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Sample records for early noninvasive ventilation

  1. Noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rabatin, J T; Gay, P C

    1999-08-01

    Noninvasive ventilation refers to the delivery of assisted ventilatory support without the use of an endotracheal tube. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) can be delivered by using a volume-controlled ventilator, a pressure-controlled ventilator, a bilevel positive airway pressure ventilator, or a continuous positive airway pressure device. During the past decade, there has been a resurgence in the use of noninvasive ventilation, fueled by advances in technology and clinical trials evaluating its use. Several manufacturers produce portable devices that are simple to operate. This review describes the equipment, techniques, and complications associated with NPPV and also the indications for both short-term and long-term applications. NPPV clearly represents an important addition to the techniques available to manage patients with respiratory failure. Future clinical trials evaluating its many clinical applications will help to define populations of patients most apt to benefit from this type of treatment.

  2. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for severe influenza pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Masclans, J R; Pérez, M; Almirall, J; Lorente, L; Marqués, A; Socias, L; Vidaur, L; Rello, J

    2013-03-01

    The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure caused by viral pneumonia remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the use of NIV in a cohort of (H1N1)v pneumonia. Usefulness and success of NIV were assessed in a prospective, observational registry of patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus pneumonia in 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) in 2009-10. Significant variables for NIV success were included in a multivariate analysis. In all, 685 patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia were admitted to participating ICUs; 489 were ventilated, 177 with NIV. The NIV was successful in 72 patients (40.7%), the rest required intubation. Low Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, low Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and absence of renal failure were associated with NIV success. Success of NIV was independently associated with fewer than two chest X-ray quadrant opacities (OR 3.5) and no vasopressor requirement (OR 8.1). However, among patients with two or more quadrant opacities, a SOFA score ≤7 presented a higher success rate than those with SOFA score >7 (OR 10.7). Patients in whom NIV was successful required shorter ventilation time, shorter ICU stay and hospital stay than NIV failure. In patients in whom NIV failed, the delay in intubation did not increase mortality (26.5% versus 24.2%). Clinicians used NIV in 25.8% of influenza A (H1N1)v viral pneumonia admitted to ICU, and treatment was effective in 40.6% of them. NIV success was associated with shorter hospital stay and mortality similar to non-ventilated patients. NIV failure was associated with a mortality similar to those who were intubated from the start. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Noninvasive Ventilation in Premature Neonates.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Keri Ann

    2016-04-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation is a constantly evolving treatment option for respiratory disease in the premature infant. The goals of these noninvasive ventilation techniques are to improve gas exchange in the premature infant's lungs and to minimize the need for intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The goals of this article are to consider various uses of nasal interfaces, discuss skin care and developmental positioning concerns faced by the bedside nurse, and discuss the medical management aimed to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article explores the nursing role, the advances in medical strategies for noninvasive ventilation, and the team approach to noninvasive ventilation use in this population. Search strategy included a literature review on medical databases, such as EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed, and NeoReviews. Innovative products, nursing research on developmental positioning and skin care, and advanced medical management have led to better and safer outcomes for premature infants requiring noninvasive ventilation. The medical focus of avoiding long-term mechanical ventilation would not be possible without the technology to provide noninvasive ventilation to these premature infants and the watchful eye of the nurse in terms of careful positioning, preventing skin breakdown and facial scarring, and a proper seal to maximize ventilation accuracy. This article encourages nursing-based research to quantify some of the knowledge about skin care and positioning as well as research into most appropriate uses for noninvasive ventilation devices.

  4. Trial of early noninvasive ventilation for ALS: A pilot placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Teresa L; Brown, Devin L; Baek, Jonggyu; Migda, Erin M; Funckes, Timothy; Gruis, Kirsten L

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the use and tolerability of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) early in their disease by comparing active NIV and sham NIV in patients not yet eligible for NIV use as recommended by practice guidelines. This was a single-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo (sham)-controlled pilot trial. Patients with ALS were randomized to receive either sham NIV or active NIV and underwent active surveillance approximately every 3 months until they reached a forced vital capacity (FVC) <50% or required NIV for clinical symptom management. In total, 54 participants were randomized. The mean NIV use was 2.0 hours (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.0) per day in the sham NIV treatment group and 3.3 hours (CI 2.0-4.6) per day in the active NIV group, which did not differ by treatment group (p = 0.347). The majority of sham NIV participants (88%) and active NIV participants (73%) reported only mild or no problem with NIV use. Difference of change in FVC through the treatment period by group (0.44 per month) favored active NIV (p = 0.049). Survival and changes in maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressure did not differ between treatment groups. The efficacy of early NIV in ALS should be tested in randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The trial is registered on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00580593). This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with ALS, adherence with NIV and sham NIV are similar. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Impact of an early respiratory care programme with non-invasive ventilation adaptation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vitacca, M; Montini, A; Lunetta, C; Banfi, P; Bertella, E; De Mattia, E; Lizio, A; Volpato, E; Lax, A; Morini, R; Paneroni, M

    2018-03-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC) <80% is one of the key indications for starting non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It was hypothesized that a very early start of NIV could lengthen the free interval before death compared to later-start NIV; as a secondary outcome, the survival rate of patients on NIV without tracheotomy was also evaluated. This retrospective study was conducted on 194 ALS patients, divided into a later group (LG) with FVC <80% at NIV prescription (n = 129) and a very early group (VEG) with FVC ≥80% at NIV prescription (n = 65). Clinical and respiratory functional data and time free to death between groups over a 3-year follow-up were compared. At 36 months from diagnosis, mortality was 35% for the VEG versus 52.7% for the LG (P = 0.022). Kaplan-Meier survival curves adjusted for tracheotomy showed a lower probability of death (P = 0.001) for the VEG as a whole (P = 0.001) and for the non-bulbar (NB) subgroup (P = 0.007). Very early NIV was protective of survival for all patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.74; P = 0.001] and for the NB subgroup (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.23-0.79; P = 0.007), whilst a tracheotomy was protective for all patients (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.15-0.50; P = 0.000) and both NB (HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.56; P = 0.001) and bulbar subgroups (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.11-0.77; P = 0.013). Survival in VEG patients on NIV without tracheotomy was three times that for the LG (43.1% vs. 14.7%). Very early NIV prescription prolongs the free time from diagnosis to death in NB ALS patients whilst tracheotomy reduces the mortality risk in all patients. © 2017 EAN.

  6. Time of non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Nava, Stefano; Navalesi, Paolo; Conti, Giorgio

    2006-03-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a safe, versatile and effective technique that can avert side effects and complications associated with endotracheal intubation. The success of NIV relies on several factors, including the type and severity of acute respiratory failure, the underlying disease, the location of treatment, and the experience of the team. The time factor is also important. NIV is primarily used to avert the need for endotracheal intubation in patients with early-stage acute respiratory failure and post-extubation respiratory failure. It can also be used as an alternative to invasive ventilation at a more advanced stage of acute respiratory failure or to facilitate the process of weaning from mechanical ventilation. NIV has been used to prevent development of acute respiratory failure or post-extubation respiratory failure. The number of days of NIV and hours of daily use differ, depending on the severity and course of the acute respiratory failure and the timing of application. In this review article, we analyse, compare and discuss the results of studies in which NIV was applied at various times during the evolution of acute respiratory failure.

  7. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase the efficiency of health care resource utilization. Current literature indicates that noninvasive ventilation improves and stabilizes the clinical course of many patients with chronic ventilatory failure. Noninvasive ventilation also permits long-term mechanical ventilation to be an acceptable option for patients who otherwise would not have been treated if tracheostomy were the only alternative. Nevertheless, these results appear to be better in patients with neuromuscular/-parietal disorders than in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This clinical review will address the use of noninvasive ventilation (not including continuous positive airway pressure) mainly in diseases responsible for chronic hypoventilation (that is, restrictive disorders, including neuromuscular disease and lung disease) and incidentally in others such as obstructive sleep apnea or problems of central drive. PMID:17419882

  8. Epidemiology of Noninvasive Ventilation in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs.

    PubMed

    Romans, Ryan A; Schwartz, Steven M; Costello, John M; Chanani, Nikhil K; Prodhan, Parthak; Gazit, Avihu Z; Smith, Andrew H; Cooper, David S; Alten, Jeffrey; Mistry, Kshitij P; Zhang, Wenying; Donohue, Janet E; Gaies, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To describe the epidemiology of noninvasive ventilation therapy for patients admitted to pediatric cardiac ICUs and to assess practice variation across hospitals. Retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical registry data. Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium clinical registry. Patients admitted to cardiac ICUs at PC4 hospitals. None. We analyzed all cardiac ICU encounters that included any respiratory support from October 2013 to December 2015. Noninvasive ventilation therapy included high flow nasal cannula and positive airway pressure support. We compared patient and, when relevant, perioperative characteristics of those receiving noninvasive ventilation to all others. Subgroup analysis was performed on neonates and infants undergoing major cardiovascular surgery. To examine duration of respiratory support, we created a casemix-adjustment model and calculated adjusted mean durations of total respiratory support (mechanical ventilation + noninvasive ventilation), mechanical ventilation, and noninvasive ventilation. We compared adjusted duration of support across hospitals. The cohort included 8,940 encounters from 15 hospitals: 3,950 (44%) received noninvasive ventilation and 72% were neonates and infants. Medical encounters were more likely to include noninvasive ventilation than surgical. In surgical neonates and infants, 2,032 (55%) received postoperative noninvasive ventilation. Neonates, extracardiac anomalies, single ventricle, procedure complexity, preoperative respiratory support, mechanical ventilation duration, and postoperative disease severity were associated with noninvasive ventilation therapy (p < 0.001 for all). Across hospitals, noninvasive ventilation use ranged from 32% to 65%, and adjusted mean noninvasive ventilation duration ranged from 1 to 4 days (3-d observed mean). Duration of total adjusted respiratory support was more strongly correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation compared with noninvasive

  9. Abdominal compartment syndrome related to noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    De Keulenaer, Bart L; De Backer, Adelard; Schepens, Dirk R; Daelemans, Ronny; Wilmer, Alexander; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2003-07-01

    To study the effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on intra-abdominal pressure. Single case report from a tertiary teaching hospital. A 65-year-old man who experienced a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse during NIPPV. This was caused by gastric overdistension due to aerophagia followed by raised intra-abdominal pressure leading to intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The respiratory and cardiovascular problems resolved immediately after the introduction of a nasogastric tube. This resulted in normalization of IAP. This is the first case reported of an abdominal compartment syndrome related to NIPPV. Clinicians should be aware of this possible complication while using NIPPV.

  10. Early fiberoptic bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to community-acquired-pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Inefficient clearance of copious respiratory secretion is a cause of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure, especially in chronic respiratory patients with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) and impaired consciousness. We postulated that in such a clinical scenario, when intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) are strongly recommended, the suction of secretions with fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBO) may increase the chance of NPPV success. The objective of this pilot study was, firstly, to verify the safety and effectiveness of early FBO during NPPV and, secondly, to compare the hospital outcomes of this strategy versus a CMV-based strategy in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to CAP who are not appropriate candidates for NPPV because of inefficient mucous clearance and hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). Methods This is a 12-month prospective matched case-control study performed in one respiratory semi-intensive care unit (RSICU) with expertise in NPPV and in one intensive care unit (ICU). Fifteen acutely decompensated COPD patients with copious secretion retention and HE due to CAP undergoing NPPV in RSICU, and 15 controls (matched for arterial blood gases, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score III, Kelly-Matthay scale, pneumonia extension and severity) receiving CMV in the ICU were studied. Results Two hours of NPPV significantly improved arterial blood gases, Kelly and cough efficiency scores without FBO-related complications. NPPV avoided intubation in 12/15 patients (80%). Improvement in arterial blood gases was similar in the two groups, except for a greater PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio with CMV. The rates of overall and septic complications, and of tracheostomy were lower in the NPPV group (20%, 20%, and 0%) versus the CMV group (80%, 60%, and 40%; P < 0.05). Hospital mortality, duration of hospitalisation and duration of ventilation were similar

  11. Early fiberoptic bronchoscopy during non-invasive ventilation in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to community-acquired-pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Naldi, Mario; Maccari, Uberto

    2010-01-01

    Inefficient clearance of copious respiratory secretion is a cause of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) failure, especially in chronic respiratory patients with community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) and impaired consciousness. We postulated that in such a clinical scenario, when intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) are strongly recommended, the suction of secretions with fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FBO) may increase the chance of NPPV success. The objective of this pilot study was, firstly, to verify the safety and effectiveness of early FBO during NPPV and, secondly, to compare the hospital outcomes of this strategy versus a CMV-based strategy in patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to CAP who are not appropriate candidates for NPPV because of inefficient mucous clearance and hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This is a 12-month prospective matched case-control study performed in one respiratory semi-intensive care unit (RSICU) with expertise in NPPV and in one intensive care unit (ICU). Fifteen acutely decompensated COPD patients with copious secretion retention and HE due to CAP undergoing NPPV in RSICU, and 15 controls (matched for arterial blood gases, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score III, Kelly-Matthay scale, pneumonia extension and severity) receiving CMV in the ICU were studied. Two hours of NPPV significantly improved arterial blood gases, Kelly and cough efficiency scores without FBO-related complications. NPPV avoided intubation in 12/15 patients (80%). Improvement in arterial blood gases was similar in the two groups, except for a greater PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio with CMV. The rates of overall and septic complications, and of tracheostomy were lower in the NPPV group (20%, 20%, and 0%) versus the CMV group (80%, 60%, and 40%; P < 0.05). Hospital mortality, duration of hospitalisation and duration of ventilation were similar in the two groups. In patients

  12. A Pilot Study of the Noninvasive Assessment of the Lung Microbiota as a Potential Tool for the Early Diagnosis of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Jacob S.; Romano-Keeler, Joann; Drake, Wonder P.; Norris, Patrick R.; Jenkins, Judith M.; Isaacs, Richard J.; Boczko, Erik M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains a common complication in critically ill surgical patients, and its diagnosis remains problematic. Exhaled breath contains aerosolized droplets that reflect the lung microbiota. We hypothesized that exhaled breath condensate fluid (EBCF) in hygroscopic condenser humidifier/heat and moisture exchanger (HCH/HME) filters would contain bacterial DNA that qualitatively and quantitatively correlate with pathogens isolated from quantitative BAL samples obtained for clinical suspicion of pneumonia. METHODS: Forty-eight adult patients who were mechanically ventilated and undergoing quantitative BAL (n = 51) for suspected pneumonia in the surgical ICU were enrolled. Per protocol, patients fulfilling VAP clinical criteria undergo quantitative BAL bacterial culture. Immediately prior to BAL, time-matched HCH/HME filters were collected for study of EBCF by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, convenience samples of serially collected filters in patients with BAL-diagnosed VAP were analyzed. RESULTS: Forty-nine of 51 time-matched EBCF/BAL fluid samples were fully concordant (concordance > 95% by κ statistic) relative to identified pathogens and strongly correlated with clinical cultures. Regression analysis of quantitative bacterial DNA in paired samples revealed a statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.85). In a convenience sample, qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of serial HCH/HME samples for bacterial DNA demonstrated an increase in load that preceded the suspicion of pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial DNA within EBCF demonstrates a high correlation with BAL fluid and clinical cultures. Bacterial DNA within EBCF increases prior to the suspicion of pneumonia. Further study of this novel approach may allow development of a noninvasive tool for the early diagnosis of VAP. PMID:25474571

  13. [The study of noninvasive ventilator impeller based on ANSYS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Pan; Xie, Haiming; Zhou, Yaxu

    2011-06-01

    An impeller plays a significant role in the non-invasive ventilator. This paper shows a model of impeller for noninvasive ventilator established with the software Solidworks. The model was studied for feasibility based on ANSYS. Then stress and strain of the impeller were discussed under the external loads. The results of the analysis provided verification for the reliable design of impellers.

  14. The value of non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jeremy

    2014-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) use has increased markedly over the last 10 years. Children being treated with NIV are now a common sight in most paediatric intensive care units and high dependency units and nearly all tertiary respiratory units will look after a cohort of children who use NIV at home. Although the published evidence base for use of NIV in acute and chronic respiratory failure is relatively weak, it is now very unlikely that there will be any more randomised controlled trials of this intervention. Effectiveness of NIV will need to be evaluated on each child as it used. It is important to define the purpose of using NIV in each child, and then determine whether it is effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    PubMed Central

    Navajas, Daniel; Montserrat, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support. PMID:27730162

  16. Humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation: 2012.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Walsh, Brian K

    2012-05-01

    We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 184 clinical trials and systematic reviews, and 10 articles investigating humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system: 1. Humidification is recommended on every patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. 2. Active humidification is suggested for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, as it may improve adherence and comfort. 3. When providing active humidification to patients who are invasively ventilated, it is suggested that the device provide a humidity level between 33 mg H(2)O/L and 44 mg H(2)O/L and gas temperature between 34°C and 41°C at the circuit Y-piece, with a relative humidity of 100%. 4. When providing passive humidification to patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, it is suggested that the HME provide a minimum of 30 mg H(2)O/L. 5. Passive humidification is not recommended for noninvasive mechanical ventilation. 6. When providing humidification to patients with low tidal volumes, such as when lung-protective ventilation strategies are used, HMEs are not recommended because they contribute additional dead space, which can increase the ventilation requirement and P(aCO(2)). 7. It is suggested that HMEs are not used as a prevention strategy for ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  17. Effect of Noninvasive Ventilation vs Oxygen Therapy on Mortality Among Immunocompromised Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Lemiale, Virginie; Mokart, Djamel; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Pène, Frédéric; Mayaux, Julien; Faucher, Etienne; Nyunga, Martine; Girault, Christophe; Perez, Pierre; Guitton, Christophe; Ekpe, Kenneth; Kouatchet, Achille; Théodose, Igor; Benoit, Dominique; Canet, Emmanuel; Barbier, François; Rabbat, Antoine; Bruneel, Fabrice; Vincent, Francois; Klouche, Kada; Loay, Kontar; Mariotte, Eric; Bouadma, Lila; Moreau, Anne-Sophie; Seguin, Amélie; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Reignier, Jean; Papazian, Laurent; Mehzari, Ilham; Cohen, Yves; Schenck, Maleka; Hamidfar, Rebecca; Darmon, Michael; Demoule, Alexandre; Chevret, Sylvie; Azoulay, Elie

    2015-10-27

    Noninvasive ventilation has been recommended to decrease mortality among immunocompromised patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. However, its effectiveness for this indication remains unclear. To determine whether early noninvasive ventilation improved survival in immunocompromised patients with nonhypercapnic acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Multicenter randomized trial conducted among 374 critically ill immunocompromised patients, of whom 317 (84.7%) were receiving treatment for hematologic malignancies or solid tumors, at 28 intensive care units (ICUs) in France and Belgium between August 12, 2013, and January 2, 2015. Patients were randomly assigned to early noninvasive ventilation (n = 191) or oxygen therapy alone (n = 183). The primary outcome was day-28 mortality. Secondary outcomes were intubation, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on day 3, ICU-acquired infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU length of stay. At randomization, median oxygen flow was 9 L/min (interquartile range, 5-15) in the noninvasive ventilation group and 9 L/min (interquartile range, 6-15) in the oxygen group. All patients in the noninvasive ventilation group received the first noninvasive ventilation session immediately after randomization. On day 28 after randomization, 46 deaths (24.1%) had occurred in the noninvasive ventilation group vs 50 (27.3%) in the oxygen group (absolute difference, -3.2 [95% CI, -12.1 to 5.6]; P = .47). Oxygenation failure occurred in 155 patients overall (41.4%), 73 (38.2%) in the noninvasive ventilation group and 82 (44.8%) in the oxygen group (absolute difference, -6.6 [95% CI, -16.6 to 3.4]; P = .20). There were no significant differences in ICU-acquired infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, or lengths of ICU or hospital stays. Among immunocompromised patients admitted to the ICU with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure, early noninvasive ventilation compared with oxygen therapy alone did

  18. Early use of noninvasive techniques for clearing respiratory secretions during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnic encephalopathy: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinrong; Cui, Zhaobo; Liu, Shuhong; Gao, Xiuling; Gao, Pan; Shi, Yi; Guo, Shufen; Li, Peipei

    2017-03-01

    Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) might be superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs). Inefficient clearance of respiratory secretions provokes NPPV failure in patients with hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This study compared CMV and NPPV combined with a noninvasive strategy for clearing secretions in HE and AECOPD patients.The present study is a prospective cohort study of AECOPD and HE patients enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 in a critical care unit of a major university teaching hospital in China.A total of 74 patients received NPPV and 90 patients received CMV. Inclusion criteria included the following: physician-diagnosed AECOPD, spontaneous airway clearance of excessive secretions, arterial blood gas analysis requiring intensive care, moderate-to-severe dyspnea, and a Kelly-Matthay scale score of 3 to 5. Exclusion criteria included the following: preexisting psychiatric/neurological disorders unrelated to HE, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, upper airway obstruction, acute coronary syndromes, preadmission tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation, and urgent endotracheal intubation for cardiovascular, psychomotor agitation, or severe hemodynamic conditions.Intensive care unit participants were managed by NPPV. Participants received standard treatment consisting of controlled oxygen therapy during NPPV-free periods; antibiotics, intravenous doxofylline, corticosteroids (e.g., salbutamol and ambroxol), and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin; and therapy for comorbidities if necessary. Nasogastric tubes were inserted only in participants who developed gastric distension. No pharmacological sedation was administered.The primary and secondary outcome measures included comparative complication rates, durations of ventilation and hospitalization, number of invasive devices/patient, and in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates

  19. Mobile communication devices causing interference in invasive and noninvasive ventilators.

    PubMed

    Dang, Bao P; Nel, Pierre R; Gjevre, John A

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if common mobile communication systems would cause significant interference on mechanical ventilation devices and at what distances would such interference occur. We tested all the invasive and noninvasive ventilatory devices used within our region. This consisted of 2 adult mechanical ventilators, 1 portable ventilator, 2 pediatric ventilators, and 2 noninvasive positive pressure ventilatory devices. We operated the mobile devices from the 2 cellular communication systems (digital) and 1 2-way radio system used in our province at varying distances from the ventilators and looked at any interference they created. We tested the 2-way radio system, which had a fixed operation power output of 3.0 watts, the Global Systems for Mobile Communication cellular system, which had a maximum power output of 2.0 watts and the Time Division Multiple Access cellular system, which had a maximum power output of 0.2 watts on our ventilators. The ventilators were ventilating a plastic lung at fixed settings. The mobile communication devices were tested at varying distances starting at zero meter from the ventilator and in all operation modes. The 2-way radio caused the most interference on some of the ventilators, but the maximum distance of interference was 1.0 m. The Global Systems for Mobile Communication system caused significant interference only at 0 m and minor interference at 0.5 m on only 1 ventilator. The Time Division Multiple Access system caused no interference at all. Significant interference consisted of a dramatic rise and fluctuation of the respiratory rate, pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure of the ventilators with no normalization when the mobile device was removed. From our experiment on our ventilators with the communication systems used in our province, we conclude that mobile communication devices such as cellular phones and 2-way radios are safe and cause no interference unless operated at very close distances of

  20. Inhaled Epoprostenol Through Noninvasive Routes of Ventilator Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Mahmoud A; Sasidhar, Madhu; Lam, Simon W

    2018-06-01

    The administration of inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO) through noninvasive routes of ventilator support systems has never been previously evaluated. Describe the use of iEPO when administered through noninvasive routes of ventilator support systems. Critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit who received iEPO through noninvasive routes were analyzed. Improvements in respiratory status and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated. Safety end points assessed included hypotension, rebound hypoxemia, significant bleeding, and thrombocytopenia. A total of 36 patients received iEPO through noninvasive routes: high-flow oxygen therapy through nasal cannula, n = 29 (81%) and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, n = 7 (19%). Sixteen patients had improvement in their respiratory status: mean decrease in fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ), 20% ± 13%; mean increase in partial pressure of arterial oxygen to FiO 2 (PaO 2 /FiO 2 ) ratio, 60 ± 50 mm Hg; and mean decrease in HFNC oxygen flow rate, 6 ± 3 liters per minute (LPM). Eight patients had declines in their respiratory status (mean increase in FiO 2 , 30% ± 20%; mean decrease in PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio, 38 ± 20 mm Hg; and mean increase in HFNC oxygen flow rate, 15 ± 10 LPM), and 12 patients had no change in their respiratory status. Conclusion and Relevance: This represents the first evaluation of the administration of iEPO through noninvasive routes of ventilator support systems and demonstrates that in critically ill patients, iEPO could be administered through a noninvasive route. Further evaluation is needed to determine the extent of benefit with this route of administration.

  1. Non-invasive ventilation after surgery in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, C; Castioni, C A; Livigni, S; Bersano, E; Cantello, R; Della Corte, F; Mazzini, L

    2014-04-01

    Surgery in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) presents a particular anesthetic challenge because of the risk of post-operative pulmonary complications. We report on the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to prevent post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in nine patients affected by ALS enrolled in a phase-1 clinical trial with stem cell transplantation. All patients were treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells implanted into the spinal cord with a surgical procedure. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with remifentanil and sevoflurane. No muscle relaxant was used. After awakening and regain of spontaneous breathing, patients were tracheally extubated. Non-invasive ventilation through nasal mask was delivered and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and continuous positive pressure ventilation were started. The average time on NIV after surgery was 3 h and 12 min. All patients regained stable spontaneous breathing after NIV discontinuation and had no episodes of respiratory failure until the following day. Our case series suggest that the use of NIV after surgery can be a safe strategy to prevent PPCs in patients affected by ALS. The perioperative procedure we chose for these patients appeared safe even in patients with advanced functional stage of the disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Laryngeal closure impedes non-invasive ventilation at birth.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Jessica R; Kitchen, Marcus J; Binder-Heschl, Corinna; Thio, Marta; Wallace, Megan J; Kerr, Lauren T; Roehr, Charles C; Lee, Katie L; Buckley, Genevieve A; Davis, Peter G; Flemmer, Andreas; Te Pas, Arjan B; Hooper, Stuart B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is sometimes unable to provide the respiratory needs of very premature infants in the delivery room. While airway obstruction is thought to be the main problem, the site of obstruction is unknown. We investigated whether closure of the larynx and epiglottis is a major site of airway obstruction. We used phase contrast X-ray imaging to visualise laryngeal function in spontaneously breathing premature rabbits immediately after birth and at approximately 1 hour after birth. Non-invasive respiratory support was applied via a facemask and images were analysed to determine the percentage of the time the glottis and the epiglottis were open. Immediately after birth, the larynx is predominantly closed, only opening briefly during a breath, making non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (iPPV) ineffective, whereas after lung aeration, the larynx is predominantly open allowing non-invasive iPPV to ventilate the lung. The larynx and epiglottis were predominantly closed (open 25.5%±1.1% and 17.1%±1.6% of the time, respectively) in pups with unaerated lungs and unstable breathing patterns immediately after birth. In contrast, the larynx and the epiglottis were mostly open (90.5%±1.9% and 72.3%±2.3% of the time, respectively) in pups with aerated lungs and stable breathing patterns irrespective of time after birth. Laryngeal closure impedes non-invasive iPPV at birth and may reduce the effectiveness of non-invasive respiratory support in premature infants immediately after birth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Laryngeal closure impedes non-invasive ventilation at birth

    PubMed Central

    Crawshaw, Jessica R; Kitchen, Marcus J; Binder-Heschl, Corinna; Thio, Marta; Wallace, Megan J; Kerr, Lauren T; Roehr, Charles C; Lee, Katie L; Buckley, Genevieve A; Davis, Peter G; Flemmer, Andreas; te Pas, Arjan B; Hooper, Stuart B

    2018-01-01

    Background Non-invasive ventilation is sometimes unable to provide the respiratory needs of very premature infants in the delivery room. While airway obstruction is thought to be the main problem, the site of obstruction is unknown. We investigated whether closure of the larynx and epiglottis is a major site of airway obstruction. Methods We used phase contrast X-ray imaging to visualise laryngeal function in spontaneously breathing premature rabbits immediately after birth and at approximately 1 hour after birth. Non-invasive respiratory support was applied via a facemask and images were analysed to determine the percentage of the time the glottis and the epiglottis were open. Hypothesis Immediately after birth, the larynx is predominantly closed, only opening briefly during a breath, making non-invasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (iPPV) ineffective, whereas after lung aeration, the larynx is predominantly open allowing non-invasive iPPV to ventilate the lung. Results The larynx and epiglottis were predominantly closed (open 25.5%±1.1% and 17.1%±1.6% of the time, respectively) in pups with unaerated lungs and unstable breathing patterns immediately after birth. In contrast, the larynx and the epiglottis were mostly open (90.5%±1.9% and 72.3%±2.3% of the time, respectively) in pups with aerated lungs and stable breathing patterns irrespective of time after birth. Conclusion Laryngeal closure impedes non-invasive iPPV at birth and may reduce the effectiveness of non-invasive respiratory support in premature infants immediately after birth. PMID:29054974

  4. Noninvasive Ventilation With vs Without Early Surfactant to Prevent Chronic Lung Disease in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Isayama, Tetsuya; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; McDonald, Sarah D

    2015-08-01

    Controversy exists regarding which of the 2 major strategies currently used to prevent chronic lung disease (CLD) in preterm infants is optimal: noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) or intubate-surfactant-extubate (INSURE). Preterm infants often require surfactant administration because of respiratory distress syndrome. To evaluate whether early INSURE or NCPAP alone is more effective in preventing CLD, death, or both. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases from their inception to January 2, 2015, along with conference proceedings and trial registrations. Randomized clinical trials that compared early INSURE with NCPAP alone in preterm infants who had never been intubated before the study entry were selected. Among 1761 initially identified articles, 9 trials (1551 infants) were included. Duplicate study selection and data extraction were performed. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models with quality-of-evidence assessment according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Seven main outcomes were selected a priori to be assessed according to GRADE, including a composite outcome of CLD and/or death, CLD alone, death alone, air leakage, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, neurodevelopmental impairment, and a composite outcome of death and/or neurodevelopmental impairment. There were no statistically significant differences between early INSURE and NCPAP alone for all outcomes assessed. However, the relative risk (RR) estimates appeared to favor early INSURE over NCPAP alone, with a 12% RR reduction in CLD and/or death (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.76-1.02; risk difference [RD], -0.04; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.01; moderate quality of evidence), a 14% decrease in CLD (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.71-1.03; RD, -0.03; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.01; moderate quality of evidence), and a 50% decrease in air leakage (RR

  5. Association Between Noninvasive Ventilation and Mortality Among Older Patients With Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Thomas S.; Walkey, Allan J.; Lindenauer, Peter K.; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Cooke, Colin R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite increasing use, evidence is mixed as to the appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation in patients with pneumonia. We aimed to determine the relationship between receipt of noninvasive ventilation and outcomes for patients with pneumonia in a real-world setting. Design, Setting, Patients We performed a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries (aged > 64 yr) admitted to 2,757 acute-care hospitals in the United States with pneumonia, who received mechanical ventilation from 2010 to 2011. Exposures Noninvasive ventilation versus invasive mechanical ventilation. Measurement and Main Results The primary outcome was 30-day mortality with Medicare reimbursement as a secondary outcome. To account for unmeasured confounding associated with noninvasive ventilation use, an instrumental variable was used—the differential distance to a high noninvasive ventilation use hospital. All models were adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics to account for measured differences between groups. Among 65,747 Medicare beneficiaries with pneumonia who required mechanical ventilation, 12,480 (19%) received noninvasive ventilation. Patients receiving noninvasive ventilation were more likely to be older, male, white, rural-dwelling, have fewer comorbidities, and were less likely to be acutely ill as measured by organ failures. Results of the instrumental variable analysis suggested that, among marginal patients, receipt of noninvasive ventilation was not significantly associated with differences in 30-day mortality when compared with invasive mechanical ventilation (54% vs 55%; p = 0.92; 95% CI of absolute difference, –13.8 to 12.4) but was associated with significantly lower Medicare spending ($18,433 vs $27,051; p = 0.02). Conclusions Among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with pneumonia who received mechanical ventilation, noninvasive ventilation use was not associated with a real-world mortality benefit. Given the wide CIs, however, substantial

  6. Noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: what is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Duiverman, Marieke L.

