inter-episode durations become longer on average, while later in development they become shorter. In addressing this unexpected finding, we uncover a priming effect that is particularly important for a small subset of neurons, called the "intermediate neurons." We characterize these neurons and demonstrate why they are crucial to episode initiation, and why the paradoxical behavioral change result from priming of these neurons. The study illustrates how even arguably the simplest of developmental changes that occurs in neural systems can present non-intuitive behaviors. It also makes predictions about neural network behavioral changes that occur during

  5. Neural plasticity of development and learning.

    PubMed

    Galván, Adriana

    2010-06-01

    Development and learning are powerful agents of change across the lifespan that induce robust structural and functional plasticity in neural systems. An unresolved question in developmental cognitive neuroscience is whether development and learning share the same neural mechanisms associated with experience-related neural plasticity. In this article, I outline the conceptual and practical challenges of this question, review insights gleaned from adult studies, and describe recent strides toward examining this topic across development using neuroimaging methods. I suggest that development and learning are not two completely separate constructs and instead, that they exist on a continuum. While progressive and regressive changes are central to both, the behavioral consequences associated with these changes are closely tied to the existing neural architecture of maturity of the system. Eventually, a deeper, more mechanistic understanding of neural plasticity will shed light on behavioral changes across development and, more broadly, about the underlying neural basis of cognition. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Mitochondrial metabolism in early neural fate and its relevance for neuronal disease modeling.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Carmen; Prigione, Alessandro

    2017-12-01

    Modulation of energy metabolism is emerging as a key aspect associated with cell fate transition. The establishment of a correct metabolic program is particularly relevant for neural cells given their high bioenergetic requirements. Accordingly, diseases of the nervous system commonly involve mitochondrial impairment. Recent studies in animals and in neural derivatives of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) highlighted the importance of mitochondrial metabolism for neural fate decisions in health and disease. The mitochondria-based metabolic program of early neurogenesis suggests that PSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) may be used for modeling neurological disorders. Understanding how metabolic programming is orchestrated during neural commitment may provide important information for the development of therapies against conditions affecting neural functions, including aging and mitochondrial disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Neural Network Development Tool (NETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial neural networks formed from hundreds or thousands of simulated neurons, connected in manner similar to that in human brain. Such network models learning behavior. Using NETS involves translating problem to be solved into input/output pairs, designing network configuration, and training network. Written in C.

  8. Early Developments, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Loyd, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the two 1998 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the Spring 1998 issue, articles highlight the Center's diverse cross-cultural projects and global research, training and…

  9. Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  10. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle and an early Space Shuttle docked with an Orbital Propellant Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, an orbital modular propellant storage depot, supplied periodically by the Space Shuttle or Earth-to-orbit fuel tankers, would be critical in making available large amounts of fuel to various orbital vehicles and spacecraft.

  11. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle docked to an Orbital Propellant Depot and an early Space Shuttle. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle, in either manned or unmanned mode, would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additonal missions.

  12. Growth and splitting of neural sequences in songbird vocal development

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Tatsuo S.; Mackevicius, Emily L.; Payne, Hannah L.; Lynch, Galen F.; Fee, Michale S.

    2015-01-01

    Neural sequences are a fundamental feature of brain dynamics underlying diverse behaviors, but the mechanisms by which they develop during learning remain unknown. Songbirds learn vocalizations composed of syllables; in adult birds, each syllable is produced by a different sequence of action potential bursts in the premotor cortical area HVC. Here we carried out recordings of large populations of HVC neurons in singing juvenile birds throughout learning to examine the emergence of neural sequences. Early in vocal development, HVC neurons begin producing rhythmic bursts, temporally locked to a ‘prototype’ syllable. Different neurons are active at different latencies relative to syllable onset to form a continuous sequence. Through development, as new syllables emerge from the prototype syllable, initially highly overlapping burst sequences become increasingly distinct. We propose a mechanistic model in which multiple neural sequences can emerge from the growth and splitting of a common precursor sequence. PMID:26618871

  13. The development of the neural crest in the human

    PubMed Central

    O’Rahilly, Ronan; Müller, Fabiola

    2007-01-01

    The first systematic account of the neural crest in the human has been prepared after an investigation of 185 serially sectioned staged embryos, aided by graphic reconstructions. As many as fourteen named topographical subdivisions of the crest were identified and eight of them give origin to ganglia (Table 2). Significant findings in the human include the following. (1) An indication of mesencephalic neural crest is discernible already at stage 9, and trigeminal, facial, and postotic components can be detected at stage 10. (2) Crest was not observed at the level of diencephalon 2. Although pre-otic crest from the neural folds is at first continuous (stage 10), crest-free zones are soon observable (stage 11) in Rh.1, 3, and 5. (3) Emigration of cranial neural crest from the neural folds at the neurosomatic junction begins before closure of the rostral neuropore, and later crest cells do not accumulate above the neural tube. (4) The trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagal ganglia, which develop from crest that emigrates before the neural folds have fused, continue to receive contributions from the roof plate of the neural tube after fusion of the folds. (5) The nasal crest and the terminalis-vomeronasal complex are the last components of the cranial crest to appear (at stage 13) and they persist longer. (6) The optic, mesencephalic, isthmic, accessory, and hypoglossal crest do not form ganglia. Cervical ganglion 1 is separated early from the neural crest and is not a Froriep ganglion. (7) The cranial ganglia derived from neural crest show a specific relationship to individual neuromeres, and rhombomeres are better landmarks than the otic primordium, which descends during stages 9–14. (8) Epipharyngeal placodes of the pharyngeal arches contribute to cranial ganglia, although that of arch 1 is not typical. (9) The neural crest from rhombomeres 6 and 7 that migrates to pharyngeal arch 3 and from there rostrad to the truncus arteriosus at stage 12 is identified

  14. An option space for early neural evolution.

    PubMed

    Jékely, Gáspár; Keijzer, Fred; Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2015-12-19

    The origin of nervous systems has traditionally been discussed within two conceptual frameworks. Input-output models stress the sensory-motor aspects of nervous systems, while internal coordination models emphasize the role of nervous systems in coordinating multicellular activity, especially muscle-based motility. Here we consider both frameworks and apply them to describe aspects of each of three main groups of phenomena that nervous systems control: behaviour, physiology and development. We argue that both frameworks and all three aspects of nervous system function need to be considered for a comprehensive discussion of nervous system origins. This broad mapping of the option space enables an overview of the many influences and constraints that may have played a role in the evolution of the first nervous systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Metacognition in Early Phase Psychosis: Toward Understanding Neural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Jenifer L.; Hummer, Tom A.; Yung, Matthew G.; Francis, Michael M.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis. PMID:26132568

  17. Fairness influences early signatures of reward-related neural processing.

    PubMed

    Massi, Bart; Luhmann, Christian C

    2015-12-01

    Many humans exhibit a strong preference for fairness during decision-making. Although there is evidence that social factors influence reward-related and affective neural processing, it is unclear if this effect is mediated by compulsory outcome evaluation processes or results from slower deliberate cognition. Here we show that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and late positive potential (LPP), two signatures of early hedonic processing, are modulated by the fairness of rewards during a passive rating task. We find that unfair payouts elicit larger FRNs than fair payouts, whereas fair payouts elicit larger LPPs than unfair payouts. This is true both in the time-domain, where the FRN and LPP are related, and in the time-frequency domain, where the two signals are largely independent. Ultimately, this work demonstrates that fairness affects the early stages of reward and affective processing, suggesting a common biological mechanism for social and personal reward evaluation.

  18. Development of programmable artificial neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    Conventionally programmed digital computers can process numbers with great speed and precision, but do not easily recognize patterns or imprecise or contradictory data. Instead of being programmed in the conventional sense, artificial neural networks are capable of self-learning through exposure to repeated examples. However, the training of an ANN can be a time consuming and unpredictable process. A general method is being developed to mate the adaptability of the ANN with the speed and precision of the digital computer. This method was successful in building feedforward networks that can approximate functions and their partial derivatives from examples in a single iteration. The general method also allows the formation of feedforward networks that can approximate the solution to nonlinear ordinary and partial differential equations to desired accuracy without the need of examples. It is believed that continued research will produce artificial neural networks that can be used with confidence in practical scientific computing and engineering applications.

  19. Neural competition as a developmental process: early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children's reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplitude differences between the left and right N170 on the bilateral posterior scalp sites and the hemispheric spectrum power differences in the γ band on the same scalp sites. The results showed that the left-lateralization of both the word N170 and the spectrum power in the γ band were significantly positively related to vocabulary. In contrast, vocabulary and the word left-lateralization both had a strong negative direct effect on the face right-lateralization. Also, vocabulary negatively correlated with the right-lateralized face spectrum power in the γ band even after the effects of age and the word spectrum power were partialled out. The present study provides direct evidence regarding the role of reading experience in the neural specialization of word and face processing above and beyond the effect of maturation. The present findings taken together suggest that the neural development of visual word processing competes with that of face processing before the process of neural specialization has been consolidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural competition as a developmental process: Early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su; Lee, Kang; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of learning to read on early neural development for word processing and its collateral effects on neural development in non-word domains. Here, we examined the effect of early exposure to reading on neural responses to both word and face processing in preschool children with the use of the Event Related Potential (ERP) methodology. We specifically linked children’s reading experience (indexed by their sight vocabulary) to two major neural markers: the amplitude differences between the left and right N170 on the bilateral posterior scalp sites and the hemispheric spectrum power differences in the γ band on the same scalp sites. The results showed that the left-lateralization of both the word N170 and the spectrum power in the γ band were significantly positively related to vocabulary. In contrast, vocabulary and the word left-lateralization both had a strong negative direct effect on the face right-lateralization. Also, vocabulary negatively correlated with the right-lateralized face spectrum power in the γ band even after the effects of age and the word spectrum power were partialled out. The present study provides direct evidence regarding the role of reading experience in the neural specialization of word and face processing above and beyond the effect of maturation. The present findings taken together suggest that the neural development of visual word processing competes with that of face processing before the process of neural specialization has been consolidated. PMID:23462239

  1. Animal models for studying neural crest development: is the mouse different?

    PubMed

    Barriga, Elias H; Trainor, Paul A; Bronner, Marianne; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type and has been well studied in a number of model systems. Zebrafish, Xenopus and chick embryos largely show consistent requirements for specific genes in early steps of neural crest development. By contrast, knockouts of homologous genes in the mouse often do not exhibit comparable early neural crest phenotypes. In this Spotlight article, we discuss these species-specific differences, suggest possible explanations for the divergent phenotypes in mouse and urge the community to consider these issues and the need for further research in complementary systems. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Girls' challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Guyer, Amanda E; Hipwell, Alison E; McAloon, Rose L; Hoffmann, Amy M; Keenan, Kathryn E; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-04-01

    Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  4. Early Program Development

    1969-01-01

    As part of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in America's space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers proposed an orbiting propellant storage facility to augment Space Shuttle missions. In this artist's concept from 1969 an early version of the Space Shuttle is shown refueling at the facility.

  5. Dynamic methylation and expression of Oct4 in early neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shih-Han; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Appleby, Vanessa; Mohamed Noor, Dzul Azri; Sottile, Virginie; Scotting, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Neural stem cells are a multipotent population of tissue-specific stem cells with a broad but limited differentiation potential. However, recent studies have shown that over-expression of the pluripotency gene, Oct4, alone is sufficient to initiate a process by which these can form ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’ (iPS cells) with the same broad potential as embryonic stem cells. This led us to examine the expression of Oct4 in endogenous neural stem cells, as data regarding its expression in neural stem cells in vivo are contradictory and incomplete. In this study we have therefore analysed the expression of Oct4 and other genes associated with pluripotency throughout development of the mouse CNS and in neural stem cells grown in vitro. We find that Oct4 is still expressed in the CNS by E8.5, but that this expression declines rapidly until it is undetectable by E15.5. This decline is coincident with the gradual methylation of the Oct4 promoter and proximal enhancer. Immunostaining suggests that the Oct4 protein is predominantly cytoplasmic in location. We also found that neural stem cells from all ages expressed the pluripotency associated genes, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4 and Nanog. These data provide an explanation for the varying behaviour of cells from the early neuroepithelium at different stages of development. The expression of these genes also provides an indication of why Oct4 alone is sufficient to induce iPS formation in neural stem cells at later stages. PMID:20646110

  6. Dynamic methylation and expression of Oct4 in early neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Han; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Appleby, Vanessa; Mohamed Noor, Dzul Azri; Sottile, Virginie; Scotting, Paul J

    2010-09-01

    Neural stem cells are a multipotent population of tissue-specific stem cells with a broad but limited differentiation potential. However, recent studies have shown that over-expression of the pluripotency gene, Oct4, alone is sufficient to initiate a process by which these can form 'induced pluripotent stem cells' (iPS cells) with the same broad potential as embryonic stem cells. This led us to examine the expression of Oct4 in endogenous neural stem cells, as data regarding its expression in neural stem cells in vivo are contradictory and incomplete. In this study we have therefore analysed the expression of Oct4 and other genes associated with pluripotency throughout development of the mouse CNS and in neural stem cells grown in vitro. We find that Oct4 is still expressed in the CNS by E8.5, but that this expression declines rapidly until it is undetectable by E15.5. This decline is coincident with the gradual methylation of the Oct4 promoter and proximal enhancer. Immunostaining suggests that the Oct4 protein is predominantly cytoplasmic in location. We also found that neural stem cells from all ages expressed the pluripotency associated genes, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4 and Nanog. These data provide an explanation for the varying behaviour of cells from the early neuroepithelium at different stages of development. The expression of these genes also provides an indication of why Oct4 alone is sufficient to induce iPS formation in neural stem cells at later stages.

  7. Ablation of proliferating neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mary; Krish, Varsha S; Kirshenbaum, Greer S; Atsak, Piray; Lass, Tamara J; Lieberman, Sophie R; Leonardo, E David; Dranovsky, Alex

    2018-05-09

    Environmental exposures during early life, but not during adolescence or adulthood, lead to persistent reductions in neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The mechanisms by which early life exposures lead to long-term deficits in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether targeted ablation of dividing neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to produce long-term decreases in DG neurogenesis. Having previously found that the stem cell lineage is resistant to long-term effects of transient ablation of dividing stem cells during adolescence or adulthood (Kirshenbaum et al., 2014), we used a similar pharmacogenetic approach to target dividing neural stem cells for elimination during early life periods sensitive to environmental insults. We then assessed the Nestin stem cell lineage in adulthood. We found that the adult neural stem cell reservoir was depleted following ablation during the first postnatal week, when stem cells were highly proliferative, but not during the third postnatal week, when stem cells were more quiescent. Remarkably, ablating proliferating stem cells during either the first or third postnatal week led to reduced adult neurogenesis out of proportion to the changes in the stem cell pool, indicating a disruption of the stem cell function or niche following stem cell ablation in early life. These results highlight the first three postnatal weeks as a series of sensitive periods during which elimination of dividing stem cells leads to lasting alterations in adult DG neurogenesis and stem cell function. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relationship between DG development and adult neurogenesis, as well as suggest a possible mechanism by which early life experiences may lead to lasting deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Neural Basis of Brain Dysfunction Produced by Early Sleep Problems.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-29

    There is a wealth of evidence that disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms, which are common in modern society even during the early stages of life, have unfavorable effects on brain function. Altered brain function can cause problem behaviors later in life, such as truancy from or dropping out of school, quitting employment, and committing suicide. In this review, we discuss findings from several large cohort studies together with recent results of a cohort study using the marshmallow test, which was first introduced in the 1960s. This test assessed the ability of four-year-olds to delay gratification and showed how this ability correlated with success later in life. The role of the serotonergic system in sleep and how this role changes with age are also discussed. The serotonergic system is involved in reward processing and interactions with the dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, and the prefrontal cortex are thought to comprise the neural basis for behavioral patterns that are affected by the quantity, quality, and timing of sleep early in life.

  9. Emotional sounds modulate early neural processing of emotional pictures

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Bublatzky, Florian; Kusay, Anita; Plichta, Michael M.; Alpers, Georg W.

    2013-01-01

    In our natural environment, emotional information is conveyed by converging visual and auditory information; multimodal integration is of utmost importance. In the laboratory, however, emotion researchers have mostly focused on the examination of unimodal stimuli. Few existing studies on multimodal emotion processing have focused on human communication such as the integration of facial and vocal expressions. Extending the concept of multimodality, the current study examines how the neural processing of emotional pictures is influenced by simultaneously presented sounds. Twenty pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures of complex scenes were presented to 22 healthy participants. On the critical trials these pictures were paired with pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral sounds. Sound presentation started 500 ms before picture onset and each stimulus presentation lasted for 2 s. EEG was recorded from 64 channels and ERP analyses focused on the picture onset. In addition, valence and arousal ratings were obtained. Previous findings for the neural processing of emotional pictures were replicated. Specifically, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures were associated with an increased parietal P200 and a more pronounced centroparietal late positive potential (LPP), independent of the accompanying sound valence. For audiovisual stimulation, increased parietal P100 and P200 were found in response to all pictures which were accompanied by unpleasant or pleasant sounds compared to pictures with neutral sounds. Most importantly, incongruent audiovisual pairs of unpleasant pictures and pleasant sounds enhanced parietal P100 and P200 compared to pairings with congruent sounds. Taken together, the present findings indicate that emotional sounds modulate early stages of visual processing and, therefore, provide an avenue by which multimodal experience may enhance perception. PMID:24151476

  10. Selective and Efficient Neural Coding of Communication Signals Depends on Early Acoustic and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noopur; Gastpar, Michael; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural processing of communication sounds such as species-specific song, in the primary auditory cortex analog of adult zebra finches. Our electrophysiological recordings reveal that neural tuning to simple frequency-based synthetic sounds is initially established in all the laminae independent of patterned acoustic experience; however, we provide the first evidence that early exposure to patterned sound statistics, such as those found in native sounds, is required for the subsequent emergence of neural selectivity for complex vocalizations and for shaping neural spiking precision in superficial and deep cortical laminae, and for creating efficient neural representations of song and a less redundant ensemble code in all the laminae. Our study also provides the first causal evidence for ‘sparse coding’, such that when the statistics of the stimuli were changed during rearing, as in noise-rearing, that the sparse or optimal representation for species-specific vocalizations disappeared. Taken together, these results imply that a layer-specific differential development of the auditory cortex requires patterned acoustic input, and a specialized and robust sensory representation of complex communication sounds in the auditory cortex requires a rich acoustic and social environment. PMID:23630587

  11. Early Program Development

    1969-01-01

    This 1969 artist's concept illustrates the use of three major elements of NASA's Integrated program, as proposed by President Nixon's Space Task Group. In Phases I and II, a Space Tug with a manipulator-equipped crew module removes a cargo module from an early Space Shuttle Orbiter and docks with it. In Phases III and IV, the Space Tug with attached cargo module flys toward a Nuclear Shuttle. As a result of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.

  12. Development of nanowire arrays for neural probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Xie, Jining; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2005-05-01

    It is already established that functional electrical stimulation is an effective way to restore many functions of the brain in disabled individuals. The electrical stimulation can be done by using an array of electrodes. Neural probes stimulate or sense the biopotentials mainly through the exposed metal sites. These sites should be smaller relative to the spatial potential distribution so that any potential averaging in the sensing area can be avoided. At the same time, the decrease in size of these sensing sites is limited due to the increase in impedance levels and the thermal noise while decreasing its size. It is known that current density in a planar electrode is not uniform and a higher current density can be observer around the perimeter of the electrodes. Electrical measurements conducted on many nanotubes and nanowires have already proved that it could be possible to use for current density applications and the drawbacks of the present design in neural probes can be overcome by incorporating many nanotechnology solutions. In this paper we present the design and development of nanowire arrays for the neural probe for the multisite contact which has the ability to collect and analyze isolated single unit activity. An array of vertically grown nanowires is used as contact site and many of such arrays can be used for stimulating as well as recording sites. The nanolevel interaction and wireless communication solution can extend to applications involving the treatment of many neurological disorders including Parkinson"s disease, Alzheimer"s disease, spinal injuries and the treatment of blindness and paralyzed patients with minimal or no invasive surgical procedures.

  13. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    In 1970, NASA initiated Phase A contracts to study alternate Space Shuttle designs in addition to the two-stage fully-reusable Space Shuttle system already under development. A number of alternate systems were developed to ensure the development of the optimum earth-to-orbit system, including the Stage-and-a-half Chemical Interorbital Shuttle, shown here. The concept would utilize a reusable marned spacecraft with an onboard propulsion system attached to an expendable fuel tank to provide supplementary propellants.

  14. Development in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1991-01-01

    Reviews some of the major cognitive, social, and emotional achievements of young children and discusses some of their limitations. Divides description of development into intellectual, language, social, and emotional development. Notes that this division represents adult categories of thought and does not represent young children's actual modes of…

  15. Learning representations for the early detection of sepsis with deep neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ha Young

    2017-10-01

    Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in intensive care unit patients. Early detection of sepsis is vital because mortality increases as the sepsis stage worsens. This study aimed to develop detection models for the early stage of sepsis using deep learning methodologies, and to compare the feasibility and performance of the new deep learning methodology with those of the regression method with conventional temporal feature extraction. Study group selection adhered to the InSight model. The results of the deep learning-based models and the InSight model were compared. With deep feedforward networks, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the models were 0.887 and 0.915 for the InSight and the new feature sets, respectively. For the model with the combined feature set, the AUC was the same as that of the basic feature set (0.915). For the long short-term memory model, only the basic feature set was applied and the AUC improved to 0.929 compared with the existing 0.887 of the InSight model. The contributions of this paper can be summarized in three ways: (i) improved performance without feature extraction using domain knowledge, (ii) verification of feature extraction capability of deep neural networks through comparison with reference features, and (iii) improved performance with feedforward neural networks using long short-term memory, a neural network architecture that can learn sequential patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Deep Convolutional Neural Network-Based Early Automated Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Fundus Image.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kele; Feng, Dawei; Mi, Haibo

    2017-11-23

    The automatic detection of diabetic retinopathy is of vital importance, as it is the main cause of irreversible vision loss in the working-age population in the developed world. The early detection of diabetic retinopathy occurrence can be very helpful for clinical treatment; although several different feature extraction approaches have been proposed, the classification task for retinal images is still tedious even for those trained clinicians. Recently, deep convolutional neural networks have manifested superior performance in image classification compared to previous handcrafted feature-based image classification methods. Thus, in this paper, we explored the use of deep convolutional neural network methodology for the automatic classification of diabetic retinopathy using color fundus image, and obtained an accuracy of 94.5% on our dataset, outperforming the results obtained by using classical approaches.

  17. Early life stress accelerates behavioral and neural maturation of the hippocampus in male mice.

    PubMed

    Bath, K; Manzano-Nieves, G; Goodwill, H

    2016-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for later cognitive and emotional dysfunction. ELS is known to truncate neural development through effects on suppressing cell birth, increasing cell death, and altering neuronal morphology, effects that have been associated with behavioral profiles indicative of precocious maturation. However, how earlier silencing of growth drives accelerated behavioral maturation has remained puzzling. Here, we test the novel hypothesis that, ELS drives a switch from growth to maturation to accelerate neural and behavioral development. To test this, we used a mouse model of ELS, fragmented maternal care, and a cross-sectional dense sampling approach focusing on hippocampus and measured effects of ELS on the ontogeny of behavioral development and biomarkers of neural maturation. Consistent with previous work, ELS was associated with an earlier developmental decline in expression of markers of cell proliferation (Ki-67) and differentiation (doublecortin). However, ELS also led to a precocious arrival of Parvalbumin-positive cells, led to an earlier switch in NMDA receptor subunit expression (marker of synaptic maturity), and was associated with an earlier rise in myelin basic protein expression (key component of the myelin sheath). In addition, in a contextual fear-conditioning task, ELS accelerated the timed developmental suppression of contextual fear. Together, these data provide support for the hypothesis that ELS serves to switch neurodevelopment from processes of growth to maturation and promotes accelerated development of some forms of emotional learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle taking on fuel from an orbiting Liquid Hydrogen Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  19. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  20. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    In this 1971 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in various space-based applications. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to geosychronous Earth orbits or lunar orbits then return to low Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  1. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  2. Early Program Development

    1963-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1963 shows a proposed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) incorporating the NRX-A1, the first NERVA-type cold flow reactor. The NERVA engine, based on Kiwi nuclear reactor technology, was intended to power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  3. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  4. Early Program Development

    2004-04-15

    This artist's concept illustrates the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) engine's hot bleed cycle in which a small amount of hydrogen gas is diverted from the thrust nozzle, thus eliminating the need for a separate system to drive the turbine. The NERVA engine, based on KIWI nuclear reactor technology, would power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which the Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  5. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    In this 1970 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in its lunar and geosynchronous orbit configuration and in its planetary mission configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  6. Early Program Development

    1996-06-20

    Engineers at one of MSFC's vacuum chambers begin testing a microthruster model. The purpose of these tests are to collect sufficient data that will enabe NASA to develop microthrusters that will move the Space Shuttle, a future space station, or any other space related vehicle with the least amount of expended energy. When something is sent into outer space, the forces that try to pull it back to Earth (gravity) are very small so that it only requires a very small force to move very large objects. In space, a force equal to a paperclip can move an object as large as a car. Microthrusters are used to produce these small forces.

  7. Biomechanics of Early Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Goenezen, Sevan; Rennie, Monique Y.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanics affect early cardiac development, from looping to the development of chambers and valves. Hemodynamic forces are essential for proper cardiac development, and their disruption leads to congenital heart defects. A wealth of information already exists on early cardiac adaptations to hemodynamic loading, and new technologies, including high resolution imaging modalities and computational modeling, are enabling a more thorough understanding of relationships between hemodynamics and cardiac development. Imaging and modeling approaches, used in combination with biological data on cell behavior and adaptation, are paving the road for new discoveries on links between biomechanics and biology and their effect on cardiac development and fetal programming. PMID:22760547

  8. Copine1 regulates neural stem cell functions during brain development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Sung, Soo-Eun; Cheal Yoo, Jae; Park, Jae-Yong; Yi, Gwan-Su; Heo, Jun Young; Lee, Jae-Ran; Kim, Nam-Soon; Lee, Da Yong

    2018-01-01

    Copine 1 (CPNE1) is a well-known phospholipid binding protein in plasma membrane of various cell types. In brain cells, CPNE1 is closely associated with AKT signaling pathway, which is important for neural stem cell (NSC) functions during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of CPNE1 in the regulation of brain NSC functions during brain development and determined its underlying mechanism. In this study, abundant expression of CPNE1 was observed in neural lineage cells including NSCs and immature neurons in human. With mouse brain tissues in various developmental stages, we found that CPNE1 expression was higher at early embryonic stages compared to postnatal and adult stages. To model developing brain in vitro, we used primary NSCs derived from mouse embryonic hippocampus. Our in vitro study shows decreased proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation potential in CPNE1 deficient NSCs. Finally, we found that the deficiency of CPNE1 downregulated mTOR signaling in embryonic NSCs. These data demonstrate that CPNE1 plays a key role in the regulation of NSC functions through the activation of AKT-mTOR signaling pathway during brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Spaceflight on Drosophila Neural Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keshishian, Haig S.

    1997-01-01

    The major goal from the animal side, however, has been achieved, namely to develop Drosophila lines where we can assay individual neuromuscular endings directly without dissection. This was achieved by means of using the GAL4-UAS system, where we have succeeded in establishing stocks of flies where the key neuromuscular connections can be assayed directly in undissected larvae by means of the expression of endogenously fluorescent reporters in the specific motor endings. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter allows scoring of neural anatomy en-masse in whole mount using fluorescent microscopy without the need for either dissection or specific labeling. Two stocks have been developed. The first, which we developed first, uses the S65T mutant form, which has a dramatically brighter expression than the native protein. This animal will use GAL4 drivers with expression under the control of the elav gene, and which will ensure expression in all neurons of the embryo and larva. The second transgenic animal we have developed is of a novel kind, and makes use of dicistronic design, so that two copies of the protein will be expressed per insert. We have also developed a tricistronic form, but this has not yet been transformed into flies, and we do not imagine that this third line will be ready in time for the flight.

  10. Early adversity and neural correlates of executive function: implications for academic adjustment.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Jennifer M; Westerlund, Alissa; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A

    2012-02-15

    Early adversity can negatively impact the development of cognitive functions, although little is known about whether such effects can be remediated later in life. The current study examined one facet of executive functioning - inhibitory control - among children who experienced institutional care and explored the impact of a foster care intervention within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Specifically, a go/nogo task was administered when children were eight years old and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures were collected. Results revealed that children assigned to care as usual (i.e. institutional care) were less accurate and exhibited slower neural responses compared to children assigned to the foster care intervention and children who had never been institutionalized. However, children in both the care as usual and foster care groups exhibited diminished attention processing of nogo cues as assessed via P300 amplitude. Foster care children also showed differential reactivity between correct and error responses via the error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to children in the care as usual group. Combined, the results highlight perturbations in neural sources of behavioral and attention problems among children experiencing early adversity. Potential implications for academic adjustment in at risk children are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early experience shapes vocal neural coding and perception in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds, like humans, are highly accomplished vocal learners. The many parallels between speech and birdsong and conserved features of mammalian and avian auditory systems have led to the emergence of the songbird as a model system for studying the perceptual mechanisms of vocal communication. Laboratory research on songbirds allows the careful control of early life experience and high-resolution analysis of brain function during vocal learning, production and perception. Here, I review what songbird studies have revealed about the role of early experience in the development of vocal behavior, auditory perception and the processing of learned vocalizations by auditory neurons. The findings of these studies suggest general principles for how exposure to vocalizations during development and into adulthood influences the perception of learned vocal signals. PMID:22711657

  12. Early Parenting Moderates the Association between Parental Depression and Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-07-01

    Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential assessment and the feedback negativity (FN) was measured following rewards and losses ( N =344). Maternal authoritative parenting moderated the effect of maternal depression; among offspring of mothers with histories of depression, low authoritative parenting predicted a blunted FN. Observed maternal positive parenting interacted with paternal depression in a comparable manner, indicating that maternal parenting may buffer the effects of paternal depression. Early parenting may be important in shaping the neural systems involved in reward processing among children at high risk for depression.

  13. Early Parenting Moderates the Association between Parental Depression and Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H.; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential assessment and the feedback negativity (FN) was measured following rewards and losses (N=344). Maternal authoritative parenting moderated the effect of maternal depression; among offspring of mothers with histories of depression, low authoritative parenting predicted a blunted FN. Observed maternal positive parenting interacted with paternal depression in a comparable manner, indicating that maternal parenting may buffer the effects of paternal depression. Early parenting may be important in shaping the neural systems involved in reward processing among children at high risk for depression. PMID:26167423

  14. Development of the posterior neural tube in human embryos.

    PubMed

    Saitsu, Hirotomo; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Ishibashi, Makoto; Shiota, Kohei

    2004-12-01

    Development of the posterior neural tube (PNT) in human embryos is a complicated process that involves both primary and secondary neurulation. Because normal development of the PNT is not fully understood, pathogenesis of spinal neural tube defects remains elusive. To clarify the mechanism of PNT development, we histologically examined 20 human embryos around the stage of posterior neuropore closure and found that the developing PNT can be divided into three parts: 1) the most rostral region, which corresponds to the posterior part of the primary neural tube, 2) the junctional region of the primary and secondary neural tubes, and 3) the caudal region, which emerges from the neural cord. In the junctional region, the axially-condensed mesenchyme (AM) intervened between the neural plate/tube and the notochord at the stage of posterior neuropore closure, while the notochord was directly attached to the neural plate/tube in the most rostral region. A single cavity was found to be formed in the AM as the presumptive luminal surface cells were radially aligned in the junctional region prior to the formation of the neural cord. The single cavity was continuous with the central cavity of the primary neural tube. In contrast, multiple or isolated cavities were frequently observed in the caudal region of the PNT. Our observation suggests that the junctional region of the PNT is distinct from other regions in terms of the relationship with the notochord and the mode of cavitation during secondary neurulation.

  15. AKT signaling displays multifaceted functions in neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Sittewelle, Méghane; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2018-05-31

    AKT signaling is an essential intracellular pathway controlling cell homeostasis, cell proliferation and survival, as well as cell migration and differentiation in adults. Alterations impacting the AKT pathway are involved in many pathological conditions in human disease. Similarly, during development, multiple transmembrane molecules, such as FGF receptors, PDGF receptors or integrins, activate AKT to control embryonic cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and also cell fate decisions. While many studies in mouse embryos have clearly implicated AKT signaling in the differentiation of several neural crest derivatives, information on AKT functions during the earliest steps of neural crest development had remained relatively scarce until recently. However, recent studies on known and novel regulators of AKT signaling demonstrate that this pathway plays critical roles throughout the development of neural crest progenitors. Non-mammalian models such as fish and frog embryos have been instrumental to our understanding of AKT functions in neural crest development, both in neural crest progenitors and in the neighboring tissues. This review combines current knowledge acquired from all these different vertebrate animal models to describe the various roles of AKT signaling related to neural crest development in vivo. We first describe the importance of AKT signaling in patterning the tissues involved in neural crest induction, namely the dorsal mesoderm and the ectoderm. We then focus on AKT signaling functions in neural crest migration and differentiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal thyroid hormones are essential for neural development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Campinho, Marco A; Saraiva, João; Florindo, Claudia; Power, Deborah M

    2014-07-01

    Teleost eggs contain an abundant store of maternal thyroid hormones (THs), and early in zebrafish embryonic development, all the genes necessary for TH signaling are expressed. Nonetheless the function of THs in embryonic development remains elusive. To test the hypothesis that THs are fundamental for zebrafish embryonic development, an monocarboxilic transporter 8 (Mct8) knockdown strategy was deployed to prevent maternal TH uptake. Absence of maternal THs did not affect early specification of the neural epithelia but profoundly modified later dorsal specification of the brain and spinal cord as well as specific neuron differentiation. Maternal THs acted upstream of pax2a, pax7, and pax8 genes but downstream of shha and fgf8a signaling. The lack of inhibitory spinal cord interneurons and increased motoneurons in the mct8 morphants is consistent with their stiff axial body and impaired mobility. The mct8 mutations are associated with X-linked mental retardation in humans, and the cellular and molecular consequences of MCT8 knockdown during embryonic development in zebrafish provides new insight into the potential role of THs in this condition.

  17. Maternal Thyroid Hormones Are Essential for Neural Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, João; Florindo, Claudia; Power, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Teleost eggs contain an abundant store of maternal thyroid hormones (THs), and early in zebrafish embryonic development, all the genes necessary for TH signaling are expressed. Nonetheless the function of THs in embryonic development remains elusive. To test the hypothesis that THs are fundamental for zebrafish embryonic development, an monocarboxilic transporter 8 (Mct8) knockdown strategy was deployed to prevent maternal TH uptake. Absence of maternal THs did not affect early specification of the neural epithelia but profoundly modified later dorsal specification of the brain and spinal cord as well as specific neuron differentiation. Maternal THs acted upstream of pax2a, pax7, and pax8 genes but downstream of shha and fgf8a signaling. The lack of inhibitory spinal cord interneurons and increased motoneurons in the mct8 morphants is consistent with their stiff axial body and impaired mobility. The mct8 mutations are associated with X-linked mental retardation in humans, and the cellular and molecular consequences of MCT8 knockdown during embryonic development in zebrafish provides new insight into the potential role of THs in this condition. PMID:24877564

  18. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Amanda E; Jarcho, Johanna M; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children's caregiving context. The convergence of a child's temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M(age) = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development.

  19. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (Mage = 17.89 years, N= 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development. PMID:25588884

  20. Advances in Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Development and Application

    Artificial neural networks as a major soft-computing technology have been extensively studied and applied during the last three decades. Research on backpropagation training algorithms for multilayer perceptron networks has spurred development of other neural network training algorithms for other ne...

  1. Neural correlates of audiotactile phonetic processing in early-blind readers: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pishnamazi, Morteza; Nojaba, Yasaman; Ganjgahi, Habib; Amousoltani, Asie; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Reading is a multisensory function that relies on arbitrary associations between auditory speech sounds and symbols from a second modality. Studies of bimodal phonetic perception have mostly investigated the integration of visual letters and speech sounds. Blind readers perform an analogous task by using tactile Braille letters instead of visual letters. The neural underpinnings of audiotactile phonetic processing have not been studied before. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to reveal the neural correlates of audiotactile phonetic processing in 16 early-blind Braille readers. Braille letters and corresponding speech sounds were presented in unimodal, and congruent/incongruent bimodal configurations. We also used a behavioral task to measure the speed of blind readers in identifying letters presented via tactile and/or auditory modalities. Reaction times for tactile stimuli were faster. The reaction times for bimodal stimuli were equal to those for the slower auditory-only stimuli. fMRI analyses revealed the convergence of unimodal auditory and unimodal tactile responses in areas of the right precentral gyrus and bilateral crus I of the cerebellum. The left and right planum temporale fulfilled the 'max criterion' for bimodal integration, but activities of these areas were not sensitive to the phonetical congruency between sounds and Braille letters. Nevertheless, congruency effects were found in regions of frontal lobe and cerebellum. Our findings suggest that, unlike sighted readers who are assumed to have amodal phonetic representations, blind readers probably process letters and sounds separately. We discuss that this distinction might be due to mal-development of multisensory neural circuits in early blinds or it might be due to inherent differences between Braille and print reading mechanisms.

  2. Abnormal neural precursor cell regulation in the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sourial, Mary; Doering, Laurie C

    2017-07-01

    The regulation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is indispensable for a properly functioning brain. Abnormalities in NPC proliferation, differentiation, survival, or integration have been linked to various neurological diseases including Fragile X syndrome. Yet, no studies have examined NPCs from the early postnatal Fragile X mouse hippocampus despite the importance of this developmental time point, which marks the highest expression level of FMRP, the protein missing in Fragile X, in the rodent hippocampus and is when hippocampal NPCs have migrated to the dentate gyrus (DG) to give rise to lifelong neurogenesis. In this study, we examined NPCs from the early postnatal hippocampus and DG of Fragile X mice (Fmr1-KO). Immunocytochemistry on neurospheres showed increased Nestin expression and decreased Ki67 expression, which collectively indicated aberrant NPC biology. Intriguingly, flow cytometric analysis of the expression of the antigens CD15, CD24, CD133, GLAST, and PSA-NCAM showed a decreased proportion of neural stem cells (GLAST + CD15 + CD133 + ) and an increased proportion of neuroblasts (PSA-NCAM + CD15 + ) in the DG of P7 Fmr1-KO mice. This was mirrored by lower expression levels of Nestin and the mitotic marker phospho-histone H3 in vivo in the P9 hippocampus, as well as a decreased proportion of cells in the G 2 /M phases of the P7 DG. Thus, the absence of FMRP leads to fewer actively cycling NPCs, coinciding with a decrease in neural stem cells and an increase in neuroblasts. Together, these results show the importance of FMRP in the developing hippocampal formation and suggest abnormalities in cell cycle regulation in Fragile X. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional differences in the expression of laminin isoforms during mouse neural tube development

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Andrew J.; Carvalho, Rita; Wallace, Adam; Sorokin, Lydia; Sasaki, Takako; Greene, Nicholas D.E.; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Many significant human birth defects originate around the time of neural tube closure or early during post-closure nervous system development. For example, failure of the neural tube to close generates anencephaly and spina bifida, faulty cell cycle progression is implicated in primary microcephaly, while defective migration of neuroblasts can lead to neuronal migration disorders such as lissencephaly. At the stage of neural tube closure, basement membranes are becoming organised around the neuroepithelium, and beneath the adjacent non-neural surface ectoderm. While there is circumstantial evidence to implicate basement membrane dynamics in neural tube and surface ectodermal development, we have an incomplete understanding of the molecular composition of basement membranes at this stage. In the present study, we examined the developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo at mid-gestation (embryonic day 9.5), with particular reference to laminin composition. We performed in situ hybridization to detect the mRNAs of all eleven individual laminin chains, and immunohistochemistry to identify which laminin chains are present in the basement membranes. From this information, we inferred the likely laminin variants and their tissues of origin: that is, whether a given basement membrane laminin is contributed by epithelium, mesenchyme, or both. Our findings reveal major differences in basement composition along the body axis, with the rostral neural tube (at mandibular arch and heart levels) exhibiting many distinct laminin variants, while the lumbar level where the neural tube is just closing shows a much simpler laminin profile. Moreover, there appears to be a marked difference in the extent to which the mesenchyme contributes laminin variants to the basement membrane, with potential contribution of several laminins rostrally, but no contribution caudally. This information paves the way towards a mechanistic analysis of basement membrane laminin function during early

  4. Commentary: Elucidating the Neural Correlates of Early Childhood Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullally, Sinead L.

    2015-01-01

    Both episodic memory and the key neural structure believed to support it, namely the hippocampus, are believed to undergo protracted periods of postnatal developmental. Critically however, the hippocampus is comprised of distinct subfields and circuits, and these circuits appear to mature at different rates (Lavenex and Banta Lavenex, 2013).…

  5. Cardiovascular Development and the Colonizing Cardiac Neural Crest Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Paige; Olaopa, Michael; Firulli, Anthony B.; Conway, Simon J.

