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Sample records for early noncoding region

  1. Imperfect Symmetry of Sp1 and Core Promoter Sequences Regulates Early and Late Virus Gene Expression of the Bidirectional BK Polyomavirus Noncoding Control Region.

    PubMed

    Bethge, Tobias; Ajuh, Elvis; Hirsch, Hans H

    2016-11-15

    Rearrangements or point mutations in the noncoding control region (NCCR) of BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) have been associated with higher viral loads and more pronounced organ pathology in immunocompromised patients. The respective alterations affect a multitude of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) but consistently cause increased expression of the early viral gene region (EVGR) at the expense of late viral gene region (LVGR) expression. By mutating TFBS, we identified three phenotypic groups leading to strong, intermediate, or impaired EVGR expression and corresponding BKPyV replication. Unexpectedly, Sp1 TFBS mutants either activated or inhibited EVGR expression when located proximal to the LVGR (sp1-4) or the EVGR (sp1-2), respectively. We now demonstrate that the bidirectional balance of EVGR and LVGR expression is dependent on affinity, strand orientation, and the number of Sp1 sites. Swapping the LVGR-proximal high-affinity SP1-4 with the EVGR-proximal low-affinity SP1-2 in site strand flipping or inserting an additional SP1-2 site caused a rearranged NCCR phenotype of increased EVGR expression and faster BKPyV replication. The 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends revealed an imperfect symmetry between the EVGR- and LVGR-proximal parts of the NCCR, consisting of TATA and TATA-like elements, initiator elements, and downstream promoter elements. Mutation or deletion of the archetypal LVGR promoter, which is found in activated NCCR variants, abrogated LVGR expression, which could be restored by providing large T antigen (LTag) in trans Thus, whereas Sp1 sites control the initial EVGR-LVGR expression balance, LTag expression can override inactivation of the LVGR promoter and acts as a key driver of LVGR expression independently of the Sp1 sites and core promoter elements. Polyomaviridae currently comprise more than 70 members, including 13 human polyomaviruses (PyVs), all of which share a bidirectional genome organization mediated by the NCCR, which determines

  2. An integrative approach to predicting the functional effects of small indels in non-coding regions of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Ferlaino, Michael; Rogers, Mark F; Shihab, Hashem A; Mort, Matthew; Cooper, David N; Gaunt, Tom R; Campbell, Colin

    2017-10-06

    Small insertions and deletions (indels) have a significant influence in human disease and, in terms of frequency, they are second only to single nucleotide variants as pathogenic mutations. As the majority of mutations associated with complex traits are located outside the exome, it is crucial to investigate the potential pathogenic impact of indels in non-coding regions of the human genome. We present FATHMM-indel, an integrative approach to predict the functional effect, pathogenic or neutral, of indels in non-coding regions of the human genome. Our method exploits various genomic annotations in addition to sequence data. When validated on benchmark data, FATHMM-indel significantly outperforms CADD and GAVIN, state of the art models in assessing the pathogenic impact of non-coding variants. FATHMM-indel is available via a web server at indels.biocompute.org.uk. FATHMM-indel can accurately predict the functional impact and prioritise small indels throughout the whole non-coding genome.

  3. RRE: a tool for the extraction of non-coding regions surrounding annotated genes from genomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Lazzarato, F; Franceschinis, G; Botta, M; Cordero, F; Calogero, R A

    2004-11-01

    RRE allows the extraction of non-coding regions surrounding a coding sequence [i.e. gene upstream region, 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), introns, 3'-UTR, downstream region] from annotated genomic datasets available at NCBI. RRE parser and web-based interface are accessible at http://www.bioinformatica.unito.it/bioinformatics/rre/rre.html

  4. RNAcode: Robust discrimination of coding and noncoding regions in comparative sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Washietl, Stefan; Findeiß, Sven; Müller, Stephan A.; Kalkhof, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Stadler, Peter F.; Goldman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    With the availability of genome-wide transcription data and massive comparative sequencing, the discrimination of coding from noncoding RNAs and the assessment of coding potential in evolutionarily conserved regions arose as a core analysis task. Here we present RNAcode, a program to detect coding regions in multiple sequence alignments that is optimized for emerging applications not covered by current protein gene-finding software. Our algorithm combines information from nucleotide substitution and gap patterns in a unified framework and also deals with real-life issues such as alignment and sequencing errors. It uses an explicit statistical model with no machine learning component and can therefore be applied “out of the box,” without any training, to data from all domains of life. We describe the RNAcode method and apply it in combination with mass spectrometry experiments to predict and confirm seven novel short peptides in Escherichia coli and to analyze the coding potential of RNAs previously annotated as “noncoding.” RNAcode is open source software and available for all major platforms at http://wash.github.com/rnacode. PMID:21357752

  5. RNAcode: robust discrimination of coding and noncoding regions in comparative sequence data.

    PubMed

    Washietl, Stefan; Findeiss, Sven; Müller, Stephan A; Kalkhof, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F; Goldman, Nick

    2011-04-01

    With the availability of genome-wide transcription data and massive comparative sequencing, the discrimination of coding from noncoding RNAs and the assessment of coding potential in evolutionarily conserved regions arose as a core analysis task. Here we present RNAcode, a program to detect coding regions in multiple sequence alignments that is optimized for emerging applications not covered by current protein gene-finding software. Our algorithm combines information from nucleotide substitution and gap patterns in a unified framework and also deals with real-life issues such as alignment and sequencing errors. It uses an explicit statistical model with no machine learning component and can therefore be applied "out of the box," without any training, to data from all domains of life. We describe the RNAcode method and apply it in combination with mass spectrometry experiments to predict and confirm seven novel short peptides in Escherichia coli and to analyze the coding potential of RNAs previously annotated as "noncoding." RNAcode is open source software and available for all major platforms at http://wash.github.com/rnacode.

  6. Dehydration stress extends mRNA 3′ untranslated regions with noncoding RNA functions in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hai-Xi; Li, Yan; Niu, Qi-Wen; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2017-01-01

    The 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) of mRNAs play important roles in the regulation of mRNA localization, translation, and stability. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) generates mRNAs with different 3′ UTRs, but the involvement of this process in stress response has not yet been clarified. Here, we report that a subset of stress-related genes exhibits 3′ UTR extensions of their mRNAs during dehydration stress. These extended 3′ UTRs have characteristics of long noncoding RNAs and likely do not interact with miRNAs. Functional studies using T-DNA insertion mutants reveal that they can act as antisense transcripts to repress expression levels of sense genes from the opposite strand or can activate the transcription or lead to read-through transcription of their downstream genes. Further analysis suggests that transcripts with 3′ UTR extensions have weaker poly(A) signals than those without 3′ UTR extensions. Finally, we show that their biogenesis is partially dependent on a trans-acting factor FPA. Taken together, we report that dehydration stress could induce transcript 3′ UTR extensions and elucidate a novel function for these stress-induced 3′ UTR extensions as long noncoding RNAs in the regulation of their neighboring genes. PMID:28522613

  7. Functional formation of domain V of the poliovirus noncoding region: significance of unpaired bases.

    PubMed

    Rowe, A; Burlison, J; Macadam, A J; Minor, P D

    2001-10-10

    Previously we have shown that polioviruses with mutations that disrupt the predicted secondary structure of the 5' noncoding region of domain V are temperature sensitive for growth. Non-temperature-sensitive revertant viruses had mutations that re-formed secondary structure by a direct back mutation of changes in the opposite strand. We mutated unpaired regions and selected revertants of viruses with single base deletions, where no obvious back mutation was available in order to gain information on secondary structure. Results indicated that conservation of length of a three base loop between two double-stranded stems was essential for a functional domain V to form. The requirement for the unpaired "hinge" base at 484 which is implicated in the attenuation of Sabin 2 was also confirmed. Results also underline the necessity for functional folding over local secondary structure stability. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Secondary structure of the 3'-noncoding region of flavivirus genomes: comparative analysis of base pairing probabilities.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, S; Flamm, C; Mandl, C W; Heinz, F X; Stadler, P F

    1997-07-01

    The prediction of the complete matrix of base pairing probabilities was applied to the 3' noncoding region (NCR) of flavivirus genomes. This approach identifies not only well-defined secondary structure elements, but also regions of high structural flexibility. Flaviviruses, many of which are important human pathogens, have a common genomic organization, but exhibit a significant degree of RNA sequence diversity in the functionally important 3'-NCR. We demonstrate the presence of secondary structures shared by all flaviviruses, as well as structural features that are characteristic for groups of viruses within the genus reflecting the established classification scheme. The significance of most of the predicted structures is corroborated by compensatory mutations. The availability of infectious clones for several flaviviruses will allow the assessment of these structural elements in processes of the viral life cycle, such as replication and assembly.

  9. Profiling analysis of long non-coding RNAs in early postnatal mouse hearts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiongshan; Han, Qi; Luo, Hongqin; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Yang, Yao; Chen, Hanying; Wang, Fangjie; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Zhang, Qi; Tang, Yuan; Chu, Jianhong; Yu, Jianhua; Shou, Weinian; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo a critical hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition at early postnatal age, which is important in establishing normal physiological function of postnatal hearts. In the current study, we intended to explore the role of long non-coding (lnc) RNAs in this transitional stage. We analyzed lncRNA expression profiles in mouse hearts at postnatal day (P) 1, P7 and P28 via microarray. We identified 1,146 differentially expressed lncRNAs with more than 2.0-fold change when compared the expression profiles of P1 to P7, P1 to P28, and P7 to P28. The neighboring genes of these differentially expressed lncRNAs were mainly involved in DNA replication-associated biological processes. We were particularly interested in one novel cardiac-enriched lncRNA, ENSMUST00000117266, whose expression was dramatically down-regulated from P1 to P28 and was also sensitive to hypoxia, paraquat, and myocardial infarction. Knockdown ENSMUST00000117266 led to a significant increase of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in G0/G1 phase and reduction in G2/M phase, suggesting that ENSMUST00000117266 is involved in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferative activity and is likely associated with hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition. In conclusion, our data have identified a large group of lncRNAs presented in the early postnatal mouse heart. Some of these lncRNAs may have important functions in cardiac hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition. PMID:28266538

  10. Predicted stem-loop structures and variation in nucleotide sequence of 3' noncoding regions among animal calicivirus genomes.

    PubMed

    Seal, B S; Neill, J D; Ridpath, J F

    1994-07-01

    Caliciviruses are nonenveloped with a polyadenylated genome of approximately 7.6 kb and a single capsid protein. The "RNA Fold" computer program was used to analyze 3'-terminal noncoding sequences of five feline calicivirus (FCV), rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), and two San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) isolates. The FCV 3'-terminal sequences are 40-46 nucleotides in length and 72-91% similar. The FCV sequences were predicted to contain two possible duplex structures and one stem-loop structure with free energies of -2.1 to -18.2 kcal/mole. The RHDV genomic 3'-terminal RNA sequences are 54 nucleotides in length and share 49% sequence similarity to homologous regions of the FCV genome. The RHDV sequence was predicted to form two duplex structures in the 3'-terminal noncoding region with a single stem-loop structure, resembling that of FCV. In contrast, the SMSV 1 and 4 genomic 3'-terminal noncoding sequences were 185 and 182 nucleotides in length, respectively. Ten possible duplex structures were predicted with an average structural free energy of -35 kcal/mole. Sequence similarity between the two SMSV isolates was 75%. Furthermore, extensive cloverleaflike structures are predicted in the 3' noncoding region of the SMSV genome, in contrast to the predicted single stem-loop structures of FCV or RHDV.

  11. Natural variation in non-coding regions underlying phenotypic diversity in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Francisco; de Boer, Carl G.; Abarca, Valentina; García, Verónica; Cuevas, Mara; Araos, Sebastian; Larrondo, Luis F.; Martínez, Claudio; Cubillos, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    Linkage mapping studies in model organisms have typically focused their efforts in polymorphisms within coding regions, ignoring those within regulatory regions that may contribute to gene expression variation. In this context, differences in transcript abundance are frequently proposed as a source of phenotypic diversity between individuals, however, until now, little molecular evidence has been provided. Here, we examined Allele Specific Expression (ASE) in six F1 hybrids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae derived from crosses between representative strains of the four main lineages described in yeast. ASE varied between crosses with levels ranging between 28% and 60%. Part of the variation in expression levels could be explained by differences in transcription factors binding to polymorphic cis-regulations and to differences in trans-activation depending on the allelic form of the TF. Analysis on highly expressed alleles on each background suggested ASN1 as a candidate transcript underlying nitrogen consumption differences between two strains. Further promoter allele swap analysis under fermentation conditions confirmed that coding and non-coding regions explained aspartic and glutamic acid consumption differences, likely due to a polymorphism affecting Uga3 binding. Together, we provide a new catalogue of variants to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype. PMID:26898953

  12. An integrative approach to predicting the functional effects of small indels in non-coding regions of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Ferlaino, Michael; Rogers, Mark F.; Shihab, Hashem A.; Mort, Matthew; Cooper, David N.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Campbell, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Background Small insertions and deletions (indels) have a significant influence in human disease and, in terms of frequency, they are second only to single nucleotide variants as pathogenic mutations. As the majority of mutations associated with complex traits are located outside the exome, it is crucial to investigate the potential pathogenic impact of indels in non-coding regions of the human genome. Results We present FATHMM-indel, an integrative approach to predict the functional effect, pathogenic or neutral, of indels in non-coding regions of the human genome. Our method exploits various genomic annotations in addition to sequence data. When validated on benchmark data, FATHMM-indel significantly outperforms CADD and GAVIN, state of the art models in assessing the pathogenic impact of non-coding variants. FATHMM-indel is available via a web server at indels.biocompute.org.uk. Conclusions FATHMM-indel can accurately predict the functional impact and prioritise small indels throughout the whole non-coding genome. PMID:28985712

  13. Polyomavirus BK non-coding control region rearrangements in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preety M; Gupta, Gaurav; Vats, Abhay; Shapiro, Ron; Randhawa, Parmjeet S

    2007-08-01

    BK virus is an increasingly recognized pathogen in transplanted patients. DNA sequencing of this virus shows considerable genomic variability. To understand the clinical significance of rearrangements in the non-coding control region (NCCR) of BK virus (BKV), we report a meta-analysis of 507 sequences, including 40 sequences generated in our own laboratory, for associations between rearrangements and disease, tissue tropism, geographic origin, and viral genotype. NCCR rearrangements were less frequent in (a) asymptomatic BKV viruria compared to patients viral nephropathy (1.7% vs. 22.5%), and (b) viral genotype 1 compared to other genotypes (2.4% vs. 11.2%). Rearrangements were commoner in malignancy (78.6%), and Norwegians (45.7%), and less common in East Indians (0%), and Japanese (4.3%). A surprising number of rearranged sequences were reported from mononuclear cells of healthy subjects, whereas most plasma sequences were archetypal. This difference could not be related to potential recombinase activity in lymphocytes, as consensus recombination signal sequences could not be found in the NCCR region. NCCR rearrangements are neither required nor a sufficient condition to produce clinical disease. BKV nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis are not associated with any unique NCCR configuration or nucleotide sequence.

  14. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6

    SciT

    Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genitalmore » tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.« less

  15. Translational efficiency of poliovirus mRNA: mapping inhibitory cis-acting elements within the 5' noncoding region.

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, J; Kaplan, G; Racaniello, V R; Sonenberg, N

    1988-01-01

    Poliovirus mRNA contains a long 5' noncoding region of about 750 nucleotides (the exact number varies among the three virus serotypes), which contains several AUG codons upstream of the major initiator AUG. Unlike most eucaryotic mRNAs, poliovirus does not contain a m7GpppX (where X is any nucleotide) cap structure at its 5' end and is translated by a cap-independent mechanism. To study the manner by which poliovirus mRNA is expressed, we examined the translational efficiencies of a series of deletion mutants within the 5' noncoding region of the mRNA. In this paper we report striking translation system-specific differences in the ability of the altered mRNAs to be translated. The results suggest the existence of an inhibitory cis-acting element(s) within the 5' noncoding region of poliovirus (between nucleotides 70 and 381) which restricts mRNA translation in reticulocyte lysate, wheat germ extract, and Xenopus oocytes, but not in HeLa cell extracts. In addition, we show that HeLa cell extracts contain a trans-acting factor(s) that overcomes this restriction. Images PMID:2836606

  16. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  17. RNA expression in a cartilaginous fish cell line reveals ancient 3′ noncoding regions highly conserved in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Forest, David; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J.; Barnes, David W.

    2007-01-01

    We have established a cartilaginous fish cell line [Squalus acanthias embryo cell line (SAE)], a mesenchymal stem cell line derived from the embryo of an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark S. acanthias. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) first appeared >400 million years ago, and existing species provide useful models for comparative vertebrate cell biology, physiology, and genomics. Comparative vertebrate genomics among evolutionarily distant organisms can provide sequence conservation information that facilitates identification of critical coding and noncoding regions. Although these genomic analyses are informative, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. Using ESTs defining mRNAs derived from the SAE cell line, we identified lengthy and highly conserved gene-specific nucleotide sequences in the noncoding 3′ UTRs of eight genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Conserved noncoding 3′ mRNA regions detected by using the shark nucleotide sequences as a starting point were found in a range of other vertebrate orders, including bony fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Nucleotide identity of shark and human in these regions was remarkably well conserved. Our results indicate that highly conserved gene sequences dating from the appearance of jawed vertebrates and representing potential cis-regulatory elements can be identified through the use of cartilaginous fish as a baseline. Because the expression of genes in the SAE cell line was prerequisite for their identification, this cartilaginous fish culture system also provides a physiologically valid tool to test functional hypotheses on the role of these ancient conserved sequences in comparative cell biology. PMID:17227856

  18. Cap-independent translation of poliovirus mRNA is conferred by sequence elements within the 5' noncoding region

    SciT

    Pelletier, J.; Kaplan, G.; Racaniello, V.R.

    1988-03-01

    Poliovirus polysomal RNA is naturally uncapped, and as such, its translation must bypass any 5' cap-dependent ribosome recognition event. To elucidate the manner by which poliovirus mRNA is translated, the authors determined the translational efficiencies of a series of deletion mutants within the 5' noncoding region of the mRNA. They found striking differences in translatability among the altered mRNAs when assayed in mock-infected and poliovirus-infected HeLa cell extracts. The results identify a functional cis-acting element within the 5' noncoding region of the poliovirus mRNA which enables it to translate in a cap-independent fashion. The major determinant of this element mapsmore » between nucleotides 320 and 631 of the 5' end of the poliovirus mRNA. They also show that this region (320 to 631), when fused to a heterologous mRNA, can function in cis to render the mRNA cap independent in translation.« less

  19. Specific inhibition of aphthovirus infection by RNAs transcribed from both the 5' and the 3' noncoding regions.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A; Martínez-Salas, E; Pintado, B; Sobrino, F

    1994-11-01

    RNA molecules containing the 3' terminal region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA in both antisense and sense orientations were able to inhibit viral FMDV translation and infective particle formation in BHK-21 cells following comicroinjection or cotransfection with infectious viral RNA. Antisense, but not sense, transcripts from the 5' noncoding region including the proximal element of the internal ribosome entry site and the two functional initiation AUGs were also inhibitory, both in in vitro translation and in vivo in comicroinjected or cotransfected BHK-21 cells. This effect was not observed with nonrelated RNA transcripts from lambda phage. The inhibitions found were permanent, sequence specific, and dose dependent; an inverse correlation between the length of the transcript and the extent of the antiviral effect was seen. In all cases, the extent of inhibition increased when viral RNAs and transcripts were allowed to reanneal before transfection, concomitant with a decrease in the doses required. The antiviral effect was specific for FMDV, since transcripts failed to inhibit infective particle formation by other picornavirus, such as encephalomyocarditis virus. These results indicate that the ability of RNA transcripts to inhibit viral multiplication depends on their efficient hybridization with target regions on the viral genome. Furthermore, cells transfected with the 5'1as transcript, which is complementary to the 5' noncoding region, showed a significant reduction of plaque-forming ability during the course of a natural infection. RNA 5'1as was able to inhibit FMDV RNA translation in vitro, suggesting that the inhibitions observed are mediated by a blockage of the viral translation initiation. Conversely, hybridization of short sequences of both sense and antisense transcripts from the 3' end induces distortion of predicted highly ordered structural motifs, which could be required for the synthesis of negative-stranded viral RNA, and correlates

  20. Specific inhibition of aphthovirus infection by RNAs transcribed from both the 5' and the 3' noncoding regions.

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, A; Martínez-Salas, E; Pintado, B; Sobrino, F

    1994-01-01

    RNA molecules containing the 3' terminal region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA in both antisense and sense orientations were able to inhibit viral FMDV translation and infective particle formation in BHK-21 cells following comicroinjection or cotransfection with infectious viral RNA. Antisense, but not sense, transcripts from the 5' noncoding region including the proximal element of the internal ribosome entry site and the two functional initiation AUGs were also inhibitory, both in in vitro translation and in vivo in comicroinjected or cotransfected BHK-21 cells. This effect was not observed with nonrelated RNA transcripts from lambda phage. The inhibitions found were permanent, sequence specific, and dose dependent; an inverse correlation between the length of the transcript and the extent of the antiviral effect was seen. In all cases, the extent of inhibition increased when viral RNAs and transcripts were allowed to reanneal before transfection, concomitant with a decrease in the doses required. The antiviral effect was specific for FMDV, since transcripts failed to inhibit infective particle formation by other picornavirus, such as encephalomyocarditis virus. These results indicate that the ability of RNA transcripts to inhibit viral multiplication depends on their efficient hybridization with target regions on the viral genome. Furthermore, cells transfected with the 5'1as transcript, which is complementary to the 5' noncoding region, showed a significant reduction of plaque-forming ability during the course of a natural infection. RNA 5'1as was able to inhibit FMDV RNA translation in vitro, suggesting that the inhibitions observed are mediated by a blockage of the viral translation initiation. Conversely, hybridization of short sequences of both sense and antisense transcripts from the 3' end induces distortion of predicted highly ordered structural motifs, which could be required for the synthesis of negative-stranded viral RNA, and correlates

  1. A long non-coding RNA expression profile can predict early recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yufeng; Wei, Wenhao; Huang, Zhong; Chen, Zhichao; Fang, Yuan; Pan, Lili; Han, Xueqiong; Xu, Zihai

    2018-06-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression signature to accurately predict early recurrence for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Using expression profiles downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we identified multiple lncRNAs with differential expression between early recurrence (ER) group and non-early recurrence (non-ER) group of HCC. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for logistic regression models were used to develop a lncRNA-based classifier for predicting ER in the training set. An independent test set was used to validated the predictive value of this classifier. Futhermore, a co-expression network based on these lncRNAs and its highly related genes was constructed and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses of genes in the network were performed. We identified 10 differentially expressed lncRNAs, including 3 that were upregulated and 7 that were downregulated in ER group. The lncRNA-based classifier was constructed based on 7 lncRNAs (AL035661.1, PART1, AC011632.1, AC109588.1, AL365361.1, LINC00861 and LINC02084), and its accuracy was 0.83 in training set, 0.87 in test set and 0.84 in total set. And ROC curve analysis showed the AUROC was 0.741 in training set, 0.824 in the test set and 0.765 in total set. A functional enrichment analysis suggested that the genes of which is highly related to 4 lncRNAs were involved in immune system. This 7-lncRNA expression profile can effectively predict the early recurrence after surgical resection for HCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of specific neighboring bases on substitution bias in noncoding regions of the plant chloroplast genome.

    PubMed

    Morton, B R; Oberholzer, V M; Clegg, M T

    1997-09-01

    Substitutions occurring in noncoding sequences of the plant chloroplast genome violate the independence of sites that is assumed by substitution models in molecular evolution. The probability that a substitution at a site is a transversion, as opposed to a transition, increases significantly with increasing A + T content of the two adjacent nucleotides. In the present study, this dependency of substitutions on local context is examined further in a number of noncoding regions from the chloroplast genome of members of the grass family (Poaceae). Two features were examined; the influence of specific neighboring bases, as opposed to the general A + T content, on transversion proportion and an influence on substitutions by nucleotides other than the two immediately adjacent to the site of substitution. In both cases, a significant effect was found. In the case of specific nucleotides, transversion proportion is significantly higher at sites with a pyrimidine immediately 5' on either strand. Substitutions at sites of the type YNR, where N is the site of substitution, have the highest rate of transversion. This specific effect is secondary to the A + T content effect such that, in terms of proportion of substitutions that are transversions, the nucleotides are ranked T > A > C > G as to their effect when they are immediately 5' to the site of substitution. In the case of nucleotides other than the immediate neighbors, a significant influence on substitution dynamics is observed in the case where the two neighboring bases are both A and/or T. Thus, substitutions are primarily, but not exclusively, influenced by the composition of the two nucleotides that are immediately adjacent. These results indicate that the pattern of molecular evolution of the plant chloroplast genome is extremely complex as a result of a variety of inter-site dependencies.

  3. Non-coding genomic regions possessing enhancer and silencer potential are associated with healthy aging and exceptional survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangkyu; Welsh, David A; Myers, Leann; Cherry, Katie E; Wyckoff, Jennifer; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2015-02-28

    We have completed a genome-wide linkage scan for healthy aging using data collected from a family study, followed by fine-mapping by association in a separate population, the first such attempt reported. The family cohort consisted of parents of age 90 or above and their children ranging in age from 50 to 80. As a quantitative measure of healthy aging, we used a frailty index, called FI34, based on 34 health and function variables. The linkage scan found a single significant linkage peak on chromosome 12. Using an independent cohort of unrelated nonagenarians, we carried out a fine-scale association mapping of the region suggestive of linkage and identified three sites associated with healthy aging. These healthy-aging sites (HASs) are located in intergenic regions at 12q13-14. HAS-1 has been previously associated with multiple diseases, and an enhancer was recently mapped and experimentally validated within the site. HAS-2 is a previously uncharacterized site possessing genomic features suggestive of enhancer activity. HAS-3 contains features associated with Polycomb repression. The HASs also contain variants associated with exceptional longevity, based on a separate analysis. Our results provide insight into functional genomic networks involving non-coding regulatory elements that are involved in healthy aging and longevity.

  4. Non-coding genomic regions possessing enhancer and silencer potential are associated with healthy aging and exceptional survival

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangkyu; Welsh, David A.; Myers, Leann; Cherry, Katie E.; Wyckoff, Jennifer; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2015-01-01

    We have completed a genome-wide linkage scan for healthy aging using data collected from a family study, followed by fine-mapping by association in a separate population, the first such attempt reported. The family cohort consisted of parents of age 90 or above and their children ranging in age from 50 to 80. As a quantitative measure of healthy aging, we used a frailty index, called FI34, based on 34 health and function variables. The linkage scan found a single significant linkage peak on chromosome 12. Using an independent cohort of unrelated nonagenarians, we carried out a fine-scale association mapping of the region suggestive of linkage and identified three sites associated with healthy aging. These healthy-aging sites (HASs) are located in intergenic regions at 12q13–14. HAS-1 has been previously associated with multiple diseases, and an enhancer was recently mapped and experimentally validated within the site. HAS-2 is a previously uncharacterized site possessing genomic features suggestive of enhancer activity. HAS-3 contains features associated with Polycomb repression. The HASs also contain variants associated with exceptional longevity, based on a separate analysis. Our results provide insight into functional genomic networks involving non-coding regulatory elements that are involved in healthy aging and longevity. PMID:25682868

  5. Regulation of Sex Determination in Mice by a Non-coding Genomic Region

    PubMed Central

    Arboleda, Valerie A.; Fleming, Alice; Barseghyan, Hayk; Délot, Emmanuèle; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Vilain, Eric

    2014-01-01

    To identify novel genomic regions that regulate sex determination, we utilized the powerful C57BL/6J-YPOS (B6-YPOS) model of XY sex reversal where mice with autosomes from the B6 strain and a Y chromosome from a wild-derived strain, Mus domesticus poschiavinus (YPOS), show complete sex reversal. In B6-YPOS, the presence of a 55-Mb congenic region on chromosome 11 protects from sex reversal in a dose-dependent manner. Using mouse genetic backcross designs and high-density SNP arrays, we narrowed the congenic region to a 1.62-Mb genomic region on chromosome 11 that confers 80% protection from B6-YPOS sex reversal when one copy is present and complete protection when two copies are present. It was previously believed that the protective congenic region originated from the 129S1/SviMJ (129) strain. However, genomic analysis revealed that this region is not derived from 129 and most likely is derived from the semi-inbred strain POSA. We show that the small 1.62-Mb congenic region that protects against B6-YPOS sex reversal is located within the Sox9 promoter and promotes the expression of Sox9, thereby driving testis development within the B6-YPOS background. Through 30 years of backcrossing, this congenic region was maintained, as it promoted male sex determination and fertility despite the female-promoting B6-YPOS genetic background. Our findings demonstrate that long-range enhancer regions are critical to developmental processes and can be used to identify the complex interplay between genome variants, epigenetics, and developmental gene regulation. PMID:24793290

  6. Generation of Recombinant Polioviruses Harboring RNA Affinity Tags in the 5′ and 3′ Noncoding Regions of Genomic RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Flather, Dylan; Cathcart, Andrea L.; Cruz, Casey; Baggs, Eric; Ngo, Tuan; Gershon, Paul D.; Semler, Bert L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being intensely studied for more than 50 years, a complete understanding of the enterovirus replication cycle remains elusive. Specifically, only a handful of cellular proteins have been shown to be involved in the RNA replication cycle of these viruses. In an effort to isolate and identify additional cellular proteins that function in enteroviral RNA replication, we have generated multiple recombinant polioviruses containing RNA affinity tags within the 3′ or 5′ noncoding region of the genome. These recombinant viruses retained RNA affinity sequences within the genome while remaining viable and infectious over multiple passages in cell culture. Further characterization of these viruses demonstrated that viral protein production and growth kinetics were unchanged or only slightly altered relative to wild type poliovirus. However, attempts to isolate these genetically-tagged viral genomes from infected cells have been hindered by high levels of co-purification of nonspecific proteins and the limited matrix-binding efficiency of RNA affinity sequences. Regardless, these recombinant viruses represent a step toward more thorough characterization of enterovirus ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in RNA replication. PMID:26861382

  7. Discovery of functional non-coding conserved regions in the α-synuclein gene locus

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Lori; Walter, Michael; Ting, Dennis; Schüle, Birgitt

    2014-01-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the Rep-1 microsatellite marker of the α-synuclein ( SNCA) gene have consistently been shown to be associated with Parkinson’s disease, but the functional relevance is unclear. Based on these findings we hypothesized that conserved cis-regulatory elements in the SNCA genomic region regulate expression of SNCA, and that SNPs in these regions could be functionally modulating the expression of SNCA, thus contributing to neuronal demise and predisposing to Parkinson’s disease. In a pair-wise comparison of a 206kb genomic region encompassing the SNCA gene, we revealed 34 evolutionary conserved DNA sequences between human and mouse. All elements were cloned into reporter vectors and assessed for expression modulation in dual luciferase reporter assays.  We found that 12 out of 34 elements exhibited either an enhancement or reduction of the expression of the reporter gene. Three elements upstream of the SNCA gene displayed an approximately 1.5 fold (p<0.009) increase in expression. Of the intronic regions, three showed a 1.5 fold increase and two others indicated a 2 and 2.5 fold increase in expression (p<0.002). Three elements downstream of the SNCA gene showed 1.5 fold and 2.5 fold increase (p<0.0009). One element downstream of SNCA had a reduced expression of the reporter gene of 0.35 fold (p<0.0009) of normal activity. Our results demonstrate that the SNCA gene contains cis-regulatory regions that might regulate the transcription and expression of SNCA. Further studies in disease-relevant tissue types will be important to understand the functional impact of regulatory regions and specific Parkinson’s disease-associated SNPs and its function in the disease process. PMID:25566351

  8. Detecting the borders between coding and non-coding DNA regions in prokaryotes based on recursive segmentation and nucleotide doublets statistics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Detecting the borders between coding and non-coding regions is an essential step in the genome annotation. And information entropy measures are useful for describing the signals in genome sequence. However, the accuracies of previous methods of finding borders based on entropy segmentation method still need to be improved. Methods In this study, we first applied a new recursive entropic segmentation method on DNA sequences to get preliminary significant cuts. A 22-symbol alphabet is used to capture the differential composition of nucleotide doublets and stop codon patterns along three phases in both DNA strands. This process requires no prior training datasets. Results Comparing with the previous segmentation methods, the experimental results on three bacteria genomes, Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia burgdorferi and E.coli, show that our approach improves the accuracy for finding the borders between coding and non-coding regions in DNA sequences. Conclusions This paper presents a new segmentation method in prokaryotes based on Jensen-Rényi divergence with a 22-symbol alphabet. For three bacteria genomes, comparing to A12_JR method, our method raised the accuracy of finding the borders between protein coding and non-coding regions in DNA sequences. PMID:23282225

  9. Hundreds of conserved non-coding genomic regions are independently lost in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Michael; Schaar, Bruce T.; Bejerano, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Conserved non-protein-coding DNA elements (CNEs) often encode cis-regulatory elements and are rarely lost during evolution. However, CNE losses that do occur can be associated with phenotypic changes, exemplified by pelvic spine loss in sticklebacks. Using a computational strategy to detect complete loss of CNEs in mammalian genomes while strictly controlling for artifacts, we find >600 CNEs that are independently lost in at least two mammalian lineages, including a spinal cord enhancer near GDF11. We observed several genomic regions where multiple independent CNE loss events happened; the most extreme is the DIAPH2 locus. We show that CNE losses often involve deletions and that CNE loss frequencies are non-uniform. Similar to less pleiotropic enhancers, we find that independently lost CNEs are shorter, slightly less constrained and evolutionarily younger than CNEs without detected losses. This suggests that independently lost CNEs are less pleiotropic and that pleiotropic constraints contribute to non-uniform CNE loss frequencies. We also detected 35 CNEs that are independently lost in the human lineage and in other mammals. Our study uncovers an interesting aspect of the evolution of functional DNA in mammalian genomes. Experiments are necessary to test if these independently lost CNEs are associated with parallel phenotype changes in mammals. PMID:23042682

  10. HIV-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: longitudinal study of JC virus non-coding control region rearrangements and host immunity.

    PubMed

    Iannetta, Marco; Bellizzi, Anna; Lo Menzo, Sara; Anzivino, Elena; D'Abramo, Alessandra; Oliva, Alessandra; D'Agostino, Claudia; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Pietropaolo, Valeria; Vullo, Vincenzo; Ciardi, Maria Rosa

    2013-06-01

    John Cunningham virus (JCV), the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), contains a hyper-variable non-coding control region usually detected in urine of healthy individuals as archetype form and in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PML patients as rearranged form. We report a case of HIV-related PML with clinical, immunological and virological data longitudinally collected. On admission (t0), after 8-week treatment with a rescue highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient showed a CSF-JCV load of 16,732 gEq/ml, undetectable HIV-RNA and an increase of CD4+ cell count. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed PML-compatible lesions without contrast enhancement. We considered PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome as plausible because of the sudden onset of neurological symptoms after the effective HAART. An experimental JCV treatment with mefloquine and mirtazapine was added to steroid boli. Two weeks later (t1), motor function worsened and MRI showed expanded lesions with cytotoxic oedema. CSF JCV-DNA increased (26,263 gEq/ml) and JCV viremia was detected. After 4 weeks (t2), JCV was detected only in CSF (37,719 gEq/ml), and 8 weeks after admission (t3), JC viral load decreased in CSF and JCV viremia reappeared. The patient showed high level of immune activation both in peripheral blood and CSF. He died 4 weeks later. Considering disease progression, combined therapy failure and immune hyper-activation, we finally classified the case as classical PML. The archetype variant found in CSF at t0/t3 and a rearranged sequence detected at t1/t2 suggest that PML can develop from an archetype virus and that the appearance of rearranged genotypes contribute to faster disease progression.

  11. The primary structures of two yeast enolase genes. Homology between the 5' noncoding flanking regions of yeast enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Holland, M J; Holland, J P; Thill, G P; Jackson, K A

    1981-02-10

    Segments of yeast genomic DNA containing two enolase structural genes have been isolated by subculture cloning procedures using a cDNA hybridization probe synthesized from purified yeast enolase mRNA. Based on restriction endonuclease and transcriptional maps of these two segments of yeast DNA, each hybrid plasmid contains a region of extensive nucleotide sequence homology which forms hybrids with the cDNA probe. The DNA sequences which flank this homologous region in the two hybrid plasmids are nonhomologous indicating that these sequences are nontandemly repeated in the yeast genome. The complete nucleotide sequence of the coding as well as the flanking noncoding regions of these genes has been determined. The amino acid sequence predicted from one reading frame of both structural genes is extremely similar to that determined for yeast enolase (Chin, C. C. Q., Brewer, J. M., Eckard, E., and Wold, F. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1370-1376), confirming that these isolated structural genes encode yeast enolase. The nucleotide sequences of the coding regions of the genes are approximately 95% homologous, and neither gene contains an intervening sequence. Codon utilization in the enolase genes follows the same biased pattern previously described for two yeast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase structural genes (Holland, J. P., and Holland, M. J. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 2596-2605). DNA blotting analysis confirmed that the isolated segments of yeast DNA are colinear with yeast genomic DNA and that there are two nontandemly repeated enolase genes per haploid yeast genome. The noncoding portions of the two enolase genes adjacent to the initiation and termination codons are approximately 70% homologous and contain sequences thought to be involved in the synthesis and processing messenger RNA. Finally there are regions of extensive homology between the two enolase structural genes and two yeast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase structural genes within the 5

  12. A Two-Locus Global DNA Barcode for Land Plants: The Coding rbcL Gene Complements the Non-Coding trnH-psbA Spacer Region

    PubMed Central

    Kress, W. John; Erickson, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Background A useful DNA barcode requires sufficient sequence variation to distinguish between species and ease of application across a broad range of taxa. Discovery of a DNA barcode for land plants has been limited by intrinsically lower rates of sequence evolution in plant genomes than that observed in animals. This low rate has complicated the trade-off in finding a locus that is universal and readily sequenced and has sufficiently high sequence divergence at the species-level. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, a global plant DNA barcode system is evaluated by comparing universal application and degree of sequence divergence for nine putative barcode loci, including coding and non-coding regions, singly and in pairs across a phylogenetically diverse set of 48 genera (two species per genus). No single locus could discriminate among species in a pair in more than 79% of genera, whereas discrimination increased to nearly 88% when the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer was paired with one of three coding loci, including rbcL. In silico trials were conducted in which DNA sequences from GenBank were used to further evaluate the discriminatory power of a subset of these loci. These trials supported the earlier observation that trnH-psbA coupled with rbcL can correctly identify and discriminate among related species. Conclusions/Significance A combination of the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region and a portion of the coding rbcL gene is recommended as a two-locus global land plant barcode that provides the necessary universality and species discrimination. PMID:17551588

  13. A two-locus global DNA barcode for land plants: the coding rbcL gene complements the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region.

    PubMed

    Kress, W John; Erickson, David L

    2007-06-06

    A useful DNA barcode requires sufficient sequence variation to distinguish between species and ease of application across a broad range of taxa. Discovery of a DNA barcode for land plants has been limited by intrinsically lower rates of sequence evolution in plant genomes than that observed in animals. This low rate has complicated the trade-off in finding a locus that is universal and readily sequenced and has sufficiently high sequence divergence at the species-level. Here, a global plant DNA barcode system is evaluated by comparing universal application and degree of sequence divergence for nine putative barcode loci, including coding and non-coding regions, singly and in pairs across a phylogenetically diverse set of 48 genera (two species per genus). No single locus could discriminate among species in a pair in more than 79% of genera, whereas discrimination increased to nearly 88% when the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer was paired with one of three coding loci, including rbcL. In silico trials were conducted in which DNA sequences from GenBank were used to further evaluate the discriminatory power of a subset of these loci. These trials supported the earlier observation that trnH-psbA coupled with rbcL can correctly identify and discriminate among related species. A combination of the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region and a portion of the coding rbcL gene is recommended as a two-locus global land plant barcode that provides the necessary universality and species discrimination.

  14. Nucleotide sequence determination of guinea-pig casein B mRNA reveals homology with bovine and rat alpha s1 caseins and conservation of the non-coding regions of the mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, L; Laird, J E; Craig, R K

    1984-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence analysis of cloned guinea-pig casein B cDNA sequences has identified two casein B variants related to the bovine and rat alpha s1 caseins. Amino acid homology was largely confined to the known bovine or predicted rat phosphorylation sites and within the 'signal' precursor sequence. Comparison of the deduced nucleotide sequence of the guinea-pig and rat alpha s1 casein mRNA species showed greater sequence conservation in the non-coding than in the coding regions, suggesting a functional and possibly regulatory role for the non-coding regions of casein mRNA. The results provide insight into the evolution of the casein genes, and raise questions as to the role of conserved nucleotide sequences within the non-coding regions of mRNA species. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6548375

  15. Identification and functional analysis of long non-coding RNAs in human and mouse early embryos based on single-cell transcriptome data

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jia-jun; Ren, Zhao-rui; Yan, Jing-bin

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics regulations have an important role in fertilization and proper embryonic development, and several human diseases are associated with epigenetic modification disorders, such as Rett syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. However, the dynamics and functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), one type of epigenetic regulators, in human pre-implantation development have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of human and mouse early-stage embryonic lncRNAs was performed based on public single-cell RNA sequencing data. Expression profile analysis revealed that lncRNAs are expressed in a developmental stage–specific manner during human early-stage embryonic development, whereas a more temporal-specific expression pattern was identified in mouse embryos. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis suggested that lncRNAs involved in human early-stage embryonic development are associated with several important functions and processes, such as oocyte maturation, zygotic genome activation and mitochondrial functions. We also found that the network of lncRNAs involved in zygotic genome activation was highly preservative between human and mouse embryos, whereas in other stages no strong correlation between human and mouse embryo was observed. This study provides insight into the molecular mechanism underlying lncRNA involvement in human pre-implantation embryonic development. PMID:27542205

  16. Scaling features of noncoding DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.

    1999-01-01

    We review evidence supporting the idea that the DNA sequence in genes containing noncoding regions is correlated, and that the correlation is remarkably long range--indeed, base pairs thousands of base pairs distant are correlated. We do not find such a long-range correlation in the coding regions of the gene, and utilize this fact to build a Coding Sequence Finder Algorithm, which uses statistical ideas to locate the coding regions of an unknown DNA sequence. Finally, we describe briefly some recent work adapting to DNA the Zipf approach to analyzing linguistic texts, and the Shannon approach to quantifying the "redundancy" of a linguistic text in terms of a measurable entropy function, and reporting that noncoding regions in eukaryotes display a larger redundancy than coding regions. Specifically, we consider the possibility that this result is solely a consequence of nucleotide concentration differences as first noted by Bonhoeffer and his collaborators. We find that cytosine-guanine (CG) concentration does have a strong "background" effect on redundancy. However, we find that for the purine-pyrimidine binary mapping rule, which is not affected by the difference in CG concentration, the Shannon redundancy for the set of analyzed sequences is larger for noncoding regions compared to coding regions.

  17. In silico screening of the chicken genome for overlaps between genomic regions: microRNA genes, coding and non-coding transcriptional units, QTL, and genetic variations.

    PubMed

    Zorc, Minja; Kunej, Tanja

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional regulation of target genes. Regulation requires complementarity between target mRNA and the mature miRNA seed region, responsible for their recognition and binding. It has been estimated that each miRNA targets approximately 200 genes, and genetic variability of miRNA genes has been reported to affect phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility in humans, livestock species, and model organisms. Polymorphisms in miRNA genes could therefore represent biomarkers for phenotypic traits in livestock animals. In our previous study, we collected polymorphisms within miRNA genes in chicken. In the present study, we identified miRNA-related genomic overlaps to prioritize genomic regions of interest for further functional studies and biomarker discovery. Overlapping genomic regions in chicken were analyzed using the following bioinformatics tools and databases: miRNA SNiPer, Ensembl, miRBase, NCBI Blast, and QTLdb. Out of 740 known pre-miRNA genes, 263 (35.5 %) contain polymorphisms; among them, 35 contain more than three polymorphisms The most polymorphic miRNA genes in chicken are gga-miR-6662, containing 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the pre-miRNA region, including five consecutive SNPs, and gga-miR-6688, containing ten polymorphisms including three consecutive polymorphisms. Several miRNA-related genomic hotspots have been revealed in chicken genome; polymorphic miRNA genes are located within protein-coding and/or non-coding transcription units and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with production traits. The present study includes the first description of an exonic miRNA in a chicken genome, an overlap between the miRNA gene and the exon of the protein-coding gene (gga-miR-6578/HADHB), and the first report of a missense polymorphism located within a mature miRNA seed region. Identified miRNA-related genomic hotspots in chicken can serve researchers as a

  18. The High Degree of Sequence Plasticity of the Arenavirus Noncoding Intergenic Region (IGR) Enables the Use of a Nonviral Universal Synthetic IGR To Attenuate Arenaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Cubitt, Beatrice; Sullivan, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses (HFAs) pose important public health problems in regions where they are endemic. Concerns about human-pathogenic arenaviruses are exacerbated because of the lack of FDA-licensed arenavirus vaccines and because current antiarenaviral therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. We have recently shown that the noncoding intergenic region (IGR) present in each arenavirus genome segment, the S and L segments (S-IGR and L-IGR, respectively), plays important roles in the control of virus protein expression and that this knowledge could be harnessed for the development of live-attenuated vaccine strains to combat HFAs. In this study, we further investigated the sequence plasticity of the arenavirus IGR. We demonstrate that recombinants of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMVs), whose S-IGRs were replaced by the S-IGR of Lassa virus (LASV) or an entirely nonviral S-IGR-like sequence (Ssyn), are viable, indicating that the function of S-IGR tolerates a high degree of sequence plasticity. In addition, rLCMVs whose L-IGRs were replaced by Ssyn or S-IGRs of the very distantly related reptarenavirus Golden Gate virus (GGV) were viable and severely attenuated in vivo but able to elicit protective immunity against a lethal challenge with wild-type LCMV. Our findings indicate that replacement of L-IGR by a nonviral Ssyn could serve as a universal molecular determinant of arenavirus attenuation. IMPORTANCE Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses (HFAs) cause high rates of morbidity and mortality and pose important public health problems in regions where they are endemic. Implementation of live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) will represent a major step to combat HFAs. Here we document that the arenavirus noncoding intergenic region (IGR) has a high degree of plasticity compatible with virus viability. This observation led us to generate recombinant LCMVs containing nonviral synthetic

  19. A family of long intergenic non-coding RNA genes in human chromosomal region 22q11.2 carry a DNA translocation breakpoint/AT-rich sequence

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    FAM230C, a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) gene in human chromosome 13 (chr13) is a member of lincRNA genes termed family with sequence similarity 230. An analysis using bioinformatics search tools and alignment programs was undertaken to determine properties of FAM230C and its related genes. Results reveal that the DNA translocation element, the Translocation Breakpoint Type A (TBTA) sequence, which consists of satellite DNA, Alu elements, and AT-rich sequences is embedded in the FAM230C gene. Eight lincRNA genes related to FAM230C also carry the TBTA sequences. These genes were formed from a large segment of the 3’ half of the FAM230C sequence duplicated in chr22, and are specifically in regions of low copy repeats (LCR22)s, in or close to the 22q.11.2 region. 22q11.2 is a chromosomal segment that undergoes a high rate of DNA translocation and is prone to genetic deletions. FAM230C-related genes present in other chromosomes do not carry the TBTA motif and were formed from the 5’ half region of the FAM230C sequence. These findings identify a high specificity in lincRNA gene formation by gene sequence duplication in different chromosomes. PMID:29668722

  20. Ftx is a non-coding RNA which affects Xist expression and chromatin structure within the X-inactivation center region.

    PubMed

    Chureau, Corinne; Chantalat, Sophie; Romito, Antonio; Galvani, Angélique; Duret, Laurent; Avner, Philip; Rougeulle, Claire

    2011-02-15

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an essential epigenetic process which involves several non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including Xist, the master regulator of X-inactivation initiation. Xist is flanked in its 5' region by a large heterochromatic hotspot, which contains several transcription units including a gene of unknown function, Ftx (five prime to Xist). In this article, we describe the characterization and functional analysis of murine Ftx. We present evidence that Ftx produces a conserved functional long ncRNA, and additionally hosts microRNAs (miR) in its introns. Strikingly, Ftx partially escapes X-inactivation and is upregulated specifically in female ES cells at the onset of X-inactivation, an expression profile which closely follows that of Xist. We generated Ftx null ES cells to address the function of this gene. In these cells, only local changes in chromatin marks are detected within the hotspot, indicating that Ftx is not involved in the global maintenance of the heterochromatic structure of this region. The Ftx mutation, however, results in widespread alteration of transcript levels within the X-inactivation center (Xic) and particularly important decreases in Xist RNA levels, which were correlated with increased DNA methylation at the Xist CpG island. Altogether our results indicate that Ftx is a positive regulator of Xist and lead us to propose that Ftx is a novel ncRNA involved in XCI.

  1. Gene end-like sequences within the 3' non-coding region of the Nipah virus genome attenuate viral gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Akihiro; Sato, Hiroki; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2017-08-01

    The regulation of transcription during Nipah virus (NiV) replication is poorly understood. Using a bicistronic minigenome system, we investigated the involvement of non-coding regions (NCRs) in the transcriptional re-initiation efficiency of NiV RNA polymerase. Reporter assays revealed that attenuation of NiV gene expression was not constant at each gene junction, and that the attenuating property was controlled by the 3' NCR. However, this regulation was independent of the gene-end, gene-start and intergenic regions. Northern blot analysis indicated that regulation of viral gene expression by the phosphoprotein (P) and large protein (L) 3' NCRs occurred at the transcription level. We identified uridine-rich tracts within the L 3' NCR that are similar to gene-end signals. These gene-end-like sequences were recognized as weak transcription termination signals by the viral RNA polymerase, thereby reducing downstream gene transcription. Thus, we suggest that NiV has a unique mechanism of transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous and engineered deletions in the 3' noncoding region of tick-borne encephalitis virus: construction of highly attenuated mutants of a flavivirus.

    PubMed

    Mandl, C W; Holzmann, H; Meixner, T; Rauscher, S; Stadler, P F; Allison, S L; Heinz, F X

    1998-03-01

    The flavivirus genome is a positive-strand RNA molecule containing a single long open reading frame flanked by noncoding regions (NCR) that mediate crucial processes of the viral life cycle. The 3' NCR of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus can be divided into a variable region that is highly heterogeneous in length among strains of TBE virus and in certain cases includes an internal poly(A) tract and a 3'-terminal conserved core element that is believed to fold as a whole into a well-defined secondary structure. We have now investigated the genetic stability of the TBE virus 3' NCR and its influence on viral growth properties and virulence. We observed spontaneous deletions in the variable region during growth of TBE virus in cell culture and in mice. These deletions varied in size and location but always included the internal poly(A) element of the TBE virus 3' NCR and never extended into the conserved 3'-terminal core element. Subsequently, we constructed specific deletion mutants by using infectious cDNA clones with the entire variable region and increasing segments of the core element removed. A virus mutant lacking the entire variable region was indistinguishable from wild-type virus with respect to cell culture growth properties and virulence in the mouse model. In contrast, even small extensions of the deletion into the core element led to significant biological effects. Deletions extending to nucleotides 10826, 10847, and 10870 caused distinct attenuation in mice without measurable reduction of cell culture growth properties, which, however, were significantly restricted when the deletion was extended to nucleotide 10919. An even larger deletion (to nucleotide 10994) abolished viral viability. In spite of their high degree of attenuation, these mutants efficiently induced protective immune responses even at low inoculation doses. Thus, 3'-NCR deletions represent a useful technique for achieving stable attenuation of flaviviruses that can be included in the

  3. Analysis of a new homozygous deletion in the tumor suppressor region at 3p12.3 reveals two novel intronic noncoding RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Debora; ter Elst, Arja; Wei, Ming Hui; van der Veen, Anneke Y; Braga, Eleonora A; Klimov, Eugene A; Timmer, Tineke; Korobeinikova, Luba; Lerman, Michael I; Buys, Charles H C M

    2006-07-01

    Homozygous deletions or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at human chromosome band 3p12 are consistent features of lung and other malignancies, suggesting the presence of a tumor suppressor gene(s) (TSG) at this location. Only one gene has been cloned thus far from the overlapping region deleted in lung and breast cancer cell lines U2020, NCI H2198, and HCC38. It is DUTT1 (Deleted in U Twenty Twenty), also known as ROBO1, FLJ21882, and SAX3, according to HUGO. DUTT1, the human ortholog of the fly gene ROBO, has homology with NCAM proteins. Extensive analyses of DUTT1 in lung cancer have not revealed any mutations, suggesting that another gene(s) at this location could be of importance in lung cancer initiation and progression. Here, we report the discovery of a new, small, homozygous deletion in the small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line GLC20, nested in the overlapping, critical region. The deletion was delineated using several polymorphic markers and three overlapping P1 phage clones. Fiber-FISH experiments revealed the deletion was approximately 130 kb. Comparative genomic sequence analysis uncovered short sequence elements highly conserved among mammalian genomes and the chicken genome. The discovery of two EST clusters within the deleted region led to the isolation of two noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes. These were subsequently found differentially expressed in various tumors when compared to their normal tissues. The ncRNA and other highly conserved sequence elements in the deleted region may represent miRNA targets of importance in cancer initiation or progression. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Non-coding RNA derived from the region adjacent to the human HO-1 E2 enhancer selectively regulates HO-1 gene induction by modulating Pol II binding

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Mimura, Junsei; Itoh, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have disclosed the function of enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), which are long non-coding RNAs transcribed from gene enhancer regions, in transcriptional regulation. However, it remains unclear whether eRNAs are involved in the regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene (HO-1) induction. Here, we report that multiple nuclear-enriched eRNAs are transcribed from the regions adjacent to two human HO-1 enhancers (i.e. the distal E2 and proximal E1 enhancers), and some of these eRNAs are induced by the oxidative stress-causing reagent diethyl maleate (DEM). We demonstrated that the expression of one forward direction (5′ to 3′) eRNA transcribed from the human HO-1 E2 enhancer region (named human HO-1enhancer RNA E2-3; hereafter called eRNA E2-3) was induced by DEM in an NRF2-dependent manner in HeLa cells. Conversely, knockdown of BACH1, a repressor of HO-1 transcription, further increased DEM-inducible eRNA E2-3 transcription as well as HO-1 expression. In addition, we showed that knockdown of eRNA E2-3 selectively down-regulated DEM-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, eRNA E2-3 knockdown attenuated DEM-induced Pol II binding to the promoter and E2 enhancer regions of HO-1 without affecting NRF2 recruitment to the E2 enhancer. These findings indicate that eRNAE2-3 is functional and is required for HO-1 induction. PMID:25404134

  5. Expression profiles of long non-coding RNAs located in autoimmune disease-associated regions reveal immune cell-type specificity.

    PubMed

    Hrdlickova, Barbara; Kumar, Vinod; Kanduri, Kartiek; Zhernakova, Daria V; Tripathi, Subhash; Karjalainen, Juha; Lund, Riikka J; Li, Yang; Ullah, Ubaid; Modderman, Rutger; Abdulahad, Wayel; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Franke, Lude; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Wijmenga, Cisca; Withoff, Sebo

    2014-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of variants associated with a risk for autoimmune and immune-related disorders (AID), our understanding of the disease mechanisms is still limited. In particular, more than 90% of the risk variants lie in non-coding regions, and almost 10% of these map to long non-coding RNA transcripts (lncRNAs). lncRNAs are known to show more cell-type specificity than protein-coding genes. We aimed to characterize lncRNAs and protein-coding genes located in loci associated with nine AIDs which have been well-defined by Immunochip analysis and by transcriptome analysis across seven populations of peripheral blood leukocytes (granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, B cells, memory T cells, naive CD4(+) and naive CD8(+) T cells) and four populations of cord blood-derived T-helper cells (precursor, primary, and polarized (Th1, Th2) T-helper cells). We show that lncRNAs mapping to loci shared between AID are significantly enriched in immune cell types compared to lncRNAs from the whole genome (α <0.005). We were not able to prioritize single cell types relevant for specific diseases, but we observed five different cell types enriched (α <0.005) in five AID (NK cells for inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and psoriasis; memory T and CD8(+) T cells in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis; Th0 and Th2 cells for inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, primary biliary cirrhosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis). Furthermore, we show that co-expression analyses of lncRNAs and protein-coding genes can predict the signaling pathways in which these AID-associated lncRNAs are involved. The observed enrichment of lncRNA transcripts in AID loci implies lncRNAs play an important role in AID etiology and suggests that lncRNA genes should be studied in more detail to interpret GWAS

  6. Recombined sequences between the non-coding control regions of JC and BK viruses found in the urine of a renal transplantation patient.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Yu-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Fang, Chiung-Yao; Ou, Wei-Chih; Chen, Pei-Lain; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Mien-Chun; Chang, Deching; Wang, Meilin

    2012-12-01

    Kidney cells are the common host for JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV). Reactivation of JCV and/or BKV in patients after organ transplantation, such as renal transplantation, may cause hemorrhagic cystitis and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy. Furthermore, JCV and BKV may be shed in the urine after reactivation in the kidney. Rearranged as well as archetypal non-coding control regions (NCCRs) of JCV and BKV have been frequently identified in human samples. In this study, three JC/BK recombined NCCR sequences were identified in the urine of a patient who had undergone renal transplantation. They were designated as JC-BK hybrids 1, 2, and 3. The three JC/BK recombinant NCCRs contain up-stream JCV as well as down-stream BKV sequences. Deletions of both JCV and BKV sequences were found in these recombined NCCRs. Recombination of DNA sequences between JCV and BKV may occur during co-infection due to the relatively high homology of the two viral genomes.

  7. Intracellular modifications induced by poliovirus reduce the requirement for structural motifs in the 5' noncoding region of the genome involved in internal initiation of protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Percy, N; Belsham, G J; Brangwyn, J K; Sullivan, M; Stone, D M; Almond, J W

    1992-01-01

    A series of genetic deletions based partly on two RNA secondary structure models (M. A. Skinner, V. R. Racaniello, G. Dunn, J. Cooper, P. D. Minor, and J. W. Almond, J. Mol. Biol. 207:379-392, 1989; E. V. Pilipenko, V. M. Blinov, L. I. Romanova, A. N. Sinyakov, S. V. Maslova, and V. I. Agol, Virology 168:201-209, 1989) was made in the cDNA encoding the 5' noncoding region (5' NCR) of the poliovirus genome in order to study the sequences that direct the internal entry of ribosomes. The modified cDNAs were placed between two open reading frames in a single transcriptional unit and used to transfect cells in culture. Internal entry of ribosomes was detected by measuring translation from the second open reading frame in the bicistronic mRNA. When assayed alone, a large proportion of the poliovirus 5' NCR superstructure including several well-defined stem-loops was required for ribosome entry and efficient translation. However, in cells cotransfected with a complete infectious poliovirus cDNA, the requirement for the stem-loops in this large superstructure was reduced. The results suggest that virus infection modifies the cellular translational machinery, so that shortened forms of the 5' NCR are sufficient for cap-independent translation, and that the internal entry of ribosomes occurs by two distinct modes during the virus replication cycle. Images PMID:1310772

  8. A long noncoding RNA from the HBS1L-MYB intergenic region on chr6q23 regulates human fetal hemoglobin expression.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Tasha A; Wilcox, Ibifiri; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Farrell, John J; Kurita, Ryo; Nakamura, Yukio; Murphy, George J; Cui, Shuaiying; Steinberg, Martin H; Chui, David H K

    2018-03-01

    The HBS1L-MYB intergenic region (chr6q23) regulates erythroid cell proliferation, maturation, and fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression. An enhancer element within this locus, highlighted by a 3-bp deletion polymorphism (rs66650371), is known to interact with the promoter of the neighboring gene, MYB, to increase its expression, thereby regulating HbF production. RNA polymerase II binding and a 50-bp transcript from this enhancer region reported in ENCODE datasets suggested the presence of a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). We characterized a novel 1283bp transcript (HMI-LNCRNA; chr6:135,096,362-135,097,644; hg38) that was transcribed from the enhancer region of MYB. Within erythroid cells, HMI-LNCRNA was almost exclusively present in nucleus, and was much less abundant than the mRNA for MYB. HMI-LNCRNA expression was significantly higher in erythroblasts derived from cultured adult peripheral blood CD34 + cells which expressed more HBB, compared to erythroblasts from cultured cord blood CD34 + cells which expressed much more HBG. Down-regulation of HMI-LNCRNA in HUDEP-2 cells, which expressed mostly HBB, significantly upregulated HBG expression both at the mRNA (200-fold) and protein levels, and promoted erythroid maturation. No change was found in the expression of BCL11A and other key transcription factors known to modulate HBG expression. HMI-LNCRNA plays an important role in regulating HBG expression, and its downregulation can result in a significant increase in HbF. HMI-LNCRNA might be a potential therapeutic target for HbF induction treatment in sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A statistical framework to predict functional non-coding regions in the human genome through integrated analysis of annotation data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiongshi; Hu, Yiming; Sun, Jiehuan; Cheng, Yuwei; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-05-27

    Identifying functional regions in the human genome is a major goal in human genetics. Great efforts have been made to functionally annotate the human genome either through computational predictions, such as genomic conservation, or high-throughput experiments, such as the ENCODE project. These efforts have resulted in a rich collection of functional annotation data of diverse types that need to be jointly analyzed for integrated interpretation and annotation. Here we present GenoCanyon, a whole-genome annotation method that performs unsupervised statistical learning using 22 computational and experimental annotations thereby inferring the functional potential of each position in the human genome. With GenoCanyon, we are able to predict many of the known functional regions. The ability of predicting functional regions as well as its generalizable statistical framework makes GenoCanyon a unique and powerful tool for whole-genome annotation. The GenoCanyon web server is available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu.

  10. Unique BK virus non-coding control region (NCCR) variants in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with and without hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Michael J; McCormack, Grace P; Mutton, Ken J; Crowley, Brendan

    2006-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients frequently develop BK virus (BKV)-associated hemorrhagic cystitis, which coincides with BK viruria. However, the precise role of BKV in the etiology of hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients remains unclear, since approximately 50% of all such adult transplant recipients excrete BKV, yet do not develop this clinical condition. In the present study, BKV were analyzed to determine if mutations in the non-coding control region (NCCR), and specific BKV sub-types defined by sequence analysis of major capsid protein VP1, were associated with development of hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The regions encoding VP1 and NCCRs of BKV in urine samples collected from 15 hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hemorrhagic cystitis and 20 without this illness were amplified and sequenced. Sequence variations in the NCCRs of BKV were identified in urine samples from those with and without hemorrhagic cystitis. Furthermore, five unique sequence variations within transcription factor binding sites in the canonical NCCR, O-P-Q-R-S, were identified, representing new BKV variants from a population of cloned quasi-species obtained from patients with and without hemorrhagic cystitis. Thirty-five BKV VP1 sequences were analyzed by phylogenetic analysis but no specific BKV sub-type was associated with hemorrhagic cystitis. Five previously unrecognized naturally occurring variants of the BKV are described which involve amplifications, deletions, and rearrangements of the archetypal BKV NCCRs in individuals with and without hemorrhagic cystitis. Architectural rearrangements in the NCCRs of BKV did not appear to be a prerequisite for development of hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Distinctive mitochondrial genome of Calanoid copepod Calanus sinicus with multiple large non-coding regions and reshuffled gene order: Useful molecular markers for phylogenetic and population studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Copepods are highly diverse and abundant, resulting in extensive ecological radiation in marine ecosystems. Calanus sinicus dominates continental shelf waters in the northwest Pacific Ocean and plays an important role in the local ecosystem by linking primary production to higher trophic levels. A lack of effective molecular markers has hindered phylogenetic and population genetic studies concerning copepods. As they are genome-level informative, mitochondrial DNA sequences can be used as markers for population genetic studies and phylogenetic studies. Results The mitochondrial genome of C. sinicus is distinct from other arthropods owing to the concurrence of multiple non-coding regions and a reshuffled gene arrangement. Further particularities in the mitogenome of C. sinicus include low A + T-content, symmetrical nucleotide composition between strands, abbreviated stop codons for several PCGs and extended lengths of the genes atp6 and atp8 relative to other copepods. The monophyletic Copepoda should be placed within the Vericrustacea. The close affinity between Cyclopoida and Poecilostomatoida suggests reassigning the latter as subordinate to the former. Monophyly of Maxillopoda is rejected. Within the alignment of 11 C. sinicus mitogenomes, there are 397 variable sites harbouring three 'hotspot' variable sites and three microsatellite loci. Conclusion The occurrence of the circular subgenomic fragment during laboratory assays suggests that special caution should be taken when sequencing mitogenomes using long PCR. Such a phenomenon may provide additional evidence of mitochondrial DNA recombination, which appears to have been a prerequisite for shaping the present mitochondrial profile of C. sinicus during its evolution. The lack of synapomorphic gene arrangements among copepods has cast doubt on the utility of gene order as a useful molecular marker for deep phylogenetic analysis. However, mitochondrial genomic sequences have been valuable markers for

  12. NONCODE v2.0: decoding the non-coding.

    PubMed

    He, Shunmin; Liu, Changning; Skogerbø, Geir; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Jie; Liu, Tao; Bai, Baoyan; Zhao, Yi; Chen, Runsheng

    2008-01-01

    The NONCODE database is an integrated knowledge database designed for the analysis of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Since NONCODE was first released 3 years ago, the number of known ncRNAs has grown rapidly, and there is growing recognition that ncRNAs play important regulatory roles in most organisms. In the updated version of NONCODE (NONCODE v2.0), the number of collected ncRNAs has reached 206 226, including a wide range of microRNAs, Piwi-interacting RNAs and mRNA-like ncRNAs. The improvements brought to the database include not only new and updated ncRNA data sets, but also an incorporation of BLAST alignment search service and access through our custom UCSC Genome Browser. NONCODE can be found under http://www.noncode.org or http://noncode.bioinfo.org.cn.