    2018-01-01

    Long-term noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to treat chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure is still controversial in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, with the introduction of high-intensity NIV, important benefits from this therapy have also been shown in COPD. In this review, the focus will be on the arguments for long-term NIV at home in patients with COPD. The rise of (high-intensity) NIV in COPD and the randomised controlled trials showing positive effects with this mode of ventilation will be discussed. Finally, the challenges that might be encountered (both in clinical practice and in research) in further optimising this therapy, monitoring and following patients, and selecting the patients who might benefit most will be reviewed. PMID:29637078

  7. Acute Parotitis as a Complication of Noninvasive Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Alaya, S; Mofredj, Ali; Tassaioust, K; Bahloul, H; Mrabet, A

    2016-09-01

    Several conditions, including oropharyngeal dryness, pressure sores, ocular irritation, epistaxis, or gastric distension, have been described during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Although this technique has been widely used in intensive care units and emergency wards, acute swelling of the parotid gland remains a scarcely reported complication. We describe herein the case of an 82-year-old man who developed unilateral parotitis during prolonged NIV for acute heart failure. Intravenous antibiotics, corticosteroids, and adjusting the mask laces' position allowed rapid resolution of clinical symptoms. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. The growing role of noninvasive ventilation in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2012-06-01

    For many patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring ventilator support, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is preferable to invasive support by tracheostomy. Currently available evidence does not support the use of nocturnal NIV in unselected patients with stable COPD. Several European studies have reported benefit for high intensity NIV, in which setting of inspiratory pressure and respiratory rate are selected to achieve normocapnia. There have also been studies reporting benefit for the use of NIV as an adjunct to exercise training. NIV may be useful as an adjunct to airway clearance techniques in patients with cystic fibrosis. Accumulating evidence supports the use of NIV in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. There is considerable observational evidence supporting the use of NIV in patients with chronic respiratory failure related to neuromuscular disease, and one randomized controlled trial reported that the use of NIV was life-prolonging in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A variety of interfaces can be used to provide NIV in patients with stable chronic respiratory failure. The mouthpiece is an interface that is unique in this patient population, and has been used with success in patients with neuromuscular disease. Bi-level pressure ventilators are commonly used for NIV, although there are now a new generation of intermediate ventilators that are portable, have a long battery life, and can be used for NIV and invasive applications. Pressure support ventilation, pressure controlled ventilation, and volume controlled ventilation have been used successfully for chronic applications of NIV. New modes have recently become available, but their benefits await evidence to support their widespread use. The success of NIV in a given patient population depends on selection of an appropriate patient, selection of an appropriate interface, selection of an appropriate ventilator and ventilator settings, the skills of the clinician, the

  9. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Ventilatory Failure: Rationale and Current Applications.

    PubMed

    Esquinas, Antonio M; Benhamou, Maly Oron; Glossop, Alastair J; Mina, Bushra

    2017-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation plays a pivotal role in acute ventilator failure and has been shown, in certain disease processes such as acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, to prevent and shorten the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, reducing the risks and complications associated with it. The application of noninvasive ventilation is relatively simple and well tolerated by patients and in the right setting can change the course of their illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring of noninvasive ventilation by built-in software of home bilevel ventilators: a bench study.

    PubMed

    Contal, Olivier; Vignaux, Laurence; Combescure, Christophe; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Jolliet, Philippe; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2012-02-01

    Current bilevel positive-pressure ventilators for home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) provide physicians with software that records items important for patient monitoring, such as compliance, tidal volume (Vt), and leaks. However, to our knowledge, the validity of this information has not yet been independently assessed. Testing was done for seven home ventilators on a bench model adapted to simulate NIV and generate unintentional leaks (ie, other than of the mask exhalation valve). Five levels of leaks were simulated using a computer-driven solenoid valve (0-60 L/min) at different levels of inspiratory pressure (15 and 25 cm H(2)O) and at a fixed expiratory pressure (5 cm H(2)O), for a total of 10 conditions. Bench data were compared with results retrieved from ventilator software for leaks and Vt. For assessing leaks, three of the devices tested were highly reliable, with a small bias (0.3-0.9 L/min), narrow limits of agreement (LA), and high correlations (R(2), 0.993-0.997) when comparing ventilator software and bench results; conversely, for four ventilators, bias ranged from -6.0 L/min to -25.9 L/min, exceeding -10 L/min for two devices, with wide LA and lower correlations (R(2), 0.70-0.98). Bias for leaks increased markedly with the importance of leaks in three devices. Vt was underestimated by all devices, and bias (range, 66-236 mL) increased with higher insufflation pressures. Only two devices had a bias < 100 mL, with all testing conditions considered. Physicians monitoring patients who use home ventilation must be aware of differences in the estimation of leaks and Vt by ventilator software. Also, leaks are reported in different ways according to the device used.

  11. [Evolution of non-invasive ventilation in acute bronchiolitis].

    PubMed

    Toledo del Castillo, B; Fernández Lafever, S N; López Sanguos, C; Díaz-Chirón Sánchez, L; Sánchez da Silva, M; López-Herce Cid, J

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the evolution, over a12-year period, of the use of non-invasive (NIV) and invasive ventilation (IV) in children admitted to a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) due to acute bronchiolitis. A retrospective observational study was performed including all children who were admitted to the PICU requiring NIV or IV between 2001 and 2012. Demographic characteristics, ventilation assistance and clinical outcome were analysed. A comparison was made between the first six years and the last 6 years of the study. A total of 196 children were included; 30.1% of the subjects required IV and 93.3% required NIV. The median duration of IV was 9.5 days and NIV duration was 3 days. The median PICU length of stay was 7 days, and 2% of the patients died. The use of NIV increased from 79.4% in first period to 100% in the second period (P<.0001) and IV use decreased from 46% in first period to 22.6% in the last 6 years (P<.0001). Continuous positive airway pressure and nasopharyngeal tube were the most frequently used modality and interface, although the use of bi-level non-invasive ventilation (P<.001) and of nasal cannulas significantly increased (P<.0001) in the second period, and the PICU length of stay was shorter (P=.011). The increasing use of NIV in bronchiolitis in our PICU during the last 12 years was associated with a decrease in the use of IV and length of stay in the PICU. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, Bart; Testelmans, Dries; Belge, Catharina; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Buyse, Bertien

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is widely used to improve alveolar hypoventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Several studies indicate a better survival when NIV is used, certainly in patients with none to moderate bulbar dysfunction. Data on quality of life (QoL) are rather disputable. Overall QoL is shown to be equivalent in patients with or without NIV, although health-related QoL is shown to be increased in patients with none to moderate bulbar dysfunction. NIV improves sleep quality, although patient-ventilator asynchronies are demonstrated. FVC < 50%, seated or supine, has been widely applied as threshold to initiate NIV. Today, measurements of respiratory muscle strength, nocturnal gas exchange and symptomatic complaints are used as indicators to start NIV. Being compliant with NIV therapy increases QoL and survival. Cough augmentation has an important role in appropriate NIV. Patients have today more technical options and patients with benefit from these advances are growing in number. Tracheal ventilation needs to be discussed when NIV seems impossible or becomes insufficient.

  13. [A comparison of leak compensation in six acute care ventilators during non-invasive ventilation].

    PubMed

    Hu, X S; Wang, Y; Wang, Z T; Yan, P; Zhang, X G; Zhao, S F; Xie, F; Gu, H J; Xie, L X

    2017-02-12

    Objective: To compare the ability of leak compensation in 6 medical ventilators during non-invasive ventilation. Methods: Six medical ventilators were selected, including 3 non-invasive ventilators (V60, Flexo and Stellar150), and 3 invasive ventilators(Avea, Servo I and BellaVist). Using a lung simulator, the ability of leak compensation was evaluated during triggering and cycling in 2 respiratory mechanics conditions (high airway resistance condition and high elastance resistance condition), and each condition was performed under 2 PEEP levels (4, and 8 cmH(2)O, 1 mmHg=0.098 kPa) at 4 air leak level conditions (L0: 2-3 L/min, L1: 8-10 L/min, L2: 22-27 L/min, L3: 35-40 L/min). Results: In the high elastance resistance condition (L2, L3)with different leak levels, the number of auto-triggering and miss-triggering of the non-invasive ventilator Flexo was significantly less than those of the others (L2: 1, 1; L3: 1.67, 1.33, P <0.01), and had better synchronization (L2: 2.33, 2.33; L3: 3.33, 3.33, P <0.01). In the high airway resistance condition with PEEP 4 cmH(2)O, V60 had less number of auto-triggering than other ventilators ( P <0.01), while in the high airway resistance condition with PEEP 8 cmH(2)O, Stellar150 had less number of miss-triggering than other ventilators (1, 0.67, 0, P <0.01). Flexo had a shorter trigger delay time than other ventilators in both high airway resistance and high elastance resistance conditions with L0 and L1 leak levels and PEEP levels [ARDS, PEEP=4: (109.8±1.8) ms, (112.0±0.6) ms; ARDS, PEEP=8: (103.1±0.7) ms, (109.7±0.7) ms; COPD, PEEP=4: (207.3±1.1) ms, (220.8±1.1) ms; COPD, PEEP=8: (195.6±6.7) ms, (200.0±1.2) ms , P <0.01]. Stellar150 had the shortest trigger delay time in high airway resistance condition with PEEP 4 cmH(2)O and high leak level L3[(262.8±0.8) ms , P <0.01]. V60 had a good performance on trigger delay time in high elastance resistance condition with PEEP 4 and 8 cmH(2)O, and also was most stable in

  14. Is humidification always necessary during noninvasive ventilation in the hospital?

    PubMed

    Branson, Richard D; Gentile, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a standard of care for the treatment of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, to prevent intubation and reduce morbidity and mortality. The need for humidification of NIV gas is controversial. Some unique aspects of NIV conspire to alter the delivered humidity and airway function. In the presence of air leaks, unidirectional air flow dries the airways and increases airway resistance. Patient comfort is also a critical issue, as tolerance of NIV is often tied to patient comfort. This paper provides the arguments for and against routine humidification during NIV in the hospital setting. Data from clinical research demonstrate the effects of delivered humidification on relevant physiologic variables. The impact of humidification on NIV success/failure remains speculative.

  15. Resolution of obstructive atelectasis with non-invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Mirambeaux Villalona, Rosa; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario; Díaz Lobato, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    Bronchoscopy is a commonly used technique in patients with atelectasis due to mucus plugs. We present here the case of an 82-year-old patient with a history of Meige's syndrome who developed acute respiratory failure due to atelectasis of the right upper lobe associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia. The patient had a severely reduced level of consciousness, significant work-of-breathing and severe hypercapnic acidosis, all of which contraindicated bronchoscopy. Bi-level noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was initiated by way of a face mask. Progress was favourable, with clear clinical and gasometric improvement. The chest X-ray performed 12hours later showed complete resolution of the atelectasis. These data suggest that NIMV may be useful in the treatment of atelectasis is some critical patients. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Home noninvasive ventilation: what does the anesthesiologist need to know?

    PubMed

    Brown, Karen A; Bertolizio, Gianluca; Leone, Marisa; Dain, Steven L

    2012-09-01

    Treatment of chronic respiratory failure with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is standard pediatric practice, and NIV systems are commonly used in the home setting. Although practice guidelines on the perioperative management of children supported with home NIV systems have yet to be published, increasingly these patients are referred for consultation regarding perioperative management. Just as knowledge of pharmacology underlies the safe prescription of medication, so too knowledge of biomedical design is necessary for the safe prescription of NIV therapy. The medical device design requirements developed by the Organization for International Standardization provide a framework to rationalize the safe prescription of NIV for hospitalized patients supported at home with NIV systems. This review article provides an overview of the indications for home NIV therapy, an overview of the medical devices currently available to deliver it, and a specific discussion of the management conundrums confronting anesthesiologists.

  17. Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Georges, Marjolaine; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus

    2014-02-07

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to chronic respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic dysfunction, a major driver of dyspnea and mortality, is associated with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles, including neck muscles. Besides, energy expenditure is often abnormally high in ALS, and this is associated with a negative prognostic value. We hypothesized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would relieve inspiratory neck muscles and reduce resting energy expenditure (REE). Using indirect calorimetry, we measured REE during spontaneous breathing (REESB) and NIV (REENIV) in 16 ALS patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction, during the first 3 months of NIV. Measured values were compared with predicted REE (REEpred)(Harris-Benedict equation). NIV abolished inspiratory neck muscle activity. Even though our patients were not hypermetabolic, on the contrary, with a REESB that was lower than REEpred (average 11%), NIV did reduce energy expenditure. Indeed, median REENIV, in this population with a mean body mass index of 21.4 kg.m-2, was 1149 kcal/24 h [interquartile 970-1309], lower than REESB (1197 kcal/24 h, 1054-1402; mean difference 7%; p = 0.03, Wilcoxon). REESB and REENIV were correlated with forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure. NIV can reduce energy expenditure in ALS patients probably by alleviating the ventilatory burden imposed on inspiratory neck muscles to compensate diaphragm weakness. It remains to be elucidated whether or not, in which population, and to what extent, NIV can be beneficial in ALS through the corresponding reduction in energy expenditure.

  18. Clinical impact of leak compensation during non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Storre, Jan Hendrik; Bohm, Philipp; Dreher, Michael; Windisch, Wolfram

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of leak compensation capabilities during pressure- and volume-limited non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) in COPD patients. Fourteen patients with stable hypercapnic COPD who were receiving long-term NPPV were included in the study. For both modes of NPPV, a full face mask and an artificial leak in the ventilatory circuit were used at three different settings, and applied during daytime NPPV, either without leakage (setting I), with leakage during inspiration only (setting II), and with leakage during inspiration and expiration (setting III). Ventilation pattern was pneumotachy-graphically recorded. NPPV was feasible with negligible leak volumes, indicating optimal mask fitting during the daytime (setting I). In the presence of leakage (settings II and III), the attempt to compensate for leak was only evident during pressure-limited NPPV, since inspiratory volumes delivered by the ventilator increased from 726+/-129 (setting I) to 1104+/-164 (setting II), and to 1257+/-166 (setting III) ml during pressure-limited NPPV, respectively (all p<0.001); however, they remained stable during volume-limited NPPV. Leak compensation resulted in a decrease in leakage-induced dyspnea. However, 83%/87% (setting II/III) of the additionally-delivered inspiratory volume during pressure-limited NPPV was also lost via leakage. Expiratory volume was higher in setting II compared to setting III (both p<0.001), indicating the presence of significant expiratory leakage. The attempt at leak compensation largely feeds the leakage itself and only results in a marginal increase of tidal volume. However, pressure-limited--but not volume-limited--NPPV results in a clinically-important leak compensation in vivo. www.uniklinik-freiburg.de/zks/live/uklregister/Oeffentlich.html Identifier: UKF001272.

  19. Using domiciliary non-invasive ventilator data downloads to inform clinical decision-making to optimise ventilation delivery and patient compliance

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, Stephanie K; Cutts, Steven; Hackney, Isobel; Wood, Martin J; Hawksworth, Kevin; Creer, Dean D; Kilbride, Cherry; Mandal, Swapna

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Ventilation parameter data from patients receiving home mechanical ventilation can be collected via secure data cards and modem technology. This can then be reviewed by clinicians and ventilator prescriptions adjusted. Typically available measures include tidal volume (VT), leak, respiratory rate, minute ventilation, patient triggered breaths, achieved pressures and patient compliance. This study aimed to assess the potential impact of ventilator data downloads on management of patients requiring home non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Methods A longitudinal within-group design with repeated measurements was used. Baseline ventilator data were downloaded, reviewed and adjustments made to optimise ventilation. Leak, VT and compliance data were collected for comparison at the first review and 3–7 weeks later. Ventilator data were monitored and amended remotely via a modem by a consultant physiotherapist between the first review and second appointment. Results Analysis of data from 52 patients showed increased patient compliance (% days used >4 hours) from 90% to 96% (p=0.007), increased usage from 6.53 to 6.94 hours (p=0.211) and a change in VT(9.4 vs 8.7 mL/kg/ideal body weight, p=0.022). There was no change in leak following review of NIV prescriptions (mean (SD): 43 (23.4) L/min vs 45 (19.9)L/min, p=0.272). Conclusion Ventilator data downloads, via early remote assessment, can help optimise patient ventilation through identification of modifiable factors, in particular interface leak and ventilator prescriptions. However, a prospective study is required to assess whether using ventilator data downloads provides value in terms of patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness. The presented data will help to inform the design of such a study. PMID:29531743

  20. [Domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic alveolar hypoventilation].

    PubMed

    Casas, J P; Robles, A M; Pereyra, M A; Abbona, H L; López, A M

    2000-01-01

    Effectiveness of treatment with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is analyzed in a group of patients with chronic alveolar hypoventilation of different etiologies. It was applied with two levels of pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask. Criteria for evaluation were symptomatology and improvement in gas exchange. Data were analyzed by Student t tests. A total of 13 patients were included, mean age 55.7 range 20 to 76 years (5 male 8 female). Main diagnosis was tuberculosis in 6, four of them having had surgical procedure (thoracoplasty 2, frenicectomy 1 and neumonectomy 1), myopathy 3 (myasthenia gravis 1, muscular dystrophy 1 and diaphragmatic paralysis 1), obesity-hypoventilation syndrome 1, escoliosis 1, bronchiectasis 1 and cystic fibrosis 1. These last two patients were on waiting list for lung transplantation. At the moment of consultation, the symptoms were: dysnea 13/13 (100%), astenia 13/13 (100%), hypersomnolency 10/13 (77%), cephalea 9/13 (69%), leg edema 6/13 (46%), loss of memory 6/13 (46%). Regarding gas exchange, they showed hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Mean follow up was of 2.2 years (range 6 months to 4 years). Within the year, all 13 patients became less dyspneic. Astenia, hypersomnolency, cephalea, leg edema and memory loss disappeared. Improvement in gas exchange was: PaO2/FiO2 from 269 +/- 65.4 (basal) to 336.7 +/- 75.3 post-treatment (p = 0.0018). PaCO2 from 70.77 +/- 25.48 mmHg (basal) to 46.77 +/- 8.14 mmHg (p = 0.0013). Ventilatory support was discontinued en 5 patients: three because of pneumonia requiring intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation, two of them died and one is still with tracheostomy; One patient with bronchiectasis and one with cystic fibrosis were transplanted. The remaining eight patients are stable. In conclusion, chronic alveolar hypoventilation can be effectively treated with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. Long term improvement in symptomatology and arterial blood gases

  1. Role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Samir; Michelet, Pierre; Chanques, Gerald

    2010-06-01

    Anaesthesia, postoperative pain and surgery (more so if the site of the surgery approaches the diaphragm) will induce respiratory modifications: hypoxaemia, pulmonary volume decrease and atelectasis associated to a restrictive syndrome and a diaphragm dysfunction. These modifications of the respiratory function occur early after surgery and may induce acute respiratory failure (ARF). Maintenance of adequate oxygenation in the postoperative period is of major importance, especially when pulmonary complications such as ARF occur. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) refers to techniques allowing respiratory support without the need of endotracheal intubation. Two types of NIV are commonly used: noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) which delivers two levels of positive pressure (pressure support ventilation + positive end-expiratory pressure). NIV may be an important tool to prevent (prophylactic treatment) or to treat ARF avoiding intubation (curative treatment). The aims of NIV are: (1) to partially compensate for the affected respiratory function by reducing the work of breathing, (2) to improve alveolar recruitment with better gas exchange (oxygenation and ventilation) and (3) to reduce left ventricular after load increasing cardiac output and improving haemodynamics. Evidence suggests that NIV, as a prophylactic or curative treatment, has been proven to be an effective strategy to reduce intubation rates, nosocomial infections, intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay, morbidity and mortality in postoperative patients. However, before initiating NIV, any surgical complication must be treated. The aims of this article are (1) to describe the rationale behind the application of NIV, (2) to report indications (including induction of anaesthesia) and contraindications and (3) to offer some algorithms for safe usage of NIV in high-risk surgery patients.

  2. Effectiveness and predictors of failure of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Martín-González, F; González-Robledo, J; Sánchez-Hernández, F; Moreno-García, M N; Barreda-Mellado, I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and identify predictors of failure of noninvasive ventilation. A retrospective, longitudinal descriptive study was made. Adult patients with acute respiratory failure. A total of 410 consecutive patients with noninvasive ventilation treated in an Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary university hospital from 2006 to 2011. Noninvasive ventilation. Demographic variables and clinical and laboratory test parameters at the start and two hours after the start of noninvasive ventilation. Evolution during admission to the Unit and until hospital discharge. The failure rate was 50%, with an overall mortality rate of 33%. A total of 156 patients had hypoxemic respiratory failure, 87 postextubation respiratory failure, 78 exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 61 hypercapnic respiratory failure without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 28 had acute pulmonary edema. The failure rates were 74%, 54%, 27%, 31% and 21%, respectively. The etiology of respiratory failure, serum bilirubin at the start, APACHEII score, radiological findings, the need for sedation to tolerate noninvasive ventilation, changes in level of consciousness, PaO2/FIO2 ratio, respiratory rate and heart rate from the start and two hours after the start of noninvasive ventilation were independently associated to failure. The effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation varies according to the etiology of respiratory failure. Its use in hypoxemic respiratory failure and postextubation respiratory failure should be assessed individually. Predictors of failure could be useful to prevent delayed intubation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Noninvasive Ventilation During Feeding Tube Placement.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Paolo; Volpato, Eleonora; Valota, Chiara; D'Ascenzo, Salvatore; Alunno, Chiara Bani; Lax, Agata; Nicolini, Antonello; Ticozzi, Nicola; Silani, Vincenzo; Bach, John R

    2017-11-01

    Parenteral nutrition is indicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) when dysphagia, loss of appetite, and difficulty protecting the airways cause malnutrition, severe weight loss, dehydration, and increased risk of aspiration pneumonia. The aim of this review is to compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), radiologically inserted G-tube (RIG), and percutaneous radiologic gastrostomy (PRG) in patients with ALS, performed with or without noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the EBSCO Online Research Database, and Scopus up to December 2015. A priori selection included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomized trials, and prospective and retrospective studies. The primary outcome was 30-d survival. We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs. Seven studies about the implementation of the PEG/RIG procedure during the use of NIV and 5 studies without NIV were included. In another study of 59 subjects undergoing open gastrostomy, all with vital capacity < 30% of normal, 18 of whom were dependent on continuous NIV at full ventilatory support settings, there were no respiratory complications. Thus, the use of NIV during the implementation of these procedures, especially when used at full ventilatory support settings of pressure preset 18-25 cm H 2 O, can support alveolar ventilation before, during, and after the procedures and prevent respiratory complications. The procedures investigated appear equivalent, but the methodological quality of the studies could be improved. Possible benefits with regard to nutrition parameters, quality of life, and psychological features need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Factors predicting survival following noninvasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Peysson, S; Vandenberghe, N; Philit, F; Vial, C; Petitjean, T; Bouhour, F; Bayle, J Y; Broussolle, E

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of respiratory muscles is a major predicting factor for survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies show that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) can relieve symptoms of alveolar hypoventilation. However, factors predicting survival in ALS patients when treated with NIV need to be clarified. We conducted a retrospective study of 33 consecutive ALS patients receiving NIV. Ten patients had bulbar onset. We determined the median survivals from onset, diagnosis and initiation of NIV and factors predicting survival. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier test and Cox proportional hazard models. The median initial and maximal total uses of NIV were 10 and 14 h/24h. The overall median survival from ALS onset was 34.2 months and worsened with increasing age and bulbar onset of the disease. The median survival from initiation of NIV was 8.4 months and was significantly poorer in patients with advanced age or with airway mucus accumulation. Survival from initiation of NIV was not influenced by respiratory parameters or bulbar symptoms. Advanced age at diagnosis and airway mucus accumulation represent poorer prognostic factors of ALS patients treated with NIV. NIV is a helpful treatment of sleep-disordered breathing, including patients with bulbar involvement. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Development of acute parotitis after non-invasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic exploratory laparotomy for evaluation of suspected mesenteric ischemia. She was promptly extubated postoperatively and transferred to the intensive care unit, where on the first postoperative day she developed hypoxemia necessitating initiation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). After 8 hours of BiPAP, she was noted to have swelling, erythema and tenderness in the right preauricular area. Ultrasound evaluation demonstrated an enlarged right parotid gland. With discontinuation of BiPAP and supportive measures, parotitis resolved within 6 days. The mechanism of NIV-induced acute parotitis likely involves transmission of positive pressure to the oral cavity, causing obstruction to salivary flow within the parotid (Stensen) duct. Conditions that increase salivary viscosity and promote salivary stasis, such as advanced age, dehydration, and absence of salivary gland stimulation due to restriction of oral intake, may render patients more susceptible to this complication. As NIV will continue to be a commonly-used modality for the treatment of acute respiratory failure, clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon. PMID:28840025

  6. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation with spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, G; Okyay, D Z; Yurtlu, S; Hanci, V; Ayoglu, H; Koksal, B; Turan, I O

    2010-10-01

    We present the successful use of perioperative non-invasive mechanical ventilation in a morbidly obese pregnant woman with bronchial asthma, severe preeclampsia and pulmonary edema undergoing an emergency cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. The combination of non-invasive mechanical ventilation with neuraxial anesthesia may be of value in selected parturients with acute or chronic respiratory insufficiency requiring surgery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata Matos da; Timenetsky, Karina Tavares; Neves, Renata Cristina Miranda; Shigemichi, Liane Hirano; Kanda, Sandra Sayuri; Maekawa, Carla; Silva, Eliezer; Eid, Raquel Afonso Caserta

    2013-01-01

    To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV) masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%). Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%), followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively). Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.