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well established that transgenic manipulation of mammalian neural crest-related gene expression and microsurgical removal of premigratory chicken and Xenopus embryonic cardiac neural crest progenitors results in a wide spectrum of both structural and functional congenital heart defects, the actual functional mechanism of the cardiac neural crest cells within the heart is poorly understood. Neural crest cell migration and appropriate colonization of the pharyngeal arches and outflow tract septum is thought to be highly dependent on genes that regulate cell-autonomous polarized movement (i.e., gap junctions, cadherins, and noncanonical Wnt1 pathway regulators). Once the migratory cardiac neural crest subpopulation finally reaches the heart, they have traditionally been thought to participate in septation of the common outflow tract into separate aortic and pulmonary arteries. However, several studies have suggested these colonizing neural crest cells may also play additional unexpected roles during cardiovascular development and may even contribute to a crest-derived stem cell population. Studies in both mice and chick suggest they can also enter the heart from the venous inflow as well as the usual arterial outflow region, and may contribute to the adult semilunar and atrioventricular valves as well as part of the cardiac conduction system. Furthermore, although they are not usually thought to give rise to the cardiomyocyte lineage, neural crest cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) can contribute to the myocardium and may have different functions in a species-dependent context. Intriguingly, both ablation of chick and Xenopus premigratory neural crest cells, and a transgenic deletion of mouse neural crest cell migration or disruption of the normal mammalian neural crest gene expression profiles, disrupts ventral myocardial function and/or cardiomyocyte proliferation. Combined, this suggests that either the cardiac neural crest secrete factor/s that

  6. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  7. Misexpression of BRE gene in the developing chick neural tube affects neurulation and somitogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Chuai, Manli; Yeuk-Hon Chan, John; Lei, Jian; Münsterberg, Andrea; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    The brain and reproductive expression (BRE) gene is expressed in numerous adult tissues and especially in the nervous and reproductive systems. However, little is known about BRE expression in the developing embryo or about its role in embryonic development. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to reveal the spatiotemporal expression pattern for BRE in chick embryo during development. To determine the importance of BRE in neurogenesis, we overexpressed BRE and also silenced BRE expression specifically in the neural tube. We established that overexpressing BRE in the neural tube indirectly accelerated Pax7+ somite development and directly increased HNK-1+ neural crest cell (NCC) migration and TuJ-1+ neurite outgrowth. These altered morphogenetic processes were associated with changes in the cell cycle of NCCs and neural tube cells. The inverse effect was obtained when BRE expression was silenced in the neural tube. We also determined that BMP4 and Shh expression in the neural tube was affected by misexpression of BRE. This provides a possible mechanism for how altering BRE expression was able to affect somitogenesis, neurogenesis, and NCC migration. In summary, our results demonstrate that BRE plays an important role in regulating neurogenesis and indirectly somite differentiation during early chick embryo development. PMID:25568339

  8. The Nedd4 binding protein 3 is required for anterior neural development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Lena-Maria; Dietmann, Petra; Linnemann, Alexander; Schmeisser, Michael J; Kühl, Susanne J

    2017-03-01

    The Fezzin family member Nedd4-binding protein 3 (N4BP3) is known to regulate axonal and dendritic branching. Here, we show that n4bp3 is expressed in the neural tissue of the early Xenopus laevis embryo including the eye, the brain and neural crest cells. Knockdown of N4bp3 in the Xenopus anterior neural tissue results in severe developmental impairment of the eye, the brain and neural crest derived cranial cartilage structures. Moreover, we demonstrate that N4bp3 depletion leads to a significant reduction of both eye and brain specific marker genes and reduced neural crest cell migration. Finally, we demonstrate an impact of N4bp3 deficiency on cell apoptosis and proliferation. Our studies indicate that N4bp3 is required for early anterior neural development of vertebrates. This is in line with a study implicating that genetic disruption of N4BP3 in humans might be related to neurodevelopmental disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cats, frogs, and snakes: early concepts of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Disturbed neurulation fascinated scientists of all times. In Egypt, anencephalic infants were venerated as animal-headed gods. Roman law required them to be killed. The medieval world held the mother responsible, either because of assumed imagination or "miswatching," or because of suspected intercourse with animals or devils. Modern embryology and teratology began with the use of the microscope by Malpighi in 1672. Details of neural tube closure were described by Koelliker in 1861 and by His in 1874. From 1822, genetic disease and familial recurrence due to insufficient nutrition were discerned and lower social class identified as a risk factor. It took a century to define the malnutrition as insufficient folate intake. The mandatory supplementation of folate in staple foods successfully reduced the incidence of neural tube defects in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Chile, but it was not adopted by most European countries.

  10. Early neural disruption and auditory processing outcomes in rodent models: implications for developmental language disability

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, R. Holly; Alexander, Michelle L.; Threlkeld, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the “Kennard Principle,” which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood). As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions of left temporal and/or frontal cortex can suffer dramatic and permanent language loss. Here we present data regarding the impact of early brain injury in rat models as a function of type and timing, measuring long-term behavioral outcomes via auditory discrimination tasks varying in temporal demand. These tasks were created to model (in rodents) aspects of human sensory processing that may correlate—both developmentally and functionally—with typical and atypical language. We found that bilateral focal lesions to the cortical plate in rats during active neuronal migration led to worse auditory outcomes than comparable lesions induced after cortical migration was complete. Conversely, unilateral hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injuries (similar to those seen in premature infants and term infants with birth complications) led to permanent auditory processing deficits when induced at a neurodevelopmental point comparable to human “term,” but only transient deficits (undetectable in adulthood) when induced in a “preterm” window. Convergent evidence suggests that regardless of when or how disruption of early neural development occurs, the consequences may be particularly deleterious to rapid auditory processing (RAP) outcomes when they trigger developmental alterations that extend into subcortical structures (i.e., lower sensory processing stations). Collective findings hold implications for the study of behavioral outcomes following early brain injury as well as genetic/environmental disruption, and are relevant to our understanding of the neurologic risk factors underlying developmental language disability in

  11. Neural Development Under Conditions of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald; Temple, Meredith D.; Denslow, Maria J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key tasks the developing brain must learn is how to navigate within the environment. This skill depends on the brain's ability to establish memories of places and things in the environment so that it can form cognitive maps. Earth's gravity defines the plane of orientation of the spatial environment in which animals navigate, and cognitive maps are based on this plane of orientation. Given that experience during early development plays a key role in the development of other aspects of brain function, experience in a gravitational environment is likely to be essential for the proper organization of brain regions mediating learning and memory of spatial information. Since the hippocampus is the brain region responsible for cognitive mapping abilities, this study evaluated the development of hippocampal structure and function in rats that spent part of their early development in microgravity. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were launched into space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on either postnatal day eight (P8) or 14 (P14) and remained in space for 16 days. Upon return to Earth, the rats were tested for their ability to remember spatial information and navigate using a variety of tests (the Morris water maze, a modified radial arm maze, and an open field apparatus). These rats were then tested physiologically to determine whether they exhibited normal synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. In a separate group of rats (flight and controls), the hippocampus was analyzed using anatomical, molecular biological, and biochemical techniques immediately postlanding. There were remarkably few differences between the flight groups and their Earth-bound controls in either the navigation and spatial memory tasks or activity-induced synaptic plasticity. Microscopic and immunocytochemical analyses of the brain also did not reveal differences between flight animals and ground-based controls. These data suggest that, within the developmental window

  12. Selective Roles of Normal and Mutant Huntingtin in Neural Induction and Early Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Gokhan, Solen; Molero, Aldrin E.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by abnormal polyglutamine expansion in the amino-terminal end of the huntingtin protein (Htt) and characterized by progressive striatal and cortical pathology. Previous reports have shown that Htt is essential for embryogenesis, and a recent study by our group revealed that the pathogenic form of Htt (mHtt) causes impairments in multiple stages of striatal development. In this study, we have examined whether HD-associated striatal developmental deficits are reflective of earlier maturational alterations occurring at the time of neurulation by assessing differential roles of Htt and mHtt during neural induction and early neurogenesis using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) clonal assay system. We demonstrated that the loss of Htt in ESCs (KO ESCs) severely disrupts the specification of primitive and definitive neural stem cells (pNSCs, dNSCs, respectively) during the process of neural induction. In addition, clonally derived KO pNSCs and dNSCs displayed impaired proliferative potential, enhanced cell death and altered multi-lineage potential. Conversely, as observed in HD knock-in ESCs (Q111 ESCs), mHtt enhanced the number and size of pNSC clones, which exhibited enhanced proliferative potential and precocious neuronal differentiation. The transition from Q111 pNSCs to fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-responsive dNSCs was marked by potentiation in the number of dNSCs and altered proliferative potential. The multi-lineage potential of Q111 dNSCs was also enhanced with precocious neurogenesis and oligodendrocyte progenitor elaboration. The generation of Q111 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-responsive dNSCs was also compromised, whereas their multi-lineage potential was unaltered. These abnormalities in neural induction were associated with differential alterations in the expression profiles of Notch, Hes1 and Hes5. These cumulative observations indicate that Htt is required for multiple stages

  13. The Roles and Regulation of Polycomb Complexes in Neural Development

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Matthew; Kroll, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    In the developing mammalian nervous system, common progenitors integrate both cell extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory programs to produce distinct neuronal and glial cell types as development proceeds. This spatiotemporal restriction of neural progenitor differentiation is enforced, in part, by the dynamic reorganization of chromatin into repressive domains by Polycomb Repressive Complexes, effectively limiting the expression of fate-determining genes. Here, we review distinct roles that the Polycomb Repressive Complexes play during neurogenesis and gliogenesis, while also highlighting recent work describing the molecular mechanisms that govern their dynamic activity in neural development. Further investigation of how Polycomb complexes are regulated in neural development will enable more precise manipulation of neural progenitor differentiation, facilitating the efficient generation of specific neuronal and glial cell types for many biological applications. PMID:25367430

  14. Insights into neural crest development and evolution from genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simões-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest is an excellent model system for the study of cell type diversification during embryonic development due to its multipotency, motility, and ability to form a broad array of derivatives ranging from neurons and glia, to cartilage, bone, and melanocytes. As a uniquely vertebrate cell population, it also offers important clues regarding vertebrate origins. In the past 30 yr, introduction of recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the dissection of the genetic program controlling neural crest development and has provided important insights into gene regulatory mechanisms underlying cell migration and differentiation. More recently, new genomic approaches have provided a platform and tools that are changing the depth and breadth of our understanding of neural crest development at a “systems” level. Such advances provide an insightful view of the regulatory landscape of neural crest cells and offer a new perspective on developmental as well as stem cell and cancer biology. PMID:23817048

  15. The Development of Animal Behavior: From Lorenz to Neural Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolhuis, Johan J.

    In the study of behavioral development both causal and functional approaches have been used, and they often overlap. The concept of ontogenetic adaptations suggests that each developmental phase involves unique adaptations to the environment of the developing animal. The functional concept of optimal outbreeding has led to further experimental evidence and theoretical models concerning the role of sexual imprinting in the evolutionary process of sexual selection. From a causal perspective it has been proposed that behavioral ontogeny involves the development of various kinds of perceptual, motor, and central mechanisms and the formation of connections among them. This framework has been tested for a number of complex behavior systems such as hunger and dustbathing. Imprinting is often seen as a model system for behavioral development in general. Recent advances in imprinting research have been the result of an interdisciplinary effort involving ethology, neuroscience, and experimental psychology, with a continual interplay between these approaches. The imprinting results are consistent with Lorenz' early intuitive suggestions and are also reflected in the architecture of recent neural net models.

  16. Cochleovestibular nerve development is integrated with migratory neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, Lisa L.; Butler Tjaden, Naomi E.; Barlow, Amanda J.; Trainor, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The cochleovestibular (CV) nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain, is the nerve that enables the senses of hearing and balance. The aim of this study was to document the morphological development of the mouse CV nerve with respect to the two embryonic cells types that produce it, specifically, the otic vesicle-derived progenitors that give rise to neurons, and the neural crest cell (NCC) progenitors that give rise to glia. Otic tissues of mouse embryos carrying NCC lineage reporter transgenes were whole mount immunostained to identify neurons and NCC. Serial optical sections were collected by confocal microscopy and were compiled to render the three dimensional (3D) structure of the developing CV nerve. Spatial organization of the NCC and developing neurons suggest that neuronal and glial populations of the CV nerve develop in tandem from early stages of nerve formation. NCC form a sheath surrounding the CV ganglia and central axons. NCC are also closely associated with neurites projecting peripherally during formation of the vestibular and cochlear nerves. Physical ablation of NCC in chick embryos demonstrates that survival or regeneration of even a few individual NCC from ectopic positions in the hindbrain results in central projection of axons precisely following ectopic pathways made by regenerating NCC. PMID:24252775

  17. Environmental estrogens alter early development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Cassandra L; Porter, Donna M; Prasad, Anita; Howard, Marthe J; Henderson, Leslie P

    2003-04-01

    A growing number of environmental toxicants found in pesticides, herbicides, and industrial solvents are believed to have deleterious effects on development by disrupting hormone-sensitive processes. We exposed Xenopus laevis embryos at early gastrula to the commonly encountered environmental estrogens nonylphenol, octylphenol, and methoxychlor, the antiandrogen, p,p-DDE, or the synthetic androgen, 17 alpha-methyltestosterone at concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 microM and examined them at tailbud stages (approximately 48 hr of treatment). Exposure to the three environmental estrogens, as well as to the natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol, increased mortality, induced morphologic deformations, increased apoptosis, and altered the deposition and differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes in tailbud stage embryos. Although neural crest-derived melanocytes were markedly altered in embryos treated with estrogenic toxicants, expression of the early neural crest maker Xslug, a factor that regulates both the induction and subsequent migration of neural crest cells, was not affected, suggesting that the disruption induced by these compounds with respect to melanocyte development may occur at later stages of their differentiation. Co-incubation of embryos with the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 blocked the ability of nonylphenol to induce abnormalities in body shape and in melanocyte differentiation but did not block the effects of methoxychlor. Our data indicate not only that acute exposure to these environmental estrogens induces deleterious effects on early vertebrate development but also that different environmental estrogens may alter the fate of a specific cell type via different mechanisms. Finally, our data suggest that the differentiation of neural crest-derived melanocytes may be particularly sensitive to the disruptive actions of these ubiquitous chemical contaminants.

  18. Shared molecular networks in orofacial and neural tube development.

    PubMed

    Kousa, Youssef A; Mansour, Tamer A; Seada, Haitham; Matoo, Samaneh; Schutte, Brian C

    2017-01-30

    Single genetic variants can affect multiple tissues during development. Thus it is possible that disruption of shared gene regulatory networks might underlie syndromic presentations. In this study, we explore this idea through examination of two critical developmental programs that control orofacial and neural tube development and identify shared regulatory factors and networks. Identification of these networks has the potential to yield additional candidate genes for poorly understood developmental disorders and assist in modeling and perhaps managing risk factors to prevent morbidly and mortality. We reviewed the literature to identify genes common between orofacial and neural tube defects and development. We then conducted a bioinformatic analysis to identify shared molecular targets and pathways in the development of these tissues. Finally, we examine publicly available RNA-Seq data to identify which of these genes are expressed in both tissues during development. We identify common regulatory factors in orofacial and neural tube development. Pathway enrichment analysis shows that folate, cancer and hedgehog signaling pathways are shared in neural tube and orofacial development. Developing neural tissues differentially express mouse exencephaly and cleft palate genes, whereas developing orofacial tissues were enriched for both clefting and neural tube defect genes. These data suggest that key developmental factors and pathways are shared between orofacial and neural tube defects. We conclude that it might be most beneficial to focus on common regulatory factors and pathways to better understand pathology and develop preventative measures for these birth defects. Birth Defects Research 109:169-179, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for seizure detection and early seizure detection systems

    SciT

    Talathi, S. S.

    Epilepsy is common neurological diseases, affecting about 0.6-0.8 % of world population. Epileptic patients suffer from chronic unprovoked seizures, which can result in broad spectrum of debilitating medical and social consequences. Since seizures, in general, occur infrequently and are unpredictable, automated seizure detection systems are recommended to screen for seizures during long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. In addition, systems for early seizure detection can lead to the development of new types of intervention systems that are designed to control or shorten the duration of seizure events. In this article, we investigate the utility of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in designing seizuremore » detection and early seizure detection systems. We propose a deep learning framework via the use of Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) RNNs for seizure detection. We use publicly available data in order to evaluate our method and demonstrate very promising evaluation results with overall accuracy close to 100 %. We also systematically investigate the application of our method for early seizure warning systems. Our method can detect about 98% of seizure events within the first 5 seconds of the overall epileptic seizure duration.« less

  20. Neural activity during natural viewing of Sesame Street statistically predicts test scores in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Li, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    It is not currently possible to measure the real-world thought process that a child has while observing an actual school lesson. However, if it could be done, children's neural processes would presumably be predictive of what they know. Such neural measures would shed new light on children's real-world thought. Toward that goal, this study examines neural processes that are evoked naturalistically, during educational television viewing. Children and adults all watched the same Sesame Street video during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Whole-brain intersubject correlations between the neural timeseries from each child and a group of adults were used to derive maps of "neural maturity" for children. Neural maturity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region with a known role in basic numerical cognition, predicted children's formal mathematics abilities. In contrast, neural maturity in Broca's area correlated with children's verbal abilities, consistent with prior language research. Our data show that children's neural responses while watching complex real-world stimuli predict their cognitive abilities in a content-specific manner. This more ecologically natural paradigm, combined with the novel measure of "neural maturity," provides a new method for studying real-world mathematics development in the brain.

  1. Quantum neural networks: Current status and prospects for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altaisky, M. V.; Kaputkina, N. E.; Krylov, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    The idea of quantum artificial neural networks, first formulated in [34], unites the artificial neural network concept with the quantum computation paradigm. Quantum artificial neural networks were first systematically considered in the PhD thesis by T. Menneer (1998). Based on the works of Menneer and Narayanan [42, 43], Kouda, Matsui, and Nishimura [35, 36], Altaisky [2, 68], Zhou [67], and others, quantum-inspired learning algorithms for neural networks were developed, and are now used in various training programs and computer games [29, 30]. The first practically realizable scaled hardware-implemented model of the quantum artificial neural network is obtained by D-Wave Systems, Inc. [33]. It is a quantum Hopfield network implemented on the basis of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this work we analyze possibilities and underlying principles of an alternative way to implement quantum neural networks on the basis of quantum dots. A possibility of using quantum neural network algorithms in automated control systems, associative memory devices, and in modeling biological and social networks is examined.

  2. Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-11

    Alzheimer Disease, Early Onset; Alzheimer Disease; Alzheimer Disease, Late Onset; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Logopenic Progressive Aphasia; Primary Progressive Aphasia; Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; Executive Dysfunction; Corticobasal Degeneration; Ideomotor Apraxia

  3. WDR62 Regulates Early Neural and Glial Progenitor Specification of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alshawaf, Abdullah J.; Antonic, Ana; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in WD40-repeat protein 62 (WDR62) are commonly associated with primary microcephaly and other developmental cortical malformations. We used human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) to examine WDR62 function during human neural differentiation and model early stages of human corticogenesis. Neurospheres lacking WDR62 expression showed decreased expression of intermediate progenitor marker, TBR2, and also glial marker, S100β. In contrast, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling during hPSC neural differentiation induced upregulation of WDR62 with a corresponding increase in neural and glial progenitor markers, PAX6 and EAAT1, respectively. These findings may signify a role of WDR62 in specifying intermediate neural and glial progenitors during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation. PMID:28690640

  4. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  5. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-MET signaling in neural crest-derived melanocyte development.

    PubMed

    Kos, L; Aronzon, A; Takayama, H; Maina, F; Ponzetto, C; Merlino, G; Pavan, W

    1999-02-01

    The mechanisms governing development of neural crest-derived melanocytes, and how alterations in these pathways lead to hypopigmentation disorders, are not completely understood. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) signaling through the tyrosine-kinase receptor, MET, is capable of promoting the proliferation, increasing the motility, and maintaining high tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis of melanocytes in vitro. In addition, transgenic mice that ubiquitously overexpress HGF/SF demonstrate hyperpigmentation in the skin and leptomenigenes and develop melanomas. To investigate whether HGF/ SF-MET signaling is involved in the development of neural crest-derived melanocytes, transgenic embryos, ubiquitously overexpressing HGF/SF, were analyzed. In HGF/SF transgenic embryos, the distribution of melanoblasts along the characteristic migratory pathway was not affected. However, additional ectopically localized melanoblasts were also observed in the dorsal root ganglia and neural tube, as early as 11.5 days post coitus (p.c.). We utilized an in vitro neural crest culture assay to further explore the role of HGF/SF-MET signaling in neural crest development. HGF/SF added to neural crest cultures increased melanoblast number, permitted differentiation into pigmented melanocytes, promoted melanoblast survival, and could replace mast-cell growth factor/Steel factor (MGF) in explant cultures. To examine whether HGF/SF-MET signaling is required for the proper development of melanocytes, embryos with a targeted Met null mutation (Met-/-) were analysed. In Met-/- embryos, melanoblast number and location were not overtly affected up to 14 days p.c. These results demonstrate that HGF/SF-MET signaling influences, but is not required for, the initial development of neural crest-derived melanocytes in vivo and in vitro.

  6. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.

  7. Neural Bases of Language Switching in High and Early Proficient Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbin, G.; Costa, A.; Sanjuan, A.; Forn, C.; Rodriguez-Pujadas, A.; Ventura, N.; Belloch, V.; Hernandez, M.; Avila, C.

    2011-01-01

    The left inferior frontal cortex, the caudate and the anterior cingulate have been proposed as the neural origin of language switching, but most of the studies were conducted in low proficient bilinguals. In the present study, we investigated brain areas involved in language switching in a sample of 19 early, high-proficient Spanish-Catalan…

  8. Molecular Parallels between Neural and Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon

    2013-01-01

    The human central nervous system (CNS) features a network of ∼400 miles of blood vessels that receives >20% of the body’s cardiac output and uses most of its blood glucose. Many human diseases, including stroke, retinopathy, and cancer, are associated with the biology of CNS blood vessels. These vessels originate from extrinsic cell populations, including endothelial cells and pericytes that colonize the CNS and interact with glia and neurons to establish the blood–brain barrier and control cerebrovascular exchanges. Neurovascular interactions also play important roles in adult neurogenic niches, which harbor a unique population of neural stem cells that are intimately associated with blood vessels. We here review the cellular and molecular mechanisms required to establish the CNS vascular network, with a special focus on neurovascular interactions and the functions of vascular endothelial growth factors. PMID:23024177

  9. Molecular parallels between neural and vascular development.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Anne; Thomas, Jean-Léon

    2013-01-01

    The human central nervous system (CNS) features a network of ~400 miles of blood vessels that receives >20% of the body's cardiac output and uses most of its blood glucose. Many human diseases, including stroke, retinopathy, and cancer, are associated with the biology of CNS blood vessels. These vessels originate from extrinsic cell populations, including endothelial cells and pericytes that colonize the CNS and interact with glia and neurons to establish the blood-brain barrier and control cerebrovascular exchanges. Neurovascular interactions also play important roles in adult neurogenic niches, which harbor a unique population of neural stem cells that are intimately associated with blood vessels. We here review the cellular and molecular mechanisms required to establish the CNS vascular network, with a special focus on neurovascular interactions and the functions of vascular endothelial growth factors.

  10. A molecular atlas of the developing ectoderm defines neural, neural crest, placode, and nonneural progenitor identity in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Plouhinec, Jean-Louis; Medina-Ruiz, Sofía; Borday, Caroline; Bernard, Elsa; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Eisen, Michael B; Harland, Richard M; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2017-10-01

    During vertebrate neurulation, the embryonic ectoderm is patterned into lineage progenitors for neural plate, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. Here, we use Xenopus laevis embryos to analyze the spatial and temporal transcriptome of distinct ectodermal domains in the course of neurulation, during the establishment of cell lineages. In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections. Principal component analysis on the transcriptomes of these ectoderm fragments primarily identifies embryonic axes and temporal dynamics. This provides a genetic code to define positional information of any ectoderm sample along the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes directly from its transcriptome. In parallel, we use nonnegative matrix factorization to predict enhanced gene expression maps onto early and mid-neurula embryos, and specific signatures for each ectoderm area. The clustering of spatial and temporal datasets allowed detection of multiple biologically relevant groups (e.g., Wnt signaling, neural crest development, sensory placode specification, ciliogenesis, germ layer specification). We provide an interactive network interface, EctoMap, for exploring synexpression relationships among genes expressed in the neurula, and suggest several strategies to use this comprehensive dataset to address questions in developmental biology as well as stem cell or cancer research.

  11. A molecular atlas of the developing ectoderm defines neural, neural crest, placode, and nonneural progenitor identity in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Borday, Caroline; Bernard, Elsa; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Eisen, Michael B.; Harland, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    During vertebrate neurulation, the embryonic ectoderm is patterned into lineage progenitors for neural plate, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. Here, we use Xenopus laevis embryos to analyze the spatial and temporal transcriptome of distinct ectodermal domains in the course of neurulation, during the establishment of cell lineages. In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections. Principal component analysis on the transcriptomes of these ectoderm fragments primarily identifies embryonic axes and temporal dynamics. This provides a genetic code to define positional information of any ectoderm sample along the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes directly from its transcriptome. In parallel, we use nonnegative matrix factorization to predict enhanced gene expression maps onto early and mid-neurula embryos, and specific signatures for each ectoderm area. The clustering of spatial and temporal datasets allowed detection of multiple biologically relevant groups (e.g., Wnt signaling, neural crest development, sensory placode specification, ciliogenesis, germ layer specification). We provide an interactive network interface, EctoMap, for exploring synexpression relationships among genes expressed in the neurula, and suggest several strategies to use this comprehensive dataset to address questions in developmental biology as well as stem cell or cancer research. PMID:29049289

  12. Biphasic influence of Miz1 on neural crest development by regulating cell survival and apical adhesion complex formation in the developing neural tube

    PubMed Central

    Kerosuo, Laura; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Myc interacting zinc finger protein-1 (Miz1) is a transcription factor known to regulate cell cycle– and cell adhesion–related genes in cancer. Here we show that Miz1 also plays a critical role in neural crest development. In the chick, Miz1 is expressed throughout the neural plate and closing neural tube. Its morpholino-mediated knockdown affects neural crest precursor survival, leading to reduction of neural plate border and neural crest specifier genes Msx-1, Pax7, FoxD3, and Sox10. Of interest, Miz1 loss also causes marked reduction of adhesion molecules (N-cadherin, cadherin6B, and α1-catenin) with a concomitant increase of E-cadherin in the neural folds, likely leading to delayed and decreased neural crest emigration. Conversely, Miz1 overexpression results in up-regulation of cadherin6B and FoxD3 expression in the neural folds/neural tube, leading to premature neural crest emigration and increased number of migratory crest cells. Although Miz1 loss effects cell survival and proliferation throughout the neural plate, the neural progenitor marker Sox2 was unaffected, suggesting a neural crest–selective effect. The results suggest that Miz1 is important not only for survival of neural crest precursors, but also for maintenance of integrity of the neural folds and tube, via correct formation of the apical adhesion complex therein. PMID:24307680

  13. Ion fluxes and neurotransmitters signaling in neural development.

    PubMed

    Andäng, Michael; Lendahl, Urban

    2008-06-01

    The brain develops and functions in a complex ionic milieu, which is a prerequisite for neurotransmitter function and neuronal signaling. Neurotransmitters and ion fluxes are, however, important not only in neuronal signaling, but also in the control of neural differentiation, and in this review, we highlight the recent advances in our understanding of how the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter and ion fluxes are relevant for cell cycle control and neural differentiation. Conversely, proteins previously associated with ion transport across membranes have been endowed with novel ion-independent functions, and we discuss this in the context of gap junctions in cell adhesion and of the neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2 in dendritic spine development. Collectively, these findings provide a richer and more complex picture of when ion fluxes are needed in neural development and when they are not.

  14. An overview on development of neural network technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chun-Shin

    1993-01-01

    The study has been to obtain a bird's-eye view of the current neural network technology and the neural network research activities in NASA. The purpose was two fold. One was to provide a reference document for NASA researchers who want to apply neural network techniques to solve their problems. Another one was to report out survey results regarding NASA research activities and provide a view on what NASA is doing, what potential difficulty exists and what NASA can/should do. In a ten week study period, we interviewed ten neural network researchers in the Langley Research Center and sent out 36 survey forms to researchers at the Johnson Space Center, Lewis Research Center, Ames Research Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We also sent out 60 similar forms to educators and corporation researchers to collect general opinions regarding this field. Twenty-eight survey forms, 11 from NASA researchers and 17 from outside, were returned. Survey results were reported in our final report. In the final report, we first provided an overview on the neural network technology. We reviewed ten neural network structures, discussed the applications in five major areas, and compared the analog, digital and hybrid electronic implementation of neural networks. In the second part, we summarized known NASA neural network research studies and reported the results of the questionnaire survey. Survey results show that most studies are still in the development and feasibility study stage. We compared the techniques, application areas, researchers' opinions on this technology, and many aspects between NASA and non-NASA groups. We also summarized their opinions on difficulties encountered. Applications are considered the top research priority by most researchers. Hardware development and learning algorithm improvement are the next. The lack of financial and management support is among the difficulties in research study. All researchers agree that the use of neural networks could result in

  15. Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for murine neural crest proliferation, pharyngeal arch development, and craniofacial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Milstone, Zachary J; Lawson, Grace; Trivedi, Chinmay M

    2017-12-01

    Craniofacial anomalies involve defective pharyngeal arch development and neural crest function. Copy number variation at 1p35, containing histone deacetylase 1 (Hdac1), or 6q21-22, containing Hdac2, are implicated in patients with craniofacial defects, suggesting an important role in guiding neural crest development. However, the roles of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within neural crest cells remain unknown. The neural crest and its derivatives express both Hdac1 and Hdac2 during early murine development. Ablation of Hdac1 and Hdac2 within murine neural crest progenitor cells cause severe hemorrhage, atrophic pharyngeal arches, defective head morphogenesis, and complete embryonic lethality. Embryos lacking Hdac1 and Hdac2 in the neural crest exhibit decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in both the neural tube and the first pharyngeal arch. Mechanistically, loss of Hdac1 and Hdac2 upregulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors Cdkn1a, Cdkn1b, Cdkn1c, Cdkn2b, Cdkn2c, and Tp53 within the first pharyngeal arch. Our results show that Hdac1 and Hdac2 function redundantly within the neural crest to regulate proliferation and the development of the pharyngeal arches by means of repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Developmental Dynamics 246:1015-1026, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Deletion of OTX2 in neural ectoderm delays anterior pituitary development

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Amanda H.; Schade, Vanessa; Lamonerie, Thomas; Camper, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    OTX2 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is necessary for normal head development in mouse and man. Heterozygosity for loss-of-function alleles causes an incompletely penetrant, haploinsufficiency disorder. Affected individuals exhibit a spectrum of features that range from developmental defects in eye and/or pituitary development to acephaly. To investigate the mechanism underlying the pituitary defects, we used different cre lines to inactivate Otx2 in early head development and in the prospective anterior and posterior lobes. Mice homozygous for Otx2 deficiency in early head development and pituitary oral ectoderm exhibit craniofacial defects and pituitary gland dysmorphology, but normal pituitary cell specification. The morphological defects mimic those observed in humans and mice with OTX2 heterozygous mutations. Mice homozygous for Otx2 deficiency in the pituitary neural ectoderm exhibited altered patterning of gene expression and ablation of FGF signaling. The posterior pituitary lobe and stalk, which normally arise from neural ectoderm, were extremely hypoplastic. Otx2 expression was intact in Rathke's pouch, the precursor to the anterior lobe, but the anterior lobe was hypoplastic. The lack of FGF signaling from the neural ectoderm was sufficient to impair anterior lobe growth, but not the differentiation of hormone-producing cells. This study demonstrates that Otx2 expression in the neural ectoderm is important intrinsically for the development of the posterior lobe and pituitary stalk, and it has significant extrinsic effects on anterior pituitary growth. Otx2 expression early in head development is important for establishing normal craniofacial features including development of the brain, eyes and pituitary gland. PMID:25315894

  17. Visual development in primates: Neural mechanisms and critical periods

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Despite many decades of research into the development of visual cortex, it remains unclear what neural processes set limitations on the development of visual function and define its vulnerability to abnormal visual experience. This selected review examines the development of visual function and its neural correlates, and highlights the fact that in most cases receptive field properties of infant neurons are substantially more mature than infant visual function. One exception is temporal resolution, which can be accounted for by resolution of neurons at the level of the LGN. In terms of spatial vision, properties of single neurons alone are not sufficient to account for visual development. Different visual functions develop over different time courses. Their onset may be limited by the existence of neural response properties that support a given perceptual ability, but the subsequent time course of maturation to adult levels remains unexplained. Several examples are offered suggesting that taking account of weak signaling by infant neurons, correlated firing, and pooled responses of populations of neurons brings us closer to an understanding of the relationship between neural and behavioral development. PMID:25649764

  18. Taiwanese Early Childhood Educators' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Yun

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed based on a qualitative paradigm to explore the professional development of Taiwanese early childhood educators. The method of phenomenology was employed. The main research question addressed was "How do early childhood educators construe their professional development experience?" Seven Taiwanese early childhood…

  19. Podocalyxin Is a Novel Polysialylated Neural Adhesion Protein with Multiple Roles in Neural Development and Synapse Formation

    PubMed Central

    Vitureira, Nathalia; Andrés, Rosa; Pérez-Martínez, Esther; Martínez, Albert; Bribián, Ana; Blasi, Juan; Chelliah, Shierley; López-Doménech, Guillermo; De Castro, Fernando; Burgaya, Ferran; McNagny, Kelly; Soriano, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Neural development and plasticity are regulated by neural adhesion proteins, including the polysialylated form of NCAM (PSA-NCAM). Podocalyxin (PC) is a renal PSA-containing protein that has been reported to function as an anti-adhesin in kidney podocytes. Here we show that PC is widely expressed in neurons during neural development. Neural PC interacts with the ERM protein family, and with NHERF1/2 and RhoA/G. Experiments in vitro and phenotypic analyses of podxl-deficient mice indicate that PC is involved in neurite growth, branching and axonal fasciculation, and that PC loss-of-function reduces the number of synapses in the CNS and in the neuromuscular system. We also show that whereas some of the brain PC functions require PSA, others depend on PC per se. Our results show that PC, the second highly sialylated neural adhesion protein, plays multiple roles in neural development. PMID:20706633

  20. Early Childhood Diplomacy: Policy Planning for Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas-Barón, Emily; Diehl, Kristel

    2018-01-01

    Children who are well nurtured, appropriately cared for, and provided with positive learning opportunities in their early years have a better chance of becoming healthy and productive citizens of nations and of the world. This article reviews the art and science of policy planning for early childhood development (ECD) from a diplomacy perspective.…

  1. msh/Msx gene family in neural development.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Casto; Robert, Benoît

    2005-11-01

    The involvement of Msx homeobox genes in skull and tooth formation has received a great deal of attention. Recent studies also indicate a role for the msh/Msx gene family in development of the nervous system. In this article, we discuss the functions of these transcription factors in neural-tissue organogenesis. We will deal mainly with the interactions of the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene with other homeobox genes and the repressive cascade that leads to neuroectoderm patterning; the role of Msx genes in neural-crest induction, focusing especially on the differences between lower and higher vertebrates; their implication in patterning of the vertebrate neural tube, particularly in diencephalon midline formation. Finally, we will examine the distinct activities of Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 genes during neurogenesis, taking into account their relationships with signalling molecules such as BMP.

  2. The Relationship between Early Neural Responses to Emotional Faces at Age 3 and Later Autism and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuhaus, Emily; Jones, Emily J. H.; Barnes, Karen; Sterling, Lindsey; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    Both autism spectrum (ASD) and anxiety disorders are associated with atypical neural and attentional responses to emotional faces, differing in affective face processing from typically developing peers. Within a longitudinal study of children with ASD (23 male, 3 female), we hypothesized that early ERPs to emotional faces would predict concurrent…

  3. Development Switch in Neural Circuitry Underlying Odor-Malaise Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunday, Lauren; Miner, Cathrine; Roth, Tania L.; Sullivan, Regina M.; Shionoya, Kiseko; Moriceau, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Fetal and infant rats can learn to avoid odors paired with illness before development of brain areas supporting this learning in adults, suggesting an alternate learning circuit. Here we begin to document the transition from the infant to adult neural circuit underlying odor-malaise avoidance learning using LiCl (0.3 M; 1% of body weight, ip) and…

  4. A Constructive Neural-Network Approach to Modeling Psychological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a particular computational modeling approach to the study of psychological development--that of constructive neural networks. This approach is applied to a variety of developmental domains and issues, including Piagetian tasks, shift learning, language acquisition, number comparison, habituation of visual attention, concept…

  5. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Ramírez, Gabriela P.; Balbuena, María Sol; Farina, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions, and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe (AL). Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees' physiology, behavior, and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits. PMID:23986708

  6. Modulation of Reward-Related Neural Activation on Sensation Seeking across Development

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Samuel W.; Chahal, Rajpreet; Hallquist, Michael N.; Paulsen, David J.; Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality construct associated with an increased propensity for engaging in risk-taking. Associations with deleterious outcomes ranging from mental health impairments to increased mortality rates highlight important public health concerns related to this construct. Although some have suggested that increased neural responsivity to reward within the ventral striatum (e.g., nucleus accumbens) may drive sensation seeking behaviors, few studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with stable individual differences in sensation seeking across development. To address this issue, the current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the association between neural responding to reward and stable patterns of sensation seeking across a three-year follow-up period among healthy adolescents and young adults (N = 139). Results indicated that during early adolescence (~ages 10–12), increased reactivity to reward within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was associated with lower levels of sensation seeking across a three-year follow-up. In middle adolescence (~ages 12–16), there was no evidence of a relationship between NAcc reactivity and sensation seeking. However, during the transition from late adolescence into adulthood (~ages 17–25), heightened reward-related reactivity in the NAcc was linked to increased sensation seeking. Findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in trait-like levels of sensation seeking change from early to late adolescence. PMID:27956207

  7. Amigo adhesion protein regulates development of neural circuits in zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Sundvik, Maria; Chen, Yu-Chia; Aho, Vilma; Peltola, Marjaana A; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Panula, Pertti; Rauvala, Heikki

    2014-07-18

    The Amigo protein family consists of three transmembrane proteins characterized by six leucine-rich repeat domains and one immunoglobulin-like domain in their extracellular moieties. Previous in vitro studies have suggested a role as homophilic adhesion molecules in brain neurons, but the in vivo functions remain unknown. Here we have cloned all three zebrafish amigos and show that amigo1 is the predominant family member expressed during nervous system development in zebrafish. Knockdown of amigo1 expression using morpholino oligonucleotides impairs the formation of fasciculated tracts in early fiber scaffolds of brain. A similar defect in fiber tract development is caused by mRNA-mediated expression of the Amigo1 ectodomain that inhibits adhesion mediated by the full-length protein. Analysis of differentiated neural circuits reveals defects in the catecholaminergic system. At the behavioral level, the disturbed formation of neural circuitry is reflected in enhanced locomotor activity and in the inability of the larvae to perform normal escape responses. We suggest that Amigo1 is essential for the development of neural circuits of zebrafish, where its mechanism involves homophilic interactions within the developing fiber tracts and regulation of the Kv2.1 potassium channel to form functional neural circuitry that controls locomotion. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. E-nose based rapid prediction of early mouldy grain using probabilistic neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua; Fu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, early mouldy grain rapid prediction method using probabilistic neural network (PNN) and electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. E-nose responses to rice, red bean, and oat samples with different qualities were measured and recorded. E-nose data was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), back propagation (BP) network, and PNN, respectively. Results indicated that PCA and BP network could not clearly discriminate grain samples with different mouldy status and showed poor predicting accuracy. PNN showed satisfying discriminating abilities to grain samples with an accuracy of 93.75%. E-nose combined with PNN is effective for early mouldy grain prediction. PMID:25714125

  9. Kentucky's Statewide Early Childhood Professional Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime; Townley, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Public school systems have recently become major players in providing services for children in their early years. In addition, a number of other services are available to young children including child care, Head Start, and Early Head Start programs. The link between program quality and professional development of early care and education…

  10. Effect of gravity on vestibular neural development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Tomko, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    The timing, molecular basis, and morphophysiological and behavioral consequences of the interaction between external environment and the internal genetic pool that shapes the nervous system over a lifetime remain important questions in basic neuroscientific research. Space station offers the opportunity to study this interaction over several life cycles in a variety of organisms. This short review considers past work in altered gravity, particularly on the vestibular system, as the basis for proposing future research on space station, and discusses the equipment necessary to achieve goals. It is stressed that, in keeping with the international investment being made in this research endeavor, both the questions asked and the technologies to be developed should be bold. Advantage must be taken of this unique research environment to expand the frontiers of neuroscience. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Early neural activation during facial affect processing in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rachel C; Pang, Elizabeth W; Cassel, Daniel; Brian, Jessica A; Smith, Mary Lou; Taylor, Margot J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is one of the hallmarks of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Emotional faces are arguably the most critical visual social stimuli and the ability to perceive, recognize, and interpret emotions is central to social interaction and communication, and subsequently healthy social development. However, our understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in adolescents with ASD is limited. We recruited 48 adolescents, 24 with high functioning ASD and 24 typically developing controls. Participants completed an implicit emotional face processing task in the MEG. We examined spatiotemporal differences in neural activation between the groups during implicit angry and happy face processing. While there were no differences in response latencies between groups across emotions, adolescents with ASD had lower accuracy on the implicit emotional face processing task when the trials included angry faces. MEG data showed atypical neural activity in adolescents with ASD during angry and happy face processing, which included atypical activity in the insula, anterior and posterior cingulate and temporal and orbitofrontal regions. Our findings demonstrate differences in neural activity during happy and angry face processing between adolescents with and without ASD. These differences in activation in social cognitive regions may index the difficulties in face processing and in comprehension of social reward and punishment in the ASD group. Thus, our results suggest that atypical neural activation contributes to impaired affect processing, and thus social cognition, in adolescents with ASD.

  12. Development of common neural representations for distinct numerical problems

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Ting; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Metcalfe, Arron W. S.; Chen, Tianwen; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    How the brain develops representations for abstract cognitive problems is a major unaddressed question in neuroscience. Here we tackle this fundamental question using arithmetic problem solving, a cognitive domain important for the development of mathematical reasoning. We first examined whether adults demonstrate common neural representations for addition and subtraction problems, two complementary arithmetic operations that manipulate the same quantities. We then examined how the common neural representations for the two problem types change with development. Whole-brain multivoxel representational similarity (MRS) analysis was conducted to examine common coding of addition and subtraction problems in children and adults. We found that adults exhibited significant levels of MRS between the two problem types, not only in the intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) region of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), but also in ventral temporal-occipital, anterior temporal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Relative to adults, children showed significantly reduced levels of MRS in these same regions. In contrast, no brain areas showed significantly greater MRS between problem types in children. Our findings provide novel evidence that the emergence of arithmetic problem solving skills from childhood to adulthood is characterized by maturation of common neural representations between distinct numerical operations, and involve distributed brain regions important for representing and manipulating numerical quantity. More broadly, our findings demonstrate that representational analysis provides a powerful approach for uncovering fundamental mechanisms by which children develop proficiencies that are a hallmark of human cognition. PMID:26160287

  13. Adverse early life environment increases hippocampal microglia abundance in conjunction with decreased neural stem cells in juvenile mice.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Susan; Ke, Xingrao; Liu, Qiuli; Fu, Qi; Majnik, Amber; Lane, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Adverse maternal lifestyle resulting in adverse early life environment (AELE) increases risks for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring. Neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with impaired neurogenesis and neuro-inflammation in the hippocampus (HP). Microglia are neuro-inflammatory cells in the brain that regulate neurogenesis via toll-like receptors (TLR). TLR-9 is implicated in neurogenesis inhibition and is responsible for stress-related inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that AELE would increase microglia cell count and increase TLR-9 expression in juvenile mouse HP. These increases in microglia cell count and TLR-9 expression would be associated with decrease neural stem cell count and neuronal cell count. We developed a mouse model of AELE combining Western diet and a stress environment. Stress environment consisted of random change from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 as well as static change in maternal environment from E13 to postnatal day 21(P21). At P21, we measured hippocampal cell numbers of microglia, neural stem cell and neuron, as well as hippocampal TLR-9 expression. AELE significantly increased total microglia number and TLR-9 expression in the hippocampus. Concurrently, AELE significantly decreased neural stem cell and neuronal numbers. AELE increased the neuro-inflammatory cellular response in the juvenile HP. We speculate that increased neuro-inflammatory responses may contribute to impaired neurogenesis seen in this model. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extracellular matrix and its receptors in Drosophila neural development

    PubMed Central

    Broadie, Kendal; Baumgartner, Stefan; Prokop, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix receptors are intimately involved in most biological processes. The ECM plays fundamental developmental and physiological roles in health and disease, including processes underlying the development, maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system. To understand the principles of ECM-mediated functions in the nervous system, genetic model organisms like Drosophila provide simple, malleable and powerful experimental platforms. This article provides an overview of ECM proteins and receptors in Drosophila. It then focuses on their roles during three progressive phases of neural development: 1) neural progenitor proliferation, 2) axonal growth and pathfinding and 3) synapse formation and function. Each section highlights known ECM and ECM-receptor components and recent studies done in mutant conditions to reveal their in vivo functions, all illustrating the enormous opportunities provided when merging work on the nervous system with systematic research into ECM-related gene functions. PMID:21688401

  15. Programmed Cell Death and Caspase Functions During Neural Development.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi; Miura, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental component of nervous system development. PCD serves as the mechanism for quantitative matching of the number of projecting neurons and their target cells through direct competition for neurotrophic factors in the vertebrate peripheral nervous system. In addition, PCD plays roles in regulating neural cell numbers, canceling developmental errors or noise, and tissue remodeling processes. These findings are mainly derived from genetic studies that prevent cells from dying by apoptosis, which is a major form of PCD and is executed by activation of evolutionarily conserved cysteine protease caspases. Recent studies suggest that caspase activation can be coordinated in time and space at multiple levels, which might underlie nonapoptotic roles of caspases in neural development in addition to apoptotic roles. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Development of STAR Early Literacy. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.