  13. Influence of the genetic polymorphism in the 5'-noncoding region of the CYP1A2 gene on CYP1A2 phenotype and urinary mutagenicity in smokers.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Pulliero, Alessandra; Lupi, Silvia; Gregorio, Pasquale; Clonfero, Erminio

    2005-11-10

    The functional significance of genetic polymorphisms on tobacco smoke-induced CYP1A2 activity was examined. The influence of three polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 1A2 gene (CYP1A2) (-3860 G-->A (allele *1C), -2467 T-->delT (allele *1D), -163C-->A (allele *1F)), located in the 5'-noncoding promoter region of the gene, on CYP1A2 activity (measured as caffeine metabolic ratio, CMR), was studied in Caucasian current smokers (n=95). Tobacco smoke intake was calculated from the number of cigarettes/day. Also, studied was the influence of these CYP1A2 genotypes on smoking-associated urinary mutagenicity, detected in Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1024 with S9 mix, considering the urinary excretion of nicotine plus its metabolites as an internal indicator of tobacco smoke exposure. Smokers with at least one of the variant alleles CYP1A2 -3860A and -2467 delT showed a significantly increased CYP1A2 CMR (-3860 G/A versus G/G, p<0.05; -2467 delT/delT versus T/delT and T/T, p<0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that the increase in CYP1A2 CMR (ln values) was again significantly related to the presence of CYP1A2 variants -2467delT and also to variant -163A (p<0.05), but moderately to -3860A (p=0.084). No influence of the number of cigarettes smoked per day by each subject was found. Heavy smokers (n=48, with urinary nicotine plus its metabolites>or=0.69 mg/mmol creatinine) with variant allele -2467delT or -163A had significantly increased urinary mutagenicity (p<0.01 and <0.05). CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms are shown to influence the CYP1A2 phenotype in smokers, -2467 T-->delT having the main effect. This information is of interest for future studies assessing the possible role of tobacco smoke-inducible CYP1A2 genotypes as individual susceptibility factors in exposure to carcinogens.

  14. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  15. Arabidopsis intragenomic conserved noncoding sequence

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Brian C.; Rapaka, Lakshmi; Lyons, Eric; Pedersen, Brent; Freeling, Michael

    2007-01-01

    After the most recent tetraploidy in the Arabidopsis lineage, most gene pairs lost one, but not both, of their duplicates. We manually inspected the 3,179 retained gene pairs and their surrounding gene space still present in the genome using a custom-made viewer application. The display of these pairs allowed us to define intragenic conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs), identify exon annotation errors, and discover potentially new genes. Using a strict algorithm to sort high-scoring pair sequences from the bl2seq data, we created a database of 14,944 intragenomic Arabidopsis CNSs. The mean CNS length is 31 bp, ranging from 15 to 285 bp. There are ≈1.7 CNSs associated with a typical gene, and Arabidopsis CNSs are found in all areas around exons, most frequently in the 5′ upstream region. Gene ontology classifications related to transcription, regulation, or “response to …” external or endogenous stimuli, especially hormones, tend to be significantly overrepresented among genes containing a large number of CNSs, whereas protein localization, transport, and metabolism are common among genes with no CNSs. There is a 1.5% overlap between these CNSs and the 218,982 putative RNAs in the Arabidopsis Small RNA Project database, allowing for two mismatches. These CNSs provide a unique set of noncoding sequences enriched for function. CNS function is implied by evolutionary conservation and independently supported because CNS-richness predicts regulatory gene ontology categories. PMID:17301222

  16. Some early astronomical sites in the Kashmir region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Naseer; Vahia, M. N.; Masood, Tabasum; Ahmad, Aijaz

    2009-03-01

    We discuss a number of early rock art sites in the Kashmir Valley in northern India and neighbouring Pakistan, and suggest that some of these contain depictions of astronomical objects or events. The sites are in the Srinagar and Sopore regions and in or near the Ladakh region, and date to Neolithic or Upper Paleolithic times. Our studies suggest that during this period some of the ancient astronomers recorded supernovae, meteorite impacts, the Sun, the Moon and the seasons in their rock art.

  17. Building regional early flood warning systems by AI techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, F. J.; Chang, L. C.; Amin, M. Z. B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Building early flood warning system is essential for the protection of the residents against flood hazards and make actions to mitigate the losses. This study implements AI technology for forecasting multi-step-ahead regional flood inundation maps during storm events. The methodology includes three major schemes: (1) configuring the self-organizing map (SOM) to categorize a large number of regional inundation maps into a meaningful topology; (2) building dynamic neural networks to forecast multi-step-ahead average inundated depths (AID); and (3) adjusting the weights of the selected neuron in the constructed SOM based on the forecasted AID to obtain real-time regional inundation maps. The proposed models are trained, and tested based on a large number of inundation data sets collected in regions with the most frequent and serious flooding in the river basin. The results appear that the SOM topological relationships between individual neurons and their neighbouring neurons are visible and clearly distinguishable, and the hybrid model can continuously provide multistep-ahead visible regional inundation maps with high resolution during storm events, which have relatively small RMSE values and high R2 as compared with numerical simulation data sets. The computing time is only few seconds, and thereby leads to real-time regional flood inundation forecasting and make early flood inundation warning system. We demonstrate that the proposed hybrid ANN-based model has a robust and reliable predictive ability and can be used for early warning to mitigate flood disasters.

  18. Regional early flood warning system: design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L. C.; Yang, S. N.; Kuo, C. L.; Wang, Y. F.

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a prototype of the regional early flood inundation warning system in Tainan City, Taiwan. The AI technology is used to forecast multi-step-ahead regional flood inundation maps during storm events. The computing time is only few seconds that leads to real-time regional flood inundation forecasting. A database is built to organize data and information for building real-time forecasting models, maintaining the relations of forecasted points, and displaying forecasted results, while real-time data acquisition is another key task where the model requires immediately accessing rain gauge information to provide forecast services. All programs related database are constructed in Microsoft SQL Server by using Visual C# to extracting real-time hydrological data, managing data, storing the forecasted data and providing the information to the visual map-based display. The regional early flood inundation warning system use the up-to-date Web technologies driven by the database and real-time data acquisition to display the on-line forecasting flood inundation depths in the study area. The friendly interface includes on-line sequentially showing inundation area by Google Map, maximum inundation depth and its location, and providing KMZ file download of the results which can be watched on Google Earth. The developed system can provide all the relevant information and on-line forecast results that helps city authorities to make decisions during typhoon events and make actions to mitigate the losses.

  19. The neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness of chimeric tick-borne encephalitis/dengue virus can be attenuated by introducing defined mutations into the envelope and NS5 protein genes and the 3' non-coding region of the genome

    SciT

    Engel, Amber R., E-mail: engelam@mail.nih.go; Rumyantsev, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander.rumyantsev@sanofipasteur.co; Maximova, Olga A., E-mail: maximovao@mail.nih.go

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe disease affecting thousands of people throughout Eurasia. Despite the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines in endemic areas, an increasing incidence of TBE emphasizes the need for an alternative vaccine that will induce a more durable immunity against TBE virus (TBEV). The chimeric attenuated virus vaccine candidate containing the structural protein genes of TBEV on a dengue virus genetic background (TBEV/DEN4) retains a high level of neurovirulence in both mice and monkeys. Therefore, attenuating mutations were introduced into the envelope (E{sub 315}) and NS5 (NS5{sub 654,655}) proteins, and into the 3' non-coding region ({Delta}30) of TBEV/DEN4.more » The variant that contained all three mutations (v{Delta}30/E{sub 315}/NS5{sub 654,655}) was significantly attenuated for neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence and displayed a reduced level of replication and virus-induced histopathology in the brains of mice. The high level of safety in the central nervous system indicates that v{Delta}30/E{sub 315}/NS5{sub 654,655} should be further evaluated as a TBEV vaccine.« less

  20. Gene regulation by noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Veena S.; Zhou, Rui; Rana, Tariq M.

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in research on noncoding RNAs and their physiological and pathological functions. Several classes of small (20–30 nucleotides) and long (>200 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs have been firmly established as key regulators of gene expression in myriad processes ranging from embryonic development to innate immunity. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and function of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). In addition, we briefly review the relevance of small and long noncoding RNAs to human physiology and pathology and their potential to be exploited as therapeutic agents. PMID:24164576

  1. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochman, Lydian; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James

    2014-05-01

    The Caribbean region results from a complex tectonic history governed by the interplay of the North American, South American and (Paleo-)Pacific plates, between which the Caribbean plate evolved since the early Cretaceous. During its entire tectonic evolution, the Caribbean plate was largely surrounded by subduction and transform boundaries, which hampers a quantitative integration into the global circuit of plate motions. In addition, reconstructions of the region have so far not resulted in a first order kinematic description of the main tectonic units in terms of Euler poles and finite rotation angles. Here, we present an updated, quantitatively described kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region back to 200 Ma integrated into the global plate circuit, and implemented with GPlates free software. Our analysis of Caribbean tectonic evolution incorporates an extensive literature review. To constrain the Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a novel approach that takes structural geological observations rather than marine magnetic anomalies as prime input, and uses regionally extensive metamorphic and magmatic phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribbean high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and major strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents in early Cretaceous time. We provide the paleomagnetic reference frame for the Caribbean region by rotating the Global Apparent Polar Wander Path into coordinates of the Caribbean plate interior, Cuba, and the Chortis Block. We conclude that a plate kinematic scenario for a Panthalassa/Pacific origin of Caribbean lithosphere leads to a much simpler explanation than a Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic origin. Placing our

  2. Regional early development and eruption of permanent teeth: case report.

    PubMed

    Al Mullahi, A M; Bakathir, A; Al Jahdhami, S

    2017-02-01

    Early development and eruption of permanent teeth are rarely reported in scientific literature. Early eruption of permanent teeth has been reported to occur due to local factors such as trauma or dental abscesses in primary teeth, and in systemic conditions. Congenital diffuse infiltrating facial lipomatosis (CDIFL) is a rare condition that belongs to a group of lipomatosis tumours. In this disorder, the mature adipocytes invade adjacent soft and hard tissues in the facial region. Accelerated tooth eruption is one of the dental anomalies associated with CDIFL. A 3-year-old boy presented with a swelling of the lower lip localised early development and eruption of permanent teeth and dental caries involving many primary teeth. The planned treatment included biopsy of the swollen lower lip to confirm the diagnosis, surgical reduction and reconstruction of lip aesthetics. The management of the carious primary teeth included preventative and comprehensive dental care and extractions. These procedures were completed under general anaesthesia due to the child's young age and poor cooperation. The lip biopsy showed features of CDIFL such as the presence of infiltrating adipose tissue, prominent number of nerve bundles and thickened vessels. The high recurrence rate of CDIFL mandates long-term monitoring during the facial growth period of the child. Follow-up care by the paediatric dentist and maxillofacial surgeon has been required to manage all aspects of this congenital malformation. This rare disorder has many implications affecting child's facial aesthetics, psychological well being, developing occlusion and risk of dental caries. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed for management of this condition.

  3. Tissue specific expression of the retinoic acid receptor-beta 2: regulation by short open reading frames in the 5'-noncoding region

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The 40-S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes binds to the capped 5'-end of mRNA and scans for the first AUG in a favorable sequence context to initiate translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs therefore have a short 5'- untranslated region (5'-UTR) and no AUGs upstream of the translational start site; features that seem to assure efficient translation. However, approximately 5-10% of all eukaryotic mRNAs, particularly those encoding for regulatory proteins, have complex leader sequences that seem to compromise translational initiation. The retinoic-acid- receptor-beta 2 (RAR beta 2) mRNA is such a transcript with a long (461 nucleotides) 5'-UTR that contains five, partially overlapping, upstream open reading frames (uORFs) that precede the major ORF. We have begun to investigate the function of this complex 5'-UTR in transgenic mice, by introducing mutations in the start/stop codons of the uORFs in RAR beta 2-lacZ reporter constructs. When we compared the expression patterns of mutant and wild-type constructs we found that these mutations affected expression of the downstream RAR beta 2-ORF, resulting in an altered regulation of RAR beta 2-lacZ expression in heart and brain. Other tissues were unaffected. RNA analysis of adult tissues demonstrated that the uORFs act at the level of translation; adult brains and hearts of transgenic mice carrying a construct with either the wild-type or a mutant UTR, had the same levels of mRNA, but only the mutant produced protein. Our study outlines an unexpected role for uORFs: control of tissue-specific and developmentally regulated gene expression. PMID:7962071

  4. Noncoding RNAs in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Shraddha D.; Geetha, Thangiah; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R.; Zizza, Claire A.; Wernette, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs are widely known for their various essential roles in the development of central nervous system. It involves neurogenesis, neural stem cells generation, maintenance and maturation, neurotransmission, neural network plasticity, formation of synapses, and even brain aging and DNA damage responses. In this review, we will discuss the biogenesis of microRNA, various functions of noncoding RNA's specifically microRNAs (miRNAs) that act as the chief regulators of gene expression, and focus in particular on misregulation of miRNAs which leads to several neurodegenerative diseases as well as its therapeutic outcome. Recent evidences has shown that miRNAs expression levels are changed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases; hence, miRNA can be used as a potential diagnostic biomarker and serve as an effective therapeutic tool in overcoming various neurodegenerative disease processes. PMID:23738143

  5. Early benefits of mitigation in risk of regional climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavarella, Andrew; Stott, Peter; Lowe, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Large differences in climate outcomes are projected by the end of this century depending on whether greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase or are reduced sufficiently to limit total warming to below 2 °C (ref. ). However, it is generally thought that benefits of mitigation are hidden by internal climate variability until later in the century. Here we show that if the likelihood of extremely hot seasons is considered, the benefits of mitigation emerge more quickly than previously thought. It takes less than 20 years of emissions reductions in many regions for the likelihood of extreme seasonal warmth to reduce by more than half following initiation of mitigation. Additionally we show that the latest possible date at which the probability of extreme seasonal temperatures will be halved through emissions reductions consistent with the 2 °C target is in the 2040s. Exposure to climate risk is therefore reduced markedly and rapidly with substantial reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, demonstrating that the early mitigation needed to limit eventual warming below potentially dangerous levels benefits societies in the nearer term not just in the longer-term future.

  6. Targeting noncoding RNAs in disease

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Christine; Walker, Lisa; Zhang, Wen Cai; Slack, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Many RNA species have been identified as important players in the development of chronic diseases, including cancer. Over the past decade, numerous studies have highlighted how regulatory RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in the development of a disease state. It is clear that the aberrant expression of miRNAs promotes tumor initiation and progression, is linked with cardiac dysfunction, allows for the improper physiological response in maintaining glucose and insulin levels, and can prevent the appropriate integration of neuronal networks, resulting in neurodegenerative disorders. Because of this, there has been a major effort to therapeutically target these noncoding RNAs. In just the past 5 years, over 100 antisense oligonucleotide–based therapies have been tested in phase I clinical trials, a quarter of which have reached phase II/III. Most notable are fomivirsen and mipomersen, which have received FDA approval to treat cytomegalovirus retinitis and high blood cholesterol, respectively. The continued improvement of innovative RNA modifications and delivery entities, such as nanoparticles, will aid in the development of future RNA-based therapeutics for a broader range of chronic diseases. Here we summarize the latest promises and challenges of targeting noncoding RNAs in disease. PMID:28248199

  7. Noncoding RNAs of the Ultrabithorax Domain of the Drosophila Bithorax Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pease, Benjamin; Borges, Ana C.; Bender, Welcome

    2013-01-01

    RNA transcripts without obvious coding potential are widespread in many creatures, including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Several noncoding RNAs have been identified within the Drosophila bithorax complex. These first appear in blastoderm stage embryos, and their expression patterns indicate that they are transcribed only from active domains of the bithorax complex. It has been suggested that these noncoding RNAs have a role in establishing active domains, perhaps by setting the state of Polycomb Response Elements A comprehensive survey across the proximal half of the bithorax complex has now revealed nine distinct noncoding RNA transcripts, including four within the Ultrabithorax transcription unit. At the blastoderm stage, the noncoding transcripts collectively span ∼75% of the 135 kb surveyed. Recombination-mediated cassette exchange was used to invert the promoter of one of the noncoding RNAs, a 23-kb transcript from the bxd domain of the bithorax complex. The resulting animals fail to make the normal bxd noncoding RNA and show no transcription across the bxd Polycomb Response Element in early embryos. The mutant flies look normal; the regulation of the bxd domain appears unaffected. Thus, the bxd noncoding RNA has no apparent function. PMID:24077301

  8. Perspectives of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Cancer Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Eduardo M.; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) transcribed from intergenic and intronic regions of the human genome constitute a broad class of cellular transcripts that are under intensive investigation. While only a handful of lncRNAs have been characterized, their involvement in fundamental cellular processes that control gene expression highlights a central role in cell homeostasis. Not surprisingly, aberrant expression of regulatory lncRNAs has been increasingly documented in different types of cancer, where they can mediate both oncogenic or tumor suppressor effects. Interaction with chromatin remodeling complexes that promote silencing of specific genes or modulation of splicing factor proteins seem to be two general modes of lncRNA regulation, but it is conceivable that additional mechanisms of action are yet to be unveiled. LncRNAs show greater tissue specificity compared to protein-coding mRNAs making them attractive in the search of novel diagnostics/prognostics cancer biomarkers in body fluid samples. In fact, lncRNA prostate cancer antigen 3 can be detected in urine samples and has been shown to improve diagnosis of prostate cancer. We suggest that an unbiased screening of the presence of RNAs in easily accessible body fluids such as serum and urine might reveal novel circulating lncRNAs as potential biomarkers in many types of cancer. Annotation and functional characterization of the lncRNA complement of the cancer transcriptome will conceivably provide new venues for early diagnosis and treatment of the disease. PMID:22408643

  9. The specificity of long noncoding RNA expression.

    PubMed

    Gloss, Brian S; Dinger, Marcel E

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a fundamental molecular class whose members play pivotal roles in the regulation of the genome. The observation of pervasive transcription of mammalian genomes in the early 2000s sparked a revolution in the understanding of information flow in eukaryotic cells and the incredible flexibility and dynamic nature of the transcriptome. As a molecular class, distinct loci yielding lncRNAs are set to outnumber those yielding mRNAs. However, like many important discoveries, the road leading to uncovering this diverse class of molecules that act through a remarkable repertoire of mechanisms, was not a straight one. The same characteristic that most distinguishes lncRNAs from mRNAs, i.e. their developmental-stage, tissue-, and cell-specific expression, was one of the major impediments to their discovery and recognition as potentially functional regulatory molecules. With growing numbers of lncRNAs being assigned to biological functions, the specificity of lncRNA expression is now increasingly recognized as a characteristic that imbues lncRNAs with great potential as biomarkers and for the development of highly targeted therapeutics. Here we review the history of lncRNA research and how technological advances and insight into biological complexity have gone hand-in-hand in shaping this revolution. We anticipate that as increasing numbers of these molecules, often described as the dark matter of the genome, are characterized and the structure-function relationship of lncRNAs becomes better understood, it may ultimately be feasible to decipher what these non-(protein)-coding genes encode. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long Noncoding RNA-Associated Transcriptomic Changes in Resiliency or Susceptibility to Depression and Response to Antidepressant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Bhaskar; Wang, Qingzhong; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent emergence of long noncoding RNAs in regulating gene expression and thereby modulating physiological functions in brain has manifested their possible role in psychiatric disorders. In this study, the roles of long noncoding RNAs in susceptibility and resiliency to develop stress-induced depression and their response to antidepressant treatment were examined. Methods Microarray-based transcriptome-wide changes in long noncoding RNAs were determined in hippocampus of male Holtzman rats who showed susceptibility (learned helplessness) or resiliency (nonlearned helplessness) to develop depression. Changes in long noncoding RNA expression were also ascertained after subchronic administration of fluoxetine to learned helplessness rats. Bioinformatic and target prediction analyses (cis- and trans-acting) and qPCR-based assays were performed to decipher the functional role of altered long noncoding RNAs. Results Group-wise comparison showed an overrepresented class of long noncoding RNAs that were uniquely associated with nonlearned helplessness or learned helplessness behavior. Chromosomal mapping within the 5-kbp flank region of the top 20 dysregulated long noncoding RNAs in the learned helplessness group showed several target genes that were regulated through cis- or trans-actions, including Zbtb20 and Zfp385b from zinc finger binding protein family. Genomic context of differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs showed an overall blunted response in the learned helplessness group regardless of the long noncoding RNA classes analyzed. Gene ontology exhibited the functional clustering for anatomical structure development, cellular architecture modulation, protein metabolism, and cellular communications. Fluoxetine treatment reversed learned helplessness-induced changes in many long noncoding RNAs and target genes. Conclusions The involvement of specific classes of long noncoding RNAs with distinctive roles in modulating target gene expression

  11. Analysis of conserved noncoding DNA in Drosophila reveals similar constraints in intergenic and intronic sequences.

    PubMed

    Bergman, C M; Kreitman, M

    2001-08-01

    Comparative genomic approaches to gene and cis-regulatory prediction are based on the principle that differential DNA sequence conservation reflects variation in functional constraint. Using this principle, we analyze noncoding sequence conservation in Drosophila for 40 loci with known or suspected cis-regulatory function encompassing >100 kb of DNA. We estimate the fraction of noncoding DNA conserved in both intergenic and intronic regions and describe the length distribution of ungapped conserved noncoding blocks. On average, 22%-26% of noncoding sequences surveyed are conserved in Drosophila, with median block length approximately 19 bp. We show that point substitution in conserved noncoding blocks exhibits transition bias as well as lineage effects in base composition, and occurs more than an order of magnitude more frequently than insertion/deletion (indel) substitution. Overall, patterns of noncoding DNA structure and evolution differ remarkably little between intergenic and intronic conserved blocks, suggesting that the effects of transcription per se contribute minimally to the constraints operating on these sequences. The results of this study have implications for the development of alignment and prediction algorithms specific to noncoding DNA, as well as for models of cis-regulatory DNA sequence evolution.

  12. An Examination of Regional Competitiveness: Early Findings from Banten, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holis, Y. M.; Syabri, I.; Prabatmojo, H.

    2018-05-01

    Over time, the regional development planning paradigm continues to change procedural, substantive, actor and institutional aspects. The increasing globalization and decentralized governance systems will continue to determine how a country or region can compete and even be able to take advantage of the positive value of economic globalization. This certainly provides challenges and opportunities for the renewal of regional development concepts, in particular, the concept of regional competitiveness. This concept still lacks a scientific basis and its interpretation is still in debate. To date, the clear scientific basis is the concepts of corporate and national competitiveness. Whereas, the concept of competitiveness at the meso-level, namely the competitiveness of the region, becomes very important. Regional competitiveness prepares a region and to survive in response to the more open dynamics of economic globalization and the system of decentralization of authority in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to complement the concept of competitiveness which is still at the level of microeconomics (business theory) and macroeconomy (theory of growth) with the concept of competitiveness at the regional level that focuses on (i) finding determinant factors at the regional level in Indonesia; (ii) profiling regional competitiveness in several regions; and (iii) assessing the role of local government (institutional and actor) on determinants of regional competitiveness. This research is carried out by using a mixed-methods approach with a concurrent triangulation strategy model. The research follows the stages of literature study to identify the determinant factors of regional competitiveness relevant to the purpose of research, followed by descriptive analysis of the variables and selected by statistics through Analytical Network Process (ANP) to become the determinant factor of competitiveness. In accordance with the concept and definition of regional

  13. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Deng, Patricia; Jacobson, Dionna; Li, Jin Billy

    2017-02-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3'UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3'UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions.

  14. Evolutionary analysis reveals regulatory and functional landscape of coding and non-coding RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Dionna

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing diversifies the transcriptome and promotes functional diversity, particularly in the brain. A plethora of editing sites has been recently identified; however, how they are selected and regulated and which are functionally important are largely unknown. Here we show the cis-regulation and stepwise selection of RNA editing during Drosophila evolution and pinpoint a large number of functional editing sites. We found that the establishment of editing and variation in editing levels across Drosophila species are largely explained and predicted by cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, editing events that arose early in the species tree tend to be more highly edited in clusters and enriched in slowly-evolved neuronal genes, thus suggesting that the main role of RNA editing is for fine-tuning neurological functions. While nonsynonymous editing events have been long recognized as playing a functional role, in addition to nonsynonymous editing sites, a large fraction of 3’UTR editing sites is evolutionarily constrained, highly edited, and thus likely functional. We find that these 3’UTR editing events can alter mRNA stability and affect miRNA binding and thus highlight the functional roles of noncoding RNA editing. Our work, through evolutionary analyses of RNA editing in Drosophila, uncovers novel insights of RNA editing regulation as well as its functions in both coding and non-coding regions. PMID:28166241

  15. Transcriptional role of androgen receptor in the expression of long non-coding RNA Sox2OT in neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tosetti, Valentina; Sassone, Jenny; Ferri, Anna L. M.; Taiana, Michela; Bedini, Gloria; Nava, Sara; Brenna, Greta; Di Resta, Chiara; Pareyson, Davide; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Carelli, Stephana

    2017-01-01

    The complex architecture of adult brain derives from tightly regulated migration and differentiation of precursor cells generated during embryonic neurogenesis. Changes at transcriptional level of genes that regulate migration and differentiation may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is already expressed during early embryonic days. However, AR role in the regulation of gene expression at early embryonic stage is yet to be determinate. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Sox2 overlapping transcript (Sox2OT) plays a crucial role in gene expression control during development but its transcriptional regulation is still to be clearly defined. Here, using Bicalutamide in order to pharmacologically inactivated AR, we investigated whether AR participates in the regulation of the transcription of the lncRNASox2OTat early embryonic stage. We identified a new DNA binding region upstream of Sox2 locus containing three androgen response elements (ARE), and found that AR binds such a sequence in embryonic neural stem cells and in mouse embryonic brain. Our data suggest that through this binding, AR can promote the RNA polymerase II dependent transcription of Sox2OT. Our findings also suggest that AR participates in embryonic neurogenesis through transcriptional control of the long non-coding RNA Sox2OT. PMID:28704421

  16. Transcriptional role of androgen receptor in the expression of long non-coding RNA Sox2OT in neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tosetti, Valentina; Sassone, Jenny; Ferri, Anna L M; Taiana, Michela; Bedini, Gloria; Nava, Sara; Brenna, Greta; Di Resta, Chiara; Pareyson, Davide; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Carelli, Stephana; Parati, Eugenio A; Gorio, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    The complex architecture of adult brain derives from tightly regulated migration and differentiation of precursor cells generated during embryonic neurogenesis. Changes at transcriptional level of genes that regulate migration and differentiation may lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is already expressed during early embryonic days. However, AR role in the regulation of gene expression at early embryonic stage is yet to be determinate. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Sox2 overlapping transcript (Sox2OT) plays a crucial role in gene expression control during development but its transcriptional regulation is still to be clearly defined. Here, using Bicalutamide in order to pharmacologically inactivated AR, we investigated whether AR participates in the regulation of the transcription of the lncRNASox2OTat early embryonic stage. We identified a new DNA binding region upstream of Sox2 locus containing three androgen response elements (ARE), and found that AR binds such a sequence in embryonic neural stem cells and in mouse embryonic brain. Our data suggest that through this binding, AR can promote the RNA polymerase II dependent transcription of Sox2OT. Our findings also suggest that AR participates in embryonic neurogenesis through transcriptional control of the long non-coding RNA Sox2OT.

  17. Dysregulation of non-coding RNAs in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Ren-Wen; Sui, Peng-Cheng; He, Hai-Tao; Ding, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers in the world and a significant threat to the health of patients, especially those from China and Japan. The prognosis for patients with late stage GC receiving the standard of care treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, remains poor. Developing novel treatment strategies, identifying new molecules for targeted therapy, and devising screening techniques to detect this cancer in its early stages are needed for GC patients. The discovery of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), primarily microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), helped to elucidate the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, diagnosis and treatment of GC. Recently, significant research has been conducted on non-coding RNAs and how the regulatory dysfunction of these RNAs impacts the tumorigenesis of GC. In this study, we review papers published in the last five years concerning the dysregulation of non-coding RNAs, especially miRNAs and lncRNAs, in GC. We summarize instances of aberrant expression of the ncRNAs in GC and their effect on survival-related events, including cell cycle regulation, AKT signaling, apoptosis and drug resistance. Additionally, we evaluate how ncRNA dysregulation affects the metastatic process, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stem cells, transcription factor activity, and oncogene and tumor suppressor expression. Lastly, we determine how ncRNAs affect angiogenesis in the microenvironment of GC. We further discuss the use of ncRNAs as potential biomarkers for use in clinical screening, early diagnosis and prognosis of GC. At present, no ideal ncRNAs have been identified as targets for the treatment of GC. PMID:26494954

  18. Strong early seed-specific gene regulatory region

    DOEpatents

    Broun, Pierre; Somerville, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Nucleic acid sequences and methods for their use are described which provide for early seed-specific transcription, in order to modulate or modify expression of foreign or endogenous genes in seeds, particularly embryo cells. The method finds particular use in conjunction with modifying fatty acid production in seed tissue.

  19. Strong early seed-specific gene regulatory region

    DOEpatents

    Broun, Pierre; Somerville, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Nucleic acid sequences and methods for their use are described which provide for early seed-specific transcription, in order to modulate or modify expression of foreign or endogenous genes in seeds, particularly embryo cells. The method finds particular use in conjunction with modifying fatty acid production in seed tissue.

  20. [Factors associated with early weaning in a Spanish region].

    PubMed

    Rius, J M; Ortuño, J; Rivas, C; Maravall, M; Calzado, M A; López, A; Aguar, M; Vento, M

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding has undoubtedly great benefits. Previous studies have foundan early dropout. Only a few studies have investigated related factors. Our aim was to find out on-going breastfeeding rates along the first 12 months after birth and analyse factors associated with early weaning. This is a prospective study including consecutive pairs (mother and newborn) till completion of the required sample. Variables were collected performing a structured program of surveys to the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate analysis of the data was performed. A total of 452 pairs were recruited. It was found that 81% of them started breastfeeding, with a prevalence of breastfeeding of 39% and 21% at 3 and 6 months after birth, respectively. Factors associated with early discontinuation of breastfeeding were: pregnancy induced by assisted reproduction methods (OR=5.58; 95% CI: 2.62-11.91), maternal smoking (OR=1.56; 95% CI: 1.10-2.22), poor maternal expectations about the duration of breastfeeding (OR=2.19; 95% CI: 1.49-3.23), use of nipple shields for breastfeeding (OR=2.57; 95% CI: 1.69-3.90), pacifier use on a regular basis during the first month after delivery (OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.91), maternal university educational level (OR=0,59; 95% CI: 0,40-0,88), attending birth preparation programs during pregnancy (OR=0,68; 95% CI: 0,49-0,94), and believing having enough milk output at the time of discharge (OR=0,66; 95% CI: 0,47-0,92). International recommendations about duration of breastfeeding are not achieved in our country because of high rates of early weaning. We describe the known factors involved and other novel factors. The implementation of interventions to increase breastfeeding rates and to prevent early weaning are strongly recommended. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Early diagnosis of regional odontodysplasia in an infant.

    PubMed

    Canela, Alfredo Hiram Carrillo; Rezende, Karla Mayra Pinto E Carvalho; Benitez, Mirtha; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2012-03-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is a rare and significant dental malformation. It is a dental alteration of unknown etiology, involving both mesodermal and ectodermal dental components, which present clinical, radiographic, and histologic features. This article reports a clinical case of a 10-month-old child who was diagnosed with regional odontodysplasia in the maxilla, confirmed by radiographic examination, with a follow-up of 5 years. The clinical, radiographic, and histologic features were reviewed.

  2. Evaluation of non-coding variation in GLUT1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Lee, Jia Wei Audrey; Bellows, Susannah T; Damiano, John A; Mullen, Saul A; Berkovic, Samuel F; Bahlo, Melanie; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Hildebrand, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in SLC2A1, encoding glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), lead to dysfunction of glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. Ten percent of cases with hypoglycorrhachia (fasting cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] glucose <2.2mmol/L) do not have mutations. We hypothesized that GLUT1 deficiency could be due to non-coding SLC2A1 variants. We performed whole exome sequencing of one proband with a GLUT1 phenotype and hypoglycorrhachia negative for SLC2A1 sequencing and copy number variants. We studied a further 55 patients with different epilepsies and low CSF glucose who did not have exonic mutations or copy number variants. We sequenced non-coding promoter and intronic regions. We performed mRNA studies for the recurrent intronic variant. The proband had a de novo splice site mutation five base pairs from the intron-exon boundary. Three of 55 patients had deep intronic SLC2A1 variants, including a recurrent variant in two. The recurrent variant produced less SLC2A1 mRNA transcript. Fasting CSF glucose levels show an age-dependent correlation, which makes the definition of hypoglycorrhachia challenging. Low CSF glucose levels may be associated with pathogenic SLC2A1 mutations including deep intronic SLC2A1 variants. Extending genetic screening to non-coding regions will enable diagnosis of more patients with GLUT1 deficiency, allowing implementation of the ketogenic diet to improve outcomes. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Noncoding RNPs of viral origin.

    PubMed

    Steitz, Joan; Borah, Sumit; Cazalla, Demian; Fok, Victor; Lytle, Robin; Mitton-Fry, Rachel; Riley, Kasandra; Samji, Tasleem

    2011-03-01

    Like their host cells, many viruses produce noncoding (nc)RNAs. These show diversity with respect to time of expression during viral infection, length and structure, protein-binding partners and relative abundance compared with their host-cell counterparts. Viruses, with their limited genomic capacity, presumably evolve or acquire ncRNAs only if they selectively enhance the viral life cycle or assist the virus in combating the host's response to infection. Despite much effort, identifying the functions of viral ncRNAs has been extremely challenging. Recent technical advances and enhanced understanding of host-cell ncRNAs promise accelerated insights into the RNA warfare mounted by this fascinating class of RNPs.

  4. Noncoding RNPs of Viral Origin

    PubMed Central

    Steitz, Joan; Borah, Sumit; Cazalla, Demian; Fok, Victor; Lytle, Robin; Mitton-Fry, Rachel; Riley, Kasandra; Samji, Tasleem

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Like their host cells, many viruses produce noncoding (nc)RNAs. These show diversity with respect to time of expression during viral infection, length and structure, protein-binding partners and relative abundance compared with their host-cell counterparts. Viruses, with their limited genomic capacity, presumably evolve or acquire ncRNAs only if they selectively enhance the viral life cycle or assist the virus in combating the host’s response to infection. Despite much effort, identifying the functions of viral ncRNAs has been extremely challenging. Recent technical advances and enhanced understanding of host-cell ncRNAs promise accelerated insights into the RNA warfare mounted by this fascinating class of RNPs. PMID:20719877

  5. Origin of noncoding DNA sequences: molecular fossils of genome evolution

    SciT

    Naora, H.; Miyahara, K.; Curnow, R.N.

    The total amount of noncoding sequences on chromosomes of contemporary organisms varies significantly from species to species. The authors propose a hypothesis for the origin of these noncoding sequences that assumes that (i) an approx. 0.55-kilobase (kb)-long reading frame composed the primordial gene and (ii) a 20-kb-long single-stranded polynucleotide is the longest molecule (as a genome) that was polymerized at random and without a specific template in the primordial soup/cell. The statistical distribution of stop codons allows examination of the probability of generating reading frames of approx. 0.55 kb in this primordial polynucleotide. This analysis reveals that with three stopmore » codons, a run of at least 0.55-kb equivalent length of nonstop codons would occur in 4.6% of 20-kb-long polynucleotide molecules. They attempt to estimate the total amount of noncoding sequences that would be present on the chromosomes of contemporary species assuming that present-day chromosomes retain the prototype primordial genome structure. Theoretical estimates thus obtained for most eukaryotes do not differ significantly from those reported for these specific organisms, with only a few exceptions. Furthermore, analysis of possible stop-codon distributions suggests that life on earth would not exist, at least in its present form, had two or four stop codons been selected early in evolution.« less

  6. Systematic analysis of coding and noncoding DNA sequences using methods of statistical linguistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantegna, R. N.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    We compare the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions in eukaryotic and viral DNA sequences by adapting two tests developed for the analysis of natural languages and symbolic sequences. The data set comprises all 30 sequences of length above 50 000 base pairs in GenBank Release No. 81.0, as well as the recently published sequences of C. elegans chromosome III (2.2 Mbp) and yeast chromosome XI (661 Kbp). We find that for the three chromosomes we studied the statistical properties of noncoding regions appear to be closer to those observed in natural languages than those of coding regions. In particular, (i) a n-tuple Zipf analysis of noncoding regions reveals a regime close to power-law behavior while the coding regions show logarithmic behavior over a wide interval, while (ii) an n-gram entropy measurement shows that the noncoding regions have a lower n-gram entropy (and hence a larger "n-gram redundancy") than the coding regions. In contrast to the three chromosomes, we find that for vertebrates such as primates and rodents and for viral DNA, the difference between the statistical properties of coding and noncoding regions is not pronounced and therefore the results of the analyses of the investigated sequences are less conclusive. After noting the intrinsic limitations of the n-gram redundancy analysis, we also briefly discuss the failure of the zeroth- and first-order Markovian models or simple nucleotide repeats to account fully for these "linguistic" features of DNA. Finally, we emphasize that our results by no means prove the existence of a "language" in noncoding DNA.

  7. Characterization of noncoding regulatory DNA in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Elkon, Ran; Agami, Reuven

    2017-08-08

    Genetic variants associated with common diseases are usually located in noncoding parts of the human genome. Delineation of the full repertoire of functional noncoding elements, together with efficient methods for probing their biological roles, is therefore of crucial importance. Over the past decade, DNA accessibility and various epigenetic modifications have been associated with regulatory functions. Mapping these features across the genome has enabled researchers to begin to document the full complement of putative regulatory elements. High-throughput reporter assays to probe the functions of regulatory regions have also been developed but these methods separate putative regulatory elements from the chromosome so that any effects of chromatin context and long-range regulatory interactions are lost. Definitive assignment of function(s) to putative cis-regulatory elements requires perturbation of these elements. Genome-editing technologies are now transforming our ability to perturb regulatory elements across entire genomes. Interpretation of high-throughput genetic screens that incorporate genome editors might enable the construction of an unbiased map of functional noncoding elements in the human genome.

  8. Regional Nodal Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Timothy J; Olivotto, Ivo A; Parulekar, Wendy R; Ackerman, Ida; Chua, Boon H; Nabid, Abdenour; Vallis, Katherine A; White, Julia R; Rousseau, Pierre; Fortin, Andre; Pierce, Lori J; Manchul, Lee; Chafe, Susan; Nolan, Maureen C; Craighead, Peter; Bowen, Julie; McCready, David R; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Gelmon, Karen; Murray, Yvonne; Chapman, Judy-Anne W; Chen, Bingshu E; Levine, Mark N

    2015-07-23

    Most women with breast cancer who undergo breast-conserving surgery receive whole-breast irradiation. We examined whether the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation improved outcomes. We randomly assigned women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant systemic therapy to undergo either whole-breast irradiation plus regional nodal irradiation (including internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes) (nodal-irradiation group) or whole-breast irradiation alone (control group). The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were disease-free survival, isolated locoregional disease-free survival, and distant disease-free survival. Between March 2000 and February 2007, a total of 1832 women were assigned to the nodal-irradiation group or the control group (916 women in each group). The median follow-up was 9.5 years. At the 10-year follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in survival, with a rate of 82.8% in the nodal-irradiation group and 81.8% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.13; P=0.38). The rates of disease-free survival were 82.0% in the nodal-irradiation group and 77.0% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.94; P=0.01). Patients in the nodal-irradiation group had higher rates of grade 2 or greater acute pneumonitis (1.2% vs. 0.2%, P=0.01) and lymphedema (8.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.001). Among women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer, the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation did not improve overall survival but reduced the rate of breast-cancer recurrence. (Funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute and others; MA.20 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00005957.).

  9. Early Mars: A regional assessment of denudation chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, T. A.; Craddock, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Within the oldest highland units on Mars, the record of crater degradation indicates that fluvial resurfacing was responsible for modifying the Noachian through middle-Hesperian crater population. Based on crater frequency in the Noachian cratered terrain, age/elevation relations suggest that the highest exposures of Noachian dissected and plateau units became stabilized first, followed by successively lower units. In addition, studies of drainage networks indicate that the frequency of Noachian channels is greatest at high elevations. Together, these observations provide strong evidence of atmospheric involvement in volatile recycling. The long time period of crater modification also suggests that dendritic highland drainage was not simply the result of sapping by release of juvenile water, because the varied geologic units as well as the elevation dependence of stability ages makes it unlikely that subsurface recycling could provide a continuous supply of water for channel formation by sapping. While such geomorphic constraints on volatile history have been established by crater counts and stratigraphic relations using the 1:2M photomosaic series, photogeologic age relationships at the detailed level are needed to establish a specific chronology of erosion and sedimentation. Age relations for discrete erosional slopes and depositional basins will help refine ages of fluvial degradation, assess effectiveness of aeolian processes, and provide a regional chronology of fluvial events.

  10. An imprinted non-coding genomic cluster at 14q32 defines clinically relevant molecular subtypes in osteosarcoma across multiple independent datasets.

    PubMed

    Hill, Katherine E; Kelly, Andrew D; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Barry, William; Rattani, Ahmed; Garbutt, Cassandra C; Kissick, Haydn; Janeway, Katherine; Perez-Atayde, Antonio; Goldsmith, Jeffrey; Gebhardt, Mark C; Arredouani, Mohamed S; Cote, Greg; Hornicek, Francis; Choy, Edwin; Duan, Zhenfeng; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Spentzos, Dimitrios

    2017-05-15

    . Within the limits of available CpG array coverage, we observed a potential methylation-sensitive regulation of the non-coding RNA cluster by CTCF, a known enhancer-blocking factor. Loss of imprinting/methylation changes in the 14q32 non-coding region defines reproducible previously unrecognized osteosarcoma subtypes with distinct transcriptional programs and biologic and clinical behavior. Future studies will define the precise relationship between 14q32 imprinting, non-coding RNA expression, genomic enhancer binding, and tumor aggressiveness, with possible therapeutic implications for both early- and advanced-stage patients.

  11. Functional interrogation of non-coding DNA through CRISPR genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Canver, Matthew C.; Bauer, Daniel E.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2017-01-01

    Methodologies to interrogate non-coding regions have lagged behind coding regions despite comprising the vast majority of the genome. However, the rapid evolution of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome editing has provided a multitude of novel techniques for laboratory investigation including significant contributions to the toolbox for studying non-coding DNA. CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function strategies rely on direct disruption of the underlying sequence or repression of transcription without modifying the targeted DNA sequence. CRISPR-mediated gain-of-function approaches similarly benefit from methods to alter the targeted sequence through integration of customized sequence into the genome as well as methods to activate transcription. Here we review CRISPR-based loss- and gain-of-function techniques for the interrogation of non-coding DNA. PMID:28288828

  12. Functional interrogation of non-coding DNA through CRISPR genome editing.

    PubMed

    Canver, Matthew C; Bauer, Daniel E; Orkin, Stuart H

    2017-05-15

    Methodologies to interrogate non-coding regions have lagged behind coding regions despite comprising the vast majority of the genome. However, the rapid evolution of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome editing has provided a multitude of novel techniques for laboratory investigation including significant contributions to the toolbox for studying non-coding DNA. CRISPR-mediated loss-of-function strategies rely on direct disruption of the underlying sequence or repression of transcription without modifying the targeted DNA sequence. CRISPR-mediated gain-of-function approaches similarly benefit from methods to alter the targeted sequence through integration of customized sequence into the genome as well as methods to activate transcription. Here we review CRISPR-based loss- and gain-of-function techniques for the interrogation of non-coding DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Noncoding Genomics in Gastric Cancer and the Gastric Precancerous Cascade: Pathogenesis and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Bloj, Benjamin; Fry, Jacqueline; Wichmann, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death, whose patterns vary among geographical regions and ethnicities. It is a multifactorial disease, and its development depends on infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), host genetic factors, and environmental factors. The heterogeneity of the disease has begun to be unraveled by a comprehensive mutational evaluation of primary tumors. The low-abundance of mutations suggests that other mechanisms participate in the evolution of the disease, such as those found through analyses of noncoding genomics. Noncoding genomics includes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation of promoter sites, miRNAs, other noncoding RNAs in regulatory regions, and other topics. These processes and molecules ultimately control gene expression. Potential biomarkers are appearing from analyses of noncoding genomics. This review focuses on noncoding genomics and potential biomarkers in the context of gastric cancer and the gastric precancerous cascade. PMID:26379360

  14. The expanding universe of noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, G J; Rivas, F V; Murchison, E P; Steitz, J A

    2006-01-01

    The 71st Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology celebrated the numerous and expanding roles of regulatory RNAs in systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. It was clearly evident that noncoding RNAs are undergoing a renaissance, with reports of their involvement in nearly every cellular process. Previously known classes of longer noncoding RNAs were shown to function by every possible means-acting catalytically, sensing physiological states through adoption of complex secondary and tertiary structures, or using their primary sequences for recognition of target sites. The many recently discovered classes of small noncoding RNAs, generally less than 35 nucleotides in length, most often exert their effects by guiding regulatory complexes to targets via base-pairing. With the ability to analyze the RNA products of the genome in ever greater depth, it has become clear that the universe of noncoding RNAs may extend far beyond the boundaries we had previously imagined. Thus, as much as the Symposium highlighted exciting progress in the field, it also revealed how much farther we must go to understand fully the biological impact of noncoding RNAs.

  15. Smoke regions extraction based on two steps segmentation and motion detection in early fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wenlin; Wu, Kaizhi; Yu, Zirong; Chen, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the early problems of video-based smoke detection in fire video, this paper proposes a method to extract smoke suspected regions by combining two steps segmentation and motion characteristics. Early smoldering smoke can be seen as gray or gray-white regions. In the first stage, regions of interests (ROIs) with smoke are obtained by using two step segmentation methods. Then, suspected smoke regions are detected by combining the two step segmentation and motion detection. Finally, morphological processing is used for smoke regions extracting. The Otsu algorithm is used as segmentation method and the ViBe algorithm is used to detect the motion of smoke. The proposed method was tested on 6 test videos with smoke. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method over visual observation.

  16. Maternally expressed gene 3, an imprinted noncoding RNA gene, is associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xun; Gejman, Roger; Mahta, Ali; Zhong, Ying; Rice, Kimberley A; Zhou, Yunli; Cheunsuchon, Pornsuk; Louis, David N; Klibanski, Anne

    2010-03-15

    Meningiomas are common tumors, representing 15% to 25% of all central nervous system tumors. NF2 gene inactivation on chromosome 22 has been shown as an early event in tumorigenesis; however, few factors underlying tumor growth and progression have been identified. The chromosomal abnormalities of 14q32 are often associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression; therefore, it has been proposed that an as yet unidentified tumor suppressor is present at this locus. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 which encodes a noncoding RNA with an antiproliferative function. We found that MEG3 mRNA is highly expressed in normal arachnoidal cells. However, MEG3 is not expressed in the majority of human meningiomas or the human meningioma cell lines IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN. There is a strong association between loss of MEG3 expression and tumor grade. Allelic loss at the MEG3 locus is also observed in meningiomas, with increasing prevalence in higher grade tumors. In addition, there is an increase in CpG methylation within the promoter and the imprinting control region of MEG3 gene in meningiomas. Functionally, MEG3 suppresses DNA synthesis in both IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN cells by approximately 60% in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Colony-forming efficiency assays show that MEG3 inhibits colony formation in CH157-MN cells by approximately 80%. Furthermore, MEG3 stimulates p53-mediated transactivation in these cell lines. Therefore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that MEG3, which encodes a noncoding RNA, may be a tumor suppressor gene at chromosome 14q32 involved in meningioma progression via a novel mechanism.

  17. Long Noncoding RNA in Digestive Tract Cancers: Function, Mechanism, and Potential Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shuo; Xiao, Yu-Feng; Tang, Bo; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Xie, Rei; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Digestive tract cancers (DTCs) are a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current therapeutic tools for advanced stage DTCs have limitations, and patients with early stage DTCs frequently have a missed diagnosis due to shortage of efficient biomarkers. Consequently, it is necessary to develop novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and novel therapeutic targets for treatment of DTCs. In recent years, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs with >200 nucleotides, have been shown to be aberrantly expressed in DTCs and to have an important role in DTC development: the expression profiles of lncRNAs strongly correlated with poor survival of patients with DTCs, and lncRNAs acted as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in DTC progression. In this review, we summarized the functional lncRNAs and expounded on their regulatory mechanisms in DTCs. Implications for Practice: Digestive tract cancers (DTCs) are a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. It is necessary to exploit novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and novel therapeutic targets for treatment of DTCs. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs with approximately 200 nucleotides to 100,000 bases, participate in the progression of a variety of diseases. This review summarizes functional lncRNAs, which were shown to serve as novel biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of DTCs and to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in DTC development. In addition, the potential mechanism of functional lncRNAs in DTCs is highlighted. PMID:26156325

  18. Identification of coding and non-coding mutational hotspots in cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    Piraino, Scott W; Furney, Simon J

    2017-01-05

    The identification of mutations that play a causal role in tumour development, so called "driver" mutations, is of critical importance for understanding how cancers form and how they might be treated. Several large cancer sequencing projects have identified genes that are recurrently mutated in cancer patients, suggesting a role in tumourigenesis. While the landscape of coding drivers has been extensively studied and many of the most prominent driver genes are well characterised, comparatively less is known about the role of mutations in the non-coding regions of the genome in cancer development. The continuing fall in genome sequencing costs has resulted in a concomitant increase in the number of cancer whole genome sequences being produced, facilitating systematic interrogation of both the coding and non-coding regions of cancer genomes. To examine the mutational landscapes of tumour genomes we have developed a novel method to identify mutational hotspots in tumour genomes using both mutational data and information on evolutionary conservation. We have applied our methodology to over 1300 whole cancer genomes and show that it identifies prominent coding and non-coding regions that are known or highly suspected to play a role in cancer. Importantly, we applied our method to the entire genome, rather than relying on predefined annotations (e.g. promoter regions) and we highlight recurrently mutated regions that may have resulted from increased exposure to mutational processes rather than selection, some of which have been identified previously as targets of selection. Finally, we implicate several pan-cancer and cancer-specific candidate non-coding regions, which could be involved in tumourigenesis. We have developed a framework to identify mutational hotspots in cancer genomes, which is applicable to the entire genome. This framework identifies known and novel coding and non-coding mutional hotspots and can be used to differentiate candidate driver regions from

  19. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness < 2 years) and 40 age- and gender-matched hearing controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visuo-spatial delayed recognition task that consisted of encoding, maintenance and recognition stages. The early deaf subjects exhibited faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were

  20. The Ftx Noncoding Locus Controls X Chromosome Inactivation Independently of Its RNA Products.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Giulia; Gutierrez Hernandez, Nancy; Huret, Christophe; Galupa, Rafael; van Bemmel, Joke Gerarda; Romito, Antonio; Heard, Edith; Morey, Céline; Rougeulle, Claire

    2018-05-03

    Accumulation of the Xist long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) on one X chromosome is the trigger for X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female mammals. Xist expression, which needs to be tightly controlled, involves a cis-acting region, the X-inactivation center (Xic), containing many lncRNA genes that evolved concomitantly to Xist from protein-coding ancestors through pseudogeneization and loss of coding potential. Here, we uncover an essential role for the Xic-linked noncoding gene Ftx in the regulation of Xist expression. We show that Ftx is required in cis to promote Xist transcriptional activation and establishment of XCI. Importantly, we demonstrate that this function depends on Ftx transcription and not on the RNA products. Our findings illustrate the multiplicity of layers operating in the establishment of XCI and highlight the diversity in the modus operandi of the noncoding players. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R; Levine, Susan C; Small, Steven L

    2010-06-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left hemisphere stroke (n = 25) and in neurologically normal siblings (n = 27). In typically developing children, performance of a category fluency task elicits strong involvement of left frontal and lateral temporal regions and a lesser involvement of right hemisphere structures. In our cohort of atypically developing participants with early stroke, expressive and receptive language skills correlated with activity in the same left inferior frontal regions that support language processing in neurologically normal children. This was true independent of either the amount of brain injury or the extent that the injury was located in classical cortical language processing areas. Participants with bilateral activation in left and right superior temporal-inferior parietal regions had better language function than those with either predominantly left- or right-sided unilateral activation. The advantage conferred by left inferior frontal and bilateral temporal involvement demonstrated in our study supports a strong predisposition for typical neural language organization, despite an intervening injury, and argues against models suggesting that the right hemisphere fully accommodates language function following early injury.

  2. Long Noncoding RNAs in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roth, Anna; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress in research and treatment options, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Oncogenic driver mutations in protein-encoding genes were defined and allow for personalized therapies based on genetic diagnoses. Nonetheless, diagnosis of lung cancer mostly occurs at late stages, and chronic treatment is followed by a fast onset of chemoresistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for reliable biomarkers and alternative treatment options. With the era of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long noncoding RNAs emerged as a novel class of versatile, functional RNA molecules. Although for most of them the mechanism of action remains to be defined, accumulating evidence confirms their involvement in various aspects of lung tumorigenesis. They are functional on the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional level and are regulators of pathophysiological key pathways including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. Long noncoding RNAs are gaining increasing attention as potential biomarkers and a novel class of druggable molecules. It has become clear that we are only beginning to understand the complexity of tumorigenic processes. The clinical integration of long noncoding RNAs in terms of prognostic and predictive biomarker signatures and additional cancer targets could provide a chance to increase the therapeutic benefit. Here, we review the current knowledge about the expression, regulation, biological function, and clinical relevance of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer.

  3. Bleomycin Can Cleave an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Angelbello, Alicia J; Disney, Matthew D

    2018-01-04

    Noncoding RNAs are pervasive in cells and contribute to diseases such as cancer. A question in biomedical research is whether noncoding RNAs are targets of medicines. Bleomycin is a natural product that cleaves DNA; however, it is known to cleave RNA in vitro. Herein, an in-depth analysis of the RNA cleavage preferences of bleomycin A5 is presented. Bleomycin A5 prefers to cleave RNAs with stretches of AU base pairs. Based on these preferences and bioinformatic analysis, the microRNA-10b hairpin precursor was identified as a potential substrate for bleomycin A5. Both in vitro and cellular experiments demonstrated cleavage. Importantly, chemical cleavage by bleomycin A5 in the microRNA-10b hairpin precursors occurred near the Drosha and Dicer enzymatic processing sites and led to destruction of the microRNA. Evidently, oncogenic noncoding RNAs can be considered targets of cancer medicines and might elicit their pharmacological effects by targeting noncoding RNA. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Non-coding cancer driver candidates identified with a sample- and position-specific model of the somatic mutation rate

    PubMed Central

    Juul, Malene; Bertl, Johanna; Guo, Qianyun; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Świtnicki, Michał; Hornshøj, Henrik; Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jakob Skou

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding mutations may drive cancer development. Statistical detection of non-coding driver regions is challenged by a varying mutation rate and uncertainty of functional impact. Here, we develop a statistically founded non-coding driver-detection method, ncdDetect, which includes sample-specific mutational signatures, long-range mutation rate variation, and position-specific impact measures. Using ncdDetect, we screened non-coding regulatory regions of protein-coding genes across a pan-cancer set of whole-genomes (n = 505), which top-ranked known drivers and identified new candidates. For individual candidates, presence of non-coding mutations associates with altered expression or decreased patient survival across an independent pan-cancer sample set (n = 5454). This includes an antigen-presenting gene (CD1A), where 5’UTR mutations correlate significantly with decreased survival in melanoma. Additionally, mutations in a base-excision-repair gene (SMUG1) correlate with a C-to-T mutational-signature. Overall, we find that a rich model of mutational heterogeneity facilitates non-coding driver identification and integrative analysis points to candidates of potential clinical relevance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21778.001 PMID:28362259

  5. Early Childhood Safety Education: An Overview of Safety Curriculum in Outer Metropolitan, Regional and Rural NSW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Jennifer; Saltmarsh, Sue; Klopper, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on preliminary findings from a 2008 survey and telephone interviews with 27 directors of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services located in regional and rural districts of the Australian state of New South Wales. Data from the study suggests that some areas of safety education--most notably road/traffic safety and…

  6. Silenced Voices: Learning about Early Childhood Programs in the South East Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNaughton, Glenda

    1996-01-01

    Explores political, cultural, historical, and economic dynamics of the Asian region. Suggests how English-speaking Australians might begin the process of learning about early childhood programs in Asia. Addresses political and practical challenges that monolingual, English-speaking Australians face when involved in cross-cultural exchanges with…

  7. Noncoding sequence classification based on wavelet transform analysis: part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, O.; Strojnik, M.; Romo-Vázquez, R.; Vélez Pérez, H.; Ranta, R.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Scholl, M. K.; Morales, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    DNA sequences in human genome can be divided into the coding and noncoding ones. Coding sequences are those that are read during the transcription. The identification of coding sequences has been widely reported in literature due to its much-studied periodicity. Noncoding sequences represent the majority of the human genome. They play an important role in gene regulation and differentiation among the cells. However, noncoding sequences do not exhibit periodicities that correlate to their functions. The ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA elements) and Epigenomic Roadmap Project projects have cataloged the human noncoding sequences into specific functions. We study characteristics of noncoding sequences with wavelet analysis of genomic signals.

  8. Marine Early Bajocian Deposits of the Lower Volga Region (Volgograd Region) and Their Belemnite-Based Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolitov, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    A representative early Bajocian belemnite assemblage containing four genera and 11 species (two identified in open nomenclature and five new: Eocylindroteuthis weisi sp. nov., E. mariottii sp. nov., E. yarkovi sp. nov., Homaloteuthis volgogradensis sp. nov., and Hastites orphana sp. nov.) is described from a section near the Dubovoi hamlet in the Greater Don Bend area (southern termination of the Don-Medveditsa dislocations). Some members of this assemblage were previously known from the Caucasus; however, it is possible to state the discovery of a Euroboreal belemnite fauna completely new for Russia, previously described only from Central Europe and almost unknown for Eastern Europe. The age of the studied assemblage collected from the lower part of the section, traditionally considered to be Upper Bajocian, corresponds to the Laeviuscula ammonite Chronozone and is the first reliable evidence of marine settings in the Volga Region for the early Bajocian. Two new biostratigraphic units, Beds with Eocylindroteuthis weisi and Beds with H. orphana, are introduced. The former, judging from the occurrences of its characteristic species in Western Europe, has a broad correlative potential. On the basis of datings obtained, the scheme of the formational subdivision of the Middle Jurassic of the Volga Region near Volgograd is revised, and the formerly abandoned Bakhtemir Formation is reinstated as a valid unit. Its total range is reestablished as corresponding to the upper part of the Discites (?)/Laeviuscula Chronozone (lower Bajocian)-Garantiana Chronozone (upper Bajocian).

  9. [Early hypertrophic scar after surgery on the nasal region: value of long-acting corticosteroid injections].

    PubMed

    Amici, J-M

    2014-01-01

    "Pincushioning" is a complication of post-surgical scarring following use of transposition flaps particularly when surgery is performed on the nasal region. The transposition flap technique is very useful for the repair of certain defects of the tip of the nose, the medial canthus or of the ala nasi. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics of this scarring dystrophy, which we propose to call "early hypertrophy scarring", to clarify the nature thereof and to assess the efficacy of intralesional injection of corticosteroids at the first signs of hypertrophy. A prospective, open, non-comparative, single-centre study examined the clinical and histological characteristics of early hypertrophy scarring and the effectiveness of therapy with one or two injections of corticosteroids performed on the 15th day post-operatively and optionally repeated at D45 depending on the outcome. From January 2011 to January 2013, 12 consecutive patients with early hypertrophy scarring were included (ten men and two women - mean age: 64 years). All had undergone surgery for basal cell carcinoma under local anaesthesia with one-stage repair by means of a rhombic flap or a bilobed flap located in the nasal area. Scars were injected strictly intra-lesionally with triamcinolone acetate (40 mg/1 mL) until whitening occurred. A single injection was performed in three cases of rhombic flap while a second injection was given at D45 in the remaining nine cases. Complete regression of the early hypertrophy scarring was obtained in ten of the 12 patients by D90. Incomplete regression was observed but with a marked improvement in the other two patients. Early hypertrophy scarring is distinguished by its clinical characteristics of hypertrophic or keloid scars. Biopsy performed in two cases showed the fibrous but non-fatty nature of early hypertrophy scarring. Biomechanical factors particular to the nasal region and the transposition flap technique could account for the early

  10. [Epigenetics of plant vernalization regulated by non-coding RNAs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Feng; Li, Xiao-Rong; Sun, Chuan-Bao; He, Yu-Ke

    2012-07-01

    Many higher plants must experience a period of winter cold to accomplish the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. This biological process is called vernalization. Some crops such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) produce seeds as edible organs, and therefore special measures of rotation and cultivation are necessary for plants to go through an early vernalization for flower differentiation and development, whereas the other crops such as Chinese cabbage (B rapa ssp. pekinenesis) and cabbage (Brassica napus L.) produce leafy heads as edible organs, and additional practice should be taken to avoid vernalization for a prolonged and fully vegetative growth. Before vernalization, flowering is repressed by the action of a gene called Flowering Locus C (FLC). This paper reviewed the function of non-coding RNAs and some proteins including VRN1, VRN2, and VIN3 in epigenetic regulation of FLC during vernalization.

  11. Conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Freeling, Michael; Subramaniam, Shabarinath

    2009-04-01

    Plant conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs)--a specific category of phylogenetic footprint--have been shown experimentally to function. No plant CNS is conserved to the extent that ultraconserved noncoding sequences are conserved in vertebrates. Plant CNSs are enriched in known transcription factor or other cis-acting binding sites, and are usually clustered around genes. Genes that encode transcription factors and/or those that respond to stimuli are particularly CNS-rich. Only rarely could this function involve small RNA binding. Some transcribed CNSs encode short translation products as a form of negative control. Approximately 4% of Arabidopsis gene content is estimated to be both CNS-rich and occupies a relatively long stretch of chromosome: Bigfoot genes (long phylogenetic footprints). We discuss a 'DNA-templated protein assembly' idea that might help explain Bigfoot gene CNSs.

  12. The emergence of noncoding RNAs as Heracles in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Peiyuan; Wan, Lin; Xu, Shouping; Pang, Da

    2017-06-03

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is a catabolic process that is widely found in nature. Over the past few decades, mounting evidence has indicated that noncoding RNAs, ranging from small noncoding RNAs to long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and even circular RNAs (circRNAs), mediate the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of autophagy-related genes by participating in autophagy regulatory networks. The differential expression of noncoding RNAs affects autophagy levels at different physiological and pathological stages, including embryonic proliferation and differentiation, cellular senescence, and even diseases such as cancer. We summarize the current knowledge regarding noncoding RNA dysregulation in autophagy and investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying noncoding RNA involvement in autophagy regulatory networks. Then, we integrate public resources to predict autophagy-related noncoding RNAs across species and discuss strategies for and the challenges of identifying autophagy-related noncoding RNAs. This article will deepen our understanding of the relationship between noncoding RNAs and autophagy, and provide new insights to specifically target noncoding RNAs in autophagy-associated therapeutic strategies.