  8. Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Renata Matos; Timenetsky, Karina Tavares; Neves, Renata Cristina Miranda; Shigemichi, Liane Hirano; Kanda, Sandra Sayuri; Maekawa, Carla; Silva, Eliezer; Eid, Raquel Afonso Caserta

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV) masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. RESULTS: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%). Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%), followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively). Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed. PMID:24068269

  9. Patterns of Non-Invasive Ventilation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Nevena; Povitz, Marcus; Smith, Joanne; Leasa, David; Shoesmith, Christen; Gofton, Teneille E

    2018-06-06

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves quality of life and survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and respiratory symptoms. Little is known about the patterns of NIV use over time and the impact of NIV on end-of-life decision-making in ALS. This study assessed the pattern of NIV use over the course of the disease and the timing of end-of-life discussions in people living with ALS. A retrospective single-center cohort study was performed at London Health Sciences Centre. Daily NIV duration of use was evaluated at 3-month intervals. The timing of diagnosis, NIV initiation, discussions relating to do-not-attempt-resuscitation (DNAR) and death were examined. In total, 48 patients were included in the analysis. Duration of NIV use increased over time, and tolerance to NIV was observed to be better than expected in patients with bulbar-onset ALS. There was a high degree of variability in the timing of end-of-life discussions in patients with ALS (356±451 days from diagnosis). In this cohort, there was a strong association between the timing of discussions regarding code status and establishment of a DNAR order (r2=0.93). This retrospective cohort study suggests that the use of NIV in ALS increases over time and that there remains a great deal of variability in the timing of end-of-life discussions in people living with ALS. Future prospective studies exploring the use NIV over the disease trajectory and how NIV affects end-of-life decision-making in people with ALS are needed.

  10. Hypercapnic encephalopathy syndrome: a new frontier for non-invasive ventilation?

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2011-08-01

    According to the classical international guidelines, non-invasive ventilation is contraindicated in hypercapnic encephalopathy syndrome (HES) due to the poor compliance to ventilatory treatment of confused/agitated patients and the risk of aspirative pneumonia related to lack of airways protection. As a matter of fact, conventional mechanical ventilation has been recommended as "golden standard" in these patients. However, up to now there are not controlled data that have demonstrated in HES the advantage of conventional mechanical ventilation vs non-invasive ventilation. In fact, patients with altered mental status have been systematically excluded from the randomised and controlled trials performed with non-invasive ventilation in hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that an initial cautious NPPV trial in selected HES patients may be attempt as long as there are no other contraindications and the technique is provided by experienced caregivers in a closely monitored setting where ETI is always readily available. The purpose of this review is to report the physiologic rationale, the clinical feasibility and the still open questions about the careful use of non-invasive ventilation in HES as first-line ventilatory strategy in place of conventional mechanical ventilation via endotracheal intubation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in children

    PubMed Central

    Abadesso, Clara; Nunes, Pedro; Silvestre, Catarina; Matias, Ester; Loureiro, Helena; Almeida, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the clinical efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in avoiding endotracheal intubation (ETI), to demonstrate clinical and gasometric improvement and to identify predictive risk factors associated with NIV failure. An observational prospective clinical study was carried out. Included Patients with acute respiratory disease (ARD) treated with NIV, from November 2006 to January 2010 in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). NIV was used in 151 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Patients were divided in two groups: NIV success and NIV failure, if ETI was required. Mean age was 7.2±20.3 months (median: 1 min: 0,3 max.: 156). Main diagnoses were bronchiolitis in 102 (67.5%), and pneumonia in 44 (29%) patients. There was a significant improvement in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), pH, and pCO2 at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset (P<0.05) in both groups. Improvement in pulse oximetric saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) was verified at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset in the success group (P<0.001). In the failure group, significant SpO2/FiO2 improvement was only observed in the first 4 hours. NIV failure occurred in 34 patients (22.5%). Risk factors for NIV failure were apnea, prematurity, pneumonia, and bacterial co-infection (P<0.05). Independent risk factors for NIV failure were apneia (P<0.001; odds ratio 15.8; 95% confidence interval: 3.42–71.4) and pneumonia (P<0.001, odds ratio 31.25; 95% confidence interval: 8.33–111.11). There were no major complications related with NIV. In conclusion this study demonstrates the efficacy of NIV as a form of respiratory support for children and infants with ARF, preventing clinical deterioration and avoiding ETI in most of the patients. Risk factors for failure were related with immaturity and severe infection. PMID:22802994

  12. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in children.

    PubMed

    Abadesso, Clara; Nunes, Pedro; Silvestre, Catarina; Matias, Ester; Loureiro, Helena; Almeida, Helena

    2012-04-02

    The aim of this paper is to assess the clinical efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in avoiding endotracheal intubation (ETI), to demonstrate clinical and gasometric improvement and to identify predictive risk factors associated with NIV failure. An observational prospective clinical study was carried out. Included Patients with acute respiratory disease (ARD) treated with NIV, from November 2006 to January 2010 in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). NIV was used in 151 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Patients were divided in two groups: NIV success and NIV failure, if ETI was required. Mean age was 7.2±20.3 months (median: 1 min: 0,3 max.: 156). Main diagnoses were bronchiolitis in 102 (67.5%), and pneumonia in 44 (29%) patients. There was a significant improvement in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), pH, and pCO(2) at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset (P<0.05) in both groups. Improvement in pulse oximetric saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO(2)/FiO(2)) was verified at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset in the success group (P<0.001). In the failure group, significant SpO(2)/FiO(2) improvement was only observed in the first 4 hours. NIV failure occurred in 34 patients (22.5%). Risk factors for NIV failure were apnea, prematurity, pneumonia, and bacterial co-infection (P<0.05). Independent risk factors for NIV failure were apneia (P<0.001; odds ratio 15.8; 95% confidence interval: 3.42-71.4) and pneumonia (P<0.001, odds ratio 31.25; 95% confidence interval: 8.33-111.11). There were no major complications related with NIV. In conclusion this study demonstrates the efficacy of NIV as a form of respiratory support for children and infants with ARF, preventing clinical deterioration and avoiding ETI in most of the patients. Risk factors for failure were related with immaturity and severe infection.

  13. Role of non-invasive ventilation in difficult-to-wean children with acute neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V G; Nair, M P; Bataclan, F

    2004-05-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation in children could be time-consuming and on many occasions, leads to reintubation with its associate complications. We report two children with acute neuromuscular disease, in whom bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) as a mode of non-invasive ventilation was successfully used to wean the child from ventilators and prevented the need for tracheostomy. Despite the limited number of studies published in the literature suggesting BiPAP as a mode of weaning from mechanical ventilation, the technique when applied correctly seems to be safe and effective in weaning and avoiding tracheostomy.

  14. Performance of ICU ventilators during noninvasive ventilation with large leaks in a total face mask: a bench study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Maria Aparecida Miyuki; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Tucci, Mauro Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Discomfort and noncompliance with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) interfaces are obstacles to NIV success. Total face masks (TFMs) are considered to be a very comfortable NIV interface. However, due to their large internal volume and consequent increased CO2 rebreathing, their orifices allow proximal leaks to enhance CO2 elimination. The ventilators used in the ICU might not adequately compensate for such leakage. In this study, we attempted to determine whether ICU ventilators in NIV mode are suitable for use with a leaky TFM. This was a bench study carried out in a university research laboratory. Eight ICU ventilators equipped with NIV mode and one NIV ventilator were connected to a TFM with major leaks. All were tested at two positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and three pressure support levels. The variables analyzed were ventilation trigger, cycling off, total leak, and pressurization. Of the eight ICU ventilators tested, four did not work (autotriggering or inappropriate turning off due to misdetection of disconnection); three worked with some problems (low PEEP or high cycling delay); and one worked properly. The majority of the ICU ventilators tested were not suitable for NIV with a leaky TFM.

  15. Performance of ICU ventilators during noninvasive ventilation with large leaks in a total face mask: a bench study* **

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Maria Aparecida Miyuki; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Tucci, Mauro Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Discomfort and noncompliance with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) interfaces are obstacles to NIV success. Total face masks (TFMs) are considered to be a very comfortable NIV interface. However, due to their large internal volume and consequent increased CO2 rebreathing, their orifices allow proximal leaks to enhance CO2 elimination. The ventilators used in the ICU might not adequately compensate for such leakage. In this study, we attempted to determine whether ICU ventilators in NIV mode are suitable for use with a leaky TFM. Methods: This was a bench study carried out in a university research laboratory. Eight ICU ventilators equipped with NIV mode and one NIV ventilator were connected to a TFM with major leaks. All were tested at two positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and three pressure support levels. The variables analyzed were ventilation trigger, cycling off, total leak, and pressurization. Results: Of the eight ICU ventilators tested, four did not work (autotriggering or inappropriate turning off due to misdetection of disconnection); three worked with some problems (low PEEP or high cycling delay); and one worked properly. Conclusions: The majority of the ICU ventilators tested were not suitable for NIV with a leaky TFM. PMID:25029653

  16. Non-invasive ventilation for sleep-disordered breathing in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connor, Victoria; Zhao, Sizheng; Angus, Robert

    2016-08-05

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by behavioural disturbances, intellectual disability and early onset obesity. The physical features of this syndrome are well characterised; however, behavioural features, such as sleep disturbance, are less well understood and difficult to manage. Sleep issues in SMS are likely due to a combination of disturbed melatonin cycle, facial anatomy and obesity-related ventilatory problems. Sleep disorders can be very distressing to patients and their families, as exemplified by our patient's experience, and can worsen behavioural issues as well as general health. This case demonstrates the successful use of non-invasive ventilation in treating underlying obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea. As a consequence of addressing abnormalities in sleep patterns, some behavioural problems improved. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Noninvasive ventilation for patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nava, Stefano; Schreiber, Ania; Domenighetti, Guido

    2011-10-01

    Few studies have been performed on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to treat hypoxic acute respiratory failure in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The outcomes of these patients, for whom endotracheal intubation is not mandatory, depend on the degree of hypoxia, the presence of comorbidities and complications, and their illness severity. The use of NIV as an alternative to invasive ventilation in severely hypoxemic patients with ARDS (ie, P(aO(2))/F(IO(2)) < 200) is not generally advisable and should be limited to hemodynamically stable patients who can be closely monitored in an intensive care unit by highly skilled staff. Early NIV application may be extremely helpful in immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infiltrates, in whom intubation dramatically increases the risk of infection, pneumonia, and death. The use of NIV in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome and other airborne diseases has generated debate, despite encouraging clinical results, mainly because of safety issues. Overall, the high rate of NIV failure suggests a cautious approach to NIV use in patients with ALI/ARDS, including early initiation, intensive monitoring, and prompt intubation if signs of NIV failure emerge.

  18. Daytime Mouthpiece for Continuous Noninvasive Ventilation in Individuals With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Marie-Eve; McKim, Douglas A

    2016-10-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is commonly used to provide ventilatory support for individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Once 24-h ventilation is required, the decision between invasive tracheostomy ventilation and palliation is often faced. This study describes the use and outcomes of daytime mouthpiece ventilation added to nighttime mask ventilation for continuous NIV in subjects with ALS as an effective alternative. This was a retrospective study of 39 subjects with ALS using daytime mouthpiece ventilation over a 17-y period. Thirty-one subjects were successful with mouthpiece ventilation, 2 were excluded, 2 stopped because of lack of motivation, and 4 with bulbar subscores of the Revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (b-ALSFRS-R) between 0 and 3 physically failed to use it consistently. No subject in the successful group had a b-ALSFRS-R score of <6. Thirty of the successful subjects were able to generate a maximum insufflation capacity - vital capacity difference with lung volume recruitment. The median (range) survival to tracheostomy or death from initiation of nocturnal NIV and mouthpiece ventilation were 648 (176-2,188) and 286 (41-1,769) d, respectively. Peak cough flow with lung-volume recruitment >180 L/min at initiation of mouthpiece ventilation was associated with a longer survival (637 ± 468 vs 240 ± 158 d (P = .01). Mouthpiece ventilation provides effective ventilation and prolonged survival for individuals with ALS requiring full-time ventilatory support and maintaining adequate bulbar function. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. British Thoracic Society Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael; Allen, Martin; Bentley, Andrew; Bourke, Stephen C; Creagh-Brown, Ben; D’Oliveiro, Rachel; Glossop, Alastair; Gray, Alasdair; Jacobs, Phillip; Mahadeva, Ravi; Moses, Rachael; Setchfield, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the quality standards document is to provide healthcare professionals, commissioners, service providers and patients with a guide to standards of care that should be met for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in adults together with measurable markers of good practice. Methods Development of British Thoracic Society (BTS) Quality Standards follows the BTS process of quality standard production based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence process manual for the development of quality standards. Results 6 quality statements have been developed, each describing a standard of care for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in the UK, together with measurable markers of good practice. Conclusion BTS Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults form a key part of the range of supporting materials that the Society produces to assist in the dissemination and implementation of guideline’s recommendations. PMID:29636979

  20. Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of asthma: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Green, Elyce; Jain, Paras; Bernoth, Maree

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease characterised by reversible airway obstruction caused by bronchospasm, mucous and oedema. People with asthma commonly experience acute exacerbations of their disease requiring hospitalisation and subsequent utilisation of economic and healthcare resources. Noninvasive ventilation has been suggested as a treatment for acute exacerbations of asthma due to its ability to provide airway stenting, optimal oxygen delivery and decreased work of breathing. This paper is a systematic review of the available published research focused on the use of noninvasive ventilation for the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma to determine if this treatment provides better outcomes for patients compared to standard medical therapy. Database searches were conducted using EBSCOhost, MEDLINE and PubMed. Search terms used were combinations of 'noninvasive ventilation', 'BiPAP', 'CPAP', 'wheez*' and 'asthma'. Articles were included if they were research papers focused on adult patients with asthma and a treatment of noninvasive ventilation, and were published in full text in English. Included articles were reviewed using the National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) evidence hierarchy and quality appraisal tools. There were 492 articles identified from the database searches. After application of inclusion/exclusion criteria 13 articles were included in the systematic review. Studies varied significantly in design, endpoints and outcomes. There was a trend in better outcomes for patients with acute asthma who were treated with noninvasive ventilation compared to standard medical therapy, however, the variability of the studies meant that no conclusive recommendations could be made. More research is required before noninvasive ventilation can be conclusively recommended for the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Face Masks for Noninvasive Ventilation: Fit, Excess Skin Hydration, and Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marty O; White, Cynthia C; Jones, Jennifer M; Cahill, Thomas; Jones, Donna C; Pan, Brian S

    2015-11-01

    Pressure ulcers (stages III and IV) are serious safety events (ie, never events). Healthcare institutions are no longer reimbursed for costs to care for affected patients. Medical devices are the leading cause of pediatric pressure ulcers. Face masks for noninvasive ventilation were associated with a high percentage of pressure ulcers at our institution. A prospective cohort study investigated factors contributing to pressure ulcer development in 50 subjects using face masks for noninvasive ventilation. Color imaging, 3-dimensional surface imaging, and skin hydration measurements were used to identify early skin compromise and evaluate 3 interventions to reduce trauma: (1) a silicone foam dressing, (2) a water/polyethylene oxide hydrogel dressing, and (3) a flexible cloth mask. A novel mask fit technique was used to examine the impact of fit on the potential for skin compromise. Fifty subjects age 10.4 ± 9.1 y participated with color images for 22, hydration for 34, and mask fit analysis for 16. Of these, 69% had diagnoses associated with craniofacial anomalies. Stage I pressure ulcers were the most common injury. Skin hydration difference was 317 ± 29 for sites with erythema versus 75 ± 28 for sites without erythema (P < .05) and smallest for the cloth mask (P < .05). Fit distance metrics differed for the nasal, oronasal, and face shield interfaces, with threshold distances being higher for the oronasal mask than the others (P < .05). Areas of high contact were associated with skin erythema and pressure ulcers. This fit method is currently being utilized to select best-fit masks from available options, to identify the potential areas of increased tissue pressure, and to prevent skin injuries and their complications. Improvement of mask fit is an important priority for improving respiratory outcomes. Strategies to maintain normal skin hydration are important for protecting tissue integrity. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period and difficult airway].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation is a method of ventilatory assistance aimed at increasing alveolar ventilation, thus achieving, in selected subjects, the avoidance of endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation, with the consequent improvement in survival. There has been a systematic review and study of the technical, clinical experiences, and recommendations concerning the application of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the pre- and intraoperative period. The use of prophylactic non-invasive mechanical ventilation before surgery that involves significant alterations in the ventilatory function may decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications. Its intraoperative use will mainly depend on the type of surgery, type of anaesthetic technique, and the clinical status of the patient. Its use allows greater anaesthetic depth without deterioration of oxygenation and ventilation of patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Delayed but successful response to noninvasive ventilation in COPD patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Bury, Quentin; Guiot, Aurélie; Jonard, Marie; Mohammad, Usman; Van Grunderbeeck, Nicolas; Gasan, Gaelle; Thevenin, Didier; Mallat, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated a new noninvasive ventilation (NIV) protocol that allows the pursuit of NIV in the case of persistent severe respiratory acidosis despite a first NIV challenge in COPD patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). A prospective observational multicentric pilot study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals over a 12-month study period. A total of 155 consecutive COPD patients who were admitted for AHRF and treated by NIV were enrolled. Delayed response to NIV was defined as a significant clinical improvement in the first 48 h following NIV initiation despite a persistent severe respiratory acidosis (pH <7.30) after the first 2 h of NIV trial. NIV failed in only 10 patients (6.5%). Delayed responders to NIV (n=83, 53%) exhibited similar nutritional status, comorbidities, functional status, frailty score, dyspnea score, and severity score at admission, compared with early responders (n=62, 40%). Only age (66 vs 70 years in early responders; P =0.03) and encephalopathy score (3 [2-4] vs 3 [2-4] in early responders; P =0.015) were different among the responders. Inhospital mortality did not differ between responders to NIV (n=10, 12% for delayed responders vs n=10, 16% for early responders, P =0.49). A second episode of AHRF occurred in 20 responders (14%), equally distributed among early and delayed responders to NIV (n=9, 14.5% in early responders vs n=11, 13% in delayed responders; P =0.83), with a poor survival rate (n=1, 5%). Most of the COPD patients with AHRF have a successful outcome when NIV is pursued despite a persistent severe respiratory acidosis after the first NIV trial. The outcome of delayed responders is similar to the one of the early responders. On the contrary, the second episode of AHRF during the hospital stay carries a poor prognosis.

  4. Respiratory Care year in review 2013: airway management, noninvasive monitoring, and invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Charles G; Blanch, Lluís; Fan, Eddy; Hess, Dean R

    2014-04-01

    Fundamental to respiratory care practice are airway management, noninvasive monitoring, and invasive mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent literature related to these topics in a manner that is most likely to have interest to the readers of Respiratory Care.

  5. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute heart failure].

    PubMed

    Alfonso Megido, Joaquín; González Franco, Alvaro

    2014-03-01

    When acute heart failure progresses and there is acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, routine therapeutic measures should be accompanied by other measures that help to correct oxygenation of the patient. The final and most drastic step is mechanical ventilation. Non-invasive ventilation has been developed in the last few years as a method that attempts to improve oxygenation without the need for intubation, thus, in theory, reducing morbidity and mortality in these patients. The present article describes the controversies surrounding the results of this technique and discusses its indications. The article also discusses how to start non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute pulmonary edema from a practical point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Noninvasive Ventilation During Immediate Postoperative Period in Cardiac Surgery Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pieczkoski, Suzimara Monteiro; Margarites, Ane Glauce Freitas; Sbruzzi, Graciele

    2017-01-01

    Objective To verify the effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation compared to conventional physiotherapy or oxygen therapy in the mortality rate and prevention of pulmonary complications in patients during the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis recorded in the International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews (number CRD42016036441). The research included the following databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, PEDro, LILACS and manual search of the references of studies published until March 2016. The review included randomized controlled trials with patients during the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery, which compared the use of noninvasive ventilation, BiLevel modes, continuous positive airway pressure, intermittent positive pressure breathing and positive pressure ventilation with conventional physiotherapy or oxygen therapy, and assessed the mortality rate, occurrence of pulmonary complications (atelectasis, pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, hypoxemia), reintubation rate, ventilation time, time spent in the intensive care unit (ICU), length of hospital stay and partial pressure of oxygen. Results Among the 479 selected articles, ten were included in the systematic review (n=1050 patients) and six in the meta-analysis. The use of noninvasive ventilation did not significantly reduce the risk for atelectasis (RR: 0.60; CI95% 0.28-1.28); pneumonia (RR: 0.20; CI95% 0.04-1.16), reintubation rate (RR: 0.51; CI95%: 0.15-1.66), and time spent in the ICU (-0.04 days; CI95%: -0.13; 0.05). Conclusion Prophylactic noninvasive ventilation did not significantly reduce the occurrence of pulmonary complications such as atelectasis, pneumonia, reintubation rate and time spent in the ICU. The use is still unproven and new randomized controlled trials should be carried out. PMID:28977203

  7. Thirteen years of invasive and noninvasive home ventilation for children in a developing country: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Anna Marie; Loo, Hui Yan; de Bruyne, Jessie Anne; Eg, Kah Peng; Kee, Sze Ying; Thavagnanam, Surendran; Bouniu, Marilyn; Wong, Jiat Earn; Gan, Chin Seng; Lum, Lucy Chai See

    2017-04-01

    Home ventilation (HV) for children is growing rapidly worldwide. The aim was to describe (1) the sociodemographic characteristics of children on HV and (2) the indications for, means and outcome of initiating HV in children from a developing country. This retrospective study included patients sent home on noninvasive or invasive ventilation, over 13 years, by the pediatric respiratory unit in a single center. Children who declined treatment were excluded. Seventy children were initiated on HV: 85.7% on noninvasive ventilation, 14.3% on invasive ventilation. There was about a threefold increase from 2001-2008 (n = 18) to 2009-2014 (n = 52). Median (range) age of initiating HV was 11 (1-169) months and 73% of children were <2 years old. Common indications for HV were respiratory (57.2%), chest/spine anomalies (11.4%), and neuromuscular (10.0%). Fifty-two percent came off their devices with a median (interquartile range) usage duration of 12 (4.8, 21.6) months. Ten children (14.3%) died with one avoidable death. Children with neuromuscular disease were less likely to come off their ventilator (0.0%) compared to children with respiratory disease (62.1%). Forty-one percent of parents bought their equipment, whereas 58.6% borrowed their equipment from the medical social work department and other sources. HV in a resource-limited country is possible. Children with respiratory disease made up a significant proportion of those requiring HV and were more likely to be weaned off. The mortality rate was low. The social work department played an important role in facilitating early discharge. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:500-507. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Flexible bronchoscopy during non-invasive positive pressure mechanical ventilation: are two better than one?

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2016-09-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy (FBO) and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) are largely applied in respiratory and general intensive care units. FBO plays a crucial role for the diagnosis of lung infiltrates of unknown origin and for the treatment of airways obstruction due to bronchial mucous plugging and hemoptysis in critical patients. NIPPV is the first-choice ventilatory strategy for acute respiratory failure (ARF) of different causes as it could be used as prevention or as alternative to the conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) via endotracheal intubation (ETI). Some clinical scenarios represent contraindications for these techniques such as severe ARF in spontaneous breathing patients for FBO and accumulated tracheo-bronchial secretions in patients with depressed cough for NIPPV. In these contexts, the decision of performing ETI should carefully consider the risk of CMV-correlated complications. An increasing amount of published data suggested the use of FBO during NIPPV in ARF in order to avoid/reduce the need of ETI. Despite a strong rationale for the combined use of the two techniques, there is not still enough evidence for a large-scale application of this strategy in all different clinical scenarios. The majority of the available data are in favor of the "help" given by NIPPV to diagnostic FBO in high-risk spontaneously breathing patients with severe hypoxemia. Preliminary findings report the successful "help" given by early FBO to NIPPV in patients with hypoxemic-hypercapnic ARF who are likely to fail because of hypersecretion. Synergy of FBO and NIPPV application is emerging also to perform ETI in challenging situations, such as predicted difficult laringoscopy and NPPV failure in severely hypoxemic patients. This combined approach should be performed only in centers showing a wide experience with both NIPPV and FBO, where close monitoring and ETI facilities are promptly available.

  9. Challenges on non-invasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2016-11-15

    Acute respiratory failure is a frequent complication in elderly patients especially if suffering from chronic cardio-pulmonary diseases. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation constitutes a successful therapeutic tool in the elderly as, like in younger patients, it is able to prevent endotracheal intubation in a wide range of acute conditions; moreover, this ventilator technique is largely applied in the elderly in whom invasive mechanical ventilation is considered not appropriated. Furthermore, the integration of new technological devices, ethical issues and environment of treatment are still largely debated in the treatment of acute respiratory failure in the elderly.This review aims at reporting and critically analyzing the peculiarities in the management of acute respiratory failure in elderly people, the role of noninvasive mechanical ventilation, the potential advantages of applying alternative or integrated therapeutic tools (i.e. high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, non-invasive and invasive cough assist devices and low-flow carbon-dioxide extracorporeal systems), drawbacks in physician's communication and "end of life" decisions. As several areas of this topic are not supported by evidence-based data, this report takes in account also "real-life" data as well as author's experience.The choice of the setting and of the timing of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in elderly people with advanced cardiopulmonary disease should be carefully evaluated together with the chance of using integrated or alternative supportive devices. Last but not least, economic and ethical issues may often challenges the behavior of the physicians towards elderly people who are hospitalized for acute respiratory failure at the end stage of their cardiopulmonary and neoplastic diseases.

  10. Effect of varying the pressurisation rate during noninvasive pressure support ventilation.

    PubMed

    Prinianakis, G; Delmastro, M; Carlucci, A; Ceriana, P; Nava, S

    2004-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of varying the pressurisation rate during noninvasive pressure support ventilation on patients' breathing pattern, inspiratory effort, arterial blood gases, tolerance to ventilation and amount of air leakage. A total of 15 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients recovering from an acute episode of hypercapnic acute respiratory failure were studied during four randomised trials with different levels of pressurisation rate. No significant changes were observed in breathing pattern and arterial blood gases between the different runs. The pressure time product of the diaphragm, an estimate of its metabolic consumption, was significantly lower with all pressurisation rates than with spontaneous breathing, but was significantly lowest with the fastest rate. However, air leak, assessed by the ratio between expired and inspired tidal volumes, increased and the patients' tolerance of ventilation, measured using a standardised scale, was significantly poorer with the fastest pressurisation rate. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients recovering from an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure and ventilated with noninvasive pressure support ventilation, different pressurisation rates resulted in different reductions in the pressure time product of the diaphragm; this reduction was greater with the fastest rate, but was accompanied by significant air leaks and poor tolerance.

  11. [Reflections on the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele

    2012-12-01

    Given its prevalence into the clinical practice, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can be included among the cornerstones of medicine. Just think of the acute applications of NIV which are in constant expansion, from COPD exacerbation to severe de novo hypoxemia, from postoperative distress to extra-hospital use in acute pulmonary edema, from ongoing support of interventional procedures to delicate strategies for end of life in terminally ill oncologic and non-oncologic patients. The thought should be focused on how, by whom, where and to whom is delivered this mode of artificial ventilation to avoid the risk of trivialization and flattening.

  12. Determinants of noninvasive ventilation success or failure in morbidly obese patients in acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Taufour, Pauline; Duhamel, Alain; Temime, Johanna; Nigeon, Olivier; Vangrunderbeeck, Nicolas; Barrailler, Stéphanie; Gasan, Gaëlle; Pepy, Florent; Thevenin, Didier; Mallat, Jihad

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common life-threatening complication in morbidly obese patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). We aimed to identify the determinants of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) success or failure for this indication. We prospectively included 76 consecutive patients with BMI>40 kg/m2 diagnosed with OHS and treated by NIV for ARF in a 15-bed ICU of a tertiary hospital. NIV failed to reverse ARF in only 13 patients. Factors associated with NIV failure included pneumonia (n = 12/13, 92% vs n = 9/63, 14%; p<0.0001), high SOFA (10 vs 5; p<0.0001) and SAPS2 score (63 vs 39; p<0.0001) at admission. These patients often experienced poor outcome despite early resort to endotracheal intubation (in-hospital mortality, 92.3% vs 17.5%; p<0.001). The only factor significantly associated with successful response to NIV was idiopathic decompensation of OHS (n = 30, 48% vs n = 0, 0%; p = 0.001). In the NIV success group (n = 63), 33 patients (53%) experienced a delayed response to NIV (with persistent hypercapnic acidosis during the first 6 hours). Multiple organ failure and pneumonia were the main factors associated with NIV failure and death in morbidly obese patients in hypoxemic ARF. On the opposite, NIV was constantly successful and could be safely pushed further in case of severe hypercapnic acute respiratory decompensation of OHS.

  13. Continuous noninvasive ventilation delivered by a novel total face mask: a case series report.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Inês; Gonçalves, Miguel R; Winck, João Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been widely used to decrease the complications associated with tracheal intubation in mechanically ventilated patients. However, nasal ulcerations may occur when conventional masks are used for continuous ventilation. A total face mask, which has no contact with the more sensitive areas of the face, is a possible option. We describe 3 patients with acute respiratory failure due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, who developed nasal bridge skin necrosis during continuous NIV, and one patient with post-extubation respiratory failure due to a high spinal cord injury, who had facial trauma with contraindication for conventional mask use. The total face mask was very well tolerated by all the patients, and permitted safe and efficient continuous NIV for several days until the acute respiratory failure episode resolved. None of the patients required endotracheal intubation during the acute episode.