    This report describes the development and testing of a computerized early literacy diagnostic assessment for students in prekindergarten to grade 3 that can measure skills across a variety of preliteracy and reading domains. The STAR Early Literacy assessment was developed by a team of more than 50 people, including literacy experts,…

  17. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Effective teaching leads to positive student outcomes, and professional development for early childhood teachers is key to improving both. But what exactly is meant by "professional development"? What effect does it have on school readiness? Which models and approaches really work? This is the book the early childhood field needs to take the…

  18. Design development of a neural network-based telemetry monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lembeck, Michael F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper identifies the requirements and describes an architectural framework for an artificial neural network-based system that is capable of fulfilling monitoring and control requirements of future aerospace missions. Incorporated into this framework are a newly developed training algorithm and the concept of cooperative network architectures. The feasibility of such an approach is demonstrated for its ability to identify faults in low frequency waveforms.

  19. Neuroblastoma pathogenesis: deregulation of embryonic neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Tomolonis, Julie A; Agarwal, Saurabh; Shohet, Jason M

    2018-05-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive pediatric cancer that originates from neural crest tissues of the sympathetic nervous system. NB is highly heterogeneous both from a clinical and a molecular perspective. Clinically, this cancer represents a wide range of phenotypes ranging from spontaneous regression of 4S disease to unremitting treatment-refractory progression and death of high-risk metastatic disease. At a cellular level, the heterogeneous behavior of NB likely arises from an arrest and deregulation of normal neural crest development. In the present review, we summarize our current knowledge of neural crest development as it relates to pathways promoting 'stemness' and how deregulation may contribute to the development of tumor-initiating CSCs. There is an emerging consensus that such tumor subpopulations contribute to the evolution of drug resistance, metastasis and relapse in other equally aggressive malignancies. As relapsed, refractory disease remains the primary cause of death for neuroblastoma, the identification and targeting of CSCs or other primary drivers of tumor progression remains a critical, clinically significant goal for neuroblastoma. We will critically review recent and past evidence in the literature supporting the concept of CSCs as drivers of neuroblastoma pathogenesis.

  20. Control of early seed development.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, A M; Koltunow, A; Payne, T; Luo, M; Tucker, M R; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    2001-01-01

    Seed development requires coordinated expression of embryo and endosperm and has contributions from both sporophytic and male and female gametophytic genes. Genetic and molecular analyses in recent years have started to illuminate how products of these multiple genes interact to initiate seed development. Imprinting or differential expression of paternal and maternal genes seems to be involved in controlling seed development, presumably by controlling gene expression in developing endosperm. Epigenetic processes such as chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation affect imprinting of key seed-specific genes; however, the identity of many of these genes remains unknown. The discovery of FIS genes has illuminated control of autonomous endosperm development, a component of apomixis, which is an important developmental and agronomic trait. FIS genes are targets of imprinting, and the genes they control in developing endosperm are also regulated by DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling genes. These results define some exciting future areas of research in seed development.

  1. Development of Methodologies for IV and V of Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Darrah, Marjorie

    2003-01-01

    Non-deterministic systems often rely upon neural network (NN) technology to "lean" to manage flight systems under controlled conditions using carefully chosen training sets. How can these adaptive systems be certified to ensure that they will become increasingly efficient and behave appropriately in real-time situations? The bulk of Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) research of non-deterministic software control systems such as Adaptive Flight Controllers (AFC's) addresses NNs in well-behaved and constrained environments such as simulations and strict process control. However, neither substantive research, nor effective IV&V techniques have been found to address AFC's learning in real-time and adapting to live flight conditions. Adaptive flight control systems offer good extensibility into commercial aviation as well as military aviation and transportation. Consequently, this area of IV&V represents an area of growing interest and urgency. ISR proposes to further the current body of knowledge to meet two objectives: Research the current IV&V methods and assess where these methods may be applied toward a methodology for the V&V of Neural Network; and identify effective methods for IV&V of NNs that learn in real-time, including developing a prototype test bed for IV&V of AFC's. Currently. no practical method exists. lSR will meet these objectives through the tasks identified and described below. First, ISR will conduct a literature review of current IV&V technology. TO do this, ISR will collect the existing body of research on IV&V of non-deterministic systems and neural network. ISR will also develop the framework for disseminating this information through specialized training. This effort will focus on developing NASA's capability to conduct IV&V of neural network systems and to provide training to meet the increasing need for IV&V expertise in such systems.

  2. Effect of socioeconomic status disparity on child language and neural outcome: how early is early?

    PubMed

    Hurt, Hallam; Betancourt, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    It is not news that poverty adversely affects child outcome. The literature is replete with reports of deleterious effects on developmental outcome, cognitive function, and school performance in children and youth. Causative factors include poor nutrition, exposure to toxins, inadequate parenting, lack of cognitive stimulation, unstable social support, genetics, and toxic environments. Less is known regarding how early in life adverse effects may be detected. This review proposes to elucidate "how early is early" through discussion of seminal articles related to the effect of socioeconomic status on language outcome and a discussion of the emerging literature on effects of socioeconomic status disparity on brain structure in very young children. Given the young ages at which such outcomes are detected, the critical need for early targeted interventions for our youngest is underscored. Further, the fiscal reasonableness of initiating quality interventions supports these initiatives. As early life adversity produces lasting and deleterious effects on developmental outcome and brain structure, increased focus on programs and policies directed to reducing the impact of socioeconomic disparities is essential.

  3. Regulation of early Xenopus development by ErbB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuyi; Chang, Chenbei

    2008-01-01

    ErbB signaling has long been implicated in cancer formation and progression and is shown to regulate cell division, migration and death during tumorigenesis. The functions of the ErbB pathway during early vertebrate embryogenesis, however, are not well understood. Here we report characterization of ErbB activities during early frog development. Gain-of-function analyses show that EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB4 induce ectopic tumor-like cell mass that contains increased numbers of mitotic cells. Both the muscle and the neural markers are expressed in these ectopic protrusions. ErbBs also induce mesodermal markers in ectodermal explants. Loss-of-function studies using carboxyl terminal-truncated dominant-negative ErbB receptors demonstrate that blocking ErbB signals leads to defective gastrulation movements and malformation of the embryonic axis with a reduction in the head structures in early frog embryos. These data, together with the observation that ErbBs are expressed early during frog embryogenesis, suggest that ErbBs regulate cell proliferation, movements and embryonic patterning during early Xenopus development. PMID:16258939

  4. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.

    PubMed

    Wass, Sam V

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development.

  5. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

  6. Hox Genes: Choreographers in Neural Development, Architects of Circuit Organization

    PubMed Central

    Philippidou, Polyxeni; Dasen, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The neural circuits governing vital behaviors, such as respiration and locomotion, are comprised of discrete neuronal populations residing within the brainstem and spinal cord. Work over the past decade has provided a fairly comprehensive understanding of the developmental pathways that determine the identity of major neuronal classes within the neural tube. However, the steps through which neurons acquire the subtype diversities necessary for their incorporation into a particular circuit are still poorly defined. Studies on the specification of motor neurons indicate that the large family of Hox transcription factors has a key role in generating the subtypes required for selective muscle innervation. There is also emerging evidence that Hox genes function in multiple neuronal classes to shape synaptic specificity during development, suggesting a broader role in circuit assembly. This review highlights the functions and mechanisms of Hox gene networks, and their multifaceted roles during neuronal specification and connectivity. PMID:24094100

  7. Development switch in neural circuitry underlying odor-malaise learning.

    PubMed

    Shionoya, Kiseko; Moriceau, Stephanie; Lunday, Lauren; Miner, Cathrine; Roth, Tania L; Sullivan, Regina M

    2006-01-01

    Fetal and infant rats can learn to avoid odors paired with illness before development of brain areas supporting this learning in adults, suggesting an alternate learning circuit. Here we begin to document the transition from the infant to adult neural circuit underlying odor-malaise avoidance learning using LiCl (0.3 M; 1% of body weight, ip) and a 30-min peppermint-odor exposure. Conditioning groups included: Paired odor-LiCl, Paired odor-LiCl-Nursing, LiCl, and odor-saline. Results showed that Paired LiCl-odor conditioning induced a learned odor aversion in postnatal day (PN) 7, 12, and 23 pups. Odor-LiCl Paired Nursing induced a learned odor preference in PN7 and PN12 pups but blocked learning in PN23 pups. 14C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography indicated enhanced olfactory bulb activity in PN7 and PN12 pups with odor preference and avoidance learning. The odor aversion in weanling aged (PN23) pups resulted in enhanced amygdala activity in Paired odor-LiCl pups, but not if they were nursing. Thus, the neural circuit supporting malaise-induced aversions changes over development, indicating that similar infant and adult-learned behaviors may have distinct neural circuits.

  8. Bioelectrochemical control of neural cell development on conducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Collazos-Castro, Jorge E; Polo, José L; Hernández-Labrado, Gabriel R; Padial-Cañete, Vanesa; García-Rama, Concepción

    2010-12-01

    Electrically conducting polymers hold promise for developing advanced neuroprostheses, bionic systems and neural repair devices. Among them, poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) exhibits superior physicochemical properties but biocompatibility issues have limited its use. We describe combinations of electrochemical and molecule self-assembling methods to consistently control neural cell development on PEDOT:PSS while maintaining very low interfacial impedance. Electro-adsorbed polylysine enabled long-term neuronal survival and growth on the nanostructured polymer. Neurite extension was strongly inhibited by an additional layer of PSS or heparin, which in turn could be either removed electrically or further coated with spermine to activate cell growth. Binding basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) to the heparin layer inhibited neurons but promoted proliferation and migration of precursor cells. This methodology may orchestrate neural cell behavior on electroactive polymers, thus improving cell/electrode communication in prosthetic devices and providing a platform for tissue repair strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synchronization in a noise-driven developing neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, I.-H.; Wu, R.-K.; Chen, C.-M.

    2011-11-01

    We use computer simulations to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of a developing neural network whose activity is driven by noise. Structurally, the constructed neural networks in our simulations exhibit the small-world properties that have been observed in several neural networks. The dynamical change of neuronal membrane potential is described by the Hodgkin-Huxley model, and two types of learning rules, including spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) and inverse STDP, are considered to restructure the synaptic strength between neurons. Clustered synchronized firing (SF) of the network is observed when the network connectivity (number of connections/maximal connections) is about 0.75, in which the firing rate of neurons is only half of the network frequency. At the connectivity of 0.86, all neurons fire synchronously at the network frequency. The network SF frequency increases logarithmically with the culturing time of a growing network and decreases exponentially with the delay time in signal transmission. These conclusions are consistent with experimental observations. The phase diagrams of SF in a developing network are investigated for both learning rules.

  10. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-06-07

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process.

  11. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process. PMID:28590456

  12. Orbitofrontal Gray Matter Relates to Early Morning Awakening: A Neural Correlate of Insomnia Complaints?

    PubMed Central

    Stoffers, Diederick; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen; van Tol, Marie-José; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep complaints increase profoundly with age; prevalence estimates of insomnia in the elderly reach up to 37%. The three major types of nocturnal complaints are difficulties initiating (DIS) and maintaining (DMS) sleep and early morning awakening (EMA), of which the latter appears most characteristic for aging. The neural correlates associated with these complaints have hardly been investigated, hampering the development of rational treatment and prevention. A recent study on structural brain correlates of insomnia showed that overall severity, but not duration, of insomnia complaints is associated with lower gray matter (GM) density in part of the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Following up on this, we investigated, in an independent sample of people not diagnosed with insomnia, whether individual differences in GM density are associated with differences in DIS, DMS, and EMA. Sixty five healthy participants (mean age = 41 years, range 18–56) filled out questionnaires and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Three compound Z-scores were computed for questionnaire items relating to DIS, DMS, and EMA. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate their association with GM density. Results show that participants with lower GM density in a region where the left inferior OFC borders the insula report more EMA, but not DIS or DMS. This is the first study to investigate structural brain correlates of specific sleep characteristics that can translate into complaints in insomniacs. The selective association of EMA with orbitofrontal GM density makes our findings particularly relevant to elderly people, where EMA represents the most characteristic complaint. It is hypothesized that low GM density in aforementioned orbitofrontal area affects its role in sensing comfort. An intact ability to evaluate comfort may be crucial to maintain sleep, especially at the end of the night when sleep is vulnerable because homeostatic sleep propensity has

  13. Folate and epigenetic mechanisms in neural tube development and defects.

    PubMed

    Meethal, Sivan Vadakkadath; Hogan, Kirk J; Mayanil, Chandra S; Iskandar, Bermans J

    2013-09-01

    Multiple genetic and epigenetic factors involved in central nervous system (CNS) development influence the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The beneficial effect of periconceptional folic acid on NTD prevention denotes a vital role for the single-carbon biochemical pathway in NTD genesis. Indeed, NTDs are associated with polymorphisms in a diversity of genes that encode folate pathway enzymes. Recent evidence suggests that CNS development and function, and consequently NTDs, are also associated with epigenetic mechanisms, many of which participate in the folate cycle and its input and output pathways. We provide an overview with select examples drawn from the authors' research.

  14. The development of neural correlates for memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Ofen, Noa

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature considers the development of episodic memory systems in the brain; the majority are neuroimaging studies conducted during memory encoding in order to explore developmental trajectories in memory formation. This review considers evidence from behavioral studies of memory development, neural correlates of memory formation in adults, and structural brain development, all of which form the foundation of a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to memory development. I then aim to integrate the current evidence from developmental functional neuroimaging studies of memory formation with respect to three hypotheses. First, memory development reflects the development in the use of memory strategies, linked to prefrontal cortex. Second, developmental effects within the medial temporal lobes are more complex, and correspond to current notions about the nature in which the MTL support the formation of memory. Third, neurocognitive changes in content representation influence memory. Open issues and current directions are discussed. PMID:22414608

  15. Early life social stress induced changes in depression and anxiety associated neural pathways which are correlated with impaired maternal care.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Peña, Catherine J; Podda, Giovanni; Nestler, Eric J; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2015-08-01

    Exposures to various types of early life stress can be robust predictors of the development of psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. The objective of the current study was to investigate the roles of the translationally relevant targets of central vasopressin, oxytocin, ghrelin, orexin, glucocorticoid, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway in an early chronic social stress (ECSS) based rodent model of postpartum depression and anxiety. The present study reports novel changes in gene expression and extracellular signal related kinase (ERK) protein levels in the brains of ECSS exposed rat dams that display previously reported depressed maternal care and increased maternal anxiety. Decreases in oxytocin, orexin, and ERK proteins, increases in ghrelin receptor, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA levels, and bidirectional changes in vasopressin underscore related work on the adverse long-term effects of early life stress on neural activity and plasticity, maternal behavior, responses to stress, and depression and anxiety-related behavior. The differences in gene and protein expression and robust correlations between expression and maternal care and anxiety support increased focus on these targets in animal and clinical studies of the adverse effects of early life stress, especially those focusing on depression and anxiety in mothers and the transgenerational effects of these disorders on offspring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Witnessing peer rejection during early adolescence: Neural correlates of empathy for experiences of social exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies with adults have begun to reveal the neural bases of empathy; however, this research has focused on empathy for physical pain, rather than empathy for negative social experiences. Moreover, this work has not examined adolescents who may frequently witness and empathize with others who experience negative social experiences like peer rejection. Here, we examined neural activity among early adolescents observing social exclusion compared to observing inclusion, and how this activity related to both trait empathy and subsequent prosocial behavior. Participants were scanned while they observed an individual whom they believed was being socially excluded. At least one day prior to the scan they reported their trait empathy, and following the scan they wrote emails to the excluded victim that were rated for prosocial behavior (e.g., helping, comforting). Observing exclusion compared to inclusion activated regions involved in mentalizing (i.e., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; DMPFC), particularly among highly empathic individuals. Additionally, individuals who displayed more activity in affective, pain-related regions during observed exclusion compared to inclusion subsequently wrote more prosocial emails to excluded victims. Overall findings suggest that when early adolescents witness social exclusion in their daily lives, some may actually ‘feel the pain’ of the victims and act more prosocially toward them as a result. PMID:20602283

  17. Zebrafish msxB, msxC and msxE function together to refine the neural-nonneural border and regulate cranial placodes and neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bryan T; Kwon, Hye-Joo; Melton, Colt; Houghtaling, Paul; Fritz, Andreas; Riley, Bruce B

    2006-06-15

    The zebrafish muscle segment homeobox genes msxB, msxC and msxE are expressed in partially overlapping domains in the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm. We examined the roles of these msx genes in early development. Disrupting individual msx genes causes modest variable defects, whereas disrupting all three produces a reproducible severe phenotype, suggesting functional redundancy. Neural crest differentiation is blocked at an early stage. Preplacodal development begins normally, but placodes arising from the msx expression domain later show elevated apoptosis and are reduced in size. Cell proliferation is normal in these tissues. Unexpectedly, Msx-deficient embryos become ventralized by late gastrulation whereas misexpression of msxB dorsalizes the embryo. These effects appear to involve Distal-less (Dlx) protein activity, as loss of dlx3b and dlx4b suppresses ventralization in Msx-depleted embryos. At the same time, Msx-depletion restores normal preplacodal gene expression to dlx3b-dlx4b mutants. These data suggest that mutual antagonism between Msx and Dlx proteins achieves a balance of function required for normal preplacodal differentiation and placement of the neural-nonneural border.

  18. Development and investigation of flexible polymer neural probe for chronic neural recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Courtney; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Kim, Woong-Ki; Zeng, Tao; Sanford, Larry D.

    2012-04-01

    Neural recording through microelectrodes requires biocompatibility and long term chronic usage. With a potential for various applications and effort to improve the performance of neural recording probes, consideration is taken to the tissue and cellular effects in these device designs. The degeneration of neurons due to brain tissue motion is an issue along with brain tissue inflammation in the insertion of the probes. To account for motion and irritation the material structure of the probes must be improved upon. This research presents the fabrication of neural probes on the microscale utilizing flexible polymers. Polyimide neural probes have been considered possibly to reduce degradation in their variability caused by brain motion. The microfabrication of the polyimide neural probe has an increased flexibility while accounting for biocompatibility and the needs for chronic use. Through microfabrication processes a needle probe is produced and tested for neural recording.

  19. Early distinction system of mine fire in underground by using a neural-network system

    SciT

    Ohga, Kotaro; Higuchi, Kiyoshi

    1996-12-31

    In our laboratory, a new detection system using smell detectors was developed to detect the spontaneous combustion of coal and the combustion of other materials used underground. The results of experiments clearly the combustion of materials can be detected earlier by this detection system than by conventional detectors for gas and smoke, and there were significant differences between output data from each smell detector for coal, rubber, oil and wood. In order to discern the source of combustion gases, we have been developing a distinction system using a neural-network system. It has shown successful results in laboratory tests. This papermore » describes our detection system using smell detectors and our distinction system which uses a neural-network system, and presents results of experiments using both systems.« less

  20. Neural Markers of the Development of Executive Function: Relevance for Education

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugan, Sheila; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions are involved in the development of academic skills and are critical for functioning in school settings. The relevance of executive functions to education begins early and continues throughout development, with clear impact on achievement. Diverse efforts increasingly suggest ways in which facilitating development of executive function may be used to improve academic performance. Such interventions seek to alter the trajectory of executive development, which exhibits a protracted course of maturation that stretches into young adulthood. As such, it may be useful to understand how the executive system develops normally and abnormally in order to tailor interventions within educational settings. Here we review recent work investigating the neural basis for executive development during childhood and adolescence. PMID:27182537

  1. The Puzzle of Visual Development: Behavior and Neural Limits.

    PubMed

    Kiorpes, Lynne

    2016-11-09

    The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants. The high degree of visual plasticity that has been documented during the sensitive period in young children and animals leaves the brain vulnerable to abnormal visual experience. Abnormal visual experience during the sensitive period can lead to amblyopia, a developmental disorder of vision affecting ∼3% of children. This review provides a historical perspective on research into visual development and the disorder amblyopia. The mismatch between the status of the primary visual cortex and visual behavior, both during visual development and in amblyopia, is discussed, and several potential resolutions are considered. It seems likely that extrastriate visual areas further along the visual pathways may set important limits on visual function and show greater vulnerability to abnormal visual experience. Analyses based on multiunit, population activity may provide useful representations of the information being fed forward from primary visual cortex to extrastriate processing areas and to the motor output. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3611384-10$15.00/0.

  2. The SCL gene specifies haemangioblast development from early mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Gering, M; Rodaway, A R; Göttgens, B; Patient, R K; Green, A R

    1998-07-15

    The SCL gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is essential for the development of all haematopoietic lineages. SCL is also expressed in endothelial cells, but its function is not essential for specification of endothelial progenitors and the role of SCL in endothelial development is obscure. We isolated the zebrafish SCL homologue and show that it was co-expressed in early mesoderm with markers of haematopoietic, endothelial and pronephric progenitors. Ectopic expression of SCL mRNA in zebrafish embryos resulted in overproduction of common haematopoietic and endothelial precursors, perturbation of vasculogenesis and concomitant loss of pronephric duct and somitic tissue. Notochord and neural tube formation were unaffected. These results provide the first evidence that SCL specifies formation of haemangioblasts, the proposed common precursor of blood and endothelial lineages. Our data also underline the striking similarities between the role of SCL in haematopoiesis/vasculogenesis and the function of other bHLH proteins in muscle and neural development.

  3. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  4. Neural correlates of socioeconomic status in the developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2012-07-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that language, memory, social-emotional processing, and cognitive control exhibit relatively large differences across SES. Here we investigated whether volumetric differences could be observed across SES in several neural regions that support these skills. In a sample of 60 socioeconomically diverse children, highly significant SES differences in regional brain volume were observed in the hippocampus and the amygdala. In addition, SES × age interactions were observed in the left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting increasing SES differences with age in these regions. These results were not explained by differences in gender, race or IQ. Likely mechanisms include differences in the home linguistic environment and exposure to stress, which may serve as targets for intervention at a time of high neural plasticity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Synaptic Inputs Compete during Rapid Formation of the Calyx of Held: A New Model System for Neural Development

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, Paul S.; Hoffpauir, Brian K.; Hoyson, Mitchell C.; Jackson, Dakota R.; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Marrs, Glenn S.; Dehoff, Marlin; Wu, Jonathan; Ellisman, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Hallmark features of neural circuit development include early exuberant innervation followed by competition and pruning to mature innervation topography. Several neural systems, including the neuromuscular junction and climbing fiber innervation of Purkinje cells, are models to study neural development in part because they establish a recognizable endpoint of monoinnervation of their targets and because the presynaptic terminals are large and easily monitored. We demonstrate here that calyx of Held (CH) innervation of its target, which forms a key element of auditory brainstem binaural circuitry, exhibits all of these characteristics. To investigate CH development, we made the first application of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to neural development with fine temporal resolution and thereby accomplished the first time series for 3D ultrastructural analysis of neural circuit formation. This approach revealed a growth spurt of added apposed surface area (ASA) >200 μm2/d centered on a single age at postnatal day 3 in mice and an initial rapid phase of growth and competition that resolved to monoinnervation in two-thirds of cells within 3 d. This rapid growth occurred in parallel with an increase in action potential threshold, which may mediate selection of the strongest input as the winning competitor. ASAs of competing inputs were segregated on the cell body surface. These data suggest mechanisms to select “winning” inputs by regional reinforcement of postsynaptic membrane to mediate size and strength of competing synaptic inputs. PMID:23926251

  6. Music and Cognitive Development: From Notes to Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates research on early childhood development and on both listening to music and participation in music activities by young children. Research is reviewed that explores possible relationships between various music-related experiences and cognitive development, from the "Mozart Effect" studies to participation in piano lessons…

  7. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  8. Effects of task demands on the early neural processing of fearful and happy facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Itier, Roxane J.; Neath-Tavares, Karly N.

    2017-01-01

    Task demands shape how we process environmental stimuli but their impact on the early neural processing of facial expressions remains unclear. In a within-subject design, ERPs were recorded to the same fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions presented during a gender discrimination, an explicit emotion discrimination and an oddball detection tasks, the most studied tasks in the field. Using an eye tracker, fixation on the face nose was enforced using a gaze-contingent presentation. Task demands modulated amplitudes from 200–350ms at occipito-temporal sites spanning the EPN component. Amplitudes were more negative for fearful than neutral expressions starting on N170 from 150–350ms, with a temporo-occipital distribution, whereas no clear effect of happy expressions was seen. Task and emotion effects never interacted in any time window or for the ERP components analyzed (P1, N170, EPN). Thus, whether emotion is explicitly discriminated or irrelevant for the task at hand, neural correlates of fearful and happy facial expressions seem immune to these task demands during the first 350ms of visual processing. PMID:28315309

  9. Effects of task demands on the early neural processing of fearful and happy facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Itier, Roxane J; Neath-Tavares, Karly N

    2017-05-15

    Task demands shape how we process environmental stimuli but their impact on the early neural processing of facial expressions remains unclear. In a within-subject design, ERPs were recorded to the same fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions presented during a gender discrimination, an explicit emotion discrimination and an oddball detection tasks, the most studied tasks in the field. Using an eye tracker, fixation on the face nose was enforced using a gaze-contingent presentation. Task demands modulated amplitudes from 200 to 350ms at occipito-temporal sites spanning the EPN component. Amplitudes were more negative for fearful than neutral expressions starting on N170 from 150 to 350ms, with a temporo-occipital distribution, whereas no clear effect of happy expressions was seen. Task and emotion effects never interacted in any time window or for the ERP components analyzed (P1, N170, EPN). Thus, whether emotion is explicitly discriminated or irrelevant for the task at hand, neural correlates of fearful and happy facial expressions seem immune to these task demands during the first 350ms of visual processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Enhances Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Neural Stem Cell Pool, and Early Neurogenesis in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rita; Ribeiro, Filipa F; Xapelli, Sara; Genebra, Tânia; Ribeiro, Maria F; Sebastião, Ana M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Solá, Susana

    2018-05-01

    Although neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) produce very few neurons during ageing or after injury. We have recently discovered that the endogenous bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a strong inhibitor of mitochondrial apoptosis and a neuroprotective in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, also enhances NSC proliferation, self-renewal, and neuronal conversion by improving mitochondrial integrity and function of NSCs. In the present study, we explore the effect of TUDCA on regulation of NSC fate in neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), using rat postnatal neurospheres and adult rats exposed to the bile acid. TUDCA significantly induced NSC proliferation, self-renewal, and neural differentiation in the SVZ, without affecting DG-derived NSCs. More importantly, expression levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins and mitochondrial antioxidant responses were significantly increased by TUDCA in SVZ-derived NSCs. Finally, intracerebroventricular administration of TUDCA in adult rats markedly enhanced both NSC proliferation and early differentiation in SVZ regions, corroborating in vitro data. Collectively, our results highlight a potential novel role for TUDCA in neurologic disorders associated with SVZ niche deterioration and impaired neurogenesis.

  11. Shaping Early Reorganization of Neural Networks Promotes Motor Function after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Volz, L. J.; Rehme, A. K.; Michely, J.; Nettekoven, C.; Eickhoff, S. B.; Fink, G. R.; Grefkes, C.

    2016-01-01

    Neural plasticity is a major factor driving cortical reorganization after stroke. We here tested whether repetitively enhancing motor cortex plasticity by means of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) prior to physiotherapy might promote recovery of function early after stroke. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to elucidate underlying neural mechanisms. Twenty-six hospitalized, first-ever stroke patients (time since stroke: 1–16 days) with hand motor deficits were enrolled in a sham-controlled design and pseudo-randomized into 2 groups. iTBS was administered prior to physiotherapy on 5 consecutive days either over ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1-stimulation group) or parieto-occipital vertex (control-stimulation group). Hand motor function, cortical excitability, and resting-state fMRI were assessed 1 day prior to the first stimulation and 1 day after the last stimulation. Recovery of grip strength was significantly stronger in the M1-stimulation compared to the control-stimulation group. Higher levels of motor network connectivity were associated with better motor outcome. Consistently, control-stimulated patients featured a decrease in intra- and interhemispheric connectivity of the motor network, which was absent in the M1-stimulation group. Hence, adding iTBS to prime physiotherapy in recovering stroke patients seems to interfere with motor network degradation, possibly reflecting alleviation of post-stroke diaschisis. PMID:26980614

  12. A Software Package for Neural Network Applications Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baran, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    Original Backprop (Version 1.2) is an MS-DOS package of four stand-alone C-language programs that enable users to develop neural network solutions to a variety of practical problems. Original Backprop generates three-layer, feed-forward (series-coupled) networks which map fixed-length input vectors into fixed length output vectors through an intermediate (hidden) layer of binary threshold units. Version 1.2 can handle up to 200 input vectors at a time, each having up to 128 real-valued components. The first subprogram, TSET, appends a number (up to 16) of classification bits to each input, thus creating a training set of input output pairs. The second subprogram, BACKPROP, creates a trilayer network to do the prescribed mapping and modifies the weights of its connections incrementally until the training set is leaned. The learning algorithm is the 'back-propagating error correction procedures first described by F. Rosenblatt in 1961. The third subprogram, VIEWNET, lets the trained network be examined, tested, and 'pruned' (by the deletion of unnecessary hidden units). The fourth subprogram, DONET, makes a TSR routine by which the finished product of the neural net design-and-training exercise can be consulted under other MS-DOS applications.

  13. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12–14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19–25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. PMID:23716712

  14. Ongoing neural development of affective theory of mind in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Weigelt, Sarah; Döhnel, Katrin; Smolka, Michael N; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Affective Theory of Mind (ToM), an important aspect of ToM, involves the understanding of affective mental states. This ability is critical in the developmental phase of adolescence, which is often related with socio-emotional problems. Using a developmentally sensitive behavioral task in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural development of affective ToM throughout adolescence. Eighteen adolescent (ages 12-14 years) and 18 young adult women (aged 19-25 years) were scanned while evaluating complex affective mental states depicted by actors in video clips. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significantly stronger activation in adolescents in comparison to adults in the affective ToM condition. Current results indicate that the vmPFC might be involved in the development of affective ToM processing in adolescence. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Neural Correlates of Natural Human Echolocation in Early and Late Blind Echolocation Experts

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Lore; Arnott, Stephen R.; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background A small number of blind people are adept at echolocating silent objects simply by producing mouth clicks and listening to the returning echoes. Yet the neural architecture underlying this type of aid-free human echolocation has not been investigated. To tackle this question, we recruited echolocation experts, one early- and one late-blind, and measured functional brain activity in each of them while they listened to their own echolocation sounds. Results When we compared brain activity for sounds that contained both clicks and the returning echoes with brain activity for control sounds that did not contain the echoes, but were otherwise acoustically matched, we found activity in calcarine cortex in both individuals. Importantly, for the same comparison, we did not observe a difference in activity in auditory cortex. In the early-blind, but not the late-blind participant, we also found that the calcarine activity was greater for echoes reflected from surfaces located in contralateral space. Finally, in both individuals, we found activation in middle temporal and nearby cortical regions when they listened to echoes reflected from moving targets. Conclusions These findings suggest that processing of click-echoes recruits brain regions typically devoted to vision rather than audition in both early and late blind echolocation experts. PMID:21633496

  16. The long reach of early adversity: Parenting, stress, and neural pathways to antisocial behavior in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gard, Arianna M; Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hariri, Ahmad R; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-10-01

    Early life adversities including harsh parenting, maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and low family economic resources are more prevalent in low-income urban environments and are potent predictors of psychopathology, including, for boys, antisocial behavior (AB). However, little research has examined how these stressful experiences alter later neural function. Moreover, identifying genetic markers of greater susceptibility to adversity is critical to understanding biopsychosocial pathways from early adversity to later psychopathology. Within a sample of 310 low-income boys followed from age 1.5 to 20, multimethod assessments of adversities were examined at age 2 and age 12. At age 20, amygdala reactivity to emotional facial expressions was assessed using fMRI, and symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder were assessed via structured clinical interview. Genetic variability in cortisol signaling ( CRHR1 ) was examined as a moderator of pathways to amygdala reactivity. Observed parenting and neighborhood deprivation at age 2 each uniquely predicted amygdala reactivity to emotional faces at age 20 over and above other adversities measured at multiple developmental periods. Harsher parenting and greater neighborhood deprivation in toddlerhood predicted clinically-significant symptoms of AB via less amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions and this pathway was moderated by genetic variation in CRHR1 . These results elucidate a pathway linking early adversity to less amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal distress 18 years later, which in turn increased risk for serious AB. Moreover, these findings suggest a genetic marker of youth more susceptible to adversity.

  17. Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Hurtado, Esteban; González, Ramiro; Haye, Andrés; Manes, Facundo F

    2010-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs) in response to face- and word processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members) and words (positive and negative valence) as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly associated in the task) had an influence on the N170 amplitude modulation. On the one hand, in face categorization, right N170 showed differences according to the association between social categories of faces and affective valence of words. On the other, in word categorization, left N170 presented a similar modulation when the task implied a negative-valence associated with ingroup faces. Only indigenous participants showed a significant IAT effect and N170 differences. Our results demonstrate an early ERP blending of stimuli processing with both intergroup and evaluative contexts, suggesting an integration of contextual information related to intergroup attitudes during the early stages of word and face processing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early ERPs during an ethnicity IAT, opening a new branch of exchange between social neuroscience and social psychology of attitudes.

  18. Large-scale generation of human iPSC-derived neural stem cells/early neural progenitor cells and their neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    D'Aiuto, Leonardo; Zhi, Yun; Kumar Das, Dhanjit; Wilcox, Madeleine R; Johnson, Jon W; McClain, Lora; MacDonald, Matthew L; Di Maio, Roberto; Schurdak, Mark E; Piazza, Paolo; Viggiano, Luigi; Sweet, Robert; Kinchington, Paul R; Bhattacharjee, Ayantika G; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonka, Vishwajit L; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to perform high-throughput screening of novel drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Such screenings require a robust and scalable method for generating large numbers of mature, differentiated neuronal cells. Currently available methods based on differentiation of embryoid bodies (EBs) or directed differentiation of adherent culture systems are either expensive or are not scalable. We developed a protocol for large-scale generation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs)/early neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) and their differentiation into neurons. Our scalable protocol allows robust and cost-effective generation of NSCs/eNPCs from iPSCs. Following culture in neurobasal medium supplemented with B27 and BDNF, NSCs/eNPCs differentiate predominantly into vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) positive neurons. Targeted mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that iPSC-derived neurons express ligand-gated channels and other synaptic proteins and whole-cell patch-clamp experiments indicate that these channels are functional. The robust and cost-effective differentiation protocol described here for large-scale generation of NSCs/eNPCs and their differentiation into neurons paves the way for automated high-throughput screening of drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  20. Development of neural responsivity to vocal sounds in higher level auditory cortex of songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Sims, Vanessa C.

    2014-01-01

    Like humans, songbirds learn vocal sounds from “tutors” during a sensitive period of development. Vocal learning in songbirds therefore provides a powerful model system for investigating neural mechanisms by which memories of learned vocal sounds are stored. This study examined whether NCM (caudo-medial nidopallium), a region of higher level auditory cortex in songbirds, serves as a locus where a neural memory of tutor sounds is acquired during early stages of vocal learning. NCM neurons respond well to complex auditory stimuli, and evoked activity in many NCM neurons habituates such that the response to a stimulus that is heard repeatedly decreases to approximately one-half its original level (stimulus-specific adaptation). The rate of neural habituation serves as an index of familiarity, being low for familiar sounds, but high for novel sounds. We found that response strength across different song stimuli was higher in NCM neurons of adult zebra finches than in juveniles, and that only adult NCM responded selectively to tutor song. The rate of habituation across both tutor song and novel conspecific songs was lower in adult than in juvenile NCM, indicating higher familiarity and a more persistent response to song stimuli in adults. In juvenile birds that have memorized tutor vocal sounds, neural habituation was higher for tutor song than for a familiar conspecific song. This unexpected result suggests that the response to tutor song in NCM at this age may be subject to top-down influences that maintain the tutor song as a salient stimulus, despite its high level of familiarity. PMID:24694936

  1. Bioecological Theory, Early Child Development and the Validation of the Population-Level Early Development Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Goelman, Hillel

    2011-01-01

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI; Janus and Offord in "Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science" 39:1-22, 2007) project is a Canadian population-level, longitudinal research project, in which teacher ratings of Kindergarten children's early development and wellbeing are linked to health and academic achievement variables at the…

  2. PERSPECTIVE: Consideration of user priorities when developing neural prosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kim D.

    2009-10-01

    For too long there has been separation of basic science, biomedical engineering, clinical science and the people these disciplines are serving. A key ingredient to understanding the real-life consequences of many neurologic disorders that produce physical disabilities, such as spinal cord injury, is to obtain valuable information from the individuals that are actually living with the disorders everyday. This information can be obtained in an objective and usable format, which can then be used to direct biomedical research in a manner that is meaningful to the intended beneficiaries. In particular, the field of neural prosthetics for spinal cord injury can make great strides if user input is obtained throughout the stages of development. Presented here is the perspective of a scientist who also has 20 years of experience living with a cervical spinal cord injury.

  3. From neural development to cognition: unexpected roles for chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Ronan, Jehnna L.; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-sequencing studies in human neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders have uncovered mutations in many chromatin regulators. These human genetic studies, along with studies in model organisms, are providing insight into chromatin regulatory mechanisms in neural development and how alterations to these mechanisms can cause cognitive deficits, such as intellectual disability. We discuss several implicated chromatin regulators, including BAF (also known as SWI/SNF) and CHD8 chromatin remodellers, HDAC4 and the Polycomb component EZH2. Interestingly, mutations in EZH2 and certain BAF complex components have roles in both neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer, and overlapping point mutations are suggesting functionally important residues and domains. We speculate on the contribution of these similar mutations to disparate disorders. PMID:23568486

  4. GABA and Gap Junctions in the Development of Synchronized Activity in Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Meeri Eeva-Liisa; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Narkilahti, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    The electrical activity of the brain arises from single neurons communicating with each other. However, how single neurons interact during early development to give rise to neural network activity remains poorly understood. We studied the emergence of synchronous neural activity in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural networks simultaneously on a single-neuron level and network level. The contribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gap junctions to the development of synchronous activity in hPSC-derived neural networks was studied with GABA agonist and antagonist and by blocking gap junctional communication, respectively. We characterized the dynamics of the network-wide synchrony in hPSC-derived neural networks with high spatial resolution (calcium imaging) and temporal resolution microelectrode array (MEA). We found that the emergence of synchrony correlates with a decrease in very strong GABA excitation. However, the synchronous network was found to consist of a heterogeneous mixture of synchronously active cells with variable responses to GABA, GABA agonists and gap junction blockers. Furthermore, we show how single-cell distributions give rise to the network effect of GABA, GABA agonists and gap junction blockers. Finally, based on our observations, we suggest that the earliest form of synchronous neuronal activity depends on gap junctions and a decrease in GABA induced depolarization but not on GABAA mediated signaling. PMID:29559893

  5. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  6. Early Intervention, Maternal Development and Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    The purposes of this longitudinal study of early intervention with 83 black mother-child dyads were (a) to test the thesis that sociocultural transmission influences childhood development in educationally significant ways, and (b) to describe the process through which such transmission can occur. Two social intervention programs were contrasted;…

  7. The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.

    Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…

  8. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  9. Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

  10. Penetration and differentiation of cephalic neural crest-derived cells in the developing mouse telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Emiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Saga, Yumiko; Osumi, Noriko

    2012-12-01

    Neural crest (NC) cells originate from the neural folds and migrate into the various embryonic regions where they differentiate into multiple cell types. A population of cephalic neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) penetrates back into the developing forebrain to differentiate into microvascular pericytes, but little is known about when and how cephalic NCDCs invade the telencephalon and differentiate into pericytes. Using a transgenic mouse line in which NCDCs are genetically labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), we observed that NCDCs started to invade the telencephalon together with endothelial cells from embryonic day (E) 9.5. A majority of NCDCs located in the telencephalon expressed pericyte markers, that is, PDGFRβ and NG2, and differentiated into pericytes around E11.5. Surprisingly, many of the NC-derived pericytes express p75, an undifferentiated NCDC marker at E11.5, as well as NCDCs in the mesenchyme. At the same time, a minor population of NCDCs that located separately from blood vessels in the telencephalon were NG2-negative and some of these NCDCs also expressed p75. Proliferation and differentiation of pericytes appeared to occur in a specific mesenchymal region where blood vessels penetrated into the telencephalon. These results indicate that (i) NCDCs penetrate back into the telencephalon in parallel with angiogenesis, (ii) many NC-derived pericytes may be still in pre-mature states even though after differentiation into pericytes in the early developing stages, (iii) a small minority of NCDCs may retain undifferentiated states in the developing telencephalon, and (iv) a majority of NCDCs proliferate and differentiate into pericytes in the mesenchyme around the telencephalon. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  11. Recognition of early stage thigmotaxis in Morris water maze test with convolutional neural network.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Akinori; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kan-No, Harumi; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Higaki, Jitsuo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2018-01-01

    The Morris water maze test (MWM) is a useful tool to evaluate rodents' spatial learning and memory, but the outcome is susceptible to various experimental conditions. Thigmotaxis is a commonly observed behavioral pattern which is thought to be related to anxiety or fear. This behavior is associated with prolonged escape latency, but the impact of its frequency in the early stage on the final outcome is not clearly understood. We analyzed swim path trajectories in male C57BL/6 mice with or without bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) treatment. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of particular types of trajectories according to ischemic brain surgery. The mouse groups with thigmotaxis showed significantly prolonged escape latency and lower cognitive score on day 5 compared to those without thigmotaxis. As the next step, we made a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to recognize the swim path trajectories. Our model could distinguish thigmotaxis from other trajectories with 96% accuracy and specificity as high as 0.98. These results suggest that thigmotaxis in the early training stage is a predictive factor for impaired performance in MWM, and machine learning can detect such behavior easily and automatically.