  13. Current Research on Non-Coding Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Samuels, David C; Zhao, Shilin; Xiang, Yu; Zhao, Ying-Yong; Guo, Yan

    2017-12-05

    Non-coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) has without a doubt captured the interest of biomedical researchers. The ability to screen the entire human genome with high-throughput sequencing technology has greatly enhanced the identification, annotation and prediction of the functionality of non-coding RNAs. In this review, we discuss the current landscape of non-coding RNA research and quantitative analysis. Non-coding RNA will be categorized into two major groups by size: long non-coding RNAs and small RNAs. In long non-coding RNA, we discuss regular long non-coding RNA, pseudogenes and circular RNA. In small RNA, we discuss miRNA, transfer RNA, piwi-interacting RNA, small nucleolar RNA, small nuclear RNA, Y RNA, single recognition particle RNA, and 7SK RNA. We elaborate on the origin, detection method, and potential association with disease, putative functional mechanisms, and public resources for these non-coding RNAs. We aim to provide readers with a complete overview of non-coding RNAs and incite additional interest in non-coding RNA research.

  14. STATISTICAL GROWTH MODELING OF LONGITUDINAL DT-MRI FOR REGIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY BRAIN DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Neda; Prastawa, Marcel; Fletcher, P Thomas; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido

    2012-01-01

    A population growth model that represents the growth trajectories of individual subjects is critical to study and understand neurodevelopment. This paper presents a framework for jointly estimating and modeling individual and population growth trajectories, and determining significant regional differences in growth pattern characteristics applied to longitudinal neuroimaging data. We use non-linear mixed effect modeling where temporal change is modeled by the Gompertz function. The Gompertz function uses intuitive parameters related to delay, rate of change, and expected asymptotic value; all descriptive measures which can answer clinical questions related to growth. Our proposed framework combines nonlinear modeling of individual trajectories, population analysis, and testing for regional differences. We apply this framework to the study of early maturation in white matter regions as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Regional differences between anatomical regions of interest that are known to mature differently are analyzed and quantified. Experiments with image data from a large ongoing clinical study show that our framework provides descriptive, quantitative information on growth trajectories that can be directly interpreted by clinicians. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal analysis of growth functions to explain the trajectory of early brain maturation as it is represented in DTI.

  15. Tetrapod-like axial regionalization in an early ray-finned fish

    PubMed Central

    Sallan, Lauren Cole

    2012-01-01

    Tetrapods possess up to five morphologically distinct vertebral series: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal. The evolution of axial regionalization has been linked to derived Hox expression patterns during development and the demands of weight-bearing and walking on land. These evolutionary and functional explanations are supported by an absence of similar traits in fishes, living and extinct. Here, I show that, Tarrasius problematicus, a marine ray-finned fish from the Mississippian (Early Carboniferous; 359–318 Ma) of Scotland, is the first non-tetrapod known to possess tetrapod-like axial regionalization. Tarrasius exhibits five vertebral regions, including a seven-vertebrae ‘cervical’ series and a reinforced ‘sacrum’ over the pelvic area. Most vertebrae possess processes for intervertebral contact similar to tetrapod zygapophyses. The fully aquatic Tarrasius evolved these morphologies alongside other traits convergent with early tetrapods, including a naked trunk, and a single median continuous fin. Regional modifications in Tarrasius probably facilitated pelagic swimming, rather than a terrestrial lifestyle or walking gait, presenting an alternative scenario for the evolution of such traits in tetrapods. Axial regionalization in Tarrasius could indicate tetrapod-like Hox expression patterns, possibly representing the primitive state for jawed vertebrates. Alternately, it could signal a weaker relationship, or even a complete disconnect, between Hox expression domains and vertebrate axial plans. PMID:22628471

  16. Small non-coding RNAs in streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Heueis, Nona; Vockenhuber, Michael-Paul; Suess, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycetes are Gram-positive, GC-rich, soil dwelling bacteria, occurring ubiquitary throughout nature. They undergo extensive morphological changes from spores to filamentous mycelia and produce a plethora of secondary metabolites. Owing to their complex life cycle, streptomycetes require efficient regulatory machinery for the control of gene expression. Therefore, they possess a large diversity of regulators. Within this review we summarize the current knowledge about the importance of small non-coding RNA for the control of gene expression in these organisms.

  17. Non-coding RNAs in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ricciuti, Biagio; Mecca, Carmen; Crinò, Lucio; Baglivo, Sara; Cenci, Matteo; Metro, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that protein-coding genes represent less than 2% of all human genome, and the evidence that more than 90% of it is actively transcribed, changed the classical point of view of the central dogma of molecular biology, which was always based on the assumption that RNA functions mainly as an intermediate bridge between DNA sequences and protein synthesis machinery. Accumulating data indicates that non-coding RNAs are involved in different physiological processes, providing for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. They are important regulators of gene expression, cellular differentiation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stem cell maintenance. Alterations and disruptions of their expression or activity have increasingly been associated with pathological changes of cancer cells, this evidence and the prospect of using these molecules as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets, make currently non-coding RNAs among the most relevant molecules in cancer research. In this paper we will provide an overview of non-coding RNA function and disruption in lung cancer biology, also focusing on their potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. PMID:25593996

  18. cDNA cloning of the human peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase: 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme and localization to chromosome 3q26. 3-3q28: A free left Alu arm is inserted in the 3[prime] noncoding region

    SciT

    Hoefler, G.; Forstner, M.; Hulla, W.

    1994-01-01

    Enoyl-CoA hydratase:3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme is one of the four enzymes of the peroxisomal, [beta]-oxidation pathway. Here, the authors report the full-length human cDNA sequence and the localization of the corresponding gene on chromosome 3q26.3-3q28. The cDNA sequence spans 3779 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 2169 nucleotides. The tripeptide SKL at the carboxy terminus, known to serve as a peroxisomal targeting signal, is present. DNA sequence comparison of the coding region showed an 80% homology between human and rat bifunctional enzyme cDNA. The 3[prime] noncoding sequence contains 117 nucleotides homologous to an Alu repeat. Based on sequence comparison,more » they propose that these nucleotides are a free left Alu arm with 86% homology to the Alu-J family. RNA analysis shows one band with highest intensity in liver and kidney. This cDNA will allow in-depth studies of molecular defects in patients with defective peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme. Moreover, it will also provide a means for studying the regulation of peroxisomal [beta]-oxidation in humans. 33 refs., 5 figs.« less

  19. Prelude and Fugue, predicting local protein structure, early folding regions and structural weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Kwasigroch, Jean Marc; Rooman, Marianne

    2006-07-15

    Prelude&Fugue are bioinformatics tools aiming at predicting the local 3D structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence in terms of seven backbone torsion angle domains, using database-derived potentials. Prelude(&Fugue) computes all lowest free energy conformations of a protein or protein region, ranked by increasing energy, and possibly satisfying some interresidue distance constraints specified by the user. (Prelude&)Fugue detects sequence regions whose predicted structure is significantly preferred relative to other conformations in the absence of tertiary interactions. These programs can be used for predicting secondary structure, tertiary structure of short peptides, flickering early folding sequences and peptides that adopt a preferred conformation in solution. They can also be used for detecting structural weaknesses, i.e. sequence regions that are not optimal with respect to the tertiary fold. http://babylone.ulb.ac.be/Prelude_and_Fugue.

  20. Long non-coding RNA CRYBG3 blocks cytokinesis by directly binding G-actin.

    PubMed

    Pei, Hailong; Hu, Wentao; Guo, Ziyang; Chen, Huaiyuan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Weidong; Li, Bingyan; Wang, Aiqing; Wan, Jianmei; Zhang, Jian; Nie, Jing; Zhou, Guangming; Hei, Tom K

    2018-06-22

    The dynamic interchange between monomeric globular actin (G-actin) and polymeric filamentous actin filaments (F-actin) is fundamental and essential to many cellular processes including cytokinesis and maintenance of genomic stability. Here we report that the long non-coding RNA LNC CRYBG3 directly binds G-actin to inhibit its polymerization and formation of contractile rings, resulting in M-Phase cell arrest. Knockdown of LNC CRYBG3 in tumor cells enhanced their malignant phenotypes. Nucleotide sequence 228-237 of the full-length LNC CRYBG3 and the ser14 domain of beta-actin are essential for their interaction, and mutation of either of these sites abrogated binding of LNC CRYBG3 to G-actin. Binding of LNC CRYBG3 to G-actin blocked nuclear localization of MAL, which consequently kept serum response factor (SRF) away from the promoter region of several immediate early genes, including JUNB and Arp3, which are necessary for cellular proliferation, tumor growth, adhesion, movement, and metastasis. These findings reveal a novel lncRNA-actin-MAL-SRF pathway and highlight LNC CRYBG3 as a means to block cytokinesis and treat cancer by targeting the actin cytoskeleton. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Noncoding sequence classification based on wavelet transform analysis: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, O.; Strojnik, M.; Romo-Vázquez, R.; Vélez-Pérez, H.; Ranta, R.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Scholl, M. K.; Morales, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    DNA sequences in human genome can be divided into the coding and noncoding ones. We hypothesize that the characteristic periodicities of the noncoding sequences are related to their function. We describe the procedure to identify these characteristic periodicities using the wavelet analysis. Our results show that three groups of noncoding sequences, each one with different biological function, may be differentiated by their wavelet coefficients within specific frequency range.

  2. Standing your Ground to Exoribonucleases: Function of Flavivirus Long Non-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Charley, Phillida A.; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Flaviviridae (e.g. Dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Hepatitis C virus) contain a positive-sense RNA genome that encodes a large polyprotein. It is now also clear most if not all of these viruses also produce an abundant subgenomic long non-coding RNA. These non-coding RNAs, which are called subgenomicflavivirus RNAs (sfRNAs) or Xrn1-resistant RNAs (xrRNAs), are stable decay intermediates generated from the viral genomic RNA through the stalling of the cellular exoribonuclease Xrn1 at highly structured regions. Several functions of these flavivirus long non-coding RNAs have been revealed in recent years. The generation of these sfRNAs/xrRNAs from viral transcripts results in the repression of Xrn1 and the dysregulation of cellular mRNA stability. The abundant sfRNAs also serve directly as a decoy for important cellular protein regulators of the interferon and RNA interference antiviral pathways. Thus the generation of long non-coding RNAs from flaviviruses, hepaciviruses and pestiviruses likely disrupts aspects of innate immunity and may directly contribute to viral replication, cytopathology and pathogenesis. PMID:26368052

  3. A long noncoding RNA, lincRNA-Tnfaip3, acts as a coregulator of NF-κB to modulate inflammatory gene transcription in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shibin; Ming, Zhenping; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiqiang; Hu, Guoku; Zhou, Rui; Shibata, Annemarie; Swanson, Patrick C; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are long noncoding transcripts (>200 nt) from the intergenic regions of annotated protein-coding genes. We report here that the lincRNA gene lincRNA-Tnfaip3 , located at mouse chromosome 10 proximal to the tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 ( Tnfaip3 ) gene, is an early-primary response gene controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in murine macrophages. Functionally, lincRNA- Tnfaip3 appears to mediate both the activation and repression of distinct classes of inflammatory genes in macrophages. Specifically, induction of lincRNA-Tnfaip3 is required for the transactivation of NF-κB-regulated inflammatory genes in response to bacterial LPSs stimulation. LincRNA-Tnfaip3 physically interacts with the high-mobility group box 1 (Hmgb1), assembling a NF-κB/Hmgb1/lincRNA-Tnfaip3 complex in macrophages after LPS stimulation. This resultant NF-κB/Hmgb1/lincRNA-Tnfaip3 complex can modulate Hmgb1-associated histone modifications and, ultimately, transactivation of inflammatory genes in mouse macrophages in response to microbial challenge. Therefore, our data indicate a new regulatory role of NF-κB-induced lincRNA-Tnfaip3 to act as a coactivator of NF-κB for the transcription of inflammatory genes in innate immune cells through modulation of epigenetic chromatin remodeling.-Ma, S., Ming, Z., Gong, A.-Y., Wang, Y., Chen, X., Hu, G., Zhou, R., Shibata, A., Swanson, P. C., Chen, X.-M. A long noncoding RNA, LincRNA-Tnfaip3, acts as a coregulator of NF-κB to modulate inflammatory gene transcription in mouse macrophages. © FASEB.

  4. Obesity and Overweight Among Brazilian Early Adolescents: Variability Across Region, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender.

    PubMed

    Fradkin, Chris; Valentini, Nadia C; Nobre, Glauber C; Dos Santos, João O L

    2018-01-01

    As with most emerging nations, Brazil lacks up-to-date data on the prevalence of obesity and overweight among its children. Of particular concern is the lack of data on children in early adolescence, considered by many to be the crucial stage for weight-related healthcare. To assess regional, socioeconomic, and gender differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Brazilian early adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a racially diverse sample of students aged 10-13 years, from schools in three geographic regions (north, northeast, south) ( N  = 1,738). Data on gender, age, race, socioeconomic status (SES), weight, and height were obtained. Weight class was calculated from age- and gender-adjusted body mass index, based on children's weight and height. Bivariate and multivariable analyses, with post hoc tests, were conducted to estimate differences between groups and were corrected for multiple comparisons. Procedures were approved by institutional review boards at study sites. Analyses revealed a higher prevalence of obesity and/or overweight among: (1) children of higher SES; (2) children in southern Brazil; (3) males; and (4) Black females. The most salient predictor of weight risk among Brazilian early adolescents is higher SES. This finding is consistent with previous findings of an inverse social gradient, in weight risk, among emerging-nation population groups.

  5. Isotopic evidence for continental ice sheet in mid-latitude region in the supergreenhouse Early Cretaceous

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wu-Bin; Niu, He-Cai; Sun, Wei-Dong; Shan, Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Li, Ning-Bo; Li, Cong-Ying; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Xu, Xing; Jiang, Yu-Hang; Yu, Xue-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Cretaceous represents one of the hottest greenhouse periods in the Earth's history, but some recent studies suggest that small ice caps might be present in non-polar regions during certain periods in the Early Cretaceous. Here we report extremely negative δ18O values of −18.12‰ to −13.19‰ for early Aptian hydrothermal zircon from an A-type granite at Baerzhe in northeastern China. Given that A-type granite is anhydrous and that magmatic zircon of the Baerzhe granite has δ18O value close to mantle values, the extremely negative δ18O values for hydrothermal zircon are attributed to addition of meteoric water with extremely low δ18O, mostly likely transported by glaciers. Considering the paleoaltitude of the region, continental glaciation is suggested to occur in the early Aptian, indicating much larger temperature fluctuations than previously thought during the supergreenhouse Cretaceous. This may have impact on the evolution of major organism in the Jehol Group during this period. PMID:24061068

  6. PRESSCA: A regional operative Early Warning System for landslides risk scenario assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponziani, Francesco; Stelluti, Marco; Berni, Nicola; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2013-04-01

    The Italian national alert system for the hydraulic and hydrogeological risk is ensured by the National Civil Protection Department, through the "Functional Centres" Network, together with scientific/technical Support Centres, named "Competence Centres". The role of the Functional Centres is to alert regional/national civil protection network, to manage the prediction and the monitoring phases, thus ensuring the flow of data for the management of the emergency. The Umbria regional alerting procedure is based on three increasing warning levels of criticality for 6 sub-areas (~1200 km²). Specifically, for each duration (from 1 to 48 hours), three criticality levels are assigned to the rainfall values corresponding to a recurrence interval of 2, 5, and 10 years. In order to improve confidence on the daily work for hydrogeological risk assessment and management, a simple and operational early warning system for the prediction of shallow landslide triggering on regional scale was implemented. The system is primarily based on rainfall thresholds, which represent the main element of evaluation for the early-warning procedures of the Italian Civil Protection system. Following previous studies highlighting that soil moisture conditions play a key role on landslide triggering, a continuous physically-based soil water balance model was implemented for the estimation of soil moisture conditions over the whole regional territory. In fact, a decreasing trend between the cumulated rainfall values over 24, 36 and 48 hours and the soil moisture conditions prior to past landslide events was observed. This trend provides an easy-to-use tool to dynamically adjust the operational rainfall thresholds with the soil moisture conditions simulated by the soil water balance model prior to rainfall events. The application of this procedure allowed decreasing the uncertainties tied to the application of the rainfall thresholds only. The system is actually operational in real-time and it was

  7. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E.; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M.; Whelton, Helen L.; Craig, Oliver E.; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities. PMID:27849595

  8. Design of a reliable and operational landslide early warning system at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvello, Michele; Piciullo, Luca; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Melillo, Massimo; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Peruccacci, Silvia; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    Landslide early warning systems at regional scale are used to warn authorities, civil protection personnel and the population about the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides over wide areas, typically through the prediction and measurement of meteorological variables. A warning model for these systems must include a regional correlation law and a decision algorithm. A regional correlation law can be defined as a functional relationship between rainfall and landslides; it is typically based on thresholds of rainfall indicators (e.g., cumulated rainfall, rainfall duration) related to different exceedance probabilities of landslide occurrence. A decision algorithm can be defined as a set of assumptions and procedures linking rainfall thresholds to warning levels. The design and the employment of an operational and reliable early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides at regional scale depend on the identification of a reliable correlation law as well as on the definition of a suitable decision algorithm. Herein, a five-step process chain addressing both issues and based on rainfall thresholds is proposed; the procedure is tested in a landslide-prone area of the Campania region in southern Italy. To this purpose, a database of 96 shallow landslides triggered by rainfall in the period 2003-2010 and rainfall data gathered from 58 rain gauges are used. First, a set of rainfall thresholds are defined applying a frequentist method to reconstructed rainfall conditions triggering landslides in the test area. In the second step, several thresholds at different exceedance probabilities are evaluated, and different percentile combinations are selected for the activation of three warning levels. Subsequently, within steps three and four, the issuing of warning levels is based on the comparison, over time and for each combination, between the measured rainfall and the pre-defined warning level thresholds. Finally, the optimal percentile combination to be employed in

  9. Assessing the performance of regional landslide early warning models: the EDuMaP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvello, M.; Piciullo, L.

    2015-10-01

    The paper proposes the evaluation of the technical performance of a regional landslide early warning system by means of an original approach, called EDuMaP method, comprising three successive steps: identification and analysis of the Events (E), i.e. landslide events and warning events derived from available landslides and warnings databases; definition and computation of a Duration Matrix (DuMa), whose elements report the time associated with the occurrence of landslide events in relation to the occurrence of warning events, in their respective classes; evaluation of the early warning model Performance (P) by means of performance criteria and indicators applied to the duration matrix. During the first step, the analyst takes into account the features of the warning model by means of ten input parameters, which are used to identify and classify landslide and warning events according to their spatial and temporal characteristics. In the second step, the analyst computes a time-based duration matrix having a number of rows and columns equal to the number of classes defined for the warning and landslide events, respectively. In the third step, the analyst computes a series of model performance indicators derived from a set of performance criteria, which need to be defined by considering, once again, the features of the warning model. The proposed method is based on a framework clearly distinguishing between local and regional landslide early warning systems as well as among correlation laws, warning models and warning systems. The applicability, potentialities and limitations of the EDuMaP method are tested and discussed using real landslides and warnings data from the municipal early warning system operating in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

  10. Assessing the performance of regional landslide early warning models: the EDuMaP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvello, M.; Piciullo, L.

    2016-01-01

    A schematic of the components of regional early warning systems for rainfall-induced landslides is herein proposed, based on a clear distinction between warning models and warning systems. According to this framework an early warning system comprises a warning model as well as a monitoring and warning strategy, a communication strategy and an emergency plan. The paper proposes the evaluation of regional landslide warning models by means of an original approach, called the "event, duration matrix, performance" (EDuMaP) method, comprising three successive steps: identification and analysis of the events, i.e., landslide events and warning events derived from available landslides and warnings databases; definition and computation of a duration matrix, whose elements report the time associated with the occurrence of landslide events in relation to the occurrence of warning events, in their respective classes; evaluation of the early warning model performance by means of performance criteria and indicators applied to the duration matrix. During the first step the analyst identifies and classifies the landslide and warning events, according to their spatial and temporal characteristics, by means of a number of model parameters. In the second step, the analyst computes a time-based duration matrix with a number of rows and columns equal to the number of classes defined for the warning and landslide events, respectively. In the third step, the analyst computes a series of model performance indicators derived from a set of performance criteria, which need to be defined by considering, once again, the features of the warning model. The applicability, potentialities and limitations of the EDuMaP method are tested and discussed using real landslides and warning data from the municipal early warning system operating in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

  11. [Long non-coding RNAs in plants].

    PubMed

    Xiaoqing, Huang; Dandan, Li; Juan, Wu

    2015-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are longer than 200 nucleotides in length, widely exist in organisms and function in a variety of biological processes. Currently, most of lncRNAs found in plants are transcribed by RNA polymerase Ⅱ and mediate gene expression through multiple mechanisms, such as target mimicry, transcription interference, histone methylation and DNA methylation, and play important roles in flowering, male sterility, nutrition metabolism, biotic and abiotic stress and other biological processes as regulators in plants. In this review, we summarize the databases, prediction methods, and possible functions of plant lncRNAs discovered in recent years.

  12. An expanding universe of noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Storz, Gisela

    2002-05-17

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been found to have roles in a great variety of processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome replication, RNA processing and modification, messenger RNA stability and translation, and even protein degradation and translocation. Recent studies indicate that ncRNAs are far more abundant and important than initially imagined. These findings raise several fundamental questions: How many ncRNAs are encoded by a genome? Given the absence of a diagnostic open reading frame, how can these genes be identified? How can all the functions of ncRNAs be elucidated?

  13. Brain regions and functional interactions supporting early word recognition in the face of input variability.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Siugzdaite, Roma; Gómez, David Maximiliano; Macagno, Francesco; Cattarossi, Luigi; Mehler, Jacques

    2017-07-18

    Perception and cognition in infants have been traditionally investigated using habituation paradigms, assuming that babies' memories in laboratory contexts are best constructed after numerous repetitions of the very same stimulus in the absence of interference. A crucial, yet open, question regards how babies deal with stimuli experienced in a fashion similar to everyday learning situations-namely, in the presence of interfering stimuli. To address this question, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to test 40 healthy newborns on their ability to encode words presented in concomitance with other words. The results evidenced a habituation-like hemodynamic response during encoding in the left-frontal region, which was associated with a progressive decrement of the functional connections between this region and the left-temporal, right-temporal, and right-parietal regions. In a recognition test phase, a characteristic neural signature of recognition recruited first the right-frontal region and subsequently the right-parietal ones. Connections originating from the right-temporal regions to these areas emerged when newborns listened to the familiar word in the test phase. These findings suggest a neural specialization at birth characterized by the lateralization of memory functions: the interplay between temporal and left-frontal regions during encoding and between temporo-parietal and right-frontal regions during recognition of speech sounds. Most critically, the results show that newborns are capable of retaining the sound of specific words despite hearing other stimuli during encoding. Thus, habituation designs that include various items may be as effective for studying early memory as repeated presentation of a single word.

  14. Long-range correlation properties of coding and noncoding DNA sequences: GenBank analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Mantegna, R. N.; Matsa, M. E.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    An open question in computational molecular biology is whether long-range correlations are present in both coding and noncoding DNA or only in the latter. To answer this question, we consider all 33301 coding and all 29453 noncoding eukaryotic sequences--each of length larger than 512 base pairs (bp)--in the present release of the GenBank to dtermine whether there is any statistically significant distinction in their long-range correlation properties. Standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis indicates that coding sequences have practically no correlations in the range from 10 bp to 100 bp (spectral exponent beta=0.00 +/- 0.04, where the uncertainty is two standard deviations). In contrast, for noncoding sequences, the average value of the spectral exponent beta is positive (0.16 +/- 0.05) which unambiguously shows the presence of long-range correlations. We also separately analyze the 874 coding and the 1157 noncoding sequences that have more than 4096 bp and find a larger region of power-law behavior. We calculate the probability that these two data sets (coding and noncoding) were drawn from the same distribution and we find that it is less than 10(-10). We obtain independent confirmation of these findings using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is designed to treat sequences with statistical heterogeneity, such as DNA's known mosaic structure ("patchiness") arising from the nonstationarity of nucleotide concentration. The near-perfect agreement between the two independent analysis methods, FFT and DFA, increases the confidence in the reliability of our conclusion.

  15. Long-range correlation properties of coding and noncoding DNA sequences: GenBank analysis.

    PubMed

    Buldyrev, S V; Goldberger, A L; Havlin, S; Mantegna, R N; Matsa, M E; Peng, C K; Simons, M; Stanley, H E

    1995-05-01

    An open question in computational molecular biology is whether long-range correlations are present in both coding and noncoding DNA or only in the latter. To answer this question, we consider all 33301 coding and all 29453 noncoding eukaryotic sequences--each of length larger than 512 base pairs (bp)--in the present release of the GenBank to dtermine whether there is any statistically significant distinction in their long-range correlation properties. Standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis indicates that coding sequences have practically no correlations in the range from 10 bp to 100 bp (spectral exponent beta=0.00 +/- 0.04, where the uncertainty is two standard deviations). In contrast, for noncoding sequences, the average value of the spectral exponent beta is positive (0.16 +/- 0.05) which unambiguously shows the presence of long-range correlations. We also separately analyze the 874 coding and the 1157 noncoding sequences that have more than 4096 bp and find a larger region of power-law behavior. We calculate the probability that these two data sets (coding and noncoding) were drawn from the same distribution and we find that it is less than 10(-10). We obtain independent confirmation of these findings using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is designed to treat sequences with statistical heterogeneity, such as DNA's known mosaic structure ("patchiness") arising from the nonstationarity of nucleotide concentration. The near-perfect agreement between the two independent analysis methods, FFT and DFA, increases the confidence in the reliability of our conclusion.

  16. Maternally Expressed Gene 3, an imprinted non-coding RNA gene, is associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xun; Gejman, Roger; Mahta, Ali; Zhong, Ying; Rice, Kimberley A.; Zhou, Yunli; Cheunsuchon, Pornsuk; Louis, David N.; Klibanski, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Meningiomas are common tumors, representing 15-25% of all central nervous system tumors. NF2 gene inactivation on chromosome 22 has been shown as an early event in tumorigenesis; however, few factors underlying tumor growth and progression have been identified. Chromosomal abnormalities of 14q32 are often associated with meningioma pathogenesis and progression; therefore it has been proposed that an as yet unidentified tumor suppressor is present at this locus. MEG3 is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 that encodes a non-coding RNA with an anti-proliferative function. We found that MEG3 mRNA is highly expressed in normal arachnoidal cells. However, MEG3 is not expressed in the majority of human meningiomas or the human meningioma cell lines IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN. There is a strong association between loss of MEG3 expression and tumor grade. Allelic loss at the MEG3 locus is also observed in meningiomas, with increasing prevalence in higher grade tumors. In addition, there is an increase in CpG methylation within the promoter and the imprinting control region of MEG3 gene in meningiomas. Functionally, MEG3 suppresses DNA synthesis in both IOMM-Lee and CH157-MN cells by approximately 60% in BrdU incorporation assays. Colony-forming efficiency assays show that MEG3 inhibits colony formation in CH157-MN cells by approximately 80%. Furthermore, MEG3 stimulates p53-mediated transactivation in these cell lines. Therefore, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that MEG3, which encodes a non-coding RNA, may be a tumor suppressor gene at chromosome 14q32 involved in meningioma progression via a novel mechanism. PMID:20179190

  17. Functional annotation of the vlinc class of non-coding RNAs using systems biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Georges St.; Vyatkin, Yuri; Antonets, Denis; Ri, Maxim; Qi, Yao; Saik, Olga; Shtokalo, Dmitry; de Hoon, Michiel J.L.; Kawaji, Hideya; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R.R.; Nicolas, Estelle; McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Wahlestedt, Claes; Kapranov, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Functionality of the non-coding transcripts encoded by the human genome is the coveted goal of the modern genomics research. While commonly relied on the classical methods of forward genetics, integration of different genomics datasets in a global Systems Biology fashion presents a more productive avenue of achieving this very complex aim. Here we report application of a Systems Biology-based approach to dissect functionality of a newly identified vast class of very long intergenic non-coding (vlinc) RNAs. Using highly quantitative FANTOM5 CAGE dataset, we show that these RNAs could be grouped into 1542 novel human genes based on analysis of insulators that we show here indeed function as genomic barrier elements. We show that vlincRNAs genes likely function in cis to activate nearby genes. This effect while most pronounced in closely spaced vlincRNA–gene pairs can be detected over relatively large genomic distances. Furthermore, we identified 101 vlincRNA genes likely involved in early embryogenesis based on patterns of their expression and regulation. We also found another 109 such genes potentially involved in cellular functions also happening at early stages of development such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Overall, we show that Systems Biology-based methods have great promise for functional annotation of non-coding RNAs. PMID:27001520

  18. Functional annotation of the vlinc class of non-coding RNAs using systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Georges; Vyatkin, Yuri; Antonets, Denis; Ri, Maxim; Qi, Yao; Saik, Olga; Shtokalo, Dmitry; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Kawaji, Hideya; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Nicolas, Estelle; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Wahlestedt, Claes; Kapranov, Philipp

    2016-04-20

    Functionality of the non-coding transcripts encoded by the human genome is the coveted goal of the modern genomics research. While commonly relied on the classical methods of forward genetics, integration of different genomics datasets in a global Systems Biology fashion presents a more productive avenue of achieving this very complex aim. Here we report application of a Systems Biology-based approach to dissect functionality of a newly identified vast class of very long intergenic non-coding (vlinc) RNAs. Using highly quantitative FANTOM5 CAGE dataset, we show that these RNAs could be grouped into 1542 novel human genes based on analysis of insulators that we show here indeed function as genomic barrier elements. We show that vlinc RNAs genes likely function in cisto activate nearby genes. This effect while most pronounced in closely spaced vlinc RNA-gene pairs can be detected over relatively large genomic distances. Furthermore, we identified 101 vlinc RNA genes likely involved in early embryogenesis based on patterns of their expression and regulation. We also found another 109 such genes potentially involved in cellular functions also happening at early stages of development such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Overall, we show that Systems Biology-based methods have great promise for functional annotation of non-coding RNAs. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Regional homogeneity and resting state functional connectivity: associations with exposure to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Philip, Noah S; Kuras, Yuliya I; Valentine, Thomas R; Sweet, Lawrence H; Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2013-12-30

    Early life stress (ELS) confers risk for psychiatric illness. Previous literature suggests ELS is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in adulthood, but there are no studies of resting-state neuronal activity in this population. This study investigated whether ELS-exposed individuals demonstrate resting-state activity patterns similar to those found in PTSD. Twenty-seven adults (14 with at least moderate ELS), who were medication-free and without psychiatric or medical illness, underwent MRI scans during two 4-minute rest periods. Resting-state activity was examined using regional homogeneity (ReHo), which estimates regional activation patterns through indices of localized concordance. ReHo values were compared between groups, followed by rs-FC analyses utilizing ReHo-localized areas as seeds to identify other involved regions. Relative to controls, ELS subjects demonstrated diminished ReHo in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). ReHo values were inversely correlated with ELS severity. Secondary analyses revealed decreased rs-FC between the IPL and right precuneus/posterior cingulate, left fusiform gyrus, cerebellum and caudate in ELS subjects. These findings indicate that ELS is associated with altered resting-state activity and connectivity in brain regions involved in trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these associations represent potential imaging biomarkers of stress exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-08-15

    Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs in autistic brain.

    PubMed

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2013-03-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a significant hereditary component, but the implicated genetic loci are heterogeneous and complex. Consequently, there is a gap in understanding how diverse genomic aberrations all result in one clinical ASD phenotype. Gene expression studies from autism brain tissue have demonstrated that aberrantly expressed protein-coding genes may converge onto common molecular pathways, potentially reconciling the strong heritability and shared clinical phenotypes with the genomic heterogeneity of the disorder. However, the regulation of gene expression is extremely complex and governed by many mechanisms, including noncoding RNAs. Yet no study in ASD brain tissue has assessed for changes in regulatory long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which represent a large proportion of the human transcriptome, and actively modulate mRNA expression. To assess if aberrant expression of lncRNAs may play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of ASD, we profiled over 33,000 annotated lncRNAs and 30,000 mRNA transcripts from postmortem brain tissue of autistic and control prefrontal cortex and cerebellum by microarray. We detected over 200 differentially expressed lncRNAs in ASD, which were enriched for genomic regions containing genes related to neurodevelopment and psychiatric disease. Additionally, comparison of differences in expression of mRNAs between prefrontal cortex and cerebellum within individual donors showed ASD brains had more transcriptional homogeneity. Moreover, this was also true of the lncRNA transcriptome. Our results suggest that further investigation of lncRNA expression in autistic brain may further elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of this disorder.

  2. Irregular oscillatory patterns in the early-time region of coherent phonon generation in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Hino, Ken-ichi; Hase, Muneaki; Maeshima, Nobuya

    2017-09-01

    Coherent phonon (CP) generation in an undoped Si crystal is theoretically investigated to shed light on unexplored quantum-mechanical effects in the early-time region immediately after the irradiation of ultrashort laser pulses. We examine time signals attributed to an induced charge density of an ionic core, placing the focus on the effects of the Rabi frequency Ω0 c v on the signals; this frequency corresponds to the peak electric-field of the pulse. It is found that at specific Ω0 c v's, where the energy of plasmon caused by photoexcited carriers coincides with the longitudinal-optical phonon energy, the energetically resonant interaction between these two modes leads to striking anticrossings, revealing irregular oscillations with anomalously enhanced amplitudes in the observed time signals. Also, the oscillatory pattern is subject to the Rabi flopping of the excited carrier density that is controlled by Ω0 c v. These findings show that the early-time region is enriched with quantum-mechanical effects inherent in the CP generation, though experimental signals are more or less masked by the so-called coherent artifact due to nonlinear optical effects.

  3. Long Noncoding RNAs: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Johnny T. Y.; Colognori, David; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2013-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread attention in recent years as a potentially new and crucial layer of biological regulation. lncRNAs of all kinds have been implicated in a range of developmental processes and diseases, but knowledge of the mechanisms by which they act is still surprisingly limited, and claims that almost the entirety of the mammalian genome is transcribed into functional noncoding transcripts remain controversial. At the same time, a small number of well-studied lncRNAs have given us important clues about the biology of these molecules, and a few key functional and mechanistic themes have begun to emerge, although the robustness of these models and classification schemes remains to be seen. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of the lncRNA field, discussing what is known about the genomic contexts, biological functions, and mechanisms of action of lncRNAs. We also reflect on how the recent interest in lncRNAs is deeply rooted in biology’s longstanding concern with the evolution and function of genomes. PMID:23463798

  4. Non-coding RNA in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Arlene M A; De Santi, Chiara; Greene, Catherine M

    2018-05-09

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are an abundant class of RNAs that include small ncRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) and pseudogenes. The human ncRNA atlas includes thousands of these specialised RNA molecules that are further subcategorised based on their size or function. Two of the more well-known and widely studied ncRNA species are microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs. These are regulatory RNAs and their altered expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Failure to express a functional cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane receptor (CFTR) chloride ion channel in epithelial cells underpins CF. Secondary to the CFTR defect, it is known that other pathways can be altered and these may contribute to the pathophysiology of CF lung disease in particular. For example, quantitative alterations in expression of some ncRNAs are associated with CF. In recent years, there has been a series of published studies exploring ncRNA expression and function in CF. The majority have focussed principally on miRNAs, with just a handful of reports to date on lncRNAs. The present study reviews what is currently known about ncRNA expression and function in CF, and discusses the possibility of applying this knowledge to the clinical management of CF in the near future. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. [Relevance of long non-coding RNAs in tumour biology].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zoltán; Szabó, Diána Rita; Zsippai, Adrienn; Falus, András; Rácz, Károly; Igaz, Péter

    2012-09-23

    The discovery of the biological relevance of non-coding RNA molecules represents one of the most significant advances in contemporary molecular biology. It has turned out that a major fraction of the non-coding part of the genome is transcribed. Beside small RNAs (including microRNAs) more and more data are disclosed concerning long non-coding RNAs of 200 nucleotides to 100 kb length that are implicated in the regulation of several basic molecular processes (cell proliferation, chromatin functioning, microRNA-mediated effects, etc.). Some of these long non-coding RNAs have been associated with human tumours, including H19, HOTAIR, MALAT1, etc., the different expression of which has been noted in various neoplasms relative to healthy tissues. Long non-coding RNAs may represent novel markers of molecular diagnostics and they might even turn out to be targets of therapeutic intervention.

  6. Genome-scale deletion screening of human long non-coding RNAs using a paired-guide RNA CRISPR library

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shiyou; Li, Wei; Liu, Jingze; Chen, Chen-Hao; Liao, Qi; Xu, Ping; Xu, Han; Xiao, Tengfei; Cao, Zhongzheng; Peng, Jingyu; Yuan, Pengfei; Brown, Myles; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Wei, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 screens have been widely adopted to analyse coding gene functions, but high throughput screening of non-coding elements using this method is more challenging, because indels caused by a single cut in non-coding regions are unlikely to produce a functional knockout. A high-throughput method to produce deletions of non-coding DNA is needed. Herein, we report a high throughput genomic deletion strategy to screen for functional long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that is based on a lentiviral paired-guide RNA (pgRNA) library. Applying our screening method, we identified 51 lncRNAs that can positively or negatively regulate human cancer cell growth. We individually validated 9 lncRNAs using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletion and functional rescue, CRISPR activation or inhibition, and gene expression profiling. Our high-throughput pgRNA genome deletion method should enable rapid identification of functional mammalian non-coding elements. PMID:27798563

  7. Early vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders in elementary schoolchildren from four Brazilian regions.

    PubMed

    Paula, Cristiane S; Mari, Jair J; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos; Miguel, Euripedes C; Fortes, Isabela; Barroso, Natalia; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify early vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders among Brazilian elementary school children, controlling for familial and community adversities. This is a cross-sectional study examining the association between child psychiatric disorders and potential early vulnerabilities (disability, low intellectual quotient, and negative dimensions of the temperament trait self-directedness (low resourcefulness, low purposefulness, low enlightened second nature), controlling for the potential confounders: familial and community adversities. Four probabilistic samples of second-to-sixth grade students from public schools in four towns from different Brazilian regions (N = 1620). The following instruments were applied: the K-SADS-PL (to assess child/adolescent psychiatric disorders); the Ten-Question Screen (to measure child disability); three structured questions used as proxy of self-directedness; and the reduced version of the WISC-III to measure IQ. To evaluate familial/community adversities: Self-Report Questionnaire-SRQ-20 (to assess maternal/primary caretaker anxiety/depression); questions derived from structured questionnaires (to measure child abuse, marital physical violence, neighborhood violence); Brazilian Association of Research Companies questionnaire (to evaluate poverty/socioeconomic status). Trained psychologists interviewed mothers/primary caretakers and evaluated children/adolescents individually. A final logistic regression model showed that children/adolescents with low resourcefulness, low purposefulness, low enlightened second nature, lower IQ and disability were more likely to present any child psychiatric disorders. Early vulnerabilities such as low IQ, presence of disability, and dimensions of temperament were associated with psychiatric disorders among Brazilian elementary school children, after controlling for familial and ecological confounders. These early vulnerabilities should be considered in mental

  8. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A.; Husby, Hannah M.; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the “Alli Kiru” program (2011–2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02–1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58–0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3–6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children’s risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions. PMID:28531148

  9. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A; Husby, Hannah M; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-05-22

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the "Alli Kiru" program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children's risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.

  10. Strategies for Early Outbreak Detection of Malaria in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekorchuk, D.; Gebrehiwot, T.; Mihretie, A.; Awoke, W.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional epidemiological approaches to early detection of disease outbreaks are based on relatively straightforward thresholds (e.g. 75th percentile, standard deviations) estimated from historical case data. For diseases with strong seasonality, these can be modified to create separate thresholds for each seasonal time step. However, for disease processes that are non-stationary, more sophisticated techniques are needed to more accurately estimate outbreak threshold values. Early detection for geohealth-related diseases that also have environmental drivers, such as vector-borne diseases, may also benefit from the integration of time-lagged environmental data and disease ecology models into the threshold calculations. The Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) project has been integrating malaria case surveillance with remotely-sensed environmental data for early detection, warning, and forecasting of malaria epidemics in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and has five years of weekly time series data from 47 woredas (districts). Efforts to reduce the burden of malaria in Ethiopia has been met with some notable success in the past two decades with major reduction in cases and deaths. However, malaria remains a significant public health threat as 60% of the population live in malarious areas, and due to the seasonal and unstable transmission patterns with cyclic outbreaks, protective immunity is generally low which could cause high morbidity and mortality during the epidemics. This study compared several approaches for defining outbreak thresholds and for identifying a potential outbreak based on deviations from these thresholds. We found that model-based approaches that accounted for climate-driven seasonality in malaria transmission were most effective, and that incorporating a trend component improved outbreak detection in areas with active malaria elimination efforts. An advantage of these early

  11. Transcription mapping and expression patterns of genes in the major immediate-early region of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Saveliev, Alexei; Zhu, Fan; Yuan, Yan

    2002-08-01

    Viral immediate-early (IE) genes are the first class of viral genes expressed during primary infection or reactivation from latency. They usually encode regulatory proteins that play crucial roles in viral life cycle. In a previous study, four regions in the KSHV genome were found to be actively transcribed in the immediate-early stage of viral reactivation in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Three immediate-early transcripts were characterized in these regions, as follows: mRNAs for ORF50 (KIE-1), ORF-45 (KIE-2), and ORF K4.2 (KIE-3) (F. X. Zhu, T. Cusano, and Y. Yuan, 1999, J. Virol. 73, 5556-5567). In the present study, we further analyzed the expression of genes in these IE regions in BC-1 and BCBL-1 cells. One of the immediate-early regions (KIE-1) that encompasses ORF50 and other genes was intensively studied to establish a detailed transcription map and expression patterns of genes in this region. This study led to identification of several novel IE transcripts in this region. They include a 2.6-kb mRNA which encodes ORF48/ORF29b, a family of transcripts that are complementary to ORF50 mRNA and a novel K8 IE mRNA of 1.5 kb. Together with the IE mRNA for ORF50 which was identified previously, four immediate-early genes have been mapped to KIE-1 region. Therefore, we would designate KIE-1 the major immediate-early region of KSHV. In addition, we showed that transcription of K8 gene is controlled by two promoters, yielding two transcripts, an immediate-early mRNA of 1.5 kb and a delayed-early mRNA of 1.3 kb.

  12. Early evolution of an X-ray emitting solar active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, C. J.; Acton, L. W.; Leibacher, J. W.; Roethig, D. T.

    1977-01-01

    The birth and early evolution of a solar active region has been investigated using X-ray observations from the mapping X-ray heliometer on board the OSO-8 spacecraft. X-ray emission is observed within three hours of the first detection of H-alpha plage. At that time, a plasma temperature of four million K in a region having a density on the order of 10 to the 10th power per cu cm is inferred. During the fifty hours following birth almost continuous flares or flare-like X-ray bursts are superimposed on a monotonically increasing base level of X-ray emission produced by the plasma. If the X-rays are assumed to result from heating due to dissipation of current systems or magnetic field reconnection, it may be concluded that flare-like X-ray emission soon after active region birth implies that the magnetic field probably emerges in a stressed or complex configuration.

  13. The domain structure and distribution of Alu elements in long noncoding RNAs and mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eugene Z.; Wespiser, Adam R.; Caffrey, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the human genome is transcribed and many of these spliced transcripts contain primate-specific Alu elements, the most abundant mobile element in the human genome. The majority of exonized Alu elements are located in long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and the untranslated regions of mRNA, with some performing molecular functions. To further assess the potential for Alu elements to be repurposed as functional RNA domains, we investigated the distribution and evolution of Alu elements in spliced transcripts. Our analysis revealed that Alu elements are underrepresented in mRNAs and lncRNAs, suggesting that most exonized Alu elements arising in the population are rare or deleterious to RNA function. When mRNAs and lncRNAs retain exonized Alu elements, they have a clear preference for Alu dimers, left monomers, and right monomers. mRNAs often acquire Alu elements when their genes are duplicated within Alu-rich regions. In lncRNAs, reverse-oriented Alu elements are significantly enriched and are not restricted to the 3′ and 5′ ends. Both lncRNAs and mRNAs primarily contain the Alu J and S subfamilies that were amplified relatively early in primate evolution. Alu J subfamilies are typically overrepresented in lncRNAs, whereas the Alu S dimer is overrepresented in mRNAs. The sequences of Alu dimers tend to be constrained in both lncRNAs and mRNAs, whereas the left and right monomers are constrained within particular Alu subfamilies and classes of RNA. Collectively, these findings suggest that Alu-containing RNAs are capable of forming stable structures and that some of these Alu domains might have novel biological functions. PMID:26654912

  14. Developing Drought Outlook Forums in Support of a Regional Drought Early Warning Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcnutt, C. A.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Darby, L. S.; Verdin, J. P.; Webb, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-430) charged NIDIS with developing the leadership and partnerships necessary to implement an integrated national drought monitoring and forecasting system that creates a drought "early warning system". The drought early warning information system should be capable of providing accurate, timely and integrated information on drought conditions at the relevant spatial scale to facilitate proactive decisions aimed at minimizing the economic, social and ecosystem losses associated with drought. As part of this effort, NIDIS has held Regional Drought Outlook Forums in several regions of the U.S. The purpose of the Forums is to inform practices that reduce vulnerability to drought through an interactive and collaborative process that includes the users of the information. The Forums have focused on providing detailed assessments of present conditions and impacts, comparisons with past drought events, and seasonal predictions including discussion of the state and expected evolution of the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena. Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) that include close interaction between information providers and users are not a new concept, however. RCOFs started in Africa in the 1990s in response to the 1997-98 El Niño and have since expanded to South America, Asia, the Pacific islands, and the Caribbean. As a result of feedback from the RCOFs a large body of research has gone into improving seasonal forecasts and the capacity of the users to apply the information in a way that improves their decision-making. Over time, it has become clear that more is involved than just improving the interaction between the climate forecasters and decision-makers. NIDIS is using the RCOF approach as one component in a larger effort to develop Regional Drought Early Warning Information Systems (RDEWS) around the U.S. Using what has been learned over the past decade in the RCOF process

  15. HIV-1 early and late diagnosis in the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy): a three year study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppina; Magnani, Giacomo; Bon, Isabella; Longo, Serena; Bertoldi, Alessia; Degli Antoni, Anna Maria; Rossi, Maria Rita; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Sambri, Vittorio; Semprini, Simona; Sighinolfi, Laura; Ursitti, Maria Alessandra; Zerbini, Alessandro; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Calza, Leonardo; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Massimiliani, Erika; Re, Maria Carla

    2016-10-01

    It is crucial to establish the timing of infection and distinguish between early and long-lasting HIV-1 infections not only for partner notification and epidemiological surveillance, but also to offer early drug treatment and contain the spread of infection. This study analyzed serum and/or plasma samples with a first positive HIV antibody/antigen result coming from different Medical Centers in the Emilia Romagna Region, North East Italy, using the avidity assay, Western Blotting, RNA viral load, CD4 cell counts and genotyping assay. From May 2013 to May 2016, we certified 845 new HIV-1 infections, 18.7% of which were classified on the basis of avidity index as recent infections and 81.3% as long-lasting infections, with an estimated conversion time exceeding six months at the time of study. Western Blotting showed reactivity to only one or two HIV-1 proteins in recently infected patients (RIPs), while a complete pattern to gag, env and pol proteins was observed in most long-lasting infected patients (LLIPs). The median age, gender, nationality and risk transmission factors were comparable in RIPs and LLIPs. Phylogenetic analysis performed in available plasma disclosed B strains, non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in both groups of patients, with a major presence of CRFs in non-Italian HIV subjects. The large number of patients unaware of their HIV status makes it crucial to discover hidden epidemics and implement appropriate targeted public health interventions.

  16. Effects of vegetation, corridor width and regional land use on early successional birds on powerline corridors.

    PubMed

    Askins, Robert A; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M; Hardy, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs) often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor) and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management.

  17. Early Paleozoic development of the Maine-Quebec boundary Mountains region

    Gerbi, C.C.; Johnson, S.E.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Bedard, J.H.; Dunning, G.R.; Fanning, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Pre-Silurian bedrock units played key roles in the early Paleozoic history of the Maine-Quebec Appalachians. These units represent peri-Laurentian material whose collision with the craton deformed the Neoproteozoic passive margin and initiated the Appalachian mountain-building cycle. We present new field, petrological, geochronological, and geochemical data to support the following interpretations related to these units. (1) The Boil Mountain Complex and Jim Pond Formation do not represent part of a coherent ophiolite. (2) Gabbro and tonalite of the Boil Mountain Complex intruded the Chain Lakes massif at ca. 477 Ma. (3) The Skinner pluton, an arc-related granodiorite, intruded the Chain Lakes massif at ca. 472 Ma. (4) The Attean pluton, with a reconfirmed age of ca. 443 Ma, is unrelated to Early Ordovician orogenesis. (5) The most likely timing for the juxtaposition of the Jim Pond Formation and the Boil Mountain Complex was during regional Devonian deformation. These interpretations suggest that the Boundary Mountains were once part of a series of arcs extending at least from central New England through Newfoundland. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  18. Effects of Vegetation, Corridor Width and Regional Land Use on Early Successional Birds on Powerline Corridors

    PubMed Central

    Askins, Robert A.; Folsom-O'Keefe, Corrine M.; Hardy, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs) often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor) and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management. PMID:22363660

  19. Molar tooth structures in calcareous nodules, early Neoproterozoic Burovaya Formation, Turukhansk region, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Michael C.; Bartley, Julie K.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Petrov, Peter Yu.

    2003-05-01

    Molar tooth structures are abundant in large (1-2 m diameter) carbonate nodules within fine-grained, subtidal carbonates of the early Neoproterozoic (lower Upper Riphean) Burovaya Formation along the Sukhaya Tunguska River, Turukhansk Uplift, northwestern Siberia. Although molar tooth structures are regionally abundant in this unit, here they occur only within the nodules. Stable isotopic compositions of molar-tooth-filling dolomicrospar cements and of thinly bedded dolomicrite within and surrounding the nodules are indistinguishable from one another. The carbon isotopic compositions (mean δ13C=+2.8‰ PDB±0.4) reflect mean average oceanic surface water composition during their formation; the light oxygen isotopic compositions (mean δ18O=-6.4‰ PDB±2.2) are generally similar to those of other little-altered Meso- to Neoproterozoic limestones and dolostones. These molar tooth structures have no features that would support a tectonic origin; they more likely formed through bacterial processes. Carbonate cement filling of these voids occurred soon after their formation, but the mechanism responsible for this carbonate precipitation is currently uncertain. Local restriction of molar tooth structures to early diagenetic nodules suggests that penecontemporaneous lithification was required for the formation, or at least preservation, of these widespread Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic features.

  20. A benchmark study of scoring methods for non-coding mutations.

    PubMed

    Drubay, Damien; Gautheret, Daniel; Michiels, Stefan

    2018-05-15

    Detailed knowledge of coding sequences has led to different candidate models for pathogenic variant prioritization. Several deleteriousness scores have been proposed for the non-coding part of the genome, but no large-scale comparison has been realized to date to assess their performance. We compared the leading scoring tools (CADD, FATHMM-MKL, Funseq2 and GWAVA) and some recent competitors (DANN, SNP and SOM scores) for their ability to discriminate assumed pathogenic variants from assumed benign variants (using the ClinVar, COSMIC and 1000 genomes project databases). Using the ClinVar benchmark, CADD was the best tool for detecting the pathogenic variants that are mainly located in protein coding gene regions. Using the COSMIC benchmark, FATHMM-MKL, GWAVA and SOMliver outperformed the other tools for pathogenic variants that are typically located in lincRNAs, pseudogenes and other parts of the non-coding genome. However, all tools had low precision, which could potentially be improved by future non-coding genome feature discoveries. These results may have been influenced by the presence of potential benign variants in the COSMIC database. The development of a gold standard as consistent as ClinVar for these regions will be necessary to confirm our tool ranking. The Snakemake, C++ and R codes are freely available from https://github.com/Oncostat/BenchmarkNCVTools and supported on Linux. damien.drubay@gustaveroussy.fr or stefan.michiels@gustaveroussy.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Origin and evolution of the long non-coding genes in the X-inactivation center.

    PubMed

    Romito, Antonio; Rougeulle, Claire

    2011-11-01

    Random X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the eutherian mechanism of X-linked gene dosage compensation, is controlled by a cis-acting locus termed the X-inactivation center (Xic). One of the striking features that characterize the Xic landscape is the abundance of loci transcribing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including Xist, the master regulator of the inactivation process. Recent comparative genomic analyses have depicted the evolutionary scenario behind the origin of the X-inactivation center, revealing that this locus evolved from a region harboring protein-coding genes. During mammalian radiation, this ancestral protein-coding region was disrupted in the marsupial group, whilst it provided in eutherian lineage the starting material for the non-translated RNAs of the X-inactivation center. The emergence of non-coding genes occurred by a dual mechanism involving loss of protein-coding function of the pre-existing genes and integration of different classes of mobile elements, some of which modeled the structure and sequence of the non-coding genes in a species-specific manner. The rising genes started to produce transcripts that acquired function in regulating the epigenetic status of the X chromosome, as shown for Xist, its antisense Tsix, Jpx, and recently suggested for Ftx. Thus, the appearance of the Xic, which occurred after the divergence between eutherians and marsupials, was the basis for the evolution of random X inactivation as a strategy to achieve dosage compensation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Dynamic interplay and function of multiple noncoding genes governing X chromosome inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Minghui; Richard, John Lalith Charles

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the emergence of long noncoding RNAs (IncRNAs) as important components, especially in the regulation of gene expression. In the event of X chromosome inactivation, robust epigenetic marks are established in a long noncoding Xist RNA-dependent manner, giving rise to a distinct epigenetic landscape on the inactive X chromosome (Xi). The X inactivation center (Xic is essential for induction of X chromosome inactivation and harbors two topologically associated domains (TADs) to regulate monoallelic Xist expression: one at the noncoding Xist gene and its upstream region, and the other at the antisense Tsix and its upstream region. The monoallelic expression of Xist is tightly regulated by these two functionally distinct TADs as well as their constituting IncRNAs and proteins. In this review, we summarize recent updates in our knowledge of IncRNAs found at the Xic and discuss their overall mechanisms of action. We also discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanism behind Xist RNA-mediated induction of the repressive epigenetic landscape at the Xi. PMID:26260844

  3. The Large Mitochondrial Genome of Symbiodinium minutum Reveals Conserved Noncoding Sequences between Dinoflagellates and Apicomplexans

    PubMed Central

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Satoh, Nori; Mungpakdee, Sutada

    2015-01-01

    Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (∼326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum, is AT-rich (∼64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutum and P. falciparum. However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum, suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures. PMID:26199191

  4. Long noncoding RNA in hematopoiesis and immunity.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Ansuman T; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-05-19

    Dynamic gene expression during cellular differentiation is tightly coordinated by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. An emerging theme is the central role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the regulation of this specificity. Recent advances demonstrate that lncRNAs are expressed in a lineage-specific manner and control the development of several cell types in the hematopoietic system. Moreover, specific lncRNAs are induced to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. lncRNAs can function via RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein target interactions. As a result, they affect several stages of gene regulation, including chromatin modification, mRNA biogenesis, and protein signaling. We discuss recent advances, future prospects, and challenges in understanding the roles of lncRNAs in immunity and immune-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-coding RNA networks in cancer.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, Eleni; Jacob, Leni S; Slack, Frank J

    2018-01-01

    Thousands of unique non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences exist within cells. Work from the past decade has altered our perception of ncRNAs from 'junk' transcriptional products to functional regulatory molecules that mediate cellular processes including chromatin remodelling, transcription, post-transcriptional modifications and signal transduction. The networks in which ncRNAs engage can influence numerous molecular targets to drive specific cell biological responses and fates. Consequently, ncRNAs act as key regulators of physiological programmes in developmental and disease contexts. Particularly relevant in cancer, ncRNAs have been identified as oncogenic drivers and tumour suppressors in every major cancer type. Thus, a deeper understanding of the complex networks of interactions that ncRNAs coordinate would provide a unique opportunity to design better therapeutic interventions.

  6. Non-coding landscapes of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ragusa, Marco; Barbagallo, Cristina; Statello, Luisa; Condorelli, Angelo Giuseppe; Battaglia, Rosalia; Tamburello, Lucia; Barbagallo, Davide; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Purrello, Michele

    2015-01-01

    For two decades Vogelstein’s model has been the paradigm for describing the sequence of molecular changes within protein-coding genes that would lead to overt colorectal cancer (CRC). This model is now too simplistic in the light of recent studies, which have shown that our genome is pervasively transcribed in RNAs other than mRNAs, denominated non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The discovery that mutations in genes encoding these RNAs [i.e., microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs] are causally involved in cancer phenotypes has profoundly modified our vision of tumour molecular genetics and pathobiology. By exploiting a wide range of different mechanisms, ncRNAs control fundamental cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis and apoptosis: these data have also confirmed their role as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in cancer development and progression. The existence of a sophisticated RNA-based regulatory system, which dictates the correct functioning of protein-coding networks, has relevant biological and biomedical consequences. Different miRNAs involved in neoplastic and degenerative diseases exhibit potential predictive and prognostic properties. Furthermore, the key roles of ncRNAs make them very attractive targets for innovative therapeutic approaches. Several recent reports have shown that ncRNAs can be secreted by cells into the extracellular environment (i.e., blood and other body fluids): this suggests the existence of extracellular signalling mechanisms, which may be exploited by cells in physiology and pathology. In this review, we will summarize the most relevant issues on the involvement of cellular and extracellular ncRNAs in disease. We will then specifically describe their involvement in CRC pathobiology and their translational applications to CRC diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. PMID:26556998

  7. Unimpaired endogenous pain inhibition in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumowski, N; Hegelmaier, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Maier, C; Mainka, T; Vollert, J; Enax-Krumova, E

    2017-05-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by distal generalisation of pain beyond the initial trauma. This might be the result of impaired endogenous pain inhibition. We compared Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) between patients with CRPS (n = 24; pain: 4.5 ± 2.2, NRS 0-10; disease duration <1 year), neuralgia (n = 17; pain: 5.5 ± 1.1) and healthy subjects (n = 23) and its correlation with loss and gain of function as assessed by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST). CPM was assessed with heat as test stimulus (TS) and cold water as conditioning stimulus (CS). The early CPM-effect was calculated as difference between heat pain during and before conditioning, the late CPM-effect, 5 minutes after and before conditioning, respectively. Heat pain decreased comparably after CS in all groups, resulting in a significant CPM-effect (healthy: -12.5 ± 12.4, NRS 0-100; CRPS: -14.7 ± 15.7; neuralgia: -7.9 ± 9.8; p < 0.001). When compared to healthy subjects, heat pain declined significantly steeper in CRPS patients (healthy: -2.0 ± 5.5, NRS 0-100/10 s; CRPS: -6.3 ± 8.1; p < 0.05). Only CRPS patients demonstrated a late CPM effect (-6.0 ± 9.0, p < 0.005). Neither spontaneous pain nor any QST parameter correlated with CPM, with the exception of a decreased cold pain threshold, which correlated with an enhanced CPM in CRPS patients only (r = -0.456, p < 0.05). An impairment of endogenous pain inhibition does not explain the extent of pain in the early stage of CRPS or in neuralgia. The unexpectedly high CPM in CRPS patients might result from activation of the intact descending pathways in response to central sensitization, as cold hyperalgesia correlated with the CPM-effect. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is not impaired in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and neuralgia. Only in CRPS higher CPM was associated with lower cold pain thresholds. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  8. Tsunami Early Warning for the Indian Ocean Region - Status and Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterjung, Joern; Rudloff, Alexander; Muench, Ute; Gitews Project Team

    2010-05-01

    The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) for the Indian Ocean region has gone into operation in Indonesia in November 2008. The system includes a seismological network, together with GPS stations and a network of GPS buoys additionally equipped with ocean bottom pressure sensors and a tide gauge network. The different sensor systems have, for the most part, been installed and now deliver respective data either online or interactively upon request to the Warning Centre in Jakarta. Before 2011, however, the different components requires further optimization and fine tuning, local personnel needs to be trained and eventual problems in the daily operation have to be dealt with. Furthermore a company will be founded in the near future, which will guarantee a sustainable maintenance and operation of the system. This concludes the transfer from a temporarily project into a permanent service. This system established in Indonesia differs from other Tsunami Warning Systems through its application of modern scientific methods and technologies. New procedures for the fast and reliable determination of strong earthquakes, deformation monitoring by GPS, the modeling of tsunamis and the assessment of the situation have been implemented in the Warning System architecture. In particular, the direct incorporation of different sensors provides broad information already at the early stages of Early Warning thus resulting in a stable system and minimizing breakdowns and false alarms. The warning system is designed in an open and modular structure based on the most recent developments and standards of information technology. Therefore, the system can easily integrate additional sensor components to be used for other multi-hazard purposes e.g. meteorological and hydrological events. Up to now the German project group is cooperating in the Indian Ocean region with Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Iran, Yemen, Tanzania and Kenya to set up the equipment primarily for

  9. A small noncoding RNA signature found in exosomes of GBM patient serum as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Manterola, Lorea; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; González-Huarriz, Marisol; Jauregui, Patricia; Tejada, Sonia; Diez-Valle, Ricardo; Segura, Victor; Samprón, Nicolás; Barrena, Cristina; Ruiz, Irune; Agirre, Amaia; Ayuso, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Alvaro; Xipell, Enric; Matheu, Ander; López de Munain, Adolfo; Tuñón, Teresa; Zazpe, Idoya; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Paris, Sophie; Delattre, Jean Yves; Alonso, Marta M

    2014-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker.

  10. Early and Middle Pleistocene vegetation history of the Médoc region, southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, C. E.; Jones, R. L.

    2003-09-01

    Pleistocene deposits, together with their pollen, plant macrofossil, foraminiferal, dinoflagellate and coleopteran remains, from five sites along the Atlantic coast of the Médoc Peninsula are described and discussed. Sediments making up the Négade Formation are shown to have been laid down under either estuarine or lagoonal conditions when closed Quercus-Pinus-Tsuga canadensis regional woodland existed. Comparison with plant records from The Netherlands indicates that these deposits are most likely attributable to either the Early Pleistocene Bavel Interglacial (marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 31), or an interglacial of the Waalian (MIS 37-49) or Tiglian (MIS 63-79). In addition, clays assigned to the Argiles du Gurp sensu stricto, were similarly deposited in either an estuary or lagoon, which subsequently was cut off from the sea. A freshwater lake with vegetation dominated by Azolla filiculoides then developed. This was succeeded by reedswamp and an organic mud (termed Lignite in the corresponding French stratigraphical records) formed. Regional Quercus-Abies woodland was replaced by one with Pinus dominant and Pterocarya a minor component. Comparison with plant records from France and other parts of Europe suggest that the clays and organic mud might be correlated with the Holsteinian (Praclaux) Interglacial (MIS 11c). Copyright

  11. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  12. Non-coding recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Puente, Xose S; Beà, Silvia; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; Villamor, Neus; Gutiérrez-Abril, Jesús; Martín-Subero, José I; Munar, Marta; Rubio-Pérez, Carlota; Jares, Pedro; Aymerich, Marta; Baumann, Tycho; Beekman, Renée; Belver, Laura; Carrio, Anna; Castellano, Giancarlo; Clot, Guillem; Colado, Enrique; Colomer, Dolors; Costa, Dolors; Delgado, Julio; Enjuanes, Anna; Estivill, Xavier; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Gelpí, Josep L; González, Blanca; González, Santiago; González, Marcos; Gut, Marta; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús M; López-Guerra, Mónica; Martín-García, David; Navarro, Alba; Nicolás, Pilar; Orozco, Modesto; Payer, Ángel R; Pinyol, Magda; Pisano, David G; Puente, Diana A; Queirós, Ana C; Quesada, Víctor; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos M; Royo, Cristina; Royo, Romina; Rozman, María; Russiñol, Nuria; Salaverría, Itziar; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Tamborero, David; Terol, María J; Valencia, Alfonso; López-Bigas, Nuria; Torrents, David; Gut, Ivo; López-Guillermo, Armando; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías

    2015-10-22

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a frequent disease in which the genetic alterations determining the clinicobiological behaviour are not fully understood. Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of the genomic landscape of 452 CLL cases and 54 patients with monoclonal B-lymphocytosis, a precursor disorder. We extend the number of CLL driver alterations, including changes in ZNF292, ZMYM3, ARID1A and PTPN11. We also identify novel recurrent mutations in non-coding regions, including the 3' region of NOTCH1, which cause aberrant splicing events, increase NOTCH1 activity and result in a more aggressive disease. In addition, mutations in an enhancer located on chromosome 9p13 result in reduced expression of the B-cell-specific transcription factor PAX5. The accumulative number of driver alterations (0 to ≥4) discriminated between patients with differences in clinical behaviour. This study provides an integrated portrait of the CLL genomic landscape, identifies new recurrent driver mutations of the disease, and suggests clinical interventions that may improve the management of this neoplasia.