  14. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Rialp Cervera, G; del Castillo Blanco, A; Pérez Aizcorreta, O; Parra Morais, L

    2014-03-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with conventional therapy improves the outcome of patients with acute respiratory failure due to hypercapnic decompensation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). This review summarizes the main effects of NIV in these pathologies. In COPD, NIV improves gas exchange and symptoms, reducing the need for endotracheal intubation, hospital mortality and hospital stay compared with conventional oxygen therapy. NIV may also avoid reintubation and may decrease the length of invasive mechanical ventilation. In ACPE, NIV accelerates the remission of symptoms and the normalization of blood gas parameters, reduces the need for endotracheal intubation, and is associated with a trend towards lesser mortality, without increasing the incidence of myocardial infarction. The ventilation modality used in ACPE does not affect the patient prognosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality in elderly immunocompromised patients hospitalized with pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher S; Frei, Christopher R; Metersky, Mark L; Anzueto, Antonio R; Mortensen, Eric M

    2014-01-27

    Mortality after pneumonia in immunocompromised patients is higher than for immunocompetent patients. The use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for patients with severe pneumonia may provide beneficial outcomes while circumventing potential complications associated with invasive mechanical ventilation. The aim of our study was to determine if the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in elderly immunocompromised patients with pneumonia is associated with higher all-cause mortality. In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the Department of Veterans Affairs administrative databases. We included veterans age ≥65 years who were immunocompromised and hospitalized due to pneumonia. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the use of invasive versus non-invasive mechanical ventilation and 30-day and 90-day mortality. Of 1,946 patients in our cohort, 717 received non-invasive mechanical ventilation and 1,229 received invasive mechanical ventilation. There was no significant association between all-cause 30-day mortality and non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation in our adjusted model (odds ratio (OR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-1.10). However, those patients who received non-invasive mechanical ventilation had decreased 90-day mortality (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.84). Additionally, receipt of guideline-concordant antibiotics in our immunocompromised cohort was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day mortality (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.24-0.39) and 90-day mortality (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31-0.53). Our findings suggest that physicians should consider the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation, when appropriate, for elderly immunocompromised patients hospitalized with pneumonia.

  16. Hypoventilation improvement in an adult non-invasively ventilated patient with Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD).

    PubMed

    Graziani, Alessandro; Casalini, Pierpaolo; Mirici-Cappa, Federica; Pezzi, Giuseppe; Giuseppe Stefanini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by rapid-onset obesity in young children, hypoventilation, hypothalamic and autonomic dysfunction. Patients between the ages of 2 and 4 present with hyperphagia and weight gain, followed by neuro-hormonal dysfunction and central hypoventilation months or years later. Cardiac arrest may represent the fatal complication of alveolar hypoventilation and early mechanical ventilation is essential for the patient's life. In this paper, we describe a 22-year-old patient with ROHHAD syndrome who had an acute respiratory failure during nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV).

  17. Noninvasive versus conventional ventilation to treat hypercapnic encephalopathy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Nava, Stefano; Conti, Giorgio; Antonelli, Massimo; Naldi, Mario; Archinucci, Ivano; Coniglio, Giovanni; Hill, Nicholas S

    2007-12-01

    We recently reported a high success rate using noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to treat COPD exacerbations with hypercapnic encephalopathy. This study compared the hospital outcomes of NPPV vs. conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in COPD exacerbations with moderate to severe hypercapnic encephalopathy, defined by a Kelly score of 3 or higher. A 3-year prospective matched case-control study in a respiratory semi-intensive care unit (RSICU) and intensive care unit (ICU). From 103 consecutive patients the study included 20 undergoing NPPV and 20 CMV, matched for age, simplified acute physiology score II, and baseline arterial blood gases. ABG significantly improved in both groups after 2 h. The rate of complications was lower in the NPPV group than in the CMV group due to fewer cases of nosocomial pneumonia and sepsis. In-hospital mortality, 1-year mortality, and tracheostomy rates were similar in the two groups. Fewer patients remained on ventilation after 30 days in NPPV group. The NPPV group showed a shorter duration of ventilation. In COPD exacerbations with moderate to severe hypercapnic encephalopathy, the use of NPPV performed by an experienced team compared to CMV leads to similar short and long-term survivals with a reduced nosocomial infection rate and duration of ventilation.

  18. Non-invasive ventilation effectiveness and the effect of ventilatory mode on survival in ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Jesus; Servera, Emilio; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Salachas, François; Similowski, Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus

    2014-03-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) prolongs survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but there are no data with which to compare the effectiveness of the different ventilator modes - volume (Vol-NIV) or pressure-cycled (Pres-NIV) ventilation - in ALS. We aimed to determine whether the ventilatory mode has an effect on ventilation effectiveness and survival of ALS patients using NIV. We used a retrospective study that included all ALS patients for whom NIV was indicated in two referral units: one using Vol-NIV and the other using Pres-NIV. Demographic, functional and nocturnal gas exchange parameters at NIV initiation were recorded. Eighty-two ALS patients ventilated using Pres-NIV and 62 using Vol-NIV were included. No differences were found in survival from NIV initiation between Vol-NIV (median 15.00 (7.48-22.41) months) and Pres-NIV (median 15.00 (10.25-19.75) months, p = 0.533) patients. Effective NIV was achieved in 72.41% Vol-NIV patients and in 48.78% Pres-NIV patients (p < 0.001). Ventilator mode (OR 12.066 (4.251-32.270), p < 0.001) and severity of bulbar dysfunction (OR 1.07 (1.011-1.133), p = 0.02) were the variables correlated with effective NIV. In conclusion, although Vol-NIV provides more effective ventilation, Vol-NIV and Pres-NIV present similar survival in ALS. Effectiveness of NIV is related to the severity of bulbar dysfunction.

  19. Water content of delivered gases during non-invasive ventilation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lellouche, François; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Lyazidi, Aissam; Deye, Nicolas; Taillé, Solenne; Brochard, Laurent

    2009-06-01

    No clear recommendation exists concerning humidification during non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and high flow CPAP, and few hygrometric data are available. We measured hygrometry during NIV delivered to healthy subjects with different humidification strategies: heated humidifier (HH), heat and moisture exchanger, (HME) or no humidification (NoH). For each strategy, a turbine and an ICU ventilator were used with different FiO(2) settings, with and without leaks. During CPAP, two different HH and NoH were tested. Inspired gases hygrometry was measured, and comfort was assessed. On a bench, we also assessed the impact of ambient air temperature, ventilator temperature and minute ventilation on HH performances (with NIV settings). During NIV, with NoH, gas humidity was very low when an ICU ventilator was used (5 mgH(2)O/l), but equivalent to ambient air hygrometry with a turbine ventilator at minimal FiO(2) (13 mgH(2)O/l). HME and HH had comparable performances (25-30 mgH(2)O/l), but HME's effectiveness was reduced with leaks (15 mgH(2)O/l). HH performances were reduced by elevated ambient air and ventilator output temperatures. During CPAP, dry gases (5 mgH(2)O/l) were less tolerated than humidified gases. Gases humidified at 15 or 30 mgH(2)O/l were equally tolerated. This study provides data on the level of humidity delivered with different humidification strategies during NIV and CPAP. HH and HME provide gas with the highest water content. Comfort data suggest that levels above 15 mgH(2)O/l are well tolerated. In favorable conditions, HH and HMEs are capable of providing such values, even in the presence of leaks.

  20. Rescue therapy by switching to total face mask after failure of face mask-delivered noninvasive ventilation in do-not-intubate patients in acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Mallat, Jihad; Nigeon, Olivier; Barrailler, Stéphanie; Pepy, Florent; Gasan, Gaëlle; Vangrunderbeeck, Nicolas; Grosset, Philippe; Tronchon, Laurent; Thevenin, Didier

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of switching to total face mask in cases where face mask-delivered noninvasive mechanical ventilation has already failed in do-not-intubate patients in acute respiratory failure. Prospective observational study in an ICU and a respiratory stepdown unit over a 12-month study period. Switching to total face mask, which covers the entire face, when noninvasive mechanical ventilation using facial mask (oronasal mask) failed to reverse acute respiratory failure. Seventy-four patients with a do-not-intubate order and treated by noninvasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Failure of face mask-delivered noninvasive mechanical ventilation was associated with a three-fold increase in in-hospital mortality (36% vs. 10.5%; p = 0.009). Nevertheless, 23 out of 36 patients (64%) in whom face mask-delivered noninvasive mechanical ventilation failed to reverse acute respiratory failure and, therefore, switched to total face mask survived hospital discharge. Reasons for switching from facial mask to total face mask included refractory hypercapnic acute respiratory failure (n = 24, 66.7%), painful skin breakdown or facial mask intolerance (n = 11, 30%), and refractory hypoxemia (n = 1, 2.7%). In the 24 patients switched from facial mask to total face mask because of refractory hypercapnia, encephalopathy score (3 [3-4] vs. 2 [2-3]; p < 0.0001), PaCO2 (87 ± 25 mm Hg vs. 70 ± 17 mm Hg; p < 0.0001), and pH (7.24 ± 0.1 vs. 7.32 ± 0.09; p < 0.0001) significantly improved after 2 hrs of total face mask-delivered noninvasive ventilation. Patients switched early to total face mask (in the first 12 hrs) developed less pressure sores (n = 5, 24% vs. n = 13, 87%; p = 0.0002), despite greater length of noninvasive mechanical ventilation within the first 48 hrs (44 hrs vs. 34 hrs; p = 0.05) and less protective dressings (n = 2, 9.5% vs. n = 8, 53.3%; p = 0.007). The optimal cutoff value for face mask-delivered noninvasive mechanical ventilation

  1. Optimising non-invasive mechanical ventilation: Which unit should care for these patients? A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Raurell-Torredà, Marta; Argilaga-Molero, E; Colomer-Plana, M; Ródenas-Fransico, A; Ruiz-Garcia, M T; Uya Muntaña, J

    2017-07-01

    Use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has extended beyond intensive care units (ICUs), becoming usual practice in emergency departments (EDs) and general wards. To analyse the relationship between nursing care and NIV outcome in different hospital units. Three university hospitals and one community hospital participated in a prospective observational cohort study. Ten units participated: 4 ICUs (1 surgical, 3 medical-surgical), 3 recovery (1 postsurgical, 2 EDs, 3 general wards). Treatment success/failure, interface intolerance and complications were evaluated according to patient characteristics, nursing care provided, and procedures used. Complications analysed included bronchoaspiration, pneumothorax, skin lesions, inability to manage secretions, eye irritations, deteriorating level of consciousness, gastric distension, and excessive air losses around the mask. Of 387 patients, 194 (50.1%) were treated in ICU, 121 (31.3%) in ED, 38 (9.8%) postsurgery, and 34 (8.8%) in general wards. Regression analysis, adjusted for APACHE score and NIV indication, showed 3.3 times greater risk of NIV failure (95% CI [1.2-9.2]) in a university-hospital ICU with <50 NIV cases/year, compared to a community hospital ICU. In ICUs and general wards, NIV was suspended in 12% of patients due to interface intolerance. Acute-on-chronic lung diseases (ACLD) had lower risk of NIV failure (OR 0.2 [95% CI 0.06-0.69]) and lack of humidification was not associated with treatment failure (OR 0.2 [95% CI 0.1-0.4]). Poor secretion management was linked to pneumonia (OR 2.5 [95% CI 1.1-5.9]) and early weaning/extubation (OR 3.3 [95% CI 1.2-8.9]). Interface intolerance was associated with conventional ICU ventilators (OR 4.4 [95% CI 2.1-9.2]) and nasal skin lesions with excessive air losses (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.1-5.3]), especially with oronasal masks (OR 3.5 [95% CI 1.1-11.3]). Acute respiratory failure patients with pneumonia admitted to general wards had increased interface intolerance and NIV

  2. Reduced survival in patients with ALS with upper airway obstructive events on non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Georges, Marjolaine; Attali, Valérie; Golmard, Jean Louis; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Crevier-Buchman, Lise; Collet, Jean-Marc; Tintignac, Anne; Morawiec, Elise; Trosini-Desert, Valery; Salachas, François; Similowski, Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus

    2016-10-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is part of standard care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Intolerance or unavailability of NIV, as well as the quality of correction of nocturnal hypoventilation, has a direct impact on prognosis. We describe the importance of NIV failure due to upper airway obstructive events, the clinical characteristics, as well as their impact on the prognosis of ALS. Retrospective analysis of the data of 190 patients with ALS and NIV in a single centre for the period 2011-2014. 179 patients tolerating NIV for more than 4 h per night without leaks were analysed. Among the 179 patients, after correction of leaks, 73 remained inadequately ventilated at night (defined as more than 5% of the night spent at <90% of SpO2), as a result of obstructive events in 67% of cases (n=48). Patients who remained inadequately ventilated after optimal adjustment of ventilator settings presented with shorter survival than adequately ventilated patients. Unexpectedly, patients with upper airway obstructive events without nocturnal desaturation and in whom no adjustment of treatment was therefore performed also presented with shorter survival. On initiation of NIV, no difference was demonstrated between patients with and without upper airway obstructive events. In all patients, upper airway obstruction was concomitant with reduction of ventilatory drive. This study shows that upper airway obstruction during NIV occurs in patients with ALS and is associated with poorer prognosis. Such events should be identified as they can be corrected by adjusting ventilator settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Non-invasive ventilation in prone position for refractory hypoxemia after bilateral lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Feltracco, Paolo; Serra, Eugenio; Barbieri, Stefania; Persona, Paolo; Rea, Federico; Loy, Monica; Ori, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Temporary graft dysfunction with gas exchange abnormalities is a common finding during the postoperative course of a lung transplant and is often determined by the post-reimplantation syndrome. Supportive measures including oxygen by mask, inotropes, diuretics, and pulmonary vasodilators are usually effective in non-severe post-reimplantation syndromes. However, in less-responsive clinical pictures, tracheal intubation with positive pressure ventilation, or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV), is necessary. We report on the clinical course of two patients suffering from refractory hypoxemia due to post-reimplantation syndrome treated with NIV in the prone and Trendelenburg positions. NIV was well tolerated and led to resolution of atelectactic areas and dishomogeneous lung infiltrates. Repeated turning from supine to prone under non invasive ventilation determined a stable improvement of gas exchange and prevented a more invasive approach. Even though NIV in the prone position has not yet entered into clinical practice, it could be an interesting option to achieve a better match between ventilation and perfusion. This technique, which we successfully applied in lung transplantation, can be easily extended to other lung diseases with non-recruitable dorso-basal areas.

  4. Oral appliance to assist non-invasive ventilation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Steffanie K B; Doff, Michiel H J; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Nieuwenhuis, Jellie A; Wijkstra, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    From the moment the respiratory muscle groups are affected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), respiratory complications will be the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Untreated respiratory muscle impairment leads to respiratory insufficiency and additionally to difficulties in airway secretion clearance. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is the first choice in treating respiratory insufficiency in ALS as it improves sleep-related symptoms, quality of life and life expectancy. Nevertheless, NIV is not always effective, probably due to bulbar dysfunction or anatomical abnormalities. As a result, tracheostomy ventilation (TV) may become necessary. In this case report, we present a 60-year-old female with ALS, for whom it was not possible to provide a sufficient tidal volume with NIV. A chin lift was performed while the patient was awake to see if a more anterior jaw position would lead to an increased tidal volume. As this was the case, a mandibular advancement device (MAD) was fabricated. With a combination of a MAD and NIV, the upper airway obstructions were overcome and a good ventilation and adherence to therapy were seen. When there is the presumption of airway obstructions in combination with an ineffective NIV, we advise to perform a chin lift to assess whether the obstructions can be overcome by a more anterior jaw position. If that is the case, NIV may be combined with MAD to establish effective ventilation and avoid the use of TV.

  5. Risk of Unsuccessful Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Heterogeneous Neuromuscular Diseases: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nanaura, Hitoki; Kinugawa, Kaoru; Uchihara, Yuto; Ohara, Hiroya; Eura, Nobuyuki; Syobatake, Ryogo; Sawa, Nobuhiro; Takao, Kiriyama; Sugie, Kazuma; Ueno, Satoshi

    2017-02-20

    If invasive ventilation can be avoided by performing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), the disease can be effectively managed. It is important to clarify the characteristics of patients with neuromuscular diseases in whom initial NIV is likely to be unsuccessful. We studied 27 patients in stable neuromuscular condition who initially received NIV to manage fatal ARF to identify differences in factors immediately before the onset of ARF among patients who receive continuous NIV support, patients who are switched from NIV to invasive ventilation, and patients in whom NIV is discontinued. Endpoints were evaluated 24 and 72 hours after the initiation of NIV. After 24 hours, all but 1 patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) received continuous NIV support. 72 hours later, 5 patients were switched from NIV to invasive ventilation, and 5 patients continued to receive NIV support. 72 hours after the initiation of NIV, the proportion of patients with a diagnosis of ALS differed significantly among the three groups (P=0.039). NIV may be attempted to manage acute fatal respiratory failure associated with neuromuscular diseases, but clinicians should carefully manage the clinical course in patients with ALS.

  6. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in postoperative patients. A clinical review].

    PubMed

    Esquinas, A M; Jover, J L; Úbeda, A; Belda, F J

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of ventilatory support that is increasing in importance day by day in the management of postoperative respiratory failure. Its role in the prevention and treatment of atelectasis is particularly important in the in the period after thoracic and abdominal surgeries. Similarly, in the transplanted patient, NIV can shorten the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, reducing the risk of infectious complications in these high-risk patients. It has been performed A systematic review of the literature has been performed, including examining the technical, clinical experiences and recommendations concerning the application of NIV in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Pressure Ulcer Incidence in Patients Wearing Nasal-Oral Versus Full-Face Noninvasive Ventilation Masks.

    PubMed

    Schallom, Marilyn; Cracchiolo, Lisa; Falker, Antoinette; Foster, Jennifer; Hager, JoAnn; Morehouse, Tamara; Watts, Peggy; Weems, Linda; Kollef, Marin

    2015-07-01

    Device-related pressure ulcers from noninvasive ventilation masks alter skin integrity and cause patients discomfort. To examine the incidence, location, and stage of pressure ulcers and patients' comfort with a nasal-oral mask compared with a full-face mask. A before-after study of a convenience sample of patients with noninvasive ventilation orders in 5 intensive care units was conducted. Two groups of 100 patients each received either the nasal-oral mask or the full-face mask. Skin was assessed before the mask was applied and every 12 hours after that or upon mask removal. Comfort levels were assessed every 12 hours on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 (1, most comfortable). A pressure ulcer developed in 20% of patients in the nasal-oral mask group and 2% of patients in the full-face mask group (P < .001). Comfort scores were significantly lower (more comfortable) with the full-face mask (mean [SD], 1.9 [1.1]) than with the nasal-oral mask (mean [SD], 2.7 [1.2], P < .001). Neither mean hours worn nor percentage adherence differed significantly: 28.9 (SD, 27.2) hours and 92% for full-face mask and 25 (SD, 20.7) and 92% for nasal-oral mask. No patients who had a pressure ulcer develop with the nasal-oral mask had a pressure ulcer develop with the full-face mask. The full-face mask resulted in significantly fewer pressure ulcers and was more comfortable for patients. The full-face mask is a reasonable alternative to traditional nasal-oral masks for patients receiving noninvasive ventilation. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. Noninvasive versus invasive microbial investigation in ventilator-associated pneumonia: evaluation of outcome.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, M; Torres, A; Ewig, S; Marcos, M A; Alcón, A; Lledó, R; Asenjo, M A; Maldonaldo, A

    2000-07-01

    Noninvasive and invasive diagnostic techniques have been shown to achieve comparable performances in the evaluation of suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We studied the impact of both approaches on outcome in a prospective, open, and randomized study in three intensive care units (ICUs) of a 1,000-bed tertiary care university hospital. Patients with suspected VAP were randomly assigned to noninvasive (Group 1) versus invasive (Group 2) investigation (tracheobronchial aspirates [TBAS] versus bronchoscopically retrieved protected specimen brush [PSB] and bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL]. Samples were cultured quantitatively, and BAL fluid (BALF) was examined for intracellular organisms (ICO) additionally. Initial empiric antimicrobial treatment was administered following the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and adjusted according to culture results (and ICO counts in Group 2). Outcome variables included length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation as well as mortality. Overall, 76 patients (39 noninvasive, 37 invasive) were investigated. VAP was microbiologically confirmed in 23 of 39 (59%) and 23 of 37 (62%) (p = 0.78). There were no differences with regard to the frequencies of community-acquired and potentially drug-resistant microorganisms (PDRM). Antimicrobial treatment was changed in seven patients (18%) of Group 1 and 10 patients (27%) of Group 2 because of etiologic findings (including five of 17 with ICO = 2% (p = not significant [NS]). Length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation were also not significantly different in both groups. Crude 30-d mortality was 31 of 76 (41%), and 18 of 39 (46%) in Group 1 and 14 of 37 (38%) in Group 2 (p = 0.46). Adjusted mortality was 16% versus 11% (p = 0.53), and mortality of microbiologically confirmed pneumonia 10 of 23 (44%) in both groups (p = 1.0). We conclude that the outcome of VAP was not influenced by the techniques used for microbial investigation.

  9. [Long-term non-invasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients].

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Léonore; Groenendijk, Lena; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Younossian, Alain Bigin; Vignaux, Laurence

    2018-01-31

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is recognized as first line therapy in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure and chronic alveolar hypoventilation caused by several diseases (restrictive thoracic disorders, neuromuscular disease and obesity-hypoventilation syndrome). In Switzerland and other European countries, long-term NIV has also been applied in hypercapnic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, only recently has conclusive evidence showing benefits of long-term NIV become available. Long-term NIV in COPD has now shown its efficacy in many studies. However, despite these findings, indications, ventilatory settings and monitoring remain poorly known and topic of debate.

  10. Older patients with late-stage COPD: Their illness experiences and involvement in decision-making regarding mechanical ventilation and noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Jerpseth, Heidi; Dahl, Vegard; Nortvedt, Per; Halvorsen, Kristin

    2018-02-01

    To explore the illness experiences of older patients with late-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to develop knowledge about how patients perceive their preferences to be taken into account in decision-making processes concerning mechanical ventilation and/or noninvasive ventilation. Decisions about whether older patients with late-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will benefit from noninvasive ventilation treatment or whether the time has come for palliative treatment are complicated, both medically and ethically. Knowledge regarding patients' values and preferences concerning ventilation support is crucial yet often lacking. Qualitative design with a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. The data consist of qualitative in-depth interviews with 12 patients from Norway diagnosed with late-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The data were analysed within the three interpretative contexts described by Kvale and Brinkmann. The participants described their lives as fragile and burdensome, frequently interrupted by unpredictable and frightening exacerbations. They lacked information about their diagnosis and prognosis and were often not included in decisions about noninvasive ventilation or mechanical ventilation. Findings indicate that these patients are highly vulnerable and have complex needs in terms of nursing care and medical treatment. Moreover, they need access to proactive advanced care planning and an opportunity to discuss their wishes for treatment and care. To provide competent care for these patients, healthcare personnel must be aware of how patients experience being seriously ill. Advanced care planning and shared decision-making should be initiated alongside the curative treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  12. Comparison of two humidification systems for long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Nava, S; Cirio, S; Fanfulla, F; Carlucci, A; Navarra, A; Negri, A; Ceriana, P

    2008-08-01

    There is no consensus concerning the best system of humidification during long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). In a technical pilot randomised crossover 12-month study, 16 patients with stable chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure received either heated humidification or heat and moisture exchanger. Compliance with long-term NIMV, airway symptoms, side-effects and number of severe acute pulmonary exacerbations requiring hospitalisation were recorded. Two patients died. Intention-to-treat statistical analysis was performed on 14 patients. No significant differences were observed in compliance with long-term NIMV, but 10 out of 14 patients decided to continue long-term NIMV with heated humidification at the end of the trial. The incidence of side-effects, except for dry throat (significantly more often present using heat and moisture exchanger), hospitalisations and pneumonia were not significantly different. In the present pilot study, the use heated humidification and heat and moisture exchanger showed similar tolerance and side-effects, but a higher number of patients decided to continue long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation with heated humidification. Further larger studies are required in order to confirm these findings.

  13. Randomized cross-over trial of ventilator modes during non-invasive ventilation titration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, Bart; Buyse, Bertien; Belge, Catharina; Vanpee, Goele; Van Damme, Philip; Testelmans, Dries

    2017-08-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival, quality of life and sleep in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nevertheless, NIV titration is conducted in different ways. We aim to provide more insight into NIV titration by comparing the effects of a spontaneous (S) and spontaneous-timed (ST) modes on gas exchange, sleep architecture and patient-ventilator asynchronies (PVAs). After an initial night of NIV titration, patients were randomized to S or ST mode in a cross-over design. NIV was titrated using polysomnography, oximetry (oxygen saturation, SpO 2 %) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO 2 ) measurement. PVAs were analysed breath-by-breath. Thirteen patients were analysed after inclusion. ST mode showed better results in gas exchange (minimal SpO 2 %: 83 (80-89)% vs 87 (84-89)%; oxygen desaturation index: 15 (5-28)/h sleep vs 7 (3-9)/h sleep; PtcCO 2 >55 mm Hg: 20 (0-59)% vs 0 (0-27)% total sleep time for S and ST mode, respectively, all P < 0.05) and respiratory events (obstructive: 8.9 (1.2-18.3)/h sleep vs 1.8 (0.3-4.9)/h sleep and central: 2.6 (0.4-14.1)/h sleep vs 0.2 (0.0-1.1)/h sleep for S and ST mode, respectively, both P < 0.01). No differences in sleep architecture were found. Ineffective efforts and respiratory events were more frequently present in S mode. Nevertheless, four patients were discharged on S mode as these patients showed clinically better results for sleep architecture and PVA during the night on S mode. ST mode shows better results in gas exchange, respiratory events and PVA. Nevertheless, accurate NIV titration remains necessary as some patients show equal or better results when using the S mode. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Mask pressure effects on the nasal bridge during short-term noninvasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Anne-Kathrin; Pickersgill, Rachel; Moghal, Mohammad; Morrell, Mary J.; Simonds, Anita K.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different masks, ventilator settings and body positions on the pressure exerted on the nasal bridge by the mask and subjective comfort during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We measured the pressure over the nasal bridge in 20 healthy participants receiving NIV via four different NIV masks (three oronasal masks, one nasal mask) at three different ventilator settings and in the seated or supine position. Objective pressure measurements were obtained with an I-Scan pressure-mapping system. Subjective comfort of the mask fit was assessed with a visual analogue scale. The masks exerted mean pressures between 47.6±29 mmHg and 91.9±42.4 mmHg on the nasal bridge. In the supine position, the pressure was lower in all masks (57.1±31.9 mmHg supine, 63.9±37.3 mmHg seated; p<0.001). With oronasal masks, a change of inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) did not influence the objective pressure over the nasal bridge. Subjective discomfort was associated with higher IPAP and positively correlated with the pressure on the skin. Objective measurement of pressure on the skin during mask fitting might be helpful for mask selection. Mask fitting in the supine position should be considered in the clinical routine. PMID:29637077

  15. Successful management of drug-induced hypercapnic acidosis with naloxone and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Agrafiotis, Michalis; Tryfon, Stavros; Siopi, Demetra; Chassapidou, Georgia; Galanou, Artemis; Tsara, Venetia

    2015-02-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to deteriorating level of consciousness and desaturation. His Glasgow Coma Scale was 6, and his pupils were constricted but responded to light. Chest radiograph was negative for significant findings. Arterial blood gas evaluation on supplemental oxygen revealed severe acute on chronic respiratory acidosis: pH 7.15; PCO2, 133 mm Hg; PO2,64 mm Hg; and HCO3, 31 mmol/L. He regained full consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale, 15) after receiving a 0.4 mg dose of naloxone, but because of persistent severe respiratory acidosis (pH 7.21; PCO2, 105 mm Hg), he was immediately commenced on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) displaying a remarkable improvement in arterial blood gas values within the next few hours. However, in the days that followed, he remained dependent on NIV, and he was finally discharged on a home mechanical ventilation prescription. In cases of drug-induced respiratory depression, NIV should be regarded as an acceptable treatment, as it can provide ventilatory support without the increased risks associated with invasive mechanical ventilation.

  16. In-vitro characterisation of the nebulised dose during non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E; Plant, Paul; Chrystyn, Henry

    2010-08-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with nebulised bronchodilators helps some patients to maintain effective ventilation. However, the position of the nebuliser in the ventilation circuit may affect lung delivery. We placed the nebuliser proximal (A) and distal (B) to a breathing simulator in a standard NIV circuit with inspiratory (I) and expiratory (E) pressures of 20 and 5 cm H(2)O, 1 : 3 I : E ratio, 15 breaths/min and a tidal volume of 500 ml. Five milligrams of terbutaline solution was nebulised using an Aeroneb Pro (AERO) and a Sidestream (SIDE) nebuliser. The fate of the nebulised dose was determined and the aerodynamic droplet characteristics were measured using a cooled Next Generation Impactor. More terbutaline was entrained on the inhalation filter in position A than in position B (P < 0.001) for both nebulisers. These amounts were greater (P < 0.001) for AERO than SIDE due to a smaller (P < 0.001) residual volume. The mean (SD) fine particle doses for AEROA, AEROB, SIDEA and SIDEB were 1.31 (0.2), 1.13 (0.14), 0.56 (0.03) and 0.39 (0.13) mg. These amounts from AEROA were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those of the other three methods. The results highlight the differences between nebulisers and the influence on the placement of the nebuliser in the NIV circuit.