  12. Early detection of epilepsy seizures based on a weightless neural network.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Kleber; Franca, Felipe M G; Barbosa, Valmir C; Teixeira, Cesar A D

    2015-08-01

    This work introduces a new methodology for the early detection of epileptic seizure based on the WiSARD weightless neural network model and a new approach in terms of preprocessing the electroencephalogram (EEG) data. WiSARD has, among other advantages, the capacity of perform the training phase in a very fast way. This speed in training is due to the fact that WiSARD's neurons work like Random Access Memories (RAM) addressed by input patterns. Promising results were obtained in the anticipation of seizure onsets in four representative patients from the European Database on Epilepsy (EPILEPSIAE). The proposed seizure early detection WNN architecture was explored by varying the detection anticipation (δ) in the 2 to 30 seconds interval, and by adopting 2 and 3 seconds as the width of the Sliding Observation Window (SOW) input. While in the most challenging patient (A) one obtained accuracies from 99.57% (δ=2s; SOW=3s) to 72.56% (δ=30s; SOW=2s), patient D seizures could be detected in the 99.77% (δ=2s; SOW=2s) to 99.93% (δ=30s; SOW=3s) accuracy interval.

  13. Pricing and hedging derivative securities with neural networks: Bayesian regularization, early stopping, and bagging.

    PubMed

    Gençay, R; Qi, M

    2001-01-01

    We study the effectiveness of cross validation, Bayesian regularization, early stopping, and bagging to mitigate overfitting and improving generalization for pricing and hedging derivative securities with daily S&P 500 index daily call options from January 1988 to December 1993. Our results indicate that Bayesian regularization can generate significantly smaller pricing and delta-hedging errors than the baseline neural-network (NN) model and the Black-Scholes model for some years. While early stopping does not affect the pricing errors, it significantly reduces the hedging error (HE) in four of the six years we investigated. Although computationally most demanding, bagging seems to provide the most accurate pricing and delta hedging. Furthermore, the standard deviation of the MSPE of bagging is far less than that of the baseline model in all six years, and the standard deviation of the average HE of bagging is far less than that of the baseline model in five out of six years. We conclude that they be used at least in cases when no appropriate hints are available.

  14. Prototype to product-developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

  15. Prototype to product—developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

  16. Breastfeeding, parenting, and early cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata

    2014-03-01

    To explain why breastfeeding is associated with children's cognitive development. By using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of early childhood (N = 7500), we examined how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods, and putting an infant to bed with a bottle were associated with cognitive development across early childhood. We also explored whether this link can be explained by parenting behaviors and maternal education. There is a positive relationship between predominant breastfeeding for 3 months or more and child reading skills, but this link is the result of cognitively supportive parenting behaviors and greater levels of education among women who predominantly breastfed. We found little-to-no relationship between infant feeding practices and the cognitive development of children with less-educated mothers. Instead, reading to a child every day and being sensitive to a child's development were significant predictors of math and reading readiness outcomes. Although breastfeeding has important benefits in other settings, the encouragement of breastfeeding to promote school readiness does not appear to be a key intervention point. Promoting parenting behaviors that improve child cognitive development may be a more effective and direct strategy for practitioners to adopt, especially for disadvantaged children. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  18. Ca(2+) coding and decoding strategies for the specification of neural and renal precursor cells during development.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Marc; Néant, Isabelle; Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L; Riou, Jean-François; Leclerc, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    During embryogenesis, a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) is known to be a widespread trigger for directing stem cells towards a specific tissue fate, but the precise Ca(2+) signalling mechanisms involved in achieving these pleiotropic effects are still poorly understood. In this review, we compare the Ca(2+) signalling events that appear to be one of the first steps in initiating and regulating both neural determination (neural induction) and kidney development (nephrogenesis). We have highlighted the necessary and sufficient role played by Ca(2+) influx and by Ca(2+) transients in the determination and differentiation of pools of neural or renal precursors. We have identified new Ca(2+) target genes involved in neural induction and we showed that the same Ca(2+) early target genes studied are not restricted to neural tissue but are also present in other tissues, principally in the pronephros. In this review, we also described a mechanism whereby the transcriptional control of gene expression during neurogenesis and nephrogenesis might be directly controlled by Ca(2+) signalling. This mechanism involves members of the Kcnip family such that a change in their binding properties to specific DNA sites is a result of Ca(2+) binding to EF-hand motifs. The different functions of Ca(2+) signalling during these two events illustrate the versatility of Ca(2+) as a second messenger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Downregulation of ribosome biogenesis during early forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Kevin F; Shannon, Morgan L; Fame, Ryann M; Fonseca, Erin; Mullan, Hillary; Johnson, Matthew B; Sendamarai, Anoop K; Springel, Mark W; Laurent, Benoit

    2018-01-01

    Forebrain precursor cells are dynamic during early brain development, yet the underlying molecular changes remain elusive. We observed major differences in transcriptional signatures of precursor cells from mouse forebrain at embryonic days E8.5 vs. E10.5 (before vs. after neural tube closure). Genes encoding protein biosynthetic machinery were strongly downregulated at E10.5. This was matched by decreases in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis, together with age-related changes in proteomic content of the adjacent fluids. Notably, c-MYC expression and mTOR pathway signaling were also decreased at E10.5, providing potential drivers for the effects on ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis. Interference with c-MYC at E8.5 prematurely decreased ribosome biogenesis, while persistent c-MYC expression in cortical progenitors increased transcription of protein biosynthetic machinery and enhanced ribosome biogenesis, as well as enhanced progenitor proliferation leading to subsequent macrocephaly. These findings indicate large, coordinated changes in molecular machinery of forebrain precursors during early brain development. PMID:29745900

  20. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Özeren, Ersin; Er, Uygur; Güvenç, Yahya; Demirci, Adnan; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Şenveli, Engin; Ergün, Rüçhan Behzat

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos. We looked at four groups with a total of 36 embryos. There was a control group, a normal saline group, a normal-dose group and a high-dose group with ten, ten, eight and eight eggs with embryo respectively. Two embryos in the control group, studied with light microscopy at 48 h, were consistent with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton System. They had open neural tubes. The other embryos in this group were considered normal. One embryo in the normal saline group was on the occlusion stage at 48 h. One embryo showed an open neural tube. They were compatible with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton system. The remaining eight embryos showed normal development. In the normal dose group, one embryo showed underdevelopment of the embryonic disc and the embryo was dead. In four embryos, the neural tubes were open. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly in one embryo. In two embryos the neural tubes were closed, as they showed normal development, and they reached their expected stages according to the Hamburger-Hamilton classification. There was no malformation or growth retardation. Four experimental embryos were anencephalic in the high dose group, and three embryos had open neural tubes. One embryo exhibited both anencephaly and a neural tube closure defect. None of the embryos in this group showed normal development. Even the usual therapeutic doses of flurbiprofen increased the risk of neural tube defect. Flurbiprofen was found to significantly increase the risk of anencephaly. The provision of improved technical materials and studies with larger sample sizes will reveal the stage of morphological disruption during the development of embryos.

  2. Early childhood development: putting knowledge into action.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a select group of grantmakers and national experts who have made a major commitment to improve the health and well being of young children. The roundtable explored the latest research examining early childhood development, as well as public and private programs serving families with young children. The discussion ultimately centered upon the importance of grantmaker involvement to improve early childhood development, including the services delivered to young children and their families, training for professionals, and continued research and evaluation. This report brings together key points from the day's discussion with factual information on demographic, health and human services, and public policy trends drawn from a background paper prepared for the meeting. When available, recent findings, facts, and figures have been incorporated.

  3. QCD development in the early universe

    SciT

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  4. Brief Report: Robo1 Regulates the Migration of Human Subventricular Zone Neural Progenitor Cells During Development.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Lavell, Emily; Chen, Linda; Schiapparelli, Paula; Lara-Velazquez, Montserrat; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Clements, Anna Christina; Drummond, Gabrielle; Noiman, Liron; Thaler, Katrina; Burke, Anne; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    Human neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ganglionic eminence is an active process throughout early brain development. The migration of human NPCs from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb during fetal stages resembles what occurs in adult rodents. As the human brain develops during infancy, this migratory stream is drastically reduced in cell number and becomes barely evident in adults. The mechanisms regulating human NPC migration are unknown. The Slit-Robo signaling pathway has been defined as a chemorepulsive cue involved in axon guidance and neuroblast migration in rodents. Slit and Robo proteins expressed in the rodent brain help guide neuroblast migration from the SVZ through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. Here, we present the first study on the role that Slit and Robo proteins play in human-derived fetal neural progenitor cell migration (hfNPC). We describe that Robo1 and Robo2 isoforms are expressed in the human fetal SVZ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Slit2 is able to induce a chemorepellent effect on the migration of hfNPCs derived from the human fetal SVZ. In addition, when Robo1 expression is inhibited, hfNPCs are unable to migrate to the olfactory bulb of mice when injected in the anterior SVZ. Our findings indicate that the migration of human NPCs from the SVZ is partially regulated by the Slit-Robo axis. This pathway could be regulated to direct the migration of NPCs in human endogenous neural cell therapy. Stem Cells 2017;35:1860-1865. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    SciT

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real timemore » as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.« less

  6. The Neural Development of ‘Us and Them’

    PubMed Central

    Guassi Moreira, João F.; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Social groups aid human beings in several ways, ranging from the fulfillment of complex social and personal needs to the promotion of survival. Despite the importance of group affiliation to humans, there remains considerable variation in group preferences across development. In the current study, children and adolescents completed an explicit evaluation task of in-group and out-group members during functional neuroimaging. We found that participants displayed age-related increases in bilateral amygdala, fusiform gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation when viewing in-group relative to out-group faces. Moreover, we found an indirect effect of age on in-group favoritism via brain activation in the amygdala, fusiform and OFC. Finally, with age, youth showed greater functional coupling between the amygdala and several neural regions when viewing in-group relative to out-group peers, suggesting a role of the amygdala in directing attention to motivationally relevant cues. Our findings suggest that the motivational significance and processing of group membership undergoes important changes across development. PMID:27633395

  7. The epigenetic switches for neural development and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jingwen; Xin, Yongjuan; Zhou, Wenhao; Qiu, Zilong

    2013-07-20

    The most remarkable feature of the nervous system is that the development and functions of the brain are largely reshaped by postnatal experiences, in joint with genetic landscapes. The nature vs. nurture argument reminds us that both genetic and epigenetic information is indispensable for the normal function of the brain. The epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the central nervous system have been revealed over last a decade. Moreover, the mutations of epigenetic modulator genes have been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders. The epigenetic study has initiated in the neuroscience field for a relative short period of time. In this review, we will summarize recent discoveries about epigenetic regulation on neural development, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders. Although the comprehensive view of how epigenetic regulation contributes to the function of the brain is still not completed, the notion that brain, the most complicated organ of organisms, is profoundly shaped by epigenetic switches is widely accepted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The neural coding of creative idea generation across adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Jolles, Dietsje D.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2013-01-01

    Creativity is considered key to human prosperity, yet the neurocognitive principles underlying creative performance, and their development, are still poorly understood. To fill this void, we examined the neural correlates of divergent thinking in adults (25–30 years) and adolescents (15–17 years). Participants generated alternative uses (AU) or ordinary characteristics (OC) for common objects while brain activity was assessed using fMRI. Adults outperformed adolescents on the number of solutions for AU and OC trials. Contrasting neural activity for AU with OC trials revealed increased recruitment of left angular gyrus, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral middle temporal gyrus in both adults and adolescents. When only trials with multiple AU were included in the analysis, participants showed additional left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/middle frontal gyrus (MFG) activation for AU compared to OC trials. Correspondingly, individual difference analyses showed a positive correlation between activations for AU relative to OC trials in left IFG/MFG and divergent thinking performance and activations were more pronounced in adults than in adolescents. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that creative idea generation involves recruitment of mainly left lateralized parietal and temporal brain regions. Generating multiple creative ideas, a hallmark of divergent thinking, shows additional lateral PFC activation that is not yet optimized in adolescence. PMID:24416008

  9. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Hampton Wray, Amanda; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-11-09

    Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering (CWS-ePersisted) from those who will recover from stuttering (CWS-eRecovered). Fifty-six 5-year-old children with normal receptive language listened to naturally spoken sentences in a story context. ERP components elicited for semantic processing (N400, late positive component [LPC]) were compared for CWS-ePersisted, CWS-eRecovered, and children who do not stutter (CWNS). The N400 elicited by semantic violations had a more focal scalp distribution (left lateralized and less anterior) in the CWS-eRecovered compared with CWS-ePersisted. Although the LPC elicited in CWS-eRecovered and CWNS did not differ, the LPC elicited in the CWS-ePersisted was smaller in amplitude compared with that in CWNS. ERPs elicited in 5-year-old CWS-eRecovered compared with CWS-ePersisted suggest that future recovery from stuttering may be associated with earlier maturation of semantic processes in the preschool years. Subtle differences in ERP indices offer a window into neural maturation processes for language and may help distinguish the course of stuttering development.

  10. Early colonial health developments in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Parahoo, K A

    1986-01-01

    The historical development of Mauritius and in particular the early developments in health care are crucial to an understanding of the contemporary health system. The introduction of major epidemic diseases through the movements of French soldiers to and from India and the immigration of indentured laborers from India account for the high mortality and morbidity rates in the 18th and 19th centuries and later. The colonial economy created and fortified the dependence on a single cash crop and on imported food. It also contributed toward the impoverization of large sections of the Mauritian population. The colonial era is also responsible for initiating a three tier system of health care.

  11. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

    SciT

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu

    2013-05-01

    Formation of the neural tube is the morphological hallmark for development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, neural tube development is a crucial step in the neurulation process. Slit/Robo signaling was initially identified as a chemo-repellent that regulated axon growth cone elongation, but its role in controlling neural tube development is currently unknown. To address this issue, we investigated Slit/Robo1 signaling in the development of chick neCollege of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UKural tube and transgenic mice over-expressing Slit2. We disrupted Slit/Robo1 signaling by injecting R5 monoclonal antibodies into HH10 neural tubes tomore » block the Robo1 receptor. This inhibited the normal development of the ventral body curvature and caused the spinal cord to curl up into a S-shape. Next, Slit/Robo1 signaling on one half-side of the chick embryo neural tube was disturbed by electroporation in ovo. We found that the morphology of the neural tube was dramatically abnormal after we interfered with Slit/Robo1 signaling. Furthermore, we established that silencing Robo1 inhibited cell proliferation while over-expressing Robo1 enhanced cell proliferation. We also investigated the effects of altering Slit/Robo1 expression on Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Pax7 expression in the developing neural tube. We demonstrated that over-expressing Robo1 down-regulated Shh expression in the ventral neural tube and resulted in the production of fewer HNK-1{sup +} migrating neural crest cells (NCCs). In addition, Robo1 over-expression enhanced Pax7 expression in the dorsal neural tube and increased the number of Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs. Conversely, silencing Robo1 expression resulted in an enhanced Shh expression and more HNK-1{sup +} migrating NCCs but reduced Pax7 expression and fewer Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs were observed. In conclusion, we propose that Slit/Robo1 signaling is involved in regulating neural tube

  12. LavaNet—Neural network development environment in a general mine planning package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapageridis, Ioannis Konstantinou; Triantafyllou, A. G.

    2011-04-01

    LavaNet is a series of scripts written in Perl that gives access to a neural network simulation environment inside a general mine planning package. A well known and a very popular neural network development environment, the Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator, is used as the base for the development of neural networks. LavaNet runs inside VULCAN™—a complete mine planning package with advanced database, modelling and visualisation capabilities. LavaNet is taking advantage of VULCAN's Perl based scripting environment, Lava, to bring all the benefits of neural network development and application to geologists, mining engineers and other users of the specific mine planning package. LavaNet enables easy development of neural network training data sets using information from any of the data and model structures available, such as block models and drillhole databases. Neural networks can be trained inside VULCAN™ and the results be used to generate new models that can be visualised in 3D. Direct comparison of developed neural network models with conventional and geostatistical techniques is now possible within the same mine planning software package. LavaNet supports Radial Basis Function networks, Multi-Layer Perceptrons and Self-Organised Maps.

  13. Longitudinal development of prefrontal function during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2011-04-01

    This is a longitudinal study on development of prefrontal function in young children. Prefrontal areas have been observed to develop dramatically during early childhood. To elucidate this development, we gave children cognitive shifting tasks related to prefrontal function at 3 years of age (Time 1) and 4 years of age (Time 2). We then monitored developmental changes in behavioral performance and examined prefrontal activation using near infrared spectroscopy. We found that children showed better behavioral performance and significantly stronger inferior prefrontal activation at Time 2 than they did at Time 1. Moreover, we demonstrated individual differences in prefrontal activation for the same behavioral tasks. Children who performed better in tasks at Time 1 showed significant activation of the right inferior prefrontal regions at Time 1 and significant activation of the bilateral inferior prefrontal regions at Time 2. Children who showed poorer performance at Time 1 exhibited no significant inferior prefrontal activation at Time 1 but significant left inferior prefrontal activation at Time 2. These results indicate the importance of the longitudinal method to address the link between cognitive and neural development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  15. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Neural Bases of Auditory Processing.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Putzar, Lisa; Röder, Brigitte

    2016-02-03

    Transient congenital visual deprivation affects visual and multisensory processing. In contrast, the extent to which it affects auditory processing has not been investigated systematically. Research in permanently blind individuals has revealed brain reorganization during auditory processing, involving both intramodal and crossmodal plasticity. The present study investigated the effect of transient congenital visual deprivation on the neural bases of auditory processing in humans. Cataract-reversal individuals and normally sighted controls performed a speech-in-noise task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although there were no behavioral group differences, groups differed in auditory cortical responses: in the normally sighted group, auditory cortex activation increased with increasing noise level, whereas in the cataract-reversal group, no activation difference was observed across noise levels. An auditory activation of visual cortex was not observed at the group level in cataract-reversal individuals. The present data suggest prevailing auditory processing advantages after transient congenital visual deprivation, even many years after sight restoration. The present study demonstrates that people whose sight was restored after a transient period of congenital blindness show more efficient cortical processing of auditory stimuli (here speech), similarly to what has been observed in congenitally permanently blind individuals. These results underscore the importance of early sensory experience in permanently shaping brain function. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361620-11$15.00/0.

  16. Neural correlates of early-closure garden-path processing: Effects of prosody and plausibility.

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Anderson, Catherine; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of early-closure garden-path sentence processing and use of extrasyntactic information to resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities. Sixteen participants performed an auditory picture verification task on sentences presented with natural versus flat intonation. Stimuli included sentences in which the garden-path interpretation was plausible, implausible because of a late pragmatic cue, or implausible because of a semantic mismatch between an optionally transitive verb and the following noun. Natural sentence intonation was correlated with left-hemisphere temporal activation, but also with activation that suggests the allocation of more resources to interpretation when natural prosody is provided. Garden-path processing was associated with upregulation in bilateral inferior parietal and right-hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex, while differences between the strength and type of plausibility cues were also reflected in activation patterns. Region of interest (ROI) analyses in regions associated with complex syntactic processing are consistent with a role for posterior temporal cortex supporting access to verb argument structure. Furthermore, ROI analyses within left-hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus suggest a division of labour, with the anterior-ventral part primarily involved in syntactic-semantic mismatch detection, the central part supporting structural reanalysis, and the posterior-dorsal part showing a general structural complexity effect.

  17. Neural representation of form-contingent color filling-in in the early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Wook; Tong, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Perceptual filling-in exemplifies the constructive nature of visual processing. Color, a prominent surface property of visual objects, can appear to spread to neighboring areas that lack any color. We investigated cortical responses to a color filling-in illusion that effectively dissociates perceived color from the retinal input (van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009). Observers adapted to a star-shaped stimulus with alternating red- and cyan-colored points to elicit a complementary afterimage. By presenting an achromatic outline that enclosed one of the two afterimage colors, perceptual filling-in of that color was induced in the unadapted central region. Visual cortical activity was monitored with fMRI, and analyzed using multivariate pattern analysis. Activity patterns in early visual areas (V1-V4) reliably distinguished between the two color-induced filled-in conditions, but only higher extrastriate visual areas showed the predicted correspondence with color perception. Activity patterns allowed for reliable generalization between filled-in colors and physical presentations of perceptually matched colors in areas V3 and V4, but not in earlier visual areas. These findings suggest that the perception of filled-in surface color likely requires more extensive processing by extrastriate visual areas, in order for the neural representation of surface color to become aligned with perceptually matched real colors.

  18. The development of functional network organization in early childhood and early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lin; Dong, Qi; Niu, Haijing

    2018-04-01

    Early childhood (7-8 years old) and early adolescence (11-12 years old) constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across development. Copyright

  19. Development of novel microfluidic platforms for neural stem cell research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Bonggeun

    This dissertation describes the development and characterization of novel microfluidic platforms to study proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis of neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs hold tremendous promise for fundamental biological studies and cell-based therapies in human disorders. NSCs are defined as cells that can self-renew yet maintain the ability to generate the three principal cell types of the central nervous system such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. NSCs therefore have therapeutic possibilities in multiple neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Despite their promise, cell-based therapies are limited by the inability to precisely control their behavior in culture. Compared to traditional culture tools, microfluidic platforms can provide much greater control over cell microenvironments and optimize proliferation and differentiation conditions of cells exposed to combinatorial mixtures of growth factors. Human NSCs were cultured for more than 1 week in the microfluidic device while constantly exposed to a continuous gradient of a growth factor mixture. NSCs proliferated and differentiated in a graded and proportional fashion that varied directly with growth factor concentration. In parallel to the study of growth and differentiation of NSCs, we are interested in proliferation and apoptosis of mouse NSCs exposed to morphogen gradients. Morphogen gradients are fundamental to animal brain development. Nonetheless, much controversy remains about the mechanisms by which morphogen gradients act on the developing brain. To overcome limitations of in-vitro models of gradients, we have developed a hybrid microfluidic platform that can mimic morphogen gradient profiles. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity in the developing cortex is graded and cortical NSC responses to BMPs are highly dependent on concentration and gradient slope of BMPs. To make novel microfluidic devices integrated with multiple functions, we have

  20. Development of neural basis for chinese orthographic neighborhood size effect.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Qing-Lin; Ding, Guo-Sheng; Bi, Hong-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The brain activity of orthographic neighborhood size (N size) effect in Chinese character naming has been studied in adults, meanwhile behavioral studies have revealed a developmental trend of Chinese N-size effect in developing readers. However, it is unclear whether and how the neural mechanism of N-size effect changes in Chinese children along with development. Here we address this issue using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Forty-four students from the 3(rd) , 5(th) , and 7(th) grades were scanned during silent naming of Chinese characters. After scanning, all participants took part in an overt naming test outside the scanner, and results of the naming task showed that the 3(rd) graders named characters from large neighborhoods faster than those from small neighborhoods, revealing a facilitatory N-size effect; the 5(th) graders showed null N-size effect while the 7(th) graders showed an inhibitory N-size effect. Neuroimaging results revealed that only the 3(rd) graders exhibited a significant N-size effect in the left middle occipital activity, with greater activation for large N-size characters. Results of 5(th) and 7(th) graders showed significant N-size effects in the left middle frontal gyrus, in which 5(th) graders induced greater activation in large N-size condition than in small N-size condition, while 7(th) graders exhibited an opposite effect which was similar to the adult pattern reported in a previous study. The current findings suggested the transition from broadly tuned to finely tuned orthographic representation with reading development, and the inhibition from neighbors' phonology for higher graders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:632-647, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from “local epithelium”, in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin. PMID:22659543

  3. Changes in neural circuitry associated with depression at pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Borgonovo, Janina; Allende-Castro, Camilo; Laliena, Almudena; Guerrero, Néstor; Silva, Hernán; Concha, Miguel L

    2017-02-01

    Although Parkinson's Disease (PD) is mostly considered a motor disorder, it can present at early stages as a non-motor pathology. Among the non-motor clinical manifestations, depression shows a high prevalence and can be one of the first clinical signs to appear, even a decade before the onset of motor symptoms. Here, we review the evidence of early dysfunction in neural circuitry associated with depression in the context of PD, focusing on pre-clinical, pre-motor and early motor phases of the disease. In the pre-clinical phase, structural and functional changes in the substantia nigra, basal ganglia and limbic structures are already observed. Some of these changes are linked to motor compensation mechanisms while others correspond to pathological processes common to PD and depression and thus could underlie the appearance of depressive symptoms during the pre-motor phase. Studies of the early motor phase (less than five years post diagnosis) reveal an association between the extent of damage in different monoaminergic systems and the appearance of emotional disorders. We propose that the limbic loop of the basal ganglia and the lateral habenula play key roles in the early genesis of depression in PD. Alterations in the neural circuitry linked with emotional control might be sensitive markers of the ongoing neurodegenerative process and thus may serve to facilitate an early diagnosis of this disease. To take advantage of this, we need to improve the clinical criteria and develop biomarkers to identify depression, which could be used to determine individuals at risk to develop PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Time-lapse imaging of neural development: zebrafish lead the way into the fourth dimension.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Sandra; Wang, Fang; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2011-07-01

    Time-lapse imaging is often the only way to appreciate fully the many dynamic cell movements critical to neural development. Zebrafish possess many advantages that make them the best vertebrate model organism for live imaging of dynamic development events. This review will discuss technical considerations of time-lapse imaging experiments in zebrafish, describe selected examples of imaging studies in zebrafish that revealed new features or principles of neural development, and consider the promise and challenges of future time-lapse studies of neural development in zebrafish embryos and adults. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Development of global cortical networks in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Otobe, Takayuki; Nakano, Tamami; Go, Tohshin; Konishi, Yukuo; Taga, Gentaro

    2010-04-07

    Human cognition and behaviors are subserved by global networks of neural mechanisms. Although the organization of the brain is a subject of interest, the process of development of global cortical networks in early infancy has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we explored developmental changes in these networks from several days to 6 months after birth by examining spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. We set up 94 measurement channels over the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions of the infant brain. The obtained signals showed complex time-series properties, which were characterized as 1/f fluctuations. To reveal the functional connectivity of the cortical networks, we calculated the temporal correlations of continuous signals between all the pairs of measurement channels. We found that the cortical network organization showed regional dependency and dynamic changes in the course of development. In the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions, connectivity increased between homologous regions in the two hemispheres and within hemispheres; in the frontal regions, it decreased progressively. Frontoposterior connectivity changed to a "U-shaped" pattern within 6 months: it decreases from the neonatal period to the age of 3 months and increases from the age of 3 months to the age of 6 months. We applied cluster analyses to the correlation coefficients and showed that the bilateral organization of the networks begins to emerge during the first 3 months of life. Our findings suggest that these developing networks, which form multiple clusters, are precursors of the functional cerebral architecture.

  6. Remodeling of the postsynaptic plasma membrane during neural development.

    PubMed

    Tulodziecka, Karolina; Diaz-Rohrer, Barbara B; Farley, Madeline M; Chan, Robin B; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Levental, Kandice R; Waxham, M Neal; Levental, Ilya

    2016-11-07

    Neuronal synapses are the fundamental units of neural signal transduction and must maintain exquisite signal fidelity while also accommodating the plasticity that underlies learning and development. To achieve these goals, the molecular composition and spatial organization of synaptic terminals must be tightly regulated; however, little is known about the regulation of lipid composition and organization in synaptic membranes. Here we quantify the comprehensive lipidome of rat synaptic membranes during postnatal development and observe dramatic developmental lipidomic remodeling during the first 60 postnatal days, including progressive accumulation of cholesterol, plasmalogens, and sphingolipids. Further analysis of membranes associated with isolated postsynaptic densities (PSDs) suggests the PSD-associated postsynaptic plasma membrane (PSD-PM) as one specific location of synaptic remodeling. We analyze the biophysical consequences of developmental remodeling in reconstituted synaptic membranes and observe remarkably stable microdomains, with the stability of domains increasing with developmental age. We rationalize the developmental accumulation of microdomain-forming lipids in synapses by proposing a mechanism by which palmitoylation of the immobilized scaffold protein PSD-95 nucleates domains at the postsynaptic plasma membrane. These results reveal developmental changes in lipid composition and palmitoylation that facilitate the formation of postsynaptic membrane microdomains, which may serve key roles in the function of the neuronal synapse. © 2016 Tulodziecka et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) offers the promise of utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict individual responses to drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Early-phase clinical trial PGx applications can identify human genome variations that are meaningful to study design, selection of participants, allocation of resources and clinical research ethics. Results can inform later-phase study design and pipeline developmental decisions. Nevertheless, our review of the clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that PGx is rarely used by drug developers. Of the total 323 trials that included PGx as an outcome, 80% have been conducted by academic institutions after initial regulatory approval. Barriers for the application of PGx are discussed. We propose a framework for the role of PGx in early-phase drug development and recommend PGx be universally considered in study design, result interpretation and hypothesis generation for later-phase studies, but PGx results from underpowered studies should not be used by themselves to terminate drug-development programs. PMID:23837482

  8. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC 2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  9. Effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) Disparity on Neural Development in Female African-American Infants at Age 1 Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Laura M.; Avants, Brian; Farah, Martha J.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Wu, Jue; Ashtari, Manzar; Hurt, Hallam

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in both the cumulative and long-term impact of early life adversity on brain structure and function, especially as the brain is both highly vulnerable and highly adaptive during childhood. Relationships between SES and neural development have been shown in children older than age 2 years. Less is known regarding the…

  10. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  11. Variation in the schedules of somite and neural development in frogs

    PubMed Central

    Sáenz-Ponce, Natalia; Mitgutsch, Christian; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2012-01-01

    The timing of notochord, somite, and neural development was analyzed in the embryos of six different frog species, which have been divided into two groups, according to their developmental speed. Rapid developing species investigated were Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), Engystomops coloradorum, and Engystomops randi (Leiuperidae). The slow developers were Epipedobates machalilla and Epipedobates tricolor (Dendrobatidae) and Gastrotheca riobambae (Hemiphractidae). Blastopore closure, notochord formation, somite development, neural tube closure, and the formation of cranial neural crest cell-streams were detected by light and scanning electron microscopy and by immuno-histochemical detection of somite and neural crest marker proteins. The data were analyzed using event pairing to determine common developmental aspects and their relationship to life-history traits. In embryos of rapidly developing frogs, elongation of the notochord occurred earlier relative to the time point of blastopore closure in comparison with slowly developing species. The development of cranial neural crest cell-streams relative to somite formation is accelerated in rapidly developing frogs, and it is delayed in slowly developing frogs. The timing of neural tube closure seemed to be temporally uncoupled with somite formation. We propose that these changes are achieved through differential timing of developmental modules that begin with the elongation of the notochord during gastrulation in the rapidly developing species. The differences might be related to the necessity of developing a free-living tadpole quickly in rapid developers. PMID:23184997

  12. An oil fraction neural sensor developed using electrical capacitance tomography sensor data.

    PubMed

    Zainal-Mokhtar, Khursiah; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita

    2013-08-26

    This paper presents novel research on the development of a generic intelligent oil fraction sensor based on Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) data. An artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been employed as the intelligent system to sense and estimate oil fractions from the cross-sections of two-component flows comprising oil and gas in a pipeline. Previous works only focused on estimating the oil fraction in the pipeline based on fixed ECT sensor parameters. With fixed ECT design sensors, an oil fraction neural sensor can be trained to deal with ECT data based on the particular sensor parameters, hence the neural sensor is not generic. This work focuses on development of a generic neural oil fraction sensor based on training a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) ANN with various ECT sensor parameters. On average, the proposed oil fraction neural sensor has shown to be able to give a mean absolute error of 3.05% for various ECT sensor sizes.

  13. An Oil Fraction Neural Sensor Developed Using Electrical capacitance Tomography Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Zainal-Mokhtar, Khursiah; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents novel research on the development of a generic intelligent oil fraction sensor based on Electrical capacitance Tomography (ECT) data. An artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been employed as the intelligent system to sense and estimate oil fractions from the cross-sections of two-component flows comprising oil and gas in a pipeline. Previous works only focused on estimating the oil fraction in the pipeline based on fixed ECT sensor parameters. With fixed ECT design sensors, an oil fraction neural sensor can be trained to deal with ECT data based on the particular sensor parameters, hence the neural sensor is not generic. This work focuses on development of a generic neural oil fraction sensor based on training a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) ANN with various ECT sensor parameters. On average, the proposed oil fraction neural sensor has shown to be able to give a mean absolute error of 3.05% for various ECT sensor sizes. PMID:24064598

  14. Development and application of deep convolutional neural network in target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Wang, Chunping; Fu, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    With the development of big data and algorithms, deep convolution neural networks with more hidden layers have more powerful feature learning and feature expression ability than traditional machine learning methods, making artificial intelligence surpass human level in many fields. This paper first reviews the development and application of deep convolutional neural networks in the field of object detection in recent years, then briefly summarizes and ponders some existing problems in the current research, and the future development of deep convolutional neural network is prospected.

  15. Temporal and spatial expression of Drosophila DLGS97 during neural development.

    PubMed

    Albornoz, Valeria; Mendoza-Topaz, Carolina; Oliva, Carlos; Tello, Judith; Olguín, Patricio; Sierralta, Jimena

    2008-07-01

    The products of the Drosophila discs-large (dlg) gene are members of the MAGUK family of proteins, a group of proteins involved in localization, transport and recycling of receptors and channels in cell junctions, including the synapse. In vertebrates, four genes with multiple splice variants homologous to dlg are described. dlg originates two main proteins, DLGA, similar to the vertebrate neuronal protein PSD95, and DLGS97, similar to the vertebrate neuronal and epithelial protein SAP97. DLGA is expressed in epithelia, neural tissue and muscle. DLGS97 is expressed in neural tissue and muscle but not in epithelia. The distinctive difference between them is the presence in DLGS97 of an L27 domain. The differential expression between these variants makes the study of DLGS97 of key relevance to understand the in vivo role of synaptic MAGUKs in neurons. Here we present the temporal and spatial expression pattern of DLGS97 during embryonic and larval nervous system development, during eye development and in adult brain. Our results show that DLGS97 is expressed zygotically, in neurons in the embryo, larvae and adult, and is absent at all stages in glial cells. During eye development DLGS97 starts to be expressed in photoreceptor cells at early stages of differentiation and localizes basal to the basolateral junctions. In the brain, DLGS97 is expressed in the mushroom bodies and optic lobes at larval and adult stages; and in the antennal lobe in the adult stage. In addition we show that both, dlgS97 and dlgA transcripts, express during development multiple splice variants with differences in the use of exons in two sites.

  16. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  17. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  18. Activation of GPR55 increases neural stem cell proliferation and promotes early adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jeremy D; Zuluaga-Ramirez, Viviana; Gajghate, Sachin; Winfield, Malika; Persidsky, Yuri

    2018-06-11

    The cannabinoid system exerts functional regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and adult neurogenesis, yet not all effects of cannabinoid-like compounds seen can be attributed to the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB 1 R) or cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB 2 R). The recently de-orphaned GPR55 has been shown to be activated by numerous cannabinoid ligands suggesting that GPR55 is a third cannabinoid receptor. Here we examined the role of GPR55 activation in NSC proliferation and early adult neurogenesis. The effects of GPR55 agonists (LPI, O-1602, ML184) on human NSC proliferation in vitro were assessed by flow cytometry. hNSC differentiation was determined by flow cytometry, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Immature neuron formation in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and GPR55 -/- mice was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Activation of GPR55 significantly increased proliferation rates of hNSCs in vitro. These effects were attenuated by ML193, a selective GPR55 antagonist. ML184 significantly promoted neuronal differentiation in vitro while ML193 reduced differentiation rates as compared to vehicle treatment. Continuous administration into the hippocampus of O-1602 via cannula connected to osmotic pump resulted in increased Ki67+ cells within the dentate gyrus. O-1602 increased immature neuron generation as assessed by DCX+ and BrdU+ cells as compared to vehicle treated animals. GPR55 -/- animals displayed reduced rates of proliferation and neurogenesis within the hippocampus while O-1602 had no effect as compared to vehicle controls. Together, these findings suggest GPR55 activation as a novel target and strategy to regulate NSC proliferation and adult neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. A chemical screen in zebrafish embryonic cells establishes that Akt activation is required for neural crest development

    PubMed Central

    Ciarlo, Christie; Kaufman, Charles K; Kinikoglu, Beste; Michael, Jonathan; Yang, Song; D′Amato, Christopher; Blokzijl-Franke, Sasja; den Hertog, Jeroen; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; Zhou, Yi; Liao, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The neural crest is a dynamic progenitor cell population that arises at the border of neural and non-neural ectoderm. The inductive roles of FGF, Wnt, and BMP at the neural plate border are well established, but the signals required for subsequent neural crest development remain poorly characterized. Here, we conducted a screen in primary zebrafish embryo cultures for chemicals that disrupt neural crest development, as read out by crestin:EGFP expression. We found that the natural product caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) disrupts neural crest gene expression, migration, and melanocytic differentiation by reducing Sox10 activity. CAPE inhibits FGF-stimulated PI3K/Akt signaling, and neural crest defects in CAPE-treated embryos are suppressed by constitutively active Akt1. Inhibition of Akt activity by constitutively active PTEN similarly decreases crestin expression and Sox10 activity. Our study has identified Akt as a novel intracellular pathway required for neural crest differentiation. PMID:28832322

  20. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell-cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species.

  1. Transcriptomic profile analysis of mouse neural tube development by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juan; Mu, Jianbing; Guo, Qian; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Zhizhen; Yu, Baofeng; Zhang, Ting; Xie, Jun

    2017-09-01

    The neural tube is the primordium of the central nervous system (CNS) in which its development is not entirely clear. Understanding the cellular and molecular basis of neural tube development could, therefore, provide vital clues to the mechanism of neural tube defects (NTDs). Here, we investigated the gene expression profiles of three different time points (embryonic day (E) 8.5, 9.5 and 10.5) of mouse neural tube by using RNA-seq approach. About 391 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened during mouse neural tube development, including 45 DEGs involved in CNS development, among which Bmp2, Ascl1, Olig2, Lhx1, Wnt7b and Eomes might play the important roles. Of 45 DEGs, Foxp2, Eomes, Hoxb3, Gpr56, Hap1, Nkx2-1, Sez6l2, Wnt7b, Tbx20, Nfib, Cntn1 and Dcx had different isoforms, and the opposite expression pattern of different isoforms was observed for Gpr56, Nkx2-1 and Sez6l2. In addition, alternative splicing, such as mutually exclusive exon, retained intron, skipped exon and alternative 3' splice site was identified in 10 neural related differentially splicing genes, including Ngrn, Ddr1, Dctn1, Dnmt3b, Ect2, Map2, Mbnl1, Meis2, Vcan and App. Moreover, seven neural splicing factors, such as Nova1/2, nSR100/Srrm4, Elavl3/4, Celf3 and Rbfox1 were differentially expressed during mouse neural tube development. Interestingly, nine DEGs identified above were dysregulated in retinoic acid-induced NTDs model, indicating the possible important role of these genes in NTDs. Taken together, our study provides more comprehensive information on mouse neural tube development, which might provide new insights on NTDs occurrence. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(9):706-719, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Luca; Fairchild, Graeme; Goodyer, Ian M; Hurford, Georgina; Hagan, Cindy C; Rowe, James B; Calder, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by severe antisocial behavior that emerges in childhood (early-onset CD [EO-CD]) or adolescence (adolescence-onset CD [AO-CD]). Early-onset CD is proposed to have a neurodevelopmental basis, whereas AO-CD is thought to emerge owing to social mimicry of deviant peers. However, this developmental taxonomic theory is debated after reports of neuropsychological impairments in both CD subtypes. A critical, although unaddressed, issue is whether these subtypes present similar or distinct neurophysiological profiles. Hence, we investigated neurophysiological responses to emotional and neutral faces in regions associated with antisocial behavior (ie, the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex) in individuals with EO-CD and AO-CD and in healthy control subjects. To investigate whether EO-CD and AO-CD subjects show neurophysiological abnormalities. Case-control study. Government research institute, university department. Seventy-five male adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 21 years, including 27 with EO-CD, 25 with AO-CD, and 23 healthy controls. Main Outcome Measure Neural activations measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants viewed angry, sad, and neutral faces. Comparing angry vs neutral faces, participants with both CD subtypes displayed reduced responses in regions associated with antisocial behavior compared with controls; differences between the CD subtypes were not significant. Comparing each expression with fixation baseline revealed an abnormal (increased) amygdala response to neutral but not angry faces in both groups of CD relative to controls. For sad vs neutral faces, reduced amygdala activation was observed in EO-CD relative to AO-CD and control participants. Comparing each expression with fixation revealed hypoactive amygdala responses to sadness in individuals with EO-CD relative to AO-CD participants and controls. These findings were not accounted for

  3. Newly developed double neural network concept for reliable fast plasma position control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Young-Mu; Na, Yong-Su; Kim, Myung-Rak; Hwang, Y. S.

    2001-01-01

    Neural network is considered as a parameter estimation tool in plasma controls for next generation tokamak such as ITER. The neural network has been reported to be so accurate and fast for plasma equilibrium identification that it may be applied to the control of complex tokamak plasmas. For this application, the reliability of the conventional neural network needs to be improved. In this study, a new idea of double neural network is developed to achieve this. The new idea has been applied to simple plasma position identification of KSTAR tokamak for feasibility test. Characteristics of the concept show higher reliability and fault tolerance even in severe faulty conditions, which may make neural network applicable to plasma control reliably and widely in future tokamaks.