  13. Regional brain activity during early visual perception in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghee; Cohen, Mark S; Engel, Stephen A; Glahn, David; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    Visual masking paradigms assess the early part of visual information processing, which may reflect vulnerability measures for schizophrenia. We examined the neural substrates of visual backward performance in unaffected sibling of schizophrenia patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-one unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 19 healthy controls performed a backward masking task and three functional localizer tasks to identify three visual processing regions of interest (ROI): lateral occipital complex (LO), the motion-sensitive area, and retinotopic areas. In the masking task, we systematically manipulated stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). We analyzed fMRI data in two complementary ways: 1) an ROI approach for three visual areas, and 2) a whole-brain analysis. The groups did not differ in behavioral performance. For ROI analysis, both groups increased activation as SOAs increased in LO. Groups did not differ in activation levels of the three ROIs. For whole-brain analysis, controls increased activation as a function of SOAs, compared with siblings in several regions (i.e., anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, inferior prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule). The study found: 1) area LO showed sensitivity to the masking effect in both groups; 2) siblings did not differ from controls in activation of LO; and 3) groups differed significantly in several brain regions outside visual processing areas that have been related to attentional or re-entrant processes. These findings suggest that LO dysfunction may be a disease indicator rather than a risk indicator for schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Different Alterations of Cerebral Regional Homogeneity in Early-Onset and Late-Onset Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ke; Fang, Weidong; Zhu, Yingcheng; Shuai, Guangying; Zou, Dezhi; Su, Meilan; Han, Yu; Cheng, Oumei

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Eighteen EOPD, 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects participated in the resting state fMRI scans.Age at onset of PD modulates the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity during resting state.Disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in PD patients with a younger age of onset. Objective: Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD) as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective of current paper is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD) and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age. Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; However, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. PMID:27462265

  15. Paleozoic–early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

    Rui, Zongyao; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Qiu, Yumin; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, Franco; Yun, Grace

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic–early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe–Cu–Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen–Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan

  16. Islet Long Noncoding RNAs: A Playbook for Discovery and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ruth A; Sussel, Lori

    2018-06-24

    Diabetes is a complex group of metabolic disorders that can be accompanied by several comorbidities, including increased risk of early death. Decades of diabetes research have elucidated many genetic drivers of normal islet function and dysfunction; however, a lack of suitable treatment options suggests our knowledge about the disease remains incomplete. The establishment of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), once dismissed as "junk" DNA, as essential gene regulators in many biological processes has redefined the central role for RNA in cells. Studies showing that misregulation of lncRNAs can lead to disease have contributed to the emergence of lncRNAs as attractive candidates for drug targeting. These findings underscore the need to reexamine islet biology in the context of a regulatory role for RNA. This review will 1 ) highlight what is known about lncRNAs in the context of diabetes, 2 ) summarize the strategies used in lncRNA discovery pipelines, and 3 ) discuss future directions and the potential impact of studying the role of lncRNAs in diabetes. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Performance analysis of landslide early warning systems at regional scale: the EDuMaP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piciullo, Luca; Calvello, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) reduce landslide risk by disseminating timely and meaningful warnings when the level of risk is judged intolerably high. Two categories of LEWSs, can be defined on the basis of their scale of analysis: "local" systems and "regional" systems. LEWSs at regional scale (ReLEWSs) are used to assess the probability of occurrence of landslides over appropriately-defined homogeneous warning zones of relevant extension, typically through the prediction and monitoring of meteorological variables, in order to give generalized warnings to the public. Despite many studies on ReLEWSs, no standard requirements exist for assessing their performance. Empirical evaluations are often carried out by simply analysing the time frames during which significant high-consequence landslides occurred in the test area. Alternatively, the performance evaluation is based on 2x2 contingency tables computed for the joint frequency distribution of landslides and alerts, both considered as dichotomous variables. In all these cases, model performance is assessed neglecting some important aspects which are peculiar to ReLEWSs, among which: the possible occurrence of multiple landslides in the warning zone; the duration of the warnings in relation to the time of occurrence of the landslides; the level of the warning issued in relation to the landslide spatial density in the warning zone; the relative importance system managers attribute to different types of errors. An original approach, called EDuMaP method, is proposed to assess the performance of landslide early warning models operating at regional scale. The method is composed by three main phases: Events analysis, Duration Matrix, Performance analysis. The events analysis phase focuses on the definition of landslide (LEs) and warning events (WEs), which are derived from available landslides and warnings databases according to their spatial and temporal characteristics by means of ten input parameters. The

  18. Structures of the Oligosaccharides of the Glycoprotein Coded by Early Region E3 of Adenovirus 2

    PubMed Central

    Kornfeld, Rosalind; Wold, William S. M.

    1981-01-01

    Early region E3 of adenovirus 2 encodes a glycoprotein, E3-gp25K, that is a good model with which to study structure-function relationships in transmembrane glycoproteins. We have determined the structures of the oligosaccharides linked to E3-gp25K. The oligosaccharides were labeled with [2-3H]mannose in adenovirus 2-early infected KB cells for 5.5h (pulse) or for 5.5 h followed by a 3-h chase (pulse-chase). E3-gp25K was extracted and purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel in 7 M urea, followed by gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel A-1.5m in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. An analysis of the purified protein by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that it was >95% pure. The oligosaccharides were isolated by pronase digestion followed by gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel P-6, then by digestion with endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, followed by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, and finally by paper chromatography. The pulse sample contained equal amounts of Man9GlcNAc and Man8GlcNAc and small amounts of Man7GlcNAc and Man6GlcNAc. The pulse-chase sample had predominantly Man8GlcNAc and much less Man9GlcNAc, indicating that processing of the Man9GlcNAc to Man8GlcNAc had occurred during the chase period. Thus, Man8GlcNAc is the major oligosaccharide on mature E3-gp25K. The structures of these oligosaccharides were established by digestion with α-mannosidase, methylation analysis, and acetolysis. The oligosaccharides found had typical high-mannose structures that have been observed in other membrane and soluble glycoproteins, and the branching patterns and linkages of the mannose residues of Man9GlcNAc were identical to those of the lipid-linked Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 donor. Thus, adenovirus 2 infection (early stages) apparently does not affect the usual cellular high-mannose glycosylation pathways, and despite being virus coded, E3-gp25K is glycosylated in the same manner as a typical mammalian cell-coded glycoprotein. Images PMID:7321093

  19. Structures of the oligosaccharides of the glycoprotein coded by early region E3 of adenovirus 2.

    PubMed

    Kornfeld, R; Wold, W S

    1981-11-01

    Early region E3 of adenovirus 2 encodes a glycoprotein, E3-gp25K, that is a good model with which to study structure-function relationships in transmembrane glycoproteins. We have determined the structures of the oligosaccharides linked to E3-gp25K. The oligosaccharides were labeled with [2-(3)H]mannose in adenovirus 2-early infected KB cells for 5.5h (pulse) or for 5.5 h followed by a 3-h chase (pulse-chase). E3-gp25K was extracted and purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel in 7 M urea, followed by gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel A-1.5m in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. An analysis of the purified protein by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that it was >95% pure. The oligosaccharides were isolated by pronase digestion followed by gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel P-6, then by digestion with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, followed by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, and finally by paper chromatography. The pulse sample contained equal amounts of Man(9)GlcNAc and Man(8)GlcNAc and small amounts of Man(7)GlcNAc and Man(6)GlcNAc. The pulse-chase sample had predominantly Man(8)GlcNAc and much less Man(9)GlcNAc, indicating that processing of the Man(9)GlcNAc to Man(8)GlcNAc had occurred during the chase period. Thus, Man(8)GlcNAc is the major oligosaccharide on mature E3-gp25K. The structures of these oligosaccharides were established by digestion with alpha-mannosidase, methylation analysis, and acetolysis. The oligosaccharides found had typical high-mannose structures that have been observed in other membrane and soluble glycoproteins, and the branching patterns and linkages of the mannose residues of Man(9)GlcNAc were identical to those of the lipid-linked Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) donor. Thus, adenovirus 2 infection (early stages) apparently does not affect the usual cellular high-mannose glycosylation pathways, and despite being virus coded, E3-gp25K is glycosylated in the same manner as a typical mammalian cell

  20. Long noncoding RNAs responsive to Fusarium oxysporum infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qian-Hao; Stephen, Stuart; Taylor, Jennifer; Helliwell, Chris A; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Short noncoding RNAs have been demonstrated to play important roles in regulation of gene expression and stress responses, but the repertoire and functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) remain largely unexplored, particularly in plants. To explore the role of lncRNAs in disease resistance, we used a strand-specific RNA-sequencing approach to identify lncRNAs responsive to Fusarium oxysporum infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. Antisense transcription was found in c. 20% of the annotated A. thaliana genes. Several noncoding natural antisense transcripts responsive to F. oxysporum infection were found in genes implicated in disease defense. While the majority of the novel transcriptionally active regions (TARs) were adjacent to annotated genes and could be an extension of the annotated transcripts, 159 novel intergenic TARs, including 20 F. oxysporum-responsive lncTARs, were identified. Ten F. oxysporum-induced lncTARs were functionally characterized using T-DNA insertion or RNA-interference knockdown lines, and five were demonstrated to be related to disease development. Promoter analysis suggests that some of the F. oxysporum-induced lncTARs are direct targets of transcription factor(s) responsive to pathogen attack. Our results demonstrated that strand-specific RNA sequencing is a powerful tool for uncovering hidden levels of transcriptome and that IncRNAs are important components of the antifungal networks in A. thaliana. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    DOE PAGES

    Walworth, Nathan; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; ...

    2015-03-23

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance because of its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20–25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and nonpathogenic, free-living bacteria. In this paper, we use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus, both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% ofmore » the noncoding space is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and twofold higher than that found in the gene-dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium noncoding RNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences, lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Finally, our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high-fidelity replication allowed the unusual “inflation” of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.« less

  2. Variation in conserved non-coding sequences on chromosome 5q andsusceptibility to asthma and atopy

    SciT

    Donfack, Joseph; Schneider, Daniel H.; Tan, Zheng

    2005-09-10

    Background: Evolutionarily conserved sequences likely havebiological function. Methods: To determine whether variation in conservedsequences in non-coding DNA contributes to risk for human disease, westudied six conserved non-coding elements in the Th2 cytokine cluster onhuman chromosome 5q31 in a large Hutterite pedigree and in samples ofoutbred European American and African American asthma cases and controls.Results: Among six conserved non-coding elements (>100 bp,>70percent identity; human-mouse comparison), we identified one singlenucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in each of two conserved elements and sixSNPs in the flanking regions of three conserved elements. We genotypedour samples for four of these SNPs and an additional three SNPs eachmore » inthe IL13 and IL4 genes. While there was only modest evidence forassociation with single SNPs in the Hutterite and European Americansamples (P<0.05), there were highly significant associations inEuropean Americans between asthma and haplotypes comprised of SNPs in theIL4 gene (P<0.001), including a SNP in a conserved non-codingelement. Furthermore, variation in the IL13 gene was strongly associatedwith total IgE (P = 0.00022) and allergic sensitization to mold allergens(P = 0.00076) in the Hutterites, and more modestly associated withsensitization to molds in the European Americans and African Americans (P<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that there is overalllittle variation in the conserved non-coding elements on 5q31, butvariation in IL4 and IL13, including possibly one SNP in a conservedelement, influence asthma and atopic phenotypes in diversepopulations.« less

  3. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Doot, Robert K; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E; Allberg, Keith C; Linden, Hannah M; Mankoff, David A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging are a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing the feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed, and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the Role of Non-Coding RNAs in Bladder Cancer: From Dark Matter to Valuable Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Bica, Cecilia; Gulei, Diana; Cojocneanu-Petric, Roxana; Braicu, Cornelia; Petrut, Bogdan; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2017-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity that characterize bladder cancer compel this malignancy into the category of hot topics in terms of biomolecular research. Therefore, a better knowledge of the specific molecular mechanisms that underlie the development and progression of bladder cancer is demanded. Tumor heterogeneity among patients with similar diagnosis, as well as intratumor heterogeneity, generates difficulties in terms of targeted therapy. Furthermore, late diagnosis represents an ongoing issue, significantly reducing the response to therapy and, inevitably, the overall survival. The role of non-coding RNAs in bladder cancer emerged in the last decade, revealing that microRNAs (miRNAs) may act as tumor suppressor genes, respectively oncogenes, but also as biomarkers for early diagnosis. Regarding other types of non-coding RNAs, especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are extensively reviewed in this article, their exact roles in tumorigenesis are—for the time being—not as evident as in the case of miRNAs, but, still, clearly suggested. Therefore, this review covers the non-coding RNA expression profile of bladder cancer patients and their validated target genes in bladder cancer cell lines, with repercussions on processes such as proliferation, invasiveness, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and other molecular pathways which are specific for the malignant transformation of cells. PMID:28703782

  5. Understanding the Role of Non-Coding RNAs in Bladder Cancer: From Dark Matter to Valuable Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Pop-Bica, Cecilia; Gulei, Diana; Cojocneanu-Petric, Roxana; Braicu, Cornelia; Petrut, Bogdan; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana

    2017-07-13

    The mortality and morbidity that characterize bladder cancer compel this malignancy into the category of hot topics in terms of biomolecular research. Therefore, a better knowledge of the specific molecular mechanisms that underlie the development and progression of bladder cancer is demanded. Tumor heterogeneity among patients with similar diagnosis, as well as intratumor heterogeneity, generates difficulties in terms of targeted therapy. Furthermore, late diagnosis represents an ongoing issue, significantly reducing the response to therapy and, inevitably, the overall survival. The role of non-coding RNAs in bladder cancer emerged in the last decade, revealing that microRNAs (miRNAs) may act as tumor suppressor genes, respectively oncogenes, but also as biomarkers for early diagnosis. Regarding other types of non-coding RNAs, especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are extensively reviewed in this article, their exact roles in tumorigenesis are-for the time being-not as evident as in the case of miRNAs, but, still, clearly suggested. Therefore, this review covers the non-coding RNA expression profile of bladder cancer patients and their validated target genes in bladder cancer cell lines, with repercussions on processes such as proliferation, invasiveness, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and other molecular pathways which are specific for the malignant transformation of cells.

  6. The Inescapable Influence of Noncoding RNAs in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Brian D.; Anastasiadou, Eleni; Esteller, Manel; He, Lin; Slack, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes information presented at the 2015 Keystone Symposium on “MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Cancer”. Nearly two decades after the discovery of the first microRNA (miRNA), the role of noncoding RNAs in developmental processes and the mechanisms behind their dysregulation in cancer has been steadily elucidated. Excitingly, miRNAs have begun making their way into the clinic to combat disease such a hepatitis C, and various forms of cancer. Therefore, at this Keystone meeting novel findings were presented that enhance our view on how small and long noncoding RNAs control developmental timing and oncogenic processes. Recurring themes included, 1) how miRNAs can be differentially processed, degraded, and regulated by ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, 2) how particular miRNA genetic networks that control developmental process, when disrupted, can result in cancer disease, 3) the technologies available to therapeutically deliver RNA to combat diseases such as cancer, and 4) the elucidation of the mechanism of actions for long noncoding RNAs, currently a poorly understood class of noncoding RNA. During the meeting there was an emphasis on presenting unpublished findings, and the breadth of topics covered reflected how inescapable the influence of noncoding RNAs are in development and cancer. PMID:26567137

  7. Dynamic Development of Regional Cortical Thickness and Surface Area in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Lyall, Amanda E; Shi, Feng; Geng, Xiujuan; Woolson, Sandra; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Hamer, Robert M; Shen, Dinggang; Gilmore, John H

    2015-08-01

    Cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA) are altered in many neuropsychiatric disorders and are correlated with cognitive functioning. Little is known about how these components of cortical gray matter develop in the first years of life. We studied the longitudinal development of regional CT and SA expansion in healthy infants from birth to 2 years. CT and SA have distinct and heterogeneous patterns of development that are exceptionally dynamic; overall CT increases by an average of 36.1%, while cortical SA increases 114.6%. By age 2, CT is on average 97% of adult values, compared with SA, which is 69%. This suggests that early identification, prevention, and intervention strategies for neuropsychiatric illness need to be targeted to this period of rapid postnatal brain development, and that SA expansion is the principal driving factor in cortical volume after 2 years of age. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  9. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  10. Conserved noncoding sequences conserve biological networks and influence genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jianbo; Qian, Kecheng; Si, Jingna; Xiao, Liang; Ci, Dong; Zhang, Deqiang

    2018-05-01

    Comparative genomics approaches have identified numerous conserved cis-regulatory sequences near genes in plant genomes. Despite the identification of these conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs), our knowledge of their functional importance and selection remains limited. Here, we used a combination of DNA methylome analysis, microarray expression analyses, and functional annotation to study these sequences in the model tree Populus trichocarpa. Methylation in CG contexts and non-CG contexts was lower in CNSs, particularly CNSs in the 5'-upstream regions of genes, compared with other sites in the genome. We observed that CNSs are enriched in genes with transcription and binding functions, and this also associated with syntenic genes and those from whole-genome duplications, suggesting that cis-regulatory sequences play a key role in genome evolution. We detected a significant positive correlation between CNS number and protein interactions, suggesting that CNSs may have roles in the evolution and maintenance of biological networks. The divergence of CNSs indicates that duplication-degeneration-complementation drives the subfunctionalization of a proportion of duplicated genes from whole-genome duplication. Furthermore, population genomics confirmed that most CNSs are under strong purifying selection and only a small subset of CNSs shows evidence of adaptive evolution. These findings provide a foundation for future studies exploring these key genomic features in the maintenance of biological networks, local adaptation, and transcription.

  11. Chemical characterization of the early evolutionary phases of high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerner, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The formation of high-mass stars is a very complex process and up to date no comprehensive theory about it exists. This thesis studies the early stages of high-mass star-forming regions and employs astrochemistry as a tool to probe their different physical conditions. We split the evolutionary sequence into four observationally motivated stages that are based on a classification proposed in the literature. The sequence is characterized by an increase of the temperatures and densities that strongly influences the chemistry in the different stages. We observed a sample of 59 high-mass star-forming regions that cover the whole sequence and statistically characterized the chemical compositions of the different stages. We determined average column densities of 18 different molecular species and found generally increasing abundances with stage. We fitted them for each stage with a 1D model, such that the result of the best fit to the previous stage was used as new input for the following. This is a unique approach and allowed us to infer physical properties like the temperature and density structure and yielded a typical chemical lifetime for the high-mass star-formation process of 1e5 years. The 18 analyzed molecular species also included four deuterated molecules whose chemistry is particularly sensitive to thermal history and thus is a promising tool to infer chemical ages. We found decreasing trends of the D/H ratios with evolutionary stage for 3 of the 4 molecular species and that the D/H ratio depends more on the fraction of warm and cold gas than on the total amount of gas. That indicates different chemical pathways for the different molecules and confirms the potential use of deuterated species as chemical age indicators. In addition, we mapped a low-mass star forming region in order to study the cosmic ray ionization rate, which is an important parameter in chemical models. While in chemical models it is commonly fixed, we found that it ! strongly varies with

  12. Long Noncoding RNAs and Cardiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Greco, Simona; Salgado Somoza, Antonio; Devaux, Yvan; Martelli, Fabio

    2017-08-30

    To maintain homeostasis, gene expression has to be tightly regulated by complex and multiple mechanisms occurring at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional levels. One crucial regulatory component is represented by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), nonprotein-coding RNA species implicated in all of these levels. Thus, lncRNAs have been associated with any given process or pathway of interest in a variety of systems, including the heart. Recent Advances: Mounting evidence implicates lncRNAs in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and progression and their presence in the blood of heart disease patients indicates that they are attractive potential biomarkers. Our understanding of the regulation and molecular mechanisms of action of most lncRNAs remains rudimentary. A challenge is represented by their often low evolutionary sequence conservation that limits the use of animal models for preclinical studies. Nevertheless, a growing number of lncRNAs with an impact on heart function is rapidly accumulating. In this study, we will discuss (a) lncRNAs that control heart homeostasis and disease; (b) concepts, approaches, and methodologies necessary to study lncRNAs in the heart; and (c) challenges posed and opportunities presented by lncRNAs as potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers. A deeper knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underpinning CVDs is necessary to develop more effective treatments. Further studies are needed to clarify the regulation and function of lncRNAs in the heart before they can be considered as therapeutic targets and disease biomarkers. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  13. Behind the curtain of non-coding RNAs; long non-coding RNAs regulating hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    El Khodiry, Aya; Afify, Menna; El Tayebi, Hend M

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and aggressive cancers worldwide. HCC is the fifth common malignancy in the world and the second leading cause of cancer death in Asia. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNAs with a length greater than 200 nucleotides that do not encode proteins. lncRNAs can regulate gene expression and protein synthesis in several ways by interacting with DNA, RNA and proteins in a sequence specific manner. They could regulate cellular and developmental processes through either gene inhibition or gene activation. Many studies have shown that dysregulation of lncRNAs is related to many human diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, genetic disorders, neurological diseases, immune mediated disorders and cancers. However, the study of lncRNAs is challenging as they are poorly conserved between species, their expression levels aren’t as high as that of mRNAs and have great interpatient variations. The study of lncRNAs expression in cancers have been a breakthrough as it unveils potential biomarkers and drug targets for cancer therapy and helps understand the mechanism of pathogenesis. This review discusses many long non-coding RNAs and their contribution in HCC, their role in development, metastasis, and prognosis of HCC and how to regulate and target these lncRNAs as a therapeutic tool in HCC treatment in the future. PMID:29434445

  14. Data Collection and Use in Early Childhood Education Programs: Evidence from the Northeast Region. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-085

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Jacqueline; Irwin, Clare W.; Kook, Janna Fuccillo; Cox, Josh

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. This study explores how seven early childhood education programs in a mid-sized city in the Northeast region are collecting and using data, how they would like to use data, how they could use the data that they have, and the…

  15. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    SciT

    Bush, B.; Melaina, M.; Penev, M.

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  16. [Study on the factors impacting on early cochlear implantation between the eastern and western region of China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hanqiong; Li, Wei; Ma, Ruixia; Gong, Zhengpeng; Shi, Haibo; Li, Huawei; Chen, Bing; Jiang, Ye; Dai, Chunfu

    2015-06-01

    To describe tne regional different factors which impact on early cochlear implantation in prelingual deaf children between eastern and western regions of China. The charts of 113 children who received the cochlear implantation after 24 months old were reviewed and analyzed. Forty-five of them came from the eastern region (Jiangsu, Zhejiang or Shanghai) while 68 of them came from the western region (Ningxia or Guizhou). Parental interviews were conducted to collect information regarding the factors that impact on early cochlear implantation. Result:Based on the univariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) value of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) was 5. 481, which indicated the correlation of UNHS with early cochlear implantation is significant. There was statistical difference between the 2 groups (P<0. 01). For the financial burden, the OR value was 3. 521(strong correlation) and there was statistical difference between the 2 groups (P<0. 01). For the communication barriers and community location, the OR value was 0. 566 and 1. 128 respectively, and there was no statistical difference between the 2 groups (P>0. 05). The multivariate analysis indicated that the UNHS and financial burden are statistically different between the eastern and western regions (P=0. 00 and 0. 040 respectively). The UNHS and financial burden are statistically different between the eastern reinforced in the western region. In addition, the government and society should provide powerful policy and more financial support in the western region of China. The innovation of management system is also helpful to the early cochlear implantation.

  17. Regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lisa J; Craven, Paul D; Lakkundi, Anil; Foster, Jann P; Badawi, Nadia

    2015-06-09

    With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more preterm infants are surviving the neonatal period and presenting for surgery in early infancy. Inguinal hernia is the most common condition requiring early surgery, appearing in 38% of infants whose birth weight is between 751 grams and 1000 grams. Approximately 20% to 30% of otherwise healthy preterm infants having general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery at a postmature age have at least one apnoeic episode within the postoperative period. Research studies have failed to adequately distinguish the effects of apnoeic episodes from other complications of extreme preterm gestation on the risk of brain injury, or to investigate the potential impact of postoperative apnoea upon longer term neurodevelopment. In addition to episodes of apnoea, there are concerns that anaesthetic and sedative agents may have a direct toxic effect on the developing brain of preterm infants even after reaching postmature age. It is proposed that regional anaesthesia may reduce the risk of postoperative apnoea, avoid the risk of anaesthetic-related neurotoxicity and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants requiring surgery for inguinal hernia at a postmature age. To determine if regional anaesthesia reduces postoperative apnoea, bradycardia, the use of assisted ventilation, and neurological impairment, in comparison to general anaesthesia, in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy at a postmature age. The following databases and resources were searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), EMBASE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), controlled-trials.com and clinicaltrials.gov, reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research and Pediatric Anesthesia. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia, or

  18. Changes in early-successional hardwood forest area in four bird conservation regions across four decades

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Kathleen E. Franzreb; David A. Buehler

    2012-01-01

    Early successional hardwood forests constitute important breeding habitat for many migratory songbirds. Declines in populations of these species suggest changes in habitat availability either on the species’ wintering grounds or on their early successional breeding grounds. We used Forest Inventory and Analysis data from 11 states across four decades to examine changes...

  19. Non-coding RNAs: Therapeutic Strategies and Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hui

    The vast majority of the human genome is transcribed into RNA molecules that do not code for proteins, which could be small ones approximately 20 nucleotide in length, known as microRNAs, or transcripts longer than 200 bp, defined as long noncoding RNAs. The prevalent deregulation of microRNAs in human cancers prompted immediate interest on the therapeutic value of microRNAs as drugs and drug targets. Many features of microRNAs such as well-defined mechanisms, and straightforward oligonucleotide design further make them attractive candidates for therapeutic development. The intensive efforts of exploring microRNA therapeutics are reflected by the large body of preclinical studies using oligonucleotide-based mimicking and blocking, culminated by the recent entry of microRNA therapeutics in clinical trial for several human diseases including cancer. Meanwhile, microRNA therapeutics faces the challenge of effective and safe delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics into the target site. Various chemical modifications of nucleic acids and delivery systems have been developed to increase targeting specificity and efficacy, and reduce the associated side effects including activation of immune response. Recently, long noncoding RNAs become attractive targets for therapeutic intervention because of their association with complex and delicate phenotypes, and their unconventional pharmaceutical activities such as capacity of increasing output of proteins. Here I discuss the general therapeutic strategies targeting noncoding RNAs, review delivery systems developed to maximize noncoding RNA therapeutic efficacy, and offer perspectives on the future development of noncoding RNA targeting agents for colorectal cancer.

  20. Long Noncoding RNAs in the Yeast S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Rachel O; Hass, Evan P; Zappulla, David C

    2017-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs have recently been discovered to comprise a sizeable fraction of the RNA World. The scope of their functions, physical organization, and disease relevance remain in the early stages of characterization. Although many thousands of lncRNA transcripts recently have been found to emanate from the expansive DNA between protein-coding genes in animals, there are also hundreds that have been found in simple eukaryotes. Furthermore, lncRNAs have been found in the bacterial and archaeal branches of the tree of life, suggesting they are ubiquitous. In this chapter, we focus primarily on what has been learned so far about lncRNAs from the greatly studied single-celled eukaryote, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most lncRNAs examined in yeast have been implicated in transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes-often in response to forms of stress-whereas a select few have been ascribed yet other functions. Of those known to be involved in transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, the vast majority function in cis. There are also some yeast lncRNAs identified that are not directly involved in regulation of transcription. Examples of these include the telomerase RNA and telomere-encoded transcripts. In addition to its role as a template-encoding telomeric DNA synthesis, telomerase RNA has been shown to function as a flexible scaffold for protein subunits of the RNP holoenzyme. The flexible scaffold model provides a specific mechanistic paradigm that is likely to apply to many other lncRNAs that assemble and orchestrate large RNP complexes, even in humans. Looking to the future, it is clear that considerable fundamental knowledge remains to be obtained about the architecture and functions of lncRNAs. Using genetically tractable unicellular model organisms should facilitate lncRNA characterization. The acquired basic knowledge will ultimately translate to better understanding of the growing list of lncRNAs linked to human maladies.

  1. Non-coding functions of alternative pre-mRNA splicing in development

    PubMed Central

    Mockenhaupt, Stefan; Makeyev, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    A majority of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) in the higher eukaryotes undergo alternative splicing to generate more than one mature product. By targeting the open reading frame region this process increases diversity of protein isoforms beyond the nominal coding capacity of the genome. However, alternative splicing also frequently controls output levels and spatiotemporal features of cellular and organismal gene expression programs. Here we discuss how these non-coding functions of alternative splicing contribute to development through regulation of mRNA stability, translational efficiency and cellular localization. PMID:26493705

  2. Non-coding functions of alternative pre-mRNA splicing in development.

    PubMed

    Mockenhaupt, Stefan; Makeyev, Eugene V

    2015-12-01

    A majority of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) in the higher eukaryotes undergo alternative splicing to generate more than one mature product. By targeting the open reading frame region this process increases diversity of protein isoforms beyond the nominal coding capacity of the genome. However, alternative splicing also frequently controls output levels and spatiotemporal features of cellular and organismal gene expression programs. Here we discuss how these non-coding functions of alternative splicing contribute to development through regulation of mRNA stability, translational efficiency and cellular localization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of early postnatal exposure to valproate on neurobehavioral development and regional BDNF expression in two strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Bath, Kevin G; Pimentel, Tiare

    2017-05-01

    Valproate has been used for over 30years as a first-line treatment for epilepsy. In recent years, prenatal exposure to valproate has been associated with teratogenic effects, limiting its use in women that are pregnant or of childbearing age. However, despite its potential detrimental effects on development, valproate continues to be prescribed at high rates in pediatric populations in some countries. Animal models allow us to test hypotheses regarding the potential effects of postnatal valproate exposure on neurobehavioral development, as well as identify potential mechanisms mediating observed effects. Here, we tested the effect of early postnatal (P4-P11) valproate exposure (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) on motor and affective development in two strains of mice, SVE129 and C57Bl/6N. We also assessed the effect of early valproate exposure on regional BDNF protein levels, a potential target of valproate, and mediator of neurodevelopmental outcomes. We found that early life valproate exposure led to significant motor impairments in both SVE129 and C57Bl/6N mice. Both lines of mice showed significant delays in weight gain, as well as impairments in the righting reflex (P7-8), wire hang (P17), open field (P12 and P21), and rotarod (P25 and P45) tasks. Interestingly, some of the early locomotor effects were strain- and dose-dependent. We observed no effects of valproate on early markers of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, early life valproate exposure had significant effects on regional BDNF expression, leading to a near 50% decrease in BDNF levels in the cerebellum of both strains of mice, while not impacting hippocampal BDNF protein levels. These observations indicate that postnatal exposure to valproate may have significant, and region-specific effects, on neural and behavioral development, with specific consequences for cerebellar development and motor function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alteration of diffusion-tensor MRI measures in brain regions involved in early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan-Kuei; Chou, Ying-Hui; Sundman, Mark; Hickey, Patrick; Kasoff, Willard S; Bernstein, Adam; Trouard, Theodore P; Lin, Tanya; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Sherman, Scott J; Weingarten, Carol

    2018-06-07

    Many non-motor symptoms (e.g., hyposmia) appear years before the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is thus desirable to be able to use noninvasive brain imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to detect brain abnormalities in early PD stages. Among the MRI modalities, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is suitable for detecting changes of brain tissue structure due to neurological diseases. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether DTI signals measured from brain regions involved in early stages of PD differ from those of healthy controls. To answer this question, we analyzed whole-brain DTI data of 30 early-stage PD patients and 30 controls using improved ROI based analysis methods. Results showed that 1) the fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the olfactory tract (connected with the olfactory bulb: one of the first structures affected by PD) are lower in PD patients than healthy controls; 2) FA values are higher in PD patients than healthy controls in the following brain regions: corticospinal tract, cingulum (near hippocampus), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (temporal part). Experimental results suggest that the tissue property, measured by FA, in olfactory regions is structurally modulated by PD with a mechanism that is different from other brain regions.

  5. The early evolution of giant H II regions formed by supernova explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M. C.

    1971-01-01

    The evolution of a giant H II region, which cools after an initial ionization, is discussed. The discussion is applied to the Vela X and Tycho supernovae. Other giant H II regions might not be as easily detectable as the Vela X region. The Tycho region may be just detectable in the O(II) or O(III) optical lines or as a hole in the 21-cm emission line profiles, as is suggested in the data. These giant H II regions last appreciably longer than the continuum radio sources within them.

  6. Junk DNA and the long non-coding RNA twist in cancer genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hui; Vincent, Kimberly; Pichler, Martin; Fodde, Riccardo; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Slack, Frank J.; Calin, George A

    2015-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information moves from DNA to RNA to protein. However, in the last decade this dogma has been challenged by new findings on non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs (miRNAs). More recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted much attention due to their large number and biological significance. Many lncRNAs have been identified as mapping to regulatory elements including gene promoters and enhancers, ultraconserved regions, and intergenic regions of protein-coding genes. Yet, the biological function and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA in human diseases in general and cancer in particular remain largely unknown. Data from the literature suggest that lncRNA, often via interaction with proteins, functions in specific genomic loci or use their own transcription loci for regulatory activity. In this review, we summarize recent findings supporting the importance of DNA loci in lncRNA function, and the underlying molecular mechanisms via cis or trans regulation, and discuss their implications in cancer. In addition, we use the 8q24 genomic locus, a region containing interactive SNPs, DNA regulatory elements and lncRNAs, as an example to illustrate how single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within lncRNAs may be functionally associated with the individual’s susceptibility to cancer. PMID:25619839

  7. The Large Mitochondrial Genome of Symbiodinium minutum Reveals Conserved Noncoding Sequences between Dinoflagellates and Apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Satoh, Nori; Mungpakdee, Sutada

    2015-07-20

    Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (∼326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum, is AT-rich (∼64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutum and P. falciparum. However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum, suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Targeted deletion of the 9p21 noncoding coronary artery disease risk interval in mice

    SciT

    Visel, Axel; Zhu, Yiwen; May, Dalit

    2010-01-01

    Sequence polymorphisms in a 58kb interval on chromosome 9p21 confer a markedly increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD), the leading cause of death worldwide 1,2. The variants have a substantial impact on the epidemiology of CAD and other life?threatening vascular conditions since nearly a quarter of Caucasians are homozygous for risk alleles. However, the risk interval is devoid of protein?coding genes and the mechanism linking the region to CAD risk has remained enigmatic. Here we show that deletion of the orthologous 70kb noncoding interval on mouse chromosome 4 affects cardiac expression of neighboring genes, as well as proliferation propertiesmore » of vascular cells. Chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice are viable, but show increased mortality both during development and as adults. Cardiac expression of two genes near the noncoding interval, Cdkn2a and Cdkn2b, is severely reduced in chr4delta70kb/delta70kb mice, indicating that distant-acting gene regulatory functions are located in the noncoding CAD risk interval. Allelespecific expression of Cdkn2b transcripts in heterozygous mice revealed that the deletion affects expression through a cis-acting mechanism. Primary cultures of chr4delta70kb/delta70kb aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited excessive proliferation and diminished senescence, a cellular phenotype consistent with accelerated CAD pathogenesis. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence that the CAD risk interval plays a pivotal role in regulation of cardiac Cdkn2a/b expression and suggest that this region affects CAD progression by altering the dynamics of vascular cell proliferation.« less

  9. Regional trends in early-monsoon rainfall over Vietnam and CCSM4 attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Wang, S. S.-Y.; Gillies, R. R.; Buckley, B. M.; Yoon, J.-H.; Cho, C.

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of precipitation trends for Vietnam revealed that early-monsoon precipitation has increased over the past three decades but to varying degrees over the northern, central and southern portions of the country. Upon investigation, it was found that the change in early-monsoon precipitation is associated with changes in the low-level cyclonic airflow over the South China Sea and Indochina that is embedded in the large-scale atmospheric circulation associated with a "La Niña-like" anomalous sea surface temperature pattern with warming in the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and cooling in the eastern Pacific. The Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) was subsequently used for an attribution analysis. Over northern Vietnam an early-monsoon increase in precipitation is attributed to changes in both greenhouse gases and natural forcing. For central Vietnam, the observed increase in early-monsoon precipitation is reproduced by the simulation forced with greenhouse gases. However, over southern Vietnam the early-monsoon precipitation increase is less definitive where aerosols were seen to be preponderant but natural forcing through the role of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation may well be a factor that is not resolved by CCSM4. Increased early-monsoonal precipitation over the coastal lowland and deltas has the potential to amplify economic and human losses.

  10. The development of non-coding RNA ontology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingshan; Eilbeck, Karen; Smith, Barry; Blake, Judith A; Dou, Dejing; Huang, Weili; Natale, Darren A; Ruttenberg, Alan; Huan, Jun; Zimmermann, Michael T; Jiang, Guoqian; Lin, Yu; Wu, Bin; Strachan, Harrison J; de Silva, Nisansa; Kasukurthi, Mohan Vamsi; Jha, Vikash Kumar; He, Yongqun; Zhang, Shaojie; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Zixing; Borchert, Glen M; Tan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Identification of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has been significantly improved over the past decade. On the other hand, semantic annotation of ncRNA data is facing critical challenges due to the lack of a comprehensive ontology to serve as common data elements and data exchange standards in the field. We developed the Non-Coding RNA Ontology (NCRO) to handle this situation. By providing a formally defined ncRNA controlled vocabulary, the NCRO aims to fill a specific and highly needed niche in semantic annotation of large amounts of ncRNA biological and clinical data.

  11. Transcription of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus early region and identification of two E6 polypeptides in COS-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, M S; Wettstein, F O

    1987-01-01

    Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) early proteins are present at very low levels in virus-induced tumors and cannot be detected by immunological methods. Furthermore, cells in culture are not readily transformed by the virus. To overcome these difficulties in identifying and characterizing the putative transforming protein(s) coded by the E6 open reading frame, the early cottontail rabbit papillomavirus region was expressed under the control of the late simian virus 40 promoter. Mapping of the transcripts in transiently transfected COS-7 cells indicated that transcription was initiated in the late region of simian virus 40. Two E6-coded polypeptides were identified, representing translation products initiated at the first and second AUG codons. Images PMID:3039182

  12. Different regions of line formation in the envelope of the early emission line star HD 190073

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringuelet, A. E.; Rovira, M.; Cidale, L.; Sahade, J.

    1987-01-01

    A description is presented of the spectral features that characterize the spectrum of HD 190073 both in the photographic region (360-660 nm), and in the IUE UV (115-320 nm). A number of different types of profiles can be distinguished, and this seems to imply that many different 'broad' regions of line formation coexist in the extended envelope of the star, including regions with densities differing in several orders of magnitude.

  13. Effects of maternal separation, early handling, and gonadal sex on regional metabolic capacity of the preweanling rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Spivey, Jaclyn M.; Padilla, Eimeira; Shumake, Jason D.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the effects of mother-infant separation on regional metabolic capacity in the preweanling rat brain. Mother-infant separation is generally known to be stressful for rat pups. Holtzman adolescent rats show a depressive-like behavioral phenotype after maternal separation during the preweanling period. However, information is lacking on the effects of maternal separation on the brains of rat pups. We addressed this issue by mapping the brains of preweanling Holtzman rat pups using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry, which reflects long-term changes in brain metabolic capacity, following two weeks of repeated, prolonged maternal separation, and compared this to both early handled and non-handled pups. Quantitative image analysis revealed that maternal separation reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell. Maternal separation reduced prefrontal cytochrome oxidase to a greater degree in female pups than in males. Early handling reduced cytochrome oxidase activity in the posterior parietal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and subiculum, but increased cytochrome oxidase activity in the lateral frontal cortex. The sex-dependent effects of early handling on cytochrome oxidase activity were limited to the medial prefrontal cortex. Regardless of separation group, females had greater cytochrome oxidase activity in the habenula and ventral tegmental area compared to males. These findings suggest that early life mother-infant separation results in dysfunction of prefrontal and mesolimbic regions in the preweanling rat brain that may contribute to behavioral changes later in life. PMID:20969837

  14. [A survey of Local Physicians and Psychotherapists on Cooperation in Regional Networks for Early Child Interventions in Saxony-Anhalt].

    PubMed

    Clauß, D; Fleischer, S; Mattern, E; Ayerle, G

    2016-07-01

    Early childhood interventions positively contribute to health related child development. For these interventions, networks are a necessary prerequisite as they promote interdisciplinary and interprofessional cooperation. This holds especially true for the integration of health system protagonists. In a cross-sectional survey local paediatrists, gynaecologists, general practitioners, and psychotherapists were asked about their knowledge, experiences, desires, and reservations regarding cooperation in early childhood intervention networks. 64 out of 1747 (3.7%) eligible clinicians answered the survey. On average they estimated that 10.1% of the families they are treating would benefit from early childhood interventions. Participants rated themselves as competent to offer appropriate early childhood interventions. The youth welfare service was judged as the most important institution for their own professional practice by 84.4%. Additionally to an applicable agenda, a fair group moderation of network meetings was seen as a substantial requirement in order to take part in network meetings. Health professionals are important protagonists in early childhood interventions. Clinicians should assess relevant problems in families and offer appropriate support on a regular basis. Alongside clearly defined regional contacts, interprofessional continuing education seems mandatory. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Effective Strategies for School-Based Early Childhood Centers. The Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Janet

    Effective strategies for developing early childhood centers in public schools are discussed in this paper, which draws from a research-based literature search and intensive case studies of six Northwest sites. The sites represent a range of rural, suburban, and urban programs; large and small schools; and a variety of program features. The sites…

  16. Identifying Local Benefits of Early Childhood Development Programs Using Regional Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Judy A.; Rolnick, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a review of "Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development" by Timothy J. Bartik. Timothy Bartik's timely book contributes to an important conversation about the role of government in promoting investments in children in the years before traditional public schooling typically begins. Until…

  17. A Neutral Network based Early Eathquake Warning model in California region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Early Earthquake Warning systems could reduce loss of lives and other economic impact resulted from natural disaster or man-made calamity. Current systems could be further enhanced by neutral network method. A 3 layer neural network model combined with onsite method was deployed in this paper to improve the recognition time and detection time for large scale earthquakes.The 3 layer neutral network early earthquake warning model adopted the vector feature design for sample events happened within 150 km radius of the epicenters. Dataset used in this paper contained both destructive events and small scale events. All the data was extracted from IRIS database to properly train the model. In the training process, backpropagation algorithm was used to adjust the weight matrices and bias matrices during each iteration. The information in all three channels of the seismometers served as the source in this model. Through designed tests, it was indicated that this model could identify approximately 90 percent of the events' scale correctly. And the early detection could provide informative evidence for public authorities to make further decisions. This indicated that neutral network model could have the potential to strengthen current early warning system, since the onsite method may greatly reduce the responding time and save more lives in such disasters.

  18. Control of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis by a cis-acting noncoding antisense transcript.

    PubMed

    Fedak, Halina; Palusinska, Malgorzata; Krzyczmonik, Katarzyna; Brzezniak, Lien; Yatusevich, Ruslan; Pietras, Zbigniew; Kaczanowski, Szymon; Swiezewski, Szymon

    2016-11-29

    Seed dormancy is one of the most crucial process transitions in a plant's life cycle. Its timing is tightly controlled by the expression level of the Delay of Germination 1 gene (DOG1). DOG1 is the major quantitative trait locus for seed dormancy in Arabidopsis and has been shown to control dormancy in many other plant species. This is reflected by the evolutionary conservation of the functional short alternatively polyadenylated form of the DOG1 mRNA. Notably, the 3' region of DOG1, including the last exon that is not included in this transcript isoform, shows a high level of conservation at the DNA level, but the encoded polypeptide is poorly conserved. Here, we demonstrate that this region of DOG1 contains a promoter for the transcription of a noncoding antisense RNA, asDOG1, that is 5' capped, polyadenylated, and relatively stable. This promoter is autonomous and asDOG1 has an expression profile that is different from known DOG1 transcripts. Using several approaches we show that asDOG1 strongly suppresses DOG1 expression during seed maturation in cis, but is unable to do so in trans Therefore, the negative regulation of seed dormancy by asDOG1 in cis results in allele-specific suppression of DOG1 expression and promotes germination. Given the evolutionary conservation of the asDOG1 promoter, we propose that this cis-constrained noncoding RNA-mediated mechanism limiting the duration of seed dormancy functions across the Brassicaceae.

  19. Long non-coding RNA produced by RNA polymerase V determines boundaries of heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Böhmdorfer, Gudrun; Sethuraman, Shriya; Rowley, M Jordan; Krzyszton, Michal; Rothi, M Hafiz; Bouzit, Lilia; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T

    2016-01-01

    RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing is a conserved process where small RNAs target transposons and other sequences for repression by establishing chromatin modifications. A central element of this process are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), which in Arabidopsis thaliana are produced by a specialized RNA polymerase known as Pol V. Here we show that non-coding transcription by Pol V is controlled by preexisting chromatin modifications located within the transcribed regions. Most Pol V transcripts are associated with AGO4 but are not sliced by AGO4. Pol V-dependent DNA methylation is established on both strands of DNA and is tightly restricted to Pol V-transcribed regions. This indicates that chromatin modifications are established in close proximity to Pol V. Finally, Pol V transcription is preferentially enriched on edges of silenced transposable elements, where Pol V transcribes into TEs. We propose that Pol V may play an important role in the determination of heterochromatin boundaries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19092.001 PMID:27779094

  20. A new method for species identification via protein-coding and non-coding DNA barcodes by combining machine learning with bioinformatic methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-bing; Feng, Jie; Ward, Robert D; Wan, Ping; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Wei-zhong

    2012-01-01

    Species identification via DNA barcodes is contributing greatly to current bioinventory efforts. The initial, and widely accepted, proposal was to use the protein-coding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region as the standard barcode for animals, but recently non-coding internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes have been proposed as candidate barcodes for both animals and plants. However, achieving a robust alignment for non-coding regions can be problematic. Here we propose two new methods (DV-RBF and FJ-RBF) to address this issue for species assignment by both coding and non-coding sequences that take advantage of the power of machine learning and bioinformatics. We demonstrate the value of the new methods with four empirical datasets, two representing typical protein-coding COI barcode datasets (neotropical bats and marine fish) and two representing non-coding ITS barcodes (rust fungi and brown algae). Using two random sub-sampling approaches, we demonstrate that the new methods significantly outperformed existing Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods for both coding and non-coding barcodes when there was complete species coverage in the reference dataset. The new methods also out-performed NJ and ML methods for non-coding sequences in circumstances of potentially incomplete species coverage, although then the NJ and ML methods performed slightly better than the new methods for protein-coding barcodes. A 100% success rate of species identification was achieved with the two new methods for 4,122 bat queries and 5,134 fish queries using COI barcodes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 99.75-100%. The new methods also obtained a 96.29% success rate (95%CI: 91.62-98.40%) for 484 rust fungi queries and a 98.50% success rate (95%CI: 96.60-99.37%) for 1094 brown algae queries, both using ITS barcodes.

  1. DNA rearrangements directed by non-coding RNAs in ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2013-01-01

    Extensive programmed rearrangement of DNA, including DNA elimination, chromosome fragmentation, and DNA descrambling, takes place in the newly developed macronucleus during the sexual reproduction of ciliated protozoa. Recent studies have revealed that two distant classes of ciliates use distinct types of non-coding RNAs to regulate such DNA rearrangement events. DNA elimination in Tetrahymena is regulated by small non-coding RNAs that are produced and utilized in an RNAi-related process. It has been proposed that the small RNAs produced from the micronuclear genome are used to identify eliminated DNA sequences by whole-genome comparison between the parental macronucleus and the micronucleus. In contrast, DNA descrambling in Oxytricha is guided by long non-coding RNAs that are produced from the parental macronuclear genome. These long RNAs are proposed to act as templates for the direct descrambling events that occur in the developing macronucleus. Both cases provide useful examples to study epigenetic chromatin regulation by non-coding RNAs. PMID:21956937

  2. Non-coding RNAs in cancer brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kerui; Sharma, Sambad; Venkat, Suresh; Liu, Keqin; Zhou, Xiaobo; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2017-01-01

    More than 90% of cancer death is attributed to metastatic disease, and the brain is one of the major metastatic sites of melanoma, colon, renal, lung and breast cancers. Despite the recent advancement of targeted therapy for cancer, the incidence of brain metastasis is increasing. One reason is that most therapeutic drugs can’t penetrate blood-brain-barrier and tumor cells find the brain as sanctuary site. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of brain metastases to introduce the latest understandings of metastatic brain malignancies. This review also particularly focuses on non-coding RNAs and their roles in cancer brain metastasis. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of the extracellular vesicles as they are known to transport information between cells to initiate cancer cell-microenvironment communication. The potential clinical translation of non-coding RNAs as a tool for diagnosis and for treatment is also discussed in this review. At the end, the computational aspects of non-coding RNA detection, the sequence and structure calculation and epigenetic regulation of non-coding RNA in brain metastasis are discussed. PMID:26709907

  3. Transposable elements (TEs) contribute to stress-related long intergenic noncoding RNAs in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Qu, Zhipeng; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Qingzhu; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Do, Trung; Adelson, David L; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Searle, Iain; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2017-04-01

    Noncoding RNAs have been extensively described in plant and animal transcriptomes by using high-throughput sequencing technology. Of these noncoding RNAs, a growing number of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been described in multicellular organisms, however the origins and functions of many lincRNAs remain to be explored. In many eukaryotic genomes, transposable elements (TEs) are widely distributed and often account for large fractions of plant and animal genomes yet the contribution of TEs to lincRNAs is largely unknown. By using strand-specific RNA-sequencing, we profiled the expression patterns of lincRNAs in Arabidopsis, rice and maize, and identified 47 611 and 398 TE-associated lincRNAs (TE-lincRNAs), respectively. TE-lincRNAs were more often derived from retrotransposons than DNA transposons and as retrotransposon copy number in both rice and maize genomes so did TE-lincRNAs. We validated the expression of these TE-lincRNAs by strand-specific RT-PCR and also demonstrated tissue-specific transcription and stress-induced TE-lincRNAs either after salt, abscisic acid (ABA) or cold treatments. For Arabidopsis TE-lincRNA11195, mutants had reduced sensitivity to ABA as demonstrated by longer roots and higher shoot biomass when compared to wild-type. Finally, by altering the chromatin state in the Arabidopsis chromatin remodelling mutant ddm1, unique lincRNAs including TE-lincRNAs were generated from the preceding untranscribed regions and interestingly inherited in a wild-type background in subsequent generations. Our findings not only demonstrate that TE-associated lincRNAs play important roles in plant abiotic stress responses but lincRNAs and TE-lincRNAs might act as an adaptive reservoir in eukaryotes. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reptiles and mammals have differentially retained long conserved noncoding sequences from the amniote ancestor.

    PubMed

    Janes, D E; Chapus, C; Gondo, Y; Clayton, D F; Sinha, S; Blatti, C A; Organ, C L; Fujita, M K; Balakrishnan, C N; Edwards, S V

    2011-01-01

    Many noncoding regions of genomes appear to be essential to genome function. Conservation of large numbers of noncoding sequences has been reported repeatedly among mammals but not thus far among birds and reptiles. By searching genomes of chicken (Gallus gallus), zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), and green anole (Anolis carolinensis), we quantified the conservation among birds and reptiles and across amniotes of long, conserved noncoding sequences (LCNS), which we define as sequences ≥500 bp in length and exhibiting ≥95% similarity between species. We found 4,294 LCNS shared between chicken and zebra finch and 574 LCNS shared by the two birds and Anolis. The percent of genomes comprised by LCNS in the two birds (0.0024%) is notably higher than the percent in mammals (<0.0003% to <0.001%), differences that we show may be explained in part by differences in genome-wide substitution rates. We reconstruct a large number of LCNS for the amniote ancestor (ca. 8,630) and hypothesize differential loss and substantial turnover of these sites in descendent lineages. By contrast, we estimated a small role for recruitment of LCNS via acquisition of novel functions over time. Across amniotes, LCNS are significantly enriched with transcription factor binding sites for many developmental genes, and 2.9% of LCNS shared between the two birds show evidence of expression in brain expressed sequence tag databases. These results show that the rate of retention of LCNS from the amniote ancestor differs between mammals and Reptilia (including birds) and that this may reflect differing roles and constraints in gene regulation.

  5. Reptiles and Mammals Have Differentially Retained Long Conserved Noncoding Sequences from the Amniote Ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Janes, D.E.; Chapus, C.; Gondo, Y.; Clayton, D.F.; Sinha, S.; Blatti, C.A.; Organ, C.L.; Fujita, M.K.; Balakrishnan, C.N.; Edwards, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Many noncoding regions of genomes appear to be essential to genome function. Conservation of large numbers of noncoding sequences has been reported repeatedly among mammals but not thus far among birds and reptiles. By searching genomes of chicken (Gallus gallus), zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), and green anole (Anolis carolinensis), we quantified the conservation among birds and reptiles and across amniotes of long, conserved noncoding sequences (LCNS), which we define as sequences ≥500 bp in length and exhibiting ≥95% similarity between species. We found 4,294 LCNS shared between chicken and zebra finch and 574 LCNS shared by the two birds and Anolis. The percent of genomes comprised by LCNS in the two birds (0.0024%) is notably higher than the percent in mammals (<0.0003% to <0.001%), differences that we show may be explained in part by differences in genome-wide substitution rates. We reconstruct a large number of LCNS for the amniote ancestor (ca. 8,630) and hypothesize differential loss and substantial turnover of these sites in descendent lineages. By contrast, we estimated a small role for recruitment of LCNS via acquisition of novel functions over time. Across amniotes, LCNS are significantly enriched with transcription factor binding sites for many developmental genes, and 2.9% of LCNS shared between the two birds show evidence of expression in brain expressed sequence tag databases. These results show that the rate of retention of LCNS from the amniote ancestor differs between mammals and Reptilia (including birds) and that this may reflect differing roles and constraints in gene regulation. PMID:21183607

  6. Trichodesmium genome maintains abundant, widespread noncoding DNA in situ, despite oligotrophic lifestyle

    DOE PAGES

    Walworth, Nathan G.; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Nelson, William C.; ...

    2015-04-07

    Understanding the evolution of the free-living, cyanobacterial, diazotroph Trichodesmium is of great importance due to its critical role in oceanic biogeochemistry and primary production. Unlike the other >150 available genomes of free-living cyanobacteria, only 63.8% of the Trichodesmium erythraeum (strain IMS101) genome is predicted to encode protein, which is 20-25% less than the average for other cyanobacteria and non-pathogenic, free-living bacteria. We use distinctive isolates and metagenomic data to show that low coding density observed in IMS101 is a common feature of the Trichodesmium genus both in culture and in situ. Transcriptome analysis indicates that 86% of the non-coding spacemore » is expressed, although the function of these transcripts is unclear. The density of noncoding, possible regulatory elements predicted in Trichodesmium, when normalized per intergenic kilobase, was comparable and two fold higher than that found in the gene dense genomes of the sympatric cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, respectively. Conserved Trichodesmium ncRNA secondary structures were predicted between most culture and metagenomic sequences lending support to the structural conservation. Conservation of these intergenic regions in spatiotemporally separated Trichodesmium populations suggests possible genus-wide selection for their maintenance. These large intergenic spacers may have developed during intervals of strong genetic drift caused by periodic blooms of a subset of genotypes, which may have reduced effective population size. Our data suggest that transposition of selfish DNA, low effective population size, and high fidelity replication allowed the unusual ‘inflation’ of noncoding sequence observed in Trichodesmium despite its oligotrophic lifestyle.« less

  7. [Long non-coding RNAs in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Novak, Jan; Vašků, Julie Bienertová; Souček, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    The human genome contains about 22 000 protein-coding genes that are transcribed to an even larger amount of messenger RNAs (mRNA). Interestingly, the results of the project ENCODE from 2012 show, that despite up to 90 % of our genome being actively transcribed, protein-coding mRNAs make up only 2-3 % of the total amount of the transcribed RNA. The rest of RNA transcripts is not translated to proteins and that is why they are referred to as "non-coding RNAs". Earlier the non-coding RNA was considered "the dark matter of genome", or "the junk", whose genes has accumulated in our DNA during the course of evolution. Today we already know that non-coding RNAs fulfil a variety of regulatory functions in our body - they intervene into epigenetic processes from chromatin remodelling to histone methylation, or into the transcription process itself, or even post-transcription processes. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) are one of the classes of non-coding RNAs that have more than 200 nucleotides in length (non-coding RNAs with less than 200 nucleotides in length are called small non-coding RNAs). lncRNAs represent a widely varied and large group of molecules with diverse regulatory functions. We can identify them in all thinkable cell types or tissues, or even in an extracellular space, which includes blood, specifically plasma. Their levels change during the course of organogenesis, they are specific to different tissues and their changes also occur along with the development of different illnesses, including atherosclerosis. This review article aims to present lncRNAs problematics in general and then focuses on some of their specific representatives in relation to the process of atherosclerosis (i.e. we describe lncRNA involvement in the biology of endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells or immune cells), and we further describe possible clinical potential of lncRNA, whether in diagnostics or therapy of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations.Key words

  8. Supernumerary Teeth in the Maxillary Anterior Region: The Dilemma of Early Versus Late Surgical Intervention.

    PubMed

    Sarne, Ofer; Shapira, Yehoshua; Blumer, Sigalit; Finkelstein, Tamar; Schonberger, Shirley; Bechor, Naomi; Shpack, Nir

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomalies in the maxillary anterior region causing interference to the developing permanent incisors resulting in poor dental and facial esthetics. Two different opinions regarding the timing for surgical removal of the supernumerary teeth are presented. In this case report, three brothers with supernumerary teeth in the maxillary anterior region are presented, their surgical and orthodontic management and outcome are discussed.

  9. Effect of the regional environment on the skin properties and the early wrinkles in young Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Han, J Y; Lee, H K; He, Q Q; Cho, J C; Wei, L; Wang, X; Li, L; Wei, L; Liang, H; Gao, X; Kim, B J; Nam, G W

    2014-11-01

    There are ethnic differences in the skin characteristics, also the skin is susceptible to be influenced by the external environment such as UV radiation and the climates. It can be shown that the skin in same race or twins varies by the environment. This study was designed to investigate the skin characteristics and the early wrinkles of young Chinese women from four different regions, and to identify the correlation among the wrinkles, the other skin characteristics, and environmental conditions. A total of 441 healthy Chinese women aged between 20 and 35 years participated in the study: 110 from Beijing, 110 from Shanghai, 111 from Wuhan, and 110 from Guangzhou. The skin hydration, sebum contents, TEWL, pH, elasticity, and wrinkles were measured on the crow's feet area. There were regional differences in the skin characteristics and the wrinkles. Beijing women had dry skin and more wrinkles, but Guangzhou women had high sebum contents, low pH, and less wrinkles (P < 0.01). Shanghai women's TEWL and Wuhan's women's skin elasticity were higher compared with that of women from other regions. The wrinkles' form (area, depth, and length) was different from region to region. Beijing women's wrinkles were deep and large, but Guangzhou women's wrinkles were shallow and small. The skin physical parameters that influenced the wrinkles were low sebum content and hydration, high TEWL, and pH (P < 0.05). In the Chinese women aged 20-35 years, the skin was influenced by the climates, so they had regionally a different skin. The skin hydration, sebum contents, TEWL, and pH can affect the early wrinkle formation than skin elasticity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An inter-decadal increase in summer sea level pressure over the Mongolian region around the early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Li, Xiuzhen; Chen, Ruidan

    2018-05-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon is affected by processes in the mid-high latitudes in addition to various tropical and subtropical systems. The present study investigates the summer sea level pressure (SLP) variability over northern East Asia (NEA) and emphasizes the closed active center over the Mongolian region. It is found that the seasonal mean Mongolian SLP (MSLP) anomaly is closely connected with the variability of summertime regional synoptic extra-tropical cyclones on longer time scales. A significant inter-decadal increase in the MSLP around the early 1990s has been detected, which is accompanied by a weakening in the activity of regional extra-tropical cyclones. Recent warming over NEA may have a contribution to the inter-decadal change, which features evidently meridional inhomogeneity around 45°N. The inhomogeneous air temperature anomaly distribution results in decreased vertical wind shear, reduced atmospheric baroclinicity over the Mongolian region, and thus inactive regional cyclones and increased MSLP in the latter decade. The associated temperature anomaly distribution may be partly attributed to regional inhomogeneity in cloud and radiation anomalies, and it is further maintained by two positive feedback mechanisms associated with atmospheric internal processes: one via adiabatic heating and the other via horizontal temperature advection.

  11. The Long Noncoding RNA Transcriptome of Dictyostelium discoideum Development.

    PubMed

    Rosengarten, Rafael D; Santhanam, Balaji; Kokosar, Janez; Shaulsky, Gad

    2017-02-09

    Dictyostelium discoideum live in the soil as single cells, engulfing bacteria and growing vegetatively. Upon starvation, tens of thousands of amoebae enter a developmental program that includes aggregation, multicellular differentiation, and sporulation. Major shifts across the protein-coding transcriptome accompany these developmental changes. However, no study has presented a global survey of long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in D. discoideum To characterize the antisense and long intergenic noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcriptome, we analyzed previously published developmental time course samples using an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) library preparation method that selectively depletes ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). We detected the accumulation of transcripts for 9833 protein-coding messenger RNAs (mRNAs), 621 lncRNAs, and 162 putative antisense RNAs (asRNAs). The noncoding RNAs were interspersed throughout the genome, and were distinct in expression level, length, and nucleotide composition. The noncoding transcriptome displayed a temporal profile similar to the coding transcriptome, with stages of gradual change interspersed with larger leaps. The transcription profiles of some noncoding RNAs were strongly correlated with known differentially expressed coding RNAs, hinting at a functional role for these molecules during development. Examining the mitochondrial transcriptome, we modeled two novel antisense transcripts. We applied yet another ribosomal depletion method to a subset of the samples to better retain transfer RNA (tRNA) transcripts. We observed polymorphisms in tRNA anticodons that suggested a post-transcriptional means by which D. discoideum compensates for codons missing in the genomic complement of tRNAs. We concluded that the prevalence and characteristics of long ncRNAs indicate that these molecules are relevant to the progression of molecular and cellular phenotypes during development. Copyright © 2017 Rosengarten et al.

  12. A 5′ Noncoding Exon Containing Engineered Intron Enhances Transgene Expression from Recombinant AAV Vectors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiamiao; Williams, James A.; Luke, Jeremy; Zhang, Feijie; Chu, Kirk; Kay, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a mini-intronic plasmid (MIP) expression system in which the essential bacterial elements for plasmid replication and selection are placed within an engineered intron contained within a universal 5′ UTR noncoding exon. Like minicircle DNA plasmids (devoid of bacterial backbone sequences), MIP plasmids overcome transcriptional silencing of the transgene. However, in addition MIP plasmids increase transgene expression by 2 and often >10 times higher than minicircle vectors in vivo and in vitro. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of the MIP intronic sequences in a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector system. Recombinant AAV vectors containing an intron with a bacterial replication origin and bacterial selectable marker increased transgene expression by 40 to 100 times in vivo when compared with conventional AAV vectors. Therefore, inclusion of this noncoding exon/intron sequence upstream of the coding region can substantially enhance AAV-mediated gene expression in vivo. PMID:27903072

  13. Detection of non-coding RNA in bacteria and archaea using the DETR'PROK Galaxy pipeline.

    PubMed

    Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Luo, Yufei; Kuchly, Claire; Wallon, Claire; Steinbach, Delphine; Zytnicki, Matthias; Jacq, Annick; Gautheret, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    RNA-seq experiments are now routinely used for the large scale sequencing of transcripts. In bacteria or archaea, such deep sequencing experiments typically produce 10-50 million fragments that cover most of the genome, including intergenic regions. In this context, the precise delineation of the non-coding elements is challenging. Non-coding elements include untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs, independent small RNA genes (sRNAs) and transcripts produced from the antisense strand of genes (asRNA). Here we present a computational pipeline (DETR'PROK: detection of ncRNAs in prokaryotes) based on the Galaxy framework that takes as input a mapping of deep sequencing reads and performs successive steps of clustering, comparison with existing annotation and identification of transcribed non-coding fragments classified into putative 5' UTRs, sRNAs and asRNAs. We provide a step-by-step description of the protocol using real-life example data sets from Vibrio splendidus and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early volcanological research in the Vulkaneifel, Germany, the classic region of maar-diatreme volcanoes: the years 1774-1865

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Herbert; Lorenz, Volker

    2013-08-01

    The Vulkaneifel (Volcanic West Eifel) in the western part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains, Germany, played a major role in the early history of volcanology in general and especially so with respect to the recognition and volcanology of maar-diatreme volcanoes. In 1819, the volcano term "maar" was introduced into the scientific literature by Johann Steininger, a teacher from Trier (Treves) who established the Vulkaneifel as the type region for this kind of volcano. At that time, only a few pioneers—in the earliest days practically all of them were amateurs—had visited this part of western Central Europe in the late eighteenth and earliest nineteenth century. Despite many making important contributions to knowledge of volcanoes, not all were appreciated. In consequence, only in the second half of the twentieth century did new ideas and concepts concerning volcanism in general and phreatomagmatic activity in particular arise that were not previously presented by these pioneers. Their pathbreaking ideas have so far been mostly ignored, we feel, because of the old literature's limited availability. This paper tries to shed new light on these trailblazers. A selection of early geological maps of the Vulkaneifel and its neighbouring regions demonstrates the enormous advancements that had been achieved during those early days, to a large extent, in this part of Western Europe.