  17. Non-invasive ventilation for cancer patients with life-support techniques limitation.

    PubMed

    Meert, Anne-Pascale; Berghmans, Thierry; Hardy, Michel; Markiewicz, Eveline; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the usefulness and efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in cancer patients with "life-support techniques limitation" admitted for an acute respiratory distress, in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital discharges. A total of 18 consecutive cancer patients (17 with solid tumours and one with haematological malignancy) with "life-support techniques limitation" in acute respiratory failure and who benefited from NIV were included. NIV was provided with a standard face mask by the BiPAP Vision ventilator (Respironics Inc.). Variables related to the demographic parameters, SAPS II score, cancer characteristics, intensive care data and hospital discharge were recorded. Complications leading to NIV were hypoxemic respiratory failure in 11 patients and hypercapnic respiratory failure in seven. Total median duration of NIV was 29 h. NIV was applied during a median of 2.5 days with a median of 16 h per day. Total median ICU stay was 7 days (range 1-21). Fourteen and ten patients were discharged from ICU and from hospital, respectively. NIV appears to be an effective ventilation support for cancer patients with "life-support techniques limitation".

  18. Use of volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Abad, Montserrat; Brown, John Edward

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in which most patients die of respiratory failure. Although volume-targeted non-invasive bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) ventilation has been studied in patients with chronic respiratory failure of various etiologies, its use in ALS has not been reported. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman with ALS and respiratory failure treated with volume-targeted BPAP ventilation for 15 weeks. Weekly data downloads showed that disease progression was associated with increased respiratory muscle weakness, decreased spontaneous breathing, and increased use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, whereas tidal volume and minute ventilation remained relatively constant. PMID:25210968

  19. Effect of prophylactic non-invasive mechanical ventilation on functional capacity after heart valve replacement: a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo-Filho, Amaro Afrânio; de Cerqueira-Neto, Manoel Luiz; de Assis Pereira Cacau, Lucas; Oliveira, Géssica Uruga; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; de Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During cardiac surgery, several factors contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Non-invasive ventilation is a promising therapeutic tool for improving the functionality of this type of patient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functional capacity and length of stay of patients in a nosocomial intensive care unit who underwent prophylactic non-invasive ventilation after heart valve replacement. METHOD: The study was a controlled clinical trial, comprising 50 individuals of both sexes who were allocated by randomization into two groups with 25 patients in each group: the control group and experimental group. After surgery, the patients were transferred to the intensive care unit and then participated in standard physical therapy, which was provided to the experimental group after 3 applications of non-invasive ventilation within the first 26 hours after extubation. For non-invasive ventilation, the positive pressure was 10 cm H2O, with a duration of 1 hour. The evaluation was performed on the 7th postoperative day/discharge and included a 6-minute walk test. The intensive care unit and hospitalization times were monitored in both groups. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (REBeC): RBR number 8bxdd3. RESULTS: Analysis of the 6-minute walk test showed that the control group walked an average distance of 264.34±76 meters and the experimental group walked an average distance of 334.07±71 meters (p=0.002). The intensive care unit and hospitalization times did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Non-invasive ventilation as a therapeutic resource was effective toward improving functionality; however, non-invasive ventilation did not influence the intensive care unit or hospitalization times of the studied cardiac patients. PMID:29160424

  20. A new horizon for the use of non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carron, Michele

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIV, compared with standard medical therapy, improves survival and reduces complications in selected patients with ARF. NIV represents the first-line intervention for some forms of ARF, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The use of NIV is also well supported for immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for infectious complications from endotracheal intubation. Selection of appropriate patients is crucial for optimizing NIV success rates. Appropriate ventilator settings, a well-fitting and comfortable interface, and a team skilled and experienced in managing NIV are key components to its success. In a recent issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association , Patel et al . reported the results of their single-center trial of 83 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who were randomly assigned to NIV delivered via a helmet or face mask. Patients assigned to the helmet group exhibited a significantly lower intubation rate and were more likely to survive through 90 days. This perspective reviews the findings of this trial in the context of current clinical practice and in light of data from the literature focused on the potential reasons for success of NIV delivered through a helmet compared to face mask. The implications for early management of patients with ARDS are likewise discussed.

  1. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Long-term outcome and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Ojeda Castillejo, Elena; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar; López Martin, Soledad; Resano Barrios, Pilar; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Paula; Morán Caicedo, Liliana; Bellón Cano, José María; Rodriguez Gonzalez-Moro, José Miguel

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is associated with 2 closely related respiratory diseases: obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). It has been shown that noninvasive ventilation during sleep produces clinical and functional improvement in these patients. The long-term survival rate with this treatment, and the difference in clinical progress in OHS patients with and without OSAHS are analyzed. Longitudinal, observational study with a cohort of patients diagnosed with OHS, included in a home ventilation program over a period of 12 years, divided into 2 groups: pure OHS and OSAHS-associated OHS. Bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation was administered. During the follow-up period, symptoms, exacerbations and hospitalizations, blood gas tests and pulmonary function tests, and survival rates were monitored and compared. Eighty-three patients were eligible for analysis, 60 women (72.3%) and 23 men (27.7%), with a mean survival time of 8.47 years. Fifty patients (60.2%) were included in the group without OSAHS (OHS) and 33 (39.8%) in the OSAHS-associated OHS group (OHS-OSAHS). PaCO₂ in the OHS group was significantly higher than in the OHS-OSAHS group (P<.01). OHS patients also had a higher hospitalization rate (P<.05). There was a significant improvement in both groups in FEV₁ and FVC, and no differences between groups in PaCO₂ and PaO₂ values. There were no differences in mortality between the 2 groups, but low FVC values were predictive of mortality. The use of mechanical ventilation in patients with OHS, with or without OSAHS, is an effective treatment for the correction of blood gases and functional alterations and can achieve prolonged survival rates. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness and predictors of success of noninvasive ventilation during H1N1 pandemics: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, A; Tonveronachi, E; Navalesi, P; Antonelli, M; Valentini, I; Melotti, R M; Pigna, A; Carrassi, A; Righini, P; Ferrari Bravo, M; Pelosi, P; Nicoli, F; Cosentini, R; Vaschetto, R; Faenza, S; Nava, S

    2012-12-01

    The use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) due to H1N1 virus infection is controversial. In this multicenter study we aimed to assess the efficacy of NIV in avoiding endotracheal intubation (ETI) and to identify predictors of success or failure. In this prospective multicenter study, 98 patients with new pulmonary infiltrate(s) sustained by H1N1 virus and a PaO(2)/FiO2<300 were eligible for study; 38/98 required immediate ETI, while the others received NIV as a first line therapy; 13/60 patients failed NIV and were intubated after 5.8+5.5 hours from enrolment. The remaining 47/60 patients were successfully ventilated with NIV. Hospital mortality was significantly higher in those patients who failed NIV vs. those who succeeded (53.8% vs. 2.1%; OR=0.52, P<0.001). ETI was associated with higher number of infectious complications, mainly sepsis and septic shock. The OR of having one of these events in the NIV failure group vs. NIV success was 16.7, P<0.001. According to logistic regression model, a SAPS II>29 and a PaO(2)/FIO(2)≤127 at admission and PaO2/FIO(2)≤149 after 1 hr of NIV were independently associated with the need for ETI. The early application of NIV, with the aim to avoid invasive ventilation, during the H1N1 pandemics was associated with an overall success rate of 47/98 (48%). Patients presenting at admission with an high SAPS II score and a low PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio and/or unable to promptly correct gas exchange are at high risk of intubation and mortality.

  3. [Amyotrophic neuralgia associated with bilateral phrenic paralysis treated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    García García, María Del Carmen; Hernández Borge, Jacinto; Antona Rodríguez, María José; Pires Gonçalves, Pedro; García García, Gema

    2015-09-07

    Amyotrophic neuralgia is an uncommon neuropathy characterized by severe unilateral shoulder pain. Isolated or concomitant involvement of other peripheral motor nerves depending on the brachial plexus such as phrenic or laryngeal nerves is unusual(1). Its etiology is unknown, yet several explanatory factors have been proposed. Phrenic nerve involvement, either unilateral or bilateral, is exceedingly rare. Diagnosis relies on anamnesis, functional and imaging investigations and electromyogram. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a past history of renal transplantation due to proliferative glomerulonephritis with subsequent transplant rejection, who was eventually diagnosed with amyotrophic neuralgia with bilateral phrenic involvement, and who required sustained non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in Critically Ill Trauma Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Fatma; Ferrari, Giovanni; Antonelli, Andrea; Delis, Pablo Bayoumy; Gündüz, Murat; Karcz, Marcin; Papadakos, Peter; Cosentini, Roberto; Dikmen, Yalım; Esquinas, Antonio M.

    2018-01-01

    There is limited literature on non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) in patients with polytrauma-related acute respiratory failure (ARF). Despite an increasing worldwide application, there is still scarce evidence of significant NIMV benefits in this specific setting, and no clear recommendations are provided. We performed a systematic review, and a search of clinical databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted from the beginning of 1990 until today. Although the benefits in reducing the intubation rate, morbidity and mortality are unclear, NIMV may be useful and does not appear to be associated with harm when applied in properly selected patients with moderate ARF at an earlier stage of injury by experienced teams and in appropriate settings under strict monitoring. In the presence of these criteria, NIMV is worth attempting, but only if endotracheal intubation is promptly available because non-responders to NIMV are burdened by an increased mortality when intubation is delayed. PMID:29744242

  5. [Aerophagia due to noninvasive mechanical ventilation: a first manifestation of silent gastric carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mayoralas Alises, S; Gómez Mendieta, M A; Díaz Lobato, S

    2003-07-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) techniques have proven useful in treating patients with respiratory insufficiency of various etiologies. The problems most frequently associated with this ventilatory technique are the appearance of nasal and oropharyngeal dryness, pressure sores where the nasal mask touches the skin, ocular irritation due to air leakage and epistaxis. Aerophagia appears in up to half the patients with NIV and may lead to discontinuing treatment. Drugs that accelerate gastrointestinal transit, changes in the respirator settings or changing the ventilatory modality may help to ameliorate the problem. When the symptoms arising from abdominal distension due to NIV are intense and persistent, the coexistence of an underlying abdominal pathology must be ruled out. We report the cases of two patients with these characteristics in whom gastroscopy revealed gastric carcinoma. We think that patients with persistent symptoms of aerophagia that cannot be controlled by the usual measures should undergo endoscopic exploration to rule out silent gastric disease.

  6. Hypoxic events and concomitant factors in preterm infants on non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, Omid Sadeghi; Gale, Timothy; Wheeler, Kevin; Plottier, Gemma; Owen, Louise S; Olivier, J C; Dargaville, Peter A

    2017-04-01

    Automated control of inspired oxygen for newborn infants is an emerging technology, currently limited by reliance on a single input signal (oxygen saturation, SpO 2 ). This is while other signals that may herald the onset of hypoxic events or identify spurious hypoxia are not usually utilised. We wished to assess the frequency of apnoea, loss of circuit pressure and/or motion artefact in proximity to hypoxic events in preterm infants on non-invasive ventilation. Hypoxic events (SpO 2  < 80 %) were identified using a previously acquired dataset obtained from preterm infants receiving non-invasive ventilation. Events with concomitant apnoea, loss of circuit pressure or oximetry motion artefact were annotated, and the frequency of each of these factors was determined. The effect of duration and timing of apnoea on the characteristics of the associated hypoxic events was studied. Among 1224 hypoxic events, 555 (45 %) were accompanied by apnoea, 31 (2.5 %) by loss of circuit pressure and 696 (57 %) by motion artefact, while for 224 (18 %) there were no concomitant factors identified. Respiratory pauses of longer duration (>15 s) preceding hypoxic events, were associated with a relatively slow decline in SpO 2 and more prolonged hypoxia compared to shorter pauses. Hypoxic events are frequently accompanied by respiratory pauses and/or motion artefact. Real-time monitoring and input of respiratory waveform may thus improve the function of automated oxygen controllers, allowing pre-emptive responses to respiratory pauses. Furthermore, use of motion-resistant oximeters and plethysmographic waveform assessment procedures will help to optimise feedback control of inspired oxygen delivery.

  7. Risk Factors for Noninvasive Ventilation Failure in Critically Ill Subjects With Confirmed Influenza Infection.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Ferri, Cristina; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Díaz, Emili; Masclans, Joan R; Gordo, Federico; Sole-Violán, Jordi; Bodí, María; Avilés-Jurado, Francesc X; Trefler, Sandra; Magret, Monica; Moreno, Gerard; Reyes, Luis F; Marin-Corral, Judith; Yebenes, Juan C; Esteban, Andres; Anzueto, Antonio; Aliberti, Stefano; Restrepo, Marcos I

    2017-10-01

    Despite wide use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in several clinical settings, the beneficial effects of NIV in patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to influenza infection remain controversial. The aim of this study was to identify the profile of patients with risk factors for NIV failure using chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analysis and to determine whether NIV failure is associated with ICU mortality. This work was a secondary analysis from prospective and observational multi-center analysis in critically ill subjects admitted to the ICU with ARF due to influenza infection requiring mechanical ventilation. Three groups of subjects were compared: (1) subjects who received NIV immediately after ICU admission for ARF and then failed (NIV failure group); (2) subjects who received NIV immediately after ICU admission for ARF and then succeeded (NIV success group); and (3) subjects who received invasive mechanical ventilation immediately after ICU admission for ARF (invasive mechanical ventilation group). Profiles of subjects with risk factors for NIV failure were obtained using CHAID analysis. Of 1,898 subjects, 806 underwent NIV, and 56.8% of them failed. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, infiltrates in chest radiograph, and ICU mortality (38.4% vs 6.3%) were higher ( P < .001) in the NIV failure than in the NIV success group. SOFA score was the variable most associated with NIV failure, and 2 cutoffs were determined. Subjects with SOFA ≥ 5 had a higher risk of NIV failure (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.5). ICU mortality was higher in subjects with NIV failure (38.4%) compared with invasive mechanical ventilation subjects (31.3%, P = .018), and NIV failure was associated with increased ICU mortality (odds ratio = 11.4, 95% CI 6.5-20.1). An automatic and non-subjective algorithm based on CHAID decision-tree analysis can help to define the

  8. Clinical review: Humidifiers during non-invasive ventilation - key topics and practical implications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate gas conditioning during non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can impair the anatomy and function of nasal mucosa. The resulting symptoms may have a negative effect on patients' adherence to ventilatory treatment, especially for chronic use. Several parameters, mostly technical aspects of NIV, contribute to inefficient gas conditioning. Factors affecting airway humidity during NIV include inspiratory flow, inspiratory oxygen fraction, leaks, type of ventilator, interface used to deliver NIV, temperature and pressure of inhaled gas, and type of humidifier. The correct application of a humidification system may avoid the effects of NIV-induced drying of the airway. This brief review analyses the consequences of airway dryness in patients receiving NIV and the technical tools necessary to guarantee adequate gas conditioning during ventilatory treatment. Open questions remain about the timing of gas conditioning for acute or chronic settings, the choice and type of humidification device, the interaction between the humidifier and the underlying disease, and the effects of individual humidification systems on delivered humidity. PMID:22316078

  9. Influence of humidification on comfort during noninvasive ventilation with a helmet.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Kazuyoshi; Tomita, Toshiji; Uchiyama, Akinori; Ohta, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Naoya; Goto, Yukiko; Fujino, Yuji

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate optimal humidifier water temperature when using a helmet for noninvasive ventilation. Twenty-eight healthy individuals underwent 8 cm H2O CPAP ventilation with FIO2 of 0.21 and 0.5. Each was sequentially tested in the following order: using the helmet without humidification at ambient temperature; with humidification with unheated chamber water; and with humidification with the chamber water at 31°C, 34°C, and 37°C. At each setting, after a 20 min stabilization period, measurements were taken. Comfort level at each setting was evaluated using a visual analog scale rated zero (least comfortable) to 10 (most comfortable). Temperature and relative and absolute humidity inside the helmet increased; however, the comfort scores significantly decreased as the humidification chamber water temperature increased. Regardless of the FIO2, statistically significantly highest comfort scores were obtained when humidification water, with and without active humidification, was at ambient temperature. Unacceptable absolute humidity was obtained only without humidification at room temperature when FIO2 was 0.5. With the clinical use of a helmet, for patient comfort and mucosal humidification during CPAP, the most desirable conditions are likely to be obtained by humidifying without heating, that is by leaving the water in the humidifier chamber at room temperature.

  10. Exhaled air dispersion during noninvasive ventilation via helmets and a total facemask.

    PubMed

    Hui, David S; Chow, Benny K; Lo, Thomas; Ng, Susanna S; Ko, Fanny W; Gin, Tony; Chan, Matthew T V

    2015-05-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) via helmet or total facemask is an option for managing patients with respiratory infections in respiratory failure. However, the risk of nosocomial infection is unknown. We examined exhaled air dispersion during NIV using a human patient simulator reclined at 45° in a negative pressure room with 12 air changes/h by two different helmets via a ventilator and a total facemask via a bilevel positive airway pressure device. Exhaled air was marked by intrapulmonary smoke particles, illuminated by laser light sheet, and captured by a video camera for data analysis. Significant exposure was defined as where there was ≥ 20% of normalized smoke concentration. During NIV via a helmet with the simulator programmed in mild lung injury, exhaled air leaked through the neck-helmet interface with a radial distance of 150 to 230 mm when inspiratory positive airway pressure was increased from 12 to 20 cm H2O, respectively, while keeping the expiratory pressure at 10 cm H2O. During NIV via a helmet with air cushion around the neck, there was negligible air leakage. During NIV via a total facemask for mild lung injury, air leaked through the exhalation port to 618 and 812 mm when inspiratory pressure was increased from 10 to 18 cm H2O, respectively, with the expiratory pressure at 5 cm H2O. A helmet with a good seal around the neck is needed to prevent nosocomial infection during NIV for patients with respiratory infections.

  11. Domiciliary Non-invasive Ventilation in COPD: An International Survey of Indications and Practices.

    PubMed

    Crimi, Claudia; Noto, Alberto; Princi, Pietro; Cuvelier, Antoine; Masa, Juan F; Simonds, Anita; Elliott, Mark W; Wijkstra, Peter; Windisch, Wolfram; Nava, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that metanalyses and clinical guidelines do not recommend the routine use of domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for patients diagnosed with severe stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and with chronic respiratory failure, it is common practice in some countries. We conducted an international web-survey of physicians involved in provision of long-term NIV to examine patterns of domiciliary NIV use in patients diagnosed with COPD. The response rate was 41.6%. A reduction of hospital admissions, improvements in quality of life and dyspnea relief were considered as the main expected benefits for patients. Nocturnal oxygen saturation assessment was the principal procedure performed before NIV prescription. Recurrent exacerbations (>3) requiring NIV and failed weaning from in hospital NIV were the most important reasons for starting domiciliary NIV. Pressure support ventilation (PSV) was the most common mode, with "low" intensity settings (PSV-low) the most popular (44.4 ± 30.1%) compared with "high" intensity (PSV-high) strategies (26.9 ± 25.9%), with different geographical preferences. COPD is confirmed to be a common indication for domiciliary NIV. Recurrent exacerbations and failed weaning from in-hospital NIV were the main reasons for its prescription.

  12. Tolerance of Volume Control Noninvasive Ventilation in Subjects With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Daniel; Sancho, Jesús; Servera, Emilio; Marín, Julio

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) tolerance has been identified as an independent predictor of survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Volume control continuous mandatory ventilation (VC-CMV) NIV has been associated with poor tolerance. The aim of this study was to determine the tolerance of subjects with ALS to VC-CMV NIV. This was a prospective study involving subjects with ALS who were treated with VC-CMV NIV. Respiratory and functional parameters were recorded when the subjects began ventilatory support. NIV tolerance was evaluated after 3 months. Eighty-seven subjects with ALS were included. After 3 months, 80 subjects (92%) remained tolerant of NIV. Tolerant subjects presented greater survival (median 22.0 months, 95% CI 14.78-29.21) than intolerant subjects (median 6.0 months, 95% CI 0.86-11.13) (P = .03). The variables that best predicted NIV tolerance were mechanically assisted cough peak flow (P = .01) and percentage of time spent with SpO2 < 90% at night while on NIV (P = .03) CONCLUSIONS: VC-CMV NIV provides high rates of NIV tolerance in subjects with ALS. Mechanically assisted cough peak flow and percentage of time spent with SpO2 < 90% at night while using NIV are the 2 factors associated with tolerance of VC-CMV NIV in subjects with ALS. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the interplay with exercise and noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Carilho, Rita; de Carvalho, Mamede; Swash, Michael; Pinto, Susana; Pinto, Anabela; Costa, Júlia

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with reference to the effects of respiratory failure, noninvasive ventilation (NIV), and exercise. We studied plasma VEGF levels in 83 ALS patients, 20 healthy controls, and 10 patients with other disorders. There were 4 groups of ALS patients: G1, 27 patients without respiratory problems; G2, 14 patients stabilized on nocturnal NIV; G3, 30 patients presenting with respiratory failure; G4, 12 patients on an aerobic exercise protocol. VEGF plasma levels did not differ significantly between ALS patients and controls, or between ALS groups. In G3, the mean VEGF levels increased 75% during NIV. In G4, the mean VEGF level increased by 300% during the exercise program. VEGF levels did not change during the course of the disease. VEGF levels in ALS depend on changes in ventilation and exercise but are probably not affected by the disease process itself. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Noninvasive and invasive ventilation and enteral nutrition for ALS in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fini, Nicola; Georgoulopoulou, Eleni; Vinceti, Marco; Monelli, Marco; Pinelli, Giovanni; Vacondio, Paolo; Giovannini, Michele; Dallari, Rossano; Marudi, Andrea; Mandrioli, Jessica

    2014-10-01

    We performed a population-based study to assess amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) survival after noninvasive ventilation (NIV), invasive ventilation (IV), and enteral nutrition (EN). We included patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 in Modena, where a prospective registry and a Motor Neuron Diseases Centre have been active since 2000. Of the 193 incident cases, 47.7% received NIV, 24.3% received tracheostomy, and 49.2% received EN. A total of 10.4% of the patients refused NIV, 31.6% refused IV, and 8.7% refused EN. The median survival times after NIV, IV, and EN were 15, 19, and 9 months, respectively. Of the tracheostomized patients, 79.7% were discharged from the hospital; 73.0% were discharged to home. The median survival times for tracheostomized patients who were cared for at home and in nursing homes were 43 and 2 months, respectively. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the place of discharge was the only independent prognostic factor after IV (P<0.01). Service organizations may promote adherence to NIV, IV, EN, and influence postprocedure survival. These data may be useful in defining health plans regarding advanced ALS care and in patient counseling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Changing use of noninvasive ventilation in critically ill patients: trends over 15 years in francophone countries.

    PubMed

    Demoule, Alexandre; Chevret, Sylvie; Carlucci, Annalisa; Kouatchet, Achille; Jaber, Samir; Meziani, Ferhat; Schmidt, Matthieu; Schnell, David; Clergue, Céline; Aboab, Jérôme; Rabbat, Antoine; Eon, Béatrice; Guérin, Claude; Georges, Hugues; Zuber, Benjamin; Dellamonica, Jean; Das, Vincent; Cousson, Joël; Perez, Didier; Brochard, Laurent; Azoulay, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been proposed in various causes of acute respiratory failure (ARF) but some indications are debated. Current trends in NIV use are unknown. Comparison of three multicenter prospective audits including all patients receiving mechanical ventilation and conducted in 1997, 2002, and 2011 in francophone countries. Among the 4132 patients enrolled, 2094 (51%) required ventilatory support for ARF and 2038 (49 %) for non-respiratory conditions. Overall NIV use was markedly increased in 2010/11 compared to 1997 and 2002 (37% of mechanically ventilated patients vs. 16% and 28%, P < 0.05). In 2010/11, the use of first-line NIV for ARF had reached a plateau (24% vs. 16% and 23%, P < 0.05) whereas pre-ICU and post-extubation NIV had substantially increased (11% vs. 4% and 11% vs. 7%, respectively, P < 0.05). First-line NIV remained stable in acute-on-chronic RF, continued to increase in cardiogenic pulmonary edema, but decreased in de novo ARF (16% in 2010/11 vs. 23% in 2002, P < 0.05). The NIV success rate increased from 56% in 2002 to 70% in 2010/11 and remained the lowest in de novo ARF. NIV failure in de novo ARF was associated with increased mortality in 2002 but not in 2010/11. Mortality decreased over time, and overall, NIV use was associated with a lower mortality. Increases in NIV use and success rate, an overall decrease in mortality, and a decrease of the adverse impact NIV failure has in de novo ARF suggest better patient selection and greater proficiency of staff in administering NIV. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01449331.

  16. Polygraphic respiratory events during sleep with noninvasive ventilation in children: description, prevalence, and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Caldarelli, Valeria; Borel, Jean Christian; Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Cutrera, Renato; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    The optimal monitoring during sleep with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) has not been validated in children. The aim of the study was to describe on polygraphic (PG) recordings the respiratory events and associated autonomic arousals (AA) and/or 3 % desaturations (DS3%) during nocturnal NPPV. This was a prospective descriptive study performed in the pulmonology unit of a pediatric university hospital. Consecutive patients admitted for routine follow-up of long-term NPPV were enrolled. Nocturnal PG during sleep with NPPV was performed. A second PG was performed after adjustment of the ventilatory settings when a respiratory event occurred more than 50 times/h. The PG tracings of 39 patients (age range 1-18 years) were analyzed. Underlying diagnoses included neuromuscular disease (n = 13), obstructive sleep apnea (n = 15), and lung disease (n = 11). Unintentional leaks, patient-ventilator asynchronies, decrease in ventilatory drive, upper airway obstruction with or without reduction of ventilatory drive, and mixed events were observed in 27, 33, 10, 11, 12, and 3 % of the patients, respectively. A predominant respiratory event was observed in all patients. The mean duration spent with respiratory events was 32 ± 30 % (range 3-96 %) of total recording time. Unintentional leaks were the most frequently associated with AA, whereas patient-ventilator asynchronies were rarely associated with AA or DS3%. In eight re-evaluated patients, a decrease in the main event was observed (p = 0.005). Respiratory events during sleep with NPPV are common in children treated with long-term NPPV. Consequences of respiratory events vary according to the type of event with unintentional leaks being associated preferentially with AA.

  17. Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Esquinas Rodriguez, Antonio M; Papadakos, Peter J; Carron, Michele; Cosentini, Roberto; Chiumello, Davide

    2013-04-25

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO₂ rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.