  4. Effects of topography on the functional development of human neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-Zhi; Kisaalita, William S; Wang, Lina; Zachman, Angela L; Zhao, Yiping; Hasneen, Kowser; Machacek, Dave; Stice, Steven L

    2010-07-01

    We have fabricated a topographical substrate with a packed polystyrene bead array for the development of cell-based assay systems targeting voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Human neural progenitor cells (H945RB.3) cultured on both flat and topographical substrates were analyzed in terms of morphological spreading, neuronal commitment, resting membrane potential (V(m)) establishment and VGCC function development. We found, by SEM imaging, that arrayed substrates, formed with both sub-micrometer (of 0.51 microm in mean diameter) and micrometer (of 1.98 microm in mean diameter) beads, were capable of promoting the spreading of the progenitor cells as compared with the flat polystyrene surfaces. With the micrometer beads, it was found that arrayed substrates facilitated the neural progenitor cells' maintenance of less negative V(m) values upon differentiation with bFGF starvation, which favored predominant neuronal commitment. Almost all the progenitor cells were responsive to 50 mM K(+) depolarization with an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) either before or upon differentiation, suggesting the expression of functional VGCCs. Compared to the flat polystyrene surfaces, microbead arrayed substrates facilitated the development of higher VGCC responsiveness by the progenitor cells upon differentiation. The enhancement of both VGCC responsiveness and cell spreading by arrays of micrometer beads was most significant on day 14 into differentiation, which was the latest time point of measurement in this study. This study thus rationalized the possibility for future substrate topography engineering to manipulate ion channel function and to meet the challenge of low VGCC responsiveness found in early drug discovery.

  5. Human Neural Cells Transiently Express Reelin during Olfactory Placode Development

    PubMed Central

    Antal, M. Cristina; Samama, Brigitte; Ghandour, M. Said; Boehm, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Reelin, an extracellular glycoprotein is essential for migration and correct positioning of neurons during development. Since the olfactory system is known as a source of various migrating neuronal cells, we studied Reelin expression in the two chemosensory olfactory systems, main and accessory, during early developmental stages of human foetuses/embryos from Carnegie Stage (CS) 15 to gestational week (GW) 14. From CS 15 to CS 18, but not at later stages, a transient expression of Reelin was detected first in the presumptive olfactory and then in the presumptive vomeronasal epithelium. During the same period, Reelin-positive cells detach from the olfactory/vomeronasal epithelium and migrate through the mesenchyme beneath the telencephalon. Dab 1, an adaptor protein of the Reelin pathway, was simultaneously expressed in the migratory mass from CS16 to CS17 and, at later stages, in the presumptive olfactory ensheathing cells. Possible involvements of Reelin and Dab 1 in the peripheral migrating stream are discussed. PMID:26270645

  6. A New Animal Model for Developing a Somatosensory Neural Interface for Prosthetic Limbs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-12

    interface for neuroprosthetic limbs . PI: Douglas J. Weber, Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh 1 10/15/2007 Scientific progress and accomplishments. We...information to the brain. A new animal model for developing a somatosensory neural interface for neuroprosthetic limbs . PI: Douglas J. Weber, Ph.D...A new animal model for developing a somatosensory neural interface for neuroprosthetic limbs . PI: Douglas J. Weber, Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh

  7. Development of the disable software reporting system on the basis of the neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrylenko, S.; Babenko, O.; Ignatova, E.

    2018-04-01

    The PE structure of malicious and secure software is analyzed, features are highlighted, binary sign vectors are obtained and used as inputs for training the neural network. A software model for detecting malware based on the ART-1 neural network was developed, optimal similarity coefficients were found, and testing was performed. The obtained research results showed the possibility of using the developed system of identifying malicious software in computer systems protection systems

  8. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    PubMed

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  9. Postotic and preotic cranial neural crest cells differently contribute to thyroid development.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiro; Asai, Rieko; Maruyama, Kazuaki; Kurihara, Yukiko; Nakanishi, Toshio; Kurihara, Hiroki; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid development and formation vary among species, but in most species the thyroid morphogenesis consists of five stages: specification, budding, descent, bilobation and folliculogenesis. The detailed mechanisms of these stages have not been fully clarified. During early development, the cranial neural crest (CNC) contributes to the thyroid gland. The removal of the postotic CNC (corresponding to rhombomeres 6, 7 and 8, also known as the cardiac neural crest) results in abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, thymus, parathyroid glands, and thyroid gland. To investigate the influence of the CNC on thyroid bilobation process, we divided the CNC into two regions, the postotic CNC and the preotic CNC (from the mesencephalon to rhombomere 5) regions and examined. We found that preotic CNC-ablated embryos had a unilateral thyroid lobe, and confirmed the presence of a single lobe or the absence of lobes in postotic CNC-ablated chick embryos. The thyroid anlage in each region-ablated embryos was of a normal size at the descent stage, but at a later stage, the thyroid in preotic CNC-ablated embryos was of a normal size, conflicting with a previous report in which the thyroid was reduced in size in the postotic CNC-ablated embryos. The postotic CNC cells differentiated into connective tissues of the thyroid in quail-to-chick chimeras. In contrast, the preotic CNC cells did not differentiate into connective tissues of the thyroid. We found that preotic CNC cells encompassed the thyroid anlage from the specification stage to the descent stage. Finally, we found that endothelin-1 and endothelin type A receptor-knockout mice and bosentan (endothelin receptor antagonist)-treated chick embryos showed bilobation anomalies that included single-lobe formation. Therefore, not only the postotic CNC, but also the preotic CNC plays an important role in thyroid morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Neural Sensitivity to Face Identity Correlates with Perceptual Discriminability

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Michael A.; Hartley, Jake; Gomez, Jesse; Stigliani, Anthony; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2016-01-01

    Face perception is subserved by a series of face-selective regions in the human ventral stream, which undergo prolonged development from childhood to adulthood. However, it is unknown how neural development of these regions relates to the development of face-perception abilities. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain responses of ventral occipitotemporal regions in children (ages, 5–12 years) and adults (ages, 19–34 years) when they viewed faces that parametrically varied in dissimilarity. Since similar faces generate lower responses than dissimilar faces due to fMRI adaptation, this design objectively evaluates neural sensitivity to face identity across development. Additionally, a subset of subjects participated in a behavioral experiment to assess perceptual discriminability of face identity. Our data reveal three main findings: (1) neural sensitivity to face identity increases with age in face-selective but not object-selective regions; (2) the amplitude of responses to faces increases with age in both face-selective and object-selective regions; and (3) perceptual discriminability of face identity is correlated with the neural sensitivity to face identity of face-selective regions. In contrast, perceptual discriminability is not correlated with the amplitude of response in face-selective regions or of responses of object-selective regions. These data suggest that developmental increases in neural sensitivity to face identity in face-selective regions improve perceptual discriminability of faces. Our findings significantly advance the understanding of the neural mechanisms of development of face perception and open new avenues for using fMRI adaptation to study the neural development of high-level visual and cognitive functions more broadly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Face perception, which is critical for daily social interactions, develops from childhood to adulthood. However, it is unknown what developmental changes in

  11. Development of Neural Sensitivity to Face Identity Correlates with Perceptual Discriminability.

    PubMed

    Natu, Vaidehi S; Barnett, Michael A; Hartley, Jake; Gomez, Jesse; Stigliani, Anthony; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2016-10-19

    Face perception is subserved by a series of face-selective regions in the human ventral stream, which undergo prolonged development from childhood to adulthood. However, it is unknown how neural development of these regions relates to the development of face-perception abilities. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain responses of ventral occipitotemporal regions in children (ages, 5-12 years) and adults (ages, 19-34 years) when they viewed faces that parametrically varied in dissimilarity. Since similar faces generate lower responses than dissimilar faces due to fMRI adaptation, this design objectively evaluates neural sensitivity to face identity across development. Additionally, a subset of subjects participated in a behavioral experiment to assess perceptual discriminability of face identity. Our data reveal three main findings: (1) neural sensitivity to face identity increases with age in face-selective but not object-selective regions; (2) the amplitude of responses to faces increases with age in both face-selective and object-selective regions; and (3) perceptual discriminability of face identity is correlated with the neural sensitivity to face identity of face-selective regions. In contrast, perceptual discriminability is not correlated with the amplitude of response in face-selective regions or of responses of object-selective regions. These data suggest that developmental increases in neural sensitivity to face identity in face-selective regions improve perceptual discriminability of faces. Our findings significantly advance the understanding of the neural mechanisms of development of face perception and open new avenues for using fMRI adaptation to study the neural development of high-level visual and cognitive functions more broadly. Face perception, which is critical for daily social interactions, develops from childhood to adulthood. However, it is unknown what developmental changes in the brain lead to improved

  12. Clapping in time parallels literacy and calls upon overlapping neural mechanisms in early readers.

    PubMed

    Bonacina, Silvia; Krizman, Jennifer; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2018-05-12

    The auditory system is extremely precise in processing the temporal information of perceptual events and using these cues to coordinate action. Synchronizing movement to a steady beat relies on this bidirectional connection between sensory and motor systems, and activates many of the auditory and cognitive processes used when reading. Here, we use Interactive Metronome, a clinical intervention technology requiring an individual to clap her hands in time with a steady beat, to investigate whether the links between literacy and synchronization skills, previously established in older children, are also evident in children who are learning to read. We tested 64 typically developing children (ages 5-7 years) on their synchronization abilities, neurophysiological responses to speech in noise, and literacy skills. We found that children who have lower variability in synchronizing have higher phase consistency, higher stability, and more accurate envelope encoding-all neurophysiological response components linked to language skills. Moreover, performing the same task with visual feedback reveals links with literacy skills, notably processing speed, phonological processing, word reading, spelling, morphology, and syntax. These results suggest that rhythm skills and literacy call on overlapping neural mechanisms, supporting the idea that rhythm training may boost literacy in part by engaging sensory-motor systems. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Utilising reinforcement learning to develop strategies for driving auditory neural implants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geoffrey W; Zambetta, Fabio; Li, Xiaodong; Paolini, Antonio G

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we propose a novel application of reinforcement learning to the area of auditory neural stimulation. We aim to develop a simulation environment which is based off real neurological responses to auditory and electrical stimulation in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and inferior colliculus (IC) of an animal model. Using this simulator we implement closed loop reinforcement learning algorithms to determine which methods are most effective at learning effective acoustic neural stimulation strategies. By recording a comprehensive set of acoustic frequency presentations and neural responses from a set of animals we created a large database of neural responses to acoustic stimulation. Extensive electrical stimulation in the CN and the recording of neural responses in the IC provides a mapping of how the auditory system responds to electrical stimuli. The combined dataset is used as the foundation for the simulator, which is used to implement and test learning algorithms. Reinforcement learning, utilising a modified n-Armed Bandit solution, is implemented to demonstrate the model's function. We show the ability to effectively learn stimulation patterns which mimic the cochlea's ability to covert acoustic frequencies to neural activity. Time taken to learn effective replication using neural stimulation takes less than 20 min under continuous testing. These results show the utility of reinforcement learning in the field of neural stimulation. These results can be coupled with existing sound processing technologies to develop new auditory prosthetics that are adaptable to the recipients current auditory pathway. The same process can theoretically be abstracted to other sensory and motor systems to develop similar electrical replication of neural signals.

  14. Calcium at fertilization and in early development

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization calcium waves are introduced and the evidence from which we can infer general mechanisms of these waves is presented. The two main classes of hypothesis put forward to explain the generation of the fertilization calcium wave are set out and it is concluded that initiation of the fertilization calcium wave can be most generally explained in inverterbrates by a mechanism in which an activating substance enters the egg from the sperm on sperm-egg fusion, activating the egg by stimulating phospholipase C activation through a src family kinase pathway and in mammals by the diffusion of a sperm-specific phospholipase C from sperm to egg on sperm-egg fusion. The fertilization calcium wave is then set into the context of cell cycle control and the mechanism of repetitive calcium spiking in mammalian eggs is investigated. Evidence that calcium signals control cell division in early embryos is reviewed, and it is concluded that calcium signals are essential at all three stages of cell division in early embryos. Evidence that phosphoinositide signalling pathways control the resumption of meiosis during oocyte maturation is considered. It is concluded on balance that the evidence points to a need for phosphoinositide/calcium signalling during resumption of meiosis. Changes to the calcium signalling machinery occur during meiosis to enable the production of a calcium wave in the mature oocyte when it is fertilized; evidence that the shape and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum alters dynamically during maturation and after fertilization is reviewed and the link between ER dynamics and the cytoskeleton is discussed. There is evidence that calcium signalling plays a key part in the development of patterning in early embryos. Morphogenesis in ascidian, frog and zebrafish embryos is briefly described to provide the developmental context in which calcium signals act. Intracellular calcium waves that may play a role in axis formation in ascidian are discussed

  15. Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Omer; Zaritsky, Assaf; Yaffe, Yakey; Mutukula, Naresh; Edri, Reuven; Elkabetz, Yechiel

    2015-10-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are progenitor cells for brain development, where cellular spatial composition (cytoarchitecture) and dynamics are hypothesized to be linked to critical NSC capabilities. However, understanding cytoarchitectural dynamics of this process has been limited by the difficulty to quantitatively image brain development in vivo. Here, we study NSC dynamics within Neural Rosettes--highly organized multicellular structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Neural rosettes contain NSCs with strong epithelial polarity and are expected to perform apical-basal interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)--a hallmark of cortical radial glial cell development. We developed a quantitative live imaging framework to characterize INM dynamics within rosettes. We first show that the tendency of cells to follow the INM orientation--a phenomenon we referred to as radial organization, is associated with rosette size, presumably via mechanical constraints of the confining structure. Second, early forming rosettes, which are abundant with founder NSCs and correspond to the early proliferative developing cortex, show fast motions and enhanced radial organization. In contrast, later derived rosettes, which are characterized by reduced NSC capacity and elevated numbers of differentiated neurons, and thus correspond to neurogenesis mode in the developing cortex, exhibit slower motions and decreased radial organization. Third, later derived rosettes are characterized by temporal instability in INM measures, in agreement with progressive loss in rosette integrity at later developmental stages. Finally, molecular perturbations of INM by inhibition of actin or non-muscle myosin-II (NMII) reduced INM measures. Our framework enables quantification of cytoarchitecture NSC dynamics and may have implications in functional molecular studies, drug screening, and iPS cell-based platforms for disease modeling.

  16. Accelerating bioelectric functional development of neural stem cells by graphene coupling: Implications for neural interfacing with conductive materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rongrong; Zhang, Shasha; Xiao, Miao; Qian, Fuping; He, Zuhong; Li, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Huawei; Yang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ming; Chai, Renjie; Tang, Mingliang

    2016-11-01

    In order to govern cell-specific behaviors in tissue engineering for neural repair and regeneration, a better understanding of material-cell interactions, especially the bioelectric functions, is extremely important. Graphene has been reported to be a potential candidate for use as a scaffold and neural interfacing material. However, the bioelectric evolvement of cell membranes on these conductive graphene substrates remains largely uninvestigated. In this study, we used a neural stem cell (NSC) model to explore the possible changes in membrane bioelectric properties - including resting membrane potentials and action potentials - and cell behaviors on graphene films under both proliferation and differentiation conditions. We used a combination of single-cell electrophysiological recordings and traditional cell biology techniques. Graphene did not affect the basic membrane electrical parameters (capacitance and input resistance), but resting membrane potentials of cells on graphene substrates were more strongly negative under both proliferation and differentiation conditions. Also, NSCs and their progeny on graphene substrates exhibited increased firing of action potentials during development compared to controls. However, graphene only slightly affected the electric characterizations of mature NSC progeny. The modulation of passive and active bioelectric properties on the graphene substrate was accompanied by enhanced NSC differentiation. Furthermore, spine density, synapse proteins expressions and synaptic activity were all increased in graphene group. Modeling of the electric field on conductive graphene substrates suggests that the electric field produced by the electronegative cell membrane is much higher on graphene substrates than that on control, and this might explain the observed changes of bioelectric development by graphene coupling. Our results indicate that graphene is able to accelerate NSC maturation during development, especially with regard to

  17. Establishment of turbidity forecasting model and early-warning system for source water turbidity management using back-propagation artificial neural network algorithm and probability analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Fan, Shu-Kai; Fan, Chihhao; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a turbidity forecasting model as well as an early-warning system for turbidity management using rainfall records as the input variables. The Taipei Water Source Domain was employed as the study area, and ANOVA analysis showed that the accumulative rainfall records of 1-day Ping-lin, 2-day Ping-lin, 2-day Fei-tsui, 2-day Shi-san-gu, 2-day Tai-pin and 2-day Tong-hou were the six most significant parameters for downstream turbidity development. The artificial neural network model was developed and proven capable of predicting the turbidity concentration in the investigated catchment downstream area. The observed and model-calculated turbidity data were applied to developing the turbidity early-warning system. Using a previously determined turbidity as the threshold, the rainfall criterion, above which the downstream turbidity would possibly exceed this respective threshold turbidity, for the investigated rain gauge stations was determined. An exemplary illustration demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed turbidity early-warning system as a precautionary alarm of possible significant increase of downstream turbidity. This study is the first report of the establishment of the turbidity early-warning system. Hopefully, this system can be applied to source water turbidity forecasting during storm events and provide a useful reference for subsequent adjustment of drinking water treatment operation.

  18. Early life conditions that impact song learning in male zebra finches also impact neural and behavioral responses to song in females.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Kendra B; Anderson, Rindy C; Soha, Jill A; Peters, Susan; Nowicki, Stephen

    2018-04-20

    Early life stressors can impair song in songbirds by negatively impacting brain development and subsequent learning. Even in species in which only males sing, early life stressors might also impact female behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms, but fewer studies have examined this possibility. We manipulated brood size in zebra finches to simultaneously examine the effects of developmental stress on male song learning and female behavioral and neural response to song. Although adult male HVC volume was unaffected, we found that males from larger broods imitated tutor song less accurately. In females, early condition did not affect the direction of song preference: all females preferred tutor song over unfamiliar song in an operant test. However, treatment did affect the magnitude of behavioral response to song: females from larger broods responded less during song preference trials. This difference in activity level did not reflect boldness per se, as a separate measure of this trait did not differ with brood size. Additionally, in females we found a treatment effect on expression of the immediate early gene ZENK in response to tutor song in brain regions involved in song perception (dNCM) and social motivation (LSc.vl, BSTm, TnA), but not in a region implicated in song memory (CMM). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that developmental stressors that impair song learning in male zebra finches also influence perceptual and/or motivational processes in females. However, our results suggest that the learning of tutor song by females is robust to disturbance by developmental stress. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The extended trajectory of hippocampal development: implications for early memory development and disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Rebecca L.; Edgin, Jamie O.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampus has an extended developmental trajectory, with refinements occurring in the trisynaptic circuit until adolescence. While structural change should suggest a protracted course in behavior, some studies find evidence of precocious hippocampal development in the first postnatal year and continuity in memory processes beyond. However, a number of memory functions, including binding and relational inference, can be cortically supported. Evidence from the animal literature suggests that tasks often associated with hippocampus (Visual Paired Comparison, binding of a visuomotor response) can be mediated by structures external to hippocampus. Thus, a complete examination of memory development will have to rule out cortex as a source of early memory competency. We propose that early memory must show properties associated with full function of the trisynaptic circuit to reflect “adult-like” memory function, mainly 1) rapid encoding of contextual details of overlapping patterns, and 2) retention of these details over sleep-dependent delays. A wealth of evidence suggests that these functions are not apparent until 18–24 months, with behavioral discontinuities reflecting shifts in the neural structures subserving memory beginning approximately at this point in development. We discuss the implications of these observations for theories of memory and for identifying and measuring memory function in populations with typical and atypical hippocampal function. PMID:26437910

  20. The extended trajectory of hippocampal development: Implications for early memory development and disorder.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rebecca L; Edgin, Jamie O

    2016-04-01

    Hippocampus has an extended developmental trajectory, with refinements occurring in the trisynaptic circuit until adolescence. While structural change should suggest a protracted course in behavior, some studies find evidence of precocious hippocampal development in the first postnatal year and continuity in memory processes beyond. However, a number of memory functions, including binding and relational inference, can be cortically supported. Evidence from the animal literature suggests that tasks often associated with hippocampus (visual paired comparison, binding of a visuomotor response) can be mediated by structures external to hippocampus. Thus, a complete examination of memory development will have to rule out cortex as a source of early memory competency. We propose that early memory must show properties associated with full function of the trisynaptic circuit to reflect "adult-like" memory function, mainly (1) rapid encoding of contextual details of overlapping patterns, and (2) retention of these details over sleep-dependent delays. A wealth of evidence suggests that these functions are not apparent until 18-24 months, with behavioral discontinuities reflecting shifts in the neural structures subserving memory beginning approximately at this point in development. We discuss the implications of these observations for theories of memory and for identifying and measuring memory function in populations with typical and atypical hippocampal function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  2. Immunohistochemical Markers of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Early Embryonic Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, L.; Ravarino, A.; Fanos, V.; Naccarato, A.G.; Senes, G.; Gerosa, C.; Bevilacqua, G.; Faa, G.; Ambu, R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the human central nervous system represents a delicate moment of embryogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of multiple immunohistochemical markers in the stem/progenitor cells in the human cerebral cortex during the early phases of development. To this end, samples from cerebral cortex were obtained from 4 human embryos of 11 weeks of gestation. Each sample was formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded and immunostained with several markers including GFAP, WT1, Nestin, Vimentin, CD117, S100B, Sox2, PAX2, PAX5, Tβ4, Neurofilament, CD44, CD133, Synaptophysin and Cyclin D1. Our study shows the ability of the different immunohistochemical markers to evidence different zones of the developing human cerebral cortex, allowing the identification of the multiple stages of differentiation of neuronal and glial precursors. Three important markers of radial glial cells are evidenced in this early gestational age: Vimentin, Nestin and WT1. Sox2 was expressed by the stem/progenitor cells of the ventricular zone, whereas the postmitotic neurons of the cortical plate were immunostained by PAX2 and NSE. Future studies are needed to test other important stem/progenitor cells markers and to better analyze differences in the immunohistochemical expression of these markers during gestation. PMID:26972711

  3. A Homolog of Subtilisin-Like Proprotein Convertase 7 Is Essential to Anterior Neural Development in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Senturker, Sema; Thomas, John Terrig; Mateshaytis, Jennifer; Moos, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Background Subtilisin-like Proprotein Convertase 7 (SPC7) is a member of the subtilisin/kexin family of pro-protein convertases. It cleaves many pro-proteins to release their active proteins, including members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of signaling molecules. Other SPCs are known to be required during embryonic development but corresponding data regarding SPC7 have not been reported previously. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated that Xenopus SPC7 (SPC7) was expressed predominantly in the developing brain and eye, throughout the neural plate initially, then more specifically in the lens and retina primordia as development progressed. Since no prior functional information has been reported for SPC7, we used gain- and loss-of-function experiments to investigate the possibility that it may also convey patterning or tissue specification information similarly to Furin, SPC4, and SPC6. Overexpression of SPC7 was without effect. In contrast, injection of SPC7 antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) into a single blastomere at the 2- or 4-cell stage produced marked disruption of head structures; anophthalmia was salient. Bilateral injections suppressed head and eye formation completely. In parallel with suppression of eye and brain development by SPC7 knockdown, expression of early anterior neural markers (Sox2, Otx2, Rx2, and Pax6) and late eye-specific markers (β-Crystallin and Opsin), and of BMP target genes such as Tbx2 and Tbx3, was reduced or eliminated. Taken together, these findings suggest a critical role for SPC7–perhaps, at least in part, due to activation of one or more BMPs–in early patterning of the anterior neural plate and its derivatives. Conclusion/Significance SPC7 is required for normal development of the eye and brain, possibly through processing BMPs, though other potential substrates cannot be excluded. PMID:22761776

  4. Germ layers, the neural crest and emergent organization in development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian K

    2018-04-10

    Discovered in chick embryos by Wilhelm His in 1868 and named the neural crest by Arthur Milnes Marshall in 1879, the neural crest cells that arise from the neural folds have since been shown to differentiate into almost two dozen vertebrate cell types and to have played major roles in the evolution of such vertebrate features as bone, jaws, teeth, visceral (pharyngeal) arches, and sense organs. I discuss the discovery that ectodermal neural crest gave rise to mesenchyme and the controversy generated by that finding; the germ layer theory maintained that only mesoderm could give rise to mesenchyme. A second topic of discussion is germ layers (including the neural crest) as emergent levels of organization in animal development and evolution that facilitated major developmental and evolutionary change. The third topic is gene networks, gene co-option, and the evolution of gene-signaling pathways as key to developmental and evolutionary transitions associated with the origin and evolution of the neural crest and neural crest cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Influence and timing of arrival of murine neural crest on pancreatic beta cell development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Plank, Jennifer L; Mundell, Nathan A; Frist, Audrey Y; LeGrone, Alison W; Kim, Thomas; Musser, Melissa A; Walter, Teagan J; Labosky, Patricia A

    2011-01-15

    Interactions between cells from the ectoderm and mesoderm influence development of the endodermally-derived pancreas. While much is known about how mesoderm regulates pancreatic development, relatively little is understood about how and when the ectodermally-derived neural crest regulates pancreatic development and specifically, beta cell maturation. A previous study demonstrated that signals from the neural crest regulate beta cell proliferation and ultimately, beta cell mass. Here, we expand on that work to describe timing of neural crest arrival at the developing pancreatic bud and extend our knowledge of the non-cell autonomous role for neural crest derivatives in the process of beta cell maturation. We demonstrated that murine neural crest entered the pancreatic mesenchyme between the 26 and 27 somite stages (approximately 10.0 dpc) and became intermingled with pancreatic progenitors as the epithelium branched into the surrounding mesenchyme. Using a neural crest-specific deletion of the Forkhead transcription factor Foxd3, we ablated neural crest cells that migrate to the pancreatic primordium. Consistent with previous data, in the absence of Foxd3, and therefore the absence of neural crest cells, proliferation of insulin-expressing cells and insulin-positive area are increased. Analysis of endocrine cell gene expression in the absence of neural crest demonstrated that, although the number of insulin-expressing cells was increased, beta cell maturation was significantly impaired. Decreased MafA and Pdx1 expression illustrated the defect in beta cell maturation; we discovered that without neural crest, there was a reduction in the percentage of insulin-positive cells that co-expressed Glut2 and Pdx1 compared to controls. In addition, transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed decreased numbers of characteristic insulin granules and the presence of abnormal granules in insulin-expressing cells from mutant embryos. Together, these data demonstrate that

  6. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  7. The early research and development of ebselen.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Michael J; Sies, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one; PZ-51, DR-3305), is an organoselenium compound with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like, thiol-dependent, hydroperoxide reducing activity. As an enzyme mimic for activity of the selenoenzyme GPx, this compound has proved to be highly useful in research on mechanisms in redox biology. Furthermore, the reactivity of ebselen with protein thiols has helped to identify novel, selective targets for inhibitory actions on several enzymes of importance in pharmacology and toxicology. Importantly, the selenium in ebselen is not released and thus is not bioavailable, ebselen metabolites being excreted in bile and urine. As a consequence, initial concerns about selenium toxicity, fortunately, were unfounded. Potential applications in medical settings have been explored, notably in brain ischemia and stroke. More recently, there has been a surge in interest as new medical applications have been taken into consideration. The first publication on the biochemical effects of ebselen appeared 30 years ago (Müller et al.), which prompted the authors to retrace the early development from their perspective. It is a fascinating example of fruitful interaction between research-oriented industry and academia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between pubertal stage at first drink and neural reward processing in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Baumeister, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin H; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    Puberty is a critical time period during human development. It is characterized by high levels of risk-taking behavior, such as increased alcohol consumption, and is accompanied by various neurobiological changes. Recent studies in animals and humans have revealed that the pubertal stage at first drink (PSFD) significantly impacts drinking behavior in adulthood. Moreover, neuronal alterations of the dopaminergic reward system have been associated with alcohol abuse or addiction. This study aimed to clarify the impact of PSFD on neuronal characteristics of reward processing linked to alcohol-related problems. One hundred sixty-eight healthy young adults from a prospective study covering 25 years participated in a monetary incentive delay task measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. PSFD was determined according to the age at menarche or Tanner stage of pubertal development, respectively. Alcohol-related problems in early adulthood were assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). During reward anticipation, decreased fMRI activation of the frontal cortex and increased preparatory EEG activity (contingent negative variation) occurred with pubertal compared to postpubertal first alcohol intake. Moreover, alcohol-related problems during early adulthood were increased in pubertal compared to postpubertal beginners, which was mediated by neuronal activation of the right medial frontal gyrus. At reward delivery, increased fMRI activation of the left caudate and higher feedback-related EEG negativity were detected in pubertal compared to postpubertal beginners. Together with animal findings, these results implicate PSFD as a potential modulator of psychopathology, involving altered reward anticipation. Both PSFD timing and reward processing might thus be potential targets for early prevention and intervention. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Developing a Neural Network to Act as a Noise Filter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-02

    s... ... j.. .3885*I888+.. I. . . fff~8*I*8s+ ... i £888&aiz$$88 1. *.󈧧 z*I* sseI . .** m $as+.’ . . .𔄂seEgzsssas* ... .. +8891MI1$883< I. .. (*8...6: Architectures that provided the best results Using a Training Set of 5 Samples (no bias) Size of] m 1 ax 1 lumber Learning1 PatternI Overlap...Riddle IAbs I RfAS I of I Time Layer Layer Layer Error Error _ycles __(Seel_ m 5 x 4 (0,21 5 x 9 0.100 0.039 132 1043.0 lone of the neural netvork

  10. Early driver fatigue detection from electroencephalography signals using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    King, L M; Nguyen, H T; Lal, S K L

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a driver fatigue detection system using an artificial neural network (ANN). Using electroencephalogram (EEG) data sampled from 20 professional truck drivers and 35 non professional drivers, the time domain data are processed into alpha, beta, delta and theta bands and then presented to the neural network to detect the onset of driver fatigue. The neural network uses a training optimization technique called the magnified gradient function (MGF). This technique reduces the time required for training by modifying the standard back propagation (SBP) algorithm. The MGF is shown to classify professional driver fatigue with 81.49% accuracy (80.53% sensitivity, 82.44% specificity) and non-professional driver fatigue with 83.06% accuracy (84.04% sensitivity and 82.08% specificity).

  11. Chromatin Remodeling BAF (SWI/SNF) Complexes in Neural Development and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sokpor, Godwin; Xie, Yuanbin; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Tuoc, Tran

    2017-01-01

    The ATP-dependent BRG1/BRM associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complexes are crucial in regulating gene expression by controlling chromatin dynamics. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that during neural development in mammals, distinct ontogenetic stage-specific BAF complexes derived from combinatorial assembly of their subunits are formed in neural progenitors and post-mitotic neural cells. Proper functioning of the BAF complexes plays critical roles in neural development, including the establishment and maintenance of neural fates and functionality. Indeed, recent human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have revealed that mutations in BAF complex subunits are linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, Kleefstra's syndrome spectrum, Hirschsprung's disease, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia. In this review, we focus on the latest insights into the functions of BAF complexes during neural development and the plausible mechanistic basis of how mutations in known BAF subunits are associated with certain neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28824374

  12. Chromatin Remodeling BAF (SWI/SNF) Complexes in Neural Development and Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sokpor, Godwin; Xie, Yuanbin; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Tuoc, Tran

    2017-01-01

    The ATP-dependent BRG1/BRM associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complexes are crucial in regulating gene expression by controlling chromatin dynamics. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that during neural development in mammals, distinct ontogenetic stage-specific BAF complexes derived from combinatorial assembly of their subunits are formed in neural progenitors and post-mitotic neural cells. Proper functioning of the BAF complexes plays critical roles in neural development, including the establishment and maintenance of neural fates and functionality. Indeed, recent human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have revealed that mutations in BAF complex subunits are linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, Kleefstra's syndrome spectrum, Hirschsprung's disease, autism spectrum disorder, and schizophrenia. In this review, we focus on the latest insights into the functions of BAF complexes during neural development and the plausible mechanistic basis of how mutations in known BAF subunits are associated with certain neurodevelopmental disorders.

  13. Effects of the popular food additive sodium benzoate on neural tube development in the chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Emon, Selin Tural; Orakdogen, Metin; Uslu, Serap; Somay, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Many more additives have been introduced with the development of processed foods. Neural tube defects are congenital malformations of the central nervous system. More than 300 000 children are born with neural tube defects every year and surviving children remain disabled for life. Sodium benzoate is used intensively in our daily lives. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effects of sodium benzoate on neural tube defects in chicken embryos. Fertile, specific pathogen-free eggs were used. The study was conducted on five groups. After 30 hours of incubation, the eggs were opened under 4x optical magnification. The embryonic disc was identified and sodium benzoate solution was injected. Eggs were closed with sterile adhesive strips and incubation was continued till the end of the 72nd hour. All eggs were then reopened and embryos were dissected from embryonic membranes and evaluated histopathologically. We found that the development of all embryos was consistent with the stage. We detected neural tube obstruction in one embryo. Neural tube defects were not detected in any embryos. This study showed that sodium benzoate as one of the widely used food preservatives has no effect to neural tube defect development in chicken embryos even at high doses.

  14. Analysis of NUAK1 and NUAK2 expression during early chick development reveals specific patterns in the developing head.

    PubMed

    Bekri, Abdelhamid; Billaud, Marc; Thélu, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Several human diseases are associated with the NUAK1 and NUAK2 genes. These genes encode kinases, members of the AMPK-related kinases (ARK) gene family. Both NUAK1 and NUAK2 are known targets of the serine threonine kinase LKB1, a tumor suppressor involved in regulating cell polarity. While much is known about their functions in disease, their expression pattern in normal development has not been extensively studied. Here, we present the expression patterns for NUAK1 and NUAK2 in the chick during early-stage embryogenesis, until day 3 (Hamburger and Hamilton stage HH20). Several embryonic structures, in particular the nascent head, showed distinct expression levels. NUAK1 expression was first detected at stage HH6 in the rostral neural folds. It was then expressed (HH7-11) throughout the encephalalon, predominantly in the telencephalon and mesencephalon. NUAK1 expression was also detected in the splanchnic endoderm area at HH8-10, and in the vitellin vein derived from this area, but not in the heart. NUAK2 expression was first detected at stage HH6 in the neural folds. It was then found throughout the encephalon at stage HH20. Particular attention was paid in this study to the dorsal ectoderm at stages HH7 and HH8, where a local deficit or accumulation of NUAK2 mRNA were found to correlate with the direction of curvature of the neural plate. This is the first description of NUAK1 and NUAK2 expression patterns in the chick during early development; it reveals non-identical expression profiles for both genes in neural development.

  15. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. METHODS: Upstate KIDS (2008–2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). RESULTS: Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12–2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11–2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13–2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08–2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09–7.85). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. PMID:28044047

  17. The neural correlates of attachment security in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jung; Taylor, Margot J; Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Changdai; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated neural correlates of children's attachment security using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-one boys' attachment styles (age mean = 9.5 years, SD = 0.61) were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT). We created an fMRI version of the SAT to activate children's attachment system in fMRI environment and contrasted two conditions in which children were instructed to infer the specific feeling of the boy in the picture or to identify objects or physical activities. In the final fMRI analysis (N = 21), attachment security could be detected at the neural level corresponding to the behavioural differences in the attachment interview. Securely attached children showed greater activation in the frontal, limbic and basal ganglia area which included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, cingulate cortex and striatum, compared to other children who had lower quality of attachment. These regions have a key role in socio-emotional information processing and also represent a brain network related to approach and avoidance motivation in humans. Especially the striatum, strongly linked to reward processing underpinning social approach and avoidance motivation, showed the largest effects in these differences and also positively correlated with emotional openness scores in SAT. This suggests that the quality of attachment configures the approach and avoidance motivational system in our brain mediated by the striatum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  19. Neural correlates of cognitive intervention in persons at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Kramer, Joel H.; Kesler, Shelli R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training is an emergent approach that has begun to receive increased attention in recent years as a non-pharmacological, cost-effective intervention for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There has been increasing behavioral evidence regarding training-related improvement in cognitive performance in early stages of AD. Although these studies provide important insight about the efficacy of cognitive training, neuroimaging studies are crucial to pinpoint changes in brain structure and function associated with training and to examine their overlap with pathology in AD. In this study, we reviewed the existing neuroimaging studies on cognitive training in persons at risk of developing AD to provide an overview of the overlap between neural networks rehabilitated by the current training methods and those affected in AD. The data suggest a consistent training-related increase in brain activity in medial temporal, prefrontal, and posterior default mode networks, as well as increase in gray matter structure in frontoparietal and entorhinal regions. This pattern differs from the observed pattern in healthy older adults that shows a combination of increased and decreased activity in response to training. Detailed investigation of the data suggests that training in persons at risk of developing AD mainly improves compensatory mechanisms and partly restores the affected functions. While current neuroimaging studies are quite helpful in identifying the mechanisms underlying cognitive training, the data calls for future multi-modal neuroimaging studies with focus on multi-domain cognitive training, network level connectivity, and individual differences in response to training. PMID:25206335

  20. Neural Dynamics of Multiple Object Processing in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: Future Early Diagnostic Biomarkers?

    PubMed

    Bagattini, Chiara; Mazza, Veronica; Panizza, Laura; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bonomini, Cristina; Brignani, Debora

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and electrophysiological dynamics of multiple object processing (MOP) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to test whether its neural signatures may represent reliable diagnostic biomarkers. Behavioral performance and event-related potentials [N2pc and contralateral delay activity (CDA)] were measured in AD, MCI, and healthy controls during a MOP task, which consisted in enumerating a variable number of targets presented among distractors. AD patients showed an overall decline in accuracy for both small and large target quantities, whereas in MCI patients, only enumeration of large quantities was impaired. N2pc, a neural marker of attentive individuation, was spared in both AD and MCI patients. In contrast, CDA, which indexes visual short term memory abilities, was altered in both groups of patients, with a non-linear pattern of amplitude modulation along the continuum of the disease: a reduction in AD and an increase in MCI. These results indicate that AD pathology shows a progressive decline in MOP, which is associated to the decay of visual short-term memory mechanisms. Crucially, CDA may be considered as a useful neural signature both to distinguish between healthy and pathological aging and to characterize the different stages along the AD continuum, possibly becoming a reliable candidate for an early diagnostic biomarker of AD pathology.

  1. Musical Training during Early Childhood Enhances the Neural Encoding of Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child's access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians' perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and…

  2. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering…

  3. Associations among Pubertal Development, Empathic Ability, and Neural Responses While Witnessing Peer Rejection in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Colich, Natalie L.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Links among concurrent and longitudinal changes in pubertal development and empathic ability from ages 10 to 13 and neural responses while witnessing peer rejection at age 13 were examined in 16 participants. More advanced pubertal development at age 13, and greater longitudinal increases in pubertal development, related to increased activity in…

  4. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Jack, Bradley N; Roeber, Urte; O'Shea, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect.

  5. Meninges harbor cells expressing neural precursor markers during development and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bifari, Francesco; Berton, Valeria; Pino, Annachiara; Kusalo, Marijana; Malpeli, Giorgio; Di Chio, Marzia; Bersan, Emanuela; Amato, Eliana; Scarpa, Aldo; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido; Decimo, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Brain and skull developments are tightly synchronized, allowing the cranial bones to dynamically adapt to the brain shape. At the brain-skull interface, meninges produce the trophic signals necessary for normal corticogenesis and bone development. Meninges harbor different cell populations, including cells forming the endosteum of the cranial vault. Recently, we and other groups have described the presence in meninges of a cell population endowed with neural differentiation potential in vitro and, after transplantation, in vivo. However, whether meninges may be a niche for neural progenitor cells during embryonic development and in adulthood remains to be determined. In this work we provide the first description of the distribution of neural precursor markers in rat meninges during development up to adulthood. We conclude that meninges share common properties with the classical neural stem cell niche, as they: (i) are a highly proliferating tissue; (ii) host cells expressing neural precursor markers such as nestin, vimentin, Sox2 and doublecortin; and (iii) are enriched in extracellular matrix components (e.g., fractones) known to bind and concentrate growth factors. This study underlines the importance of meninges as a potential niche for endogenous precursor cells during development and in adulthood.

  6. Meninges harbor cells expressing neural precursor markers during development and adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bifari, Francesco; Berton, Valeria; Pino, Annachiara; Kusalo, Marijana; Malpeli, Giorgio; Di Chio, Marzia; Bersan, Emanuela; Amato, Eliana; Scarpa, Aldo; Krampera, Mauro; Fumagalli, Guido; Decimo, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Brain and skull developments are tightly synchronized, allowing the cranial bones to dynamically adapt to the brain shape. At the brain-skull interface, meninges produce the trophic signals necessary for normal corticogenesis and bone development. Meninges harbor different cell populations, including cells forming the endosteum of the cranial vault. Recently, we and other groups have described the presence in meninges of a cell population endowed with neural differentiation potential in vitro and, after transplantation, in vivo. However, whether meninges may be a niche for neural progenitor cells during embryonic development and in adulthood remains to be determined. In this work we provide the first description of the distribution of neural precursor markers in rat meninges during development up to adulthood. We conclude that meninges share common properties with the classical neural stem cell niche, as they: (i) are a highly proliferating tissue; (ii) host cells expressing neural precursor markers such as nestin, vimentin, Sox2 and doublecortin; and (iii) are enriched in extracellular matrix components (e.g., fractones) known to bind and concentrate growth factors. This study underlines the importance of meninges as a potential niche for endogenous precursor cells during development and in adulthood. PMID:26483637

  7. Human amniotic fluid contaminants alter thyroid hormone signalling and early brain development in Xenopus embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Mughal, Bilal B.; Le Mével, Sébastien; Leemans, Michelle; Lettmann, Mélodie; Spirhanzlova, Petra; Affaticati, Pierre; Jenett, Arnim; Demeneix, Barbara A.

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development in vertebrates. In humans, abnormal maternal thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy are associated with decreased offspring IQ and modified brain structure. As numerous environmental chemicals disrupt thyroid hormone signalling, we questioned whether exposure to ubiquitous chemicals affects thyroid hormone responses during early neurogenesis. We established a mixture of 15 common chemicals at concentrations reported in human amniotic fluid. An in vivo larval reporter (GFP) assay served to determine integrated thyroid hormone transcriptional responses. Dose-dependent effects of short-term (72 h) exposure to single chemicals and the mixture were found. qPCR on dissected brains showed significant changes in thyroid hormone-related genes including receptors, deiodinases and neural differentiation markers. Further, exposure to mixture also modified neural proliferation as well as neuron and oligodendrocyte size. Finally, exposed tadpoles showed behavioural responses with dose-dependent reductions in mobility. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture of ubiquitous chemicals at concentrations found in human amniotic fluid affect thyroid hormone-dependent transcription, gene expression, brain development and behaviour in early embryogenesis. As thyroid hormone signalling is strongly conserved across vertebrates the results suggest that ubiquitous chemical mixtures could be exerting adverse effects on foetal human brain development.