  15. Early embryonic development of the head region of Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 (Orthoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Maas, Andreas; Waloszek, Dieter

    2010-09-01

    We report our investigations on the embryonic development of Gryllus assimilis, with particular attention to the head. Significant findings revealed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images include: (1) the pre-antennal lobes represent the anterior-most segment that does not bear any appendages; (2) each of the lobes consists of central and marginal regions; (3) the central region thereof develops into the protocerebrum and the optic lobes, whereas the marginal region thereof becomes the anterior portion of the head capsule; (4) the initial position of the antennal segment is posterior to the mouth region; (5) appendage anlagen are transitorily present in the intercalary segment, and they later vanish together with the segment itself; (6) a bulged sternum appears to develop from the ventral surface of the mandibular, maxillary and labial segments. Embryonic features are then compared across the Insecta and further extended to the embryos of a spider (Araneae, Chelicerata). Striking similarities shared by the anterior-most region of the insect and spider embryos lead the authors to conclude that such comparison should be further undertaken to cover the entire Euarthropoda. This will help us to understand the embryology and evolution of the arthropod head. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in soil records of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological research is fundamental in the process of obtaining a greater understanding on the intricate dynamics between the human species and the 'natural' environment. Deep historical processes can evaluate the complex interactions that eventually led to the human species as the dominating agent, in terms of the Earth's biotic and abiotic processes. Regional landscape studies can determine whether the human species can be evaluated as a formative element in soil formation processes during the Holocene. This study is directed to examine early anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, in the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium, between the Late Bronze Age and Early Roman Period (1050-200 AD). The introduction of an extensive agricultural system, the Celtic field system, in co-relation with demographic rise, led to increased anthropogenic pressure on the MDS landscape. Throughout the Holocene, demographic rise pressured farmers to develop increasingly efficient and innovative methods of extracting more yields per unit area farmed resulting in a decrease in land use per capita over time (Kaplan et al. 2010; Boserup, 1965,1981)). The land use per capita under Celtic field technology was relatively high compared to contemporary numbers, based on the assumption that land use per capita did not remain constant. The MDS region is a clear example of early Holocene ALCC and modification of terrestrial ecosystems due to excessive clearance of vegetation. Early Holocene ALCC resulted in ecological deficiencies in the landscape, e.g. deforestation, acceleration of podzolisation and a decrease in terrestrial carbon storage as well as water retention capacity. ALCC can impact climate through biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to the atmosphere, and result in regional negative radiative forcing. Here we hypothesize that the previously presumed fundamental restructuring that led to a structural bipartition in the landscape due to

  17. Natural Selection and Functional Potentials of Human Noncoding Elements Revealed by Analysis of Next Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Noncoding DNA sequences (NCS) have attracted much attention recently due to their functional potentials. Here we attempted to reveal the functional roles of noncoding sequences from the point of view of natural selection that typically indicates the functional potentials of certain genomic elements. We analyzed nearly 37 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Phase I data of the 1000 Genomes Project. We estimated a series of key parameters of population genetics and molecular evolution to characterize sequence variations of the noncoding genome within and between populations, and identified the natural selection footprints in NCS in worldwide human populations. Our results showed that purifying selection is prevalent and there is substantial constraint of variations in NCS, while positive selectionis more likely to be specific to some particular genomic regions and regional populations. Intriguingly, we observed larger fraction of non-conserved NCS variants with lower derived allele frequency in the genome, indicating possible functional gain of non-conserved NCS. Notably, NCS elements are enriched for potentially functional markers such as eQTLs, TF motif, and DNase I footprints in the genome. More interestingly, some NCS variants associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Type 1 diabetes, and immune-related bowel disorder (IBD) showed signatures of positive selection, although the majority of NCS variants, reported as risk alleles by genome-wide association studies, showed signatures of negative selection. Our analyses provided compelling evidence of natural selection forces on noncoding sequences in the human genome and advanced our understanding of their functional potentials that play important roles in disease etiology and human evolution. PMID:26053627

  18. Properties of compact HII regions and their host clumps in the inner vs outer Galaxy - early results from SASSy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Julie; Thompson, Mark; Urquhart, James S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of compact and ultracompact HII regions for all Galactocentric radii. Previous catalogs focus on the inner Galaxy (Rgal ≤ 8 kpc) but the recent SASSy 870 µm survey allows us to identify regions out to ~20 kpc. Early samples are also filled with false classifications leading to uncertainty when deriving star formation efficiencies in Galactic models. These objects have similar mid-IR colours to HII regions. Urquhart et al. (2013) found that they could use mid-IR, submm, and radio data to identify the genuine compact HII regions, avoiding confusion. They used this method on a small portion of the Galaxy (10 < l < 60), identifying 213 HII regions embedded in 170 clumps. We use ATLASGAL and SASSy, crossmatched with RMS, to sample the remaining galactic longitudes out to Rgal = 20 kpc. We derive the properties of the identified compact HII regions and their host clumps while addressing the implications for recent massive star formation in the outer Galaxy. Observations towards nearby galaxies are biased towards massive stars, affecting simulations and overestimating models for galactic evolution and star formation rates. The Milky Way provides the ideal template for studying factors affecting massive star formation rates and efficiencies at high resolution, thus fine-tuning those models. We find that there is no significant change in the rate of massive star formation in the outer vs inner Galaxy. Despite some peaks in known complexes and possible correlation with spiral arms, the outer Galaxy appears to produce massive stars as efficiently as the inner regions. However, many of the potential star forming SASSy clumps have no available radio counterpart to confirm the presence of an HII region or other star formation tracer. Follow-up observations will be required to verify this conclusion and are currently in progress.

  19. Early Sex Identification in Date Palm by Male-Specific Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) Markers.

    PubMed

    Kharb, Pushpa; Mitra, Charu

    2017-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a dioecious plant, and sex of the seedlings can be determined only at the time of first flowering which takes 4-5 years. Female date palm plants are of economic importance as they bear the fruit. Therefore, sex identification at an early stage is highly desirable. DNA-based markers are useful for early sex detection. In this chapter, we describe male-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers to identify sex in date palm at the seedling stage. Genomic DNA is isolated separately from both male and female date palm genotypes. Amplification of this genomic DNA isolated from male and female plants using the SCAR primers results in an amplicon of 406 bp in both female and male samples and a unique amplicon of 354 bp only in male samples. Based on this amplification pattern, the sex of date palm seedlings can be predicted.

  20. The lower Triassic microbiolites in Chaohu region, East China and their contribution to the early Triassic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhihai; Zhang, Liwei; Hong, Tianqiu

    2010-05-01

    The lower Triassic is well preserved in Chaohu Region, Anhui Province, East China. It can be divided into Yinkeng Formation (80 meters thick, was formed during the Indian and early Smitian), Helongshan Formation (21 meters thick, was formed during the end Smithian) and Nanlinghu Formation (more than 157 meters thick, was formed during the Spathian) from bottom to top. It is mainly composed of carbonatites such as micrite limestones and nodular limestones, as well as shales and calcareous marls. The lower Triassic in this area has been well researched for more than a decade, and many fossils such as ammonites, bivalves, fishes, ichthyosaurus, conodonts, and ichnofossils have been found, but the microbiolites have been neglected. Microbiolites were mainly outcropped in the Helongshan Formaiton and the lower Nanlinghu Formation. In the lower Helongshan Formaiton, tens microbial mat layers and thin bedded calcareous marl layers formed cyclothems which have been named as nodular limstones. The thin-section observation of the microbial mats indicate that many films and thin-shell bivalve fragments deposited almost horizontally. In the upper Helongshan Formaiton, six microstromatolite bioherm layers were outcropped in the thin bedded calcareous marl layers. The diameter of the stromatolite column is about 2 millimeters, the bioherms are lenticular and no more than 3 centimeters thick in the central, their diameters change from 5 centimeters to 30 centimeters, calcareous marls were deposited around the bioherms, and many ammonoids, bivalves and burrows were found in such layers. The microfacies differentiation of the stromatolites such as the basement, reef core and the capping beds can be recognised clearly in thin sections. Several microstromatolite layers were outcropped in the micritic limestones with a stable thickness of 15 millimeters in the lower Nanlinghu Formation and the stromatolite column look like the ones in the Helongshan Formation. Few microbiolites have

  1. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  2. HNK-1 immunoreactivity during early morphogenesis of the head region in a nonmodel vertebrate, crocodile embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The present study examines HNK-1 immunoidentification of a population of the neural crest (NC) during early head morphogenesis in the nonmodel vertebrate, the crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus) embryos. Although HNK-1 is not an exclusive NC marker among vertebrates, temporospatial immunoreactive patterns found in the crocodile are almost consistent with NC patterns derived from gene expression studies known in birds (the closest living relatives of crocodiles) and mammals. In contrast to birds, the HNK-1 epitope is immunoreactive in NC cells at the neural fold level in crocodile embryos and therefore provides sufficient base to assess early migratory events of the cephalic NC. I found that crocodile NC forms three classic migratory pathways in the head: mandibular, hyoid, and branchial. Further, I demonstrate that, besides this classic phenotype, there is also a forebrain-derived migratory population, which consolidates into a premandibular stream in the crocodile. In contrast to the closely related chick model, crocodilian premandibular and mandibular NC cells arise from the open neural tube suggesting that species-specific heterochronic behavior of NC may be involved in the formation of different vertebrate facial phenotypes.

  3. A Report On Eight Early-Stage State And Regional Projects Testing Value-Based Payment

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas; Grembowski, David; Gibbons, Claire; Marcus-Smith, Miriam; Hernandez, Susan E.; Chang, Judy; Renz, Anne; Lau, Bernard; Cruz, Erin dela

    2014-01-01

    To help contain health care spending and improve the quality of care, practitioners and policy makers are trying to move away from fee-for-service toward value-based payment, which links providers’ reimbursement to the value, rather than the volume, of services delivered. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, eight grantees across the country are designing and implementing value-based payment reform projects. For example, in Salem, Oregon, the Physicians Choice Foundation is testing “Program Oriented Payments,” which include incentives for providers who follow a condition-specific program of care designed to meet goals set jointly by patient and provider. In this article we describe the funding rationale and the specific objectives, strategies, progress, and early stages of implementation of the eight projects. We also share some early lessons and identify prerequisites for success, such as ensuring that providers have broad and timely access to data so they can meet patients’ needs in cost-effective ways. PMID:23650332

  4. TMS uncovers details about sub-regional language-specific processing networks in early bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Sini; Mäkelä, Niko; Sairanen, Viljami; Lehtonen, Minna; Kujala, Teija; Leminen, Alina

    2018-05-01

    Despite numerous functional neuroimaging and intraoperative electrical cortical mapping studies aimed at investigating the cortical organisation of native (L1) and second (L2) language processing, the neural underpinnings of bilingualism remain elusive. We investigated whether the neural network engaged in speech production over the bilateral posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is the same (i.e., shared) or different (i.e., language-specific) for the two languages of bilingual speakers. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the left and right posterior inferior gyrus (pIFG), while early simultaneous bilinguals performed a picture naming task with their native languages. An ex-Gaussian distribution was fitted to the naming latencies and the resulting parameters were compared between languages and across stimulation conditions. The results showed that although the naming performance in general was highly comparable between the languages, TMS produced a language-specific effect when the pulses were delivered to the left pIFG at 200 ms poststimulus. We argue that this result causally demonstrates, for the first time, that even within common language-processing areas, there are distinct language-specific neural populations for the different languages in early simultaneous bilinguals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long Noncoding RNA LINC00958 Accelerates Gliomagenesis Through Regulating miR-203/CDK2.

    PubMed

    Guo, Erkun; Liang, Chaohui; He, Xin; Song, Guozhi; Liu, Hongjiang; Lv, Zhongqiang; Guan, Jianchao; Yang, Dezhen; Zheng, Jiapeng

    2018-05-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in various biological processes, including glioma. However, the underlying mechanism of lncRNAs in gliomagenesis is still ambiguous. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of long intergenic noncoding RNA 00958 (LINC00958) in the tumorigenesis of glioma. Results revealed that LINC00958 was significantly upregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines compared with that of adjacent normal brain tissues and normal human astrocytes. Moreover, the ectopic overexpression of LINC00958 was correlated with poor prognosis of glioma patients. Loss-of-function experiments indicated that LINC00958 knockdown suppressed glioma cell proliferation, invasion, and induced cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Bioinformatics programs and luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-203 shared complementary binding sites with both 3'-untranslated region of LINC00958 and CDK2. In summary, our study concludes that LINC00958 acts as an oncogenic gene in the gliomagenesis through miR-203-CDK2 regulation, providing a novel insight into glioma tumorigenesis.

  6. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that long noncoding RNA is involved in the hypoxic response in Larimichthys crocea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wu, Changwen; Jiang, Lihua

    2018-06-15

    The large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) has low hypoxia tolerance compared with other fish species, and the mRNA levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in its brain do not change markedly under hypoxic conditions. In this study, we investigated noncoding transcription in the hypoxic response mechanism of L. crocea. We generated a catalog of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) from the brain of L. crocea individuals under hypoxic stress, investigated lncRNA expression patterns, and analyzed the HIF signaling pathway by RNA sequencing. Prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) expression significantly increased after 6 and 12 h of hypoxia, and a lncRNA (Linc_06633.1) was found in the upstream, antisense region of PHD2. Linc_06633.1 may be an important regulator that promotes PDH2 expression under hypoxia in L. crocea, and we constructed a regulatory profile of L. crocea under hypoxic conditions. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study that has been conducted on hypoxia signaling pathway regulation by lncRNAs in L. crocea and elucidates the role played by lncRNAs in the regulation of the hypoxia stress response in teleost fish.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Small Noncoding RNAs in Genome Sequences of the Edible Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengran; Hsiang, Tom; Feng, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been identified in many fungi. However, no genome-scale identification of ncRNAs has been inventoried for basidiomycetes. In this research, we detected 254 small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in a genome assembly of an isolate (CCEF00389) of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is a widely cultivated edible basidiomycetous fungus worldwide. The identified sncRNAs include snRNAs, snoRNAs, tRNAs, and miRNAs. SnRNA U1 was not found in CCEF00389 genome assembly and some other basidiomycetous genomes by BLASTn. This implies that if snRNA U1 of basidiomycetes exists, it has a sequence that varies significantly from other organisms. By analyzing the distribution of sncRNA loci, we found that snRNAs and most tRNAs (88.6%) were located in pseudo-UTR regions, while miRNAs are commonly found in introns. To analyze the evolutionary conservation of the sncRNAs in P. ostreatus, we aligned all 254 sncRNAs to the genome assemblies of some other Agaricomycotina fungi. The results suggest that most sncRNAs (77.56%) were highly conserved in P. ostreatus, and 20% were conserved in Agaricomycotina fungi. These findings indicate that most sncRNAs of P. ostreatus were not conserved across Agaricomycotina fungi. PMID:27703969

  8. Structural architecture of the human long non-coding RNA, steroid receptor RNA activator

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Irina V.; Hennelly, Scott P.; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.

    2012-01-01

    While functional roles of several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been determined, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report the first experimentally derived secondary structure of a human lncRNA, the steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA), 0.87 kB in size. The SRA RNA is a non-coding RNA that coactivates several human sex hormone receptors and is strongly associated with breast cancer. Coding isoforms of SRA are also expressed to produce proteins, making the SRA gene a unique bifunctional system. Our experimental findings (SHAPE, in-line, DMS and RNase V1 probing) reveal that this lncRNA has a complex structural organization, consisting of four domains, with a variety of secondary structure elements. We examine the coevolution of the SRA gene at the RNA structure and protein structure levels using comparative sequence analysis across vertebrates. Rapid evolutionary stabilization of RNA structure, combined with frame-disrupting mutations in conserved regions, suggests that evolutionary pressure preserves the RNA structural core rather than its translational product. We perform similar experiments on alternatively spliced SRA isoforms to assess their structural features. PMID:22362738

  9. Identification and role of regulatory non-coding RNAs in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Izar, Benjamin; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Hain, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial regulatory non-coding RNAs control numerous mRNA targets that direct a plethora of biological processes, such as the adaption to environmental changes, growth and virulence. Recently developed high-throughput techniques, such as genomic tiling arrays and RNA-Seq have allowed investigating prokaryotic cis- and trans-acting regulatory RNAs, including sRNAs, asRNAs, untranslated regions (UTR) and riboswitches. As a result, we obtained a more comprehensive view on the complexity and plasticity of the prokaryotic genome biology. Listeria monocytogenes was utilized as a model system for intracellular pathogenic bacteria in several studies, which revealed the presence of about 180 regulatory RNAs in the listerial genome. A regulatory role of non-coding RNAs in survival, virulence and adaptation mechanisms of L. monocytogenes was confirmed in subsequent experiments, thus, providing insight into a multifaceted modulatory function of RNA/mRNA interference. In this review, we discuss the identification of regulatory RNAs by high-throughput techniques and in their functional role in L. monocytogenes.

  10. A-to-I editing of coding and non-coding RNAs by ADARs

    PubMed Central

    Nishikura, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA. This A-to-I editing occurs not only in protein-coding regions of mRNAs, but also frequently in non-coding regions that contain inverted Alu repeats. Editing of coding sequences can result in the expression of functionally altered proteins that are not encoded in the genome, whereas the significance of Alu editing remains largely unknown. Certain microRNA (miRNA) precursors are also edited, leading to reduced expression or altered function of mature miRNAs. Conversely, recent studies indicate that ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote miRNA processing, revealing a new function of ADAR1 in the regulation of RNA interference. PMID:26648264

  11. Regional white matter development in very preterm infants: perinatal predictors and early developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Smyser, Tara; Smyser, Christopher D; Shimony, Joshua; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for white matter (WM) injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Serial diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from very preterm infants (N = 78) born <30 wk gestation imaged up to four times from 26-42 wk postmenstrual age. Slopes were calculated for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within regions of interest for infants with ≥2 scans (N = 50). Sixty-five children underwent neurodevelopmental testing at 2 y of age. FA slope for the posterior limb of the internal capsule was greater than other regions. The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), corpus callosum, and optic radiations demonstrated greater FA slope with increasing gestational age. Infants with patent ductus arteriosus had lower FA slope in the ALIC. MD slope was lower with prolonged ventilation or lack of antenatal steroids. At 2 y of age, lower motor scores were associated with lower FA in the left but higher FA in the right inferior temporal lobe at term-equivalent age. Better social-emotional competence was related to lower FA in the left cingulum bundle. This study demonstrates regional variability in the susceptibility/sensitivity of WM maturation to perinatal factors and relationships between altered diffusion measures and developmental outcomes in preterm neonates.

  12. Characterization of Cer-1 cis-regulatory region during early Xenopus development.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Cristina; Filipe, Mário; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Belo, José António

    2011-05-01

    Cerberus-related molecules are well-known Wnt, Nodal, and BMP inhibitors that have been implicated in different processes including anterior–posterior patterning and left–right asymmetry. In both mouse and frog, two Cerberus-related genes have been isolated, mCer-1 and mCer-2, and Xcer and Xcoco, respectively. Until now, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their transcriptional regulation. Here, we report a heterologous analysis of the mouse Cerberus-1 gene upstream regulatory regions, responsible for its expression in the visceral endodermal cells. Our analysis showed that the consensus sequences for a TATA, CAAT, or GC boxes were absent but a TGTGG sequence was present at position -172 to -168 bp, relative to the ATG. Using a series of deletion constructs and transient expression in Xenopus embryos, we found that a fragment of 1.4 kb of Cer-1 promoter sequence could reproduce the endogenous expression pattern of Xenopus cerberus. A 0.7-kb mcer-1 upstream region was able to drive reporter expression to the involuting mesendodermal cells, while further deletions abolished reporter gene expression. Our results suggest that although no sequence similarity was found between mouse and Xenopus cerberus cis-regulatory regions, the signaling cascades regulating cerberus expression, during gastrulation, is conserved.

  13. Punctuated Sediment Discharge during Early Pliocene Birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from Regional Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O'Connell, Brennan; McDougall, Kristin; Homan, Mindy B.

    2018-01-01

    The Colorado River in the southwestern U.S. provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the origins of a continent-scale river system, because deposits that formed prior to and during river initiation are well exposed in the lower river valley and nearby basinal sink. This paper presents a synthesis of regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and micropaleontology from the southern Bouse Formation and similar-age deposits in the western Salton Trough, which we use to interpret processes that controlled the birth and early evolution of the Colorado River. The southern Bouse Formation is divided into three laterally persistent members: basal carbonate, siliciclastic, and upper bioclastic members. Basal carbonate accumulated in a tide-dominated marine embayment during a rise of relative sea level between 6.3 and 5.4 Ma, prior to arrival of the Colorado River. The transition to green claystone records initial rapid influx of river water and its distal clay wash load into the subtidal marine embayment at 5.4-5.3 Ma. This was followed by rapid southward progradation of the Colorado River delta, establishment of the earliest through-flowing river, and deposition of river-derived turbidites in the western Salton Trough (Wind Caves paleocanyon) between 5.3 and 5.1 Ma. Early delta progradation was followed by regional shut-down of river sand output between 5.1 and 4.8 Ma that resulted in deposition of marine clay in the Salton Trough, retreat of the delta, and re-flooding of the lower river valley by shallow marine water that deposited the Bouse upper bioclastic member. Resumption of sediment discharge at 4.8 Ma drove massive progradation of fluvial-deltaic deposits back down the river valley into the northern Gulf and Salton Trough. These results provide evidence for a discontinuous, start-stop-start history of sand output during initiation of the Colorado River that is not predicted by existing models for this system. The underlying controls on punctuated sediment

  14. Observations of high-plasma density region in the inner coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during early activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Paulsson, J. J. P.; Wedlund, C. Simon; Odelstad, E.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Koenders, C.; Eriksson, A. I.; Miloch, W. J.

    2016-11-01

    In 2014 September, as Rosetta transitioned to close bound orbits at 30 km from comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Langmuir probe (RPC-LAP) data showed large systematic fluctuations in both the spacecraft potential and the collected currents. We analyse the potential bias sweeps from RPC-LAP, from which we extract three sets of parameters: (1) knee potential, that we relate to the spacecraft potential, (2) the ion attraction current, which is composed of the photoelectron emission current from the probe as well as contributions from local ions, secondary emission, and low-energy electrons, and (3) an electron current whose variation is, in turn, an estimate of the electron density variation. We study the evolution of these parameters between 4 and 3.2 au in heliocentric and cometocentric frames. We find on September 9 a transition into a high-density plasma region characterized by increased knee potential fluctuations and plasma currents to the probe. In conjunction with previous studies, the early cometary plasma can be seen as composed of two regions: an outer region characterized by solar wind plasma, and small quantities of pick-up ions, and an inner region with enhanced plasma densities. This conclusion is in agreement with other RPC instruments such as RPC-MAG, RPC-IES and RPC-ICA, and numerical simulations.

  15. Automated conserved non-coding sequence (CNS) discovery reveals differences in gene content and promoter evolution among grasses

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Gina; Schnable, James C.; Pedersen, Brent; Freeling, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Conserved non-coding sequences (CNS) are islands of non-coding sequence that, like protein coding exons, show less divergence in sequence between related species than functionless DNA. Several CNSs have been demonstrated experimentally to function as cis-regulatory regions. However, the specific functions of most CNSs remain unknown. Previous searches for CNS in plants have either anchored on exons and only identified nearby sequences or required years of painstaking manual annotation. Here we present an open source tool that can accurately identify CNSs between any two related species with sequenced genomes, including both those immediately adjacent to exons and distal sequences separated by >12 kb of non-coding sequence. We have used this tool to characterize new motifs, associate CNSs with additional functions, and identify previously undetected genes encoding RNA and protein in the genomes of five grass species. We provide a list of 15,363 orthologous CNSs conserved across all grasses tested. We were also able to identify regulatory sequences present in the common ancestor of grasses that have been lost in one or more extant grass lineages. Lists of orthologous gene pairs and associated CNSs are provided for reference inbred lines of arabidopsis, Japonica rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, brachypodium, and maize. PMID:23874343

  16. Comparisons between Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster in relation to Coding and Noncoding Sequence Length and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Rachel; Lin, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Ren

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuing interest in the analysis of gene architecture and gene expression to determine the relationship that may exist. Advances in high-quality sequencing technologies and large-scale resource datasets have increased the understanding of relationships and cross-referencing of expression data to the large genome data. Although a negative correlation between expression level and gene (especially transcript) length has been generally accepted, there have been some conflicting results arising from the literature concerning the impacts of different regions of genes, and the underlying reason is not well understood. The research aims to apply quantile regression techniques for statistical analysis of coding and noncoding sequence length and gene expression data in the plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to determine if a relationship exists and if there is any variation or similarities between these species. The quantile regression analysis found that the coding sequence length and gene expression correlations varied, and similarities emerged for the noncoding sequence length (5′ and 3′ UTRs) between animal and plant species. In conclusion, the information described in this study provides the basis for further exploration into gene regulation with regard to coding and noncoding sequence length. PMID:26114098

  17. Climate change and early human land-use in a biodiversity hotspot, the Afromontane region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivory, S.; Russell, J. M.; Sax, D. F.; Early, R.

    2015-12-01

    African ecosystems are at great risk due to climate and land-use change. Paleo-records illustrate that changes in precipitation and temperature have led to dramatic alterations of African vegetation distribution over the Quaternary; however, despite the fact that the link between mankind and the environment has a longer history in the African tropics than anywhere else on earth, very little is known about pre-colonial land-use. Disentangling the influence of each is particularly critical in areas of exceptional biodiversity and endemism, such as the Afromontane forest region. This region is generally considered to be highly sensitive to temperature and thus at risk to future climate change. However, new evidence suggests that some high elevation species may have occupied warmer areas in the past and thus are not strongly limited by temperature and may be at greater risk from intensifying land-use. First, we use species distribution models constructed from modern and paleo-distributions of high elevation forests in order to evaluate differences in the climatic space occupied today compared to the past. We find that although modern Afromontane species ranges occupy very narrow climate conditions, and in particular that most species occur only in cold areas, in the past most species have tolerated warmer conditions. This suggests that many montane tree species are not currently limited by warm temperatures, and that the region has already seen significant reduction in the climate space occupied, possibly from Holocene land-use. Second, to evaluate human impacts on montane populations, we examine paleoecological records from lakes throughout sub-Saharan Africa that capture ecological processes at difference time scales to reconstruct Afromontane forest range changes. Over long time scales, we observe phases of forest expansion in the lowlands associated with climate variability alone where composition varies little from phase to phase but include both modern low and

  18. Secular trends in consultations for asthma in early childhood, the 16 administrative regions of Morocco, 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Sadeq, Mina; Abouqal, Redouane; ElMarnissi, Abdelilah

    2015-09-17

    Little is known about asthma trend in Morocco, particularly in early childhood. Furthermore, when dealing with asthma related environmental risk factors in Morocco, decision-making focus is in one region R9, while 16 regions make up the country. This work aims at studying 9-year trends in consultations for asthma in under-5 children in the 16 individual regions with respect to area and age group. Direct method use, based on the only available national data from the open access files of the ministry of health, standardizing data for three age groups (0-11 ; 12-23 and 24-59 months). We compared age-adjusted rates, stratified by area (urban and rural areas) within each region (Wilcoxon's signed ranks test), and between all regions emphasizing on R9. Secular trends are examined (Kendall's rank correlation test). We also compared directly standardized rates as a rate ratio for two study populations (that of R9 and any region with highest rates). We finally compared rates by age group in selected regions. Secular increase in prevalence rates was shown in both urban and rural Morocco, particularly in urban areas of R10, R14, R16 and R5, and in rural areas of R14 and R16. In urban area of R10 (the highest age-adjusted prevalence rates area) the rates showed secular increase from 6.82 at 95 % CI = [6.44 to 7.19] per 1000 childhood population in 2004 to 20.91 at 95 % CI = [20.26 to 21.56] per 1000 childhood population in 2012 (P = 0.001). Rates were higher in urban than rural Morocco, particularly in R8, R9, R10, R14, R15 ; R6 was an exception. Rates in R10 were 1.63 higher than that in R9 in 2004 and rose to be 2.55 higher in 2012 ; rates in urban area of R14, about 3 times lower than that in R9 in 2004, increased to be similar in 2012. The highest-prevalence age group varied according to region and area. The regions that worth decision making attention are the urban areas of R10 (the highest prevalence rates Moroccan area, showing continuous increase), of R9, of R14

  19. [Economic assessment of the routine use of Oncotype DX® assay for early breast cancer in Franche-Comte region].

    PubMed

    Nerich, Virginie; Curtit, Elsa; Bazan, Fernando; Montcuquet, Philippe; Villanueva, Cristian; Chaigneau, Loïc; Cals, Laurent; Méneveau, Nathalie; Dobi, Erion; Altmotlak, Hamadi; Algros, Marie-Paule; Choulot, Marie-Jeanne; Nallet, Gilles; Limat, Samuel; Mansion, Sylvie; Pivot, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Oncotype DX® has been validated as quantifying the likelihood of distant recurrence at 10 years and overall chemotherapy benefit in patients with estrogen-receptor-positive and HER-2-negative early breast cancer. In 2012, this genomic signature was routinely available for patients in Franche-Comté, France. Patients eligible for Oncotype DX(®) testing had a ER-positive, HER-2-négative early breast cancer with a nodal involvement limited to 0 or 1 positive-node without extracapsular spread; an adjuvant chemotherapy was indicated based on usual prognostic factors. The aim was to assess the economic impact of Oncotype DX(®) testing in a French region. A cost-minimisation analysis from the French Public Healthcare System perspective was performed. The availability of Oncotype DX(®) in Franche-Comté, France, and its use in clinical routine allowed a decrease of 73 % of adjuvant chemotherapy without increase of the cost of the patients' management and with a potential reduction of the cost for the French Public Healthcare System. This strategy was successful and may allow the reimbursement of this test in France for patients with early breast cancer.

  20. Paraspeckles: nuclear bodies built on long noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Paraspeckles are ribonucleoprotein bodies found in the interchromatin space of mammalian cell nuclei. These structures play a role in regulating the expression of certain genes in differentiated cells by nuclear retention of RNA. The core paraspeckle proteins (PSF/SFPQ, P54NRB/NONO, and PSPC1 [paraspeckle protein 1]) are members of the DBHS (Drosophila melanogaster behavior, human splicing) family. These proteins, together with the long nonprotein-coding RNA NEAT1 (MEN-ϵ/β), associate to form paraspeckles and maintain their integrity. Given the large numbers of long noncoding transcripts currently being discovered through whole transcriptome analysis, paraspeckles may be a paradigm for a class of subnuclear bodies formed around long noncoding RNA. PMID:19720872

  1. Long Non-Coding RNAs Regulating Immunity in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Satyavathi, Valluri; Ghosh, Rupam; Subramanian, Srividya

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in modern technology have led to the understanding that not all genetic information is coded into protein and that the genomes of each and every organism including insects produce non-coding RNAs that can control different biological processes. Among RNAs identified in the last decade, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a repertoire of a hidden layer of internal signals that can regulate gene expression in physiological, pathological, and immunological processes. Evidence shows the importance of lncRNAs in the regulation of host–pathogen interactions. In this review, an attempt has been made to view the role of lncRNAs regulating immune responses in insects. PMID:29657286

  2. Long non-coding RNAs in cancer metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhen-Dong; Zhuang, Li; Gan, Boyi

    2016-10-01

    Altered cellular metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer. Accumulating recent evidence links long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a still poorly understood class of non-coding RNAs, to cancer metabolism. Here we review the emerging findings on the functions of lncRNAs in cancer metabolism, with particular emphasis on how lncRNAs regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism in cancer cells, discuss how lncRNAs regulate various aspects of cancer metabolism through their cross-talk with other macromolecules, explore the mechanistic conceptual framework of lncRNAs in reprogramming metabolism in cancers, and highlight the challenges in this field. A more in-depth understanding of lncRNAs in cancer metabolism may enable the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies targeting cancer metabolism. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparative sequence analysis of the X-inactivation center region in mouse, human, and bovine.

    PubMed

    Chureau, Corinne; Prissette, Marine; Bourdet, Agnès; Barbe, Valérie; Cattolico, Laurence; Jones, Louis; Eggen, André; Avner, Philip; Duret, Laurent

    2002-06-01

    We have sequenced to high levels of accuracy 714-kb and 233-kb regions of the mouse and bovine X-inactivation centers (Xic), respectively, centered on the Xist gene. This has provided the basis for a fully annotated comparative analysis of the mouse Xic with the 2.3-Mb orthologous region in human and has allowed a three-way species comparison of the core central region, including the Xist gene. These comparisons have revealed conserved genes, both coding and noncoding, conserved CpG islands and, more surprisingly, conserved pseudogenes. The distribution of repeated elements, especially LINE repeats, in the mouse Xic region when compared to the rest of the genome does not support the hypothesis of a role for these repeat elements in the spreading of X inactivation. Interestingly, an asymmetric distribution of LINE elements on the two DNA strands was observed in the three species, not only within introns but also in intergenic regions. This feature is suggestive of important transcriptional activity within these intergenic regions. In silico prediction followed by experimental analysis has allowed four new genes, Cnbp2, Ftx, Jpx, and Ppnx, to be identified and novel, widespread, complex, and apparently noncoding transcriptional activity to be characterized in a region 5' of Xist that was recently shown to attract histone modification early after the onset of X inactivation.

  4. Serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype moderates the longitudinal impact of early caregiving on externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Smyke, Anna T; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-02-01

    We examined caregiver report of externalizing behavior from 12 to 54 months of age in 102 children randomized to care as usual in institutions or to newly created high-quality foster care. At baseline no differences by group or genotype in externalizing were found. However, changes in externalizing from baseline to 42 months of age were moderated by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype and intervention group, where the slope for short-short (S/S) individuals differed as a function of intervention group. The slope for individuals carrying the long allele did not significantly differ between groups. At 54 months of age, S/S children in the foster care group had the lowest levels of externalizing behavior, while children with the S/S genotype in the care as usual group demonstrated the highest rates of externalizing behavior. No intervention group differences were found in externalizing behavior among children who carried the long allele. These findings, within a randomized controlled trial of foster care compared to continued care as usual, indicate that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype moderates the relation between early caregiving environments to predict externalizing behavior in children exposed to early institutional care in a manner most consistent with differential susceptibility.

  5. Sorghum Landrace Collections from Cooler Regions of the World Exhibit Magnificent Genetic Differentiation and Early Season Cold Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Maulana, Frank; Weerasooriya, Dilooshi; Tesso, Tesfaye

    2017-01-01

    Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress affecting sorghum production in temperate regions. It reduces seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling vigor thus limiting the production of the crop both temporally and spatially. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess early season cold temperature stress response of sorghum germplasm from cooler environments and identify sources of tolerance for use in breeding programs, (2) to determine population structure and marker-trait association among these germplasms for eventual development of marker tools for improving cold tolerance. A total of 136 sorghum accessions from cooler regions of the world were phenotyped for seedling growth characteristics under cold temperature imposed through early planting. The accessions were genotyped using 67 simple sequence repeats markers spanning all ten linkage groups of sorghum, of which 50 highly polymorphic markers were used in the analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses sorted the population into four subpopulations. Several accessions distributed in all subpopulations showed either better or comparable level of tolerance to the standard cold tolerance source, Shan qui red. Association analysis between the markers and seedling traits identified markers Xtxp 34, Xtxp 88, and Xtxp 319 as associated with seedling emergence, Xtxp 211 and Xtxp 304 with seedling dry weight, and Xtxp 20 with seedling height. The markers were detected on chromosomes previously found to harbor QTLs associated with cold tolerance in sorghum. Once validated these may serve as genomic tools in marker-assisted breeding or for screening larger pool of genotypes to identify additional sources of cold tolerance.

  6. Causes of death among full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths in the Region of Southern Denmark.

    PubMed

    Basu, Millie Nguyen; Johnsen, Iben Birgit Gade; Wehberg, Sonja; Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg; Barington, Torben; Nørgård, Bente Mertz

    2018-02-23

    We examined the causes of death amongst full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. Our cohort includes women in the Region of Southern Denmark, who gave birth at full term to a stillborn infant or a neonate who died within the first 7 days from 2010 through 2014. Demographic, biometric and clinical variables were analyzed to assess the causes of death using two classification systems: causes of death and associated conditions (CODAC) and a Danish system based on initial causes of fetal death (INCODE). A total of 95 maternal-infant cases were included. Using the CODAC and INCODE classification systems, we found that the causes of death were unknown in 59/95 (62.1%). The second most common cause of death in CODAC was congenital anomalies in 10/95 (10.5%), similar to INCODE with fetal, genetic, structural and karyotypic anomalies in 11/95 (11.6%). The majority of the mothers were healthy, primiparous, non-smokers, aged 20-34 years and with a normal body mass index (BMI). Based on an unselected cohort from an entire region in Denmark, the cause of stillbirth and early neonatal deaths among full term infants remained unknown for the vast majority.

  7. Identification of novel non-coding small RNAs from Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 using high-resolution genome tiling arrays

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The identification of non-coding transcripts in human, mouse, and Escherichia coli has revealed their widespread occurrence and functional importance in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic life. In prokaryotes, studies have shown that non-coding transcripts participate in a broad range of cellular functions like gene regulation, stress and virulence. However, very little is known about non-coding transcripts in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), an obligate human respiratory pathogen responsible for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. Tiling microarrays enable genome wide mRNA profiling as well as identification of novel transcripts at a high-resolution. Results Here, we describe a high-resolution transcription map of the S. pneumoniae clinical isolate TIGR4 using genomic tiling arrays. Our results indicate that approximately 66% of the genome is expressed under our experimental conditions. We identified a total of 50 non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) from the intergenic regions, of which 36 had no predicted function. Half of the identified sRNA sequences were found to be unique to S. pneumoniae genome. We identified eight overrepresented sequence motifs among sRNA sequences that correspond to sRNAs in different functional categories. Tiling arrays also identified approximately 202 operon structures in the genome. Conclusions In summary, the pneumococcal operon structures and novel sRNAs identified in this study enhance our understanding of the complexity and extent of the pneumococcal 'expressed' genome. Furthermore, the results of this study open up new avenues of research for understanding the complex RNA regulatory network governing S. pneumoniae physiology and virulence. PMID:20525227

  8. The development of regional functional connectivity in preterm infants into early childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wayne; Morgan, Benjamin R; Shroff, Manohar M; Sled, John G; Taylor, Margot J

    2013-09-01

    Resting state networks are proposed to reflect the neuronal connectivity that underlies cognitive processes. Consequently, abnormal behaviour of these networks due to disease or altered development may predict poor cognitive outcome. To understand how very preterm birth may affect the development of resting state connectivity, we followed a cohort of very preterm-born infants from birth through to 4 years of age using resting state functional MRI. From a larger longitudinal cohort of infants born very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age), 36 at birth, 30 at term, 21 two-year and 22 four-year resting state fMRI datasets were acquired. Using seed-based connectivity analyses with seeds in the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, left and right motor-hand regions and left and right temporal lobes, we investigated local and inter-region connectivity as a function of group and age. We found strong local connectivity during the preterm period, which matured into inter-hemispheric and preliminary default-mode network correlations by 4 years of age. This development is comparable to the resting state networks found in term-born infants of equivalent age. The results of this study suggest that differences in developmental trajectory between preterm-born and term-born infants are small and, if present, would require a large sample from both populations to be detected.

  9. Early cellular responses against tributyltin chloride exposure in primary cultures derived from various brain regions.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a potent biocide and commonly used in various industrial sectors. Humans are mainly exposed through the food chain. We have previously demonstrated tin accumulation in brain following TBT-chloride (TBTC) exposure. In this study, effect of TBTC on dissociated cells from different brain regions was evaluated. Cytotoxicity assay (MTT), mode of cell death (Annexin V/PI assay), oxidative stress parameters (ROS and lipid peroxidation), reducing power of the cell (GSH), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular Ca(2+) were evaluated to ascertain the effect of TBTC. Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was measured to understand the effect on astroglial cells. TBTC as low as 30 nM was found to reduce GSH levels, whereas higher doses of 300 and 3000 nM induced ROS generation and marked loss in cell viability mainly through apoptosis. Striatum showed higher susceptibility than other regions, which may have further implications on various neurological aspects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A catastrophic event in Lake Geneva region during the Early Bronze Age?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Katrina; Yrro, Blé; Marillier, François; Hilbe, Michael; Corboud, Pierre; Rachoud-Schneider, Anne-Marie; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Similarly to steep oceanic continental margins, lake slopes can collapse, producing large sublacustrine landslides and tsunamis. Lake sediments are excellent natural archives of such mass movements and their study allows the reconstructions of these prehistoric events, such as the 563 AD large tsunami over Lake Geneva (Kremer et al, 2012). In Lake Geneva, more than 100 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles reveal the late Holocene sedimentation history. The seismic record shows a succession of five large lens-shaped seismic units (A to I), characterized by transparent/chaotic seismic facies with irregular lower boundaries, and interpreted as mass-movement deposits. These units are interbedded with parallel, continuous and strong amplitude reflections, interpreted as the 'background' lake sediments. The oldest dated mass movement (Unit D) covers a surface of 22 km2 in the deep basin, near the city of Lausanne. This deposit has an estimated minimum volume of 0.18 km3 and thus was very likely tsunamigenic (Kremer et al, 2012). A 12-m-long sediment core confirms the seismic interpretation of the mass movement unit and shows that the uppermost 3 m of Unit D are characterized by deformed hemipelagic sediments topped by a 5 cm thick turbidite. This deposit can be classified as a slump whose scar can be interpreted in the seismic data and visualized by multibeam bathymetry. This slump of Lausanne was likely triggered by an earthquake but a spontaneous slope collapse cannot be excluded (Girardclos et al, 2007). Radiocarbon dating of plant macro-remains reveals that the unit D happened during Early Bronze Age. Three other mass wasting deposits occurred during the same time period and may have been triggered during the same event, either by a single earthquake or by a tsunami generated by the slump of Lausanne. Although the exact trigger mechanism of the all these mass-wasting deposits remains unknown, a tsunami likely generated by this event may have affected the

  11. Dengue Non-coding RNA: TRIMmed for Transmission.

    PubMed

    Göertz, Giel P; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-08-12

    Dengue virus RNA is trimmed by the 5'→3' exoribonuclease XRN1 to produce an abundant, non-coding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. In a recent paper in Science, Manokaran et al. (2015) report that sfRNA binds TRIM25 to evade innate immune sensing of viral RNA by RIG-I. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decoding the function of nuclear long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Ling; Carmichael, Gordon G

    2010-06-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are mRNA-like, non-protein-coding RNAs that are pervasively transcribed throughout eukaryotic genomes. Rather than silently accumulating in the nucleus, many of these are now known or suspected to play important roles in nuclear architecture or in the regulation of gene expression. In this review, we highlight some recent progress in how lncRNAs regulate these important nuclear processes at the molecular level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    Molnia, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

  14. Early-Emerging Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression and the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Maloney, Bryan; Olino, Thomas M.; Sheikh, Haroon; Durbin, C. Emily; Nurnberger, John I.; Lahiri, Debomoy K.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) genotype appears to increase risk for depression in the context of stressful life events. However, the effects of this genotype on measures of stress sensitivity are poorly understood. Therefore, this study examined whether 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with negative information processing biases in early childhood. Method Thirty-nine unselected seven-year-old children completed a negative mood induction procedure and a self-referent encoding task designed to measure positive and negative schematic processing. Children were also genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR gene. Results Children who were homozygous for the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene showed greater negative schematic processing following a negative mood prime than those with other genotypes. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not significantly associated with positive schematic processing. Limitations The sample size for this study was small. We did not analyze more recently reported variants of the 5-HTTLPR long alleles. Conclusions 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with negative information processing styles following a negative mood prime in a nonclinical sample of young children. Such cognitive styles are thought to be activated in response to stressful life events, leading to depressive symptoms; thus, cognitive styles may index the “stress-sensitivity” conferred by this genotype. PMID:17804080

  15. The Landscape of long non-coding RNA classification

    PubMed Central

    St Laurent, Georges; Wahlestedt, Claes; Kapranov, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the depth and quality of transcriptome sequencing have revealed many new classes of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). lncRNA classification has mushroomed to accommodate these new findings, even though the real dimensions and complexity of the non-coding transcriptome remain unknown. Although evidence of functionality of specific lncRNAs continues to accumulate, conflicting, confusing, and overlapping terminology has fostered ambiguity and lack of clarity in the field in general. The lack of fundamental conceptual un-ambiguous classification framework results in a number of challenges in the annotation and interpretation of non-coding transcriptome data. It also might undermine integration of the new genomic methods and datasets in an effort to unravel function of lncRNA. Here, we review existing lncRNA classifications, nomenclature, and terminology. Then we describe the conceptual guidelines that have emerged for their classification and functional annotation based on expanding and more comprehensive use of large systems biology-based datasets. PMID:25869999

  16. Review of Early Childhood Policy and Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Technical Paper No. 367, Africa Region Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colletta, Nat J.; Reinhold, Amy Jo

    Children in Sub-Saharan Africa face the greatest challenges to healthy development of any region in the world. This report presents reviews of 11 Early Childhood Development programs, studied to define financial and institutional conditions necessary to sustain early intervention efforts. Interviews and existing documentation from governmental and…

  17. The early evolution of southwestern Pennsylvania's regional math/science collaborative from the leadership perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunt, Nancy R.

    Designed as a regional approach to the coordination of efforts and focusing of resources in fragmented southwestern Pennsylvania, the Collaborative's story is narrated by its founding director. Drawing from office archives, including letters of invitation, meeting notes, and participant evaluations of each event, the study describes the genesis of the Collaborative. It begins with identification of the problem and the resulting charge by a founding congress. It details the building of an organizational framework, the creation of a shared vision, the development of a blueprint for action, and the decision-making involved in determining how to strengthen mathematics and science education in the region. The study notes several influences on the Collaborative's leadership. Considering the role of other collaboratives, the study notes that knowledge of the Los Angeles Educational Partnership's LA SMART jump-started the Collaborative's initial planning process. Knowledge of San Francisco's SEABA influenced the size and naming of the Collaborative's Journal. Fred Newmann's definition of authentic instruction, learning and assessment are reflected in the shared vision and belief statements of the Collaborative. The five disciplines of Peter Senge influenced the nature of the organizational framework as well as the day-to-day operations of the Collaborative. The study also notes that the five organizational tensions identified in Ann Lieberman's work on "intentional learning communities" were present in every aspect of the evolution of the Collaborative. The study suggests that leaders of evolving collaboratives: (1) engage all relevant stakeholders in assessing the current situation and defining a desired future state, (2) take advantage of the lessons learned by others and the resources available at the state and national levels to design strategies and build action plans, (3) model the practices to be inspired in the learning community, (4) constantly gather feedback on

  18. A transcriptional serenAID: the role of noncoding RNAs in class switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Yewdell, William T.; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During an immune response, activated B cells may undergo class switch recombination (CSR), a molecular rearrangement that allows B cells to switch from expressing IgM and IgD to a secondary antibody heavy chain isotype such as IgG, IgA or IgE. Secondary antibody isotypes provide the adaptive immune system with distinct effector functions to optimally combat various pathogens. CSR occurs between repetitive DNA elements within the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus, termed switch (S) regions and requires the DNA-modifying enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). AID-mediated DNA deamination within S regions initiates the formation of DNA double-strand breaks, which serve as biochemical beacons for downstream DNA repair pathways that coordinate the ligation of DNA breaks. Myriad factors contribute to optimal AID targeting; however, many of these factors also localize to genomic regions outside of the Igh locus. Thus, a current challenge is to explain the specific targeting of AID to the Igh locus. Recent studies have implicated noncoding RNAs in CSR, suggesting a provocative mechanism that incorporates Igh-specific factors to enable precise AID targeting. Here, we chronologically recount the rich history of noncoding RNAs functioning in CSR to provide a comprehensive context for recent and future discoveries. We present a model for the RNA-guided targeting of AID that attempts to integrate historical and recent findings, and highlight potential caveats. Lastly, we discuss testable hypotheses ripe for current experimentation, and explore promising ideas for future investigations. PMID:28535205

  19. Early Experience with Combining Awake Craniotomy and Intraoperative Navigable Ultrasound for Resection of Eloquent Region Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Shetty, Prakash

    2017-03-01

    Introduction  Optimal resection of tumors in eloquent locations requires a combination of intraoperative imaging and functional monitoring during surgery. Combining awake surgery with intraoperative magnetic resonanceis logistically challenging. Navigable ultrasound (US) is a useful alternative in such cases. Methods  A total of 22 subjects with eloquent tumors were operated on (1 intended biopsy and 21 intended radical resections) using combined modality three-dimensional (3D) US and awake craniotomy with intraoperative clinical monitoring. We describe the technical details for these cases specifically addressing the feasibility of combining the two modalities. Results  US was used for resection control in 18 cases. There were technical limitations in three cases. Transient intraoperative worsening was encountered in eight, necessitating premature termination of the procedure. All patients tolerated the awake procedure well. Mean duration of the surgery was 3.2 hours. Radical resections were obtained in 14 of 18 where this was intended and in 12 of the 13 where there was no adverse intraoperative monitoring event prompting premature termination of the resection. Conclusions  Combining awake surgery with 3DUS is feasible and beneficial. It does not entail any additional surgical workflow modification or patient discomfort. This combined modality intraoperative monitoring can be beneficial for eloquent region tumors. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The instrumental seismicity of the Barents and Kara sea region: relocated event catalog from early twentieth century to 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Alexey Nikolaevich; Vaganova, Natalya V.; Asming, Vladimir E.; Konechnaya, Yana V.; Evtyugina, Zinaida A.

    2018-05-01

    We have relocated seismic events registered within the Barents and Kara sea region from early twentieth century to 1989 with a view to creating a relocated catalog. For the relocation, we collected all available seismic bulletins from the global network using data from the ISC Bulletin (International Seismological Centre), ISC-GEM project (International Seismological Centre-Global Earthquake Model), EuroSeismos project, and by Soviet seismic stations from Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The location was performed by applying a modified method of generalized beamforming. We have considered several travel time models and selected one with the best location accuracy for ground truth events. Verification of the modified method and selection of the travel time model were performed using data on four nuclear explosions that occurred in the area of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and in the north of the European part of Russia. The modified method and the Barents travel time model provide sufficient accuracy for event location in the region. The relocation procedure was applied to 31 of 36 seismic events registered within the Barents and Kara sea region.

  1. An expanding universe of noncoding RNAs between the poles of basic science and clinical investigations.

    PubMed

    Weil, Patrick P; Hensel, Kai O; Weber, David; Postberg, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The Keystone Symposium 'MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Cancer', Keystone, CO, USA, 7-12 June 2015 Since the discovery of RNAi, great efforts have been undertaken to unleash the potential biomedical applicability of small noncoding RNAs, mainly miRNAs, involving their use as biomarkers for personalized diagnostics or their usability as active agents or therapy targets. The research's focus on the noncoding RNA world is now slowly moving from a phase of basic discoveries into a new phase, where every single molecule out of many hundreds of cataloged noncoding RNAs becomes dissected in order to investigate these molecules' biomedical relevance. In addition, RNA classes neglected before, such as long noncoding RNAs or circular RNAs attract more attention. Numerous timely results and hypotheses were presented at the 2015 Keystone Symposium 'MicroRNAs and Noncoding RNAs in Cancer'.

  2. Maturity Group Classification and Maturity Locus Genotyping of Early-Maturing Soybean Varieties from High-Latitude Cold Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    Background With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Methods Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15′, E 127°27′, H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. Results The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. Conclusion HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially. PMID:24740097

  3. Technical Note: An operational landslide early warning system at regional scale based on space-time-variable rainfall thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoni, S.; Battistini, A.; Rossi, G.; Rosi, A.; Lagomarsino, D.; Catani, F.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2015-04-01

    We set up an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Tuscany (23 000 km2). The system is based on a set of state-of-the-art intensity-duration rainfall thresholds (Segoni et al., 2014b) and makes use of LAMI (Limited Area Model Italy) rainfall forecasts and real-time rainfall data provided by an automated network of more than 300 rain gauges. The system was implemented in a WebGIS to ease the operational use in civil protection procedures: it is simple and intuitive to consult, and it provides different outputs. When switching among different views, the system is able to focus both on monitoring of real-time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h. Moreover, the system can switch between a basic data view where a synoptic scenario of the hazard can be shown all over the region and a more in-depth view were the rainfall path of rain gauges can be displayed and constantly compared with rainfall thresholds. To better account for the variability of the geomorphological and meteorological settings encountered in Tuscany, the region is subdivided into 25 alert zones, each provided with a specific threshold. The warning system reflects this subdivision: using a network of more than 300 rain gauges, it allows for the monitoring of each alert zone separately so that warnings can be issued independently. An important feature of the warning system is that the visualization of the thresholds in the WebGIS interface may vary in time depending on when the starting time of the rainfall event is set. The starting time of the rainfall event is considered as a variable by the early warning system: whenever new rainfall data are available, a recursive algorithm identifies the starting time for which the rainfall path is closest to or overcomes the threshold. This is considered the most hazardous condition, and it is displayed by the WebGIS interface. The early warning system is used to forecast and monitor the landslide hazard in the whole region

  4. Regional differences in trait-like characteristics of the waking EEG in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Benz, Dominik C; Tarokh, Leila; Achermann, Peter; Loughran, Sarah P

    2013-10-09

    The human waking EEG spectrum shows high heritability and stability and, despite maturational cortical changes, high test-retest reliability in children and teens. These phenomena have also been shown to be region specific. We examined the stability of the morphology of the wake EEG spectrum in children aged 11 to 13 years recorded over weekly intervals and assessed whether the waking EEG spectrum in children may also be trait-like. Three minutes of eyes open and three minutes of eyes closed waking EEG was recorded in 22 healthy children once a week for three consecutive weeks. Eyes open and closed EEG power density spectra were calculated for two central (C3LM and C4LM) and two occipital (O1LM and O2LM) derivations. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to determine whether the morphology of the waking EEG spectrum between 1 and 20 Hz is trait-like. We also examined the stability of the alpha peak using an ANOVA. The morphology of the EEG spectrum recorded from central derivations was highly stable and unique to an individual (correctly classified in 85% of participants), while the EEG recorded from occipital derivations, while stable, was much less unique across individuals (correctly classified in 42% of participants). Furthermore, our analysis revealed an increase in alpha peak height concurrent with a decline in the frequency of the alpha peak across weeks for occipital derivations. No changes in either measure were observed in the central derivations. Our results indicate that across weekly recordings, power spectra at central derivations exhibit more "trait-like" characteristics than occipital derivations. These results may be relevant for future studies searching for links between phenotypes, such as psychiatric diagnoses, and the underlying genes (i.e., endophenotypes) by suggesting that such studies should make use of more anterior rather than posterior EEG derivations.

  5. An Early Pleistocene 190 kyr pollen record from the ODP Site 976, Western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannin, Sebastien; Combourieu Nebout, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    The Mid-Pleistocene Transition (1.200 to 0.500 Ma) corresponded to a period of increased cooling and the shift from "41 kyr world" to "100 kyr world". Climate cycles were 41 kyr long as a response of the climate system to the obliquity orbital parameter forcing, then the climate system responded to a combination of eccentricity and precession resulting in 100 kyr long cycles. The Mediterranean region offers the opportunity to study climate response to orbital forcing at this particular period. It is usually done on marine proxies that are preserved in continuous sediments with good age attributions but may be affected by calorific inertia of marine environments. We investigate continental palaeoenvironment changes inferred from pollen analyses through time on a short interval of the ODP Site 976 (259.50 to 230.42 mcd). In order to search for short climate oscillations, the chronology has been refined according to the comparison between the pollen ratio "mesothermic vs. Caryophyllaceae, Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae and steppe elements" curve and Mediterranean and LR04 oxygen isotope curves. The time slice runs from ~1.090 Ma (MIS 31) to ~0.900 Ma (MIS 23). Pollen analyses provide a new record of the south western Mediterranean vegetation and climate changes at the beginning of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. Vegetation successions are evidenced in pollen diagram with replacement of mesothermic elements by mid- and high-altitude trees, ended by strengthening of Caryophyllaceae, Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, and steppe vegetation. These vegetation successions reveal two overlapping rhythms that may be related to climate responses to both obliquity and precession orbital parameters, while wavelet analyses on pollen ratio only indicate the shift from precession to obliquity dominance. The comparison of these two approaches raised the question of their own limit.

  6. Birth, coming of age and death: The intriguing life of long noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Samudyata; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Bonetti, Alessandro

    2018-07-01

    Mammalian genomes are pervasively transcribed, with long noncoding RNAs being the most abundant fraction. Recent studies have highlighted the central role played by these transcripts in several physiological and pathological processes. Despite several metabolic features shared between coding and noncoding transcripts, these two classes of RNAs exhibit multiple differences regarding their biogenesis and processing. Here we review such distinctions, focusing on the unique features of specific long noncoding RNAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological significance of long non-coding RNA FTX expression in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiao-Bo; Hua, Zhu; Li, Chen; Peng, Li-Pan; Wang, Jing-Shen; Wang, Bo; Zhi, Qiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) FTX and analyze its prognostic and biological significance in colorectal cancer (CRC). A quantitative reverse transcription PCR was performed to detect the expression of long non-coding RNA FTX in 35 pairs of colorectal cancer and corresponding noncancerous tissues. The expression of long non-coding RNA FTX was detected in 187 colorectal cancer tissues and its correlations with clinicopathological factors of patients were examined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the prognostic significance of Long Non-coding RNA FTX expression. The effects of long non-coding RNA FTX expression on malignant phenotypes of colorectal cancer cells and its possible biological significances were further determined. Long non-coding RNA FTX was significantly upregulated in colorectal cancer tissues, and low long non-coding RNA FTX expression was significantly correlated with differentiation grade, lymph vascular invasion, and clinical stage. Patients with high long non-coding RNA FTX showed poorer overall survival than those with low long non-coding RNA FTX. Multivariate analyses indicated that status of long non-coding RNA FTX was an independent prognostic factor for patients. Functional analyses showed that upregulation of long non-coding RNA FTX significantly promoted growth, migration, invasion, and increased colony formation in colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, long non-coding RNA FTX may be a potential biomarker for predicting the survival of colorectal cancer patients and might be a molecular target for treatment of human colorectal cancer. PMID:26629053

  8. Biological significance of long non-coding RNA FTX expression in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Bo; Hua, Zhu; Li, Chen; Peng, Li-Pan; Wang, Jing-Shen; Wang, Bo; Zhi, Qiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) FTX and analyze its prognostic and biological significance in colorectal cancer (CRC). A quantitative reverse transcription PCR was performed to detect the expression of long non-coding RNA FTX in 35 pairs of colorectal cancer and corresponding noncancerous tissues. The expression of long non-coding RNA FTX was detected in 187 colorectal cancer tissues and its correlations with clinicopathological factors of patients were examined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the prognostic significance of Long Non-coding RNA FTX expression. The effects of long non-coding RNA FTX expression on malignant phenotypes of colorectal cancer cells and its possible biological significances were further determined. Long non-coding RNA FTX was significantly upregulated in colorectal cancer tissues, and low long non-coding RNA FTX expression was significantly correlated with differentiation grade, lymph vascular invasion, and clinical stage. Patients with high long non-coding RNA FTX showed poorer overall survival than those with low long non-coding RNA FTX. Multivariate analyses indicated that status of long non-coding RNA FTX was an independent prognostic factor for patients. Functional analyses showed that upregulation of long non-coding RNA FTX significantly promoted growth, migration, invasion, and increased colony formation in colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, long non-coding RNA FTX may be a potential biomarker for predicting the survival of colorectal cancer patients and might be a molecular target for treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  9. A screen for nuclear transcripts identifies two linked noncoding RNAs associated with SC35 splicing domains

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, John N; Ensminger, Alexander W; Clemson, Christine M; Lynch, Christopher R; Lawrence, Jeanne B; Chess, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Noncoding RNA species play a diverse set of roles in the eukaryotic cell. While much recent attention has focused on smaller RNA species, larger noncoding transcripts are also thought to be highly abundant in mammalian cells. To search for large noncoding RNAs that might control gene expression or mRNA metabolism, we used Affymetrix expression arrays to identify polyadenylated RNA transcripts displaying nuclear enrichment. Results This screen identified no more than three transcripts; XIST, and two unique noncoding nuclear enriched abundant transcripts (NEAT) RNAs strikingly located less than 70 kb apart on human chromosome 11: NEAT1, a noncoding RNA from the locus encoding for TncRNA, and NEAT2 (also known as MALAT-1). While the two NEAT transcripts share no significant homology with each other, each is conserved within the mammalian lineage, suggesting significant function for these noncoding RNAs. NEAT2 is extraordinarily well conserved for a noncoding RNA, more so than even XIST. Bioinformatic analyses of publicly available mouse transcriptome data support our findings from human cells as they confirm that the murine homologs of these noncoding RNAs are also nuclear enriched. RNA FISH analyses suggest that these noncoding RNAs function in mRNA metabolism as they demonstrate an intimate association of these RNA species with SC35 nuclear speckles in both human and mouse cells. These studies show that one of these transcripts, NEAT1 localizes to the periphery of such domains, whereas the neighboring transcript, NEAT2, is part of the long-sought polyadenylated component of nuclear speckles. Conclusion Our genome-wide screens in two mammalian species reveal no more than three abundant large non-coding polyadenylated RNAs in the nucleus; the canonical large noncoding RNA XIST and NEAT1 and NEAT2. The function of these noncoding RNAs in mRNA metabolism is suggested by their high levels of conservation and their intimate association with SC35 splicing

  10. Weak and Compact Radio Emission in Early High-Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosero, Viviana; P. Hofner, M. Claussen, S. Kurtz, R. Cesaroni, E. D. Araya, C. Carrasco-González, L. F. Rodríguez, K. M. Menten, F. Wyrowski, L. Loinard, S. P. Ellingsen

    2018-01-01

    High-mass protostars are difficult to detect: they have short evolutionary timescales, they tend to be located at large distances, and they are usually embedded within complicated cluster environments. In this work, we aimed to identify and analyze candidates at the earliest stages of high-mass star formation, where only low-level (< 1 mJy) radio emission is expected. We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to achieve one of the most sensitive (image RMS < 3 -- 10 μJy/beam) centimeter continuum surveys towards high-mass star forming regions to date, with observations at 1.3 and 6 cm and an angular resolution < 0.5". The sample is composed of cold molecular clumps with and without infrared sources (CMC--IRs and CMCs, respectively) and hot molecular cores (HMCs), covering a wide range of parameters such as bolometric luminosity and distance. We detected 70 radio continuum sources that are associated with dust clumps, most of which are weak and compact. We detected centimeter wavelength sources in 100% of our HMCs, which is a higher fraction than previously expected and suggests that radio continuum may be detectable at weak levels in all HMCs. The lack of radio detections for some objects in the sample (including most CMCs) contributes strong evidence that these are prestellar clumps, providing interesting constraints and ideal follow up candidates for studies of the earliest stages of high-mass stars. Our results show further evidence for an evolutionary sequence in the formation of high-mass stars, from starless cores (i.e., CMCs) to relatively more evolved ones (i.e., HMCs). Many of our detections have morphologies and other observational parameters that resemble collimated ionized jets, which is highly relevant for recent theoretical models based on core accretion that predict that the first stages of ionization from high-mass stars are in the form of jets. Additionally, we found that properties of ionized jets from low and high-mass stars are extremely well

  11. CsrB, a noncoding regulatory RNA, is required for BarA-dependent expression of biocontrol traits in Rahnella aquatilis HX2.