  18. Enteral Nutrition Is a Risk Factor for Airway Complications in Subjects Undergoing Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Kogo, Mariko; Nagata, Kazuma; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ito, Jiro; Sato, Yuki; Teraoka, Shunsuke; Fujimoto, Daichi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Tomii, Keisuke

    2017-04-01

    Early enteral nutrition is recommended for mechanically ventilated patients in several studies and guidelines. In contrast, the effects of early enteral nutrition on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) have not been investigated extensively. The lack of an established method of airway protection suggests that enteral nutrition administration to these patients could increase airway complications and worsen outcomes. Between January 2007 and January 2015, 150 patients were admitted to our respiratory department for acute respiratory failure and received NIV for >48 h. Of these, 107 subjects incapable of oral intake were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical background and complications were compared in subjects who did and did not receive enteral nutrition. Sixty of the 107 subjects (56%) incapable of oral intake who received NIV also received enteral nutrition. Serum albumin concentration was significantly lower in subjects who received enteral nutrition than in those who did not (mean 2.7 ± 0.68 mg/dL vs 3.0 ± 0.75 mg/dL, P = .048). The rate of airway complications was significantly higher (53% [32/60] vs 32% [15/47], P = .03), and median NIV duration was significantly longer (16 [interquartile range 7-43] d vs 8 [5-20] d, P = .02) in subjects who received enteral nutrition than in those who did not. Multivariate analysis showed that enteral nutrition was unrelated to in-hospital mortality. Among subjects receiving NIV, enteral nutrition was associated with increased risk of airway complications but did not affect mortality. Enteral nutrition should be carefully considered in these patients. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tilanus, T B M; Groothuis, J T; TenBroek-Pastoor, J M C; Feuth, T B; Heijdra, Y F; Slenders, J P L; Doorduin, J; Van Engelen, B G; Kampelmacher, M J; Raaphorst, J

    2017-07-25

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown which respiratory function test predicts an appropriate timing of the initiation of NIV. We analysed, retrospectively, serial data of five respiratory function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC), peak cough flow (PCF), maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) in patients with ALS. Patients who had had at least one assessment of respiratory function and one visit at the HVS, were included. Our aim was to detect the test with the highest predictive value for the need for elective NIV in the following 3 months. We analysed time curves, currently used cut-off values for referral, and respiratory function test results between 'NIV indication' and 'no-NIV indication' patients. One hundred ten patients with ALS were included of whom 87 received an NIV indication; 11.5% had one assessment before receiving an NIV indication, 88.5% had two or more assessments. The NIV indication was based on complaints of hypoventilation and/or proven (nocturnal) hypercapnia. The five respiratory function tests showed a descending trend during disease progression, where SNIP showed the greatest decline within the latest 3 months before NIV indication (mean = -22%). PCF at the time of referral to the HVS significantly discriminated between the groups 'NIV-indication' and 'no NIV-indication yet' patients at the first HVS visit: 259 (±92) vs. 348 (±137) L/min, p = 0.019. PCF and SNIP showed the best predictive characteristics in terms of sensitivity. SNIP showed the greatest decline prior to NIV indication and PCF significantly differentiated 'NIV-indication' from 'no NIV-indication yet' patients with ALS. Currently used cut-off values might be

  20. Noninvasive ventilation in the event of acute respiratory failure in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Andrea; Arcaro, Giovanna; Battistella, Laura; Pipitone, Emanuela; Vio, Stefania; Concas, Alessandra; Paladini, Luciana; Gallan, Federico; Marchi, Maria Rita; Tona, Francesco; Iliceto, Sabino

    2014-08-01

    Some patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) develop severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and ventilatory support. A limited number of observational studies have reported that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) can be an effective treatment to support breathing and to prevent use of invasive mechanical ventilation in these patients. This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the clinical status and outcomes in IPF patients receiving NIV for ARF and to identify those clinical and laboratory characteristics, which could be considered risk factors for its failure. This is a retrospective analysis of short-term outcomes in 18 IPF patients being administered NIV for ARF. This study was conducted in a 4-bed respiratory ICU (RICU) in a university hospital. Eighteen IPF patients who were administered NIV between January 1, 2005, and April 30, 2013, were included. The outcome measures are the need for endotracheal intubation despite NIV treatment and mortality rate during their RICU stay. The length of the patients' stay in the RICU and their survival rate following RICU admission were also evaluated. Noninvasive ventilation was successful in 8 patients and unsuccessful in 10 who required endotracheal intubation. All the patients in the NIV failure group died within 20.2±15.3 days of intubation. The patients in the NIV success group spent fewer days in the RICU (11.6±4.5 vs 24.6±13.7; P=.0146). The median survival time was significantly shorter for the patients in the NIV failure with respect to the success group (18.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 9.0-25.0] vs 90.0 [95% CI, 65.0-305.0] days; P<.0001); the survival rate at 90 days was, likewise, lower in the NIV failure group (0% vs 34%±19.5%). At admission, the patients in the failure group had significantly higher respiratory rate values (36.9±7.8 vs 30.5±3.3 breaths/min; P=.036), plasma N-terminal fragment of the prohormone of B-type natriuretic

  1. Noninvasive Cardiac Output Estimation by Inert Gas Rebreathing in Mechanically Ventilated Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Perak, Amanda M; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Walsh, Brian K; Esch, Jesse J; DiNardo, James A; Kussman, Barry D; Porras, Diego; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    To assess the feasibility and accuracy of inert gas rebreathing (IGR) pulmonary blood flow (Qp) estimation in mechanically ventilated pediatric patients, potentially providing real-time noninvasive estimates of cardiac output. In mechanically ventilated patients in the pediatric catheterization laboratory, we compared IGR Qp with Qp estimates based upon the Fick equation using measured oxygen consumption (VO2) (FickTrue); for context, we compared FickTrue with a standard clinical short-cut, replacing measured with assumed VO2 in the Fick equation (FickLaFarge, FickLundell, FickSeckeler). IGR Qp and breath-by-breath VO2 were measured using the Innocor device. Sampled pulmonary arterial and venous saturations and hemoglobin concentration were used for Fick calculations. Qp estimates were compared using Bland-Altman agreement and Spearman correlation. The final analysis included 18 patients aged 4-23 years with weight >15 kg. Compared with the reference FickTrue, IGR Qp estimates correlated best and had the least systematic bias and narrowest 95% limits of agreement (results presented as mean bias ±95% limits of agreement): IGR -0.2 ± 1.1 L/min, r = 0.90; FickLaFarge +0.7 ± 2.2 L/min, r = 0.80; FickLundell +1.6 ± 2.9 L/min, r = 0.83; FickSeckeler +0.8 ± 2.5 L/min, r = 0.83. IGR estimation of Qp is feasible in mechanically ventilated patients weighing >15 kg, and agreement with FickTrue Qp estimates is better for IGR than for other Fick Qp estimates commonly used in pediatric catheterization. IGR is an attractive option for bedside monitoring of Qp in mechanically ventilated children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of carbon dioxide rebreathing during exercise assisted by noninvasive ventilation with plateau exhalation valve

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yong-er; Lin, Zhi-min; Hua, Dong-ming; Jiang, Ying; Huo, Ya-ting; Luo, Qun; Chen, Rong-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation with a plateau exhalation valve (PEV) is often used as an adjunct to exercise to achieve a physiologic training effect in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, during exercise, with the increase of exhalation flow and respiratory rate and limited capability of PEV to exhale gases out of the circuit, it is still unknown whether CO2 rebreathing occurs in COPD patients ventilated during exercise assisted by single-limb circuit with a PEV. A maximal symptom-limited cycle exercise test was performed while ventilated on pressure support (inspiratory:expiratory pressure 14:4 cmH2O) in 18 male patients with stable severe COPD (mean ± standard deviation, forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 29.5%±6.9% predicted). At rest and during exercise, breathing pattern, mean expiratory flow, mean expiratory flow of PEV, and the mean inspiratory fraction of CO2 (tidal fractional concentration of inspired CO2 [FiCO2]) reinsufflated from the circuit was measured for each breath. In comparison with rest, with the significant increase of mean expiratory flow (0.39±0.15 vs 0.82±0.27 L/s), fractional concentration of end-tidal CO2 (2.6%±0.7% vs 5.5%±0.6%), and the significant decrease of mean expiratory flow of PEV (0.41±0.02 vs 0.39±0.03 L/s), tidal FiCO2 significantly increased at peak exercise (0.48%±0.19% vs 1.8%±0.6%) in patients with stable severe COPD. The inflection point of obvious CO2 rebreathing was 0.67±0.09 L/s (95% confidence interval 0.60–0.73 L/s). Ventilated by a single-limb tubing with PEV caused CO2 rebreathing to COPD patients during exercise. Patients with mean expiratory flow >0.60–0.73 L/s may be predisposed to a higher risk of CO2 rebreathing. PMID:28144134

  3. A multicentre randomised controlled trial of the use of continuous positive airway pressure and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the early treatment of patients presenting to the emergency department with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema: the 3CPO trial.

    PubMed

    Gray, A J; Goodacre, S; Newby, D E; Masson, M A; Sampson, F; Dixon, S; Crane, S; Elliott, M; Nicholl, J

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether non-invasive ventilation reduces mortality and whether there are important differences in outcome by treatment modality. Multicentre open prospective randomised controlled trial. Patients presenting with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in 26 emergency departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were age > 16 years, clinical diagnosis of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, pulmonary oedema on chest radiograph, respiratory rate > 20 breaths per minute, and arterial hydrogen ion concentration > 45 nmol/l (pH < 7.35). Patients were randomised to standard oxygen therapy, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (5-15 cmH2O) or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) (inspiratory pressure 8-20 cmH2O, expiratory pressure 4-10 cmH2O) on a 1:1:1 basis for a minimum of 2 hours. The primary end point for the comparison between NIPPV or CPAP and standard therapy was 7-day mortality. The composite primary end point for the comparison of NIPPV and CPAP was 7-day mortality and tracheal intubation rate. Secondary end points were breathlessness, physiological variables, intubation rate, length of hospital stay and critical care admission rate. Economic evaluation took the form of a cost-utility analysis, taken from an NHS (and personal social services) perspective. In total, 1069 patients [mean age 78 (SD 10) years; 43% male] were recruited to standard therapy (n = 367), CPAP [n = 346; mean 10 (SD 4) cmH2O] or NIPPV [n = 356; mean 14 (SD 5)/7 (SD 2) cmH2O]. There was no difference in 7-day mortality for standard oxygen therapy (9.8%) and non-invasive ventilation (9.5%; p = 0.87). The combined end point of 7-day death and intubation rate was similar, irrespective of non-invasive ventilation modality (CPAP 11.7% versus NIPPV 11.1%; p = 0.81). Compared with standard therapy, non-invasive ventilation was associated with greater reductions (treatment difference, 95% confidence intervals) in breathlessness (visual analogue scale score 0.7, 0

  4. Striving for habitual well-being in noninvasive ventilation: a grounded theory study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Dorthe; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Groefte, Thorbjoern; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2014-06-01

    To present a theoretical account of the pattern of behaviour in patients with acute respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease while undergoing noninvasive ventilation in a hospital setting. Strong evidence supports a positive effect of noninvasive ventilation, but successful treatment remains a challenge. Little attention has been given to patient intolerance to noninvasive ventilation as a cause of treatment failure. A better understanding of the patients' patterns of behaviour during noninvasive ventilation may improve treatment success. A constant comparative classic grounded theory study was performed. Data collection consisted of participant observation during the treatment of 21 patients undergoing noninvasive ventilation, followed by interviews with 11 of the patients after treatment completion. Data were collected from December 2009-January 2012. A substantive theory of striving for habitual well-being was developed. The theory included three phases: initiation, transition and determination. Each phase contained a set of subcategories to indicate the dimensions of and variations in the participants' behaviour. The substantive theory revealed that the patients' behaviour was related to their breathlessness, sensation of being restrained by the mask and head gear, and the side effects of noninvasive ventilation. This inter-relationship should be addressed in the use of noninvasive ventilation for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to achieve treatment success. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, BR

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  6. Noninvasive ventilation in a child affected by achondroplasia respiratory difficulty syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, Giancarlo; Villa, Giovanna; Moscatelli, Andrea; Diana, Maria Cristina; Pavanello, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Achondroplasia can result in respiratory difficulty in early infancy, from anatomical abnormalities such as mid-facial hypoplasia and/or adenotonsillar hypertrophy, leading to obstructive apnea, or to pathophysiological changes occurring in nasopharyngeal or glossal muscle tone, related to neurological abnormalities (foramen magnum and/or hypoglossal canal problems, hydrocephalus), leading to central apnea. More often, the two respiratory components (central and obstructive) are both evident in mixed apnea. Polysomnographic recording should be used during preoperative and postoperative assessment of achondroplastic children and in the subsequent follow-up to assess the adequacy of continuing home respiratory support, including supplemental oxygen, bilevel positive airway pressure, or assisted ventilation.

  7. Noninvasive Ventilation of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Insights from the LUNG SAFE Study.

    PubMed

    Bellani, Giacomo; Laffey, John G; Pham, Tài; Madotto, Fabiana; Fan, Eddy; Brochard, Laurent; Esteban, Andres; Gattinoni, Luciano; Bumbasirevic, Vesna; Piquilloud, Lise; van Haren, Frank; Larsson, Anders; McAuley, Daniel F; Bauer, Philippe R; Arabi, Yaseen M; Ranieri, Marco; Antonelli, Massimo; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Wrigge, Hermann; Slutsky, Arthur S; Pesenti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is increasingly used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The evidence supporting NIV use in patients with ARDS remains relatively sparse. To determine whether, during NIV, the categorization of ARDS severity based on the Pa O 2 /Fi O 2 Berlin criteria is useful. The LUNG SAFE (Large Observational Study to Understand the Global Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Failure) study described the management of patients with ARDS. This substudy examines the current practice of NIV use in ARDS, the utility of the Pa O 2 /Fi O 2 ratio in classifying patients receiving NIV, and the impact of NIV on outcome. Of 2,813 patients with ARDS, 436 (15.5%) were managed with NIV on Days 1 and 2 following fulfillment of diagnostic criteria. Classification of ARDS severity based on Pa O 2 /Fi O 2 ratio was associated with an increase in intensity of ventilatory support, NIV failure, and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. NIV failure occurred in 22.2% of mild, 42.3% of moderate, and 47.1% of patients with severe ARDS. Hospital mortality in patients with NIV success and failure was 16.1% and 45.4%, respectively. NIV use was independently associated with increased ICU (hazard ratio, 1.446 [95% confidence interval, 1.159-1.805]), but not hospital, mortality. In a propensity matched analysis, ICU mortality was higher in NIV than invasively ventilated patients with a Pa O 2 /Fi O 2 lower than 150 mm Hg. NIV was used in 15% of patients with ARDS, irrespective of severity category. NIV seems to be associated with higher ICU mortality in patients with a Pa O 2 /Fi O 2 lower than 150 mm Hg. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 02010073).

  8. Role of First-Line Noninvasive Ventilation in Non-COPD Subjects With Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rialp, Gemma; Forteza, Catalina; Muñiz, Daniel; Romero, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in non-COPD patients with pneumonia is controversial due to its high rate of failure and the potentially harmful effects when NIV fails. The purpose of the study was to evaluate outcomes of the first ventilatory treatment applied, NIV or invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), and to identify predictors of NIV failure. Historical cohort study of 159 non-COPD patients with pneumonia admitted to the ICU with ventilatory support. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: invasive MV or NIV. Univariate and multivariate analyses with demographic and clinical data were performed. Analysis of mortality was adjusted for the propensity of receiving first-line invasive MV. One hundred and thirteen subjects received first-line invasive MV and 46 received first-line NIV, of which 27 needed intubation. Hospital mortality was 35, 37 and 56%, respectively, with no significant differences among groups. In the propensity-adjusted analysis (expressed as OR [95% CI]), hospital mortality was associated with age (1.05 [1.02-1.08]), SAPS3 (1.03 [1.00-1.07]), immunosuppression (2.52 [1.02-6.27]) and NIV failure compared to first-line invasive MV (4.3 [1.33-13.94]). Compared with invasive MV, NIV failure delayed intubation (p=.004), and prolonged the length of invasive MV (p=.007) and ICU stay (p=.001). NIV failure was associated with need for vasoactive drugs (OR 7.8 [95% CI, 1.8-33.2], p=.006). In non-COPD subjects with pneumonia, first-line NIV was not associated with better outcome compared with first-line invasive MV. NIV failure was associated with longer duration of MV and hospital stay, and with increased hospital mortality. The use of vasoactive drugs predicted NIV failure. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep related respiratory events during non-invasive ventilation of patients with chronic hypoventilation.

    PubMed

    Aarrestad, Sigurd; Qvarfort, Magnus; Kleiven, Anne Louise; Tollefsen, Elin; Skjønsberg, Ole Henning; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2017-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is increasingly used in the treatment of patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CRF). Residual sleep related respiratory events under NIV such as obstructive or central apnea/hypopnea (AH), or patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA), may compromise treatment efficacy and/or comfort. 1/to quantify the frequency and describe the types of both AH and PVA in a large group of stable patients with CRF during night-time NIV; 2/to analyze the influence of these events on overnight pulse oximetry and transcutaneous CO 2 and 3/to assess interrater agreement in identifying and quantifying AH and PVA. We quantified AH and PVA by performing sleep polygraphy in 67 patients during elective follow-up visits. Traces were scored by two trained physicians. Residual AH were frequent: 34% of the patients had an AH Index >5/hour, with obstructive hypopnea being the most frequent event. In addition, 21% of the patients had PVA >10% of total recording time. No correlation was found between respiratory events and overnight hypercapnia. The intraclass correlation coefficients for scoring AHI and time with PVA were 0.97 (0.94-0.98) and 0.85 (0.75-0.91) respectively. Residual respiratory events are common in patients treated with long term NIV for chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure and can be scored with a very high interobserver agreement. However, these events were not associated with persistent nocturnal hypercapnia; thus, their clinical relevance has yet to be clarified. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV REGISTRATION N°: NCT01845233. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. [Statement of the Association of Pneumological Clinics and the German Respiratory Society on the coding of invasive and non-invasive ventilation in intensity care].

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    Mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory failure represents one of the most important aspects of intensity care. It can be performed invasively and non-invasively depending on the clinical situation and the underlying disease. The expenditure and consumption of resources is the basis of the compensation for each patient case in the German diagnosis related group system. For ventilated patients it is calculated based on the hours of ventilation, according to the standard coding guideline. In this statement, the German Respiratory Society and the Association of Pneumological Clinics aim to clarify some aspects of the coding of invasive and non-invasive ventilation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Non-invasive ventilation after cardiac surgery outside the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Olper, L; Cabrini, L; Landoni, G; Rossodivita, A; Nobile, L; Monti, G; Alfieri, O; Zangrillo, A

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can prevent or treat postoperative acute respiratory failure. NIV after discharge from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has never been described in the setting of cardiac surgery. This study enrolled 85 patients who received NIV in the main ward as treatment for respiratory failure. The patients had the following conditions: atelectasis (45 patients), pleural effusion (20 patients), pulmonary congestion (13 patients), diaphragm hemiparesis (6 patients), pneumonia (4 patients) or a combination of these conditions. Eighty-three patients were discharged from the hospital in good condition and without need for further NIV treatment, while two died in-hospital. Four of the 85 patients had an immediate NIV failure, while eight patients had delayed NIV failure. Only one patient had a NIV-related complication represented by hypotension after NIV institution. In this patient, NIV was interrupted with no consequences. Major mistakes were mask malpositioning with excessive air leaks (7 patients), incorrect preparation of the circuit (one patient), and oxygen tube disconnection (one patient). Minor mistakes (sub-optimal positioning of the face mask without excessive air leaks) were noted by the respiratory therapists for all patients and were managed by slightly modifying the mask position. In our experience, postoperative NIV is feasible, safe and effective in treating postoperative acute respiratory failure when applied in the cardiac surgical ward, preserving intensive care unit beds for surgical activity. A respiratory therapy service managed the treatment in conjunction with ward nurses, while an anesthesiologist and a cardiologist served as consultants.

  12. Systematic review of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for chronic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Liam M; Dominelli, Giulio S; Chen, Yi-Wen; Darlene Reid, W; Road, Jeremy

    2014-02-01

    This systematic review examined the effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on patient reported outcomes (PROs) and survival for individuals with or at risk of chronic respiratory failure (CRF). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomised studies in those treated with NIPPV for CRF were identified from electronic databases, reference lists and grey literature. Diagnostic groups included in the review were amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), restrictive thoracic disease (RTD) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Eighteen studies were included and overall study quality was weak. Those with ALS/MND had improved somnolence and fatigue as well as prolonged survival with NIPPV. For OHS, improvements in somnolence and fatigue, dyspnoea and sleep quality were demonstrated, while for RTD, measures of dyspnoea, sleep quality, physical function and health, mental and emotional health and social function improved. There was insufficient evidence to form conclusions regarding the effect of NIPPV for those with DMD. This review has demonstrated that NIPPV influences PROs differently depending on the underlying cause of CRF. These findings may provide assistance to patients and clinicians to determine the relative costs and benefits of NIPPV therapy and also highlight areas in need of further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preventing facial pressure ulcers in patients under non-invasive mechanical ventilation: a randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Otero, D Peña; Domínguez, D Vazquez; Fernández, L Hernanz; Magariño, A Santano; González, V Jimenez; Klepzing, J V García; Montesinos, J V Beneit

    2017-03-02

    To comparatively assess the efficacy of four different therapeutic strategies to prevent the development of facial pressure ulcers (FPUs) related to the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) with oro-nasal masks in critically ill hospitalised patients. This randomised control trial was performed at the high dependency unit in the University General Hospital Gregorio Marañón in Madrid, Spain. Overall, 152 patients with acute respiratory failure were recruited. All patients were hospitalised and received NIV through oro-nasal masks. The Norton tool was used to evaluate the general risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). Subjects were divided into four groups, each of them receiving a different treatment. Tissue assessment and preventive care were performed by a member of the research team. The incidence of FPUs was significantly lower in the group receiving a solution of hyperoxygenated fatty acids (HOFA) when compared with each of the other therapeutic strategies: direct mask (p=0.055), adhesive thin dressing (p=0.03) and adhesive foam dressing (p<0.001). The application of HOFA on the facial skin in contact with the oro-nasal masks showed the highest efficacy in the prevention of NIV-related FPUs.

  14. Decision Making About Gastrostomy and Noninvasive Ventilation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Naomi H; Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Janssen, Anna; Higginson, Irene; Lyall, Rebecca; Burman, Rachel; Leigh, P Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Goldstein, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    We used thematic analysis to investigate factors affecting decision making about gastrostomy and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) by people with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) from the viewpoint of the health care professionals (HCPs) supporting them. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with 19 HCPs nominated by people with ALS who had made a decision to accept or decline NIV or gastrostomy. We found the main themes influencing decision making were patient-centric, caregiver-related or related to HCPs' own beliefs, perspectives, and actions. HCPs felt patients should be, and were, in control of decision making, although caregivers and HCPs played a role. The patient's evaluation of quality of life, the desirability of prolonging life, and acceptance of the disease and its progression by both patient and caregiver were the most important factors identified by HCPs. HCPs should be aware of the importance of multiprofessional discussions, and the potential influences (identified above) that might require discussion with patients and caregivers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Predictors of noninvasive ventilation tolerance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gruis, K L; Brown, D L; Schoennemann, A; Zebarah, V A; Feldman, E L

    2005-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) appears to improve survival and quality of life in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but little is known about predictors of NIV tolerance. NIV use was assessed and clinical predictors of tolerance were investigated, using predictive modeling, in ALS patients diagnosed and followed in our clinic until death over a 4-year time period. Patients were prescribed NIV based on current practice parameters when respiratory symptoms were present or forced vital capacity was less than 50%. We prescribed NIV in 52% (72) of patients. For those prescribed NIV, information regarding tolerance was available for 50 patients, with 72% (36) tolerant to its use. Tolerance was six times more likely in limb-onset than bulbar-onset ALS patients, with a trend toward reduced tolerance in those with lower forced vital capacity at NIV initiation. Age, gender, and duration of disease were not predictors of NIV tolerance. We conclude that a majority of ALS patients who are prescribed NIV can successfully become tolerant to its use.

  16. Accepting or declining non-invasive ventilation or gastrostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: patients' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, L P; Martin, N H; Lawrence, V; Janssen, A; Al-Chalabi, A; Leigh, P N; Goldstein, L H

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify factors associated with decisions made by patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to accept or decline non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or gastrostomy in a prospective population-based study. Twenty-one people with ALS, recruited from the South-East ALS Register who made an intervention decision during the study timeframe underwent a face-to-face in-depth interview, with or without their informal caregiver present. Sixteen had accepted an intervention (11 accepted gastrostomy, four accepted NIV and one accepted both interventions). Five patients had declined gastrostomy. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) patient-centric factors (including perceptions of control, acceptance and need, and aspects of fear); (2) external factors (including roles played by healthcare professionals, family, and information provision); and (3) the concept of time (including living in the moment and the notion of 'right thing, right time'). Many aspects of these factors were inter-related. Decision-making processes for the patients were found to be complex and multifaceted and reinforce arguments for individualised (rather than 'algorithm-based') approaches to facilitating decision-making by people with ALS who require palliative interventions.

  17. Absence of airway secretion accumulation predicts tolerance of noninvasive ventilation in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Nadia; Vallet, Anne-Evelyne; Petitjean, Thierry; Le Cam, Pierre; Peysson, Stéphane; Guérin, Claude; Dailler, Frédéric; Jay, Sylvie; Cadiergue, Vincent; Bouhour, Françoise; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Camdessanche, Jean-Philippe; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Philit, François; Beuret, Pascal; Bin-Dorel, Sylvie; Vial, Christophe; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2013-09-01

    To assess factors that predict good tolerance of noninvasive ventilation (NIV), in order to improve survival and quality of life in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We conducted a prospective study in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and requiring NIV. The primary end point was NIV tolerance at 1 month. Subjects, several of whom failed to complete the study, were classified as "tolerant" or "poorly tolerant," according to the number of hours of NIV use (more or less than 4 h per night, respectively). Eighty-one subjects, 73 of whom also attended the 1-month follow-up visit, participated over 34 months. NIV tolerance after the first day of utilization predicted tolerance at 1 month (77.6% and 75.3% of subjects, respectively). Multivariate analysis disclosed 3 factors predicting good NIV tolerance: absence of airway secretions accumulation prior to NIV onset (odds ratio 11.5); normal bulbar function at initiation of NIV (odds ratio 8.5); and older age (weakly significant, odds ratio 1.1). Our study reveals 3 factors that are predictive of good NIV tolerance, in particular the absence of airway secretion accumulation, which should prompt NIV initiation before its appearance.

  18. Non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a 10 year population based study.

    PubMed

    Chiò, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Gamna, Federica; Mattei, Alessio; Mazzini, Letizia; Mora, Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcome of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in an epidemiological based series of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The study was performed using data from the Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS, a prospective epidemiological register enrolling all ALS incident cases in two Italian regions. Among the 1260 patients incident in the period 1995-2004, 259 (20.6%) underwent NIV. Young male patients and subjects attending the tertiary ALS centres were more likely to undergo NIV. There was a progressive significant increase in the use of NIV during the study but was limited to patients attending the ALS tertiary centres. Median survival after NIV was 289 days (95% CI 255 to 333). In an epidemiological setting, NIV represents an increasingly utilised option for the treatment of respiratory disturbances in ALS and has favourable effects on survival, in particular among patients followed by tertiary ALS centres. Sociocultural factors, such as age, gender and marital status, strongly influence the probability of undergoing NIV. Efforts should be made to remove these obstacles in order to spread the use of NIV in all ALS patients with respiratory failure.

  19. Resource utilization patterns using non-invasive ventilation in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Thomas A; Lakshmanan, Ashwini; Figueroa, Lizzette; Iyer, Narayan; Stavroudis, Theodora A; Garingo, Arlene; Friedlich, Philippe S; Ramanathan, Rangasamy

    2018-05-24

    To describe the frequency of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and endotracheal intubation use in neonates diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS); to describe resources utilization (length of stay (LOS), charges, costs) among NIV and intubated RDS groups. Retrospective study from the national Kid's Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, for the years 1997-2012. Propensity scoring and multivariate regression analysis used to describe differences. A total of 595,254 out of 42,912,090 cases were identified with RDS. There was an increase in NIV use from 6% in 1997 to 17% in 2012. After matching, patients receiving NIV only were associated with shorter LOS: (95%CI) 25 (25.3,25.7) vs. 35 (34.2,34.9) days, decreased costs: ($/1k) 46.1 (45.5,46.8) vs. 65.0 (64.1,66.0), decreased charges: 130.3 (128.6,132.1) vs. 192.1 (189.5,194.6) compared to intubated neonates. There was a three-fold increase in NIV use within the 15-year study period. NIV use was associated with decreased LOS, charges and costs compared to intubated patients.

  20. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) as an aid to rehabilitation in acute respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Fran; Flude, Lizzie; Bazari, Farid; Jolley, Caroline; Englebretsen, Catherine; Lai, Dilys; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2011-12-16

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can increase exercise tolerance, reduce exercise induced desaturation and improve the outcome of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic respiratory disease. It is not known whether it can be applied to increase exercise capacity in patients admitted with non-hypercapnic acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). We investigated the acceptability and feasibility of using NIV for this purpose. On a single occasion, patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease who were unable to cycle for five minutes at 20 watts attempted to cycle using NIV and their endurance time (T(lim)) was recorded. To determine feasibility of this approach in clinical practice patients admitted with AECOPD were screened for participation in a trial of regular NIV assisted rehabilitation during their hospital admission. In 12 patients tested on a single occasion NIV increased T(lim) from 184(65) seconds to 331(229) seconds (p = 0.04) and patients desaturated less (median difference = 3.5%, p = 0.029). In the second study, 60 patients were admitted to hospital during a three month period of whom only 18(30)% were eligible to participate and of these patients, only four (7%) consented to participate. NIV improves exercise tolerance in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease but the applicability of this approach in routine clinical practice may be limited. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35692743.

  1. [Non-invasive ventilation improves comfort in pediatric palliative care patients].

    PubMed

    Bosch-Alcaraz, A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the appropriate use of non-invasive ventilation and its contribution to improving comfort in pediatric palliative care patients. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study comprising 55 palliative care patients from San Juan de Dios Hospital in Barcelona. The effectiveness was evaluated using a register of socio-demographic, clinical-ventilatory and oxymetric parameters, the comfort and dyspnea's grade using Silverman Anderson scale, and pain level using pediatric scales. The effectiveness of the technique was proved by a decreased heart rate (133.53±25.8 vs. 111.04±23.1; p<0.0001), respiratory rate (35.02±12.9 vs. 25.63±5.7; p<0.0001) and an increase of partial oxygen saturation (95.7±2.9 vs. 96.87±7.2; p<0.0001) and partial oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (297.12±113.4 vs. 336.97±100.7; p<0.0001). Dyspnea and pain levels improved in 100% of the patients. The therapy was effective and the comfort improved in 100% of the patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Official ERS/ATS clinical practice guidelines: noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Brochard, Laurent; Elliott, Mark W.; Hess, Dean; Hill, Nicholas S.; Navalesi, Paolo; Antonelli, Massimo; Brozek, Jan; Conti, Giorgio; Ferrer, Miquel; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Jaber, Samir; Keenan, Sean; Mancebo, Jordi; Mehta, Sangeeta; Raoof, Suhail

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is widely used in the acute care setting for acute respiratory failure (ARF) across a variety of aetiologies. This document provides European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society recommendations for the clinical application of NIV based on the most current literature. The guideline committee was composed of clinicians, methodologists and experts in the field of NIV. The committee developed recommendations based on the GRADE (Grading, Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology for each actionable question. The GRADE Evidence to Decision framework in the guideline development tool was used to generate recommendations. A number of topics were addressed using technical summaries without recommendations and these are discussed in the supplementary material. This guideline committee developed recommendations for 11 actionable questions in a PICO (population–intervention–comparison–outcome) format, all addressing the use of NIV for various aetiologies of ARF. The specific conditions where recommendations were made include exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, de novo hypoxaemic respiratory failure, immunocompromised patients, chest trauma, palliation, post-operative care, weaning and post-extubation. This document summarises the current state of knowledge regarding the role of NIV in ARF. Evidence-based recommendations provide guidance to relevant stakeholders. PMID:28860265

  3. Flexible endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of esophageal stenosis in children with noninvasive ventilation support.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Kao-Hsian; Soong, Wen-Jue; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Chou, Ya-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal stenosis (ES) is characterized by dysphagia, failure to thrive, and long-term disability. It requires repeated management because it is refractory. Traditionally, these procedures are performed under general anesthesia with airway intubation. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of the management of interventional flexible endoscopy (IFE) performed with a novel noninvasive ventilation (NIV) support. Use of a short-length flexible endoscope with NIV of pharyngeal oxygen, nose closure, and abdominal compression during IFE was investigated. Medical charts of patients aged ≤10 years with a diagnosis of ES in our hospital between 1990 and 2014 were reviewed and analyzed. The outcome measurement included the number of IFE with balloon dilatation (BD), laser therapy (LT), stent placement, procedural complications, and the success rate. Ten patients were enrolled. The most common etiologies were esophageal atresia with/without tracheoesophageal fistula (n = 6), followed by caustic injury (n = 2), and unknown etiology (n = 2). Nine patients who were considered successfully managed received an average of 2.8 BD sessions and 1.6 LT sessions. The complication rate of IFE in this study was 1.08% (1/93). One esophageal perforation developed after BD (1/63) and none after LT (0/30). In this study, IFE with this NIV support is a safe, feasible and valuable modality which could rapidly examine and manage ES. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Intermittent noninvasive ventilation after extubation in patients with chronic respiratory disorders: a multicenter randomized controlled trial (VHYPER).