  8. How age of bilingual exposure can change the neural systems for language in the developing brain: a functional near infrared spectroscopy investigation of syntactic processing in monolingual and bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Jasinska, K K; Petitto, L A

    2013-10-01

    Is the developing bilingual brain fundamentally similar to the monolingual brain (e.g., neural resources supporting language and cognition)? Or, does early-life bilingual language experience change the brain? If so, how does age of first bilingual exposure impact neural activation for language? We compared how typically-developing bilingual and monolingual children (ages 7-10) and adults recruit brain areas during sentence processing using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging. Bilingual participants included early-exposed (bilingual exposure from birth) and later-exposed individuals (bilingual exposure between ages 4-6). Both bilingual children and adults showed greater neural activation in left-hemisphere classic language areas, and additionally, right-hemisphere homologues (Right Superior Temporal Gyrus, Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus). However, important differences were observed between early-exposed and later-exposed bilinguals in their earliest-exposed language. Early bilingual exposure imparts fundamental changes to classic language areas instead of alterations to brain regions governing higher cognitive executive functions. However, age of first bilingual exposure does matter. Later-exposed bilinguals showed greater recruitment of the prefrontal cortex relative to early-exposed bilinguals and monolinguals. The findings provide fascinating insight into the neural resources that facilitate bilingual language use and are discussed in terms of how early-life language experiences can modify the neural systems underlying human language processing. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The roof plate boundary is a bi-directional organiser of dorsal neural tube and choroid plexus development

    PubMed Central

    Broom, Emma R.; Gilthorpe, Jonathan D.; Butts, Thomas; Campo-Paysaa, Florent; Wingate, Richard J. T.

    2012-01-01

    The roof plate is a signalling centre positioned at the dorsal midline of the central nervous system and generates dorsalising morphogenic signals along the length of the neuraxis. Within cranial ventricles, the roof plate gives rise to choroid plexus, which regulates the internal environment of the developing and adult brain and spinal cord via the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid. Using the fourth ventricle as our model, we show that the organiser properties of the roof plate are determined by its boundaries with the adjacent neuroepithelium. Through a combination of in ovo transplantation, co-culture and electroporation techniques in chick embryos between embryonic days 3 and 6, we demonstrate that organiser properties are maintained by interactions between the non-neural roof plate and the neural rhombic lip. At the molecular level, this interaction is mediated by Delta-Notch signalling and upregulation of the chick homologue of Hes1: chairy2. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that cdelta1 is both necessary and sufficient for organiser function. Our results also demonstrate that while chairy2 is specifically required for the maintenance of the organiser, its ectopic expression is not sufficient to recapitulate organiser properties. Expression of atonal1 in the rhombic lip adjacent at the roof plate boundary is acutely dependent on both boundary cell interactions and Delta-Notch signalling. Correspondingly, the roof plate boundary organiser also signals to the roof plate itself to specify the expression of early choroid plexus markers. Thus, the roof plate boundary organiser signals bi-directionally to acutely coordinate the development of adjacent neural and non-neural tissues. PMID:23052907

  10. The roof plate boundary is a bi-directional organiser of dorsal neural tube and choroid plexus development.

    PubMed

    Broom, Emma R; Gilthorpe, Jonathan D; Butts, Thomas; Campo-Paysaa, Florent; Wingate, Richard J T

    2012-11-01

    The roof plate is a signalling centre positioned at the dorsal midline of the central nervous system and generates dorsalising morphogenic signals along the length of the neuraxis. Within cranial ventricles, the roof plate gives rise to choroid plexus, which regulates the internal environment of the developing and adult brain and spinal cord via the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid. Using the fourth ventricle as our model, we show that the organiser properties of the roof plate are determined by its boundaries with the adjacent neuroepithelium. Through a combination of in ovo transplantation, co-culture and electroporation techniques in chick embryos between embryonic days 3 and 6, we demonstrate that organiser properties are maintained by interactions between the non-neural roof plate and the neural rhombic lip. At the molecular level, this interaction is mediated by Delta-Notch signalling and upregulation of the chick homologue of Hes1: chairy2. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that cdelta1 is both necessary and sufficient for organiser function. Our results also demonstrate that while chairy2 is specifically required for the maintenance of the organiser, its ectopic expression is not sufficient to recapitulate organiser properties. Expression of atonal1 in the rhombic lip adjacent at the roof plate boundary is acutely dependent on both boundary cell interactions and Delta-Notch signalling. Correspondingly, the roof plate boundary organiser also signals to the roof plate itself to specify the expression of early choroid plexus markers. Thus, the roof plate boundary organiser signals bi-directionally to acutely coordinate the development of adjacent neural and non-neural tissues.

  11. Development and aging of a brain neural stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Conover, Joanne C; Todd, Krysti L

    2017-08-01

    In the anterior forebrain, along the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles, a neurogenic stem cell niche is found in a region referred to as the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In rodents, robust V-SVZ neurogenesis provides new neurons to the olfactory bulb throughout adulthood; however, with increasing age stem cell numbers are reduced and neurogenic capacity is significantly diminished, but new olfactory bulb neurons continue to be produced even in old age. Humans, in contrast, show little to no new neurogenesis after two years of age and whether V-SVZ neural stem cells persist in the adult human brain remains unclear. Here, we review functional and organizational differences in the V-SVZ stem cell niche of mice and humans, and examine how aging affects the V-SVZ niche and its associated functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neural correlates of working memory development in adolescent primates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Zhu, Dantong; Qi, Xue-Lian; Li, Sihai; King, Samson G.; Salinas, Emilio; Stanford, Terrence R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Working memory ability matures after puberty, in parallel with structural changes in the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about how changes in prefrontal neuronal activity mediate this cognitive improvement in primates. To address this issue, we compare behavioural performance and neurophysiological activity in monkeys as they transitioned from puberty into adulthood. Here we report that monkeys perform working memory tasks reliably during puberty and show modest improvement in adulthood. The adult prefrontal cortex is characterized by increased activity during the delay period of the task but no change in the representation of stimuli. Activity evoked by distracting stimuli also decreases in the adult prefrontal cortex. The increase in delay period activity relative to the baseline activity of prefrontal neurons is the best correlate of maturation and is not merely a consequence of improved performance. Our results reveal neural correlates of the working memory improvement typical of primate adolescence. PMID:27827365

  13. Arrested development: early prefrontal lesions impair the maturation of moral judgement.

    PubMed

    Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Asp, Erik W; Koenigs, Michael; Sutterer, Matthew; Anderson, Steven W; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Learning to make moral judgements based on considerations beyond self-interest is a fundamental aspect of moral development. A deficit in such learning is associated with poor socialization and criminal behaviour. The neural systems required for the acquisition and maturation of moral competency are not well understood. Here we show in a unique sample of neurological patients that focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex, acquired during development, result in an abnormally egocentric pattern of moral judgement. In response to simple hypothetical moral scenarios, the patients were more likely than comparison participants to endorse self-interested actions that involved breaking moral rules or physically harming others in order to benefit themselves. This pattern (which we also found in subjects with psychopathy) differs from that of patients with adult-onset ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions--the latter group showed normal rejection of egocentric rule violations. This novel contrast of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions acquired during development versus during adulthood yields new evidence suggesting that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is a critical neural substrate for the acquisition and maturation of moral competency that goes beyond self-interest to consider the welfare of others. Disruption to this affective neural system early in life interrupts moral development.

  14. Mesodermal expression of integrin α5β1 regulates neural crest development and cardiovascular morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dong; Wang, Xia; Mittal, Ashok; Dhiman, Sonam; Hou, Shuan-Yu; Degenhardt, Karl; Astrof, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Integrin α5-null embryos die in mid-gestation from severe defects in cardiovascular morphogenesis, which stem from defective development of the neural crest, heart and vasculature. To investigate the role of integrin α5β1 in cardiovascular development, we used the Mesp1Cre knock-in strain of mice to ablate integrin α5 in the anterior mesoderm, which gives rise to all of the cardiac and many of the vascular and muscle lineages in the anterior portion of the embryo. Surprisingly, we found that mutant embryos displayed numerous defects related to the abnormal development of the neural crest such as cleft palate, ventricular septal defect, abnormal development of hypoglossal nerves, and defective remodeling of the aortic arch arteries. We found that defects in arch artery remodeling stem from the role of mesodermal integrin α5β1 in neural crest proliferation and differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells, while proliferation of pharyngeal mesoderm and differentiation of mesodermal derivatives into vascular smooth muscle cells was not defective. Taken together our studies demonstrate a requisite role for mesodermal integrin α5β1 in signaling between the mesoderm and the neural crest, thereby regulating neural crest-dependent morphogenesis of essential embryonic structures. PMID:25242040

  15. Early Intervention Paraprofessional Standards: Development and Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Chopra, Ritu V.; DiPalma, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of…

  16. Neural network controller development for a magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittro, Roger L.; Pang, Da-Chen; Anand, Davinder K.

    1994-01-01

    A neural network controller has been developed to accommodate disturbances and nonlinearities and improve the robustness of a magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system. The controller is trained using the back propagation-through-time technique incorporated with a time-averaging scheme. The resulting nonlinear neural network controller improves system performance by adapting flywheel stiffness and damping based on operating speed. In addition, a hybrid multi-layered neural network controller is developed off-line which is capable of improving system performance even further. All of the research presented in this paper was implemented via a magnetic bearing computer simulation. However, careful attention was paid to developing a practical methodology which will make future application to the actual bearing system fairly straightforward.

  17. Musical training during early childhood enhances the neural encoding of speech in noise

    PubMed Central

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child’s access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians’ perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and subcortical processing of speech in noise and related cognitive abilities in musician and nonmusician children that were matched for a variety of overarching factors. Outcomes reveal that musicians’ advantages for processing speech in noise are present during pivotal developmental years. Supported by correlations between auditory working memory and attention and auditory brainstem response properties, we propose that musicians’ perceptual and neural enhancements are driven in a top-down manner by strengthened cognitive abilities with training. Our results may be considered by professionals involved in the remediation of language-based learning deficits, which are often characterized by poor speech perception in noise. PMID:23102977

  18. Early Developments in Argumentation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles

    An evaluation of four seventeenth and eighteenth century essays on optics revealed early trends in the evolution of scientific articles. The later articles showed a growing tendency to (1) separate practice from pure knowledge, (2) organize information around problems of knowledge and theory rather than around chronological events, (3) emphasize…

  19. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  20. Early Development and the Brain: Teaching Resources for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda, Ed.; Klein, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This nine-unit curriculum translates current scientific research on early brain development into practical suggestions to help early childhood professionals understand the reciprocal link between caregiving and brain development. The curriculum was created and extensively field-tested by the Erikson Institute Faculty Development Project on the…

  1. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  2. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  3. Early deprivation, atypical brain development, and internalizing symptoms in late childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Children exposed to extreme early life neglect such as in institutional rearing are at heightened risk for developing depression and anxiety disorders, and internalizing problems more broadly. These outcomes are believed to be due to alterations in the development of neural circuitry that supports emotion regulation. The specific neurodevelopmental changes that contribute to these difficulties are largely unknown. This study examined whether microstructural alterations in white matter pathways predicted long term risk for internalizing problems in institutionally reared children. Data from 69 children were drawn from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized clinical trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. White matter was assessed using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) when children were between 8 and 10 years of age. Internalizing symptoms were assessed at the time of the MRI scan, and once children reached 12 to 14 years of age. Results indicated that neglect-associated alterations in the external capsule and corpus callosum partially explained links between institutional rearing status and internalizing symptoms in middle childhood and early adolescence. Findings shed light on neural mechanisms contributing to increased risk for emotional difficulties among children reared in adverse conditions and have implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:26384960

  4. Nuclear receptor TLX regulates cell cycle progression in neural stem cells of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenwu; Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Su; Qu, Qiuhao; Nakashima, Kinichi; Shi, Yanhong

    2008-01-01

    TLX is an orphan nuclear receptor that is expressed exclusively in vertebrate forebrains. Although TLX is known to be expressed in embryonic brains, the mechanism by which it influences neural development remains largely unknown. We show here that TLX is expressed specifically in periventricular neural stem cells in embryonic brains. Significant thinning of neocortex was observed in embryonic d 14.5 TLX-null brains with reduced nestin labeling and decreased cell proliferation in the germinal zone. Cell cycle analysis revealed both prolonged cell cycles and increased cell cycle exit in TLX-null embryonic brains. Increased expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and decreased expression of cyclin D1 provide a molecular basis for the deficiency of cell cycle progression in embryonic brains of TLX-null mice. Furthermore, transient knockdown of TLX by in utero electroporation led to precocious cell cycle exit and differentiation of neural stem cells followed by outward migration. Together these results indicate that TLX plays an important role in neural development by regulating cell cycle progression and exit of neural stem cells in the developing brain.

  5. Nuclear Receptor TLX Regulates Cell Cycle Progression in Neural Stem Cells of the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenwu; Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Su; Qu, Qiuhao; Nakashima, Kinichi; Shi, Yanhong

    2008-01-01

    TLX is an orphan nuclear receptor that is expressed exclusively in vertebrate forebrains. Although TLX is known to be expressed in embryonic brains, the mechanism by which it influences neural development remains largely unknown. We show here that TLX is expressed specifically in periventricular neural stem cells in embryonic brains. Significant thinning of neocortex was observed in embryonic d 14.5 TLX-null brains with reduced nestin labeling and decreased cell proliferation in the germinal zone. Cell cycle analysis revealed both prolonged cell cycles and increased cell cycle exit in TLX-null embryonic brains. Increased expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and decreased expression of cyclin D1 provide a molecular basis for the deficiency of cell cycle progression in embryonic brains of TLX-null mice. Furthermore, transient knockdown of TLX by in utero electroporation led to precocious cell cycle exit and differentiation of neural stem cells followed by outward migration. Together these results indicate that TLX plays an important role in neural development by regulating cell cycle progression and exit of neural stem cells in the developing brain. PMID:17901127

  6. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves. PMID:19939265

  7. Small leucine rich proteoglycan family regulates multiple signalling pathways in neural development and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Dellett, Margaret; Hu, Wanzhou; Papadaki, Vasiliki; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRPs) family of proteins currently consists of five classes, based on their structural composition and chromosomal location. As biologically active components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), SLRPs were known to bind to various collagens, having a role in regulating fibril assembly, organization and degradation. More recently, as a function of their diverse proteins cores and glycosaminoglycan side chains, SLRPs have been shown to be able to bind various cell surface receptors, growth factors, cytokines and other ECM components resulting in the ability to influence various cellular functions. Their involvement in several signaling pathways such as Wnt, transforming growth factor-β and epidermal growth factor receptor also highlights their role as matricellular proteins. SLRP family members are expressed during neural development and in adult neural tissues, including ocular tissues. This review focuses on describing SLRP family members involvement in neural development with a brief summary of their role in non-neural ocular tissues and in response to neural injury. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  8. Typical Neural Representations of Action Verbs Develop without Vision

    PubMed Central

    Caramazza, A.; Pascual-Leone, A.; Saxe, R.

    2012-01-01

    Many empiricist theories hold that concepts are composed of sensory–motor primitives. For example, the meaning of the word “run” is in part a visual image of running. If action concepts are partly visual, then the concepts of congenitally blind individuals should be altered in that they lack these visual features. We compared semantic judgments and neural activity during action verb comprehension in congenitally blind and sighted individuals. Participants made similarity judgments about pairs of nouns and verbs that varied in the visual motion they conveyed. Blind adults showed the same pattern of similarity judgments as sighted adults. We identified the left middle temporal gyrus (lMTG) brain region that putatively stores visual–motion features relevant to action verbs. The functional profile and location of this region was identical in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Furthermore, the lMTG was more active for all verbs than nouns, irrespective of visual–motion features. We conclude that the lMTG contains abstract representations of verb meanings rather than visual–motion images. Our data suggest that conceptual brain regions are not altered by the sensory modality of learning. PMID:21653285

  9. Early literacy and early numeracy: the value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development.

    PubMed

    Purpura, David J; Hume, Laura E; Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The neural signature of self-concept development in adolescence: The role of domain and valence distinctions.

    PubMed

    van der Cruijsen, R; Peters, S; van der Aar, L P E; Crone, E A

    2017-11-22

    Neuroimaging studies in adults showed that cortical midline regions including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are important in self-evaluations. The goals of this study were to investigate the contribution of these regions to self-evaluations in late childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, and to examine whether these differed per domain (academic, physical and prosocial) and valence (positive versus negative). Also, we tested whether this activation changes across adolescence. For this purpose, participants between ages 11-21-years (N = 150) evaluated themselves on trait sentences in an fMRI session. Behaviorally, adolescents rated their academic traits less positively than children and young adults. The neural analyses showed that evaluating self-traits versus a control condition was associated with increased activity in mPFC (domain-general effect), and positive traits were associated with increased activity in ventral mPFC (valence effect). Self-related mPFC activation increased linearly with age, but only for evaluating physical traits. Furthermore, an adolescent-specific decrease in striatum activation for positive self traits was found. Finally, we found domain-specific neural activity for evaluating traits in physical (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal mPFC) and academic (PPC) domains. Together, these results highlight the importance of domain distinctions when studying self-concept development in late childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Conceptions of and Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Early Childhood Professional Development Programs: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…

  12. A quantitative framework to evaluate modeling of cortical development by neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jason L.; de la Torre-Ubieta, Luis; Tian, Yuan; Parikshak, Neelroop N.; Hernandez, Israel A.; Marchetto, Maria C.; Baker, Dylan K.; Lu, Daning; Hinman, Cassidy R.; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Wexler, Eric M.; Muotri, Alysson R.; Gage, Fred H.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neural stem cells have been adopted to model a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions in vitro. However, how well such models correspond to in vivo brain has not been evaluated in an unbiased, comprehensive manner. We used transcriptomic analyses to compare in vitro systems to developing human fetal brain and observed strong conservation of in vivo gene expression and network architecture in differentiating primary human neural progenitor cells (phNPCs). Conserved modules are enriched in genes associated with ASD, supporting the utility of phNPCs for studying neuropsychiatric disease. We also developed and validated a machine learning approach called CoNTExT that identifies the developmental maturity and regional identity of in vitro models. We observed strong differences between in vitro models, including hiPSC-derived neural progenitors from multiple laboratories. This work provides a systems biology framework for evaluating in vitro systems and supports their value in studying the molecular mechanisms of human neurodevelopmental disease. PMID:24991955

  13. Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain.

    PubMed

    Albuixech-Crespo, Beatriz; López-Blanch, Laura; Burguera, Demian; Maeso, Ignacio; Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Moreno-Bravo, Juan Antonio; Somorjai, Ildiko; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Puelles, Eduardo; Bovolenta, Paola; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Puelles, Luis; Irimia, Manuel; Ferran, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons. The resulting genoarchitectonic model revealed that the amphioxus incipient neural tube is unexpectedly complex, consisting of several AP and DV molecular partitions. Strikingly, comparison with vertebrates indicates that the vertebrate thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain domains jointly correspond to a single amphioxus region, which we termed Di-Mesencephalic primordium (DiMes). This suggests that these domains have a common developmental and evolutionary origin, as supported by functional experiments manipulating secondary organizers in zebrafish and mice.

  14. Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain

    PubMed Central

    Albuixech-Crespo, Beatriz; Maeso, Ignacio; Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Moreno-Bravo, Juan Antonio; Somorjai, Ildiko; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Puelles, Eduardo; Bovolenta, Paola; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Puelles, Luis; Ferran, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons. The resulting genoarchitectonic model revealed that the amphioxus incipient neural tube is unexpectedly complex, consisting of several AP and DV molecular partitions. Strikingly, comparison with vertebrates indicates that the vertebrate thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain domains jointly correspond to a single amphioxus region, which we termed Di-Mesencephalic primordium (DiMes). This suggests that these domains have a common developmental and evolutionary origin, as supported by functional experiments manipulating secondary organizers in zebrafish and mice. PMID:28422959

  15. SOX2 expression levels distinguish between neural progenitor populations of the developing dorsal telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Scott R; Pevny, Larysa H

    2011-04-01

    The HMG-Box transcription factor SOX2 is expressed in neural progenitor populations throughout the developing and adult central nervous system and is necessary to maintain their progenitor identity. However, it is unclear whether SOX2 levels are uniformly expressed across all neural progenitor populations. In the developing dorsal telencephalon, two distinct populations of neural progenitors, radial glia and intermediate progenitor cells, are responsible for generating a majority of excitatory neurons found in the adult neocortex. Here we demonstrate, using both cellular and molecular analyses, that SOX2 is differentially expressed between radial glial and intermediate progenitor populations. Moreover, utilizing a SOX2(EGFP) mouse line, we show that this differential expression can be used to prospectively isolate distinct, viable populations of radial glia and intermediate cells for in vitro analysis. Given the limited repertoire of cell-surface markers currently available for neural progenitor cells, this provides an invaluable tool for prospectively identifying and isolating distinct classes of neural progenitor cells from the central nervous system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategies influence neural activity for feedback learning across child and adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sabine; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Crone, Eveline A; Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Raijmakers, Maartje E J

    2014-09-01

    Learning from feedback is an important aspect of executive functioning that shows profound improvements during childhood and adolescence. This is accompanied by neural changes in the feedback-learning network, which includes pre-supplementary motor area (pre- SMA)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), superior parietal cortex (SPC), and the basal ganglia. However, there can be considerable differences within age ranges in performance that are ascribed to differences in strategy use. This is problematic for traditional approaches of analyzing developmental data, in which age groups are assumed to be homogenous in strategy use. In this study, we used latent variable models to investigate if underlying strategy groups could be detected for a feedback-learning task and whether there were differences in neural activation patterns between strategies. In a sample of 268 participants between ages 8 to 25 years, we observed four underlying strategy groups, which were cut across age groups and varied in the optimality of executive functioning. These strategy groups also differed in neural activity during learning; especially the most optimal performing group showed more activity in DLPFC, SPC and pre-SMA/ACC compared to the other groups. However, age differences remained an important contributor to neural activation, even when correcting for strategy. These findings contribute to the debate of age versus performance predictors of neural development, and highlight the importance of studying individual differences in strategy use when studying development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased Sleep Depth in Developing Neural Networks: New Insights from Sleep Restriction in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Salome; Dean, Douglas C.; Achermann, Peter; O’Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Huber, Reto; Deoni, Sean C. L.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2016-01-01

    Brain networks respond to sleep deprivation or restriction with increased sleep depth, which is quantified as slow-wave activity (SWA) in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). When adults are sleep deprived, this homeostatic response is most pronounced over prefrontal brain regions. However, it is unknown how children’s developing brain networks respond to acute sleep restriction, and whether this response is linked to myelination, an ongoing process in childhood that is critical for brain development and cortical integration. We implemented a bedtime delay protocol in 5- to 12-year-old children to obtain partial sleep restriction (1-night; 50% of their habitual sleep). High-density sleep EEG was assessed during habitual and restricted sleep and brain myelin content was obtained using mcDESPOT magnetic resonance imaging. The effect of sleep restriction was analyzed using statistical non-parametric mapping with supra-threshold cluster analysis. We observed a localized homeostatic SWA response following sleep restriction in a specific parieto-occipital region. The restricted/habitual SWA ratio was negatively associated with myelin water fraction in the optic radiation, a developing fiber bundle. This relationship occurred bilaterally over parieto-temporal areas and was adjacent to, but did not overlap with the parieto-occipital region showing the most pronounced homeostatic SWA response. These results provide evidence for increased sleep need in posterior neural networks in children. Sleep need in parieto-temporal areas is related to myelin content, yet it remains speculative whether age-related myelin growth drives the fading of the posterior homeostatic SWA response during the transition to adulthood. Whether chronic insufficient sleep in the sensitive period of early life alters the anatomical generators of deep sleep slow-waves is an important unanswered question. PMID:27708567

  18. Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

  19. Segmentation of retinal blood vessels using artificial neural networks for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Kulwinder S.; Kaur, Sukhpreet

    2017-06-01

    There are various eye diseases in the patients suffering from the diabetes which includes Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Hypertension etc. These all are the most common sight threatening eye diseases due to the changes in the blood vessel structure. The proposed method using supervised methods concluded that the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels can be performed accurately using neural networks training. It uses features which include Gray level features; Moment Invariant based features, Gabor filtering, Intensity feature, Vesselness feature for feature vector computation. Then the feature vector is calculated using only the prominent features.

  20. Redefining Leadership: Lessons from an Early Education Leadership Development Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how experienced early educators developed as change agents in the context of a leadership development program. Unlike in many other professions, experienced early educators lack opportunities to grow throughout their careers and access the supports they need to lead change in their classrooms, organizations, the profession, and…

  1. Promoting Professional Development for Physical Therapists in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…

  2. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  3. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  4. Early Communication Development and Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social and communication development, accompanied by stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. The focus of this paper is on the early development of communication in autism, and early intervention for impairments in communication associated with this disorder. An overview of…

  5. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kirwan, Peter; Turner-Bridger, Benita; Peter, Manuel; Momoh, Ayiba; Arambepola, Devika; Robinson, Hugh P. C.; Livesey, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect of nervous system development, including that of the cerebral cortex, is the formation of higher-order neural networks. Developing neural networks undergo several phases with distinct activity patterns in vivo, which are thought to prune and fine-tune network connectivity. We report here that human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cerebral cortex neurons form large-scale networks that reflect those found in the developing cerebral cortex in vivo. Synchronised oscillatory networks develop in a highly stereotyped pattern over several weeks in culture. An initial phase of increasing frequency of oscillations is followed by a phase of decreasing frequency, before giving rise to non-synchronous, ordered activity patterns. hPSC-derived cortical neural networks are excitatory, driven by activation of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and can undergo NMDA-receptor-mediated plasticity. Investigating single neuron connectivity within PSC-derived cultures, using rabies-based trans-synaptic tracing, we found two broad classes of neuronal connectivity: most neurons have small numbers (<10) of presynaptic inputs, whereas a small set of hub-like neurons have large numbers of synaptic connections (>40). These data demonstrate that the formation of hPSC-derived cortical networks mimics in vivo cortical network development and function, demonstrating the utility of in vitro systems for mechanistic studies of human forebrain neural network biology. PMID:26395144

  6. Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Peter; Turner-Bridger, Benita; Peter, Manuel; Momoh, Ayiba; Arambepola, Devika; Robinson, Hugh P C; Livesey, Frederick J

    2015-09-15

    A key aspect of nervous system development, including that of the cerebral cortex, is the formation of higher-order neural networks. Developing neural networks undergo several phases with distinct activity patterns in vivo, which are thought to prune and fine-tune network connectivity. We report here that human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cerebral cortex neurons form large-scale networks that reflect those found in the developing cerebral cortex in vivo. Synchronised oscillatory networks develop in a highly stereotyped pattern over several weeks in culture. An initial phase of increasing frequency of oscillations is followed by a phase of decreasing frequency, before giving rise to non-synchronous, ordered activity patterns. hPSC-derived cortical neural networks are excitatory, driven by activation of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors, and can undergo NMDA-receptor-mediated plasticity. Investigating single neuron connectivity within PSC-derived cultures, using rabies-based trans-synaptic tracing, we found two broad classes of neuronal connectivity: most neurons have small numbers (<10) of presynaptic inputs, whereas a small set of hub-like neurons have large numbers of synaptic connections (>40). These data demonstrate that the formation of hPSC-derived cortical networks mimics in vivo cortical network development and function, demonstrating the utility of in vitro systems for mechanistic studies of human forebrain neural network biology. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Neuroimaging, a new tool for investigating the effects of early diet on cognitive and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition is crucial to the initial development of the central nervous system (CNS), and then to its maintenance, because both depend on dietary intake to supply the elements required to develop and fuel the system. Diet in early life is often seen in the context of “programming” where a stimulus occurring during a vulnerable period can have long-lasting or even lifetime effects on some aspect of the organism's structure or function. Nutrition was first shown to be a programming stimulus for growth, and then for cognitive behavior, in animal studies that were able to employ methods that allowed the demonstration of neural effects of early nutrition. Such research raised the question of whether nutrition could also programme cognition/brain structure in humans. Initial studies of cognitive effects were observational, usually conducted in developing countries where the presence of confounding factors made it difficult to interpret the role of nutrition in the cognitive deficits that were seen. Attributing causality to nutrition required randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and these, often in developed countries, started to appear around 30 years ago. Most demonstrated convincingly that early nutrition could affect subsequent cognition. Until the advent of neuroimaging techniques that allowed in vivo examination of the brain, however, we could determine very little about the neural effects of early diet in humans. The combination of well-designed trials with neuroimaging tools means that we are now able to pose and answer questions that would have seemed impossible only recently. This review discusses various neuroimaging methods that are suitable for use in nutrition studies, while pointing out some of the limitations that they may have. The existing literature is small, but examples of studies that have used these methods are presented. Finally, some considerations that have arisen from previous studies, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed

  8. Comparative transcriptomics of early dipteran development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern sequencing technologies have massively increased the amount of data available for comparative genomics. Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a powerful basis for comparative studies. In particular, this approach holds great promise for emerging model species in fields such as evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). Results We have sequenced early embryonic transcriptomes of two non-drosophilid dipteran species: the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata, and the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. Our analysis includes a third, published, transcriptome for the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus. These emerging models for comparative developmental studies close an important phylogenetic gap between Drosophila melanogaster and other insect model systems. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of early embryonic transcriptomes across species, and use our data for a phylogenomic re-evaluation of dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Conclusions We show how comparative transcriptomics can be used to create useful resources for evo-devo, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships. Our results demonstrate that de novo assembly of short (Illumina) reads yields high-quality, high-coverage transcriptomic data sets. We use these data to investigate deep dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Our results, based on a concatenation of 160 orthologous genes, provide support for the traditional view of Clogmia being the sister group of Brachycera (Megaselia, Episyrphus, Drosophila), rather than that of Culicomorpha (which includes mosquitoes and blackflies). PMID:23432914

  9. History and early development of INCAP.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2010-02-01

    Nevin Scrimshaw was the founding Director of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), serving as Director from 1949 to 1961. In this article, he reviews the history of the founding of INCAP, including the role of the Rockefeller and Kellogg Foundations, the Central American governments, and the Pan American Health Organization. The objectives pursued by INCAP in its early years were to assess the nutrition and related health problems of Central America, to carry out research to find practical solutions to these problems, and to provide technical assistance to its member countries to implement solutions. INCAP pursued a strategy of selecting promising Central Americans for advanced education and training in the US who assumed positions of leadership on their return. After this early phase, talented non-Central Americans of diverse origins were brought to INCAP, as well as additional researchers from the region. Growth of INCAP, as reflected in its annual budget and in the physical plant, was rapid and this was accompanied by high scientific productivity. Several field studies were launched that contributed impetus and design elements for the Oriente Longitudinal Study, which is the focus of this supplement.

  10. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  11. TECHNICAL NOTE: The development of a PZT-based microdrive for neural signal recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangkyu; Yoon, Euisung; Lee, Sukchan; Shin, Hee-sup; Park, Hyunjun; Kim, Byungkyu; Kim, Daesoo; Park, Jongoh; Park, Sukho

    2008-04-01

    A hand-controlled microdrive has been used to obtain neural signals from rodents such as rats and mice. However, it places severe physical stress on the rodents during its manipulation, and this stress leads to alertness in the mice and low efficiency in obtaining neural signals from the mice. To overcome this issue, we developed a novel microdrive, which allows one to adjust the electrodes by a piezoelectric device (PZT) with high precision. Its mass is light enough to install on the mouse's head. The proposed microdrive has three H-type PZT actuators and their guiding structure. The operation principle of the microdrive is based on the well known inchworm mechanism. When the three PZT actuators are synchronized, linear motion of the electrode is produced along the guiding structure. The electrodes used for the recording of the neural signals from neuron cells were fixed at one of the PZT actuators. Our proposed microdrive has an accuracy of about 400 nm and a long stroke of about 5 mm. In response to formalin-induced pain, single unit activities are robustly measured at the thalamus with electrodes whose vertical depth is adjusted by the microdrive under urethane anesthesia. In addition, the microdrive was efficient in detecting neural signals from mice that were moving freely. Thus, the present study suggests that the PZT-based microdrive could be an alternative for the efficient detection of neural signals from mice during behavioral states without any stress to the mice.

  12. Modeling Anterior Development in Mice: Diet as Modulator of Risk for Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kappen, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Head morphogenesis is a complex process that is controlled by multiple signaling centers. The most common defects of cranial development are craniofacial defects, such as cleft lip and cleft palate, and neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and encephalocoele in humans. More than 400 genes that contribute to proper neural tube closure have been identified in experimental animals, but only very few causative gene mutations have been identified in humans, supporting the notion that environmental influences are critical. The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal nutrition, and hence, maternal diet can modulate the risk for cranial and neural tube defects. This article reviews recent progress toward a better understanding of nutrients during pregnancy, with particular focus on mouse models for defective neural tube closure. At least four major patterns of nutrient responses are apparent, suggesting that multiple pathways are involved in the response, and likely in the underlying pathogenesis of the defects. Folic acid has been the most widely studied nutrient, and the diverse responses of the mouse models to folic acid supplementation indicate that folic acid is not universally beneficial, but that the effect is dependent on genetic configuration. If this is the case for other nutrients as well, efforts to prevent neural tube defects with nutritional supplementation may need to become more specifically targeted than previously appreciated. Mouse models are indispensable for a better understanding of nutrient–gene interactions in normal pregnancies, as well as in those affected by metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. PMID:24124024

  13. The scaffold protein Nde1 safeguards the brain genome during S phase of early neural progenitor differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Feng, Yuanyi

    2014-01-01

    Successfully completing the S phase of each cell cycle ensures genome integrity. Impediment of DNA replication can lead to DNA damage and genomic disorders. In this study, we show a novel function for NDE1, whose mutations cause brain developmental disorders, in safeguarding the genome through S phase during early steps of neural progenitor fate restrictive differentiation. Nde1 mutant neural progenitors showed catastrophic DNA double strand breaks concurrent with the DNA replication. This evoked DNA damage responses, led to the activation of p53-dependent apoptosis, and resulted in the reduction of neurons in cortical layer II/III. We discovered a nuclear pool of Nde1, identified the interaction of Nde1 with cohesin and its associated chromatin remodeler, and showed that stalled DNA replication in Nde1 mutants specifically occurred in mid-late S phase at heterochromatin domains. These findings suggest that NDE1-mediated heterochromatin replication is indispensible for neuronal differentiation, and that the loss of NDE1 function may lead to genomic neurological disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03297.001 PMID:25245017

  14. Toward a conceptual framework for early brain and behavior development in autism

    PubMed Central

    Piven, J; Elison, J T; Zylka, M J

    2017-01-01

    Studies of infant siblings of older autistic probands, who are at elevated risk for autism, have demonstrated that the defining features of autism are not present in the first year of life but emerge late in the first and into the second year. A recent longitudinal neuroimaging study of high-risk siblings revealed a specific pattern of brain development in infants later diagnosed with autism, characterized by cortical surface area hyper-expansion in the first year followed by brain volume overgrowth in the second year that is associated with the emergence of autistic social deficits. Together with new observations from genetically defined autism risk alleles and rodent model, these findings suggest a conceptual framework for the early, post-natal development of autism. This framework postulates that an increase in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and hyper-expansion of cortical surface area in the first year, occurring during a pre-symptomatic period characterized by disrupted sensorimotor and attentional experience, leads to altered experience-dependent neuronal development and decreased elimination of neuronal processes. This process is linked to brain volume overgrowth and disruption of the refinement of neural circuit connections and is associated with the emergence of autistic social deficits in the second year of life. A better understanding of the timing of developmental brain and behavior mechanisms in autism during infancy, a period which precedes the emergence of the defining features of this disorder, will likely have important implications for designing rational approaches to early intervention. PMID:28937691

  15. Sex Role Development in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1983-01-01

    Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)

  16. The Need for Understanding and Engaging the Patient as Consumer of Products Developed by Neural Engineering.

    PubMed

    French, Jennifer; Lujan, J Luis; Bardot, Dawn; Graczyk, Emily Lauren; Hess-Dunning, Allison; Triolo, Ronald J; Moynahan, Megan; Tan, Winny; Zbrzeski, Adeline

    2018-05-21

    Neural Engineering is a discipline at the intersection of neuroscience, engineering, and clinical care. Recent major efforts by government and industry aimed at bringing forth personalized therapies, increasing the potential of the neural engineering industry for future growth, eg. the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative and Stimulating Peripheral Activity to Relieve Conditions (SPARC) Common Fund Program, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) and Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS) Programs, and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectric Medicines Initiative. However, the incremental development of neural technologies can easily become a case of advancing technology for its own sake. This mindset can lead to a solution looking for a problem, without taking into consideration the patient/consumer point of view. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  17. Prenatal Organophosphates Exposure Alternates the Cleavage Plane Orientation of Apical Neural Progenitor in Developing Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Wei-Feng; Wang, Da-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal organophosphate exposure elicits long-term brain cytoarchitecture and cognitive function impairments, but the mechanism underlying the onset and development of neural progenitors remain largely unclear. Using precise positioned brain slices, we observed an alternated cleavage plane bias that emerged in the mitotic neural progenitors of embryonal neocortex with diazinion (DZN) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) pretreatment. In comparison with the control, DZN and CPF treatment induced decrease of vertical orientation, increase of oblique orientation, and increase of horizontal orientation. That is, the cleavage plane orientation bias had been rotated from vertical to horizontal after DZN and CPF treatment. Meanwhile, general morphology and mitotic index of the progenitors were unchanged. Acephate (ACP), another common organophosphate, had no significant effects on the cleavage plane orientation, cell morphology and mitotic index. These results represent direct evidence for the toxicity mechanism in onset multiplication of neural progenitors. PMID:24740262

  18. Male Killing Spiroplasma Preferentially Disrupts Neural Development in the Drosophila melanogaster Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jennifer; Chong, Trisha; Ferree, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Male killing bacteria such as Spiroplasma are widespread pathogens of numerous arthropods including Drosophila melanogaster. These maternally transmitted bacteria can bias host sex ratios toward the female sex in order to ‘selfishly’ enhance bacterial transmission. However, little is known about the specific means by which these pathogens disrupt host development in order to kill males. Here we show that a male-killing Spiroplasma strain severely disrupts nervous tissue development in male but not female D. melanogaster embryos. The neuroblasts, or neuron progenitors, form properly and their daughter cells differentiate into neurons of the ventral nerve chord. However, the neurons fail to pack together properly and they produce highly abnormal axons. In contrast, non-neural tissue, such as mesoderm, and body segmentation appear normal during this time, although the entire male embryo becomes highly abnormal during later stages. Finally, we found that Spiroplasma is altogether absent from the neural tissue but localizes within the gut and the epithelium immediately surrounding the neural tissue, suggesting that the bacterium secretes a toxin that affects neural tissue development across tissue boundaries. Together these findings demonstrate the unique ability of this insect pathogen to preferentially affect development of a specific embryonic tissue to induce male killing. PMID:24236124

  19. Function of the two Xenopus smad4s in early frog development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chenbei; Brivanlou, Ali H; Harland, Richard M

    2006-10-13

    Signals from the transforming growth factor beta family members are transmitted in the cell through specific receptor-activated Smads and a common partner Smad4. Two Smad4 genes (alpha and beta/10, or smad4 and smad4.2) have been isolated from Xenopus, and conflicting data are reported for Smad4beta/10 actions in mesodermal and neural induction. To further understand the functions of the Smad4s in early frog development, we analyzed their activities in detail. We report that Smad10 is a mutant form of Smad4beta that harbors a missense mutation of a conserved arginine to histidine in the MH1 domain. The mutation results in enhanced association of Smad10 with the nuclear transcription corepressor Ski and leads to its neural inducing activity through inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. In contrast to Smad10, both Smad4alpha and Smad4beta enhanced BMP signals in ectodermal explants. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) to knockdown endogenous Smad4 protein levels, we discovered that Smad4beta was required for both activin- and BMP-mediated mesodermal induction in animal caps, whereas Smad4alpha affected only the BMP signals. Neither Smad4 was involved directly in neural induction. Expression of Smad4beta-MO in early frog embryos resulted in reduction of mesodermal markers and defects in axial structures, which were rescued by either Smad4alpha or Smad4beta. Smad4alpha-MO induced only minor deficiency at late stages. As Smad4beta, but not Smad4alpha, is expressed at high levels maternally and during early gastrulation, our data suggest that although Smad4alpha and Smad4beta may have similar activities, they are differentially utilized during frog embryogenesis, with only Smad4beta being essential for mesoderm induction.

  20. Detection of anti-streptococcal, antienolase, and anti-neural antibodies in subjects with early-onset psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Humberto; López, Yaumara; Genis-Mendoza, Alma D; Manrique, Viana; Lopez-Canovas, Lilia; Niubo, Esperanza; Hernández, Lázaro; Bobes, María A; Riverón, Ana M; López-Casamichana, Mavil; Flores, Julio; Lanzagorta, Nuria; De la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Santana, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Infection with group A Streptococcus (StrepA) can cause post-infectious sequelae, including a spectrum of childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and tic disorders with autoimmune origin (PANDAS, Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections). Until now, no single immunological test has been designed that unequivocally diagnoses these disorders. In this study, we assessed the detection of serum antibodies against human brain enolase (AE), neural tissue (AN) and Streptococcus (AS) as a laboratory tool for the diagnosis of early-onset psychiatric disorders. Serum antibodies against human brain enolase, total brain proteins, and total proteins from StrepA were detected by ELISA in 37 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of PANDAS and in 12 healthy subjects from Mexico and Cuba. The antibody titers against human brain enolase (AE) and Streptococcal proteins (AS) were higher in patients than in control subjects (t-student, tAE=-2.17, P=0.035; tAS=-2.68, P=0.01, n=12 and 37/group, df=47, significance level 0.05), while the neural antibody titers did not differ between the two groups (P(t)=0.05). The number of subjects (titers> meancontrol + CI95) with simultaneous seropositivity to all three antibodies was higher in the patient group (51.4%) than in the control group (8.3%) group (X2=5.27, P=0.022, df=1, n=49). The simultaneous detection of all three of these antibodies could provide valuable information for the etiologic diagnosis of individuals with early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorders associated with streptococcal infection and, consequently, for prescribing suitable therapy.