    PubMed

    Mei, Li; Xu, Sanger; Lu, Peng; Lin, Haiping; Guo, Yanbin; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    Rahnella aquatilis is ubiquitous and its certain strains have the applicative potent as a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. R. aquatilis HX2 is a biocontrol agent to produce antibacterial substance (ABS) and showed efficient biocontrol against crown gall caused by Agrobacterium vitis on sunflower and grapevine plants. The regulatory network of the ABS production and biocontrol activity is still limited known. In this study, a transposon-mediated mutagenesis strategy was used to investigate the regulators that involved in the biocontrol activity of R. aquatilis HX2. A 366-nt noncoding RNA CsrB was identified in vitro and in vivo, which regulated ABS production and biocontrol activity against crown gall on sunflower plants, respectively. The predicted product of noncoding RNA CsrB contains 14 stem-loop structures and an additional ρ-independent terminator harpin, with 23 characteristic GGA motifs in the loops and other unpaired regions. CsrB is required for ABS production and biocontrol activity in the biocontrol regulation by a two-component regulatory system BarA/UvrY in R. aquatilis HX2. The noncoding RNA CsrB regulates BarA-dependent ABS production and biocontrol activity in R. aquatilis HX2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of noncoding RNA as a regulator for biocontrol function in R. aquatilis.

  12. CsrB, a noncoding regulatory RNA, is required for BarA-dependent expression of biocontrol traits in Rahnella aquatilis HX2

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peng; Lin, Haiping; Guo, Yanbin

    2017-01-01

    Background Rahnella aquatilis is ubiquitous and its certain strains have the applicative potent as a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. R. aquatilis HX2 is a biocontrol agent to produce antibacterial substance (ABS) and showed efficient biocontrol against crown gall caused by Agrobacterium vitis on sunflower and grapevine plants. The regulatory network of the ABS production and biocontrol activity is still limited known. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, a transposon-mediated mutagenesis strategy was used to investigate the regulators that involved in the biocontrol activity of R. aquatilis HX2. A 366-nt noncoding RNA CsrB was identified in vitro and in vivo, which regulated ABS production and biocontrol activity against crown gall on sunflower plants, respectively. The predicted product of noncoding RNA CsrB contains 14 stem-loop structures and an additional ρ-independent terminator harpin, with 23 characteristic GGA motifs in the loops and other unpaired regions. CsrB is required for ABS production and biocontrol activity in the biocontrol regulation by a two-component regulatory system BarA/UvrY in R. aquatilis HX2. Conclusion/Significance The noncoding RNA CsrB regulates BarA-dependent ABS production and biocontrol activity in R. aquatilis HX2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of noncoding RNA as a regulator for biocontrol function in R. aquatilis. PMID:29091941

  13. TFIIS-Dependent Non-coding Transcription Regulates Developmental Genome Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Maliszewska-Olejniczak, Kamila; Gruchota, Julita; Gromadka, Robert; Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Mathy, Nathalie; Duharcourt, Sandra; Bétermier, Mireille; Nowak, Jacek K.

    2015-01-01

    Because of their nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide a unique opportunity to study the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the communication between germline and somatic lineages. In these unicellular eukaryotes, a new somatic nucleus develops at each sexual cycle from a copy of the zygotic (germline) nucleus, while the old somatic nucleus degenerates. In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, the genome is massively rearranged during this process through the reproducible elimination of repeated sequences and the precise excision of over 45,000 short, single-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IESs). Different types of ncRNAs resulting from genome-wide transcription were shown to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of genome rearrangements. To understand how ncRNAs are produced from the entire genome, we have focused on a homolog of the TFIIS elongation factor, which regulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional pausing. Six TFIIS-paralogs, representing four distinct families, can be found in P. tetraurelia genome. Using RNA interference, we showed that TFIIS4, which encodes a development-specific TFIIS protein, is essential for the formation of a functional somatic genome. Molecular analyses and high-throughput DNA sequencing upon TFIIS4 RNAi demonstrated that TFIIS4 is involved in all kinds of genome rearrangements, including excision of ~48% of IESs. Localization of a GFP-TFIIS4 fusion revealed that TFIIS4 appears specifically in the new somatic nucleus at an early developmental stage, before IES excision. RT-PCR experiments showed that TFIIS4 is necessary for the synthesis of IES-containing non-coding transcripts. We propose that these IES+ transcripts originate from the developing somatic nucleus and serve as pairing substrates for germline-specific short RNAs that target elimination of their homologous sequences. Our study, therefore, connects the onset of zygotic non coding transcription to the control of genome plasticity in Paramecium, and establishes for

  14. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-stage Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J.; Stoddard, Shawn M.; Wampfler, Jason A.; Limper, Andrew H.; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary emphysema is a common comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on patient’s overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and pulmonary function recovery in stage I–II lung cancer. Methods Between 1997 and 2009, 1,073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups (cancer in emphysematous [group 1, n=565] and non-emphysematous [group 2, n=435] region) and one non-surgical group (group 3, n=73). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized into mild (≤5%), moderate (6–24%) and severe (25–60%). Results In group 1, patients with moderate and severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative FEV1, but increases in FEV1/FVC, compared to those with mild RES (p<0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Post-treatment QOL was lower in patients with greater RES in all groups mainly due to dyspnea (p<0.05). Cox-regression analysis revealed that patients with higher RES had a significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted HRs of 1.41 and 1.43 for moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the non-surgical group (adjusted HR of 0.99 for moderate/severe RES). Conclusions In surgically-treated patients with cancer in emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of post-treatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. PMID:28126539

  15. Regional 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Hypometabolism is Associated with Higher Apathy Scores Over Time in Early Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Gatchel, Jennifer R; Donovan, Nancy J; Locascio, Joseph J; Becker, J Alex; Rentz, Dorene M; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Marshall, Gad A

    2017-07-01

    Apathy is among the earliest and most pervasive neuropsychiatric symptoms in prodromal and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia that correlates with functional impairment and disease progression. We investigated the association of apathy with regional 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. 57 North American research sites. 402 community dwelling elders. Apathy was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. Baseline FDG metabolism in five regions implicated in the neurobiology of apathy and AD was investigated in relationship to apathy at baseline (cross-sectional general linear model) and longitudinally (mixed random/fixed effect model). Covariates included age, sex, diagnosis, apolipoprotein E genotype, premorbid intelligence, cognition, and antidepressant use. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that posterior cingulate hypometabolism, diagnosis, male sex, and antidepressant use were associated with higher apathy scores. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the interaction of supramarginal hypometabolism and time, posterior cingulate hypometabolism, and antidepressant use were associated with higher apathy scores across time; only supramarginal hypometabolism was positively related to rate of increase of apathy. Results support an association of apathy with hypometabolism in parietal regions commonly affected in early stages of AD, rather than medial frontal regions implicated in the neurobiology of apathy in later stages. Further work is needed to substantiate whether this localization is specific to apathy rather than to disease stage, and to investigate the potential role of AD proteinopathies in the pathogenesis of apathy. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Holocenic and Historic mtDNA African Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula: The Andalusian Region as a Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Candela L.; Soares, Pedro; Dugoujon, Jean M.; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan N.; Rito, Teresa; Oliveira, Marisa; Melhaoui, Mohammed; Baali, Abdellatif; Pereira, Luisa; Calderón, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Determining the timing, identity and direction of migrations in the Mediterranean Basin, the role of “migratory routes” in and among regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, and the effects of sex-specific behaviors of population movements have important implications for our understanding of the present human genetic diversity. A crucial component of the Mediterranean world is its westernmost region. Clear features of transcontinental ancient contacts between North African and Iberian populations surrounding the maritime region of Gibraltar Strait have been identified from archeological data. The attempt to discern origin and dates of migration between close geographically related regions has been a challenge in the field of uniparental-based population genetics. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have been focused on surveying the H1, H3 and V lineages when trying to ascertain north-south migrations, and U6 and L in the opposite direction, assuming that those lineages are good proxies for the ancestry of each side of the Mediterranean. To this end, in the present work we have screened entire mtDNA sequences belonging to U6, M1 and L haplogroups in Andalusians—from Huelva and Granada provinces—and Moroccan Berbers. We present here pioneer data and interpretations on the role of NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula regarding the time of origin, number of founders and expansion directions of these specific markers. The estimated entrance of the North African U6 lineages into Iberia at 10 ky correlates well with other L African clades, indicating that U6 and some L lineages moved together from Africa to Iberia in the Early Holocene. Still, founder analysis highlights that the high sharing of lineages between North Africa and Iberia results from a complex process continued through time, impairing simplistic interpretations. In particular, our work supports the existence of an ancient, frequently denied, bridge connecting the Maghreb and Andalusia. PMID:26509580

  17. Brief communication: Using averaged soil moisture estimates to improve the performances of a regional-scale landslide early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoni, Samuele; Rosi, Ascanio; Lagomarsino, Daniela; Fanti, Riccardo; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    We communicate the results of a preliminary investigation aimed at improving a state-of-the-art RSLEWS (regional-scale landslide early warning system) based on rainfall thresholds by integrating mean soil moisture values averaged over the territorial units of the system. We tested two approaches. The simplest can be easily applied to improve other RSLEWS: it is based on a soil moisture threshold value under which rainfall thresholds are not used because landslides are not expected to occur. Another approach deeply modifies the original RSLEWS: thresholds based on antecedent rainfall accumulated over long periods are substituted with soil moisture thresholds. A back analysis demonstrated that both approaches consistently reduced false alarms, while the second approach reduced missed alarms as well.

  18. [Early child development inequalities and associated factors between public and private providers at metropolitan region in Chile].

    PubMed

    Bedregal, Paula; Hernández, Viviana; Mingo, M Verónica; Castañón, Carla; Valenzuela, Patricia; Moore, Rosario; de la Cruz, Rolando; Castro, Daniela

    Early child development is a population determinant of physical, mental and social health. To know the base line situation prior to the implementation of "Chile grows with you" (Chile Crece Contigo) is key to its evaluation. To compare early child development and associated factors at baseline in pre-school children from public and private health sectors. The sample consisted of 1045 children aged 30-58 months, 52% male, and 671 from the public and 380 from the private sector of the metropolitan region in Chile were evaluated using Battelle Developmental Inventory-1 and a household interview of primary carer. Abnormal child development was found in 14.4% of children in the private sector compared to 30.4% in the public sector. There were no differences in adaptive area (26.3% vs 29.2%), but there were statistically significant differents in cognitive (8.8% vs 12.1%), social-personal (13.2% vs 32.5%), motor (19.2% vs 35.3%), and communication (19% vs 36.8%) development. The logistic regression showed that, independent of socioeconomic level, the risk factors are: Apgar<7 (OR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.24-23.84); having childhood chronic diseases (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.11-1.42). Protective factor is: home with resources to learn and play (OR: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.76-0.89). These results are another input about early child development situation and its importance for paediatric social policy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Sorghum Landrace Collections from Cooler Regions of the World Exhibit Magnificent Genetic Differentiation and Early Season Cold Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Maulana, Frank; Weerasooriya, Dilooshi; Tesso, Tesfaye

    2017-01-01

    Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress affecting sorghum production in temperate regions. It reduces seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling vigor thus limiting the production of the crop both temporally and spatially. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess early season cold temperature stress response of sorghum germplasm from cooler environments and identify sources of tolerance for use in breeding programs, (2) to determine population structure and marker-trait association among these germplasms for eventual development of marker tools for improving cold tolerance. A total of 136 sorghum accessions from cooler regions of the world were phenotyped for seedling growth characteristics under cold temperature imposed through early planting. The accessions were genotyped using 67 simple sequence repeats markers spanning all ten linkage groups of sorghum, of which 50 highly polymorphic markers were used in the analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses sorted the population into four subpopulations. Several accessions distributed in all subpopulations showed either better or comparable level of tolerance to the standard cold tolerance source, Shan qui red. Association analysis between the markers and seedling traits identified markers Xtxp34, Xtxp88, and Xtxp319 as associated with seedling emergence, Xtxp211 and Xtxp304 with seedling dry weight, and Xtxp20 with seedling height. The markers were detected on chromosomes previously found to harbor QTLs associated with cold tolerance in sorghum. Once validated these may serve as genomic tools in marker-assisted breeding or for screening larger pool of genotypes to identify additional sources of cold tolerance. PMID:28536596

  20. Sost, independent of the non-coding enhancer ECR5, is required for bone mechanoadaptation

    SciT

    Robling, Alexander G.; Kang, Kyung Shin; Bullock, Whitney A.

    Here, sclerostin ( Sost) is a negative regulator of bone formation that acts upon the Wnt signaling pathway. Sost is mechanically regulated at both mRNA and protein level such that loading represses and unloading enhances Sost expression, in osteocytes and in circulation. The non-coding evolutionarily conserved enhancer ECR5 has been previously reported as a transcriptional regulatory element required for modulating Sost expression in osteocytes. Here we explored the mechanisms by which ECR5, or several other putative transcriptional enhancers regulate Sost expression, in response to mechanical stimulation. We found that in vivo ulna loading is equally osteoanabolic in wildtype and Sostmore » –/– mice, although Sost is required for proper distribution of load-induced bone formation to regions of high strain. Using Luciferase reporters carrying the ECR5 non-coding enhancer and heterologous or homologous h SOST promoters, we found that ECR5 is mechanosensitive in vitro and that ECR5-driven Luciferase activity decreases in osteoblasts exposed to oscillatory fluid flow. Yet, ECR5–/– mice showed similar magnitude of load-induced bone formation and similar periosteal distribution of bone formation to high-strain regions compared to wildtype mice. Further, we found that in contrast to Sost–/– mice, which are resistant to disuse-induced bone loss, ECR5–/– mice lose bone upon unloading to a degree similar to wildtype control mice. ECR5 deletion did not abrogate positive effects of unloading on Sost, suggesting that additional transcriptional regulators and regulatory elements contribute to load-induced regulation of Sost.« less

  1. Sost, independent of the non-coding enhancer ECR5, is required for bone mechanoadaptation

    DOE PAGES

    Robling, Alexander G.; Kang, Kyung Shin; Bullock, Whitney A.; ...

    2016-09-04

    Here, sclerostin ( Sost) is a negative regulator of bone formation that acts upon the Wnt signaling pathway. Sost is mechanically regulated at both mRNA and protein level such that loading represses and unloading enhances Sost expression, in osteocytes and in circulation. The non-coding evolutionarily conserved enhancer ECR5 has been previously reported as a transcriptional regulatory element required for modulating Sost expression in osteocytes. Here we explored the mechanisms by which ECR5, or several other putative transcriptional enhancers regulate Sost expression, in response to mechanical stimulation. We found that in vivo ulna loading is equally osteoanabolic in wildtype and Sostmore » –/– mice, although Sost is required for proper distribution of load-induced bone formation to regions of high strain. Using Luciferase reporters carrying the ECR5 non-coding enhancer and heterologous or homologous h SOST promoters, we found that ECR5 is mechanosensitive in vitro and that ECR5-driven Luciferase activity decreases in osteoblasts exposed to oscillatory fluid flow. Yet, ECR5–/– mice showed similar magnitude of load-induced bone formation and similar periosteal distribution of bone formation to high-strain regions compared to wildtype mice. Further, we found that in contrast to Sost–/– mice, which are resistant to disuse-induced bone loss, ECR5–/– mice lose bone upon unloading to a degree similar to wildtype control mice. ECR5 deletion did not abrogate positive effects of unloading on Sost, suggesting that additional transcriptional regulators and regulatory elements contribute to load-induced regulation of Sost.« less

  2. Dancing to the rhythms of the Pleistocene? Early Middle Paleolithic population dynamics in NW Iberia (Duero Basin and Cantabrian Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Yustos, Policarpo; Diez Martín, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The Northwest of Iberia has yielded one of the most complete European Middle Paleolithic records. Despite this wealth of information, very little is known about population dynamics during this period. For that reason, the main concern of this paper is to provide socio-environmental models that may help explain Early Middle Paleolithic (EMP) population dynamics in NW Iberia, assessing to what extent they were shaped by climate forces. The archaeological record is analyzed on the basis of the heuristics of ecological models, already employed in the European Pleistocene record but never at a regional scale, in order to detect long-term changes in the composition of EMP populations, and the environmental, biological and sociocultural process influencing those changes. According to the models proposed, we have detected a long-term population dynamic between MIS 11 and MIS 6, characterized by low environmental stress, high biological productivity, interaction among populations and sociocultural complexity. Eventually, this population dynamic was broken due to an extreme climate phase in late MIS 6 that had a profound impact on populations and sociocultural structures. As a result, the Upper Pleistocene population of NW Iberia was concentrated in the Cantabrian region. This area became an isolated Neanderthal glacial refugium that hosted a population with different origins and fragile long-term demographic stability.

  3. Schooling and wage income losses due to early-childhood growth faltering in developing countries: national, regional, and global estimates.

    PubMed

    Fink, Günther; Peet, Evan; Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn; McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-07-01

    The growth of >300 million children <5 y old was mildly, moderately, or severely stunted worldwide in 2010. However, national estimates of the human capital and financial losses due to growth faltering in early childhood are not available. We quantified the economic cost of growth faltering in developing countries. We combined the most recent country-level estimates of linear growth delays from the Nutrition Impact Model Study with estimates of returns to education in developing countries to estimate the impact of early-life growth faltering on educational attainment and future incomes. Primary outcomes were total years of educational attainment lost as well as the net present value of future wage earnings lost per child and birth cohort due to growth faltering in 137 developing countries. Bootstrapped standard errors were computed to account for uncertainty in modeling inputs. Our estimates suggest that early-life growth faltering in developing countries caused a total loss of 69.4 million y of educational attainment (95% CI: 41.7 million, 92.6 million y) per birth cohort. Educational attainment losses were largest in South Asia (27.6 million y; 95% CI: 20.0 million, 35.8 million y) as well as in Eastern (10.3 million y; 95% CI: 7.2 million, 12.9 million y) and Western sub-Saharan Africa (8.8 million y; 95% CI: 6.4 million, 11.5 million y). Globally, growth faltering in developing countries caused a total economic cost of $176.8 billion (95% CI: $100.9 billion, $262.6 billion)/birth cohort at nominal exchange rates, and $616.5 billion (95% CI: $365.3 billion, $898.9 billion) at purchasing power parity-adjusted exchange rates. At the regional level, economic costs were largest in South Asia ($46.6 billion; 95% CI: $33.3 billion, $61.1 billion), followed by Latin America ($44.7 billion; 95% CI: $19.2 billion, $74.6 billion) and sub-Saharan Africa ($34.2 billion; 95% CI: $24.4 billion, $45.3 billion). Our results indicate that the annual cost of early

  4. Regional brain activity during early-stage intense romantic love predicted relationship outcomes after 40 months: an fMRI assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Brown, Lucy; Aron, Arthur; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Acevedo, Bianca; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-09-20

    Early-stage romantic love is associated with activation in reward and motivation systems of the brain. Can these localized activations, or others, predict long-term relationship stability? We contacted participants from a previous fMRI study of early-stage love by Xu et al. [34] after 40 months from initial assessments. We compared brain activation during the initial assessment at early-stage love for those who were still together at 40 months and those who were apart, and surveyed those still together about their relationship happiness and commitment at 40 months. Six participants who were still with their partners at 40 months (compared to six who had broken up) showed less activation during early-stage love in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, right subcallosal cingulate and right accumbens, regions implicated in long-term love and relationship satisfaction [1,2]. These regions of deactivation at the early stage of love were also negatively correlated with relationship happiness scores collected at 40 months. Other areas involved were the caudate tail, and temporal and parietal lobes. These data are preliminary evidence that neural responses in the early stages of romantic love can predict relationship stability and quality up to 40 months later in the relationship. The brain regions involved suggest that forebrain reward functions may be predictive for relationship stability, as well as regions involved in social evaluation, emotional regulation, and mood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous monitoring of regional function by a miniaturized ultrasound transducer allows early quantification of low-grade myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hyler, Stefan; Pischke, Søren E; Halvorsen, Per Steinar; Espinoza, Andreas; Bergsland, Jacob; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Fosse, Erik; Skulstad, Helge

    2015-04-01

    Sensitive methods for the early detection of myocardial dysfunction are still needed, as ischemia is a leading cause of decreased ventricular function during and after heart surgery. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that low-grade ischemia could be detected quantitatively by a miniaturized epicardial ultrasound transducer (Ø = 3 mm), allowing continuous monitoring. In 10 pigs, transducers were positioned in the left anterior descending and circumflex coronary artery areas. Left ventricular pressure was obtained by a micromanometer. The left internal mammary artery was grafted to the left anterior descending coronary artery, which was occluded proximal to the anastomosis. Left internal mammary artery flow was stepwise reduced by 25%, 50%, and 75% for 18 min each. From the transducers, M-mode traces were obtained, allowing continuous tissue velocity traces and displacement measurements. Regional work was assessed as left ventricular pressure-displacement loop area. Tissue lactate measured from intramyocardial microdialysis was used as reference method to detect ischemia. All steps of coronary flow reduction demonstrated reduced peak systolic velocity (P < .05) and regional work (P < .01).The decreases in peak systolic velocity and regional work were closely related to the degree of ischemia, demonstrated by their correlations with lactate (R = -0.74, P < .01, and R = -0.64, P < .01, respectively). The circumflex coronary artery area was not affected by any of the interventions. The epicardially attached miniaturized ultrasound transducer allowed the precise detection of different levels of coronary flow reduction. The results also showed a quantitative and linear relationship among coronary flow, ischemia, and myocardial function. Thus, the ultrasound transducer has the potential to improve the monitoring of myocardial ischemia and to detect graft failure during and after heart surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography

  6. Non-coding stem-bulge RNAs are required for cell proliferation and embryonic development in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Madzia P.; Baylis, Howard A.; Krude, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stem bulge RNAs (sbRNAs) are a family of small non-coding stem-loop RNAs present in Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes, the function of which is unknown. Here, we report the first functional characterisation of nematode sbRNAs. We demonstrate that sbRNAs from a range of nematode species are able to reconstitute the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in the presence of replication proteins in vitro, and that conserved nucleotide sequence motifs are essential for this function. By functionally inactivating sbRNAs with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, we show that sbRNAs are required for S phase progression, early embryonic development and the viability of C. elegans in vivo. Thus, we demonstrate a new and essential role for sbRNAs during the early development of C. elegans. sbRNAs show limited nucleotide sequence similarity to vertebrate Y RNAs, which are also essential for the initiation of DNA replication. Our results therefore establish that the essential function of small non-coding stem-loop RNAs during DNA replication extends beyond vertebrates. PMID:25908866

  7. Identification of Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted gene cluster noncoding RNAs as novel candidate biomarkers for liver tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Lempiäinen, Harri; Couttet, Philippe; Bolognani, Federico; Müller, Arne; Dubost, Valérie; Luisier, Raphaëlle; Del Rio Espinola, Alberto; Vitry, Veronique; Unterberger, Elif B; Thomson, John P; Treindl, Fridolin; Metzger, Ute; Wrzodek, Clemens; Hahne, Florian; Zollinger, Tulipan; Brasa, Sarah; Kalteis, Magdalena; Marcellin, Magali; Giudicelli, Fanny; Braeuning, Albert; Morawiec, Laurent; Zamurovic, Natasa; Längle, Ulrich; Scheer, Nico; Schübeler, Dirk; Goodman, Jay; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Marlowe, Jennifer; Theil, Diethilde; Heard, David J; Grenet, Olivier; Zell, Andreas; Templin, Markus F; Meehan, Richard R; Wolf, Roland C; Elcombe, Clifford R; Schwarz, Michael; Moulin, Pierre; Terranova, Rémi; Moggs, Jonathan G

    2013-02-01

    The molecular events during nongenotoxic carcinogenesis and their temporal order are poorly understood but thought to include long-lasting perturbations of gene expression. Here, we have investigated the temporal sequence of molecular and pathological perturbations at early stages of phenobarbital (PB) mediated liver tumor promotion in vivo. Molecular profiling (mRNA, microRNA [miRNA], DNA methylation, and proteins) of mouse liver during 13 weeks of PB treatment revealed progressive increases in hepatic expression of long noncoding RNAs and miRNAs originating from the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted gene cluster, a locus that has recently been associated with stem cell pluripotency in mice and various neoplasms in humans. PB induction of the Dlk1-Dio3 cluster noncoding RNA (ncRNA) Meg3 was localized to glutamine synthetase-positive hypertrophic perivenous hepatocytes, suggesting a role for β-catenin signaling in the dysregulation of Dlk1-Dio3 ncRNAs. The carcinogenic relevance of Dlk1-Dio3 locus ncRNA induction was further supported by in vivo genetic dependence on constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin pathways. Our data identify Dlk1-Dio3 ncRNAs as novel candidate early biomarkers for mouse liver tumor promotion and provide new opportunities for assessing the carcinogenic potential of novel compounds.

  8. Long Noncoding RNAs: a New Regulatory Code in Metabolic Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xu-Yun; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as an integral part of the regulatory information encoded in the genome. LncRNAs possess the unique capability to interact with nucleic acids and proteins and exert discrete effects on numerous biological processes. Recent studies have delineated multiple lncRNA pathways that control metabolic tissue development and function. The expansion of the regulatory code that links nutrient and hormonal signals to tissue metabolism gives new insights into the genetic and pathogenic mechanisms underlying metabolic disease. This review discusses lncRNA biology with a focus on its role in the development, signaling, and function of key metabolic tissues. PMID:26410599

  9. Biology and clinical relevance of noncoding sno/scaRNAs.

    PubMed

    Cao, Thuy; Rajasingh, Sheeja; Samanta, Saheli; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Bittel, Douglas C; Rajasingh, Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a group of noncoding RNAs that perform various biological functions, including biochemical modifications of other RNAs, precursors of miRNA, splicing, and telomerase activity. The small Cajal body-associated RNAs (scaRNAs) are a subset of the snoRNA family and collect in the Cajal body where they perform their canonical function to biochemically modify spliceosomal RNAs prior to maturation. Failure of sno/scaRNAs have been implicated in pathology such as congenital heart anomalies, neuromuscular disorders, and various malignancies. Thus, understanding of sno/scaRNAs demonstrates the clinical value. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrinsic transcriptional heterogeneity in B cells controls early class switching to IgE

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yee Ling; Teichmann, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Noncoding transcripts originating upstream of the immunoglobulin constant region (I transcripts) are required to direct activation-induced deaminase to initiate class switching in B cells. Differential regulation of Iε and Iγ1 transcription in response to interleukin 4 (IL-4), hence class switching to IgE and IgG1, is not fully understood. In this study, we combine novel mouse reporters and single-cell RNA sequencing to reveal the heterogeneity in IL-4–induced I transcription. We identify an early population of cells expressing Iε but not Iγ1 and demonstrate that early Iε transcription leads to switching to IgE and occurs at lower activation levels than Iγ1. Our results reveal how probabilistic transcription with a lower activation threshold for Iε directs the early choice of IgE versus IgG1, a key physiological response against parasitic infestations and a mediator of allergy and asthma. PMID:27994069

  11. Regional variation in identified cancer care needs of early-career oncologists in China, India, and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, H Kim; Fawzy, Maria R; Aziz, Zeba; Nair, Reena; Pramesh, C S; Parmar, Vani; Parikh, Purvish M; Jamal, Rozmin; Irumnaz, Azizunissa; Ren, Jun; Stockler, Martin R; Abernethy, Amy P

    2015-05-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality is increasing in the developing world. Inequities between low-, middle-, and high-income countries affect disease burden and the infrastructure needs in response to cancer. We surveyed early-career oncologists attending workshops in clinical research in three countries with emerging economies about their perception of the evolving cancer burden. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was distributed at clinical trial concept development workshops held in Beijing, Lahore, Karachi, and Mumbai at major hospitals to acquire information regarding home-country health conditions and needs. A total of 100 respondents participated in the workshops held at major hospitals in the region (India = 29, China = 25, Pakistan = 42, and other = 4). Expected consensus on many issues (e.g., emergence of cancer as a significant health issue) was balanced with significant variation in priorities, opportunities, and challenges. Chinese respondents prioritized improvements in cancer-specific care and palliative care, Indian respondents favored improved cancer detection and advancing research in cancer care, and Pakistani respondents prioritized awareness of cancer and improvements in disease detection and cancer care research. For all, the most frequently cited opportunity was help in improving professional cancer education and training. Predominantly early-career oncologists attending clinical research workshops (in China, India, and Pakistan) identified needs for increasing clinical cancer research, professional education, and public awareness of cancer. Decision makers supporting efforts to reduce the burden of cancer worldwide will need to factor the specific needs and aspirations of health care providers in their country in prioritizing health policies and budgets. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. Coordinate regulation of two cytoplasmic RNA species transcribed from early region 2 of the adenovirus 2 genome.

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, C J; Rosenthal, R; Bhaduri, S; Raskas, H

    1981-01-01

    Early region 2 (E2) of the adenovirus 2 genome specifies a 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein that is required for viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy studies have detected two major forms of 20S E2 mRNA, one species with a 5' leader from map position 75 and a second form having a leader from position 72 (Chow et al., J. Mol. Biol. 134:265-303, 1979). Only the species with a leader from position 75 was detected at early times; however, both forms were found at late times. We have analyzed the temporal regulation of E2 expression by documenting mRNA accumulation in the cytoplasm. Kinetic studies of pulse-labeled RNAs demonstrated a peak of E2 cytoplasmic RNa synthesis at 10 to 12 h, coinciding with the time of maximal synthesis of the 72,000-dalton DNA binding protein and viral DNA. To estimate the relative abundances of the two major E2 RNA species at various times during infection, total E2 cytoplasmic and polysomal 20S RNAs were isolated by hybridization-selection with specific DNA probes. The leader sequences in the selected RNAs were then quantitated by further RNA-DNA hybridization. We found that the elevated accumulation rate for E2 cytoplasmic RNA at late times reflected an increase in formation of both major species. Moreover, for all time points examined 66% of the mRNA species had a 5' end from map position 75, and 33% had a 5' terminus from position 72. Continuous labeling experiments provided evidence that both RNA forms have comparable half-lives. The results suggest that the two major species encoded by E2 are regulated in a coordinate fashion late in infection. Images PMID:6894621

  13. Coordinate regulation of two cytoplasmic RNA species transcribed from early region 2 of the adenovirus 2 genome.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, C J; Rosenthal, R; Bhaduri, S; Raskas, H

    1981-06-01

    Early region 2 (E2) of the adenovirus 2 genome specifies a 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein that is required for viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy studies have detected two major forms of 20S E2 mRNA, one species with a 5' leader from map position 75 and a second form having a leader from position 72 (Chow et al., J. Mol. Biol. 134:265-303, 1979). Only the species with a leader from position 75 was detected at early times; however, both forms were found at late times. We have analyzed the temporal regulation of E2 expression by documenting mRNA accumulation in the cytoplasm. Kinetic studies of pulse-labeled RNAs demonstrated a peak of E2 cytoplasmic RNa synthesis at 10 to 12 h, coinciding with the time of maximal synthesis of the 72,000-dalton DNA binding protein and viral DNA. To estimate the relative abundances of the two major E2 RNA species at various times during infection, total E2 cytoplasmic and polysomal 20S RNAs were isolated by hybridization-selection with specific DNA probes. The leader sequences in the selected RNAs were then quantitated by further RNA-DNA hybridization. We found that the elevated accumulation rate for E2 cytoplasmic RNA at late times reflected an increase in formation of both major species. Moreover, for all time points examined 66% of the mRNA species had a 5' end from map position 75, and 33% had a 5' terminus from position 72. Continuous labeling experiments provided evidence that both RNA forms have comparable half-lives. The results suggest that the two major species encoded by E2 are regulated in a coordinate fashion late in infection.

  14. Activity-Dependent Human Brain Coding/Noncoding Gene Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lipovich, Leonard; Dachet, Fabien; Cai, Juan; Bagla, Shruti; Balan, Karina; Jia, Hui; Loeb, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    While most gene transcription yields RNA transcripts that code for proteins, a sizable proportion of the genome generates RNA transcripts that do not code for proteins, but may have important regulatory functions. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, a key regulator of neuronal activity, is overlapped by a primate-specific, antisense long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) called BDNFOS. We demonstrate reciprocal patterns of BDNF and BDNFOS transcription in highly active regions of human neocortex removed as a treatment for intractable seizures. A genome-wide analysis of activity-dependent coding and noncoding human transcription using a custom lncRNA microarray identified 1288 differentially expressed lncRNAs, of which 26 had expression profiles that matched activity-dependent coding genes and an additional 8 were adjacent to or overlapping with differentially expressed protein-coding genes. The functions of most of these protein-coding partner genes, such as ARC, include long-term potentiation, synaptic activity, and memory. The nuclear lncRNAs NEAT1, MALAT1, and RPPH1, composing an RNAse P-dependent lncRNA-maturation pathway, were also upregulated. As a means to replicate human neuronal activity, repeated depolarization of SY5Y cells resulted in sustained CREB activation and produced an inverse pattern of BDNF-BDNFOS co-expression that was not achieved with a single depolarization. RNAi-mediated knockdown of BDNFOS in human SY5Y cells increased BDNF expression, suggesting that BDNFOS directly downregulates BDNF. Temporal expression patterns of other lncRNA-messenger RNA pairs validated the effect of chronic neuronal activity on the transcriptome and implied various lncRNA regulatory mechanisms. lncRNAs, some of which are unique to primates, thus appear to have potentially important regulatory roles in activity-dependent human brain plasticity. PMID:22960213

  15. Functional Studies and In Silico Analyses to Evaluate Non-Coding Variants in Inherited Cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Frisso, Giulia; Detta, Nicola; Coppola, Pamela; Mazzaccara, Cristina; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Raffaele; Salvatore, Francesco

    2016-11-10

    Point mutations are the most common cause of inherited diseases. Bioinformatics tools can help to predict the pathogenicity of mutations found during genetic screening, but they may work less well in determining the effect of point mutations in non-coding regions. In silico analysis of intronic variants can reveal their impact on the splicing process, but the consequence of a given substitution is generally not predictable. The aim of this study was to functionally test five intronic variants ( MYBPC3 -c.506-2A>C, MYBPC3 -c.906-7G>T, MYBPC3 -c.2308+3G>C, SCN5A -c.393-5C>A, and ACTC1 -c.617-7T>C) found in five patients affected by inherited cardiomyopathies in the attempt to verify their pathogenic role. Analysis of the MYBPC3 -c.506-2A>C mutation in mRNA from the peripheral blood of one of the patients affected by hypertrophic cardiac myopathy revealed the loss of the canonical splice site and the use of an alternative splicing site, which caused the loss of the first seven nucleotides of exon 5 ( MYBPC3 -G169AfsX14). In the other four patients, we generated minigene constructs and transfected them in HEK-293 cells. This minigene approach showed that MYBPC3 -c.2308+3G>C and SCN5A -c.393-5C>A altered pre-mRNA processing, thus resulting in the skipping of one exon. No alterations were found in either MYBPC3 -c.906-7G>T or ACTC1 -c.617-7T>C. In conclusion, functional in vitro analysis of the effects of potential splicing mutations can confirm or otherwise the putative pathogenicity of non-coding mutations, and thus help to guide the patient's clinical management and improve genetic counseling in affected families.

  16. CVD-associated non-coding RNA, ANRIL, modulates expression of atherogenic pathways in VSMC

    SciT

    Congrains, Ada; Kamide, Kei; Katsuya, Tomohiro

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANRIL maps in the strongest susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of ANRIL leads to altered expression of tissue remodeling-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of ANRIL on gene expression are splicing variant specific. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANRIL affects progression of cardiovascular disease by regulating proliferation and apoptosis pathways. -- Abstract: ANRIL is a newly discovered non-coding RNA lying on the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the chromosome 9p21 region. Genome-wide association studies have been linking polymorphisms in this locus with CVD and several other major diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The role of thismore » non-coding RNA in atherosclerosis progression is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the implication of ANRIL in the modulation of gene sets directly involved in atherosclerosis. We designed and tested siRNA sequences to selectively target two exons (exon 1 and exon 19) of the transcript and successfully knocked down expression of ANRIL in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HuAoVSMC). We used a pathway-focused RT-PCR array to profile gene expression changes caused by ANRIL knock down. Notably, the genes affected by each of the siRNAs were different, suggesting that different splicing variants of ANRIL might have distinct roles in cell physiology. Our results suggest that ANRIL splicing variants play a role in coordinating tissue remodeling, by modulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, extra-cellular matrix remodeling and inflammatory response to finally impact in the risk of cardiovascular disease and other pathologies.« less

  17. Regional Emphysema Score Predicting Overall Survival, Quality of Life, and Pulmonary Function Recovery in Early-Stage Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Liu, Ming; Swensen, Stephen J; Stoddard, Shawn M; Wampfler, Jason A; Limper, Andrew H; Jiang, Gening; Yang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is a frequent comorbidity in lung cancer, but its role in tumor prognosis remains obscure. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of the regional emphysema score (RES) on a patient's overall survival, quality of life (QOL), and recovery of pulmonary function in stage I to II lung cancer. Between 1997 and 2009, a total of 1073 patients were identified and divided into two surgical groups-cancer in the emphysematous (group 1 [n = 565]) and nonemphysematous (group 2 [n = 435]) regions-and one nonsurgical group (group 3 [n = 73]). RES was derived from the emphysematous region and categorized as mild (≤5%), moderate (6%-24%), or severe (25%-60%). In group 1, patients with a moderate or severe RES experienced slight decreases in postoperative forced expiratory volume in 1 second, but increases in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity compared with those with a mild RES (p < 0.01); however, this correlation was not observed in group 2. Posttreatment QOL was lower in patients with higher RESs in all groups, mainly owing to dyspnea (p < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that patients with a higher RES had significantly poorer survival in both surgical groups, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.41 and 1.43 for a moderate RES and 1.63 and 2.04 for a severe RES, respectively; however, this association was insignificant in the nonsurgical group (adjusted hazard ratio of 0.99 for a moderate or severe RES). In surgically treated patients with cancer in the emphysematous region, RES is associated with postoperative changes in lung function. RES is also predictive of posttreatment QOL related to dyspnea in early-stage lung cancer. In both surgical groups, RES is an independent predictor of survival. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Early Stage Marcellus Shale Development Atmospheric Emissions and Regional Air Quality Impacts using Fast Mobile Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, J. D.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Fortner, E.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.; Knighton, W. B.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; DeCarlo, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Marcellus shale is the largest shale gas resource in the United States and is found in the Appalachian region. Rapid large-scale development, and the scarcity of direct air measurements make the impact of Marcellus shale development on local and regional air quality and the global climate highly uncertain. Air pollutant and greenhouse gas emission sources include transitory emission from well pad development as well as persistent sources including the processing and distribution of natural gas. In 2012, the Aerodyne Inc. Mobile Laboratory was equipped with a suite of real-time (~ 1 Hz) instrumentation to measure source emissions associated with Marcellus shale development and to characterize regional air quality in the Marcellus basin. The Aerodyne Inc. Mobile Laboratory was equipped to measure methane, ethane, N2O (tracer gas), C2H2 (tracer gas), CO2, CO, NOx, aerosols (number, mass, and composition), and VOC including light aromatic compounds and constituents of natural gas. Site-specific emissions from Marcellus shale development were quantified using tracer release ratio methods. Emissions of sub-micron aerosol mass and VOC were generally not observed at any tracer release site, although particle number concentrations were often enhanced. Compressor stations were found to have the largest emission rates of combustion products with NOx emissions ranging from 0.01 to 1.6 tons per day (tpd) and CO emissions ranging from 0.03 to 0.42 tpd. Transient sources, including a well site in the drill phase, were observed to be large emitters of natural gas. The largest methane emissions observed in the study were at a flowback well completion with a value of 7.7 tpd. Production well pads were observed to have the lowest emissions of natural gas and the emission of combustion products was only observed at one of three well pads investigated. Regional background measurements of all measured species were made while driving between tracer release sites and while stationary

  19. The non-coding RNA landscape of human hematopoiesis and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Adrian; Emmrich, Stephan; Schmidt, Franziska; Beck, Dominik; Ng, Michelle; Reimer, Christina; Adams, Felix Ferdinand; Grasedieck, Sarah; Witte, Damian; Käbler, Sebastian; Wong, Jason W H; Shah, Anushi; Huang, Yizhou; Jammal, Razan; Maroz, Aliaksandra; Jongen-Lavrencic, Mojca; Schambach, Axel; Kuchenbauer, Florian; Pimanda, John E; Reinhardt, Dirk; Heckl, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning

    2017-08-09

    Non-coding RNAs have emerged as crucial regulators of gene expression and cell fate decisions. However, their expression patterns and regulatory functions during normal and malignant human hematopoiesis are incompletely understood. Here we present a comprehensive resource defining the non-coding RNA landscape of the human hematopoietic system. Based on highly specific non-coding RNA expression portraits per blood cell population, we identify unique fingerprint non-coding RNAs-such as LINC00173 in granulocytes-and assign these to critical regulatory circuits involved in blood homeostasis. Following the incorporation of acute myeloid leukemia samples into the landscape, we further uncover prognostically relevant non-coding RNA stem cell signatures shared between acute myeloid leukemia blasts and healthy hematopoietic stem cells. Our findings highlight the importance of the non-coding transcriptome in the formation and maintenance of the human blood hierarchy.While micro-RNAs are known regulators of haematopoiesis and leukemogenesis, the role of long non-coding RNAs is less clear. Here the authors provide a non-coding RNA expression landscape of the human hematopoietic system, highlighting their role in the formation and maintenance of the human blood hierarchy.

  20. Thermodynamic Effects of Noncoded and Coded Methionine Substitutions in Calmodulin

    PubMed Central

    Yamniuk, Aaron P.; Ishida, Hiroaki; Lippert, Dustin; Vogel, Hans J.

    2009-01-01

    The methionine residues in the calcium (Ca2+) regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM) are structurally and functionally important. They are buried within the N- and C-domains of apo-CaM but become solvent-exposed in Ca2+-CaM, where they interact with numerous target proteins. Previous structural studies have shown that methionine substitutions to the noncoded amino acids selenomethionine, ethionine, or norleucine, or mutation to leucine do not impact the main chain structure of CaM. Here we used differential scanning calorimetry to show that these substitutions enhance the stability of both domains, with the largest increase in melting temperature (19–26°C) achieved with leucine or norleucine in the apo-C-domain. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments also revealed the loss of a slow conformational exchange process in the Leu-substituted apo-C-domain. In addition, isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed considerable changes in the enthalpy and entropy of target binding to apo-CaM and Ca2+-CaM, but the free energy of binding was largely unaffected due to enthalpy-entropy compensation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that noncoded and coded methionine substitutions can be accommodated in CaM because of the structural plasticity of the protein. However, adjustments in side-chain packing and dynamics lead to significant differences in protein stability and the thermodynamics of target binding. PMID:19217866

  1. Peptides Used in the Delivery of Small Noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an endogenous process in which small noncoding RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), post-transcriptionally regulate gene expressions. In general, siRNA and miRNA/miRNA mimics are similar in nature and activity except their origin and specificity. Although both siRNAs and miRNAs have been extensively studied as novel therapeutics for a wide range of diseases, the large molecular weight, anionic surface charges, instability in blood circulation, and intracellular trafficking to the RISC after cellular uptake have hindered the translation of these RNAs from bench to clinic. As a result, a great variety of delivery systems have been investigated for safe and effective delivery of small noncoding RNAs. Among these systems, peptides, especially cationic peptides, have emerged as a promising type of carrier due to their inherent ability to condense negatively charged RNAs, ease of synthesis, controllable size, and tunable structure. In this review, we will focus on three major types of cationic peptides, including poly(l-lysine) (PLL), protamine, and cell penetrating peptides (CPP), as well as peptide targeting ligands that have been extensively used in RNA delivery. The delivery strategies, applications, and limitations of these cationic peptides in siRNA/miRNA delivery will be discussed. PMID:25157701

  2. Circular RNA - New member of noncoding RNA with novel functions.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Kuei-Yang; Sun, H Sunny; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq

    2017-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that circular RNAs are not simply a side product of splicing but a new class of noncoding RNAs in higher eukaryotes. The progression for the studies of circular RNAs is accelerated by combination of several advanced technologies such as next generation sequencing, gene silencing (small interfering RNAs) and editing (CRISPR/Cas9). More and more studies showed that dysregulated expression of circular RNAs plays critical roles during the development of several human diseases. Herein, we review the current advance of circular RNAs for their biosynthesis, molecular functions, and implications in human diseases. Impact statement The accumulating evidence indicate that circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel class of noncoding RNA with diverse molecular functions. Our review summarizes the current hypotheses for the models of circRNA biosynthesis including the direct interaction between upstream and downstream introns and lariat-driven circularization. In addition, molecular functions such as a decoy of microRNA (miRNA) termed miRNA sponge, transcriptional regulator, and protein-like modulator are also discussed. Finally, we reviewed the potential roles of circRNAs in neural system, cardiovascular system as well as cancers. These should provide insightful information for studying the regulation and functions of circRNA in other model of human diseases.

  3. The interplay between noncoding RNAs and insulin in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan; Xu, Jia; Du, Xiao; Fu, Xianghui

    2018-04-10

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs and circular RNAs, regulate various biological processes and are involved in the initiation and progression of human diseases. Insulin, a predominant hormone secreted from pancreatic β cells, is an essential factor in regulation of systemic metabolism through multifunctional insulin signaling. Insulin production and action are tightly controlled. Dysregulations of insulin production and action can impair metabolic homeostasis, and eventually lead to the development of multiple metabolic diseases, especially diabetes. Accumulating data indicates that ncRNAs modulate β cell mass, insulin synthesis, secretion and signaling, and their role in diabetes is dramatically emerging. This review summarizes our current knowledge of ncRNAs as regulators of insulin, with particular emphasis on the implications of this interplay in the development of diabetes. We outline the role of ncRNAs in pancreatic β cell mass and function, which is critical for insulin production and secretion. We also highlight the involvement of ncRNAs in insulin signaling in peripheral tissues including liver, muscle and adipose, and discuss ncRNA-mediated inter-organ crosstalk under diabetic conditions. A more in-depth understanding of the interplay between ncRNAs and insulin may afford valuable insights and novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of diabetes, as well as other human diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long Noncoding RNAs as a Key Player in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Mrigaya; Chauhan, Ranjit

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major malignancy in the liver and has emerged as one of the main cancers in the world with a high mortality rate. However, the molecular mechanisms of HCC are still poorly understood. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently come to the forefront as functional non–protein-coding RNAs that are involved in a variety of cellular processes ranging from maintaining the structural integrity of chromosomes to gene expression regulation in a spatiotemporal manner. Many recent studies have reported the involvement of lncRNAs in HCC which has led to a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms operating in HCC. Long noncoding RNAs have been shown to regulate development and progression of HCC, and thus, lncRNAs have both diagnostic and therapeutic potentials. In this review, we present an overview of the lncRNAs involved in different stages of HCC and their potential in clinical applications which have been studied so far. PMID:29147078

  5. Present Scenario of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Garima; Goyal, Neetu; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Kashmir

    2017-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs have been extensively studied in plants over the last decade. In contrast, genome-wide identification of plant long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has recently gained momentum. LncRNAs are now being recognized as important players in gene regulation, and their potent regulatory roles are being studied comprehensively in eukaryotes. LncRNAs were first reported in humans in 1992. Since then, research in animals, particularly in humans, has rapidly progressed, and a vast amount of data has been generated, collected, and organized using computational approaches. Additionally, numerous studies have been conducted to understand the roles of these long RNA species in several diseases. However, the status of lncRNA investigation in plants lags behind that in animals (especially humans). Efforts are being made in this direction using computational tools and high-throughput sequencing technologies, such as the lncRNA microarray technique, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), RNA capture sequencing, (RNA CaptureSeq), etc. Given the current scenario, significant amounts of data have been produced regarding plant lncRNAs, and this amount is likely to increase in the subsequent years. In this review we have documented brief information about lncRNAs and their status of research in plants, along with the plant-specific resources/databases for information retrieval on lncRNAs. PMID:29657289

  6. Long Non-Coding RNAs Differentially Expressed between Normal versus Primary Breast Tumor Tissues Disclose Converse Changes to Breast Cancer-Related Protein-Coding Genes

    PubMed Central

    Reiche, Kristin; Kasack, Katharina; Schreiber, Stephan; Lüders, Torben; Due, Eldri U.; Naume, Bjørn; Riis, Margit; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Horn, Friedemann; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hackermüller, Jörg; Baumbusch, Lars O.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in women, is a highly heterogeneous disease, characterized by distinct genomic and transcriptomic profiles. Transcriptome analyses prevalently assessed protein-coding genes; however, the majority of the mammalian genome is expressed in numerous non-coding transcripts. Emerging evidence supports that many of these non-coding RNAs are specifically expressed during development, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. The focus of this study was to investigate the expression features and molecular characteristics of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in breast cancer. We investigated 26 breast tumor and 5 normal tissue samples utilizing a custom expression microarray enclosing probes for mRNAs as well as novel and previously identified lncRNAs. We identified more than 19,000 unique regions significantly differentially expressed between normal versus breast tumor tissue, half of these regions were non-coding without any evidence for functional open reading frames or sequence similarity to known proteins. The identified non-coding regions were primarily located in introns (53%) or in the intergenic space (33%), frequently orientated in antisense-direction of protein-coding genes (14%), and commonly distributed at promoter-, transcription factor binding-, or enhancer-sites. Analyzing the most diverse mRNA breast cancer subtypes Basal-like versus Luminal A and B resulted in 3,025 significantly differentially expressed unique loci, including 682 (23%) for non-coding transcripts. A notable number of differentially expressed protein-coding genes displayed non-synonymous expression changes compared to their nearest differentially expressed lncRNA, including an antisense lncRNA strongly anticorrelated to the mRNA coding for histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), which was investigated in more detail. Previously identified chromatin-associated lncRNAs (CARs) were predominantly downregulated in breast tumor samples, including CARs located in the

  7. Long non-coding RNAs differentially expressed between normal versus primary breast tumor tissues disclose converse changes to breast cancer-related protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Kristin; Kasack, Katharina; Schreiber, Stephan; Lüders, Torben; Due, Eldri U; Naume, Bjørn; Riis, Margit; Kristensen, Vessela N; Horn, Friedemann; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hackermüller, Jörg; Baumbusch, Lars O

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in women, is a highly heterogeneous disease, characterized by distinct genomic and transcriptomic profiles. Transcriptome analyses prevalently assessed protein-coding genes; however, the majority of the mammalian genome is expressed in numerous non-coding transcripts. Emerging evidence supports that many of these non-coding RNAs are specifically expressed during development, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. The focus of this study was to investigate the expression features and molecular characteristics of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in breast cancer. We investigated 26 breast tumor and 5 normal tissue samples utilizing a custom expression microarray enclosing probes for mRNAs as well as novel and previously identified lncRNAs. We identified more than 19,000 unique regions significantly differentially expressed between normal versus breast tumor tissue, half of these regions were non-coding without any evidence for functional open reading frames or sequence similarity to known proteins. The identified non-coding regions were primarily located in introns (53%) or in the intergenic space (33%), frequently orientated in antisense-direction of protein-coding genes (14%), and commonly distributed at promoter-, transcription factor binding-, or enhancer-sites. Analyzing the most diverse mRNA breast cancer subtypes Basal-like versus Luminal A and B resulted in 3,025 significantly differentially expressed unique loci, including 682 (23%) for non-coding transcripts. A notable number of differentially expressed protein-coding genes displayed non-synonymous expression changes compared to their nearest differentially expressed lncRNA, including an antisense lncRNA strongly anticorrelated to the mRNA coding for histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), which was investigated in more detail. Previously identified chromatin-associated lncRNAs (CARs) were predominantly downregulated in breast tumor samples, including CARs located in the

  8. Exercise alters mouse sperm small noncoding RNAs and induces a transgenerational modification of male offspring conditioned fear and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Short, A K; Yeshurun, S; Powell, R; Perreau, V M; Fox, A; Kim, J H; Pang, T Y; Hannan, A J

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the preconceptual lifestyle and other environmental exposures of a father can significantly alter the physiological and behavioral phenotypes of their children. We and others have shown that paternal preconception stress, regardless of whether the stress was experienced during early-life or adulthood, results in offspring with altered anxiety and depression-related behaviors, attributed to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation. The transgenerational response to paternal preconceptual stress is believed to be mediated by sperm-borne small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNAs. As physical activity confers physical and mental health benefits for the individual, we used a model of voluntary wheel-running and investigated the transgenerational response to paternal exercise. We found that male offspring of runners had suppressed reinstatement of juvenile fear memory, and reduced anxiety in the light–dark apparatus during adulthood. No changes in these affective behaviors were observed in female offspring. We were surprised to find that running had a limited impact on sperm-borne microRNAs. The levels of three unique microRNAs (miR-19b, miR-455 and miR-133a) were found to be altered in the sperm of runners. In addition, we discovered that the levels of two species of tRNA-derived RNAs (tDRs)—tRNA-Gly and tRNA-Pro—were also altered by running. Taken together, we believe this is the first evidence that paternal exercise is associated with an anxiolytic behavioral phenotype of male offspring and altered levels of small noncoding RNAs in sperm. These small noncoding RNAs are known to have an impact on post-transcriptional gene regulation and can thus change the developmental trajectory of offspring brains and associated affective behaviors. PMID:28463242

  9. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  10. Crosstalk between the Notch signaling pathway and non-coding RNAs in gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yangyang; Mao, Yuyan; Jin, Rong; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is one of the main signaling pathways that mediates direct contact between cells, and is essential for normal development. It regulates various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. It additionally serves an important function in tumor progression. Non-coding RNAs mainly include small microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs. At present, a large body of literature supports the biological significance of non-coding RNAs in tumor progression. It is also becoming increasingly evident that cross-talk exists between Notch signaling and non-coding RNAs. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of Notch-mediated gastrointestinal cancer cell processes, and the effect of the crosstalk between the three major types of non-coding RNAs and the Notch signaling pathway on the fate of gastrointestinal cancer cells. PMID:29285185

  11. Analysis of meteorology and emission in haze episode prevalence over mountain-bounded region for early warning.

    PubMed

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Leelasakultum, Ketsiri

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the main causes of haze episodes in the northwestern Thailand to provide early warning and prediction. In an absence of emission input data required for chemical transport modeling to predict the haze, the climatological approach in combination with statistical analysis was used. An automatic meteorological classification scheme was developed using regional meteorological station data of 8years (2001-2008) which classified the prevailing synoptic patterns over Northern Thailand into 4 patterns. Pattern 2, occurring with high frequency in March, was found to associate with the highest levels of 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai, the largest city in Northern Thailand. Typical features of this pattern were the dominance of thermal lows over India, Western China and Northern Thailand with hot, dry and stagnant air in Northern Thailand. March 2007, the month with the most severe haze episode in Chiangmai, was found to have a high frequency of occurrence of pattern 2 coupled with the highest emission intensities from biomass open burning. Backward trajectories showed that, on haze episode days, air masses passed over the region of dense biomass fire hotspots before arriving at Chiangmai. A stepwise regression model was developed to predict 24h PM(10) for days of meteorology pattern 2 using February-April data of 2007-2009 and tested with 2004-2010 data. The model performed satisfactorily for the model development dataset (R(2)=87%) and test dataset (R(2)=81%), which appeared to be superior over a simple persistence regression of 24h PM(10) (R(2)=76%). Our developed model had an accuracy over 90% for the categorical forecast of PM(10)>120μg/m(3). The episode warning procedure would identify synoptic pattern 2 and predict 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai 24h in advance. This approach would be applicable for air pollution episode management in other areas with complex terrain where similar conditions exist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2016-04-01

    The field of Archaeology remains focused on historical issues while underexploring its potential contribution on currently existing societal problems, e.g. climate change. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of archeological studies for the research of the 'human species as a significant moving agent' in terms of the changing natural environment during a much earlier time frame. This research is based on the study area of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region in the Netherlands and Belgium and exhibits the period from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Roman period. This period is characterized by the widespread introduction and use of an agricultural system, often referred to as the Celtic Field system that served as one of the most modifying systems in terms of anthropogenic-environmental change during this period. Emphasis in this research is given to results generated by the use of the remote sensing technology, LiDAR. New information is reported considering a correlation between singular field size and the overall surface of the agricultural complexes and secondly, the presentation of newly identified Celtic field systems in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region are presented. The study of the dynamics of the Celtic Field agricultural system provides evidence for a significant anthropogenic footprint on the natural environment due to land cover dominance, soil degeneration, increased soil acidification and forest clearance. Soil exhaustion forced the inhabitants to re-establish their relationship with the landscape in terms of fundamental changes in the habitation pattern and the agrarian exploitations of the land.

  13. Culture-proven early-onset neonatal sepsis in Arab states in the Gulf region: two-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Majeda S; Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Al-Abdi, Sameer Y; Bozaid, Hussain; Khan, Anwar; AlMuhairi, Laila M; Rehman, Moghis Ur

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the incidence and the pattern of causative organisms of culture-proven early-onset sepsis (EOS) in Arab states in the Gulf region. Five neonatal care units participated in this 2-year prospective study in Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. Data were collected prospectively using a standardized data collection form. EOS was defined as the growth of a single potentially pathogenic organism from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in infants within 72h of birth, with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with infection. Out of 67 474 live births, 102 cases of EOS occurred. The overall incidence of EOS was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.8) per 1000 live-births, ranging from 2.64 per 1000 live-births in Kuwait to 0.40 per 1000 live-births in King Abdulaziz Hospital in Saudi Arabia. The most common causative organism of EOS was group B Streptococcus (GBS; 60.0%), followed by Escherichia coli (13%). The incidence of invasive GBS disease was 0.90 per 1000 live-births overall and ranged from 1.4 per 1000 live-births in Kuwait to 0.6 per 1000 live-births in Dubai Hospital. The incidence of EOS and the patterns of the causative organisms in the Arab states in the Gulf region are similar to those in developed countries before the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Efforts should be made to improve intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in the Arab state setting, which could avert large numbers of GBS infections. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of a non-coding RNA in ectromelia virus is required for normal plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Esteban, David J; Upton, Chris; Bartow-McKenney, Casey; Buller, R Mark L; Chen, Nanhai G; Schriewer, Jill; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Wang, Chunlin

    2014-02-01

    Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses with large genomes. Many genes in the genome remain uncharacterized, and recent studies have demonstrated that the poxvirus transcriptome includes numerous so-called anomalous transcripts not associated with open reading frames. Here, we characterize the expression and role of an apparently non-coding RNA in orthopoxviruses, which we call viral hairpin RNA (vhRNA). Using a bioinformatics approach, we predicted expression of a transcript not associated with an open reading frame that is likely to form a stem-loop structure due to the presence of a 21 nt palindromic sequence. Expression of the transcript as early as 2 h post-infection was confirmed by northern blot and analysis of publicly available vaccinia virus infected cell transcriptomes. The transcription start site was determined by RACE PCE and transcriptome analysis, and early and late promoter sequences were identified. Finally, to test the function of the transcript we generated an ectromelia virus knockout, which failed to form plaques in cell culture. The important role of the transcript in viral replication was further demonstrated using siRNA. Although the function of the transcript remains unknown, our work contributes to evidence of an increasingly complex poxvirus transcriptome, suggesting that transcripts such as vhRNA not associated with an annotated open reading frame can play an important role in viral replication.

  15. A major Early Miocene thermal pulse due to subduction segmentation and rollback in the western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spakman, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Vissers, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geological studies have shown that Eo-Oligocene subduction related high-pressure, low-temperature metasediments and peridotites of the Alboran region (Spain, Morocco) and the Kabylides (Algeria) experienced a major Early Miocene (~21 Ma) thermal pulse requiring asthenospheric temperatures at ~60 km depth. Despite earlier propositions, the cause of this thermal pulse is still controversial while also the paleogeographic origin of the Alboran and Kabylides units is debated. Here, we relate the thermal pulse to segmentation of the West Alpine-Tethyan slab under the SE Iberian margin (Baleares-Sardinia). We restore the Alboran rocks farther east than previously assumed, to close to the Balearic Islands, adjacent to Sardinia. We identify three major lithosphere faults, the NW-SE trending North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ) and the ~W-E trending Emile Baudot and North African transforms that accommodated the Miocene subduction evolution of slab segmentation, rollback, and migration of Alboran and Kabylides rocks to their current positions. The heat pulse occurred S-SE of the Baleares where slab segmentation along the NBTZ triggered radially outgrowing S-SW rollback opening a slab window that facilitated local ascent of asthenosphere below the rapidly extending Alboran-Kabylides accretionary prism. Subsequent slab rollback carried the Kabylides and Alboran domains to their present positions. Our new reconstruction is in line with tomographically imaged mantle structure and focuses attention on the crucial role of evolving subduction segmentation driving HT-metamorphism and subsequent extension, fragmentation, and dispersion of geological terrains.

  16. The forecasting research of early warning systems for atmospheric pollutants: A case in Yangtze River Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yiliao; Qin, Shanshan; Qu, Jiansheng; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    The issue of air quality regarding PM pollution levels in China is a focus of public attention. To address that issue, to date, a series of studies is in progress, including PM monitoring programs, PM source apportionment, and the enactment of new ambient air quality index standards. However, related research concerning computer modeling for PM future trends estimation is rare, despite its significance to forecasting and early warning systems. Thereby, a study regarding deterministic and interval forecasts of PM is performed. In this study, data on hourly and 12 h-averaged air pollutants are applied to forecast PM concentrations within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China. The characteristics of PM emissions have been primarily examined and analyzed using different distribution functions. To improve the distribution fitting that is crucial for estimating PM levels, an artificial intelligence algorithm is incorporated to select the optimal parameters. Following that step, an ANF model is used to conduct deterministic forecasts of PM. With the identified distributions and deterministic forecasts, different levels of PM intervals are estimated. The results indicate that the lognormal or gamma distributions are highly representative of the recorded PM data with a goodness-of-fit R2 of approximately 0.998. Furthermore, the results of the evaluation metrics (MSE, MAPE and CP, AW) also show high accuracy within the deterministic and interval forecasts of PM, indicating that this method enables the informative and effective quantification of future PM trends.

  17. Find Cancer Early: Evaluation of a Community Education Campaign to Increase Awareness of Cancer Signs and Symptoms in People in Regional Western Australians.

    PubMed

    Croager, Emma Jane; Gray, Victoria; Pratt, Iain Stephen; Slevin, Terry; Pettigrew, Simone; Holman, C D'arcy; Bulsara, Max; Emery, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Cancer outcomes for people living in rural and remote areas are worse than for those living in urban areas. Although access to and quality of cancer treatment are important determinants of outcomes, delayed presentation has been observed in rural patients. Formative research with people from rural Western Australia (WA) led to the Find Cancer Early campaign. Find Cancer Early was delivered in three regions of WA, with two other regions acting as controls. Staff delivered the campaign using a community engagement approach, including promotion in local media. Television communications were not used to minimize contamination in the control regions. The campaign evaluation was undertaken at 20 months via a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey comparing campaign and control regions. The primary outcome variable was knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms. Recognition and recall of Find Cancer Early and symptom knowledge were higher in the campaign regions. More than a quarter of those who were aware of the campaign reported seeing the GP as a result of their exposure. Despite limited use of mass media, Find Cancer Early successfully improved knowledge of cancer symptoms and possibly led to changes in behavior. Social marketing campaigns using community development can raise awareness and knowledge of a health issue in the absence of television advertising.

  18. Technical Note: An operational landslide early warning system at regional scale based on space-time variable rainfall thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoni, S.; Battistini, A.; Rossi, G.; Rosi, A.; Lagomarsino, D.; Catani, F.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2014-10-01

    We set up an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Tuscany (23 000 km2). The system is based on a set of state-of-the-art intensity-duration rainfall thresholds (Segoni et al., 2014b), makes use of LAMI rainfall forecasts and real-time rainfall data provided by an automated network of more than 300 rain-gauges. The system was implemented in a WebGIS to ease the operational use in civil protection procedures: it is simple and intuitive to consult and it provides different outputs. Switching among different views, the system is able to focus both on monitoring of real time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h. Moreover, the system can switch between a very straightforward view where a synoptic scenario of the hazard can be shown all over the region and a more in-depth view were the rainfall path of rain-gauges can be displayed and constantly compared with rainfall thresholds. To better account for the high spatial variability of the physical features, which affects the relationship between rainfall and landslides, the region is subdivided into 25 alert zones, each provided with a specific threshold. The warning system reflects this subdivision: using a network of 332 rain gauges, it allows monitoring each alert zone separately and warnings can be issued independently from an alert zone to another. An important feature of the warning system is the use of thresholds that may vary in time adapting at the conditions of the rainfall path recorded by the rain-gauges. Depending on when the starting time of the rainfall event is set, the comparison with the threshold may produce different outcomes. Therefore, a recursive algorithm was developed to check and compare with the thresholds all possible starting times, highlighting the worst scenario and showing in the WebGIS interface at what time and how much the rainfall path has exceeded or will exceed the most critical threshold. Besides forecasting and monitoring the hazard scenario

  19. Short-lived non-coding transcripts (SLiTs): Clues to regulatory long non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Tani, Hidenori

    2017-03-22

    Whole transcriptome analyses have revealed a large number of novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although the importance of lncRNAs has been documented in previous reports, the biological and physiological functions of lncRNAs remain largely unknown. The role of lncRNAs seems an elusive problem. Here, I propose a clue to the identification of regulatory lncRNAs. The key point is RNA half-life. RNAs with a long half-life (t 1/2 > 4 h) contain a significant proportion of ncRNAs, as well as mRNAs involved in housekeeping functions, whereas RNAs with a short half-life (t 1/2 < 4 h) include known regulatory ncRNAs and regulatory mRNAs. This novel class of ncRNAs with a short half-life can be categorized as Short-Lived non-coding Transcripts (SLiTs). I consider that SLiTs are likely to be rich in functionally uncharacterized regulatory RNAs. This review describes recent progress in research into SLiTs.