    PubMed

    Vargas, Frédéric; Clavel, Marc; Sanchez-Verlan, Pascale; Garnier, Sylvain; Boyer, Alexandre; Bui, Hoang-Nam; Clouzeau, Benjamin; Sazio, Charline; Kerchache, Aissa; Guisset, Olivier; Benard, Antoine; Asselineau, Julien; Gauche, Bernard; Gruson, Didier; Silva, Stein; Vignon, Philippe; Hilbert, Gilles

    2017-11-01

    Early noninvasive ventilation (NIV) after extubation decreases the risk of respiratory failure and lowers 90-day mortality in patients with hypercapnia. Patients with chronic respiratory disease are at risk of extubation failure. Therefore, it could be useful to determine the role of NIV with a discontinuous approach, not limited to patients with hypercapnia. We assessed the efficacy of early NIV in decreasing respiratory failure after extubation in patients with chronic respiratory disorders. A prospective randomized controlled multicenter study was conducted. We enrolled 144 mechanically ventilated patients with chronic respiratory disorders who tolerated a spontaneous breathing trial. Patients were randomly allocated after extubation to receive either NIV (NIV group, n = 72), performed with a discontinuous approach, for the first 48 h, or conventional oxygen treatment (usual care group, n = 72). The primary endpoint was decreased respiratory failure within 48 h after extubation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01047852). Respiratory failure after extubation was less frequent in the NIV group: 6 (8.5%) versus 20 (27.8%); p = 0.0016. Six patients (8.5%) in the NIV group versus 13 (18.1%) in the usual care group were reintubated; p = 0.09. Intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and 90-day mortality did not differ significantly between the two groups (p = 0.28 and p = 0.33, respectively). Median postrandomization ICU length of stay was lower in the usual care group: 3 days (IQR 2-6) versus 4 days (IQR 2-7; p = 0.008). Patients with hypercapnia during a spontaneous breathing trial were at risk of developing postextubation respiratory failure [adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) = 4.56 (1.59-14.00); p = 0.006] and being intubated [adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) = 3.60 (1.07-13.31); p = 0.04]. Early NIV performed following a sequential protocol for the first 48 h after extubation decreased the

  5. Application of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in an asthmatic pregnant woman in respiratory failure: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Caner, Hanife; Eryuksel, Emel; Kosar, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) during an asthma attack is controversial. We report a case of a 28-year-old female patient in her 16th week of pregnancy with community-acquired pneumonia who presented during an asthma attack, which led to hypoxic respiratory failure. She was successfully treated using NIV. This case is worth discussing as it includes two clinical conditions in which NIV is often considered contraindicated. PMID:23372957

  6. Response of Preterm Infants to 2 Noninvasive Ventilatory Support Systems: Nasal CPAP and Nasal Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Carmen Salum Thomé; Leonardi, Kamila Maia; Melo, Ana Paula Carvalho Freire; Zaia, José Eduardo; Brunherotti, Marisa Afonso Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in preterm infants is currently applied using intermittent positive pressure (2 positive-pressure levels) or in a conventional manner (one pressure level). However, there are no studies in the literature comparing the chances of failure of these NIV methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of failure of 2 noninvasive ventilatory support systems in preterm neonates over a period of 48 h. A randomized, prospective, clinical study was conducted on 80 newborns (gestational age < 37 weeks, birthweight < 2,500 g). The infants were randomized into 2 groups: 40 infants were treated with nasal CPAP and 40 infants with nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV). The occurrence of apnea, progression of respiratory distress, nose bleeding, and agitation was defined as ventilation failure. The need for intubation and re-intubation after failure was also observed. There were no significant differences in birth characteristics between groups. Ventilatory support failure was observed in 25 (62.5%) newborns treated with nasal CPAP and in 12 (30%) newborns treated with NIPPV, indicating an association between NIV failure and the absence of intermittent positive pressure (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, P < .05). Apnea (32.5%) was the main reason for nasal CPAP failure. After failure, 25% (OR 0.33) of the newborns receiving nasal CPAP and 12.5% (OR 0.14) receiving NIPPV required invasive mechanical ventilation. Ventilatory support failure was significantly more frequent when nasal CPAP was used. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Predictors of need for noninvasive ventilation during respiratory tract infections in medically stable, non-ventilated subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Jesus; Servera, Emilio; Bañuls, Pilar; Marin, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Acute lower respiratory infections can impair muscle strength in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). When associated with an increase in load on the respiratory system, this situation may precipitate hypercapnic respiratory failure in non-ventilated patients with ALS. The aim of this study was to determine whether a clinical or functional parameter can predict the need for noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during an acute respiratory infection for medically stable, non-ventilated patients with ALS. This was a prospective study involving all non-ventilated subjects with ALS admitted due to an acute respiratory infection to a respiratory care unit from a tertiary hospital. Thirty-two non-ventilated subjects with ALS were admitted to our respiratory care unit due to an acute respiratory infection: 60.72 ± 10.54 y, 13 males, 23 with spinal onset, FVC of 1.58 ± 0.83 L, FVC of 56.21 ± 23.15% of predicted, peak cough flow of 3.41 ± 1.77 L/s, maximum insufflation capacity of 1.87 ± 0.94 L, revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale score of 22.80 ± 8.83, and Norris bulbar score of 23.48 ± 12.14. Fifteen subjects required NIV during the episode. Logistic regression analysis showed that the only predictors of need for NIV were percent-of-predicted FVC (odds ratio of 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11, P = .02) and peak cough flow (odds ratio of 2.57, 95% CI 1.18-5.59, P = .02). In medically stable, non-ventilated patients with ALS, measurement of percent-of-predicted FVC and peak cough flow can predict the need for NIV during an acute lower respiratory tract infection. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Comparison of invasive and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation delivered by means of a helmet for weaning of patients from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Carron, Michele; Rossi, Sandra; Carollo, Cristiana; Ori, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation delivered by helmet (H-NPPV) as a weaning approach in patients with acute respiratory failure is unclear. We randomly and evenly assigned 64 patients intubated for acute respiratory failure to conventional weaning with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or H-NPPV. The primary end point was a reduction in IMV duration by 6 days between the 2 groups. Secondary end points were the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and major complications, duration of mechanical ventilation and weaning, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and survival. The mean duration of IMV was significantly reduced in the H-NPPV group compared with the IMV group (P<.0001), without significant difference in duration of weaning (P=.26) and total ventilatory support (P=.45). In the H-NPPV group, the incidence of major complications was less than the IMV group (P=.032). Compared with the H-NPPV group, the IMV group was associated with a greater incidence of VAP (P=.018) and an increased risk of nosocomial pneumonia (P=.049). The mortality rate was similar between the groups, with no significant difference in overall intensive care unit (P=.47) or hospital length of stay (P=.37). H-NPPV was well tolerated and effective in patients who were difficult to wean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of noninvasive proportional assist vs pressure support ventilation on respiratory work in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with hypercapnia].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J H; Luo, Q; Zhang, H J; Chen, R C

    2017-06-12

    Objective: To investigate the effect of noninvasive proportional assist ventilation (PAV) on respiratory work in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) patients, in comparison to noninvasive pressure support ventilation(PSV). Methods: Ten severe COPD patients with hypercapnia during acute exacerbation were examined. The baseline inspiratory pressure of PSV (PS) and the assistance level of PAV(PA) were titrated by patients' tolerance. In addition to the baseline PS and PA, an additional decrease by 25% (PS-=75% PS, PA-=75% PA) or increase by 25% (PS+ =125% PS, PA+ =125% PA) of the assist level were applied to the patients. After the assessment of unassisted spontaneous breathing (SB), the patient was placed on the 6 levels of noninvasive-PSV and noninvasive-PAV in random sequence. Each level lasted at least 20 minutes. Respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (Vt), and respiratory work(Wex, Wip and Wv) were measured. Asynchrony index (AI) was calculated. Results: During ventilation, Vt was significantly higher with each assist level than with SB. The Vt was significant increased with PS+ than with PA+ . An increase in expiratory work(Wex) and decrease in inspiratory work(Wip) were observed respectively, with the increasing assist level. The inspiratory muscles assessed by Wip were more unloaded at PS compared with PA [PS: (1.59±1.27) J/min vs PA: (4.99±3.48) J/min P <0.01]. However, the Wex was significantly higher with PS+ than with PA+ [PS+ : (1.17±0.54) J/min vs PA+ : (0.49±0.56)J/min, P <0.01]. The AI was increased with the increasing assist level of PSV [PS-: (0.46±0.57)%, PS: (1.36±1.24)% PS+ : (5.26±4.77)]. No asynchrony events were observed at PA- and PA. "Runaway" (expiratory asynchrony) was observed during PA+ [AI: (2.62±2.72)%]. Conclusions: Noninvasive-PAV can increase the Vt and decrease the Wip of the COPD patients with hypercapnia and avoid the over-assistance. The "Runaway" will occur at assist level higher than that set by tolerance

  10. High pressure versus high intensity noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Patrick B; Brignall, Kate; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Davidson, A Craig; Hart, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    High-intensity (high-pressure and high backup rate) noninvasive ventilation has recently been advocated for the management of stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relative contributions of high inspiratory pressure and high backup rate to ventilator adherence and physiological outcome have not been investigated. Patients with stable hypercapnic COPD (daytime PaCO(2) > 6 kPa) and nocturnal hypoventilation were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to high-pressure and high backup rate (high-intensity) and high-pressure and low backup rate (high-pressure) for a 6-week period. At the end of the first treatment period, patients were switched to the alternative treatment. The primary outcome measure was mean nightly ventilator usage. Twelve patients were recruited, with seven completing the 12-week trial protocol. The mean patient age was 71 ± 8 years, with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) of 50% ± 13% and FEV(1) of 32% ± 12%. The baseline PaCO(2) and PaO(2) were 8.6 ± 1.7 kPa and 7.3 ± 1.4 kPa, respectively. There was no significant difference demonstrated in mean nightly ventilator usage between the high-intensity and high-pressure groups (difference of 4 minutes; 95% confidence interval -45 to 53; P = 0.9). Furthermore, there were no differences in any of the secondary endpoints, with the exception of the respiratory domain of the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency questionnaire, which was lower in the high-intensity arm than in the high-pressure arm (57 ± 11 versus 69 ± 16; P < 0.05). There was no additional benefit, in terms of night-time ventilator adherence or any of the other measured parameters, demonstrated by addition of a high backup rate to high-pressure noninvasive ventilation. These data suggest that it is the high-pressure component of the high-intensity noninvasive ventilation approach that plays the important therapeutic role in the management of hypercapnic

  11. Non-Invasive Ventilation in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Hugo Souza; Reis, Helena França Correia Dos; Lima, Melissa Santos; Gomes, Mansueto

    2017-02-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) may perfect respiratory and cardiac performance in patients with heart failure (HF). The objective of the study to establish, through systematic review and meta-analysis, NIV influence on functional capacity of HF patients. A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized studies was carried out through research of databases of Cochrane Library, SciELO, Pubmed and PEDro, using the key-words: heart failure, non-invasive ventilation, exercise tolerance; and the free terms: bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and functional capacity (terms were searched for in English and Portuguese) using the Boolean operators AND and OR. Methodological quality was ensured through PEDro scale. Weighted averages and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The meta-analysis was done thorugh the software Review Manager, version 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration). Four randomized clinical trials were included. Individual studies suggest NIV improved functional capacity. NIV resulted in improvement in the distance of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) (68.7m 95%CI: 52.6 to 84.9) in comparison to the control group. We conclude that the NIV is an intervention that promotes important effects in the improvement of functional capacity of HF patients. However, there is a gap in literature on which are the most adequate parameters for the application of this technique. Resumo A ventilação não invasiva (VNI) pode aperfeiçoar o desempenho cardíaco e respiratório dos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC). O objetivo do estudo é estabelecer, por meio de revisão sistemática e meta-análise, a influência da VNI na capacidade funcional (CF) de indivíduos com IC. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática com meta-análise de estudos randomizados através da pesquisa nas bases de dados Biblioteca Cochrane, SciELO, Pubmed e PEDro, utilizando-se as palavras-chave: insuficiência cardíaca, ventilação n

  12. Management of critical illness with non-invasive ventilation by an Australian HEMS

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Andrew R; Cummins, Erin N; Burns, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) therapy is widely used for the management of acute respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to investigate the current use of NIV during interhospital retrievals in an Australian physician-led aeromedical service. Methods We reviewed patients receiving NIV during interhospital retrieval at the Greater Sydney Area Helicopter Medical Services (GSA-HEMS) over a 14-month period. The main objectives were to describe the number of retrievals using NIV, the need for intubation in NIV patients and the effect of the therapy on mission duration. Results Over the study period, 3018 missions were reported; 106 cases (3.51%) involved administration of NIV therapy during the retrieval. The most common indication for NIV was pneumonia (34.0%). 86/106 patients received a successful trial of NIV therapy prior to interhospital transfer. 58 patients were transferred on NIV, while 28 patients had NIV removed during transport. None of these 86 patients required intubation or died, although 17/86 ultimately required intubation within 24 hours at the receiving centre. 20/106 patients required intubation at the referring hospital after a failed trial of NIV therapy. NIV was successfully used in all available transport platforms including rotary wing. Patients receiving NIV were found to have prolonged mission durations compared with other GSA-HEMS patients (222.5 vs 193 min). This increase in mission duration was largely attributable to NIV failure, resulting in a need for Rapid Sequence Intubation at the referring hospital. Conclusions With careful patient selection, the use of interhospital NIV is feasible and appears to be safe in a retrieval system with care provided by a critical care physician. PMID:27371641

  13. Prevention and treatment of skin lesions associated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Recommendations of experts.

    PubMed

    Raurell-Torredà, M; Romero-Collado, A; Rodríguez-Palma, M; Farrés-Tarafa, M; Martí, J D; Hurtado-Pardos, B; Peñarrubia-San Florencio, L; Saez-Paredes, P; Esquinas, A M

    In the last two decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has been consolidated as an initial strategy for the management of respiratory failure in critical adult and paediatric patients. To identify risk factors and preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of skin lesions associated with clinical devices (LESADIC) related to NIV, as well as the most effective treatment for injuries that cannot be avoided. Review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases of studies published in the last 10years to reach consensus through an expert panel. Knowledge about how to measure correct mask size and protection of the skin with foam or hydrocolloids dressings are factors related to the incidence of LESADIC, as it conditions the degree of pressure-friction and shear that the interface exerts on the skin. The interface that causes fewer LESADIC and is better tolerated is the face mask. When there are injuries, the first thing is to remove the interface that causes pressure on damaged skin, recommending a Helmet ® hood as an alternative, treating the infection, managing the exudate and stimulating perilesional skin. The mask of choice is the facial, always using foam or hydrocolloid dressings on the nasal bridge. Evaluate the condition of the skin under the interface and harness every 4hours (recommended) and 11hours (maximum). Evaluate the rotation strategy of the interface at 24hours if the NIV is still needed on an ongoing basis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical factors affecting inspired gas humidification and oral dryness during noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Oto, Jun; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2011-10-01

    Oral dryness is a common complication during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We measured the oral dryness of patients and performed a bench study to investigate factors related to humidification during NIV. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups: medium (Med group) and maximum (Max group) heated humidifier (HH) settings. Oral moistness was measured using an oral moisture-checking device, and the feeling of oral dryness was evaluated using a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale (NRS) at 0, 12, and 24 hours from the beginning of NIV and at 12 and 24 hours after NIV was discontinued. A bench study was performed to assess the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), the fraction of inspired oxygen (F(I)O(2)), and air leaks on absolute humidity. We evaluated 3 HH settings: no HH, HH at the medium setting, and HH at the maximum setting. The temperature in the outlet chamber was 31°C to 32°C for the medium HH setting and 38°C to 41°C for the maximum HH setting. In the clinical study, 12 patients were assigned to the Med group and 11 to the Max group. In the Med group, oral moistness decreased and NRS increased at 12 and 24 hours compared with 0 hours (P < .05). In the Max group, neither the oral moistness nor the NRS changed throughout the study period, whereas in the bench study, high F(I)O(2), high PEEP, and air leak decreased the absolute humidity for both HH settings (P < .01). However, it is not clear to what extent these factors affected the patients' oral dryness because the ranges of F(I)O(2) and PEEP were narrow. Oral dryness was a common problem in our patients. The HH setting significantly affected humidification and oral dryness during NIV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of mouth leak and humidification during nasal non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tuggey, Justin M; Delmastro, Monica; Elliott, Mark W

    2007-09-01

    Poor mask fit and mouth leak are associated with nasal symptoms and poor sleep quality in patients receiving domiciliary non-invasive ventilation (NIV) through a nasal mask. Normal subjects receiving continuous positive airways pressure demonstrate increased nasal resistance following periods of mouth leak. This study explores the effect of mouth leak during pressure-targeted nasal NIV, and whether this results in increased nasal resistance and consequently a reduction in effective ventilatory support. A randomised crossover study of 16 normal subjects was performed on separate days. Comparison was made of the effect of 5 min of mouth leak during daytime nasal NIV with and without heated humidification. Expired tidal volume (V(T)), nasal resistance (R(N)), and patient comfort were measured. Mean change (Delta) in V(T) and R(N) were significantly less following mouth leak with heated humidification compared to the without (DeltaV(T) -36+/-65 ml vs. -88+/-50 ml, p<0.001; DeltaR(N) +0.9+/-0.4 vs. +2.0+/-0.7 cm H(2)O l s(-1), p<0.001). Baseline comfort was worse without humidification (5.3+/-0.4 vs. 6.2+/-0.4, p<0.01), and only deteriorated following mouth leak without humidification. In normal subjects, heated humidification during nasal NIV attenuates the adverse effects of mouth leak on effective tidal volume, nasal resistance and improves overall comfort. Heated humidification should be considered as part of an approach to patients who are troubled with nasal symptoms, once leak has been minimised.

  16. Impact of a Noninvasive Ventilation Protocol in Hospitalized Children With Acute Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Yorschua; Damiani, Felipe; Astudillo, Claudia; Villarroel, Gregory; Barañao, Patricio; Bustos, Edson; Silva, Alejandra; Mendez, Mireya

    2017-12-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has proven to be useful in the management of children with acute respiratory failure as a result of acute lower respiratory infection. Despite this, evidence addressing the initiation and/or discontinuation criteria of NIV in children remains limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and clinical impact of an NIV protocol in hospitalized children with acute respiratory failure because of acute lower respiratory infection. A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out among subjects admitted during the winter season at Hospital Josefina Martinez between May and October of 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 3 months to 2 y, diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection and requiring NIV according to a Modified Wood Scale score of ≥ 4 points. Subjects were randomized to NIV management according to medical criteria (control group) or to protocolized management of NIV (protocol group). Hours of NIV, hospital stay, and supplemental oxygen use after discontinuation of NIV, severity changes after NIV initiation, respiratory symptoms, and proportion of intubations were considered as events of interest. A total of 23 subjects were analyzed in the control group and 24 were analyzed in the protocol group. Hours of hospital stay, NIV, and supplemental oxygen post-NIV were not significantly different between groups ( P = .70, .69, and .68, respectively). There were also no differences in intubation rate (3 of 29 for the control group and 2 of 31 for the protocol group). For the total sample there was a statistically significant decrease in the Modified Wood Scale score after 1 h of NIV ( P < .001). A similar result was observed when performing a stratified intragroup analysis. We observed that the implementation of an NIV management protocol that integrates initiation and discontinuation criteria for NIV is feasible. However, its use showed no advantages over a non-protocolized strategy. Copyright © 2017 by

  17. Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Suzy Maria Montenegro; Melo, Luiz Henrique de Paula; Maia, Nathalia Parente de Sousa; Nogueira, Andrea da Nóbrega Cirino; Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Bastos, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects and the variation in the temperature of facial skin by thermography after the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods: We included 20 healthy volunteers receiving NIV via oronasal mask for 1 h. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups according to the ventilatory mode: bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Facial thermography was performed in order to determine the temperature of the face where it was in contact with the mask and of the nasal dorsum at various time points. After removal of the mask, the volunteers completed a questionnaire about adverse effects of NIV. Results: The incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects were higher in the individuals receiving BiPAP than in those receiving CPAP (16.1% vs. 5.6%). Thermographic analysis showed a significant cooling of the facial skin in the two regions of interest immediately after removal of the mask. The more intense acute adverse effects occurred predominantly among the participants in whom the decrease in the mean temperature of the nasal dorsum was lower (14.4% vs. 7.2%). The thermographic visual analysis of the zones of cooling and heating on the face identified areas of hypoperfusion or reactive hyperemia. Conclusions: The use of BiPAP mode was associated with a higher incidence and intensity of NIV-related acute adverse effects. There was an association between acute adverse effects and less cooling of the nasal dorsum immediately after removal of the mask. Cutaneous thermography can be an additional tool to detect adverse effects that the use of NIV has on facial skin. PMID:28538774

  18. Cost Savings from Reduced Hospitalizations with Use of Home Noninvasive Ventilation for COPD.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven; Peyerl, Fred W; Munson, Sibyl H; Ravindranath, Aditi J; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo L

    2017-03-01

    Although evidence suggests significant clinical benefits of home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for management of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), economic analyses supporting the use of this technology are lacking. To evaluate the economic impact of adopting home NIV, as part of a multifaceted intervention program, for severe COPD. An economic model was developed to calculate savings associated with the use of Advanced NIV (averaged volume assured pressure support with autoexpiratory positive airway pressure; Trilogy100, Philips Respironics, Inc., Murrysville, PA) versus either no NIV or a respiratory assist device with bilevel pressure capacity in patients with severe COPD from two distinct perspectives: the hospital and the payer. The model examined hospital savings over 90 days and payer savings over 3 years. The number of patients with severe COPD eligible for home Advanced NIV was user-defined. Clinical and cost data were obtained from a quality improvement program and published reports. Scenario analyses calculated savings for hospitals and payers covering different COPD patient cohort sizes. The hospital base case (250 patients) revealed cumulative savings of $402,981 and $449,101 over 30 and 90 days, respectively, for Advanced NIV versus both comparators. For the payer base case (100,000 patients), 3-year cumulative savings with Advanced NIV were $326 million versus no NIV and $1.04 billion versus respiratory assist device. This model concluded that adoption of home Advanced NIV with averaged volume assured pressure support with autoexpiratory positive airway pressure, as part of a multifaceted intervention program, presents an opportunity for hospitals to reduce COPD readmission-related costs and for payers to reduce costs associated with managing patients with severe COPD on the basis of reduced admissions. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Noninvasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: effects on sleep quality and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Eva; Vrijsen, Bart; Belge, Catharina; Testelmans, Dries; Buyse, Bertien

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on sleep quality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We aim to evaluate the long-term effects of NIV on sleep quality and quality of life in patients with ALS. In this prospective observational study, 13 ALS patients were followed for one year after initiating NIV. We evaluated sleep quality, quality of life and functional status with several questionnaires: Epworth sleepiness Scale (ESS), Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI), Short Form 36 Health Questionnaire (SF-36), McGill Quality of Life questionnaire (McGillQoL) and revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale scores (ALSFRS-R). Median and interquartile range (IQR) at the start of NIV was 59 (53-65) years. The ALSFRS-R at start was 30 (24-37) (median, IQR), with three patients having severe bulbar impairment (ALSFRS-R-bulbar ≤ 9). The P a CO 2 at start of NIV treatment was 48 (43-52) mmHg (median, IQR). During the one-year follow-up period, a significant decrease in the ALSFRS-R was observed. The impact of NIV in a short term (1 month) revealed a statistically significant decrease in ESS, decrease in total PSQI and of four PSQI subscales and improvement of almost all subscales of the McGill questionnaire. Long-term analyses (9 months to 1 year) revealed that amelioration in ESS and total PSQI was sustained. We conclude that accurately titrated NIV in ALS patients can stabilize sleep quality and quality of life for at least one year, despite significant disease progression.

  20. Noninvasive ventilation improves sleep in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a prospective polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, Bart; Buyse, Bertien; Belge, Catharina; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Decramer, Marc; Testelmans, Dries

    2015-04-15

    To evaluate the effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on sleep in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after meticulous titration with polysomnography (PSG). In this prospective observational study, 24 ALS patients were admitted to the sleep laboratory during 4 nights for in-hospital NIV titration with PSG and nocturnal capnography. Questionnaires were used to assess subjective sleep quality and quality of life (QoL). Patients were readmitted after one month. In the total group, slow wave sleep and REM sleep increased and the arousal-awakening index improved. The group without bulbar involvement (non-bulbar) showed the same improvements, together with an increase in sleep efficiency. Nocturnal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels improved in the total and non-bulbar group. Except for oxygen saturation during REM sleep, no improvement in respiratory function or sleep structure was found in bulbar patients. However, these patients showed less room for improvement. Patient-reported outcomes showed improvement in sleep quality and QoL for the total and non-bulbar group, while bulbar patients only reported improvements in very few subscores. This study shows an improvement of sleep architecture, carbon dioxide, and nocturnal oxygen saturation at the end of NIV titration and after one month of NIV in ALS patients. More studies are needed to identify the appropriate time to start NIV in bulbar patients. Our results suggest that accurate titration of NIV by PSG improves sleep quality. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 511. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  1. Relieving dyspnoea by non-invasive ventilation decreases pain thresholds in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dangers, Laurence; Laviolette, Louis; Georges, Marjolaine; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus; Rivals, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine

    2017-03-01

    Dyspnoea is a threatening sensation of respiratory discomfort that presents many similarities with pain. Experimental dyspnoea in healthy subjects induces analgesia. This 'dyspnoea-pain counter-irritation' could, in reverse, imply that relieving dyspnoea in patients with chronic respiratory diseases would lower their pain thresholds. We first determined pressure pain thresholds in 25 healthy volunteers (22-31 years; 13 men; handheld algometer), during unloaded breathing (BASELINE) and during inspiratory threshold loading (ITL). Two levels of loading were used, adjusted to induce dyspnoea self-rated at 60% or 80% of a 10 cm visual analogue scale (ITL6 and ITL8). 18 patients with chronic respiratory failure due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were then studied during unassisted breathing and after 30 and 60 min of non-invasive ventilation-NIV30 and NIV60-(same dyspnoea evaluation). In healthy volunteers, pressure pain thresholds increased significantly in the deltoid during ITL6 (p<0.05) and ITL8 (p<0.05) and in the trapezius during ITL8 (p<0.05), validating the use of pressure pain thresholds to study dyspnoea-pain counter-irritation. In patients with ALS, the pressure pain thresholds measured in the deltoid during unassisted breathing decreased by a median of 24.5%-33.0% of baseline during NIV30 and NIV60 (p<0.05). Relieving dyspnoea by NIV in patients with ALS having respiratory failure is associated with decreased pressure pain thresholds. Clinical implications have yet to be determined, but this observation suggests that patients with ALS could become more susceptible to pain after the institution of NIV, hence the need for reinforced attention towards potentially painful diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Bulbar impairment score and survival of stable amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients after noninvasive ventilation initiation.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Jesús; Martínez, Daniel; Bures, Enric; Díaz, José Luis; Ponz, Alejandro; Servera, Emilio

    2018-04-01

    There is general agreement that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) prolongs survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and that the main cause of NIV failure is the severity of bulbar dysfunction. However, there is no evidence that bulbar impairment is a contraindication for NIV. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bulbar impairment on survival in ALS patients with NIV. ALS patients for whom NIV was indicated were included. Those patients who refused NIV were taken as the control group. 120 patients who underwent NIV and 20 who refused NIV were included. The NIV group presented longer survival (median 18.50 months, 95% CI 12.62-24.38 months) than the no-NIV group (3.00 months, 95% CI 0.82-5.18 months) (p<0.001) and also in those patients with severe bulbar dysfunction (13.00 months (95% CI 9.49-16.50 months) v ersus 3.00 months (95% CI 0.85-5.15 months), p<0.001). Prognostic factors for ALS using NIV, adjusted for NIV failure, were severity of bulbar dysfunction (hazard ratio (HR) 0.5, 95% CI 0.92-0.97; p=0.001) and time spent with oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry <90% (%sleep S pO 2 <90) using NIV (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24; p=0.02). Severe bulbar impairment in ALS does not always prevent NIV from being used, but the severity of bulbar dysfunction at NIV initiation and %sleep S pO 2 <90 while using NIV appear to be the main prognostic factors of NIV failure in ALS.