  1. GenSo-EWS: a novel neural-fuzzy based early warning system for predicting bank failures.

    PubMed

    Tung, W L; Quek, C; Cheng, P

    2004-05-01

    Bank failure prediction is an important issue for the regulators of the banking industries. The collapse and failure of a bank could trigger an adverse financial repercussion and generate negative impacts such as a massive bail out cost for the failing bank and loss of confidence from the investors and depositors. Very often, bank failures are due to financial distress. Hence, it is desirable to have an early warning system (EWS) that identifies potential bank failure or high-risk banks through the traits of financial distress. Various traditional statistical models have been employed to study bank failures [J Finance 1 (1975) 21; J Banking Finance 1 (1977) 249; J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073]. However, these models do not have the capability to identify the characteristics of financial distress and thus function as black boxes. This paper proposes the use of a new neural fuzzy system [Foundations of neuro-fuzzy systems, 1997], namely the Generic Self-organising Fuzzy Neural Network (GenSoFNN) [IEEE Trans Neural Networks 13 (2002c) 1075] based on the compositional rule of inference (CRI) [Commun ACM 37 (1975) 77], as an alternative to predict banking failure. The CRI based GenSoFNN neural fuzzy network, henceforth denoted as GenSoFNN-CRI(S), functions as an EWS and is able to identify the inherent traits of financial distress based on financial covariates (features) derived from publicly available financial statements. The interaction between the selected features is captured in the form of highly intuitive IF-THEN fuzzy rules. Such easily comprehensible rules provide insights into the possible characteristics of financial distress and form the knowledge base for a highly desired EWS that aids bank regulation. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network is subsequently benchmarked against that of the Cox's proportional hazards model [J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073], the multi

  2. FoxA4 favours notochord formation by inhibiting contiguous mesodermal fates and restricts anterior neural development in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Murgan, Sabrina; Castro Colabianchi, Aitana Manuela; Monti, Renato José; Boyadjián López, Laura Elena; Aguirre, Cecilia E; Stivala, Ernesto González; Carrasco, Andrés E; López, Silvia L

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates, the embryonic dorsal midline is a crucial signalling centre that patterns the surrounding tissues during development. Members of the FoxA subfamily of transcription factors are expressed in the structures that compose this centre. Foxa2 is essential for dorsal midline development in mammals, since knock-out mouse embryos lack a definitive node, notochord and floor plate. The related gene foxA4 is only present in amphibians. Expression begins in the blastula -chordin and -noggin expressing centre (BCNE) and is later restricted to the dorsal midline derivatives of the Spemann's organiser. It was suggested that the early functions of mammalian foxa2 are carried out by foxA4 in frogs, but functional experiments were needed to test this hypothesis. Here, we show that some important dorsal midline functions of mammalian foxa2 are exerted by foxA4 in Xenopus. We provide new evidence that the latter prevents the respecification of dorsal midline precursors towards contiguous fates, inhibiting prechordal and paraxial mesoderm development in favour of the notochord. In addition, we show that foxA4 is required for the correct regionalisation and maintenance of the central nervous system. FoxA4 participates in constraining the prospective rostral forebrain territory during neural specification and is necessary for the correct segregation of the most anterior ectodermal derivatives, such as the cement gland and the pituitary anlagen. Moreover, the early expression of foxA4 in the BCNE (which contains precursors of the whole forebrain and most of the midbrain and hindbrain) is directly required to restrict anterior neural development.

  3. The science of neural interface systems.

    PubMed

    Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G; Donoghue, John P

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of neural interface research is to create links between the nervous system and the outside world either by stimulating or by recording from neural tissue to treat or assist people with sensory, motor, or other disabilities of neural function. Although electrical stimulation systems have already reached widespread clinical application, neural interfaces that record neural signals to decipher movement intentions are only now beginning to develop into clinically viable systems to help paralyzed people. We begin by reviewing state-of-the-art research and early-stage clinical recording systems and focus on systems that record single-unit action potentials. We then address the potential for neural interface research to enhance basic scientific understanding of brain function by offering unique insights in neural coding and representation, plasticity, brain-behavior relations, and the neurobiology of disease. Finally, we discuss technical and scientific challenges faced by these systems before they are widely adopted by severely motor-disabled patients.

  4. Can very early music interventions promote at-risk infants' development?

    PubMed

    Virtala, Paula; Partanen, Eino

    2018-04-30

    Music and musical activities are often a natural part of parenting. As accumulating evidence shows, music can promote auditory and language development in infancy and early childhood. It may even help to support auditory and language skills in infants whose development is compromised by heritable conditions, like the reading deficit dyslexia, or by environmental factors, such as premature birth. For example, infants born to dyslexic parents can have atypical brain responses to speech sounds and subsequent challenges in language development. Children born very preterm, in turn, have an increased likelihood of sensory, cognitive, and motor deficits. To ameliorate these deficits, we have developed early interventions focusing on music. Preliminary results of our ongoing longitudinal studies suggest that music making and parental singing promote infants' early language development and auditory neural processing. Together with previous findings in the field, the present studies highlight the role of active, social music making in supporting auditory and language development in at-risk children and infants. Once completed, the studies will illuminate both risk and protective factors in development and offer a comprehensive model of understanding the promises of music activities in promoting positive developmental outcomes during the first years of life. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Early Numeracy Assessment: The Development of the Preschool Early Numeracy Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The focus of this study was to construct and validate 12 brief early numeracy assessment tasks that measure the skills and concepts identified as key to early mathematics development by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2006) and the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008)-as well as critical developmental…

  6. Neural Correlates of Socioeconomic Status in the Developing Human Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Kan, Eric; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in childhood are associated with remarkable differences in cognitive and socio-emotional development during a time when dramatic changes are occurring in the brain. Yet, the neurobiological pathways through which socioeconomic status (SES) shapes development remain poorly understood. Behavioral evidence suggests that…

  7. Parents Resourcing Children's Early Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…

  8. Immunohistochemical study of the neural development transcription factors (TTF1, ASCL1 and BRN2) in neuroendocrine prostate tumours.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Zarco, E; Vallejo-Benítez, A; Umbría-Jiménez, S; Pereira-Gallardo, S; Pabón-Carrasco, S; Azueta, A; González-Cámpora, R; Espinal, P S; García-Escudero, A

    2017-10-01

    Prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that constitutes 0.5-1% of all prostate malignancies. The median cancer-specific survival of patients with prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is 19 months, and 60.5% of the patients have metastatic disease. Neural development transcription factors are molecules involved in the organogenesis of the central nervous system and of neuroendocrine precursors of various tissues, including the suprarenal gland, thyroid glands, lungs and prostate. We present 3 cases of this uncommon condition, applying the new World Health Organisation criteria. We conducted studies through haematoxylin and eosin staining and analysed the expression of the neural development transcription factors achaete-scute homolog like 1, thyroid transcription factor 1 and the class III/IV POU transcription factors, as a new research line in the carcinogenesis of prostatic neuroendocrine tumours. In case 1, there was no TTF1 immunoexpression. Cases 2 and 3 had positive immunostaining for ASCL1, and Case 1 had negative immunostaining. BRN2 immunostaining was negative in case 1 and positive in cases 2 and 3. The World Health Organisation does not recognise any molecular or genetic marker with prognostic value. ASCL-1 is related to the NOTCH and WNT signalling pathways. ASCL-1, TTF1 and BRN2 could be used for early diagnosis and as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 AEU. All rights reserved.

  9. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    PubMed

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Angiogenesis in the Developing Spinal Cord: Blood Vessel Exclusion from Neural Progenitor Region Is Mediated by VEGF and Its Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Teruaki; Takase, Yuta; Yoshino, Takashi; Saito, Daisuke; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels in the central nervous system supply a considerable amount of oxygen via intricate vascular networks. We studied how the initial vasculature of the spinal cord is formed in avian (chicken and quail) embryos. Vascular formation in the spinal cord starts by the ingression of intra-neural vascular plexus (INVP) from the peri-neural vascular plexus (PNVP) that envelops the neural tube. At the ventral region of the PNVP, the INVP grows dorsally in the neural tube, and we observed that these vessels followed the defined path at the interface between the medially positioned and undifferentiated neural progenitor zone and the laterally positioned differentiated zone. When the interface between these two zones was experimentally displaced, INVP faithfully followed a newly formed interface, suggesting that the growth path of the INVP is determined by surrounding neural cells. The progenitor zone expressed mRNA of vascular endothelial growth factor-A whereas its receptor VEGFR2 and FLT-1 (VEGFR1), a decoy for VEGF, were expressed in INVP. By manipulating the neural tube with either VEGF or the soluble form of FLT-1, we found that INVP grew in a VEGF-dependent manner, where VEGF signals appear to be fine-tuned by counteractions with anti-angiogenic activities including FLT-1 and possibly semaphorins. These results suggest that the stereotypic patterning of early INVP is achieved by interactions between these vessels and their surrounding neural cells, where VEGF and its antagonists play important roles. PMID:25585380

  11. Early development of fern gametophytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, Stanley J.; Chatterjee, Ani; Hillier, Sheila; Cannon, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Dormant spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii were flown on Shuttle mission STS-93 to evaluate the effects of micro-g on their development and on their pattern of gene expression. Prior to flight the spores were sterilized and sown into one of two environments: (1) Microscope slides in a video-microscopy module; and (2) Petri dishes. All spores were then stored in darkness until use. Spore germination was initiated on orbit after exposure to light. For the spores on microscope slides, cell level changes were recorded through the clear spore coat of the spores by video microscopy. After their exposure to light, spores in petri dishes were frozen in orbit at four different time points during which on earth gravity fixes the polarity of their development. Spores were then stored frozen in Biological Research in Canister units until recovery on earth. The RNAs from these cells and from 1-g control cells were extracted and analyzed on earth after flight to assay changes in gene expression. Video microscopy results revealed that the germinated spores developed normally in microgravity, although the polarity of their development, which is guided by gravity on earth, was random in space. Differential Display-PCR analyses of RNA extracted from space-flown cells showed that there was about a 5% change in the pattern of gene expression between cells developing in micro-g compared to those developing on earth. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young…

  13. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messonnier, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  14. Online Professional Development: Choices for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Donaldson, Ana J.; Hudson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood educators are responsible for providing young children with the best possible early care and education. Research on child care workers' education has shown that professional preparation makes a significant impact on children's cognitive and emotional development (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC],…

  15. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  16. Activities for Career Development in Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Aronin, Eugene L.

    The book presents career education activities and approaches for use by teachers, administrators, counselors, and students involved in early childhood education (ages three through eight). Part One stresses the importance of and rationale for career development in the early childhood curriculum. Research support for the approach to career…

  17. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  18. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  19. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  20. Left-Right Asymmetry of Maturation Rates in Human Embryonic Neural Development.

    PubMed

    de Kovel, Carolien G F; Lisgo, Steven; Karlebach, Guy; Ju, Jia; Cheng, Gang; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-08-01

    Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental organizing feature of the human brain, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia sometimes involve alterations of brain asymmetry. As early as 8 weeks postconception, the majority of human fetuses move their right arms more than their left arms, but because nerve fiber tracts are still descending from the forebrain at this stage, spinal-muscular asymmetries are likely to play an important developmental role. We used RNA sequencing to measure gene expression levels in the left and right spinal cords, and the left and right hindbrains, of 18 postmortem human embryos aged 4 to 8 weeks postconception. Genes showing embryonic lateralization were tested for an enrichment of signals in genome-wide association data for schizophrenia. The left side of the embryonic spinal cord was found to mature faster than the right side. Both sides transitioned from transcriptional profiles associated with cell division and proliferation at earlier stages to neuronal differentiation and function at later stages, but the two sides were not in synchrony (p = 2.2 E-161). The hindbrain showed a left-right mirrored pattern compared with the spinal cord, consistent with the well-known crossing over of function between these two structures. Genes that showed lateralization in the embryonic spinal cord were enriched for association signals with schizophrenia (p = 4.3 E-05). These are the earliest stage left-right differences of human neural development ever reported. Disruption of the lateralized developmental program may play a role in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of neural networks for exact and approximate calculation: a FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael; Loenneker, Thomas; Dietrich, Thomas; Martin, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings in adults suggest exact and approximate number processing relying on distinct neural circuits. In the present study we are investigating whether this cortical specialization is already established in 9- and 12-year-old children. Using fMRI, brain activation was measured in 10 third- and 10 sixth-grade school children and 20 adults during trials of symbolic approximate (AP) and exact (EX) calculation, as well as non-symbolic magnitude comparison (MC) of objects. Children activated similar networks like adults, denoting an availability and a similar spatial extent of specified networks as early as third grade. However, brain areas related to number processing become further specialized with schooling. Children showed weaker activation in the intraparietal sulcus during all three tasks, in the left inferior frontal gyrus during EX and in occipital areas during MC. In contrast, activation in the anterior cingulate gyrus, a region associated with attentional effort and working memory load, was enhanced in children. Moreover, children revealed reduced or absent deactivation of regions involved in the so-called default network during symbolic calculation, suggesting a rather general developmental effect. No difference in brain activation patterns between AP and EX was found. Behavioral results indicated major differences between children and adults in AP and EX, but not in MC. Reaction time and accuracy rate were not correlated to brain activation in regions showing developmental changes suggesting rather effects of development than performance differences between children and adults. In conclusion, increasing expertise with age may lead to more automated processing of mental arithmetic, which is reflected by improved performance and by increased brain activation in regions related to number processing and decreased activation in supporting areas.

  2. Meis2 is essential for cranial and cardiac neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Machon, Ondrej; Masek, Jan; Machonova, Olga; Krauss, Stefan; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2015-11-06

    TALE-class homeodomain transcription factors Meis and Pbx play important roles in formation of the embryonic brain, eye, heart, cartilage or hematopoiesis. Loss-of-function studies of Pbx1, 2 and 3 and Meis1 documented specific functions in embryogenesis, however, functional studies of Meis2 in mouse are still missing. We have generated a conditional allele of Meis2 in mice and shown that systemic inactivation of the Meis2 gene results in lethality by the embryonic day 14 that is accompanied with hemorrhaging. We show that neural crest cells express Meis2 and Meis2-defficient embryos display defects in tissues that are derived from the neural crest, such as an abnormal heart outflow tract with the persistent truncus arteriosus and abnormal cranial nerves. The importance of Meis2 for neural crest cells is further confirmed by means of conditional inactivation of Meis2 using crest-specific AP2α-IRES-Cre mouse. Conditional mutants display perturbed development of the craniofacial skeleton with severe anomalies in cranial bones and cartilages, heart and cranial nerve abnormalities. Meis2-null mice are embryonic lethal. Our results reveal a critical role of Meis2 during cranial and cardiac neural crest cells development in mouse.

  3. Development of Artificial Neural Network Model for Diesel Fuel Properties Prediction using Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bolanča, Tomislav; Marinović, Slavica; Ukić, Sime; Jukić, Ante; Rukavina, Vinko

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes development of artificial neural network models which can be used to correlate and predict diesel fuel properties from several FTIR-ATR absorbances and Raman intensities as input variables. Multilayer feed forward and radial basis function neural networks have been used to rapid and simultaneous prediction of cetane number, cetane index, density, viscosity, distillation temperatures at 10% (T10), 50% (T50) and 90% (T90) recovery, contents of total aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of commercial diesel fuels. In this study two-phase training procedures for multilayer feed forward networks were applied. While first phase training algorithm was constantly the back propagation one, two second phase training algorithms were varied and compared, namely: conjugate gradient and quasi Newton. In case of radial basis function network, radial layer was trained using K-means radial assignment algorithm and three different radial spread algorithms: explicit, isotropic and K-nearest neighbour. The number of hidden layer neurons and experimental data points used for the training set have been optimized for both neural networks in order to insure good predictive ability by reducing unnecessary experimental work. This work shows that developed artificial neural network models can determine main properties of diesel fuels simultaneously based on a single and fast IR or Raman measurement.

  4. Early Binocular Input Is Critical for Development of Audiovisual but Not Visuotactile Simultaneity Perception.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Lewis, Terri L; Shore, David I; Maurer, Daphne

    2017-02-20

    Temporal simultaneity provides an essential cue for integrating multisensory signals into a unified perception. Early visual deprivation, in both animals and humans, leads to abnormal neural responses to audiovisual signals in subcortical and cortical areas [1-5]. Behavioral deficits in integrating complex audiovisual stimuli in humans are also observed [6, 7]. It remains unclear whether early visual deprivation affects visuotactile perception similarly to audiovisual perception and whether the consequences for either pairing differ after monocular versus binocular deprivation [8-11]. Here, we evaluated the impact of early visual deprivation on the perception of simultaneity for audiovisual and visuotactile stimuli in humans. We tested patients born with dense cataracts in one or both eyes that blocked all patterned visual input until the cataractous lenses were removed and the affected eyes fitted with compensatory contact lenses (mean duration of deprivation = 4.4 months; range = 0.3-28.8 months). Both monocularly and binocularly deprived patients demonstrated lower precision in judging audiovisual simultaneity. However, qualitatively different outcomes were observed for the two patient groups: the performance of monocularly deprived patients matched that of young children at immature stages, whereas that of binocularly deprived patients did not match any stage in typical development. Surprisingly, patients performed normally in judging visuotactile simultaneity after either monocular or binocular deprivation. Therefore, early binocular input is necessary to develop normal neural substrates for simultaneity perception of visual and auditory events but not visual and tactile events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations Among Pubertal Development, Empathic Ability, and Neural Responses While Witnessing Peer Rejection in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Colich, Natalie L.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    Links among concurrent and longitudinal changes in pubertal development and empathic ability from age 10 to 13 and neural responses while witnessing peer rejection at age 13 were examined in 16 participants. More advanced pubertal development at age 13, and greater longitudinal increases in pubertal development, related to increased activity in regions underlying cognitive aspects of empathy. Likewise, at age 13 greater perspective taking related to activity in cognitive empathy-related regions; however, affective components of empathy (empathic concern and personal distress) were additionally associated with activity in affective pain-related regions. Longitudinal increases in empathic ability related to cognitive and affective empathy-related circuitry. Findings provide preliminary evidence that physical and cognitive-emotional development relate to adolescents’ neural responses when witnessing peer rejection. PMID:23379360

  6. ECR-MAPK regulation in liver early development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiu-Ju; Zhuo, Hexian

    2014-01-01

    Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region)-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases)-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling)-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization) plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development.

  7. Neural Development of Networks for Audiovisual Speech Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Everyday conversation is both an auditory and a visual phenomenon. While visual speech information enhances comprehension for the listener, evidence suggests that the ability to benefit from this information improves with development. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech comprehension, but the extent to which the…

  8. Neural Correlates of Children's Theory of Mind Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, David; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Gehring, William J.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2009-01-01

    Young children show significant changes in their mental-state understanding as marked by their performance on false-belief tasks. This study provides evidence for activity in the prefrontal cortex associated with the development of this ability. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded as adults (N = 24) and 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old…

  9. Reading Development Subtypes and Their Early Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torppa, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Eklund, Kenneth; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Leskinen, Esko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2007-01-01

    The present findings are drawn from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD), in which approximately 100 children with familial risk of dyslexia and 100 control children have been followed from birth. In this paper we report data on the reading development of the JLD children and their classmates, a total of 1,750 children from four…

  10. Developing an Engineering Identity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantoya, Michelle L.; Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Hunt, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    This project describes a strategy to introduce young children to engineering in a way that develops their engineering identity. The targeted age group is 3-7 year old students because they rarely experience purposeful engineering instruction. The curriculum was designed around an engineering storybook and included interactive academic discussions…

  11. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  12. School Building in Early Development. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Development is characterized by urbanization. New settlements grow either as enlargements of existing ones or as new population concentrations. Three periods may be distinguished in the growth of a settlement: (1) the wild period of first settling, (2) the consolidation period, and (3) the stabilized society. The number of school-aged children per…

  13. Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between poverty and children's developmental outcomes, the effects of the timing and duration of poverty, and the effects of poverty at the family and neighborhood level, analyzing data from two longitudinal surveys. Found that poverty status was strongly related to low levels of cognitive development, even after…

  14. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  15. Development and Evaluation of Micro-Electrocorticography Arrays for Neural Interfacing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schendel, Amelia Ann

    Neural interfaces have great promise for both electrophysiological research and therapeutic applications. Whether for the study of neural circuitry or for neural prosthetic or other therapeutic applications, micro-electrocorticography (micro-ECoG) arrays have proven extremely useful as neural interfacing devices. These devices strike a balance between invasiveness and signal resolution, an important step towards eventual human application. The objective of this research was to make design improvements to micro-ECoG devices to enhance both biocompatibility and device functionality. To best evaluate the effectiveness of these improvements, a cranial window imaging method for in vivo monitoring of the longitudinal tissue response post device implant was developed. Employment of this method provided valuable insight into the way tissue grows around micro-ECoG arrays after epidural implantation, spurring a study of the effects of substrate geometry on the meningeal tissue response. The results of the substrate footprint comparison suggest that a more open substrate geometry provides an easy path for the tissue to grow around to the top side of the device, whereas a solid device substrate encourages the tissue to thicken beneath the device, between the electrode sites and the brain. The formation of thick scar tissue between the recording electrode sites and the neural tissue is disadvantageous for long-term recorded signal quality, and thus future micro-ECoG device designs should incorporate open-architecture substrates for enhanced longitudinal in vivo function. In addition to investigating improvements for long-term device reliability, it was also desired to enhance the functionality of micro-ECoG devices for neural electrophysiology research applications. To achieve this goal, a completely transparent graphene-based device was fabricated for use with the cranial window imaging method and optogenetic techniques. The use of graphene as the conductive material provided

  16. Optical Calibration Process Developed for Neural-Network-Based Optical Nondestructive Evaluation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2004-01-01

    A completely optical calibration process has been developed at Glenn for calibrating a neural-network-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. The NDE method itself detects very small changes in the characteristic patterns or vibration mode shapes of vibrating structures as discussed in many references. The mode shapes or characteristic patterns are recorded using television or electronic holography and change when a structure experiences, for example, cracking, debonds, or variations in fastener properties. An artificial neural network can be trained to be very sensitive to changes in the mode shapes, but quantifying or calibrating that sensitivity in a consistent, meaningful, and deliverable manner has been challenging. The standard calibration approach has been difficult to implement, where the response to damage of the trained neural network is compared with the responses of vibration-measurement sensors. In particular, the vibration-measurement sensors are intrusive, insufficiently sensitive, and not numerous enough. In response to these difficulties, a completely optical alternative to the standard calibration approach was proposed and tested successfully. Specifically, the vibration mode to be monitored for structural damage was intentionally contaminated with known amounts of another mode, and the response of the trained neural network was measured as a function of the peak-to-peak amplitude of the contaminating mode. The neural network calibration technique essentially uses the vibration mode shapes of the undamaged structure as standards against which the changed mode shapes are compared. The published response of the network can be made nearly independent of the contaminating mode, if enough vibration modes are used to train the net. The sensitivity of the neural network can be adjusted for the environment in which the test is to be conducted. The response of a neural network trained with measured vibration patterns for use on a vibration isolation

  17. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    PubMed

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.; Fuzessery, Zoltan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations, or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. PMID:25142131

  20. The effect of early visual deprivation on the neural bases of multisensory processing.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Putzar, Lisa; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-06-01

    Developmental vision is deemed to be necessary for the maturation of multisensory cortical circuits. Thus far, this has only been investigated in animal studies, which have shown that congenital visual deprivation markedly reduces the capability of neurons to integrate cross-modal inputs. The present study investigated the effect of transient congenital visual deprivation on the neural mechanisms of multisensory processing in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare responses of visual and auditory cortical areas to visual, auditory and audio-visual stimulation in cataract-reversal patients and normally sighted controls. The results showed that cataract-reversal patients, unlike normally sighted controls, did not exhibit multisensory integration in auditory areas. Furthermore, cataract-reversal patients, but not normally sighted controls, exhibited lower visual cortical processing within visual cortex during audio-visual stimulation than during visual stimulation. These results indicate that congenital visual deprivation affects the capability of cortical areas to integrate cross-modal inputs in humans, possibly because visual processing is suppressed during cross-modal stimulation. Arguably, the lack of vision in the first months after birth may result in a reorganization of visual cortex, including the suppression of noisy visual input from the deprived retina in order to reduce interference during auditory processing. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of socioeconomic status (SES) disparity on neural development in female African-American infants at age 1 month.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Laura M; Avants, Brian; Farah, Martha J; Brodsky, Nancy L; Wu, Jue; Ashtari, Manzar; Hurt, Hallam

    2016-11-01

    There is increasing interest in both the cumulative and long-term impact of early life adversity on brain structure and function, especially as the brain is both highly vulnerable and highly adaptive during childhood. Relationships between SES and neural development have been shown in children older than age 2 years. Less is known regarding the impact of SES on neural development in children before age 2. This paper examines the effect of SES, indexed by income-to-needs (ITN) and maternal education, on cortical gray, deep gray, and white matter volumes in term, healthy, appropriate for gestational age, African-American, female infants. At 5 weeks postnatal age, unsedated infants underwent MRI (3.0T Siemens Verio scanner, 32-channel head coil). Images were segmented based on a locally constructed template. Utilizing hierarchical linear regression, SES effects on MRI volumes were examined. In this cohort of healthy African-American female infants of varying SES, lower SES was associated with smaller cortical gray and deep gray matter volumes. These SES effects on neural outcome at such a young age build on similar studies of older children, suggesting that the biological embedding of adversity may occur very early in development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. HMMR acts in the PLK1-dependent spindle positioning pathway and supports neural development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jihong; Kuan, Chia-Wei; Fotovati, Abbas; Chu, Tony LH; He, Zhengcheng; Lengyell, Tess C; Li, Huaibiao; Kroll, Torsten; Li, Amanda M; Goldowitz, Daniel; Frappart, Lucien; Ploubidou, Aspasia; Patel, Millan S; Pilarski, Linda M; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Lange, Philipp F; Allan, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    Oriented cell division is one mechanism progenitor cells use during development and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Common to most cell types is the asymmetric establishment and regulation of cortical NuMA-dynein complexes that position the mitotic spindle. Here, we discover that HMMR acts at centrosomes in a PLK1-dependent pathway that locates active Ran and modulates the cortical localization of NuMA-dynein complexes to correct mispositioned spindles. This pathway was discovered through the creation and analysis of Hmmr-knockout mice, which suffer neonatal lethality with defective neural development and pleiotropic phenotypes in multiple tissues. HMMR over-expression in immortalized cancer cells induces phenotypes consistent with an increase in active Ran including defects in spindle orientation. These data identify an essential role for HMMR in the PLK1-dependent regulatory pathway that orients progenitor cell division and supports neural development. PMID:28994651

  3. Types of neural cells in the spinal ganglia of human embryos and early fetuses.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, B; Woźniak, W; Gardner, E; O'Rahilly, R

    1979-01-01

    Spinal ganglial of human embryos and fetuses ranging in C.-R. length from 15 to 74 mm and in age from 6 1/2 to 11 postovulatory weeks were studied by light and electron microscopy. A sequence of events in differentiation and maturation enabled five types of cells to be distinguished: 1. apolar, undifferentiated neuroblasts are the main cells at 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 weeks; 2. early bipolar neuroblasts (strictly speaking, types 2 to 5 are immature neurons) predominate at the end of the embryonic period proper (8 postovulatory weeks); 3. intermediate bipolar neuroblasts are characteristic of the early fetal period; 4. late bipolar neuroblasts, in which two proceses arise separately from one pole of the cell, appear at about 10 postovulatory weeks; 5. unipolar neuroblasts are found within another week and, by that time, cells of types 1 and 2 are no longer present.

  4. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  5. The murine homeobox gene Msx-3 shows highly restricted expression in the developing neural tube.

    PubMed

    Shimeld, S M; McKay, I J; Sharpe, P T

    1996-04-01

    The mouse homeobox-genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are expressed in several areas of the developing embryo, including the neural tube, neural crest, facial processes and limb buds. Here we report the characterisation of a third mouse Msx gene, which we designate Msx-3. The embryonic expression of Msx-3 was found to differ from that of Msx-1 and -2 in that it was confined to the dorsal neural tube. In embryos with 5-8 somites a segmental pattern of expression was observed in the hindbrain, with rhombomeres 3 and 5 lacking Msx-3 while other rhombomeres expressed Msx-3. This pattern was transient, however, such that in embryos with 18 or more somites expression was continuous throughout the dorsal hindbrain and anterior dorsal spinal cord. Differentiation of dorsal cell types in the neural tube can be induced by addition of members of the Tgf-beta family. Additionally, Msx-1 and -2 have been shown to be activated by addition of the Tgf-beta family member Bmp-4. To determine if Bmp-4 could activate Msx-3, we incubated embryonic hindbrain explants with exogenous Bmp-4. The dorsal expression of Msx-3 was seen to expand into more ventral regions of the neurectoderm in Bmp-4-treated cultures, implying that Bmp-4 may be able to mimic an in vivo signal that induces Msx-3.

  6. Developing and using expert systems and neural networks in medicine: a review on benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Complicacy of clinical decisions justifies utilization of information systems such as artificial intelligence (e.g. expert systems and neural networks) to achieve better decisions, however, application of these systems in the medical domain faces some challenges. We aimed at to review the applications of these systems in the medical domain and discuss about such challenges. Following a brief introduction of expert systems and neural networks by representing few examples, the challenges of these systems in the medical domain are discussed. We found that the applications of expert systems and artificial neural networks have been increased in the medical domain. These systems have shown many advantages such as utilization of experts' knowledge, gaining rare knowledge, more time for assessment of the decision, more consistent decisions, and shorter decision-making process. In spite of all these advantages, there are challenges ahead of developing and using such systems including maintenance, required experts, inputting patients' data into the system, problems for knowledge acquisition, problems in modeling medical knowledge, evaluation and validation of system performance, wrong recommendations and responsibility, limited domains of such systems and necessity of integrating such systems into the routine work flows. We concluded that expert systems and neural networks can be successfully used in medicine; however, there are many concerns and questions to be answered through future studies and discussions.

  7. Neural responses to reward in childhood: relations to early behavioral inhibition and social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Benson, Brenda E; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Ernst, Monique

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early temperamental profile characterized by negative reactivity to novelty, withdrawal from social situations, and increased risk for social anxiety. Previous research associated BI assessed in early childhood to striatal hypersensitivity in mid-to-late adolescence. The present study examined this association among 10 year-olds, characterized with BI at ages 24 and 36 months on measures of temperamental reactivity. Participants (n = 40) were studied at age 10 using a reward processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Child- and maternal-report of social anxiety symptoms was collected at ages 10 and 13. Findings indicate greater caudate activation and stronger striatal connectivity in high, compared to low, behaviorally inhibited children. Caudate activation related to social anxiety symptoms at both ages. These findings suggest that enhanced striatal responsivity reliably manifests among high behaviorally inhibited children as early as age 10. This may reflect hyper-sensitivity to reward or excessive motivation to avoid errors. PMID:27531387

  8. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  10. The development of neural stimulators: a review of preclinical safety and efficacy studies.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Robert K; Villalobos, Joel; Burns, Owen; Nayagam, David

    2018-05-14

    Given the rapid expansion of the field of neural stimulation and the rigorous regulatory approval requirements required before these devices can be applied clinically, it is important that there is clarity around conducting preclinical safety and efficacy studies required for the development of this technology. The present review examines basic design principles associated with the development of a safe neural stimulator and describes the suite of preclinical safety studies that need to be considered when taking a device to clinical trial. Neural stimulators are active implantable devices that provide therapeutic intervention, sensory feedback or improved motor control via electrical stimulation of neural or neuro-muscular tissue in response to trauma or disease. Because of their complexity, regulatory bodies classify these devices in the highest risk category (Class III), and they are therefore required to go through a rigorous regulatory approval process before progressing to market. The successful development of these devices is achieved through close collaboration across disciplines including engineers, scientists and a surgical/clinical team, and the adherence to clear design principles. Preclinical studies form one of several key components in the development pathway from concept to product release of neural stimulators. Importantly, these studies provide iterative feedback in order to optimise the final design of the device. Key components of any preclinical evaluation include: in vitro studies that are focussed on device reliability and include accelerated testing under highly controlled environments; in vivo studies using animal models of the disease or injury in order to assess safety and, given an appropriate animal model, the efficacy of the technology under both passive and electrically active conditions; and human cadaver and ex vivo studies designed to ensure the device's form factor conforms to human anatomy, to optimise the surgical approach and to

  11. Precursors to morality in development as a complex interplay between neural, socioenvironmental, and behavioral facets

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, Jason M.; Decety, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The nature and underpinnings of infants’ seemingly complex, third-party, social evaluations remain highly contentious. Theoretical perspectives oscillate between rich and lean interpretations of the same expressed preferences. Although some argue that infants and toddlers possess a “moral sense” based on core knowledge of the social world, others suggest that social evaluations are hierarchical in nature and the product of an integration of rudimentary general processes such as attention allocation and approach and avoidance. Moreover, these biologically prepared minds interact in social environments that include significant variation, which are likely to impact early social evaluations and behavior. The present study examined the neural underpinnings of and precursors to moral sensitivity in infants and toddlers (n = 73, ages 12–24 mo) through a series of interwoven measures, combining multiple levels of analysis including electrophysiological, eye-tracking, behavioral, and socioenvironmental. Continuous EEG and time-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) and gaze fixation were recorded while children watched characters engaging in prosocial and antisocial actions in two different tasks. All children demonstrated a neural differentiation in both spectral EEG power density modulations and time-locked ERPs when perceiving prosocial or antisocial agents. Time-locked neural differences predicted children’s preference for prosocial characters and were influenced by parental values regarding justice and fairness. Overall, this investigation casts light on the fundamental nature of moral cognition, including its underpinnings in general processes such as attention and approach–withdrawal, providing plausible mechanisms of early change and a foundation for forward movement in the field of developmental social neuroscience. PMID:26324885

  12. Illness, at-risk and resilience neural markers of early-stage bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kangguang; Shao, Robin; Geng, Xiujuan; Chen, Kun; Lu, Rui; Gao, Yanling; Bi, Yanan; Lu, Weicong; Guan, Lijie; Kong, Jiehua; Xu, Guiyun; So, Kwok-Fai

    2018-05-21

    Current knowledge on objective and specific neural markers for bipolar risk and resilience-related processes is lacking, partly due to not subdividing high-risk individuals manifesting different levels of subclinical symptoms who possibly possess different levels of resilience. We delineated grey matter markers for bipolar illness, genetic high risk (endophenotype) and resilience, through comparing across 42 young non-comorbid bipolar patients, 42 healthy controls, and 72 diagnosis-free, medication-naive high-genetic-risk individuals subdivided into a combined-high-risk group who additionally manifested bipolar risk-relevant subsyndromes (N = 38), and an asymptomatic high-risk group (N = 34). Complementary analyses assessed the additional predictive and classification values of grey matter markers beyond those of clinical scores, through using logistic regression and support vector machine analyses. Illness-related effects manifested as reduced grey matter volumes of bilateral temporal limbic-striatal and cerebellar regions, which significantly differentiated bipolar patients from healthy controls and improved clinical classification specificity by 20%. Reduced bilateral cerebellar grey matter volume emerged as a potential endophenotype and (along with parieto-occipital grey matter changes) separated combined-high-risk individuals from healthy and high-risk individuals, and increased clinical classification specificity by approximately 10% and 27%, respectively, while the relatively normalized cerebellar grey matter volumes in the high-risk sample may confer resilience. The cross-validation procedure was not performed on an independent sample using independently-derived features. The BD group had different age and sex distributions than some other groups which may not be fully addressable statistically. Our framework can be applied in other measurement domains to derive complete profiles for bipolar patients and at-risk individuals, towards forming

  13. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  15. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  16. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  17. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  18. Early development of an enterprise health data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa Said; Al-Tuwaijri, Majid

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe early development challenges of an enterprise data warehouse within a Saudi Arabian academic healthcare facility. An action case research method was selected for this paper. The study took place between December 2009 and February 2010. Data collection included interviews, meeting observations, and meeting minutes. Early development challenges centered on the development of clear contracts with vendors; development of a clear project plan; a need to fast-track bureaucracy; and educate clinicians and staff about the project; and lack of data standardization.

  19. Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquière, Pol

    2017-10-01

    Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n=61) of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n=15). We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seem most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to be dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Roles of ADAM13-regulated Wnt activity in early Xenopus eye development

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuo; Xu, Guofeng; Bridges, Lance C.; Williams, Phoebe; Nakayama, Takuya; Shah, Anoop; Grainger, Robert M.; White, Judith M.; DeSimone, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Pericellular proteolysis by ADAM family metalloproteinases has been widely implicated in cell signaling and development. We recently found that Xenopus ADAM13, an ADAM metalloproteinase, is required for activation of canonical Wnt signaling during cranial neural crest (CNC) induction by regulating a novel crosstalk between Wnt and ephrin B (EfnB) signaling pathways (Wei et al., 2010b). In the present study we show that the metalloproteinase activity of ADAM13 also plays important roles in eye development in X. tropicalis. Knockdown of ADAM13 results in reduced expression of eye field markers pax6 and rx1, as well as that of the pan-neural marker sox2. Activation of canonical Wnt signaling or inhibition of forward EfnB signaling rescues the eye defects caused by loss of ADAM13, suggesting that ADAM13 functions through regulation of the EfnB-Wnt pathway interaction. Downstream of Wnt, the head inducer Cerberus was identified as an effector that mediates ADAM13 function in early eye field formation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the Wnt target gene snail2 restores cerberus expression and rescues the eye defects caused by ADAM13 knockdown. Together these data suggest an important role of ADAM13-regulated Wnt activity in eye development in Xenopus. PMID:22227340

  1. Quantitative analysis of bristle number in Drosophila mutants identifies genes involved in neural development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norga, Koenraad K.; Gurganus, Marjorie C.; Dilda, Christy L.; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Lyman, Richard F.; Patel, Prajal H.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Mackay, Trudy F.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of the function of all genes that contribute to specific biological processes and complex traits is one of the major challenges in the postgenomic era. One approach is to employ forward genetic screens in genetically tractable model organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, P element-mediated insertional mutagenesis is a versatile tool for the dissection of molecular pathways, and there is an ongoing effort to tag every gene with a P element insertion. However, the vast majority of P element insertion lines are viable and fertile as homozygotes and do not exhibit obvious phenotypic defects, perhaps because of the tendency for P elements to insert 5' of transcription units. Quantitative genetic analysis of subtle effects of P element mutations that have been induced in an isogenic background may be a highly efficient method for functional genome annotation. RESULTS: Here, we have tested the efficacy of this strategy by assessing the extent to which screening for quantitative effects of P elements on sensory bristle number can identify genes affecting neural development. We find that such quantitative screens uncover an unusually large number of genes that are known to function in neural development, as well as genes with yet uncharacterized effects on neural development, and novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish the use of quantitative trait analysis for functional genome annotation through forward genetics. Similar analyses of quantitative effects of P element insertions will facilitate our understanding of the genes affecting many other complex traits in Drosophila.

  2. A heuristic neural network initialization scheme for modeling nonlinear functions in engineering mechanics: continuous development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Jin-Song; Mai, Eric C.

    2007-04-01

    This paper introduces a continuous effort towards the development of a heuristic initialization methodology for constructing multilayer feedforward neural networks to model nonlinear functions. In this and previous studies that this work is built upon, including the one presented at SPIE 2006, the authors do not presume to provide a universal method to approximate arbitrary functions, rather the focus is given to the development of a rational and unambiguous initialization procedure that applies to the approximation of nonlinear functions in the specific domain of engineering mechanics. The applications of this exploratory work can be numerous including those associated with potential correlation and interpretation of the inner workings of neural networks, such as damage detection. The goal of this study is fulfilled by utilizing the governing physics and mathematics of nonlinear functions and the strength of the sigmoidal basis function. A step-by-step graphical procedure utilizing a few neural network prototypes as "templates" to approximate commonly seen memoryless nonlinear functions of one or two variables is further developed in this study. Decomposition of complex nonlinear functions into a summation of some simpler nonlinear functions is utilized to exploit this prototype-based initialization methodology. Training examples are presented to demonstrate the rationality and effciency of the proposed methodology when compared with the popular Nguyen-Widrow initialization algorithm. Future work is also identfied.

  3. Dynamics of modularity of neural activity in the brain during development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael; Chen, Man

    2014-03-01

    Theory suggests that more modular systems can have better response functions at short times. This theory suggests that greater cognitive performance may be achieved for more modular neural activity, and that modularity of neural activity may, therefore, likely increase with development in children. We study the relationship between age and modularity of brain neural activity in developing children. The value of modularity calculated from fMRI data is observed to increase during childhood development and peak in young adulthood. We interpret these results as evidence of selection for plasticity in the cognitive function of the human brain. We present a model to illustrate how modularity can provide greater cognitive performance at short times and enhance fast, low-level, automatic cognitive processes. Conversely, high-level, effortful, conscious cognitive processes may not benefit from modularity. We use quasispecies theory to predict how the average modularity evolves with age, given a fitness function extracted from the model. We suggest further experiments exploring the effect of modularity on cognitive performance and suggest that modularity may be a potential biomarker for injury, rehabilitation, or disease.

  4. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  5. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  6. Getting an Early Start on Early Child Development. Education Notes. 30194

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming; Dunkelberg, Erika

    2004-01-01

    The children born this year--2004--will be eleven years old in 2015--the age of primary school completion in most countries. This is the MDG (Millennium Development Goal) generation--for whom the international community has pledged that by 2015, all children will be able to complete primary schooling. Ensuring good early child development is the…

  7. Characterization of Pax3 and Sox10 transgenic Xenopus laevis embryos as tools to study neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Alkobtawi, Mansour; Ray, Heather; Barriga, Elias H; Moreno, Mauricio; Kerney, Ryan; Monsoro-Burq, Anne-Helene; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre; Mayor, Roberto

    2018-03-06

    The neural crest is a multipotent population of cells that originates a variety of cell types. Many animal models are used to study neural crest induction, migration and differentiation, with amphibians and birds being the most widely used systems. A major technological advance to study neural crest development in mouse, chick and zebrafish has been the generation of transgenic animals in which neural crest specific enhancers/promoters drive the expression of either fluorescent proteins for use as lineage tracers, or modified genes for use in functional studies. Unfortunately, no such transgenic animals currently exist for the amphibians Xenopus laevis and tropicalis, key model systems for studying neural crest development. Here we describe the generation and characterization of two transgenic Xenopus laevis lines, Pax3-GFP and Sox10-GFP, in which GFP is expressed in the pre-migratory and migratory neural crest, respectively. We show that Pax3-GFP could be a powerful tool to study neural crest induction, whereas Sox10-GFP could be used in the study of neural crest migration in living embryos. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early and late selection processes have separable influences on the neural substrates of attention.