  20. Punctuated sediment discharge during early Pliocene birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O’Connell, Brennan; McDougall-Reid, Kristin; Homan, Mindy B.

    2018-01-01

    The Colorado River in the southwestern U.S. provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the origins of a continent-scale river system, because deposits that formed prior to and during river initiation are well exposed in the lower river valley and nearby basinal sink. This paper presents a synthesis of regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and micropaleontology from the southern Bouse Formation and similar-age deposits in the western Salton Trough, which we use to interpret processes that controlled the birth and early evolution of the Colorado River. The southern Bouse Formation is divided into three laterally persistent members: basal carbonate, siliciclastic, and upper bioclastic members. Basal carbonate accumulated in a tide-dominated marine embayment during a rise of relative sea level between ~ 6.3 and 5.4 Ma, prior to arrival of the Colorado River. The transition to green claystone records initial rapid influx of river water and its distal clay wash load into the subtidal marine embayment at ~ 5.4–5.3 Ma. This was followed by rapid southward progradation of the Colorado River delta, establishment of the earliest through-flowing river, and deposition of river-derived turbidites in the western Salton Trough (Wind Caves paleocanyon) between ~ 5.3 and 5.1 Ma. Early delta progradation was followed by regional shut-down of river sand output between ~ 5.1 and 4.8 Ma that resulted in deposition of marine clay in the Salton Trough, retreat of the delta, and re-flooding of the lower river valley by shallow marine water that deposited the Bouse upper bioclastic member. Resumption of sediment discharge at ~ 4.8 Ma drove massive progradation of fluvial-deltaic deposits back down the river valley into the northern Gulf and Salton Trough.These results provide evidence for a discontinuous, start-stop-start history of sand output during initiation of the Colorado River that is not predicted by existing models for this system. The underlying controls on

  1. Comprehensive Identification of Meningococcal Genes and Small Noncoding RNAs Required for Host Cell Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Capel, Elena; Zomer, Aldert L.; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bole, Christine; Izac, Brigitte; Frapy, Eric; Meyer, Julie; Bouzinba-Ségard, Haniaa; Bille, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Anne; Cavau, Anne; Letourneur, Franck; Bourdoulous, Sandrine; Rattei, Thomas; Coureuil, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia, affecting infants and adults worldwide. N. meningitidis is also a common inhabitant of the human nasopharynx and, as such, is highly adapted to its niche. During bacteremia, N. meningitidis gains access to the blood compartment, where it adheres to endothelial cells of blood vessels and causes dramatic vascular damage. Colonization of the nasopharyngeal niche and communication with the different human cell types is a major issue of the N. meningitidis life cycle that is poorly understood. Here, highly saturated random transposon insertion libraries of N. meningitidis were engineered, and the fitness of mutations during routine growth and that of colonization of endothelial and epithelial cells in a flow device were assessed in a transposon insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) analysis. This allowed the identification of genes essential for bacterial growth and genes specifically required for host cell colonization. In addition, after having identified the small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) located in intergenic regions, the phenotypes associated with mutations in those sRNAs were defined. A total of 383 genes and 8 intergenic regions containing sRNA candidates were identified to be essential for growth, while 288 genes and 33 intergenic regions containing sRNA candidates were found to be specifically required for host cell colonization. PMID:27486197

  2. Identification of long non-coding RNAs in two anthozoan species and their possible implications for coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne R L; Cai, Jing; Liao, Qiwen; Perez, Carlos Daniel; Gomes, Paula Braga; Guo, Min; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2017-07-13

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play regulatory roles in a diverse range of biological processes and are associated with the outcomes of various diseases. The majority of studies about lncRNAs focus on model organisms, with lessened investigation in non-model organisms to date. Herein, we have undertaken an investigation on lncRNA in two zoanthids (cnidarian): Protolpalythoa varibilis and Palythoa caribaeorum. A total of 11,206 and 13,240 lncRNAs were detected in P. variabilis and P. caribaeorum transcriptome, respectively. Comparison using NONCODE database indicated that the majority of these lncRNAs is taxonomically species-restricted with no identifiable orthologs. Even so, we found cases in which short regions of P. caribaeorum's lncRNAs were similar to vertebrate species' lncRNAs, and could be associated with lncRNA conserved regulatory functions. Consequently, some high-confidence lncRNA-mRNA interactions were predicted based on such conserved regions, therefore revealing possible involvement of lncRNAs in posttranscriptional processing and regulation in anthozoans. Moreover, investigation of differentially expressed lncRNAs, in healthy colonies and colonial individuals undergoing natural bleaching, indicated that some up-regulated lncRNAs in P. caribaeorum could posttranscriptionally regulate the mRNAs encoding proteins of Ras-mediated signal transduction pathway and components of innate immune-system, which could contribute to the molecular response of coral bleaching.

  3. Early low-grade gastric MALToma rarely transforms into diffuse large cell lymphoma or progresses beyond the stomach and regional lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Yun; Dei, Pei-Han; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Lin, Chung-Wu

    2010-06-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) usually presents at an early stage involving only the stomach and/or regional lymph nodes. Although a sequential transformation from low-grade gastric MALToma (GM) to high-grade GM to secondary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is commonly assumed, documented cases of transformation are rare. We aim to determine the frequency of transformation. We identified 55 early low-grade GMs, 18 early high-grade GMs, and 13 advanced GMs at the National Taiwan University Hospital from 1995 to 2005. The median follow-up time was 59 months. We found that only one early low-grade GM and two early high-grade GMs transformed into secondary DLBCLs and progressed outside the stomach and regional lymph nodes. Significantly, we identified 13 low-grade GMs that were refractory to Helicobacter eradication therapy or relapsed after initial response. All 13 cases had been followed-up for at least 3 years without development of secondary DLBCLs. The frequency of transformation for early low-grade GM was less than 2% (1/55). Although two lymphoma-unrelated mortalities were identified, none of the 55 patients with early-low grade GMs died of the disease. Compared with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, which has a 16% transformation rate and a median transformation time of 24 months, we conclude that early low-grade GM rarely transforms into secondary DLBCL or progresses beyond the stomach. Without transformation or progression, patients with early low-grade GM rarely die of the disease and should be treated conservatively. Copyright (c) 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNAs Related to Mouse Embryonic Brain Development from Available Transcriptomic Data

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongjuan; Xiu, Youcheng; Guo, Jing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Qi; Zeng, Tiebo; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as a key group of non-coding RNAs have gained widely attention. Though lncRNAs have been functionally annotated and systematic explored in higher mammals, few are under systematical identification and annotation. Owing to the expression specificity, known lncRNAs expressed in embryonic brain tissues remain still limited. Considering a large number of lncRNAs are only transcribed in brain tissues, studies of lncRNAs in developmental brain are therefore of special interest. Here, publicly available RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data in embryonic brain are integrated to identify thousands of embryonic brain lncRNAs by a customized pipeline. A significant proportion of novel transcripts have not been annotated by available genomic resources. The putative embryonic brain lncRNAs are shorter in length, less spliced and show less conservation than known genes. The expression of putative lncRNAs is in one tenth on average of known coding genes, while comparable with known lncRNAs. From chromatin data, putative embryonic brain lncRNAs are associated with active chromatin marks, comparable with known lncRNAs. Embryonic brain expressed lncRNAs are also indicated to have expression though not evident in adult brain. Gene Ontology analysis of putative embryonic brain lncRNAs suggests that they are associated with brain development. The putative lncRNAs are shown to be related to possible cis-regulatory roles in imprinting even themselves are deemed to be imprinted lncRNAs. Re-analysis of one knockdown data suggests that four regulators are associated with lncRNAs. Taken together, the identification and systematic analysis of putative lncRNAs would provide novel insights into uncharacterized mouse non-coding regions and the relationships with mammalian embryonic brain development. PMID:23967161

  5. Early Indians Use Jones Valley. (Reading for "The South: Birmingham Case Study and the South as a Region". Grade Five (Unit IV) Project Social Studies.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Readings designed to accompany Unit IV, (ED 069 562) which is intended for fifth grade students, describe the Birmingham region from 1812 to 1872. Nine themes in the study illustrate settlement in the valley, early growth in Birmingham, and the changing use of the area in terms of different perceptions of natural resources. Technical advancement…

  6. Early Intervention for At-Risk Children in the North Central Region: A Comparative Analysis of Selected State Education Agencies' Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunesh, Linda G.

    The primary purpose of this policy study was to identify and examine early intervention policies for young children at risk of academic failure in selected state education agencies (SEAs) in the North Central Region of the United States. The secondary purpose was to document the processes by which the selected states in the north central…

  7. Application of regional physically-based landslide early warning model: tuning of the input parameters and validation of the results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Tofani, Veronica; Rossi, Guglielmo; Salvatici, Teresa; Tacconi Stefanelli, Carlo; Rosi, Ascanio; Benedetta Masi, Elena; Pazzi, Veronica; Vannocci, Pietro; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    runs in real-time by assimilating weather data and uses Monte Carlo simulation techniques to manage the geotechnical and hydrological input parameters. In this context, an assessment of the factors controlling the geotechnical and hydrological features is crucial in order to understand the occurrence of slope instability mechanisms and to provide reliable forecasting of the hydrogeological hazard occurrence, especially in relation to weather events. In particular, the model and the soil characterization were applied in back analysis, in order to assess the reliability of the model through validation of the results with landslide events that occurred during the period. The validation was performed on four past events of intense rainfall that have affected Valle d'Aosta region between 2008 and 2010 years triggering fast shallows landslides. The simulations show substantial improvement of the reliability of the results compared to the use of literature parameters. A statistical analysis of the HIRESSS outputs in terms of failure probability has been carried out in order to define reliable alert levels for regional landslide early warning systems.

  8. Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National, Regional, and Global Prevalence Estimates Using Predictive Modeling.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Peet, Evan D; Ezzati, Majid; Danaei, Goodarz; Black, Maureen M; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Fawzi, Wafaie; Fink, Günther

    2016-06-01

    South Asia (27.7 million; 37.7%) and the East Asia and Pacific region (15.1 million; 25.9%). Positive associations were found between low development scores and stunting, poverty, male sex, rural residence, and lack of cognitive stimulation. Additional research using more detailed developmental assessments across a larger number of LMICs is needed to address the limitations of the present study. The number of children globally failing to reach their developmental potential remains large. Additional research is needed to identify the specific causes of poor developmental outcomes in diverse settings, as well as potential context-specific interventions that might promote children's early cognitive and socioemotional well-being.

  9. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Genes Related to Biological Behaviors of Gastric Cancer by Long Noncoding RNAs and MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjing; Ma, Rui; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs play critical roles in regulating protein-coding genes and comprise two major classes: long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). LncRNAs regulate gene expression at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic levels via multiple action modes. LncRNAs can also function as endogenous competitive RNAs for miRNAs and indirectly regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. By binding to the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR) of target genes, miRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Herein, we conducted a review of post-transcriptional regulation by lncRNAs and miRNAs of genes associated with biological behaviors of gastric cancer. PMID:29187891

  10. Long noncoding RNAs in gastric cancer: functions and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiajun; Sun, Jingxu; Wang, Jun; Song, Yongxi; Gao, Peng; Shi, Jinxin; Chen, Ping; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, genome-wide studies have revealed that only a small fraction of the human genome encodes proteins; long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) account for 98% of the total genome. These RNA molecules, which are >200 nt in length, play important roles in diverse biological processes, including the immune response, stem cell pluripotency, cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis by regulating gene expression at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional levels. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying lncRNA function are only partially understood. Recent studies showed that many lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer (GC) tissues, gastric juice, plasma, and cells, and these alterations are linked to the occurrence, progression, and outcome of GC. Here, we review the current knowledge of the biological functions and clinical aspects of lncRNAs in GC. PMID:26929639

  11. RNAcentral: A comprehensive database of non-coding RNA sequences

    SciT

    Williams, Kelly Porter; Lau, Britney Yan

    RNAcentral is a database of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences that aggregates data from specialised ncRNA resources and provides a single entry point for accessing ncRNA sequences of all ncRNA types from all organisms. Since its launch in 2014, RNAcentral has integrated twelve new resources, taking the total number of collaborating database to 22, and began importing new types of data, such as modified nucleotides from MODOMICS and PDB. We created new species-specific identifiers that refer to unique RNA sequences within a context of single species. Furthermore, the website has been subject to continuous improvements focusing on text and sequence similaritymore » searches as well as genome browsing functionality.« less

  12. Long noncoding RNAs as enhancers of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ørom, U A; Derrien, T; Guigo, R; Shiekhattar, R

    2010-01-01

    The human genome contains thousands of long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) transcribed from diverse genomic locations. A large set of long ncRNAs is transcribed independent of protein-coding genes. We have used the GENCODE annotation of the human genome to identify 3019 long ncRNAs expressed in various human cell lines and tissue. This set of long ncRNAs responds to differentiation signals in primary human keratinocytes and is coexpressed with important regulators of keratinocyte development. Depletion of a number of these long ncRNAs leads to the repression of specific genes in their surrounding locus, supportive of an activating function for ncRNAs. Using reporter assays, we confirmed such activating function and show that such transcriptional enhancement is mediated through the long ncRNA transcripts. Our studies show that long ncRNAs exhibit functions similar to classically defined enhancers, through an RNA-dependent mechanism.

  13. Evaluation of Agency Non-Code Layered Pressure Vessels (LPVs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.

    2014-01-01

    In coordination with the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance and the respective Center Pressure System Managers (PSMs), the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to formulate a consensus draft proposal for the development of additional testing and analysis methods to establish the technical validity, and any limitation thereof, for the continued safe operation of facility non-code layered pressure vessels. The PSMs from each NASA Center were asked to participate as part of the assessment team by providing, collecting, and reviewing data regarding current operations of these vessels. This report contains the outcome of the assessment and the findings, observations, and NESC recommendations to the Agency and individual NASA Centers.

  14. Regulation of Mammalian Gene Dosage by Long Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ko-Hsuan; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Jing Crystal

    2013-01-01

    Recent transcriptome studies suggest that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key components of the mammalian genome, and their study has become a new frontier in biomedical research. In fact, lncRNAs in the mammalian genome were identified and studied at particular epigenetic loci, including imprinted loci and X-chromosome inactivation center, at least two decades ago—long before development of high throughput sequencing technology. Since then, researchers have found that lncRNAs play essential roles in various biological processes, mostly during development. Since much of our understanding of lncRNAs originates from our knowledge of these well-established lncRNAs, in this review we will focus on lncRNAs from the X-chromosome inactivation center and the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted cluster as examples of lncRNA mechanisms functioning in the epigenetic regulation of mammalian genes. PMID:24970160

  15. Long non-coding RNAs involved in autophagy regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixian; Wang, Hanying; Shen, Qi; Feng, Lifeng; Jin, Hongchuan

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy degrades non-functioning or damaged proteins and organelles to maintain cellular homeostasis in a physiological or pathological context. Autophagy can be protective or detrimental, depending on its activation status and other conditions. Therefore, autophagy has a crucial role in a myriad of pathophysiological processes. From the perspective of autophagy-related (ATG) genes, the molecular dissection of autophagy process and the regulation of its level have been largely unraveled. However, the discovery of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) provides a new paradigm of gene regulation in almost all important biological processes, including autophagy. In this review, we highlight recent advances in autophagy-associated lncRNAs and their specific autophagic targets, as well as their relevance to human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cerebral ischemic stroke. PMID:28981093

  16. RNAcentral: A comprehensive database of non-coding RNA sequences

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Kelly Porter; Lau, Britney Yan

    2016-10-28

    RNAcentral is a database of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences that aggregates data from specialised ncRNA resources and provides a single entry point for accessing ncRNA sequences of all ncRNA types from all organisms. Since its launch in 2014, RNAcentral has integrated twelve new resources, taking the total number of collaborating database to 22, and began importing new types of data, such as modified nucleotides from MODOMICS and PDB. We created new species-specific identifiers that refer to unique RNA sequences within a context of single species. Furthermore, the website has been subject to continuous improvements focusing on text and sequence similaritymore » searches as well as genome browsing functionality.« less

  17. RNA-DNA Triplex Formation by Long Noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Syed, Junetha; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-11-17

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in the regulation of biological processes through various mechanisms that are not fully understood. Proposed mechanisms include regulation based on RNA-protein interactions, as well as RNA-RNA interactions and RNA-DNA interactions. Here, we focus on one possible mechanism that lncRNA might be using to impact biological function, the RNA-DNA triplex formation. We summarize currently available examples of lncRNA triplex formation and discuss the details surrounding orientation of triplex formation as one of the key properties guiding this process. We propose that symmetrical triplex-forming motifs, especially those in cis-acting lncRNAs, favor triplex formation. We also consider the effects of lncRNA structures, protein or ligand binding, and chromatin structures on the lncRNAs triplex formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Approach to Analyzing MFE of Noncoding RNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    George, Tina P.; Thomas, Tessamma

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have become noncoding RNA (ncRNA) centric after the study of different genomes provided enormous information on ncRNA over the past decades. The function of ncRNA is decided by its secondary structure, and across organisms, the secondary structure is more conserved than the sequence itself. In this study, the optimal secondary structure or the minimum free energy (MFE) structure of ncRNA was found based on the thermodynamic nearest neighbor model. MFE of over 2600 ncRNA sequences was analyzed in view of its signal properties. Mathematical models linking MFE to the signal properties were found for each of the four classes of ncRNA analyzed. MFE values computed with the proposed models were in concordance with those obtained with the standard web servers. A total of 95% of the sequences analyzed had deviation of MFE values within ±15% relative to those obtained from standard web servers. PMID:27695341

  19. Novel Approach to Analyzing MFE of Noncoding RNA Sequences.

    PubMed

    George, Tina P; Thomas, Tessamma

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have become noncoding RNA (ncRNA) centric after the study of different genomes provided enormous information on ncRNA over the past decades. The function of ncRNA is decided by its secondary structure, and across organisms, the secondary structure is more conserved than the sequence itself. In this study, the optimal secondary structure or the minimum free energy (MFE) structure of ncRNA was found based on the thermodynamic nearest neighbor model. MFE of over 2600 ncRNA sequences was analyzed in view of its signal properties. Mathematical models linking MFE to the signal properties were found for each of the four classes of ncRNA analyzed. MFE values computed with the proposed models were in concordance with those obtained with the standard web servers. A total of 95% of the sequences analyzed had deviation of MFE values within ±15% relative to those obtained from standard web servers.

  20. Non-coding RNAs in virology: an RNA genomics approach.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Christopher; Patel, Trushar R; Zovoilis, Athanasios

    2018-04-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatic analysis techniques have greatly improved our understanding of various classes of RNAs and their functions. Despite not coding for proteins, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as essential biomolecules fundamental for cellular functions and cell survival. Interestingly, ncRNAs produced by viruses not only control the expression of viral genes, but also influence host cell regulation and circumvent host innate immune response. Correspondingly, ncRNAs produced by the host genome can play a key role in host-virus interactions. In this article, we will first discuss a number of types of viral and mammalian ncRNAs associated with viral infections. Subsequently, we also describe the new possibilities and opportunities that RNA genomics and next-generation sequencing technologies provide for studying ncRNAs in virology.

  1. Decoding the non-coding RNAs in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schonrock, Nicole; Götz, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are integral components of biological networks with fundamental roles in regulating gene expression. They can integrate sequence information from the DNA code, epigenetic regulation and functions of multimeric protein complexes to potentially determine the epigenetic status and transcriptional network in any given cell. Humans potentially contain more ncRNAs than any other species, especially in the brain, where they may well play a significant role in human development and cognitive ability. This review discusses their emerging role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a human pathological condition characterized by the progressive impairment of cognitive functions. We discuss the complexity of the ncRNA world and how this is reflected in the regulation of the amyloid precursor protein and Tau, two proteins with central functions in AD. By understanding this intricate regulatory network, there is hope for a better understanding of disease mechanisms and ultimately developing diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

  2. Flavivirus RNAi suppression: decoding non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Pijlman, Gorben P

    2014-08-01

    Flaviviruses are important human pathogens that are transmitted by invertebrate vectors, mostly mosquitoes and ticks. During replication in their vector, flaviviruses are subject to a potent innate immune response known as antiviral RNA interference (RNAi). This defense mechanism is associated with the production of small interfering (si)RNA that lead to degradation of viral RNA. To what extent flaviviruses would benefit from counteracting antiviral RNAi is subject of debate. Here, the experimental evidence to suggest the existence of flavivirus RNAi suppressors is discussed. I will highlight the putative role of non-coding, subgenomic flavivirus RNA in suppression of RNAi in insect and mammalian cells. Novel insights from ongoing research will reveal how arthropod-borne viruses modulate innate immunity including antiviral RNAi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Paraspeckles: Where Long Noncoding RNA Meets Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Fox, Archa H; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Hirose, Tetsuro; Bond, Charles S

    2018-02-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) molecules are some of the newest and least understood players in gene regulation. Hence, we need good model systems with well-defined RNA and protein components. One such system is paraspeckles - protein-rich nuclear organelles built around a specific lncRNA scaffold. New discoveries show how paraspeckles are formed through multiple RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions, some of which involve extensive polymerization, and others with multivalent interactions driving phase separation. Once formed, paraspeckles influence gene regulation through sequestration of component proteins and RNAs, with subsequent depletion in other compartments. Here we focus on the dual aspects of paraspeckle structure and function, revealing an emerging role for these dynamic bodies in a multitude of cellular settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Silencing by imprinted noncoding RNAs: is transcription the answer?

    PubMed Central

    Pauler, Florian M.; Koerner, Martha V.; Barlow, Denise P.

    2010-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with gene regulatory functions are starting to be seen as a common feature of mammalian gene regulation with the discovery that most of the transcriptome is ncRNA. The prototype has long been the Xist ncRNA, which induces X-chromosome inactivation in female cells. However, a new paradigm is emerging – the silencing of imprinted gene clusters by long ncRNAs. Here, we review models by which imprinted ncRNAs could function. We argue that an Xist-like model is only one of many possible solutions and that imprinted ncRNAs could provide the better model for understanding the function of the new class of ncRNAs associated with non-imprinted mammalian genes. PMID:17445943

  5. Noncoding RNAs in human intervertebral disc degeneration: An integrated microarray study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Che, Lu; Xie, Yan-Ke; Hu, Qing-Jie; Ma, Chi-Jiao; Pei, Yan-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Fan, Li-Ying; Wang, Hai-Qiang

    2015-09-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that noncoding RNAs play important roles in a multitude of biological processes. The striking findings of miRNAs (microRNAs) and lncRNAs (long noncoding RNAs) as members of noncoding RNAs open up an exciting era in the studies of gene regulation. More recently, the reports of circRNAs (circular RNAs) add fuel to the noncoding RNAs research. Human intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a main cause of low back pain as a disabling spinal disease. We have addressed the expression profiles if miRNAs, lncRNAs and mRNAs in IDD (Wang et al., J Pathology, 2011 and Wan et al., Arthritis Res Ther, 2014). Furthermore, we thoroughly analysed noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs in IDD using the very same samples. Here we delineate in detail the contents of the aforementioned microarray analyses. Microarray and sample annotation data were deposited in GEO under accession number GSE67567 as SuperSeries. The integrated analyses of these noncoding RNAs will shed a novel light on coding-noncoding regulatory machinery.

  6. Facts and updates about cardiovascular non-coding RNAs in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Thum, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    About 11% of all deaths include heart failure as a contributing cause. The annual cost of heart failure amounts to US $34,000,000,000 in the United States alone. With the exception of heart transplantation, there is no curative therapy available. Only occasionally there are new areas in science that develop into completely new research fields. The topic on non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs, is such a field. In this short review, we will discuss the latest developments about non-coding RNAs in cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs are short regulatory non-coding endogenous RNA species that are involved in virtually all cellular processes. Long non-coding RNAs also regulate gene and protein levels; however, by much more complicated and diverse mechanisms. In general, non-coding RNAs have been shown to be of great value as therapeutic targets in adverse cardiac remodelling and also as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for heart failure. In the future, non-coding RNA-based therapeutics are likely to enter the clinical reality offering a new treatment approach of heart failure.

  7. An Agro-Climatological Early Warning Tool Based on the Google Earth Engine to Support Regional Food Security Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsfeld, M. F.; Daudert, B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Hegewisch, K.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Peterson, P.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Verdin, J. P.; Williams, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) focuses on food insecurity in developing nations and provides objective, evidence based analysis to help government decision-makers and relief agencies plan for and respond to humanitarian emergencies. The Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a platform provided by Google Inc. to support scientific research and analysis of environmental data in their cloud environment. The intent is to allow scientists and independent researchers to mine massive collections of environmental data and leverage Google's vast computational resources to detect changes and monitor the Earth's surface and climate. GEE hosts an enormous amount of satellite imagery and climate archives, one of which is the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset (CHIRPS). The CHIRPS dataset is land based, quasi-global (latitude 50N-50S), 0.05 degree resolution, and has a relatively long term period of record (1981-present). CHIRPS is on a continuous monthly feed into the GEE as new data fields are generated each month. This precipitation dataset is a key input for FEWS NET monitoring and forecasting efforts. FEWS NET intends to leverage the GEE in order to provide analysts and scientists with flexible, interactive tools to aid in their monitoring and research efforts. These scientists often work in bandwidth limited regions, so lightweight Internet tools and services that bypass the need for downloading massive datasets to analyze them, are preferred for their work. The GEE provides just this type of service. We present a tool designed specifically for FEWS NET scientists to be utilized interactively for investigating and monitoring for agro-climatological issues. We are able to utilize the enormous GEE computing power to generate on-the-fly statistics to calculate precipitation anomalies, z-scores, percentiles and band ratios, and allow the user to interactively select custom areas for statistical time series comparisons and predictions.

  8. Climate variations in the late Miocene - early Pliocene in the Black Sea region (Taman peninsula) inferred from palynological analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundan, Ekaterina; Kürschner, Wolfram; Krijgsman, Wout

    2017-04-01

    A palynological study of Neogene sediments from the cape "Zhelezny Rog" (Taman peninsula, the Black Sea area) was carried out as part of integrated micropaleontological, lithological and paleomagnetic research. The Neogene section of the cape "Zhelezny Rog" (the Zhelezny Rog section) is one of the most representative Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene succession of Eastern Paratethys. The section covers the Sarmatian, Maeotian, Pontian (upper Miocene) and Kimmerian (lower Pliocene) local stages. One hundred and eighteen samples were selected from the Zhelezny rog section for quantitative palynological analysis. Using PCA analysis and additional proxy such as "steppe index", art/chen and poa/ast ratios the regional climate history was reconstructed. The Early Maeotian is characterized by a warm, warm-temperate climate on the background of relatively high humidity. During the Late Maeotian it became colder and dryer. The coldest and driest conditions during the Maeotian correspond to the middle part of the Late Maeotian. There were a high number of steppe elements (as Artemisia) and low amount of thermophilous ones. Climate of the end of the Maeotian was characterized by warmer and wetter conditions. In the beginning of the Pontian there was a cooling trend, as evidenced by the decreasing thermophilous elements and the increasing high-latitude trees. Most significant changes were found within the Pontian-Kimmerian boundary beds. This level is characterized by decreasing of thermophilous elements, increasing of cool-temperate pollen and Sphagnum spores that are considered as an evidence of a temperature decrease in the background of high humidity conditions. The results will be discussed and correlated to Neogene global climate trends.

  9. Regional implications of new chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic data from the Early Permian Darwin Basin, east-central California

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    The Darwin Basin developed in response to episodic subsidence of the western margin of the Cordilleran continental shelf from Late Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. Subsidence of the basin was initiated in response to continental truncation farther to the west and was later augmented by thrust emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This deep-water basin was filled by voluminous fine-grained siliciclastic turbidites and coarse-grained limestone-gravity-flow deposits. Most of this sediment was derived from the Bird Spring carbonate shelf and cratonal platform to the northeast or east, but some came from an offshore tectonic ridge (Conglomerate Mesa Uplift) to the west that formed at the toe of the Last Chance allochthon. At one point in the late Artinskian the influx of extrabasinal sediment was temporarily cut off, resulting in deposition of a unique black limestone that allows precise correlation throughout the basin. Deep-water sedimentation in the Darwin Basin ended by Kungurian time when complex shallow-water to continental sedimentary facies spread across the region. Major expansion of the Darwin Basin occurred soon after the middle Sakmarian emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This tectonic event was approximately coeval with deformation in northeastern Nevada that formed the deep-water Dry Mountain Trough. We herein interpret the two basins to have been structurally continuous. Deposition of the unique black limestone is interpreted to mark a eustatic sea level rise that also can be recognized in Lower Permian sections in east-central Nevada and central Arizona.

  10. ALDB: a domestic-animal long noncoding RNA database.

    PubMed

    Li, Aimin; Zhang, Junying; Zhou, Zhongyin; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yujuan; Liu, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have attracted significant attention in recent years due to their important roles in many biological processes. Domestic animals constitute a unique resource for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and are ideal models relevant to diverse areas of biomedical research. With improving sequencing technologies, numerous domestic-animal lncRNAs are now available. Thus, there is an immediate need for a database resource that can assist researchers to store, organize, analyze and visualize domestic-animal lncRNAs. The domestic-animal lncRNA database, named ALDB, is the first comprehensive database with a focus on the domestic-animal lncRNAs. It currently archives 12,103 pig intergenic lncRNAs (lincRNAs), 8,923 chicken lincRNAs and 8,250 cow lincRNAs. In addition to the annotations of lincRNAs, it offers related data that is not available yet in existing lncRNA databases (lncRNAdb and NONCODE), such as genome-wide expression profiles and animal quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of domestic animals. Moreover, a collection of interfaces and applications, such as the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), the Generic Genome Browser (GBrowse) and flexible search functionalities, are available to help users effectively explore, analyze and download data related to domestic-animal lncRNAs. ALDB enables the exploration and comparative analysis of lncRNAs in domestic animals. A user-friendly web interface, integrated information and tools make it valuable to researchers in their studies. ALDB is freely available from http://res.xaut.edu.cn/aldb/index.jsp.

  11. The Long Noncoding RNA Landscape of the Mouse Eye.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Yang, Shuai; Zhou, Zhonglou; Zhao, Xiaoting; Zhong, Jiayun; Reinach, Peter S; Yan, Dongsheng

    2017-12-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of diverse biological functions. However, an extensive in-depth analysis of their expression profile and function in mammalian eyes is still lacking. Here we describe comprehensive landscapes of stage-dependent and tissue-specific lncRNA expression in the mouse eye. Affymetrix transcriptome array profiled lncRNA signatures from six different ocular tissue subsets (i.e., cornea, lens, retina, RPE, choroid, and sclera) in newborn and 8-week-old mice. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis validated array findings. Cis analyses and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation of protein-coding genes adjacent to signature lncRNA loci clarified potential lncRNA roles in maintaining tissue identity and regulating eye maturation during the aforementioned phase. In newborn and 8-week-old mice, we identified 47,332 protein-coding and noncoding gene transcripts. LncRNAs comprise 19,313 of these transcripts annotated in public data banks. During this maturation phase of these six different tissue subsets, more than 1000 lncRNAs expression levels underwent ≥2-fold changes. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed part of the gene microarray analysis results. K-means clustering identified 910 lncRNAs in the P0 groups and 686 lncRNAs in the postnatal 8-week-old groups, suggesting distinct tissue-specific lncRNA clusters. GO analysis of protein-coding genes proximal to lncRNA signatures resolved close correlations with their tissue-specific functional maturation between P0 and 8 weeks of age in the 6 tissue subsets. Characterizating maturational changes in lncRNA expression patterns as well as tissue-specific lncRNA signatures in six ocular tissues suggest important contributions made by lncRNA to the control of developmental processes in the mouse eye.

  12. EG-10LONG NON-CODING RNAs IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Pastori, Chiara; Kapranov, Philipp; Penas, Clara; Laurent, Georges St.; Ayad, Nagi; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common, aggressive and incurable primary brain tumor in adults. Genome studies have confirmed that GBM is extremely heterogeneous with many genetically different subgroups. Consequently, there is much current interest in epigenetic drugs that may be active across genetically distinct tumors. In support of this, some epigenetic drugs has recently shown efficacy against several cancers including glioblastoma. Much recent interest has also been devoted to long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which can modulate gene expression regulating chromatin architecture, in part through the interaction with epigenetic protein machineries. To date, however, only a few lncRNAs have been studied in human cancer. We therefore embarked on a comprehensive genomic and functional analysis of lncRNAs in GBM. Using the Helicos Single Molecule Sequencing platform glioblastoma samples were sequenced resulting in the identification of hundreds of dysregulated lncRNAs. Among these the lncRNA HOTAIR was found massively increased in GBM. This observation parallels findings in other cancers where HOTAIR's increased expression has been linked to poor prognosis due to metastatic events. Interestingly, here we show that in glioblastoma HOTAIR does not promote metastasis, but instead sustains the ability of these cells to proliferate. In fact, we demonstrate that HOTAIR knockdown in GBM strongly impairs cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Further, we implicate HOTAIR in the mechanism of action of certain epigenetic drugs. In summary, long noncoding RNAs (newly discovered epigenomic factors) play a vital role in GBM and deserve attention as entirely novel drug targets as well as biomarkers.

  13. Noncoding RNAs in DNA Repair and Genome Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guohui; Liu, Yunhua; Han, Cecil; Zhang, Xinna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The well-studied sequences in the human genome are those of protein-coding genes, which account for only 1%–2% of the total genome. However, with the advent of high-throughput transcriptome sequencing technology, we now know that about 90% of our genome is extensively transcribed and that the vast majority of them are transcribed into noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). It is of great interest and importance to decipher the functions of these ncRNAs in humans. Recent Advances: In the last decade, it has become apparent that ncRNAs play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in normal development, in stress responses to internal and environmental stimuli, and in human diseases. Critical Issues: In addition to those constitutively expressed structural RNA, such as ribosomal and transfer RNAs, regulatory ncRNAs can be classified as microRNAs (miRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, little is known about the biological features and functional roles of these ncRNAs in DNA repair and genome instability, although a number of miRNAs and lncRNAs are regulated in the DNA damage response. Future Directions: A major goal of modern biology is to identify and characterize the full profile of ncRNAs with regard to normal physiological functions and roles in human disorders. Clinically relevant ncRNAs will also be evaluated and targeted in therapeutic applications. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 655–677. PMID:23879367

  14. Genomic Editing of Non-Coding RNA Genes with CRISPR/Cas9 Ushers in a Potential Novel Approach to Study and Treat Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Chuanjun; Hou, Weihong; Hu, Lirong; Lin, Chongguang; Chen, Ce; Lin, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically related mental illness, in which the majority of genetic alterations occur in the non-coding regions of the human genome. In the past decade, a growing number of regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to be strongly associated with schizophrenia. However, the studies of these ncRNAs in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the reverting of their genetic defects in restoration of the normal phenotype have been hampered by insufficient technology to manipulate these ncRNA genes effectively as well as a lack of appropriate animal models. Most recently, a revolutionary gene editing technology known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (Cas9; CRISPR/Cas9) has been developed that enable researchers to overcome these challenges. In this review article, we mainly focus on the schizophrenia-related ncRNAs and the use of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing on the non-coding regions of the genomic DNA in proving causal relationship between the genetic defects and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We subsequently discuss the potential of translating this advanced technology into a clinical therapy for schizophrenia, although the CRISPR/Cas9 technology is currently still in its infancy and immature to put into use in the treatment of diseases. Furthermore, we suggest strategies to accelerate the pace from the bench to the bedside. This review describes the application of the powerful and feasible CRISPR/Cas9 technology to manipulate schizophrenia-associated ncRNA genes. This technology could help researchers tackle this complex health problem and perhaps other genetically related mental disorders due to the overlapping genetic alterations of schizophrenia with other mental illnesses. PMID:28217082

  15. Signs of eclampsia during singleton deliveries and early neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries from three WHO regions.

    PubMed

    Bellizzi, Saverio; Sobel, Howard L; Ali, Mohamed M

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of eclampsia symptoms and to explore associations between eclampsia and early neonatal mortality. The present secondary analysis included Demographic and Health Surveys data from 2005 to 2012; details of signs related to severe obstetric adverse events of singleton deliveries during interviewees' most recent delivery in the preceding 5 years were included. Data and delivery history were merged for pooled analyses. Convulsions-used as an indicator for having experienced eclampsia-and early neonatal mortality rates were compared, and a generalized random effect model, adjusted for heterogeneity between and within countries, was used to investigate the impact of presumed eclampsia on early neonatal mortality. The merged dataset included data from six surveys and 55 384 live deliveries that occurred in Colombia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Mali, Niger, and Peru. Indications of eclampsia were recorded for 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.3), 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1), and 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1) of deliveries reported from the American, South East Asian, and African regions, respectively. Pooled analyses demonstrated that eclampsia was associated with increased risk of early neonatal mortality (adjusted risk ratio 2.1 95% CI 1.4-3.2). Increased risk of early neonatal mortality indicates a need for strategies targeting the early detection of eclampsia and early interventions. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  16. Emergence and Evolution of Hominidae-Specific Coding and Noncoding Genomic Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Morteza Mahmoudi; Adeyemi Babarinde, Isaac; Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Saitou, Naruya

    2016-01-01

    Family Hominidae, which includes humans and great apes, is recognized for unique complex social behavior and intellectual abilities. Despite the increasing genome data, however, the genomic origin of its phenotypic uniqueness has remained elusive. Clade-specific genes and highly conserved noncoding sequences (HCNSs) are among the high-potential evolutionary candidates involved in driving clade-specific characters and phenotypes. On this premise, we analyzed whole genome sequences along with gene orthology data retrieved from major DNA databases to find Hominidae-specific (HS) genes and HCNSs. We discovered that Down syndrome critical region 4 (DSCR4) is the only experimentally verified gene uniquely present in Hominidae. DSCR4 has no structural homology to any known protein and was inferred to have emerged in several steps through LTR/ERV1, LTR/ERVL retrotransposition, and transversion. Using the genomic distance as neutral evolution threshold, we identified 1,658 HS HCNSs. Polymorphism coverage and derived allele frequency analysis of HS HCNSs showed that these HCNSs are under purifying selection, indicating that they may harbor important functions. They are overrepresented in promoters/untranslated regions, in close proximity of genes involved in sensory perception of sound and developmental process, and also showed a significantly lower nucleosome occupancy probability. Interestingly, many ancestral sequences of the HS HCNSs showed very high evolutionary rates. This suggests that new functions emerged through some kind of positive selection, and then purifying selection started to operate to keep these functions. PMID:27289096

  17. Non-coding RNA may be associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Silene vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Stone, James D.; Koloušková, Pavla; Sloan, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widespread phenomenon in flowering plants caused by mitochondrial (mt) genes. CMS genes typically encode novel proteins that interfere with mt functions and can be silenced by nuclear fertility-restorer genes. Although the molecular basis of CMS is well established in a number of crop systems, our understanding of it in natural populations is far more limited. To identify CMS genes in a gynodioecious plant, Silene vulgaris, we constructed mt transcriptomes and compared transcript levels and RNA editing patterns in floral bud tissue from female and hermaphrodite full siblings. The transcriptomes from female and hermaphrodite individuals were very similar overall with respect to variation in levels of transcript abundance across the genome, the extent of RNA editing, and the order in which RNA editing and intron splicing events occurred. We found only a single genomic region that was highly overexpressed and differentially edited in females relative to hermaphrodites. This region is not located near any other transcribed elements and lacks an open-reading frame (ORF) of even moderate size. To our knowledge, this transcript would represent the first non-coding mt RNA associated with CMS in plants and is, therefore, an important target for future functional validation studies. PMID:28369520

  18. A Somatically Acquired Enhancer of the Androgen Receptor Is a Noncoding Driver in Advanced Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Takeda, David Y; Spisák, Sándor; Seo, Ji-Heui; Bell, Connor; O'Connor, Edward; Korthauer, Keegan; Ribli, Dezső; Csabai, István; Solymosi, Norbert; Szállási, Zoltán; Stillman, David R; Cejas, Paloma; Qiu, Xintao; Long, Henry W; Tisza, Viktória; Nuzzo, Pier Vitale; Rohanizadegan, Mersedeh; Pomerantz, Mark M; Hahn, William C; Freedman, Matthew L

    2018-06-09

    Increased androgen receptor (AR) activity drives therapeutic resistance in advanced prostate cancer. The most common resistance mechanism is amplification of this locus presumably targeting the AR gene. Here, we identify and characterize a somatically acquired AR enhancer located 650 kb centromeric to the AR. Systematic perturbation of this enhancer using genome editing decreased proliferation by suppressing AR levels. Insertion of an additional copy of this region sufficed to increase proliferation under low androgen conditions and to decrease sensitivity to enzalutamide. Epigenetic data generated in localized prostate tumors and benign specimens support the notion that this region is a developmental enhancer. Collectively, these observations underscore the importance of epigenomic profiling in primary specimens and the value of deploying genome editing to functionally characterize noncoding elements. More broadly, this work identifies a therapeutic vulnerability for targeting the AR and emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements as highly recurrent oncogenic drivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Evolution of the Non-Coding Eosinophil Granule Ontogeny Transcript

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Dominic; Stadler, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed. A large fraction of the transcriptional output consists of long, mRNA-like, non-protein-coding transcripts (mlncRNAs). The evolutionary history of mlncRNAs is still largely uncharted territory. In this contribution, we explore in detail the evolutionary traces of the eosinophil granule ontogeny transcript (EGOT), an experimentally confirmed representative of an abundant class of totally intronic non-coding transcripts (TINs). EGOT is located antisense to an intron of the ITPR1 gene. We computationally identify putative EGOT orthologs in the genomes of 32 different amniotes, including orthologs from primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, afrotherians, and xenarthrans, as well as putative candidates from basal amniotes, such as opossum or platypus. We investigate the EGOT gene phylogeny, analyze patterns of sequence conservation, and the evolutionary conservation of the EGOT gene structure. We show that EGO-B, the spliced isoform, may be present throughout the placental mammals, but most likely dates back even further. We demonstrate here for the first time that the whole EGOT locus is highly structured, containing several evolutionary conserved, and thermodynamic stable secondary structures. Our analyses allow us to postulate novel functional roles of a hitherto poorly understood region at the intron of EGO-B which is highly conserved at the sequence level. The region contains a novel ITPR1 exon and also conserved RNA secondary structures together with a conserved TATA-like element, which putatively acts as a promoter of an independent regulatory element. PMID:22303364

  20. Data Collection and Use in Early Childhood Education Programs: Evidence from the Northeast Region. REL 2015-084

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Jacqueline; Irwin, Clare W.; Kook, Janna Fuccillo; Cox, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe what data preschools in a mid-sized city in the Northeast collect, how they use that data, and the challenges they face. The study focuses on three types of data: early learning outcomes, dosage (i.e., the amount of exposure to early childhood education), and classroom quality. The report further…

  1. Sustaining Young Forest Communities: Ecology and Management of Early Successional Habitats in the Central Hardwood Region, USA

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Beverly S. Collins; Frank R. Thompson III

    2011-01-01

    There is a rising concern among natural resource scientists and managers about decline of the many plant and animal species associated with early ­successional habitats. There is no concise definition of early successional habitats. However, all have a well developed ground cover or shrub and young tree component, lack a closed, mature tree canopy, and are created or...

  2. The Non-Coding RNA Ontology (NCRO): a comprehensive resource for the unification of non-coding RNA biology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingshan; Eilbeck, Karen; Smith, Barry; Blake, Judith A; Dou, Dejing; Huang, Weili; Natale, Darren A; Ruttenberg, Alan; Huan, Jun; Zimmermann, Michael T; Jiang, Guoqian; Lin, Yu; Wu, Bin; Strachan, Harrison J; He, Yongqun; Zhang, Shaojie; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Zixing; Borchert, Glen M; Tan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, sequencing technologies have enabled the identification of a wide range of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Unfortunately, annotation and integration of ncRNA data has lagged behind their identification. Given the large quantity of information being obtained in this area, there emerges an urgent need to integrate what is being discovered by a broad range of relevant communities. To this end, the Non-Coding RNA Ontology (NCRO) is being developed to provide a systematically structured and precisely defined controlled vocabulary for the domain of ncRNAs, thereby facilitating the discovery, curation, analysis, exchange, and reasoning of data about structures of ncRNAs, their molecular and cellular functions, and their impacts upon phenotypes. The goal of NCRO is to serve as a common resource for annotations of diverse research in a way that will significantly enhance integrative and comparative analysis of the myriad resources currently housed in disparate sources. It is our belief that the NCRO ontology can perform an important role in the comprehensive unification of ncRNA biology and, indeed, fill a critical gap in both the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Library and the National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO) BioPortal. Our initial focus is on the ontological representation of small regulatory ncRNAs, which we see as the first step in providing a resource for the annotation of data about all forms of ncRNAs. The NCRO ontology is free and open to all users, accessible at: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ncro.owl.

  3. Targeting long non-coding RNA-TUG1 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, R; Liu, G-B; Liu, B-H; Chen, G; Li, K; Zheng, S; Dong, K-R

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver tumor of early childhood, which is usually characterized by unusual hypervascularity. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have emerged as gene regulators and prognostic markers in several cancers, including hepatoblastoma. We previously reveal that lnRNA-TUG1 is upregulated in hepatoblastoma specimens by microarray analysis. In this study, we aim to elucidate the biological and clinical significance of TUG1 upregulation in hepatoblastoma. We show that TUG1 is significantly upregulated in human hepatoblastoma specimens and metastatic hepatoblastoma cell lines. TUG1 knockdown inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo, and decreases hepatoblastoma cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. TUG1, miR-34a-5p, and VEGFA constitutes to a regulatory network, and participates in regulating hepatoblastoma cell function, tumor progression, and tumor angiogenesis. Overall, our findings indicate that TUG1 upregulation contributes to unusual hypervascularity of hepatoblastoma. TUG1 is a promising therapeutic target for aggressive, recurrent, or metastatic hepatoblastoma. PMID:27362796

  4. Targeting long non-coding RNA-TUG1 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, R; Liu, G-B; Liu, B-H; Chen, G; Li, K; Zheng, S; Dong, K-R

    2016-06-30

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver tumor of early childhood, which is usually characterized by unusual hypervascularity. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) have emerged as gene regulators and prognostic markers in several cancers, including hepatoblastoma. We previously reveal that lnRNA-TUG1 is upregulated in hepatoblastoma specimens by microarray analysis. In this study, we aim to elucidate the biological and clinical significance of TUG1 upregulation in hepatoblastoma. We show that TUG1 is significantly upregulated in human hepatoblastoma specimens and metastatic hepatoblastoma cell lines. TUG1 knockdown inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo, and decreases hepatoblastoma cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. TUG1, miR-34a-5p, and VEGFA constitutes to a regulatory network, and participates in regulating hepatoblastoma cell function, tumor progression, and tumor angiogenesis. Overall, our findings indicate that TUG1 upregulation contributes to unusual hypervascularity of hepatoblastoma. TUG1 is a promising therapeutic target for aggressive, recurrent, or metastatic hepatoblastoma.

  5. Long non-coding RNA biomarker for human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma prognosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Shen, Zhisen; Deng, Hongxia; Zhou, Wei; Liao, Qi; Mu, Ying

    2018-05-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) were discovered in tumors. The regulation of lncRNA in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remains incomplete. Uncovering the potential of lncRNA to stratify the prognosis of LSCC and streamline the vast amount of clinical information will affect medical interventions. The surgical resected LSCC tissues, adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCT) and lymph node metastatic tissue (LNM) were collected from 76 patients for lncRNA AC008440.10 expression assay. The stages of LSCC and LNM were classified accordingly. We integrated the epigenetic information with enhanced CT imaging and pathological evaluations to predict the patients' survival by comprehensive statistical algorithms using equal weighting. Significant downregulation of lncRNA AC008440.10 was detected in LSCC tumor and metastatic lymph node in advanced stage of patient samples compared with those in early stage. The pattern of differentially expressed AC008440.10 displayed a clear trend that significantly related to tumor progression. The downregulation of lncRNA AC008440.10 correlates with increasing risk of metastasis, poor prognosis and patient survival. The potential for lncRNA AC008440.10 to be developed as a novel biomarker for stratification of the prognosis was especially promising when clinic parameters were hybridized with equal weight, and using a panel of complementary parameters yielded a more powerful predictability of LSCC prognosis than any single parameter individually. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Noncoding RNAs and immune checkpoints-clinical implications as cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smolle, Maria A; Calin, Horatiu N; Pichler, Martin; Calin, George A

    2017-07-01

    A major mechanism of tumor development and progression is silencing of the patient's immune response to cancer-specific antigens. Defects in the so-called cancer immunity cycle may occur at any stage of tumor development. Within the tumor microenvironment, aberrant expression of immune checkpoint molecules with activating or inhibitory effects on T lymphocytes induces immune tolerance and cellular immune escape. Targeting immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 with specific antibodies has proven to be a major advance in the treatment of several types of cancer. Another way to therapeutically influence the tumor microenvironment is by modulating the levels of microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs that shuttle bidirectionally between malignant and tumor microenvironmental cells. These small RNA transcripts have two features: (a) their expression is quite specific to distinct tumors, and (b) they are involved in early regulation of immune responses. Consequently, miRNAs may be ideal molecules for use in cancer therapy. Many miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in human cancer cells, opening new opportunities for cancer therapy, but the exact functions of these miRNAs and their interactions with immune checkpoint molecules have yet to be investigated. This review summarizes recently reported findings about miRNAs as modulators of immune checkpoint molecules and their potential application as cancer therapeutics in clinical practice. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Noncoding RNA danger motifs bridge innate and adaptive immunity and are potent adjuvants for vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lilin; Smith, Dan; Bot, Simona; Dellamary, Luis; Bloom, Amy; Bot, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    The adaptive immune response is triggered by recognition of T and B cell epitopes and is influenced by “danger” motifs that act via innate immune receptors. This study shows that motifs associated with noncoding RNA are essential features in the immune response reminiscent of viral infection, mediating rapid induction of proinflammatory chemokine expression, recruitment and activation of antigen-presenting cells, modulation of regulatory cytokines, subsequent differentiation of Th1 cells, isotype switching, and stimulation of cross-priming. The heterogeneity of RNA-associated motifs results in differential binding to cellular receptors, and specifically impacts the immune profile. Naturally occurring double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggered activation of dendritic cells and enhancement of specific immunity, similar to selected synthetic dsRNA motifs. Based on the ability of specific RNA motifs to block tolerance induction and effectively organize the immune defense during viral infection, we conclude that such RNA species are potent danger motifs. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using selected RNA motifs as adjuvants in the context of novel aerosol carriers for optimizing the immune response to subunit vaccines. In conclusion, RNA-associated motifs produced during viral infection bridge the early response with the late adaptive phase, regulating the activation and differentiation of antigen-specific B and T cells, in addition to a short-term impact on innate immunity. PMID:12393853

  8. Long Noncoding RNA MHRT Protects Cardiomyocytes against H2O2-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianying; Gao, Caihua; Meng, Meijuan; Tang, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The exploration of new biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for early diagnosis of AMI therefore becomes one of the primary task. In the current study, we aim to detect whether there is any heart specific long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) releasing into the circulation during AMI, and explore its function in the neonatal rat cardiac myocytes injury induced by H2O2. Our results revealed that the cardiac-specific lncRNA MHRT (Myosin Heavy Chain Associated RNA Transcripts) was significantly elevated in the blood from AMI patients compared with the healthy control (*p<0.05). Using an in vitro neonatal rat cardiac myocytes injury model, we demonstrated that lncRNA MHRT was upregulated in the cardiac myocytes after treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) via real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, we knockdowned the MHRT gene by siRNA to confirm its roles in the H2O2-induced cardiac cell apoptosis, and found that knockdown of MHRT led to significant more apoptotic cells than the non-target control (**p<0.01), indicating that the lncRNA MHRT is a protective factor for cardiomyocyte and the plasma concentration of MHRT may serve as a biomarker for myocardial infarction diagnosis in humans AMI. PMID:26759697

  9. Identification of a novel long noncoding RNA that promotes osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nardocci, Gino; Carrasco, Margarita E; Acevedo, Elvis; Hodar, Christian; Meneses, Claudio; Montecino, Martín

    2018-05-28

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a heterogeneous class of transcripts, longer than 200 nucleotides, 5'-capped, polyadenylated, and poorly conserved among mammalian species. Several studies have shown the contribution of lncRNAs to different cellular processes, including regulation of the chromatin structure, control of messenger RNA translation, regulation of gene transcription, regulation of embryonic pluripotency, and differentiation. Although limited numbers of functional lncRNAs have been identified so far, the immense regulatory potential of these RNAs is already evident, indicating that a functional characterization of lncRNAs is needed. In this study, mouse preosteoblastic cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts. At 3 sequential differentiation stages, total RNA was isolated and libraries were constructed for Illumina sequencing. The resulting sequences were aligned and transcript abundances were determined. New lncRNA candidates that displayed differential expression patterns during osteoblast differentiation were identified by combining bioinformatics and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. Among these, lncRNA-1 that exhibited increased expression during osteogenesis and was downregulated during myogenesis. Importantly, knockdown of lncRNA-1 expression in primary mouse preosteoblasts was found to inhibit osteogenic differentiation, reflected by a reduced transcription of the Runx2/p57 and Sp7 bone master genes. Together, our results indicate that lncRNA-1 represents a new regulatory RNA that plays a relevant role during the early stages of osteogenesis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Long non-coding RNA regulation of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Q; Deng, F; Qin, Y; Zhao, Z; Wu, Z; Xing, Z; Ji, A; Wang, Q J

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is a multistep process starting with the dissemination of tumor cells from a primary site and ending with secondary tumor development in an anatomically distant location. The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that endows epithelial tumor cells with mesenchymal properties including reduced adhesion and increased motility, is considered a critical step driving the early phase of cancer metastasis. Although significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular characteristics of EMT, the intracellular mechanisms driving transition through the various stages of EMT remain unclear. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumor metastasis through modulating EMT. LncRNAs and their associated signaling networks have now emerged as new players in the induction and regulation of EMT during metastasis. Here we summarize the recent findings and characterizations of several known lncRNAs involved in the regulation of EMT. We will also discuss the potential use of these lncRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets to slow down or prevent metastatic spread of malignant tumors. PMID:27277676

  11. Advances in esophageal cancer: A new perspective on pathogenesis associated with long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Xi; Hu, Qing; Sun, Binyu; Deng, Mingming; Qi, Xiaolong; Lü, Muhan

    2018-01-28

    Esophageal cancer is a malignant digestive tract cancer with high mortality. Although studies have found that esophageal cancer is involved in a complex and important gene regulation network, the pathogenesis remains unclear. The recently described long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are one effective part of the gene regulation network. However, in past decades, lncRNAs were thought to be "transcript noise" or "pseudogenes" and were thus ignored. Early studies indicated that lncRNAs play pivotal roles during evolution. However, in recent years, increasing research has revealed that many lncRNAs are associated with tumorigenesis. In particular, lncRNAs may act as important elements for epigenetic regulation, transcription, post-transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification of proteins. Additionally, they may be novel biomarkers for tumors and therapeutic targets in cancer. Here, we summarize the functions of lncRNAs in esophageal cancer, with an emphasis on lncRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms that affect the biological characteristics of esophageal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of differentially expressed small non-coding RNAs in the legume endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti by comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    del Val, Coral; Rivas, Elena; Torres-Quesada, Omar; Toro, Nicolás; Jiménez-Zurdo, José I

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are being recognized as novel widespread regulators of gene expression in response to environmental signals. Here, we present the first search for sRNA-encoding genes in the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, performed by a genome-wide computational analysis of its intergenic regions. Comparative sequence data from eight related α-proteobacteria were obtained, and the interspecies pairwise alignments were scored with the programs eQRNA and RNAz as complementary predictive tools to identify conserved and stable secondary structures corresponding to putative non-coding RNAs. Northern experiments confirmed that eight of the predicted loci, selected among the original 32 candidates as most probable sRNA genes, expressed small transcripts. This result supports the combined use of eQRNA and RNAz as a robust strategy to identify novel sRNAs in bacteria. Furthermore, seven of the transcripts accumulated differentially in free-living and symbiotic conditions. Experimental mapping of the 5′-ends of the detected transcripts revealed that their encoding genes are organized in autonomous transcription units with recognizable promoter and, in most cases, termination signatures. These findings suggest novel regulatory functions for sRNAs related to the interactions of α-proteobacteria with their eukaryotic hosts. PMID:17971083

  13. Rational Design of Small Molecules Targeting Oncogenic Noncoding RNAs from Sequence.

    PubMed

    Disney, Matthew D; Angelbello, Alicia J

    2016-12-20

    The discovery of RNA catalysis in the 1980s and the dissemination of the human genome sequence at the start of this century inspired investigations of the regulatory roles of noncoding RNAs in biology. In fact, the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has shown that only 1-2% of the human genome encodes protein, yet 75% is transcribed into RNA. Functional studies both preceding and following the ENCODE project have shown that these noncoding RNAs have important roles in regulating gene expression, developmental timing, and other critical functions. RNA's diverse roles are often a consequence of the various folds that it adopts. The single-stranded nature of the biopolymer enables it to adopt intramolecular folds with noncanonical pairings to lower its free energy. These folds can be scaffolds to bind proteins or to form frameworks to interact with other RNAs. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of certain noncoding RNAs has been shown to be causative of disease. Given this as the background, it is easy to see why it would be useful to develop methods that target RNA and manipulate its biology in rational and predictable ways. The antisense approach has afforded strategies to target RNAs via Watson-Crick base pairing and has typically focused on targeting partially unstructured regions of RNA. Small molecule strategies to target RNA would be desirable not only because compounds could be lead optimized via medicinal chemistry but also because structured regions within an RNA of interest could be targeted to directly interfere with RNA folds that contribute to disease. Additionally, small molecules have historically been the most successful drug candidates. Until recently, the ability to design small molecules that target non-ribosomal RNAs has been elusive, creating the perception that they are "undruggable". In this Account, approaches to demystify targeting RNA with small molecules are described. Rather than bulk screening for compounds that bind to singular

  14. Mid-regional proadrenomedullin: An early marker of response in critically ill patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Pereira, J M; Azevedo, A; Basílio, C; Sousa-Dias, C; Mergulhão, P; Paiva, J A

    Mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a novel biomarker with potential prognostic utility in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). To evaluate the value of MR-proADM levels at ICU admission for further severity stratification and outcome prediction, and its kinetics as an early predictor of response in severe CAP (SCAP). Prospective, single-center, cohort study of 19 SCAP patients admitted to the ICU within 12h after the first antibiotic dose. At ICU admission median MR-proADM was 3.58nmol/l (IQR: 2.83-10.00). No significant association was found between its serum levels at admission and severity assessed by SAPS II (Spearman's correlation=0.24, p=0.31) or SOFA score (SOFA<10: <3.45nmol/l vs. SOFA≥10: 3.90nmol/l, p=0.74). Hospital and one-year mortality were 26% and 32%, respectively. No significant difference in median MR-proADM serum levels was found between survivors and non-survivors and its accuracy to predict hospital mortality was bad (aROC 0.53). After 48h of antibiotic therapy, MR-proADM decreased in all but 5 patients (median -20%; IQR -56% to +0.1%). Its kinetics measured by the percent change from baseline was a good predictor of clinical response (aROC 0.80). The best discrimination was achieved by classifying patients according to whether MR-proADM decreased or not within 48h. No decrease in MR-proADM serum levels significantly increased the chances of dying independently of general severity (SAPS II-adjusted OR 174; 95% CI 2-15,422; p=0.024). In SCAP patients, a decrease in MR-proADM serum levels in the first 48h after ICU admission was a good predictor of clinical response and better outcome. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The protective function of noncoding DNA in genome defense of eukaryotic male germ cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guo-Hua; Huang, Cuiqin; Zheng, Xintian; Yang, Xiaoyan

    2018-04-01

    Peripheral and abundant noncoding DNA has been hypothesized to protect the genome and the central protein-coding sequences against DNA damage in somatic genome. In the cytosol, invading exogenous nucleic acids may first be deactivated by small RNAs encoded by noncoding DNA via mechanisms similar to the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system. In the nucleus, the radicals generated by radiation in the cytosol, radiation energy and invading exogenous nucleic acids are absorbed, blocked and/or reduced by peripheral heterochromatin, and damaged DNA in heterochromatin is removed and excluded from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes. To further strengthen the hypothesis, this review summarizes the experimental evidence supporting the protective function of noncoding DNA in the genome of male germ cells. Based on these data, this review provides evidence supporting the protective role of noncoding DNA in the genome defense of sperm genome through similar mechanisms to those of the somatic genome.

  16. Regulation of mammalian cell differentiation by long non-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenqian; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Lodish, Harvey F

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of specialized cell types from stem and progenitor cells is tightly regulated at several levels, both during development and during somatic tissue homeostasis. Many long non-coding RNAs have been recognized as an additional layer of regulation in the specification of cellular identities; these non-coding species can modulate gene-expression programmes in various biological contexts through diverse mechanisms at the transcriptional, translational or messenger RNA stability levels. Here, we summarize findings that implicate long non-coding RNAs in the control of mammalian cell differentiation. We focus on several representative differentiation systems and discuss how specific long non-coding RNAs contribute to the regulation of mammalian development. PMID:23070366

  17. Increasing the yield in targeted next-generation sequencing by implicating CNV analysis, non-coding exons and the overall variant load: the example of retinal dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Eisenberger, Tobias; Neuhaus, Christine; Khan, Arif O; Decker, Christian; Preising, Markus N; Friedburg, Christoph; Bieg, Anika; Gliem, Martin; Charbel Issa, Peter; Holz, Frank G; Baig, Shahid M; Hellenbroich, Yorck; Galvez, Alberto; Platzer, Konrad; Wollnik, Bernd; Laddach, Nadja; Ghaffari, Saeed Reza; Rafati, Maryam; Botzenhart, Elke; Tinschert, Sigrid; Börger, Doris; Bohring, Axel; Schreml, Julia; Körtge-Jung, Stefani; Schell-Apacik, Chayim; Bakur, Khadijah; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Neuhann, Teresa; Herkenrath, Peter; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Davis, John S; Gal, Andreas; Bergmann, Carsten; Lorenz, Birgit; Bolz, Hanno J

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) are major causes of blindness. They result from mutations in many genes which has long hampered comprehensive genetic analysis. Recently, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) has proven useful to overcome this limitation. To uncover "hidden mutations" such as copy number variations (CNVs) and mutations in non-coding regions, we extended the use of NGS data by quantitative readout for the exons of 55 RP and LCA genes in 126 patients, and by including non-coding 5' exons. We detected several causative CNVs which were key to the diagnosis in hitherto unsolved constellations, e.g. hemizygous point mutations in consanguineous families, and CNVs complemented apparently monoallelic recessive alleles. Mutations of non-coding exon 1 of EYS revealed its contribution to disease. In view of the high carrier frequency for retinal disease gene mutations in the general population, we considered the overall variant load in each patient to assess if a mutation was causative or reflected accidental carriership in patients with mutations in several genes or with single recessive alleles. For example, truncating mutations in RP1, a gene implicated in both recessive and dominant RP, were causative in biallelic constellations, unrelated to disease when heterozygous on a biallelic mutation background of another gene, or even non-pathogenic if close to the C-terminus. Patients with mutations in several loci were common, but without evidence for di- or oligogenic inheritance. Although the number of targeted genes was low compared to previous studies, the mutation detection rate was highest (70%) which likely results from completeness and depth of coverage, and quantitative data analysis. CNV analysis should routinely be applied in targeted NGS, and mutations in non-coding exons give reason to systematically include 5'-UTRs in disease gene or exome panels. Consideration of all variants is indispensable because even

  18. Increasing the Yield in Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing by Implicating CNV Analysis, Non-Coding Exons and the Overall Variant Load: The Example of Retinal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberger, Tobias; Neuhaus, Christine; Khan, Arif O.; Decker, Christian; Preising, Markus N.; Friedburg, Christoph; Bieg, Anika; Gliem, Martin; Issa, Peter Charbel; Holz, Frank G.; Baig, Shahid M.; Hellenbroich, Yorck; Galvez, Alberto; Platzer, Konrad; Wollnik, Bernd; Laddach, Nadja; Ghaffari, Saeed Reza; Rafati, Maryam; Botzenhart, Elke; Tinschert, Sigrid; Börger, Doris; Bohring, Axel; Schreml, Julia; Körtge-Jung, Stefani; Schell-Apacik, Chayim; Bakur, Khadijah; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Neuhann, Teresa; Herkenrath, Peter; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Davis, John S.; Gal, Andreas; Bergmann, Carsten; Lorenz, Birgit; Bolz, Hanno J.