    PubMed

    Drisdelle, Brandi Lee; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of target selection, we examined how the spatial separation of salient items and their similarity to a pre-defined target interact using lateralised electrophysiological correlates of visual spatial attention (N2pc component) and visual short-term memory (VSTM; SPCN component). Using these features of target selection, we sought to expand on previous work proposing a model of early and late selection, where the N2pc is suggested to reflect the selection probability of visual stimuli (Aubin and Jolicoeur, 2016). The authors suggested that early-selection processes could be enhanced when items are adjacent. In the present work, the stimuli were short oriented lines, all of which were grey except for two that were blue and hence salient. A decrease in N2pc amplitude with decreasing spatial separation between salient items was observed. The N2pc increased in amplitude with increasing similarity of salient distractors to the target template, but only in target-absent trials. There was no interaction between these two factors, suggesting that separable attentional mechanisms influenced the N2pc. The findings suggest that selection is initially based on easily-distinguished attributes (i.e., both blue items) followed by a later identification-based process (if necessary), which depends on feature similarity to a target template. For the SPCN component, the results were in line with previous work: for target-present trials, an increase in similarity of salient distractors was associated with an increase in SPCN amplitude, suggesting more information was maintained in VSTM. In sum, results suggest there is a need for further inspection of salient distractors when they are similar to the target, increasing the need for focal attention, demonstrated by an increase in N2pc amplitude, followed by a higher probability of transfer to VSTM, demonstrated by an increase in SPCN amplitude. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Hippocampal Contribution to Context Encoding across Development Is Disrupted following Early-Life Adversity.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Hilary K; Sheridan, Margaret A; Sambrook, Kelly A; Rosen, Maya L; Askren, Mary K; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2017-02-15

    Context can drastically influence responses to environmental stimuli. For example, a gunshot should provoke a different response at a public park than a shooting range. Little is known about how contextual processing and neural correlates change across human development or about individual differences related to early environmental experiences. Children ( N = 60; 8-19 years, 24 exposed to interpersonal violence) completed a context encoding task during fMRI scanning using a delayed match-to-sample design with neutral, happy, and angry facial cues embedded in realistic background scenes. Outside the scanner, participants completed a memory test for context-face pairings. Context memory and neural correlates of context encoding did not vary with age. Larger hippocampal volume was associated with better context memory. Posterior hippocampus was recruited during context encoding, and greater activation in this region predicted better memory for contexts paired with angry faces. Children exposed to violence had poor memory of contexts paired with angry faces, reduced hippocampal volume, and atypical neural recruitment on encoding trials with angry faces, including reduced hippocampal activation and greater functional connectivity between hippocampus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Greater hippocampus-vlPFC connectivity was associated with worse memory for contexts paired with angry faces. Posterior hippocampus appears to support context encoding, a process that does not exhibit age-related variation from middle childhood to late adolescence. Exposure to dangerous environments in childhood is associated with poor context encoding in the presence of threat, likely due to greater vlPFC-dependent attentional narrowing on threat cues at the expense of hippocampus-dependent processing of the broader context. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ability to use context to guide reactions to environmental stimuli promotes flexible behavior. Remarkably little research has

  10. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Early childhood traumatic development and its impact on gender identity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y

    2001-03-01

    The author clarifies issues of gender identity typical to contemporary Western societies. Nowadays, we tend to emphasize self-autonomy as the main target of the individual's development. In adolescence this may cause many questions as to the adolescent's conception of his or her gender and sexual identity. These questions are the outcome of early development, and thus early traumas may impact the entire gender development. In this context, trauma includes not only major violations such as sexual abuse, terror attacks, and so forth, but also comprises events heretofore considered minor.

  12. The role of Foxi family transcription factors in otic placode and neural crest cell development

    PubMed Central

    Edlund, Renée K.; Birol, Onur; Groves, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian outer, middle and inner ears have different embryonic origins and evolved at different times in the vertebrate lineage. The outer ear is derived from first and second branchial arch ectoderm and mesoderm, the middle ear ossicles are derived from neural crest mesenchymal cells that invade the first and second branchial arches, whereas the inner ear and its associated vestibule-acoustic (VIIIth) ganglion are derived from the otic placode. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the development of these structures and describe the contributions of members of a Forkhead transcription factor family, the Foxi family to their formation. Foxi transcription factors are critical for formation of the otic placode, survival of the branchial arch neural crest, and developmental remodeling of the branchial arch ectoderm. PMID:25662269

  13. LKB1 signaling in cephalic neural crest cells is essential for vertebrate head development.

    PubMed

    Creuzet, Sophie E; Viallet, Jean P; Ghawitian, Maya; Torch, Sakina; Thélu, Jacques; Alrajeh, Moussab; Radu, Anca G; Bouvard, Daniel; Costagliola, Floriane; Borgne, Maïlys Le; Buchet-Poyau, Karine; Aznar, Nicolas; Buschlen, Sylvie; Hosoya, Hiroshi; Thibert, Chantal; Billaud, Marc

    2016-10-15

    Head development in vertebrates proceeds through a series of elaborate patterning mechanisms and cell-cell interactions involving cephalic neural crest cells (CNCC). These cells undergo extensive migration along stereotypical paths after their separation from the dorsal margins of the neural tube and they give rise to most of the craniofacial skeleton. Here, we report that the silencing of the LKB1 tumor suppressor affects the delamination of pre-migratory CNCC from the neural primordium as well as their polarization and survival, thus resulting in severe facial and brain defects. We further show that LKB1-mediated effects on the development of CNCC involve the sequential activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the Rho-dependent kinase (ROCK) and the actin-based motor protein myosin II. Collectively, these results establish that the complex morphogenetic processes governing head formation critically depends on the activation of the LKB1 signaling network in CNCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Susumu; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Tanaka, Mari; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8–9 years) were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth) and the type of context (social and less social). Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists' preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others' preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found marginally greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL) under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children. PMID:23730281

  15. Early Learning and Development: Cultural-Historical Concepts in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    "Early Learning and Development" provides a unique synthesis of cultural-historical theory from Vygotsky, Elkonin and Leontiev in the 20th century to the ground-breaking research of scholars such as Siraj-Blatchford, Kratsova and Hedegaard today. It demonstrates how development and learning are culturally embedded and institutionally defined, and…

  16. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  17. Helping Families Connect Early Literacy with Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…

  18. Aesthetic Experience and Early Language and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper explores the connections between theory and research in language development and aesthetic education and their implications for early childhood classroom practice. The present paper posits that arts experiences make a unique and vital contribution to the child's development of language and literacy, as well as to the sense of…

  19. Professional development session for early career scientists at SITC 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2012 Professional Development Session was held as part of the SITC 27th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, on October 24, 2012. The session was designed as a new opportunity for early career investigators to learn about relevant career development topics in a didactic setting. PMID:25742323

  20. Promising Directions for Research and Development in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David L.

    A survey of research and development studies currently needed in early childhood education stresses child development and its relation to instruction. Topics which have been discussed are perception, oral language, concept formation, learning set, motivation, and the psychology of learning. Universities and public school systems working together…

  1. Instructional Development for Early Career Academics: An Overview of Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, the issue of improving teaching in higher education has been seriously addressed. Centres for instructional development, aimed at enhancing teaching, have been set up in many countries. Instructional development for early career academics is perceived to be of particular importance. Given the considerable…

  2. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  3. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  4. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  5. Mapping of Courtship Behavior-Induced Neural Activity in the Thoracic Ganglia of Silkmoth Bombyx mori by an Immediate Early Gene, Hr38.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Koudai; Iwami, Masafumi; Kiya, Taketoshi

    2018-06-01

    In the central nervous system of insects, motor patterns are generated in the thoracic ganglia under the control of brain, where sensory information is integrated and behavioral decisions are made. Previously, we established neural activity-mapping methods using an immediate early gene, BmHr38, as a neural activity marker in the brain of male silkmoth Bombyx mori. In the present study, to gain insights into neural mechanisms of motor-pattern generation in the thoracic ganglia, we investigated expression of BmHr38 in response to sex pheromone-induced courtship behavior. Levels of BmHr38 expression were strongly correlated between the brain and thoracic ganglia, suggesting that neural activity in the thoracic ganglia is tightly controlled by the brain. In situ hybridization of BmHr38 revealed that 20-30% of thoracic neurons are activated by courtship behavior. Using serial sections, we constructed a comprehensive map of courtship behaviorinduced activity in the thoracic ganglia. These results provide important clues into how complex courtship behavior is generated in the neural circuits of thoracic ganglia.

  6. Neural Network Development in Late Adolescents during Observation of Risk-Taking Action

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  7. Development and Training of a Neural Controller for Hind Leg Walking in a Dog Robot

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Alexander; Szczecinski, Nicholas; Quinn, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Animals dynamically adapt to varying terrain and small perturbations with remarkable ease. These adaptations arise from complex interactions between the environment and biomechanical and neural components of the animal's body and nervous system. Research into mammalian locomotion has resulted in several neural and neuro-mechanical models, some of which have been tested in simulation, but few “synthetic nervous systems” have been implemented in physical hardware models of animal systems. One reason is that the implementation into a physical system is not straightforward. For example, it is difficult to make robotic actuators and sensors that model those in the animal. Therefore, even if the sensorimotor circuits were known in great detail, those parameters would not be applicable and new parameter values must be found for the network in the robotic model of the animal. This manuscript demonstrates an automatic method for setting parameter values in a synthetic nervous system composed of non-spiking leaky integrator neuron models. This method works by first using a model of the system to determine required motor neuron activations to produce stable walking. Parameters in the neural system are then tuned systematically such that it produces similar activations to the desired pattern determined using expected sensory feedback. We demonstrate that the developed method successfully produces adaptive locomotion in the rear legs of a dog-like robot actuated by artificial muscles. Furthermore, the results support the validity of current models of mammalian locomotion. This research will serve as a basis for testing more complex locomotion controllers and for testing specific sensory pathways and biomechanical designs. Additionally, the developed method can be used to automatically adapt the neural controller for different mechanical designs such that it could be used to control different robotic systems. PMID:28420977

  8. Wise promotes coalescence of cells of neural crest and placode origins in the trigeminal region during head development.

    PubMed

    Shigetani, Yasuyo; Howard, Sara; Guidato, Sonia; Furushima, Kenryo; Abe, Takaya; Itasaki, Nobue

    2008-07-15

    While most cranial ganglia contain neurons of either neural crest or placodal origin, neurons of the trigeminal ganglion derive from both populations. The Wnt signaling pathway is known to be required for the development of neural crest cells and for trigeminal ganglion formation, however, migrating neural crest cells do not express any known Wnt ligands. Here we demonstrate that Wise, a Wnt modulator expressed in the surface ectoderm overlying the trigeminal ganglion, play a role in promoting the assembly of placodal and neural crest cells. When overexpressed in chick, Wise causes delamination of ectodermal cells and attracts migrating neural crest cells. Overexpression of Wise is thus sufficient to ectopically induce ganglion-like structures consisting of both origins. The function of Wise is likely synergized with Wnt6, expressed in an overlapping manner with Wise in the surface ectoderm. Electroporation of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides against Wise and Wnt6 causes decrease in the contact of neural crest cells with the delaminated placode-derived cells. In addition, targeted deletion of Wise in mouse causes phenotypes that can be explained by a decrease in the contribution of neural crest cells to the ophthalmic lobe of the trigeminal ganglion. These data suggest that Wise is able to function cell non-autonomously on neural crest cells and promote trigeminal ganglion formation.

  9. Confocal Imaging of Early Heart Development in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Kolker, Sandra J.; Tajchman, Urszula; Weeks, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Xenopus laevis provides a number of advantages for studies on cardiovascular development. The embryos are fairly large, easy to obtain, and can develop at ambient temperature in simple buffer solutions. Although classic descriptions of heart development exist, the ability to use whole mount immunohistochemical methods and confocal microscopy may enhance the ability to understand both normal and experimentally perturbed cardiovascular development. We have started to examine the early stages of cardiac development in Xenopus, seeking to identify antibodies and fixatives that allow easy examination of the developing heart. We have used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against bovine cardiac troponin T and chicken tropomyosin to visualize cardiac muscle, a goat antibody recognizing bovine type VI collagen to stain the lining of vessels, and the JB3 mAb raised against chicken fibrillin which allows the visualization of a variety of cardiovascular tissues during early development. Results from embryonic stages 24–46 are presented. PMID:10644411

  10. Challenges in early clinical development of adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Della Cioppa, Giovanni; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Lewis, David

    2015-06-08

    A three-step approach to the early development of adjuvanted vaccine candidates is proposed, the goal of which is to allow ample space for exploratory and hypothesis-generating human experiments and to select dose(s) and dosing schedule(s) to bring into full development. Although the proposed approach is more extensive than the traditional early development program, the authors suggest that by addressing key questions upfront the overall time, size and cost of development will be reduced and the probability of public health advancement enhanced. The immunogenicity end-points chosen for early development should be critically selected: an established immunological parameter with a well characterized assay should be selected as primary end-point for dose and schedule finding; exploratory information-rich end-points should be limited in number and based on pre-defined hypothesis generating plans, including system biology and pathway analyses. Building a pharmacodynamic profile is an important aspect of early development: to this end, multiple early (within 24h) and late (up to one year) sampling is necessary, which can be accomplished by sampling subgroups of subjects at different time points. In most cases the final target population, even if vulnerable, should be considered for inclusion in early development. In order to obtain the multiple formulations necessary for the dose and schedule finding, "bed-side mixing" of various components of the vaccine is often necessary: this is a complex and underestimated area that deserves serious research and logistical support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Early Measures of Comprehension: Innovation in Individual Growth and Development Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Rodriguez, Megan I.; Bradfield, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Early comprehension is an important, but not well-understood, contribution to early literacy and language development. Specifically, research regarding the nature of skills representative of early comprehension, including how they contribute to later reading success, is needed to support best practices to adequately prepare students. This article…

  12. The development of self-regulation across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Montroy, Janelle J; Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; McClelland, Megan M; Morrison, Frederick J

    2016-11-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and 7 years, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across 3 diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow 3 distinct developmental patterns of growth. These 3 trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds, with implications for offering individualized support across children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of three and seven, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across three diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow three distinct developmental patterns of growth. These three trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds with implications for offering individualized support across children. PMID:27709999

  14. Neural Correlates of Self-Reference Effect in Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Malo; Villain, Nicolas; Landeau, Brigitte; Mézenge, Florence; Egret, Stéphanie; Perrotin, Audrey; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Rauchs, Géraldine

    2017-01-01

    Information that is processed with reference to the self (i.e., self-referential processing, SRP) is generally associated with better remembering than information processed in a semantic condition. This benefit of self on memory performance is called self-reference effect (SRE). In the present study, we assessed changes in the SRE and SRP-related brain activity in patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimer's disease (MCI/AD). Fifteen patients with confirmed amyloid-β deposits (positive florbetapir-PET scan) and 28 healthy controls (negative florbetapir-PET scan) were included. Participants either had to judge personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves (self condition) or to a celebrity (other condition), or determine whether these adjectives were positive or not (semantic condition). These adjectives were then presented with distractors in a surprise recognition task. Functional MRI data were acquired during both the judgment and recognition tasks. The SRE was observed in controls, but reduced in patients. Both controls and patients activated cortical midline structures when judging items with reference to themselves, but patients exhibited reduced activity in the angular gyrus. In patients, activity at encoding in the angular gyrus positively correlated with subsequent recognition accuracy in the self condition (self accuracy). This region also exhibited significant hypometabolism and Aβ burden, both related to self accuracy. By contrast, there were no differences in brain activity during recognition, either between the self and semantic conditions, or between groups. These results highlight SRE impairment in patients with MCI/AD, despite intact activity in cortical midline structures, and suggest that dysfunction of the angular gyrus is related to this impairment.

  15. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development

    SciT

    Tan, Yu, E-mail: tanyu2048@163.com; Fu, Runqing, E-mail: furunqing@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Jiaqiang, E-mail: liujqmj@163.com

    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of themore » craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. -- Highlights: •We firstly reported that ADAM10 was essentially involved in maxillofacial bone development. •ADAM10 cKO mice present craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. •Impaired osteoblast differentiation,proliferation and apoptosis underlie the bone deformity.« less

  16. An auxiliary classification diagnosis software development of cervical cancer medical data based on various artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yong; Lei, Kai; Zhang, Lizeqing; Xing, Ximing; Gou, Wenyue

    2018-06-01

    This paper introduced the development of a self-serving medical data assisted diagnosis software of cervical cancer on the basis of artificial neural network (SVN, FNN, KNN). The system is developed based on the idea of self-service platform, supported by the application and innovation of neural network algorithm in medical data identification. Furthermore, it combined the advanced methods in various fields to effectively solve the complicated and inaccurate problem of cervical canceration data in the traditional manual treatment.

  17. Znf703, a novel target of Pax3 and Zic1, regulates hindbrain and neural crest development in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Soo; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    The transcription factors Pax3 and Zic1 are critical to specify the neural plate border and to promote neural crest formation. In a microarray screen designed to identify genes regulated by Pax3 and Zic1 in Xenopus we isolated Znf703/Nlz1 a transcriptional repressor member of the NET (NocA/Nlz, Elbow, and TLP-1) protein family. At early neurula stage znf703 is expressed in the dorsal ectoderm, spanning the neural plate and neural plate border, with an anterior boundary of expression corresponding to rhombomeres 3 and 4 (r3/r4) in the prospective hindbrain. As a bonafide target of Pax3 and Zic1, znf703 is activated by neural plate border inducing signals, and its expression depends on Pax3 and Zic1 function in the embryo. Znf703 morpholino-mediated knockdown expanded several posterior hindbrain genes, while Znf703 overexpression completely obliterated the expression of these segmental genes, signifying that the transcriptional repressor activity of Znf703 is critical to pattern the hindbrain. Furthermore, snai2 and sox10 expression was severely impaired upon manipulation of Znf703 expression levels in the embryo suggesting that Znf703 participates in neural crest formation downstream of Pax3 and Zic1 in Xenopus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Using cross-species comparisons and a neurobiological framework to understand early social deprivation effects on behavioral development.

    PubMed

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fleming, Alison S; Kraemer, Gary W; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-05-01

    Building upon the transactional model of brain development, we explore the impact of early maternal deprivation on neural development and plasticity in three neural systems: hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive function, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning across rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies. Recognizing the complexity of early maternal-infant interactions, we limit our cross-species comparisons to data from rodent models of artificial rearing, nonhuman primate studies of peer rearing, and the relations between these two experimental approaches and human studies of children exposed to the early severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care. In addition to discussing the strengths and limitations of these paradigms, we present the current state of research on the neurobiological impact of early maternal deprivation and the evidence of sensitive periods, noting methodological challenges. Integrating data across preclinical animal models and human studies, we speculate about the underlying biological mechanisms; the differential impact of deprivation due to temporal factors including onset, offset, and duration of the exposure; and the possibility and consequences of reopening of sensitive periods during adolescence.

  19. Using cross-species comparisons and a neurobiological framework to understand early social deprivation effects on behavioral development

    PubMed Central

    BRETT, ZOË H.; HUMPHREYS, KATHRYN L.; FLEMING, ALISON S.; KRAEMER, GARY W.; DRURY, STACY S.

    2017-01-01

    Building upon the transactional model of brain development, we explore the impact of early maternal deprivation on neural development and plasticity in three neural systems: hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive function, and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning across rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies. Recognizing the complexity of early maternal–infant interactions, we limit our cross-species comparisons to data from rodent models of artificial rearing, nonhuman primate studies of peer rearing, and the relations between these two experimental approaches and human studies of children exposed to the early severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care. In addition to discussing the strengths and limitations of these paradigms, we present the current state of research on the neurobiological impact of early maternal deprivation and the evidence of sensitive periods, noting methodological challenges. Integrating data across preclinical animal models and human studies, we speculate about the underlying biological mechanisms; the differential impact of deprivation due to temporal factors including onset, offset, and duration of the exposure; and the possibility and consequences of reopening of sensitive periods during adolescence. PMID:25997759

  20. Motor development and motor resonance difficulties in autism: relevance to early intervention for language and communication skills

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Joseph P.; Elliott, Natasha A.; Sampanis, Dimitrios S.; Stefanidou, Chrysi A.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural “mirroring” mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective. PMID:23630476

  1. Lateralization of ERPs to speech and handedness in the early development of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Finch, Kayla H; Seery, Anne M; Talbott, Meagan R; Nelson, Charles A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Language is a highly lateralized function, with typically developing individuals showing left hemispheric specialization. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often show reduced or reversed hemispheric lateralization in response to language. However, it is unclear when this difference emerges and whether or not it can serve as an early ASD biomarker. Additionally, atypical language lateralization is not specific to ASD as it is also seen more frequently in individuals with mixed- and left-handedness. Here, we examined early asymmetry patterns measured through neural responses to speech sounds at 12 months and behavioral observations of handedness at 36 months in children with and without ASD. Three different groups of children participated in the study: low-risk controls (LRC), high risk for ASD (HRA; infants with older sibling with ASD) without ASD, and HRA infants who later receive a diagnosis of ASD (ASD). Event-related potentials (ERPs) to speech sounds were recorded at 12 months. Utilizing a novel observational approach, handedness was measured by hand preference on a variety of behaviors at 36 months. At 12 months, lateralization patterns of ERPs to speech stimuli differed across the groups with the ASD group showing reversed lateralization compared to the LRC group. At 36 months, factor analysis of behavioral observations of hand preferences indicated a one-factor model with medium to high factor loadings. A composite handedness score was derived; no group differences were observed. There was no association between lateralization to speech at 12 months and handedness at 36 months in the LRC and HRA groups. However, children with ASD did show an association such that infants with lateralization patterns more similar to the LRC group at 12 months were stronger right-handers at 36 months. These results highlight early developmental patterns that might be specific to ASD, including a potential early biomarker of reversed lateralization to

  2. Neural crest cells: from developmental biology to clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Noisa, Parinya; Raivio, Taneli

    2014-09-01

    Neural crest cells are multipotent cells, which are specified in embryonic ectoderm in the border of neural plate and epiderm during early development by interconnection of extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic factors. Neural crest cells are capable of differentiating into various somatic cell types, including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, and peripheral nervous cells, which supports their promise for cell therapy. In this work, we provide a comprehensive review of wide aspects of neural crest cells from their developmental biology to applicability in medical research. We provide a simplified model of neural crest cell development and highlight the key external stimuli and intrinsic regulators that determine the neural crest cell fate. Defects of neural crest cell development leading to several human disorders are also mentioned, with the emphasis of using human induced pluripotent stem cells to model neurocristopathic syndromes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of a Neural Network Simulator for Studying the Constitutive Behavior of Structural Composite Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Na, Hyuntae; Lee, Seung-Yub; Üstündag, Ersan; ...

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a recent development and application of a noncommercial artificial neural network (ANN) simulator with graphical user interface (GUI) to assist in rapid data modeling and analysis in the engineering diffraction field. The real-time network training/simulation monitoring tool has been customized for the study of constitutive behavior of engineering materials, and it has improved data mining and forecasting capabilities of neural networks. This software has been used to train and simulate the finite element modeling (FEM) data for a fiber composite system, both forward and inverse. The forward neural network simulation precisely reduplicates FEM results several orders ofmore » magnitude faster than the slow original FEM. The inverse simulation is more challenging; yet, material parameters can be meaningfully determined with the aid of parameter sensitivity information. The simulator GUI also reveals that output node size for materials parameter and input normalization method for strain data are critical train conditions in inverse network. The successful use of ANN modeling and simulator GUI has been validated through engineering neutron diffraction experimental data by determining constitutive laws of the real fiber composite materials via a mathematically rigorous and physically meaningful parameter search process, once the networks are successfully trained from the FEM database.« less

  4. ADAM10 is essential for cranial neural crest-derived maxillofacial bone development.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu; Fu, Runqing; Liu, Jiaqiang; Wu, Yong; Wang, Bo; Jiang, Ning; Nie, Ping; Cao, Haifeng; Yang, Zhi; Fang, Bing

    2016-07-08

    Growth disorders of the craniofacial bones may lead to craniofacial deformities. The majority of maxillofacial bones are derived from cranial neural crest cells via intramembranous bone formation. Any interruption of the craniofacial skeleton development process might lead to craniofacial malformation. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 plays an essential role in organ development and tissue integrity in different organs. However, little is known about its function in craniofacial bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of ADAM10 in the developing craniofacial skeleton, particularly during typical mandibular bone development. First, we showed that ADAM10 was expressed in a specific area of the craniofacial bone and that the expression pattern dynamically changed during normal mouse craniofacial development. Then, we crossed wnt1-cre transgenic mice with adam10-flox mice to generate ADAM10 conditional knockout mice. The stereomicroscopic, radiographic, and von Kossa staining results showed that conditional knockout of ADAM10 in cranial neural crest cells led to embryonic death, craniofacial dysmorphia and bone defects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that impaired mineralization could be triggered by decreased osteoblast differentiation, increased cell death. Overall, these findings show that ADAM10 plays an essential role in craniofacial bone development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  6. Recent advances in neural dust: towards a neural interface platform.

    PubMed

    Neely, Ryan M; Piech, David K; Santacruz, Samantha R; Maharbiz, Michel M; Carmena, Jose M

    2018-06-01

    The neural dust platform uses ultrasonic power and communication to enable a scalable, wireless, and batteryless system for interfacing with the nervous system. Ultrasound offers several advantages over alternative wireless approaches, including a safe method for powering and communicating with sub mm-sized devices implanted deep in tissue. Early studies demonstrated that neural dust motes could wirelessly transmit high-fidelity electrophysiological data in vivo, and that theoretically, this system could be miniaturized well below the mm-scale. Future developments are focused on further minimization of the platform, better encapsulation methods as a path towards truly chronic neural interfaces, improved delivery mechanisms, stimulation capabilities, and finally refinements to enable deployment of neural dust in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Embedded Professional Development and Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: Early Diagnostic Reading Intervention through Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…

  8. New Hampshire Early Childhood Professional Development System: Guide to Early Childhood Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Tessa, Ed.

    The community of child care providers in New Hampshire has adopted the Early Childhood Professional Development System as an initial step toward assuring quality care and education for children. This guide describes the components of that system and is presented in eight sections. Section 1 of the guide introduces the system based on a set of two…

  9. The Australian Early Development Index: Reshaping Family-Child Relationships in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the cultural significance of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) and discusses changes that the discourse of this instrument makes to the way in which the child is conceptualised. It analyses the technological function of the AEDI to examine how it makes the child a universal resource for human capital. The article…

  10. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  11. Neural Crest-Derived Mesenchymal Cells Require Wnt Signaling for Their Development and Drive Invagination of the Telencephalic Midline

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Youngshik; Zarbalis, Konstantinos S.; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic neural crest cells contribute to the development of the craniofacial mesenchyme, forebrain meninges and perivascular cells. In this study, we investigated the function of ß-catenin signaling in neural crest cells abutting the dorsal forebrain during development. In the absence of ß-catenin signaling, neural crest cells failed to expand in the interhemispheric region and produced ectopic smooth muscle cells instead of generating dermal and calvarial mesenchyme. In contrast, constitutive expression of stabilized ß-catenin in neural crest cells increased the number of mesenchymal lineage precursors suggesting that ß-catenin signaling is necessary for the expansion of neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, the loss of neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) leads to failure of telencephalic midline invagination and causes ventricular system defects. This study shows that ß-catenin signaling is required for the switch of neural crest cells to MSCs and mediates the expansion of MSCs to drive the formation of mesenchymal structures of the head. Furthermore, loss of these structures causes striking defects in forebrain morphogenesis. PMID:24516524

  12. Dynamic expression of the LAP family of genes during early development of Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiutan; Lv, Xiaoyan; Kong, Qinghua; Li, Chaocui; Zhou, Qin; Mao, Bingyu

    2011-10-01

    The leucine-rich repeats and PDZ (LAP) family of genes are crucial for the maintenance of cell polarity as well as for epithelial homeostasis and tumor suppression in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Four members of this gene family are known: densin, erbin, scribble and lano. Here, we identified the four members of the LAP gene family in Xenopus tropicalis and studied their expression patterns during embryonic development. The Xenopus LAP proteins show a conserved domain structure that is similar to their homologs in other vertebrates. In Xenopus embryos, these genes were detected in animal cap cells at the early gastrula stage. At later stages of development, they were widely expressed in epithelial tissues that are highly polar in nature, including the neural epithelia, optic and otic vesicles, and in the pronephros. These data suggest that the roles of the Xenopus LAP genes in the control of cell polarity and morphogenesis are conserved during early development. Erbin and lano show similar expression patterns in the developing head, suggesting potential functional interactions between the two molecules in vivo.

  13. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p < .0001 controls vs. PWS and controls vs. EMO). As both conditions are characterized by early-onset obesity and slowed cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  14. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J.; White, William A.; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5–30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates. PMID:24927579

  15. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-07-15

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates.

  16. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    PubMed

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  17. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    PubMed

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  19. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  20. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  1. The Ecology of Early Reading Development for Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kainz, Kirsten; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated reading development from kindergarten to third grade for 1,913 economically disadvantaged children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Characteristics of the child, the family, classroom instruction, and school composition were used to model influences from multiple levels of children's…

  2. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  3. Changing the Perspective on Early Development of Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Wolin, Thomas; Zhang, Dajie; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pini, Giorgio; Zappella, Michele; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Einspieler, Christa; Johnston, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    We delineated the achievement of early speech-language milestones in 15 young children with Rett syndrome ("MECP2" positive) in the first two years of life using retrospective video analysis. By contrast to the commonly accepted concept that these children are normal in the pre-regression period, we found markedly atypical development of…

  4. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  5. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  6. The Use of Electrophysiology in the Study of Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szucs, Denes

    2005-01-01

    Electrophysiology is a timely and important tool in the study of early cognitive development. This commentary polishes the definition of event-related potential (ERP) components; often interpreted as expressions of mental processes. Further, attention is drawn to time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which conveys much more…

  7. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  8. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  9. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  10. Career Planning and Development for Early-Career Scientists

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early career development can be looked at as being of two major phases. The first phase is the formal educational process leading to an awarded degree, postdoctoral training, and potentially formal certification in a scientific discipline. The second phase is the informal educa...

  11. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  12. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  13. Guidelines for Making a Video Presentation on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carolyn S.; And Others

    This paper discusses the production of videotape recordings illustrating developmental milestones of early childhood to serve as a reference point in working with parents or staff caring for young children who have disabilities. Procedures for making a video presentation include the following steps: select a topic (such as motor development,…

  14. Approaches to Developing Health in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…

  15. Formative Evaluation of the Early Development Instrument: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a commentary for the special issue on the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a community tool to assess children's school readiness and developmental outcomes at a group level. The EDI is administered by kindergarten teachers, who assess their kindergarten students on 5 developmental domains: physical health and well-being, social…

  16. State Guide to Developing Successful Early Childhood Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICF International (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Early education leaders--inside and outside of government--are looking for new ways to improve quality, accountability, and efficiency across many different programs serving young children and their families, and they see investment in data systems as a pivotal part of that effort. However, it can be challenging to develop and implement effective…

  17. Towards Sustainable National Development through Well Managed Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nath M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relating to sustainable development and effective management of early childhood education. The child is the "owner" of the future. The problems that confront the current generation are complex and serious that cannot be addressed in the same way they were created. But they can be addressed. The concept of…

  18. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  19. Black Female Faculty Success and Early Career Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of Black female junior scholars have participated in an early career professional development program designed to address socialization issues through individual and small group mentoring. This descriptive qualitative study investigated scholars' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of a research…

  20. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  1. Novel Roles for Immune Molecules in Neural Development: Implications for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Garay, Paula A.; McAllister, A. Kimberley

    2010-01-01

    Although the brain has classically been considered “immune-privileged”, current research suggests an extensive communication between the immune and nervous systems in both health and disease. Recent studies demonstrate that immune molecules are present at the right place and time to modulate the development and function of the healthy and diseased central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, immune molecules play integral roles in the CNS throughout neural development, including affecting neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axon guidance, synapse formation, activity-dependent refinement of circuits, and synaptic plasticity. Moreover, the roles of individual immune molecules in the nervous system may change over development. This review focuses on the effects of immune molecules on neuronal connections in the mammalian central nervous system – specifically the roles for MHCI and its receptors, complement, and cytokines on the function, refinement, and plasticity of geniculate, cortical and hippocampal synapses, and their relationship to neurodevelopmental disorders. These functions for immune molecules during neural development suggest that they could also mediate pathological responses to chronic elevations of cytokines in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. PMID:21423522

  2. Cholinergic Mechanisms, Early Brain Development, and Risk for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Randal G; Stevens, Karen E; Proctor, William R; Leonard, Sherry; Kisley, Michael A; Hunter, Sharon K; Freedman, Robert; Adams, Catherine E

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases are complex illnesses where the onset of diagnostic symptomology is often the end result of a decades-long process of aberrant brain development. The identification of novel treatment strategies aimed at normalizing early brain development and preventing mental illness should be a major therapeutic goal; however, there are few models for how this goal might be achieved. This report uses the attentional deficits of schizophrenia as an example and reviews data from genetic, anatomical, physiological, and pharmacologic studies to hypothesize a developmental model with translational primary prevention implications. Specifically, the model suggests that an early interaction between α7 nicotinic receptor density and choline availability may contribute to the development of schizophrenia-associated attentional deficits. Translational implications, including perinatal dietary choline supplementation, are discussed. It is hoped that presentation of this model will stimulate other efforts to develop empirically-driven primary prevention strategies. PMID:19925602

  3. Longitudinal change in the neural bases of adolescent social self-evaluations: effects of age and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Kahn, Lauren E; Merchant, Junaid S; Peake, Shannon J; Veroude, Kim; Masten, Carrie L; Lieberman, Matthew D; Mazziotta, John C; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-04-24

    Self-evaluations undergo significant transformation during early adolescence, developing in parallel with the heightened complexity of teenagers' social worlds. Intuitive theories of adolescent development, based in part on animal work, suggest that puberty is associated with neural-level changes that facilitate a "social reorientation" (Nelson et al., 2005). However, direct tests of this hypothesis using neuroimaging are limited in humans. This longitudinal fMRI study examined neurodevelopmental trajectories associated with puberty, self-evaluations, and the presumed social reorientation during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Participants (N = 27, mean age = 10.1 and 13.1 years at time points one and two, respectively) engaged in trait evaluations of two targets (the self and a familiar fictional other), across two domains of competence (social and academic). Responses in ventromedial PFC increased with both age and pubertal development during self-evaluations in the social domain, but not in the academic domain. These results suggest that changes in social self-evaluations are intimately connected with biology, not just peer contexts, and provide important empirical support for the relationship between neurodevelopment, puberty, and social functioning.

  4. What changes in neural oscillations can reveal about developmental cognitive neuroscience: language development as a case in point.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Mandy J; Abel, Alyson D

    2013-10-01

    EEG is a primary method for studying temporally precise neuronal processes across the lifespan. Most of this work focuses on event related potentials (ERPs); however, using time-locked time frequency analysis to decompose the EEG signal can identify and distinguish multiple changes in brain oscillations underlying cognition (Bastiaansen et al., 2010). Further this measure is thought to reflect changes in inter-neuronal communication more directly than ERPs (Nunez and Srinivasan, 2006). Although time frequency has elucidated cognitive processes in adults, applying it to cognitive development is still rare. Here, we review the basics of neuronal oscillations, some of what they reveal about adult cognitive function, and what little is known relating to children. We focus on language because it develops early and engages complex cortical networks. Additionally, because time frequency analysis of the EEG related to adult language comprehension has been incredibly informative, using similar methods with children will shed new light on current theories of language development and increase our understanding of how neural processes change over the lifespan. Our goal is to emphasize the power of this methodology and encourage its use throughout developmental cognitive neuroscience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing International Collaborations for Early Career Researchers in Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Julianne C.; Barrett, Emma L.; Crome, Erica; Forbes, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration is becoming increasingly vital as the emphasis on unmet need for mental health across cultures and nations grows. Opportunities exist for early career researchers to engage in international collaboration. However, little information is provided about such opportunities in most current psychology training models. The authors are early career researchers in psychology from U.S. and Australia who have developed a collaborative relationship over the past two years. Our goal is to increase awareness of funding opportunities to support international research and to highlight the benefits and challenges associated with international collaboration based on our experience. PMID:27453624

  6. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  7. A functional requirement for astroglia in promoting blood vessel development in the early postnatal brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shang; Kwon, Hyo Jun; Huang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Astroglia are a major cell type in the brain and play a key role in many aspects of brain development and function. In the adult brain, astrocytes are known to intimately ensheath blood vessels and actively coordinate local neural activity and blood flow. During development of the neural retina, blood vessel growth follows a meshwork of astrocytic processes. Several genes have also been implicated in retinal astrocytes for regulating vessel development. This suggests a role of astrocytes in promoting angiogenesis throughout the central nervous system. To determine the roles that astrocytes may play during brain angiogenesis, we employ genetic approaches to inhibit astrogliogenesis during perinatal corticogenesis and examine its effects on brain vessel development. We find that conditional deletion from glial progenitors of orc3, a gene required for DNA replication, dramatically reduces glial progenitor cell number in the subventricular zone and astrocytes in the early postnatal cerebral cortex. This, in turn, results in severe reductions in both the density and branching frequency of cortical blood vessels. Consistent with a delayed growth but not regression of vessels, we find neither significant net decreases in vessel density between different stages after normalizing for cortical expansion nor obvious apoptosis of endothelial cells in these mutants. Furthermore, concomitant with loss of astroglial interactions, we find increased endothelial cell proliferation, enlarged vessel luminal size as well as enhanced cytoskeletal gene expression in pericytes, which suggests compensatory changes in vascular cells. Lastly, we find that blood vessel morphology in mutant cortices recovers substantially at later stages, following astrogliosis. These results thus implicate a functional requirement for astroglia in promoting blood vessel growth during brain development.

  8. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    PubMed Central

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  9. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Fathers' sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-12-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers' sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children's early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children's early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers' and mothers' sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24 months predicted children's executive functioning at 3 years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7 months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children's executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills.

  11. Dishevelled 2 is essential for cardiac outflow tract development, somite segmentation and neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Hamblet, Natasha S; Lijam, Nardos; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Wang, Jianbo; Yang, Yasheng; Luo, Zhenge; Mei, Lin; Chien, Kenneth R; Sussman, Daniel J; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    The murine dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila segment polarity gene Dishevelled, a member of the highly conserved Wingless/Wnt developmental pathway. Dvl2-deficient mice were produced to determine the role of Dvl2 in mammalian development. Mice containing null mutations in Dvl2 present with 50% lethality in both inbred 129S6 and in a hybrid 129S6-NIH Black Swiss background because of severe cardiovascular outflow tract defects, including double outlet right ventricle, transposition of the great arteries and persistent truncus arteriosis. The majority of the surviving Dvl2(-/-) mice were female, suggesting that penetrance was influenced by sex. Expression of Pitx2 and plexin A2 was attenuated in Dvl2 null mutants, suggesting a defect in cardiac neural crest development during outflow tract formation. In addition, approximately 90% of Dvl2(-/-) mice have vertebral and rib malformations that affect the proximal as well as the distal parts of the ribs. These skeletal abnormalities were more pronounced in mice deficient for both Dvl1 and Dvl2. Somite differentiation markers used to analyze Dvl2(-/-) and Dvl1(-/-);Dvl2(-/-) mutant embryos revealed mildly aberrant expression of Uncx4.1, delta 1 and myogenin, suggesting defects in somite segmentation. Finally, 2-3% of Dvl2(-/-) embryos displayed thoracic spina bifida, while virtually all Dvl1/2 double mutant embryos displayed craniorachishisis, a completely open neural tube from the midbrain to the tail. Thus, Dvl2 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis, somite segmentation and neural tube closure, and there is functional redundancy between Dvl1 and Dvl2 in some phenotypes.

  12. Dynamic network communication as a unifying neural basis for cognition, development, aging, and disease.

    PubMed

    Voytek, Bradley; Knight, Robert T

    2015-06-15

    Perception, cognition, and social interaction depend upon coordinated neural activity. This coordination operates within noisy, overlapping, and distributed neural networks operating at multiple timescales. These networks are built upon a structural scaffolding with intrinsic neuroplasticity that changes with development, aging, disease, and personal experience. In this article, we begin from the perspective that successful interregional communication relies upon the transient synchronization between distinct low-frequency (<80 Hz) oscillations, allowing for brief windows of communication via phase-coordinated local neuronal spiking. From this, we construct a theoretical framework for dynamic network communication, arguing that these networks reflect a balance between oscillatory coupling and local population spiking activity and that these two levels of activity interact. We theorize that when oscillatory coupling is too strong, spike timing within the local neuronal population becomes too synchronous; when oscillatory coupling is too weak, spike timing is too disorganized. Each results in specific disruptions to neural communication. These alterations in communication dynamics may underlie cognitive changes associated with healthy development and aging, in addition to neurological and psychiatric disorders. A number of neurological and psychiatric disorders-including Parkinson's disease, autism, depression, schizophrenia, and anxiety-are associated with abnormalities in oscillatory activity. Although aging, psychiatric and neurological disease, and experience differ in the biological changes to structural gray or white matter, neurotransmission, and gene expression, our framework suggests that any resultant cognitive and behavioral changes in normal or disordered states or their treatment are a product of how these physical processes affect dynamic network communication. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Huang, Jian; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-18

    Resettlement affects not only the resettlers' production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers' sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries.

  14. The Sustainable Development Assessment of Reservoir Resettlement Based on a BP Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Huang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Resettlement affects not only the resettlers’ production activities and life but also, directly or indirectly, the normal operation of power stations, the sustainable development of the resettlers, and regional social stability. Therefore, a scientific evaluation index system for the sustainable development of reservoir resettlement must be established that fits Chinese national conditions and not only promotes reservoir resettlement research but also improves resettlement practice. This essay builds an evaluation index system for resettlers’ sustainable development based on a back-propagation (BP) neural network, which can be adopted in China, taking the resettlement necessitated by step hydropower stations along the Wujiang River cascade as an example. The assessment results show that the resettlement caused by step power stations along the Wujiang River is sustainable, and this evaluation supports the conclusion that national policies and regulations, which are undergoing constant improvement, and resettlement has increasingly improved. The results provide a reference for hydropower reservoir resettlement in developing countries. PMID:29346305

  15. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  16. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  17. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

  18. Early stress and human behavioral development: emerging evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, M

    2014-08-01

    Stress experienced early in life exerts a powerful, lasting influence on development. Converging empirical findings show that stressful experiences become deeply embedded in the child's neurobiology, with an astonishing range of long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. In contrast with the prevailing view that such effects are the maladaptive outcomes of 'toxic' stress, adaptive models regard them as manifestations of evolved developmental plasticity. In this paper, I offer a brief introduction to adaptive models of early stress and human behavioral development, with emphasis on recent theoretical contributions and emerging concepts in the field. I begin by contrasting dysregulation models of early stress with their adaptive counterparts; I then introduce life history theory as a unifying framework, and review recent work on predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in human life history development. In particular, I discuss the distinction between forecasting the future state of the environment (external prediction) and forecasting the future state of the organism (internal prediction). Next, I present the adaptive calibration model, an integrative model of individual differences in stress responsivity based on life history concepts. I conclude by examining how maternal-fetal conflict may shape the physiology of prenatal stress and its adaptive and maladaptive effects on postnatal development. In total, I aim to show how theoretical work from evolutionary biology is reshaping the way we think about the role of stress in human development, and provide researchers with an up-to-date conceptual map of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

  19. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  20. Characteristics of effective professional development for early career science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-04-01

    The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.