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) are major causes of blindness. They result from mutations in many genes which has long hampered comprehensive genetic analysis. Recently, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) has proven useful to overcome this limitation. To uncover “hidden mutations” such as copy number variations (CNVs) and mutations in non-coding regions, we extended the use of NGS data by quantitative readout for the exons of 55 RP and LCA genes in 126 patients, and by including non-coding 5′ exons. We detected several causative CNVs which were key to the diagnosis in hitherto unsolved constellations, e.g. hemizygous point mutations in consanguineous families, and CNVs complemented apparently monoallelic recessive alleles. Mutations of non-coding exon 1 of EYS revealed its contribution to disease. In view of the high carrier frequency for retinal disease gene mutations in the general population, we considered the overall variant load in each patient to assess if a mutation was causative or reflected accidental carriership in patients with mutations in several genes or with single recessive alleles. For example, truncating mutations in RP1, a gene implicated in both recessive and dominant RP, were causative in biallelic constellations, unrelated to disease when heterozygous on a biallelic mutation background of another gene, or even non-pathogenic if close to the C-terminus. Patients with mutations in several loci were common, but without evidence for di- or oligogenic inheritance. Although the number of targeted genes was low compared to previous studies, the mutation detection rate was highest (70%) which likely results from completeness and depth of coverage, and quantitative data analysis. CNV analysis should routinely be applied in targeted NGS, and mutations in non-coding exons give reason to systematically include 5′-UTRs in disease gene or exome panels. Consideration of all variants is indispensable because even

  19. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane vs surgeon administered intraoperative regional field infiltration with bupivacaine for early postoperative pain control in children undergoing open pyeloplasty.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Armando J; Lynch, Johanne; Matava, Clyde; El-Beheiry, Hossam; Hayes, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Regional analgesic techniques are commonly used in pediatric urology. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block has recently gained popularity. However, there is a paucity of information supporting a benefit over regional field infiltration. We present a parallel group, randomized, controlled trial evaluating ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block superiority over surgeon delivered regional field infiltration for children undergoing open pyeloplasty at a tertiary referral center. Following ethics board approval and registration, children 0 to 6 years old were recruited and randomized to undergo perioperative transversus abdominis plane block or regional field infiltration for early post-pyeloplasty pain control. General anesthetic delivery, surgical technique and postoperative analgesics were standardized. A blinded assessor regularly captured pain scores in the recovery room using the FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) scale. The primary outcome was the need for rescue morphine administration based on a FLACC score of 3 or higher. Two pediatric urologists performed 57 pyeloplasties during a 2.5-year period, enrolling 32 children (16 in each group, balanced for age and weight). There were statistically significant differences in the number of children requiring rescue morphine administration (13 of 16 receiving transversus abdominis plane block and 6 of 16 receiving regional field infiltration, p = 0.011), mean ± SD total morphine consumption (0.066 ± 0.051 vs 0.028 ± 0.040 mg/kg, p = 0.021) and mean ± SD pain scores (5 ± 5 vs 2 ± 3, p = 0.043) in the recovery room, in favor of surgeon administered regional field infiltration. No local anesthetic specific adverse events were noted. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block is not superior to regional field infiltration with bupivacaine as a strategy to minimize early opioid requirements following open pyeloplasty in children. Instead, our data suggest that

  20. Complex organisation and structure of the ghrelin antisense strand gene GHRLOS, a candidate non-coding RNA gene

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Inge; Carter, Shea L; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2008-01-01

    Background The peptide hormone ghrelin has many important physiological and pathophysiological roles, including the stimulation of growth hormone (GH) release, appetite regulation, gut motility and proliferation of cancer cells. We previously identified a gene on the opposite strand of the ghrelin gene, ghrelinOS (GHRLOS), which spans the promoter and untranslated regions of the ghrelin gene (GHRL). Here we further characterise GHRLOS. Results We have described GHRLOS mRNA isoforms that extend over 1.4 kb of the promoter region and 106 nucleotides of exon 4 of the ghrelin gene, GHRL. These GHRLOS transcripts initiate 4.8 kb downstream of the terminal exon 4 of GHRL and are present in the 3' untranslated exon of the adjacent gene TATDN2 (TatD DNase domain containing 2). Interestingly, we have also identified a putative non-coding TATDN2-GHRLOS chimaeric transcript, indicating that GHRLOS RNA biogenesis is extremely complex. Moreover, we have discovered that the 3' region of GHRLOS is also antisense, in a tail-to-tail fashion to a novel terminal exon of the neighbouring SEC13 gene, which is important in protein transport. Sequence analyses revealed that GHRLOS is riddled with stop codons, and that there is little nucleotide and amino-acid sequence conservation of the GHRLOS gene between vertebrates. The gene spans 44 kb on 3p25.3, is extensively spliced and harbours multiple variable exons. We have also investigated the expression of GHRLOS and found evidence of differential tissue expression. It is highly expressed in tissues which are emerging as major sites of non-coding RNA expression (the thymus, brain, and testis), as well as in the ovary and uterus. In contrast, very low levels were found in the stomach where sense, GHRL derived RNAs are highly expressed. Conclusion GHRLOS RNA transcripts display several distinctive features of non-coding (ncRNA) genes, including 5' capping, polyadenylation, extensive splicing and short open reading frames. The gene is also

  1. Complex organisation and structure of the ghrelin antisense strand gene GHRLOS, a candidate non-coding RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Carter, Shea L; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2008-10-28

    The peptide hormone ghrelin has many important physiological and pathophysiological roles, including the stimulation of growth hormone (GH) release, appetite regulation, gut motility and proliferation of cancer cells. We previously identified a gene on the opposite strand of the ghrelin gene, ghrelinOS (GHRLOS), which spans the promoter and untranslated regions of the ghrelin gene (GHRL). Here we further characterise GHRLOS. We have described GHRLOS mRNA isoforms that extend over 1.4 kb of the promoter region and 106 nucleotides of exon 4 of the ghrelin gene, GHRL. These GHRLOS transcripts initiate 4.8 kb downstream of the terminal exon 4 of GHRL and are present in the 3' untranslated exon of the adjacent gene TATDN2 (TatD DNase domain containing 2). Interestingly, we have also identified a putative non-coding TATDN2-GHRLOS chimaeric transcript, indicating that GHRLOS RNA biogenesis is extremely complex. Moreover, we have discovered that the 3' region of GHRLOS is also antisense, in a tail-to-tail fashion to a novel terminal exon of the neighbouring SEC13 gene, which is important in protein transport. Sequence analyses revealed that GHRLOS is riddled with stop codons, and that there is little nucleotide and amino-acid sequence conservation of the GHRLOS gene between vertebrates. The gene spans 44 kb on 3p25.3, is extensively spliced and harbours multiple variable exons. We have also investigated the expression of GHRLOS and found evidence of differential tissue expression. It is highly expressed in tissues which are emerging as major sites of non-coding RNA expression (the thymus, brain, and testis), as well as in the ovary and uterus. In contrast, very low levels were found in the stomach where sense, GHRL derived RNAs are highly expressed. GHRLOS RNA transcripts display several distinctive features of non-coding (ncRNA) genes, including 5' capping, polyadenylation, extensive splicing and short open reading frames. The gene is also non-conserved, with differential

  2. Maternal noncoding transcripts antagonize the targeting of DNA elimination by scanRNAs in Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Lepère, Gersende; Bétermier, Mireille; Meyer, Eric; Duharcourt, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The germline genome of ciliates is extensively rearranged during the development of a new somatic macronucleus from the germline micronucleus, after sexual events. In Paramecium tetraurelia, single-copy internal eliminated sequences (IESs) are precisely excised from coding sequences and intergenic regions. For a subset of IESs, introduction of the IES sequence into the maternal macronucleus specifically inhibits excision of the homologous IES in the developing zygotic macronucleus, suggesting that epigenetic regulation of excision involves a global comparison of germline and somatic genomes. ScanRNAs (scnRNAs) produced during micronuclear meiosis by a developmentally regulated RNAi pathway have been proposed to mediate this transnuclear cross-talk. In this study, microinjection experiments provide direct evidence that 25-nucleotide (nt) scnRNAs promote IES excision. We further show that noncoding RNAs are produced from the somatic maternal genome, both during vegetative growth and during sexual events. Maternal inhibition of IES excision is abolished when maternal somatic transcripts containing an IES are targeted for degradation by a distinct RNAi pathway involving 23-nt siRNAs. The results strongly support a scnRNA/macronuclear RNA scanning model in which a natural genomic subtraction, occurring during meiosis between deletion-inducing scnRNAs and antagonistic transcripts from the maternal macronucleus, regulates rearrangements of the zygotic genome. PMID:18519642

  3. Allelic expression mapping across cellular lineages to establish impact of non-coding SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Adoue, Veronique; Schiavi, Alicia; Light, Nicholas; Almlöf, Jonas Carlsson; Lundmark, Per; Ge, Bing; Kwan, Tony; Caron, Maxime; Rönnblom, Lars; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Shu-Huang; Goodall, Alison H; Cambien, Francois; Deloukas, Panos; Ouwehand, Willem H; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Pastinen, Tomi

    2014-01-01

    Most complex disease-associated genetic variants are located in non-coding regions and are therefore thought to be regulatory in nature. Association mapping of differential allelic expression (AE) is a powerful method to identify SNPs with direct cis-regulatory impact (cis-rSNPs). We used AE mapping to identify cis-rSNPs regulating gene expression in 55 and 63 HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines from a Caucasian and an African population, respectively, 70 fibroblast cell lines, and 188 purified monocyte samples and found 40–60% of these cis-rSNPs to be shared across cell types. We uncover a new class of cis-rSNPs, which disrupt footprint-derived de novo motifs that are predominantly bound by repressive factors and are implicated in disease susceptibility through overlaps with GWAS SNPs. Finally, we provide the proof-of-principle for a new approach for genome-wide functional validation of transcription factor–SNP interactions. By perturbing NFκB action in lymphoblasts, we identified 489 cis-regulated transcripts with altered AE after NFκB perturbation. Altogether, we perform a comprehensive analysis of cis-variation in four cell populations and provide new tools for the identification of functional variants associated to complex diseases. PMID:25326100

  4. Environmental cues induce a long noncoding RNA-dependent remodeling of the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Mathieu D; Audas, Timothy E; Uniacke, James; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Lee, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    The nucleolus is a plurifunctional organelle in which structure and function are intimately linked. Its structural plasticity has long been appreciated, particularly in response to transcriptional inhibition and other cellular stresses, although the mechanism and physiological relevance of these phenomena are unclear. Using MCF-7 and other mammalian cell lines, we describe a structural and functional adaptation of the nucleolus, triggered by heat shock or physiological acidosis, that depends on the expression of ribosomal intergenic spacer long noncoding RNA (IGS lncRNA). At the heart of this process is the de novo formation of a large subnucleolar structure, termed the detention center (DC). The DC is a spatially and dynamically distinct region, characterized by an 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate-positive hydrophobic signature. Its formation is accompanied by redistribution of nucleolar factors and arrest in ribosomal biogenesis. Silencing of regulatory IGS lncRNA prevents the creation of this structure and allows the nucleolus to retain its tripartite organization and transcriptional activity. Signal termination causes a decrease in IGS transcript levels and a return to the active nucleolar conformation. We propose that the induction of IGS lncRNA by environmental signals operates as a molecular switch that regulates the structure and function of the nucleolus.

  5. Environmental cues induce a long noncoding RNA–dependent remodeling of the nucleolus

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Mathieu D.; Audas, Timothy E.; Uniacke, James; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Lee, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The nucleolus is a plurifunctional organelle in which structure and function are intimately linked. Its structural plasticity has long been appreciated, particularly in response to transcriptional inhibition and other cellular stresses, although the mechanism and physiological relevance of these phenomena are unclear. Using MCF-7 and other mammalian cell lines, we describe a structural and functional adaptation of the nucleolus, triggered by heat shock or physiological acidosis, that depends on the expression of ribosomal intergenic spacer long noncoding RNA (IGS lncRNA). At the heart of this process is the de novo formation of a large subnucleolar structure, termed the detention center (DC). The DC is a spatially and dynamically distinct region, characterized by an 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate–positive hydrophobic signature. Its formation is accompanied by redistribution of nucleolar factors and arrest in ribosomal biogenesis. Silencing of regulatory IGS lncRNA prevents the creation of this structure and allows the nucleolus to retain its tripartite organization and transcriptional activity. Signal termination causes a decrease in IGS transcript levels and a return to the active nucleolar conformation. We propose that the induction of IGS lncRNA by environmental signals operates as a molecular switch that regulates the structure and function of the nucleolus. PMID:23904269

  6. Ancestral vinclozolin exposure alters the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of sperm small noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Andrew; Skinner, Michael K; Yan, Wei

    Exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin during gestation promotes a higher incidence of various diseases in the subsequent unexposed F3 and F4 generations. This phenomenon is termed epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and has been shown to in part involve alterations in DNA methylation, but the role of other epigenetic mechanisms remains unknown. The current study investigated the alterations in small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) in the sperm from F3 generation control and vinclozolin lineage rats. Over 200 differentially expressed sncRNAs were identified and the tRNA-derived sncRNAs, namely 5' halves of mature tRNAs (5' halves), displayed the most dramatic changes. Gene targets of the altered miRNAs and tRNA 5' halves revealed associations between the altered sncRNAs and differentially DNA methylated regions. Dysregulated sncRNAs appear to correlate with mRNA profiles associated with the previously observed vinclozolin-induced disease phenotypes. Data suggest potential connections between sperm-borne RNAs and the vinclozolin-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance phenomenon.

  7. Noncoding origins of anthropoid traits and a new null model of transposon functionalization

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario, Ricardo C.H.; Rayan, Nirmala Arul

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about novel genetic elements that drove the emergence of anthropoid primates. We exploited the sequencing of the marmoset genome to identify 23,849 anthropoid-specific constrained (ASC) regions and confirmed their robust functional signatures. Of the ASC base pairs, 99.7% were noncoding, suggesting that novel anthropoid functional elements were overwhelmingly cis-regulatory. ASCs were highly enriched in loci associated with fetal brain development, motor coordination, neurotransmission, and vision, thus providing a large set of candidate elements for exploring the molecular basis of hallmark primate traits. We validated ASC192 as a primate-specific enhancer in proliferative zones of the developing brain. Unexpectedly, transposable elements (TEs) contributed to >56% of ASCs, and almost all TE families showed functional potential similar to that of nonrepetitive DNA. Three L1PA repeat-derived ASCs displayed coherent eye-enhancer function, thus demonstrating that the “gene-battery” model of TE functionalization applies to enhancers in vivo. Our study provides fundamental insights into genome evolution and the origins of anthropoid phenotypes and supports an elegantly simple new null model of TE exaptation. PMID:25043600

  8. Noncoding origins of anthropoid traits and a new null model of transposon functionalization.

    PubMed

    del Rosario, Ricardo C H; Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about novel genetic elements that drove the emergence of anthropoid primates. We exploited the sequencing of the marmoset genome to identify 23,849 anthropoid-specific constrained (ASC) regions and confirmed their robust functional signatures. Of the ASC base pairs, 99.7% were noncoding, suggesting that novel anthropoid functional elements were overwhelmingly cis-regulatory. ASCs were highly enriched in loci associated with fetal brain development, motor coordination, neurotransmission, and vision, thus providing a large set of candidate elements for exploring the molecular basis of hallmark primate traits. We validated ASC192 as a primate-specific enhancer in proliferative zones of the developing brain. Unexpectedly, transposable elements (TEs) contributed to >56% of ASCs, and almost all TE families showed functional potential similar to that of nonrepetitive DNA. Three L1PA repeat-derived ASCs displayed coherent eye-enhancer function, thus demonstrating that the "gene-battery" model of TE functionalization applies to enhancers in vivo. Our study provides fundamental insights into genome evolution and the origins of anthropoid phenotypes and supports an elegantly simple new null model of TE exaptation. © 2014 del Rosario et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Quantitative Profiling of Peptides from RNAs classified as non-coding

    PubMed Central

    Prabakaran, Sudhakaran; Hemberg, Martin; Chauhan, Ruchi; Winter, Dominic; Tweedie-Cullen, Ry Y.; Dittrich, Christian; Hong, Elizabeth; Gunawardena, Jeremy; Steen, Hanno; Kreiman, Gabriel; Steen, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the mammalian genome codes for messenger RNAs destined to be translated into proteins, and it is generally assumed that a large portion of transcribed sequences - including introns and several classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) do not give rise to peptide products. A systematic examination of translation and physiological regulation of ncRNAs has not been conducted. Here, we use computational methods to identify the products of non-canonical translation in mouse neurons by analyzing unannotated transcripts in combination with proteomic data. This study supports the existence of non-canonical translation products from both intragenic and extragenic genomic regions, including peptides derived from anti-sense transcripts and introns. Moreover, the studied novel translation products exhibit temporal regulation similar to that of proteins known to be involved in neuronal activity processes. These observations highlight a potentially large and complex set of biologically regulated translational events from transcripts formerly thought to lack coding potential. PMID:25403355

  10. The long noncoding RNA Chaer defines an epigenetic checkpoint in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Ji, Yan-Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Deng, Ke-Qiong; Gong, Jun; Ren, Shuxun; Wang, Xinghua; Chen, Iris; Wang, He; Gao, Chen; Yokota, Tomohiro; Ang, Yen Sin; Li, Shen; Cass, Ashley; Vondriska, Thomas M; Li, Guangping; Deb, Arjun; Srivastava, Deepak; Yang, Huang-Tian; Xiao, Xinshu; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Yibin

    2016-10-01

    Epigenetic reprogramming is a critical process of pathological gene induction during cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we identified a heart-enriched long noncoding (lnc)RNA, named cardiac-hypertrophy-associated epigenetic regulator (Chaer), which is necessary for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanistically, Chaer directly interacts with the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2). This interaction, which is mediated by a 66-mer motif in Chaer, interferes with PRC2 targeting to genomic loci, thereby inhibiting histone H3 lysine 27 methylation at the promoter regions of genes involved in cardiac hypertrophy. The interaction between Chaer and PRC2 is transiently induced after hormone or stress stimulation in a process involving mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, and this interaction is a prerequisite for epigenetic reprogramming and induction of genes involved in hypertrophy. Inhibition of Chaer expression in the heart before, but not after, the onset of pressure overload substantially attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Our study reveals that stress-induced pathological gene activation in the heart requires a previously uncharacterized lncRNA-dependent epigenetic checkpoint.

  11. The evolution and expression of the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Andrew M.; Tsai, Michael; Batchu, Priyanka; Ryan, Karen; Ozer, Harvey L.; Tian, Bin; Mathews, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified the snaR family of small non-coding RNAs that associate in vivo with the nuclear factor 90 (NF90/ILF3) protein. The major human species, snaR-A, is an RNA polymerase III transcript with restricted tissue distribution and orthologs in chimpanzee but not rhesus macaque or mouse. We report their expression in human tissues and their evolution in primates. snaR genes are exclusively in African Great Apes and some are unique to humans. Two novel families of snaR-related genetic elements were found in primates: CAS (catarrhine ancestor of snaR), limited to Old World Monkeys and apes; and ASR (Alu/snaR-related), present in all monkeys and apes. ASR and CAS appear to have spread by retrotransposition, whereas most snaR genes have spread by segmental duplication. snaR-A and snaR-G2 are differentially expressed in discrete regions of the human brain and other tissues, notably including testis. snaR-A is up-regulated in transformed and immortalized human cells, and is stably bound to ribosomes in HeLa cells. We infer that snaR evolved from the left monomer of the primate-specific Alu SINE family via ASR and CAS in conjunction with major primate speciation events, and suggest that snaRs participate in tissue- and species-specific regulation of cell growth and translation. PMID:20935053

  12. MicroRNAs and non-coding RNAs in virus-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Dominique L.; Provost, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Within the past few years, microRNAs (miRNAs) and other non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as elements with critically high importance in post-transcriptional control of cellular and, more recently, viral processes. Endogenously produced by a component of the miRNA-guided RNA silencing machinery known as Dicer, miRNAs are known to control messenger RNA (mRNA) translation through recognition of specific binding sites usually located in their 3′ untranslated region. Recent evidences indicate that the host miRNA pathway may represent an adapted antiviral defense mechanism that can act either by direct miRNA-mediated modulation of viral gene expression or through recognition and inactivation of structured viral RNA species by the protein components of the RNA silencing machinery, such as Dicer. This latter process, however, is a double-edge sword, as it may yield viral miRNAs exerting gene regulatory properties on both host and viral mRNAs. Our knowledge of the interaction between viruses and host RNA silencing machineries, and how this influences the course of infection, is becoming increasingly complex. This review article aims to summarize our current knowledge about viral miRNAs/ncRNAs and their targets, as well as cellular miRNAs that are modulated by viruses upon infection. PMID:20217543

  13. Conserved Non-Coding Sequences are Associated with Rates of mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Jacob B; Feltus, Frank Alex

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state mRNA levels are tightly regulated through a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. The discovery of cis-acting DNA elements that encode these control mechanisms is of high importance. We have investigated the influence of conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs), DNA patterns retained after an ancient whole genome duplication event, on the breadth of gene expression and the rates of mRNA decay in Arabidopsis thaliana. The absence of CNSs near α duplicate genes was associated with a decrease in breadth of gene expression and slower mRNA decay rates while the presence CNSs near α duplicates was associated with an increase in breadth of gene expression and faster mRNA decay rates. The observed difference in mRNA decay rate was fastest in genes with CNSs in both non-transcribed and transcribed regions, albeit through an unknown mechanism. This study supports the notion that some Arabidopsis CNSs regulate the steady-state mRNA levels through post-transcriptional control mechanisms and that CNSs also play a role in controlling the breadth of gene expression.

  14. Conserved Non-Coding Sequences are Associated with Rates of mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Jacob B.; Feltus, Frank Alex

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state mRNA levels are tightly regulated through a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. The discovery of cis-acting DNA elements that encode these control mechanisms is of high importance. We have investigated the influence of conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs), DNA patterns retained after an ancient whole genome duplication event, on the breadth of gene expression and the rates of mRNA decay in Arabidopsis thaliana. The absence of CNSs near α duplicate genes was associated with a decrease in breadth of gene expression and slower mRNA decay rates while the presence CNSs near α duplicates was associated with an increase in breadth of gene expression and faster mRNA decay rates. The observed difference in mRNA decay rate was fastest in genes with CNSs in both non-transcribed and transcribed regions, albeit through an unknown mechanism. This study supports the notion that some Arabidopsis CNSs regulate the steady-state mRNA levels through post-transcriptional control mechanisms and that CNSs also play a role in controlling the breadth of gene expression. PMID:23675377

  15. SHOX gene and conserved noncoding element deletions/duplications in Colombian patients with idiopathic short stature.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Gloria Tatiana Vinasco; Jaimes, Giovanna Carola; Barrios, Mauricio Coll; Cespedes, Camila; Velasco, Harvy Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    SHOX gene mutations or haploinsufficiency cause a wide range of phenotypes such as Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), Turner syndrome, and disproportionate short stature (DSS). However, this gene has also been found to be mutated in cases of idiopathic short stature (ISS) with a 3-15% frequency. In this study, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was employed to determine the frequency of SHOX gene mutations and their conserved noncoding elements (CNE) in Colombian patients with ISS. Patients were referred from different centers around the county. From a sample of 62 patients, 8.1% deletions and insertions in the intragenic regions and in the CNE were found. This result is similar to others published in other countries. Moreover, an isolated case of CNE 9 duplication and a new intron 6b deletion in another patient, associated with ISS, are described. This is one of the first studies of a Latin American population in which deletions/duplications of the SHOX gene and its CNE are examined in patients with ISS.

  16. SHOX gene and conserved noncoding element deletions/duplications in Colombian patients with idiopathic short stature

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Gloria Tatiana Vinasco; Jaimes, Giovanna Carola; Barrios, Mauricio Coll; Cespedes, Camila; Velasco, Harvy Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    SHOX gene mutations or haploinsufficiency cause a wide range of phenotypes such as Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), Turner syndrome, and disproportionate short stature (DSS). However, this gene has also been found to be mutated in cases of idiopathic short stature (ISS) with a 3–15% frequency. In this study, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was employed to determine the frequency of SHOX gene mutations and their conserved noncoding elements (CNE) in Colombian patients with ISS. Patients were referred from different centers around the county. From a sample of 62 patients, 8.1% deletions and insertions in the intragenic regions and in the CNE were found. This result is similar to others published in other countries. Moreover, an isolated case of CNE 9 duplication and a new intron 6b deletion in another patient, associated with ISS, are described. This is one of the first studies of a Latin American population in which deletions/duplications of the SHOX gene and its CNE are examined in patients with ISS. PMID:24689071

  17. Genetic evidence for conserved non-coding element function across species–the ears have it

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Eric E.; Cox, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of genomic sequences from diverse vertebrate species has revealed numerous highly conserved regions that do not appear to encode proteins or functional RNAs. Often these “conserved non-coding elements,” or CNEs, can direct gene expression to specific tissues in transgenic models, demonstrating they have regulatory function. CNEs are frequently found near “developmental” genes, particularly transcription factors, implying that these elements have essential regulatory roles in development. However, actual examples demonstrating CNE regulatory functions across species have been few, and recent loss-of-function studies of several CNEs in mice have shown relatively minor effects. In this Perspectives article, we discuss new findings in “fancy” rats and Highland cattle demonstrating that function of a CNE near the Hmx1 gene is crucial for normal external ear development and when disrupted can mimic loss-of function Hmx1 coding mutations in mice and humans. These findings provide important support for conserved developmental roles of CNEs in divergent species, and reinforce the concept that CNEs should be examined systematically in the ongoing search for genetic causes of human developmental disorders in the era of genome-scale sequencing. PMID:24478720

  18. Identification of Transposable Elements Contributing to Tissue-Specific Expression of Long Non-Coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Chishima, Takafumi; Iwakiri, Junichi

    2018-01-01

    It has been recently suggested that transposable elements (TEs) are re-used as functional elements of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). This is supported by some examples such as the human endogenous retrovirus subfamily H (HERVH) elements contained within lncRNAs and expressed specifically in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), as required to maintain hESC identity. There are at least two unanswered questions about all lncRNAs. How many TEs are re-used within lncRNAs? Are there any other TEs that affect tissue specificity of lncRNA expression? To answer these questions, we comprehensively identify TEs that are significantly related to tissue-specific expression levels of lncRNAs. We downloaded lncRNA expression data corresponding to normal human tissue from the Expression Atlas and transformed the data into tissue specificity estimates. Then, Fisher’s exact tests were performed to verify whether the presence or absence of TE-derived sequences influences the tissue specificity of lncRNA expression. Many TE–tissue pairs associated with tissue-specific expression of lncRNAs were detected, indicating that multiple TE families can be re-used as functional domains or regulatory sequences of lncRNAs. In particular, we found that the antisense promoter region of L1PA2, a LINE-1 subfamily, appears to act as a promoter for lncRNAs with placenta-specific expression. PMID:29315213

  19. Ancestral vinclozolin exposure alters the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of sperm small noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Andrew; Skinner, Michael K.; Yan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin during gestation promotes a higher incidence of various diseases in the subsequent unexposed F3 and F4 generations. This phenomenon is termed epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and has been shown to in part involve alterations in DNA methylation, but the role of other epigenetic mechanisms remains unknown. The current study investigated the alterations in small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) in the sperm from F3 generation control and vinclozolin lineage rats. Over 200 differentially expressed sncRNAs were identified and the tRNA-derived sncRNAs, namely 5′ halves of mature tRNAs (5′ halves), displayed the most dramatic changes. Gene targets of the altered miRNAs and tRNA 5′ halves revealed associations between the altered sncRNAs and differentially DNA methylated regions. Dysregulated sncRNAs appear to correlate with mRNA profiles associated with the previously observed vinclozolin-induced disease phenotypes. Data suggest potential connections between sperm-borne RNAs and the vinclozolin-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance phenomenon. PMID:27390623

  20. Integrated analysis of long non-coding RNAs in human gastric cancer: An in silico study.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhenyu; He, Bangshun; Xu, Yijun; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence highlights the important role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in a large number of biological processes. However, the knowledge of genome scale expression of lncRNAs and their potential biological function in gastric cancer is still lacking. Using RNA-seq data from 420 gastric cancer patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we identified 1,294 lncRNAs differentially expressed in gastric cancer compared with adjacent normal tissues. We also found 247 lncRNAs differentially expressed between intestinal subtype and diffuse subtype. Survival analysis revealed 33 lncRNAs independently associated with patient overall survival, of which 6 lncRNAs were validated in the internal validation set. There were 181 differentially expressed lncRNAs located in the recurrent somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) regions and their correlations between copy number and RNA expression level were also analyzed. In addition, we inferred the function of lncRNAs by construction of a co-expression network for mRNAs and lncRNAs. Together, this study presented an integrative analysis of lncRNAs in gastric cancer and provided a valuable resource for further functional research of lncRNAs in gastric cancer.

  1. Negative and positive regulation by a short segment in the 5'-flanking region of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early gene

    SciT

    Nelson, J.A.; Reynolds-Kohler, C.; Smith, B.A.

    1987-11-01

    To analyze the significance of inducible DNase I-hypersensitive sites occurring in the 5'-flanking sequence of the major immediate-early gene of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), various deleted portions of the HCMV immediate-early promoter regulatory region were attached to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene and assayed for activity in transiently transfected undifferentiated and differentiated human teratocarcinoma cells, Tera-2. Assays of progressive deletions in the promoter regulatory region indicated that removal of a 395-base-pair portion of this element (nucleotides -750 to -1145) containing two inducible DNase I sites which correlate with gene expression resulted in a 7.5-fold increase in CAT activity in undifferentiated cells.more » However, in permissive differentiated Tera-2, human foreskin fibroblast, and HeLa cells, removal of this regulatory region resulted in decreased activity. In addition, attachment of this HCMV upstream element to a homologous or heterologous promoter increased activity three-to fivefold in permissive cells. Therefore, a cis regulatory element exists 5' to the enhancer of the major immediate-early gene of HCMV. This element negatively modulates expression in nonpermissive cells but positively influences expression in permissive cells.« less

  2. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  3. Molecular mechanisms of long noncoding RNAs on gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianwen; Mo, Xiaoyan; Fu, Liyun; Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. Aberrant expression of lncRNAs has been found associated with gastric cancer, one of the most malignant tumors. By complementary base pairing with mRNAs or forming complexes with RNA binding proteins (RBPs), some lncRNAs including GHET1, MALAT1, and TINCR may mediate mRNA stability and splicing. Other lncRNAs, such as BC032469, GAPLINC, and HOTAIR, participate in the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. Under certain circumstances, ANRIL, GACAT3, H19, MEG3, and TUSC7 exhibit their biological roles by associating with microRNAs (miRNAs). By recruiting histone-modifying complexes, ANRIL, FENDRR, H19, HOTAIR, MALAT1, and PVT1 may inhibit the transcription of target genes in cis or trans. Through these mechanisms, lncRNAs form RNA-dsDNA triplex. CCAT1, GAPLINC, GAS5, H19, MEG3, and TUSC7 play oncogenic or tumor suppressor roles by correlated with tumor suppressor P53 or onco-protein c-Myc, respectively. In conclusion, interaction with DNA, RNA and proteins is involved in lncRNAs’ participation in gastric tumorigenesis and development. PMID:26788991

  4. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Ronchetti, Domenica; Taiana, Elisa; Vinci, Cristina; Neri, Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable disease caused by the malignant proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells, whose pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Although a large fraction of the genome is actively transcribed, most of the transcripts do not serve as templates for proteins and are referred to as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), broadly divided into short and long transcripts on the basis of a 200-nucleotide threshold. Short ncRNAs, especially microRNAs, have crucial roles in virtually all types of cancer, including MM, and have gained importance in cancer diagnosis and prognosis, predicting the response to therapy and, notably, as innovative therapeutic targets. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) are a very heterogeneous group, involved in many physiological cellular and genomic processes as well as in carcinogenesis, cancer metastasis, and invasion. LncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers, including hematological malignancies, showing either oncogenic or tumor suppressive functions. However, the mechanisms of the related disease-causing events are not yet revealed in most cases. Besides emerging as key players in cancer initiation and progression, lncRNAs own many interesting features as biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic importance and, possibly, for their utility in therapeutic terms as druggable molecules. This review focuses on the role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of MM and summarizes the recent literature. PMID:29389884

  5. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D; Haga, Christopher L; Rosenberg, Laura H; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R; Phinney, Donald G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-05-24

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif-small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm.

  6. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D.; Haga, Christopher L.; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R.; Phinney, Donald G.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif–small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm. PMID:27170187

  7. The long noncoding RNA Wisper controls cardiac fibrosis and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Micheletti, Rudi; Plaisance, Isabelle; Abraham, Brian J.; Sarre, Alexandre; Ting, Ching-Chia; Alexanian, Michael; Maric, Daniel; Maison, Damien; Nemir, Mohamed; Young, Richard A.; Schroen, Blanche; González, Arantxa; Ounzain, Samir; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as powerful regulators of cardiac development and disease. However, our understanding of the importance of these molecules in cardiac fibrosis is limited. Using an integrated genomic screen, we identified Wisper (Wisp2 super-enhancer–associated RNA) as a cardiac fibroblast–enriched lncRNA that regulates cardiac fibrosis after injury. Wisper expression was correlated with cardiac fibrosis both in a murine model of myocardial infarction (MI) and in heart tissue from human patients suffering from aortic stenosis. Loss-of-function approaches in vitro using modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) demonstrated that Wisper is a specific regulator of cardiac fibroblast proliferation, migration, and survival. Accordingly, ASO-mediated silencing of Wisper in vivo attenuated MI-induced fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction. Functionally, Wisper regulates cardiac fibroblast gene expression programs critical for cell identity, extracellular matrix deposition, proliferation, and survival. In addition, its association with TIA1-related protein allows it to control the expression of a profibrotic form of lysyl hydroxylase 2, implicated in collagen cross-linking and stabilization of the matrix. Together, our findings identify Wisper as a cardiac fibroblast–enriched super-enhancer–associated lncRNA that represents an attractive therapeutic target to reduce the pathological development of cardiac fibrosis in response to MI and prevent adverse remodeling in the damaged heart. PMID:28637928

  8. The noncoding human genome and the future of personalised medicine.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Philip; Hay, Elizabeth A; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2015-01-30

    Non-coding cis-regulatory sequences act as the 'eyes' of the genome and their role is to perceive, organise and relay cellular communication information to RNA polymerase II at gene promoters. The evolution of these sequences, that include enhancers, silencers, insulators and promoters, has progressed in multicellular organisms to the extent that cis-regulatory sequences make up as much as 10% of the human genome. Parallel evidence suggests that 75% of polymorphisms associated with heritable disease occur within predicted cis-regulatory sequences that effectively alter the 'perception' of cis-regulatory sequences or render them blind to cell communication cues. Cis-regulatory sequences also act as major functional targets of epigenetic modification thus representing an important conduit through which changes in DNA-methylation affects disease susceptibility. The objectives of the current review are (1) to describe what has been learned about identifying and characterising cis-regulatory sequences since the sequencing of the human genome; (2) to discuss their role in interpreting cell signalling pathways pathways; and (3) outline how this role may be altered by polymorphisms and epigenetic changes. We argue that the importance of the cis-regulatory genome for the interpretation of cellular communication pathways cannot be overstated and understanding its role in health and disease will be critical for the future development of personalised medicine.

  9. Noncoding RNAs: New Players in Pulmonary Medicine and Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Salamo, Oriana; Mortaz, Esmaeil; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2018-02-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are coded by 98% of human genomic DNA. They are grouped into two major classes according to length: small ncRNAs and long ncRNAs. They regulate genome organization, stability, and physiological processes that maintain cellular homeostasis. Recently, great interest has emerged in ncRNAs because of their significant roles in the development of inflammatory diseases, including sarcoidosis. Some have been introduced as novel markers for disease activity, such as increased levels of microRNA-34a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with sarcoidosis, re-emphasizing the inflammatory component in sarcoidosis. They are also important factors in the outcome of sarcoidosis. Dysregulation of microRNA-let7f leads to overexpression of profibrotic factors and could be related to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in patients with sarcoidosis, owing to their stimulatory effect on collagen expression and deposition. However, many unanswered questions remain about the association of ncRNAs and sarcoidosis. By understanding the functions of ncRNAs in T-helper cell type 1 and T-helper cell type 17, we may uncover the mechanism of action of those cells in sarcoidosis. Further translational research is needed to define the RNA gene fingerprint of different sarcoidosis stages.

  10. Circular RNA: A new star of noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shibin; Yang, Xisheng; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Jianlin; Gao, Yuan; Shang, Runze; Sun, Wei; Dou, Kefeng; Li, Haimin

    2015-09-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel type of RNA that, unlike linear RNAs, form a covalently closed continuous loop and are highly represented in the eukaryotic transcriptome. Recent studies have discovered thousands of endogenous circRNAs in mammalian cells. CircRNAs are largely generated from exonic or intronic sequences, and reverse complementary sequences or RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary for circRNA biogenesis. The majority of circRNAs are conserved across species, are stable and resistant to RNase R, and often exhibit tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression. Recent research has revealed that circRNAs can function as microRNA (miRNA) sponges, regulators of splicing and transcription, and modifiers of parental gene expression. Emerging evidence indicates that circRNAs might play important roles in atherosclerotic vascular disease risk, neurological disorders, prion diseases and cancer; exhibit aberrant expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC); and serve as diagnostic or predictive biomarkers of some diseases. Similar to miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), circRNAs are becoming a new research hotspot in the field of RNA and could be widely involved in the processes of life. Herein, we review the formation and properties of circRNAs, their functions, and their potential significance in disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long Non-Coding RNAs in Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garitano-Trojaola, Andoni; Agirre, Xabier; Prósper, Felipe; Fortes, Puri

    2013-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs are as diverse as mRNAs and they normally share the same biosynthetic machinery based on RNA polymerase II, splicing and polyadenylation. However, lncRNAs have low coding potential. Compared to mRNAs, lncRNAs are preferentially nuclear, more tissue specific and expressed at lower levels. Most of the lncRNAs described to date modulate the expression of specific genes by guiding chromatin remodelling factors; inducing chromosomal loopings; affecting transcription, splicing, translation or mRNA stability; or serving as scaffolds for the organization of cellular structures. They can function in cis, cotranscriptionally, or in trans, acting as decoys, scaffolds or guides. These functions seem essential to allow cell differentiation and growth. In fact, many lncRNAs have been shown to exert oncogenic or tumor suppressor properties in several cancers including haematological malignancies. In this review, we summarize what is known about lncRNAs, the mechanisms for their regulation in cancer and their role in leukemogenesis, lymphomagenesis and hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in cancer, with special attention to haematological malignancies. PMID:23887658

  12. Associating schizophrenia, long non-coding RNAs and neurostructural dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Merelo, Veronica; Durand, Dante; Lescallette, Adam R.; Vrana, Kent E.; Hong, L. Elliot; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali; Bellon, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that schizophrenia has a strong genetic component. But the exact nature and functional role of this genetic component in the pathophysiology of this mental illness remains a mystery. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a recently discovered family of molecules that regulate gene transcription through a variety of means. Consequently, lncRNAs could help us bring together apparent unrelated findings in schizophrenia; namely, genomic deficiencies on one side and neuroimaging, as well as postmortem results on the other. In fact, the most consistent finding in schizophrenia is decreased brain size together with enlarged ventricles. This anomaly appears to originate from shorter and less ramified dendrites and axons. But a decrease in neuronal arborizations cannot explain the complex pathophysiology of this psychotic disorder; however, dynamic changes in neuronal structure present throughout life could. It is well recognized that the structure of developing neurons is extremely plastic. This structural plasticity was thought to stop with brain development. However, breakthrough discoveries have shown that neuronal structure retains some degree of plasticity throughout life. What the neuroscientific field is still trying to understand is how these dynamic changes are regulated and lncRNAs represent promising candidates to fill this knowledge gap. Here, we present evidence that associates specific lncRNAs with schizophrenia. We then discuss the potential role of lncRNAs in neurostructural dynamics. Finally, we explain how dynamic neurostructural modifications present throughout life could, in theory, reconcile apparent unrelated findings in schizophrenia. PMID:26483630

  13. Evidence of function for conserved noncoding sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Jacob B; Subramaniam, Sabarinath; Freeling, Michael; Feltus, F Alex

    2012-01-01

    • Whole genome duplication events provide a lineage with a large reservoir of genes that can be molded by evolutionary forces into phenotypes that fit alternative environments. A well-studied whole genome duplication, the α-event, occurred in an ancestor of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Retained segments of the α-event have been defined in recent years in the form of duplicate protein coding sequences (α-pairs) and associated conserved noncoding DNA sequences (CNSs). Our aim was to identify any association between CNSs and α-pair co-functionality at the gene expression level. • Here, we tested for correlation between CNS counts and α-pair co-expression and expression intensity across nine expression datasets: aerial tissue, flowers, leaves, roots, rosettes, seedlings, seeds, shoots and whole plants. • We provide evidence for a putative regulatory role of the CNSs. The association of CNSs with α-pair co-expression and expression intensity varied by gene function, subgene position and the presence of transcription factor binding motifs. A range of possible CNS regulatory mechanisms, including intron-mediated enhancement, messenger RNA fold stability and transcriptional regulation, are discussed. • This study provides a framework to understand how CNS motifs are involved in the maintenance of gene expression after a whole genome duplication event. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Non-coding RNAs—Novel targets in neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Tamara L.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past ten years non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as pivotal players in fundamental physiological and cellular processes and have been increasingly implicated in cancer, immune disorders, and cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and metabolic diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of ncRNA molecules that function as negative regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are predicted to regulate 60% of all human protein-coding genes and as such, play key roles in cellular and developmental processes, human health, and disease. Relative to counterparts that lack bindings sites for miRNAs, genes encoding proteins that are post-transcriptionally regulated by miRNAs are twice as likely to be sensitive to environmental chemical exposure. Not surprisingly, miRNAs have been recognized as targets or effectors of nervous system, developmental, hepatic, and carcinogenic toxicants, and have been identified as putative regulators of phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. In this review, we give an overview of the types of ncRNAs and highlight their roles in neurodevelopment, neurological disease, activity-dependent signaling, and drug metabolism. We then delve into specific examples that illustrate their importance as mediators, effectors, or adaptive agents of neurotoxicants or neuroactive pharmaceutical compounds. Finally, we identify a number of outstanding questions regarding ncRNAs and neurotoxicity. PMID:22394481

  15. Long Noncoding RNA PANDA Positively Regulates Proliferation of Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Yojiro; Goto, Taiki; Naemura, Madoka; Inoue, Yasutoshi; Okamoto, Haruna; Tahara, Keiichiro

    2017-01-01

    A long noncoding RNA, p21-associated ncRNA DNA damage-activated (PANDA), associates with nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) and inhibits its binding to promoters of apoptosis-related genes, thereby repressing apoptosis in normal human fibroblasts. Here, we show that PANDA is involved in regulating proliferation in the U2OS human osteosarcoma cell line. U2OS cells were transfected with siRNAs against PANDA 72 h later and they were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR and cell-cycle analysis. PANDA was highly expressed in U2OS cells, and its expression was induced by DNA damage. Silencing PANDA caused arrest at the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that silencing PANDA increased mRNA levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18, which caused G 1 phase arrest. These results suggest that PANDA promotes G 1 -S transition by repressing p18 transcription, and thus promotes U2OS cell proliferation. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. High-confidence coding and noncoding transcriptome maps

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has led to the discovery of unprecedentedly immense transcriptomes encoded by eukaryotic genomes. However, the transcriptome maps are still incomplete partly because they were mostly reconstructed based on RNA-seq reads that lack their orientations (known as unstranded reads) and certain boundary information. Methods to expand the usability of unstranded RNA-seq data by predetermining the orientation of the reads and precisely determining the boundaries of assembled transcripts could significantly benefit the quality of the resulting transcriptome maps. Here, we present a high-performing transcriptome assembly pipeline, called CAFE, that significantly improves the original assemblies, respectively assembled with stranded and/or unstranded RNA-seq data, by orienting unstranded reads using the maximum likelihood estimation and by integrating information about transcription start sites and cleavage and polyadenylation sites. Applying large-scale transcriptomic data comprising 230 billion RNA-seq reads from the ENCODE, Human BodyMap 2.0, The Cancer Genome Atlas, and GTEx projects, CAFE enabled us to predict the directions of about 220 billion unstranded reads, which led to the construction of more accurate transcriptome maps, comparable to the manually curated map, and a comprehensive lncRNA catalog that includes thousands of novel lncRNAs. Our pipeline should not only help to build comprehensive, precise transcriptome maps from complex genomes but also to expand the universe of noncoding genomes. PMID:28396519

  17. Noncoding RNA:RNA Regulatory Networks in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jia Jia; Tay, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) constitute the majority of the human transcribed genome. This largest class of RNA transcripts plays diverse roles in a multitude of cellular processes, and has been implicated in many pathological conditions, especially cancer. The different subclasses of ncRNAs include microRNAs, a class of short ncRNAs; and a variety of long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), such as lincRNAs, antisense RNAs, pseudogenes, and circular RNAs. Many studies have demonstrated the involvement of these ncRNAs in competitive regulatory interactions, known as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks, whereby lncRNAs can act as microRNA decoys to modulate gene expression. These interactions are often interconnected, thus aberrant expression of any network component could derail the complex regulatory circuitry, culminating in cancer development and progression. Recent integrative analyses have provided evidence that new computational platforms and experimental approaches can be harnessed together to distinguish key ceRNA interactions in specific cancers, which could facilitate the identification of robust biomarkers and therapeutic targets, and hence, more effective cancer therapies and better patient outcome and survival. PMID:29702599

  18. Expression Signatures of Long Noncoding RNAs in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Yu, Bin; Zhuang, Qian-yu; Wang, Yi-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involving the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR. Results. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768) were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS. PMID:26421281

  19. Extraordinary Structured Noncoding RNAs Revealed by Bacterial Metagenome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Zasha; Perreault, Jonathan; Meyer, Michelle M.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of the total number of bacterial species1-3 suggest that existing DNA sequence databases carry only a tiny fraction of the total amount of DNA sequence space represented by this division of life. Indeed, environmental DNA samples have been shown to encode many previously unknown classes of proteins4 and RNAs5. Bioinformatics searches6-10 of genomic DNA from bacteria commonly identify novel noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs)10-12 such as riboswitches13,14. In rare instances, RNAs that exhibit more extensive sequence and structural conservation across a wide range of bacteria are encountered15,16. Given that large structured RNAs are known to carry out complex biochemical functions such as protein synthesis and RNA processing reactions, identifying more RNAs of great size and intricate structure is likely to reveal additional biochemical functions that can be achieved by RNA. We applied an updated computational pipeline17 to discover ncRNAs that rival the known large ribozymes in size and structural complexity or that are among the most abundant RNAs in bacteria that encode them. These RNAs would have been difficult or impossible to detect without examining environmental DNA sequences, suggesting that numerous RNAs with extraordinary size, structural complexity, or other exceptional characteristics remain to be discovered in unexplored sequence space. PMID:19956260

  20. Non-Coding RNA Analysis Using the Rfam Database.

    PubMed

    Kalvari, Ioanna; Nawrocki, Eric P; Argasinska, Joanna; Quinones-Olvera, Natalia; Finn, Robert D; Bateman, Alex; Petrov, Anton I

    2018-06-01

    Rfam is a database of non-coding RNA families in which each family is represented by a multiple sequence alignment, a consensus secondary structure, and a covariance model. Using a combination of manual and literature-based curation and a custom software pipeline, Rfam converts descriptions of RNA families found in the scientific literature into computational models that can be used to annotate RNAs belonging to those families in any DNA or RNA sequence. Valuable research outputs that are often locked up in figures and supplementary information files are encapsulated in Rfam entries and made accessible through the Rfam Web site. The data produced by Rfam have a broad application, from genome annotation to providing training sets for algorithm development. This article gives an overview of how to search and navigate the Rfam Web site, and how to annotate sequences with RNA families. The Rfam database is freely available at http://rfam.org. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Steven L.; Munson, Peter J.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Clokie, Samuel J. H.; Fu, Cong; Olanich, Mary E.; Rangel, Zoila; Werner, Thomas; Mullikin, James C.; Klein, David C.; Benjamin, Betty; Blakesley, Robert; Bouffard, Gerry; Brooks, Shelise; Chu, Grace; Coleman, Holly; Dekhtyar, Mila; Gregory, Michael; Guan, Xiaobin; Gupta, Jyoti; Han, Joel; Hargrove, April; Ho, Shi-ling; Johnson, Taccara; Legaspi, Richelle; Lovett, Sean; Maduro, Quino; Masiello, Cathy; Maskeri, Baishali; McDowell, Jenny; Montemayor, Casandra; Novotny, Betsy; Park, Morgan; Riebow, Nancy; Schandler, Karen; Schmidt, Brian; Sison, Christina; Stantripop, Mal; Thomas, James; Vemulapalli, Meg; Young, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (doubling time = 0.5–1.3 h). Light exposure at night rapidly reverses (halving time = 9–32 min) levels of some of these lncRNAs. Organ culture studies indicate that expression of these lncRNAs is regulated by norepinephrine acting through cAMP. These findings point to a dynamic role of lncRNAs in the circadian system. PMID:22864914

  2. Detailed analysis of the δ-crystallin mRNA-expressing region in early development of the chick pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makiko; Shiina, Tomoya; Aizawa, Sayaka; Sakata, Ichiro; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Sakai, Takafumi

    2012-06-01

    Although δ-crystallin (δ-crys), also known as lens protein, is transiently expressed in Rathke's pouch (RP) of the chick embryo, detailed temporal and spatial expression patterns have been obscure. In this study, to understand the relationship between the δ-crys mRNA-expressing region and RP formation, we examined the embryonic expression pattern of δ-crys mRNA in the primordium of the adenohypophysis. δ-crys mRNA expression was initially found at stage 15 anterior to the foregut and posterior to the invaginated oral ectoderm. After RP formation, the δ-crys mRNA was expressed in the post-ventral region of RP and the anterior region of RP. δ-crys mRNA expression was then restricted to the cephalic lobe of the pituitary gland. From stage 20, the δ-crys and alpha-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) mRNA-expressing regions were almost completely overlapping. The αGSU mRNA-expressing region is thought to be the primordium of the pars tuberalis, and these regions were overlapped with the Lhx3 mRNA-expressing region. The intensity of δ-crys mRNA expression gradually decreased with development and completely disappeared by stage 34. These results suggest that the embryonic chick pituitary gland consists of two different regions labeled with δ-crys and Lhx3.

  3. Regional drought early warning, impacts, and assessment for water and agriculture in the lower Rio Grande basin, 2016-2017

    USDA’s Southern Plains Climate Hub (SPCH) and the University of Oklahoma’s Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP) contributed to a broad, multi-partnered effort to provide drought early warning information to water and agriculture management interests in the middle and lower Rio Grande ba...

  4. A regional study of loblolly pine plantation development through 15 years after early complete woody and herbaceous plant control (COMP)

    James H. Miller; B.R. Zutter; S.M Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    2002-01-01

    Pine plantations are increasingly cultured using early woody and/or herbaceous plant control. Developments in sustainable cultural practices are hindered by the absence of long-term data on productivity gains relative to competition levels, crop-competition dynamics, and compositional succession. To gain baseline data, this study examined loblolly pine (Pinus...

  5. A method to determine the mammographic regions that show early changes due to the development of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karemore, Gopal; Nielsen, Mads; Karssemeijer, Nico; Brandt, Sami S.

    2014-11-01

    It is well understood nowadays that changes in the mammographic parenchymal pattern are an indicator of a risk of breast cancer and we have developed a statistical method that estimates the mammogram regions where the parenchymal changes, due to breast cancer, occur. This region of interest is computed from a score map by utilising the anatomical breast coordinate system developed in our previous work. The method also makes an automatic scale selection to avoid overfitting while the region estimates are computed by a nested cross-validation scheme. In this way, it is possible to recover those mammogram regions that show a significant difference in classification scores between the cancer and the control group. Our experiments suggested that the most significant mammogram region is the region behind the nipple and that can be justified by previous findings from other research groups. This result was conducted on the basis of the cross-validation experiments on independent training, validation and testing sets from the case-control study of 490 women, of which 245 women were diagnosed with breast cancer within a period of 2-4 years after the baseline mammograms. We additionally generalised the estimated region to another, mini-MIAS study and showed that the transferred region estimate gives at least a similar classification result when compared to the case where the whole breast region is used. In all, by following our method, one most likely improves both preclinical and follow-up breast cancer screening, but a larger study population will be required to test this hypothesis.

  6. Severe psychosocial deprivation in early childhood is associated with increased DNA methylation across a region spanning the transcription start site of CYP2E1

    PubMed Central

    Kumsta, R; Marzi, S J; Viana, J; Dempster, E L; Crawford, B; Rutter, M; Mill, J; Sonuga-Barke, E J S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to adverse rearing environments including institutional deprivation and severe childhood abuse is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems across the lifespan. Although the mechanisms mediating these effects are not known, recent work in rodent models suggests that epigenetic processes may be involved. We studied the impact of severe early-life adversity on epigenetic variation in a sample of adolescents adopted from the severely depriving orphanages of the Romanian communist era in the 1980s. We quantified buccal cell DNA methylation at ~400 000 sites across the genome in Romanian adoptees exposed to either extended (6–43 months; n=16) or limited duration (<6 months; n=17) of severe early-life deprivation, in addition to a matched sample of UK adoptees (n=16) not exposed to severe deprivation. Although no probe-wise differences remained significant after controlling for the number of probes tested, we identified an exposure-associated differentially methylated region (DMR) spanning nine sequential CpG sites in the promoter-regulatory region of the cytochrome P450 2E1 gene (CYP2E1) on chromosome 10 (corrected P=2.98 × 10−5). Elevated DNA methylation across this region was also associated with deprivation-related clinical markers of impaired social cognition. Our data suggest that environmental insults of sufficient biological impact during early development are associated with long-lasting epigenetic changes, potentially reflecting a biological mechanism linking the effects of early-life adversity to cognitive and neurobiological phenotypes. PMID:27271856

  7. Severe psychosocial deprivation in early childhood is associated with increased DNA methylation across a region spanning the transcription start site of CYP2E1.

    PubMed

    Kumsta, R; Marzi, S J; Viana, J; Dempster, E L; Crawford, B; Rutter, M; Mill, J; Sonuga-Barke, E J S

    2016-06-07

    Exposure to adverse rearing environments including institutional deprivation and severe childhood abuse is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems across the lifespan. Although the mechanisms mediating these effects are not known, recent work in rodent models suggests that epigenetic processes may be involved. We studied the impact of severe early-life adversity on epigenetic variation in a sample of adolescents adopted from the severely depriving orphanages of the Romanian communist era in the 1980s. We quantified buccal cell DNA methylation at ~400 000 sites across the genome in Romanian adoptees exposed to either extended (6-43 months; n=16) or limited duration (<6 months; n=17) of severe early-life deprivation, in addition to a matched sample of UK adoptees (n=16) not exposed to severe deprivation. Although no probe-wise differences remained significant after controlling for the number of probes tested, we identified an exposure-associated differentially methylated region (DMR) spanning nine sequential CpG sites in the promoter-regulatory region of the cytochrome P450 2E1 gene (CYP2E1) on chromosome 10 (corrected P=2.98 × 10(-5)). Elevated DNA methylation across this region was also associated with deprivation-related clinical markers of impaired social cognition. Our data suggest that environmental insults of sufficient biological impact during early development are associated with long-lasting epigenetic changes, potentially reflecting a biological mechanism linking the effects of early-life adversity to cognitive and neurobiological phenotypes.

  8. Comparative Sequence Analysis of the X-Inactivation Center Region in Mouse, Human, and Bovine

    PubMed Central

    Chureau, Corinne; Prissette, Marine; Bourdet, Agnès; Barbe, Valérie; Cattolico, Laurence; Jones, Louis; Eggen, André; Avner, Philip; Duret, Laurent

    2002-01-01

    We have sequenced to high levels of accuracy 714-kb and 233-kb regions of the mouse and bovine X-inactivation centers (Xic), respectively, centered on the Xist gene. This has provided the basis for a fully annotated comparative analysis of the mouse Xic with the 2.3-Mb orthologous region in human and has allowed a three-way species comparison of the core central region, including the Xist gene. These comparisons have revealed conserved genes, both coding and noncoding, conserved CpG islands and, more surprisingly, conserved pseudogenes. The distribution of repeated elements, especially LINE repeats, in the mouse Xic region when compared to the rest of the genome does not support the hypothesis of a role for these repeat elements in the spreading of X inactivation. Interestingly, an asymmetric distribution of LINE elements on the two DNA strands was observed in the three species, not only within introns but also in intergenic regions. This feature is suggestive of important transcriptional activity within these intergenic regions. In silico prediction followed by experimental analysis has allowed four new genes, Cnbp2, Ftx, Jpx, and Ppnx, to be identified and novel, widespread, complex, and apparently noncoding transcriptional activity to be characterized in a region 5′ of Xist that was recently shown to attract histone modification early after the onset of X inactivation. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. AJ421478, AJ421479, AJ421480, and AJ421481. Online supplemental data are available at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/datasets/Xic2002/data.html and www.genome.org.] PMID:12045143

  9. New York State Department of Transportation, Lower Hudson Valley, Region 8 : intelligent transportation systems early deployment planning study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the framework for future implementation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in the Lower Hudson Valley area. The focus of the planning study is the regional freeway system, major arterial routes and the...

  10. The 'dark matter' in the plant genomes: non-coding and unannotated DNA sequences associated with open chromatin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiming

    2015-04-01

    Sequencing of complete plant genomes has become increasingly more routine since the advent of the next-generation sequencing technology. Identification and annotation of large amounts of noncoding but functional DNA sequences, including cis-regulatory DNA elements (CREs), have become a new frontier in plant genome research. Genomic regions containing active CREs bound to regulatory proteins are hypersensitive to DNase I digestion and are called DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs). Several recent DHS studies in plants illustrate that DHS datasets produced by DNase I digestion followed by next-generation sequencing (DNase-seq) are highly valuable for the identification and characterization of CREs associated with plant development and responses to environmental cues. DHS-based genomic profiling has opened a door to identify and annotate the 'dark matter' in sequenced plant genomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-coding RNAs and Berberine: A new mechanism of its anti-diabetic activities.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wenguang

    2017-01-15

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease with high mortality and morbidity. Non-coding RNAs, including small and long non-coding RNAs, are a novel class of functional RNA molecules that regulate multiple biological functions through diverse mechanisms. Studies in the last decade have demonstrated that non-coding RNAs may represent compelling therapeutic targets and play important roles in regulating the course of insulin resistance and T2D. Berberine, a plant-based alkaloid, has shown promise as an anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic agent against T2D. Previous studies have primarily focused on a diverse array of efficacy end points of berberine in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndromes and inflammation or oxidative stress. Currently, an increasing number of studies have revealed the importance of non-coding RNAs as regulators of the anti-diabetic effects of berberine. The regulation of non-coding RNAs has been associated with several therapeutic actions of berberine in T2D progression. Thus, this review summarizes the anti-diabetic mechanisms of berberine by focusing on its role in regulating non-coding RNA, thus demonstrating that berberine exerts global anti-diabetic effects by targeting non-coding RNAs and that these effects involve several miRNAs, lncRNAs and multiple signal pathways, which may enhance the current understanding of the anti-diabetic mechanism actions of berberine and provide new pathological targets for the development of berberine-related drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective amplification of T-cell receptor variable region species is demonstrable but not essential in early lesions of psoriasis vulgaris: analysis by anchored polymerase chain reaction and hypervariable region size spectratyping.

    PubMed

    Vekony, M A; Holder, J E; Lee, A J; Horrocks, C; Eperon, I C; Camp, R D

    1997-07-01

    Several groups have investigated the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis by determination of T-cell receptor (TCR) B-chain variable (V) region usage, both in chronic plaque (psoriasis vulgaris) and guttate forms, with various results. Because there are no data on TCR expression in early psoriasis vulgaris, when specific cellular immune events may be expected to be most pronounced, we have analyzed early lesions (less than 3 wk old) of ten patients, with highly reproducible results. We have developed a highly controlled anchored polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method in which TCR beta chain species are all amplified with the same primer pair and products are quantified by dot blot hybridization with BV family-specific oligonucleotide probes. Overexpression of certain TCR BV genes was observed in the majority of lesional biopsies, but in samples in which the expanded BV family formed more than 10% of total lesional BV (half of the samples analyzed), BV2 and BV6 predominated. The consistency of overexpression of these BV species between patients was much less than in previous studies of TCRBV usage in established chronic plaque psoriasis lesions. Complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) size spectratyping demonstrated evidence for selective clonal T cell accumulation in less than half of the lesional samples showing BV expansion. These results indicate that selective amplification of TCRBV species occurs in early psoriasis vulgaris but is not essential to the pathogenic process and may be more important in the maintenance or expansion of chronic lesions.

  13. Genetic variants in long non-coding RNA MIAT contribute to risk of paranoid schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shu-Quan; Hu, Hui-Ling; Ye, Ning; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2015-08-01

    The heritability of schizophrenia has been reported to be as high as ~80%, but the contribution of genetic variants identified to this heritability remains to be estimated. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are involved in multiple processes critical to normal cellular function and dysfunction of lncRNA MIAT may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the genetic evidence of lncRNAs involved in schizophrenia has not been documented. Here, we conducted a two-stage association analysis on 8 tag SNPs that cover the whole MIAT locus in two independent Han Chinese schizophrenia case-control cohorts (discovery sample from Shanxi Province: 1093 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 1180 control subjects; replication cohort from Jilin Province: 1255 cases and 1209 healthy controls). In discovery stage, significant genetic association with paranoid schizophrenia was observed for rs1894720 (χ(2)=74.20, P=7.1E-18), of which minor allele (T) had an OR of 1.70 (95% CI=1.50-1.91). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (χ(2)=22.66, P=1.9E-06, OR=1.32, 95%CI 1.18-1.49). Besides, a weak genotypic association was detected for rs4274 (χ(2)=4.96, df=2, P=0.03); the AA carriers showed increased disease risk (OR=1.30, 95%CI=1.03-1.64). No significant association was found between any haplotype and paranoid schizophrenia. The present studies showed that lncRNA MIAT was a novel susceptibility gene for paranoid schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. Considering that most lncRNAs locate in non-coding regions, our result may explain why most susceptibility loci for schizophrenia identified by genome wide association studies were out of coding regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative genomics strategy for targeted discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and conserved-noncoding sequences in orphan crops.

    PubMed

    Feltus, F A; Singh, H P; Lohithaswa, H C; Schulze, S R; Silva, T D; Paterson, A H

    2006-04-01

    Completed genome sequences provide templates for the design of genome analysis tools in orphan species lacking sequence information. To demonstrate this principle, we designed 384 PCR primer pairs to conserved exonic regions flanking introns, using Sorghum/Pennisetum expressed sequence tag alignments to the Oryza genome. Conserved-intron scanning primers (CISPs) amplified single-copy loci at 37% to 80% success rates in taxa that sample much of the approximately 50-million years of Poaceae divergence. While the conserved nature of exons fostered cross-taxon amplification, the lesser evolutionary constraints on introns enhanced single-nucleotide polymorphism detection. For example, in eight rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes, polymorphism averaged 12.1 per kb in introns but only 3.6 per kb in exons. Curiously, among 124 CISPs evaluated across Oryza, Sorghum, Pennisetum, Cynodon, Eragrostis, Zea, Triticum, and Hordeum, 23 (18.5%) seemed to be subject to rigid intron size constraints that were independent of per-nucleotide DNA sequence variation. Furthermore, we identified 487 conserved-noncoding sequence motifs in 129 CISP loci. A large CISP set (6,062 primer pairs, amplifying introns from 1,676 genes) designed using an automated pipeline showed generally higher abundance in recombinogenic than in nonrecombinogenic regions of the rice genome, thus providing relatively even distribution along genetic maps. CISPs are an effective means to explore poorly characterized genomes for both DNA polymorphism and noncoding sequence conservation on a genome-wide or candidate gene basis, and also provide anchor points for comparative genomics across a diverse range of species.

  15. The Resolved Stellar Population in 50 Regions of M83 from HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Mutchler, Max; Cohen, Seth H.; Calzetti, Daniela; O’Connell, Robert W.; Windhorst, Rogier A.;