  3. Effects of noninvasive ventilation on sleep outcomes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Katzberg, Hans D; Selegiman, Adam; Guion, Lee; Yuan, Nancy; Cho, Sungho C; Katz, Jonathan S; Miller, Robert G; So, Yuen T

    2013-04-15

    The objective was to study the effects on noninvasive ventilation on sleep outcomes in patient with ALS, specifically oxygenation and overall sleep quality. Patients with ALS who met criteria for initiation of NIV were studied with a series of 2 home PSG studies, one without NIV and a follow-up study while using NIV. Primary outcome was a change in the maximum overnight oxygen saturation; secondary outcomes included change in mean overnight oxygen saturation, apnea and hypopnea indexes, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, sleep arousals, and sleep architecture. A total of 94 patients with ALS were screened for eligibility; 15 were enrolled; and 12 completed study procedures. Maximum overnight oxygen saturation improved by 7.0% (p = 0.01) and by 6.7% during REM sleep (p = 0.02) with NIV. Time spent below 90% oxygen saturation was also significant-ly better with NIV (30% vs 19%, p < 0.01), and there was trend for improvement in mean overnight saturation (1.5%, p = 0.06). Apnea index (3.7 to 0.7), hypopnea index (6.2 to 5.7), and apnea hypopnea index (9.8 to 6.3) did not significantly improve after introducing NIV. NIV had no effect on sleep efficiency (mean change 10%), arousal index (7 to 12), or sleep stage distribution (Friedman chi-squared = 0.40). NIV improved oxygenation but showed no significant effects on sleep efficiency, sleep arousals, restful sleep, or sleep architecture. The net impact of these changes for patients deserves further study in a larger group of ALS patients.

  4. Five-Year Follow-Up and Outcomes of Noninvasive Ventilation in Subjects With Neuromuscular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mi Ri; Choi, Won Ah; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jang Woo; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Seong-Woong

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the 5-year outcomes of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) application in different neuromuscular disease (NMD) groups. We categorized 180 subjects who had initiated NIV between March 2001 and August 2009 into 4 groups and followed them for > 5 y. The NIV maintenance rate and average duration, applying time, and forced vital capacity (FVC) were investigated at the time NIV was initiated and 5 y after NIV initiation in each group. In subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)-congenital myopathy, the 5-year subjects who continued to use NIV over time were 22.5%, 89.4%, and 91.3%, respectively, and the average NIV maintenance durations were 21.53 ± 19.26 months, 55.22 ± 11.47 months, and 57.48 ± 8.34 months, respectively ( P < .001). Median daily applying time changed from 8.0 h to 24.0 h ( P < .001), from 8.0 h to 12.0 h ( P < .001), and from 8.0 h to 9.0 h ( P = .11) in subjects with ALS, DMD, and SMA-congenital myopathy, respectively. FVC decreased significantly after 5 y except in the group with combined SMA-congenital myopathy. NIV was tolerated long-term without significant increases in daily application time for most subjects with NMD. However, in individuals with ALS, development of severe bulbar symptoms can risk maintaining NIV. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Update: Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Chronic Respiratory Failure Due to COPD.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    Long-term non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) has widely been accepted to treat chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure arising from different etiologies. Although the survival benefits provided by long-term NPPV in individuals with restrictive thoracic disorders or stable, slowly-progressing neuromuscular disorders are overwhelming, the benefits provided by long-term NPPV in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain under question, due to a lack of convincing evidence in the literature. In addition, long-term NPPV reportedly failed in the classic trials to improve important physiological parameters such as arterial blood gases, which might serve as an explanation as to why long-term NPPV has not been shown to substantially impact on survival. However, high intensity NPPV (HI-NPPV) using controlled NPPV with the highest possible inspiratory pressures tolerated by the patient has recently been described as a new and promising approach that is well-tolerated and is also capable of improving important physiological parameters such as arterial blood gases and lung function. This clearly contrasts with the conventional approach of low-intensity NPPV (LI-NPPV) that uses considerably lower inspiratory pressures with assisted forms of NPPV. Importantly, HI-NPPV was very recently shown to be superior to LI-NPPV in terms of improved overnight blood gases, and was also better tolerated than LI-NPPV. Furthermore, HI-NPPV, but not LI-NPPV, improved dyspnea, lung function and disease-specific aspects of health-related quality of life. A recent study showed that long-term treatment with NPPV with increased ventilatory pressures that reduced hypercapnia was associated with significant and sustained improvements in overall mortality. Thus, long-term NPPV seems to offer important benefits in this patient group, but the treatment success might be dependent on effective ventilatory strategies.

  6. Long-term Non-Invasive Ventilation in Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Prabhjot K; Castro-Codesal, Maria Luisa; Featherstone, Robin; AlBalawi, Mohammed M; Alkhaledi, Bashar; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Flores-Mir, Carlos; MacLean, Joanna E

    2018-01-01

    The use of long-term non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to treat sleep and breathing disorders in children has increased substantially in the last decade; however, less data exist about its use in infants. Given that infants have distinct sleep and breathing patterns when compared to older children, the outcomes of infants on long-term NIV may differ as well. The aim of this study is to systematically review the use and outcomes of long-term NIV in infants. Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, CINAHL (via EbscoHOST), PubMed, and Wiley Cochrane Library were systematically searched from January 1990 to July 2017. Studies on infants using long-term NIV outside of an acute care setting were included. Data were extracted on study design, population characteristics, and NIV outcomes. A total of 327 studies were full-text reviewed, with final inclusion of 60. Studies were distributed across airway (40%), neuromuscular (28%), central nervous system (10%), cardio-respiratory (2%), and multiple (20%) disease categories. Of the 18 airway studies reporting on NIV outcomes, 13 (72%) reported improvements in respiratory parameters. Of the 12 neuromuscular studies exclusively on spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1), six (50%) reported decreased hospitalizations and nine (75%) reported on mortality outcomes. Risk of bias was moderate to serious, and quality of the evidence was low to very low for all studies. Most studies had an observational design with no control group, limiting the potential for a meta-analysis. The outcomes reported in studies differed by the disease category being studied. Studies on airway conditions showed improvements in respiratory parameters for infants using NIV. Studies on neuromuscular disorder, which were almost exclusively on SMA1, reported decreased hospitalizations and prolonged survival. Overall, it appears that NIV is an effective long-term therapy for infants. However, the high risk of bias and low quality of the available evidence limited strong

  7. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800 m: Relationship to acute mountain sickness and sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pamela L; Popa, Daniel A; Prisk, G Kim; Edwards, Natalie; Sullivan, Colin E

    2010-02-01

    Overnight oxyhaemoglobin desaturation is related to AMS. AMS can be debilitating and may require descent. Positive pressure ventilation during sleep at high altitude may prevent AMS and therefore be useful in people travelling to high altitude, who are known to suffer from AMS. Ascent to high altitude results in hypobaric hypoxia and some individuals will develop acute mountain sickness (AMS), which has been shown to be associated with low oxyhaemoglobin saturation during sleep. Previous research has shown that positive end-expiratory pressure by use of expiratory valves in a face mask while awake results in a reduction in AMS symptoms and higher oxyhaemoglobin saturation. We aimed to determine whether positive pressure ventilation would prevent AMS by increasing oxygenation during sleep. We compared sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation and the incidence and severity of AMS in seven subjects sleeping for two consecutive nights at 3800 m above sea level using either non-invasive positive pressure ventilation that delivered positive inspiratory and expiratory airway pressure via a face mask, or sleeping without assisted ventilation. The presence and severity of AMS were assessed by administration of the Lake Louise questionnaire. We found significant increases in the mean and minimum sleeping oxyhaemoglobin saturation and decreases in AMS symptoms in subjects who used positive pressure ventilation during sleep. Mean and minimum sleeping SaO2 was lower in subjects who developed AMS after the night spent without positive pressure ventilation. The use of positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800 m significantly increased the sleeping oxygen saturation; we suggest that the marked reduction in symptoms of AMS is due to this higher sleeping SaO2. We agree with the findings from previous studies that the development of AMS is associated with a lower sleeping oxygen saturation.

  8. Assessment of perioperative minute ventilation in obese versus non-obese patients with a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jaideep H; Cattano, Davide; Brayanov, Jordan B; George, Edward E

    2017-04-26

    Monitoring the adequacy of spontaneous breathing is a major patient safety concern in the post-operative setting. Monitoring is particularly important for obese patients, who are at a higher risk for post-surgical respiratory complications and often have increased metabolic demand due to excess weight. Here we used a novel, noninvasive Respiratory Volume Monitor (RVM) to monitor ventilation in both obese and non-obese orthopedic patients throughout their perioperative course, in order to develop better monitoring strategies. We collected respiratory data from 62 orthopedic patients undergoing elective joint replacement surgery under general anesthesia using a bio-impedance based RVM with an electrode PadSet placed on the thorax. Patients were stratified into obese (BMI ≥ 30) and non-obese cohorts and minute ventilation (MV) at various perioperative time points was compared against each patient's predicted minute ventilation (MV PRED ) based on ideal body weight (IBW) and body surface area (BSA). The distributions of MV measurements were also compared across obese and non-obese cohorts. Obese patients had higher MV than the non-obese patients before, during, and after surgery. Measured MV of obese patients was significantly higher than their MV PRED from IBW formulas, with BSA-based MV PRED being a closer estimate. Obese patients also had greater variability in MV post-operatively when treated with standard opioid dosing. Our study demonstrated that obese patients have greater variability in ventilation post-operatively when treated with standard opioid doses, and despite overall higher ventilation, many of them are still at risk for hypoventilation. BSA-based MV PRED formulas may be more appropriate than IBW-based ones when estimating the respiratory demand of obese patients. The RVM allows for the continuous and non-invasive assessment of respiratory function in both obese and non-obese patients.

  9. Clinical characteristics of long-term survival with non-invasive ventilation and factors affecting the transition to invasive ventilation in ALS.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Takahiko; Kimura, Fumiharu; Tani, Hiroki; Ota, Shin; Tsukahara, Akihiro; Sano, Eri; Shigekiyo, Taro; Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Kakiuchi, Kensuke; Motoki, Mikiko; Unoda, Kiichi; Ishida, Simon; Nakajima, Hideto; Arawaka, Shigeki

    2018-04-20

    Introduction We evaluated post non-invasive ventilation survival and factors for the transition to tracheostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Methods We analyzed 197 patients using a prospectively-collected database, with 114 patients since 2000. Results Of 114 patients, 59 patients underwent non-invasive ventilation (NIV), which prolonged the total median survival time to 43 months compared with 32 months without treatment. The best post-NIV survival was associated with a lack of bulbar symptoms, higher measured pulmonary function, and a slower rate of progression at diagnosis. The transition rate from NIV to tracheostomy gradually decreased over the years. Patients using NIV for more than 6 months were more likely to refuse tracheostomy and to be female. Discussion This study confirmed a positive survival effect with NIV, which was less effective in patients with bulbar dysfunction. Further studies are necessary to determine the best timing for using NIV with ALS in patients with bulbar dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Respiratory muscle activity and patient-ventilator asynchrony during different settings of noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: does high inspiratory pressure lead to respiratory muscle unloading?

    PubMed

    Duiverman, Marieke L; Huberts, Anouk S; van Eykern, Leo A; Bladder, Gerrie; Wijkstra, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to improve outcomes in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. However, there is insufficient knowledge about whether with this more controlled ventilatory mode optimal respiratory muscle unloading is provided without an increase in patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA). Ten chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients on home mechanical ventilation were included. Four different ventilatory settings were investigated in each patient in random order, each for 15 min, varying the inspiratory positive airway pressure and backup breathing frequency. With surface electromyography (EMG), activities of the intercostal muscles, diaphragm, and scalene muscles were determined. Furthermore, pressure tracings were derived simultaneously in order to assess PVA. Compared to spontaneous breathing, the most pronounced decrease in EMG activity was achieved with the high-pressure settings. Adding a high breathing frequency did reduce EMG activity per breath, while the decrease in EMG activity over 1 min was comparable with the high-pressure, low-frequency setting. With high backup breathing frequencies less breaths were pressure supported (25% vs 97%). PVAs occurred more frequently with the low-frequency settings ( P =0.017). High-intensity NIV might provide optimal unloading of respiratory muscles, without undue increases in PVA.

  11. Respiratory muscle activity and patient–ventilator asynchrony during different settings of noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: does high inspiratory pressure lead to respiratory muscle unloading?

    PubMed Central

    Duiverman, Marieke L; Huberts, Anouk S; van Eykern, Leo A; Bladder, Gerrie; Wijkstra, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to improve outcomes in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. However, there is insufficient knowledge about whether with this more controlled ventilatory mode optimal respiratory muscle unloading is provided without an increase in patient–ventilator asynchrony (PVA). Patients and methods Ten chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients on home mechanical ventilation were included. Four different ventilatory settings were investigated in each patient in random order, each for 15 min, varying the inspiratory positive airway pressure and backup breathing frequency. With surface electromyography (EMG), activities of the intercostal muscles, diaphragm, and scalene muscles were determined. Furthermore, pressure tracings were derived simultaneously in order to assess PVA. Results Compared to spontaneous breathing, the most pronounced decrease in EMG activity was achieved with the high-pressure settings. Adding a high breathing frequency did reduce EMG activity per breath, while the decrease in EMG activity over 1 min was comparable with the high-pressure, low-frequency setting. With high backup breathing frequencies less breaths were pressure supported (25% vs 97%). PVAs occurred more frequently with the low-frequency settings (P=0.017). Conclusion High-intensity NIV might provide optimal unloading of respiratory muscles, without undue increases in PVA. PMID:28138234

  12. Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation during Sleep at 3800m: relationship to Acute Mountain Sickness and sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, PL; Popa, DA; Prisk, GK; Sullivan, CE; Edwards, N

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Ascent to high altitude results in hypobaric hypoxia and some individuals will develop Acute Mountain Sickness, which has been shown to be associated with low oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep. Previous research has shown that positive end-expiratory pressure by use of expiratory valves in a face mask while awake, results in a reduction in AMS symptoms and higher oxyhemoglobin saturation. We aimed to test whether pressure ventilation during sleep would prevent AMS by keeping oxyhaemoglobin higher during sleep. Methods We compared sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation and the incidence and severity of Acute Mountain Sickness in seven subjects sleeping for two consecutive nights at 3800m above sea level using either non-invasive positive pressure ventilation that delivered positive inspiratory and expiratory airway pressure via a face mask, or sleeping without assisted ventilation. The presence and severity of Acute Mountain Sickness was assessed by administration of the Lake Louise questionnaire. Results We found significant increases in the mean and minimum sleeping oxyhemoglobin saturation and decreases in AMS symptoms in subjects who used positive pressure ventilation during sleep. Mean and minimum sleeping SaO2 was lower in subjects who developed AMS after the night spent without positive pressure ventilation. Conclusion The use of positive pressure ventilation during sleep at 3800m significantly increased the sleeping oxygen saturation; we suggest that the marked reduction in symptoms of AMS is due to this higher sleeping SaO2. We agree with the findings from previous studies that the development of AMS is associated with a lower sleeping oxygen saturation. PMID:20051046

  13. Aerosol Drug Delivery During Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation: Effects of Intersubject Variability and Excipient Enhanced Growth

    PubMed Central

    Walenga, Ross L.; Kaviratna, Anubhav; Hindle, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nebulized aerosol drug delivery during the administration of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is commonly implemented. While studies have shown improved patient outcomes for this therapeutic approach, aerosol delivery efficiency is reported to be low with high variability in lung-deposited dose. Excipient enhanced growth (EEG) aerosol delivery is a newly proposed technique that may improve drug delivery efficiency and reduce intersubject aerosol delivery variability when coupled with NPPV. Materials and Methods: A combined approach using in vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to characterize aerosol delivery efficiency during NPPV in two new nasal cavity models that include face mask interfaces. Mesh nebulizer and in-line dry powder inhaler (DPI) sources of conventional and EEG aerosols were both considered. Results: Based on validated steady-state CFD predictions, EEG aerosol delivery improved lung penetration fraction (PF) values by factors ranging from 1.3 to 6.4 compared with conventional-sized aerosols. Furthermore, intersubject variability in lung PF was very high for conventional aerosol sizes (relative differences between subjects in the range of 54.5%–134.3%) and was reduced by an order of magnitude with the EEG approach (relative differences between subjects in the range of 5.5%–17.4%). Realistic in vitro experiments of cyclic NPPV demonstrated similar trends in lung delivery to those observed with the steady-state simulations, but with lower lung delivery efficiencies. Reaching the lung delivery efficiencies reported with the steady-state simulations of 80%–90% will require synchronization of aerosol administration during inspiration and reducing the size of the EEG aerosol delivery unit. Conclusions: The EEG approach enabled high-efficiency lung delivery of aerosols administered during NPPV and reduced intersubject aerosol delivery variability by an order of magnitude. Use of an in

  14. Noninvasive ventilation for avoidance of reintubation in patients with various cough strength.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jun; Han, Xiaoli; Huang, Shicong; Bai, Linfu

    2016-10-07

    Reintubation is associated with high mortality. Identification of methods to avoid reintubation is needed. The aim of this study was to assess whether prophylactic noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would benefit patients with various cough strengths. We prospectively enrolled 356 patients who successfully passed a spontaneous breathing trial in a respiratory intensive care unit. Before extubation, cough peak flow was measured. After extubation, attending physicians determined whether the patients would receive prophylactic NIV or conventional oxygen treatment (control group). Patients were followed up to 90 days postextubation or death, whichever came first. The median value of cough peak flow was 70 L/minute. Among the patients with cough peak flow ≤70 L/minute, 108 received NIV and 72 received conventional oxygen treatment. In this cohort, NIV reduced reintubation (9 % vs. 35 % at postextubation 72 h, p < 0.01; and 24 % vs. 49 % at postextubation 7 days, p < 0.01) and postextubation 90-day mortality (43 % vs. 61 %, p = 0.02) compared with the control group. Further, use of NIV was an independent protective factor for reintubation (OR = 0.19, p < 0.01 at 72 h postextubation; and OR = 0.33, p < 0.01 at 7 days postextubation) and for death at 90 days postextubation (OR = 0.40, p = 0.02). Among patients with cough peak flow >70 L/minute, 71 received NIV and 105 received conventional oxygen treatment. In this cohort, NIV did not reduce reintubation (6 % vs. 6 % at 72 h postextubation, p > 0.99; and 9 % vs. 9 % at 7 days postextubation, p > 0.99) or postextubation 90-day mortality (21 % vs. 15 %, p = 0.32) compared with the control group. Further, use of NIV was not associated with reintubation or postextubation 90-day mortality. In a planned extubated population, prophylactic NIV benefited patients with weak cough but possibly not in patients with strong cough.

  15. Efficacy of noninvasive volume targeted ventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure due to kyphoscoliosis.

    PubMed

    Piesiak, P; Brzecka, A; Kosacka, M; Jankowska, R

    2015-01-01

    Severe kyphoscoliosis can cause chronic respiratory failure. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is a new optional treatment for such patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of average volume-assured pressure support (AVAPS) NIMV in patients with kyphoscoliotic chronic respiratory failure. The study was performed in 12 patients (mean age 49±11 years and body mass index 27.5±7.9 kg/m2) with advanced kyphoscoliosis complicated by severe respiratory failure (PaO2 6.68±0.34 kPa, SaO2 81.7±3.1%, PaCO2 9.51±1.08 kPa) treated by the NIMV. The short-term, after 5 days, and long-term, after 1 year of home treatment, efficacy of NIMV was evaluated. We found a significant improvement of diurnal PaO2 and PaCO2 on the 5th day of NIMV (an increase of 1.4±0.3 kPa and a decrease of 1.8±0.8 kPa, respectively; p<0.05) and after one year NIMV (an increase of 2.07±0.46 kPa and a decrease of 2.68±0.85 kPa, respectively; p<0.05). There was a significant increase of mean blood oxygen saturation during sleep on the 5th day (86.2±3.2%) and after 1 year of treatment (89.4±2.1%) compared with the baseline level (83.2±3.2%). The forced vital capacity also increased after 1 year (1,024±258 ml vs. the baseline 908±267 ml; p<0.05). The NIMV was well tolerated and no patient discontinued the treatment during the observation period. We conclude that AVAPS NIMV is an effective treatment option in kyphoscoliotic patients with chronic respiratory failure, resulting in a prompt and long-term improvement of daytime and nocturnal blood gas exchange.

  16. Case Report of a Pressure Ulcer Occurring Over the Nasal Bridge Due to a Non-Invasive Ventilation Facial Mask.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq A; Ahmad, Faria; Zahoor, Muhammad Umar U

    2016-10-03

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in patients with respiratory failure, sleep apnoea, and dyspnoea related to pulmonary oedema. NIV is provided through a facial mask. Many complications of NIV facial masks have been reported, including the breakdown of facial skin. We report a case of an elderly male admitted with multiple co-morbidities. The facial mask was applied continuously for NIV, without any relief or formal monitoring of the underlying skin. It resulted in a Grade II pressure ulcer. We discuss the possible mechanism and offer advice for prevention of such device-related pressure ulcers.

  17. Pulmonary Drug Delivery Following Continuous Vibrating Mesh Nebulization and Inspiratory Synchronized Vibrating Mesh Nebulization During Noninvasive Ventilation in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Michotte, Jean-Bernard; Staderini, Enrico; Aubriot, Anne-Sophie; Jossen, Emilie; Dugernier, Jonathan; Liistro, Giuseppe; Reychler, Gregory

    2018-02-01

    A breath-synchronized nebulization option that could potentially improve drug delivery during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is currently not available on single-limb circuit bilevel ventilators. The aim of this study was to compare urinary excretion of amikacin following aerosol delivery with a vibrating mesh nebulizer coupled to a single-limb circuit bilevel ventilator, using conventional continuous (Conti-Neb) and experimental inspiratory synchronized (Inspi-Neb) nebulization modes. A crossover clinical trial involving 6 noninvasive ventilated healthy volunteers (mean age of 32.3 ± 9.5 y) randomly assigned to both vibrating mesh nebulization modes was conducted: Inspi-Neb delivered aerosol during only the whole inspiratory phase, whereas Conti-Neb delivered aerosol continuously. All subjects inhaled amikacin solution (500 mg/4 mL) during NIPPV using a single-limb bilevel ventilator (inspiratory positive airway pressure: 12 cm H 2 O, and expiratory positive airway pressure: 5 cm H 2 O). Pulmonary drug delivery of amikacin following both nebulization modes was compared by urinary excretion of drug for 24 hours post-inhalation. The total daily amount of amikacin excreted in the urine was significantly higher with Inspi-Neb (median: 44.72 mg; interquartile range [IQR]: 40.50-65.13) than with Conti-Neb (median: 40.07 mg; IQR: 31.00-43.73), (p = 0.02). The elimination rate constant of amikacin (indirect measure of the depth of drug penetration into the lungs) was significantly higher with Inspi-Neb (median: 0.137; IQR: 0.113-0.146) than with Conti-Neb (median: 0.116; IQR: 0.105-0.130), (p = 0.02). However, the mean pulmonary drug delivery rate, expressed as the ratio between total daily urinary amount of amikacin and nebulization time, was significantly higher with Conti-Neb (2.03 mg/min) than with Inspi-Neb (1.09 mg/min) (p < 0.01). During NIPPV with a single-limb circuit bilevel ventilator, the use of inspiratory

  18. In Vitro Comparison of a Vibrating Mesh Nebulizer Operating in Inspiratory Synchronized and Continuous Nebulization Modes During Noninvasive Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Michotte, Jean-Bernard; Staderini, Enrico; Le Pennec, Deborah; Dugernier, Jonathan; Rusu, Rares; Roeseler, Jean; Vecellio, Laurent; Liistro, Giuseppe; Reychler, Grégory

    2016-08-01

    Backround: Coupling nebulization with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to be effective in patients with respiratory diseases. However, a breath-synchronized nebulization option that could potentially improve drug delivery by limiting drug loss during exhalation is currently not available on bilevel ventilators. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare aerosol delivery of amikacin with a vibrating mesh nebulizer coupled to a single-limb circuit bilevel ventilator, using conventional continuous (Conti-Neb) and experimental inspiratory synchronized (Inspi-Neb) nebulization modes. Using an adult lung bench model of NIV, we tested a vibrating mesh device coupled with a bilevel ventilator in both nebulization modes. Inspi-Neb delivered aerosol only during the whole inspiratory phase, whereas Conti-Neb delivered aerosol continuously. The nebulizer was charged with amikacin solution (250 mg/3 mL) and placed at two different positions: between the lung and exhalation port and between the ventilator and exhalation port. Inhaled, expiratory wasted and circuit lost doses were assessed by residual gravimetric method. Particle size distribution of aerosol delivered at the outlet of the ventilator circuit during both nebulization modes was measured by laser diffraction method. Regardless of the nebulizer position, Inspi-Neb produced higher inhaled dose (p < 0.01; +6.3% to +16.8% of the nominal dose), lower expiratory wasted dose (p < 0.05; -2.7% to -42.6% of the nominal dose), and greater respirable dose (p < 0.01; +8.4% to +15.2% of the nominal dose) than Conti-Neb. The highest respirable dose was found with the nebulizer placed between the lung and exhalation port (48.7% ± 0.3% of the nominal dose). During simulated NIV with a single-limb circuit bilevel ventilator, the use of inspiratory synchronized vibrating mesh nebulization improves respirable dose and reduces drug loss of amikacin compared with continuous vibrating mesh nebulization.

  19. Factors Associated with Failure of Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in a Critical Care Helicopter Emergency Medical Service.

    PubMed

    Lee, James S; O'Dochartaigh, Domhnall; MacKenzie, Mark; Hudson, Darren; Couperthwaite, Stephanie; Villa-Roel, Cristina; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-06-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is used to treat severe acute respiratory distress. Prehospital NIPPV has been associated with a reduction in both in-hospital mortality and the need for invasive ventilation. The authors of this study examined factors associated with NIPPV failure and evaluated the impact of NIPPV on scene times in a critical care helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS). Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation failure was defined as the need for airway intervention or alternative means of ventilatory support. A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients where NIPPV was completed in a critical care HEMS was conducted. Factors associated with NIPPV failure in univariate analyses and from published literature were included in a multivariable, logistic regression model. From a total of 44 patients, NIPPV failed in 14 (32%); a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)<15 at HEMS arrival was associated independently with NIPPV failure (adjusted odds ratio 13.9; 95% CI, 2.4-80.3; P=.003). Mean scene times were significantly longer in patients who failed NIPPV when compared with patients in whom NIPPV was successful (95 minutes vs 51 minutes; 39.4 minutes longer; 95% CI, 16.2-62.5; P=.001). Patients with a decreased level of consciousness were more likely to fail NIPPV. Furthermore, patients who failed NIPPV had significantly longer scene times. The benefits of NIPPV should be balanced against risks of long scene times by HEMS providers. Knowing risk factors of NIPPV failure could assist HEMS providers to make the safest decision for patients on whether to initiate NIPPV or proceed directly to endotracheal intubation prior to transport.

  20. Weaning mechanical ventilation after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft procedures directed by noninvasive gas measurements.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Murali; Narayan, Sandeep; Govindarajan, Raghav; Jawali, Vivek; Rajeev, Subramanyam

    2010-06-01

    Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen were transcutaneously measured in adults after off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery. The clinical use of such measurements and interchangeability with arterial blood gas measurements for weaning patients from postoperative mechanical ventilation were assessed. This was a prospective observational study. Tertiary referral heart hospital. Postoperative OPCAB surgical patients. Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide measurements. In this prospective observational study, 32 consecutive adult patients in a tertiary care medical center underwent OPCAB surgery. Noninvasive measurement of respiratory gases was performed during the postoperative period and compared with arterial blood gases. The investigator was blinded to the reports of arterial blood gas studies and weaned patients using a "weaning protocol" based on transcutaneous gas measurement. The number of patients successfully weaned based on transcutaneous measurements and the number of times the weaning process was held up were noted. A total of 212 samples (pairs of arterial and transcutaneous values of oxygen and carbon dioxide) were obtained from 32 patients. Bland-Altman plots and mountain plots were used to analyze the interchangeability of the data. Twenty-five (79%) of the patients were weaned from the ventilator based on transcutaneous gas measurements alone. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide measurements were found to be interchangeable with arterial carbon dioxide during 96% of measurements, versus 79% for oxygen measurements. More than three fourths of the patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation and extubated based on transcutaneous gas values alone after OPCAB surgery. The noninvasive transcutaneous carbon dioxide measurement can be used as a surrogate for arterial carbon dioxide measurement to manage postoperative OPCAB patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experience of long-term use of non-invasive ventilation in motor neuron disease: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hikari; Chakrabarti, Biswajit; Angus, Robert M; Cousins, Rosanna; Thornton, Everard W; Young, Carolyn A

    2014-03-01

    Although non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can promote quality of life in motor neuron disease (MND), previous studies have disregarded the impact of progression of illness. This study explored how patients' perceptions of NIV treatment evolve over time and how this was reflected in their adherence to NIV. Five patients with MND (male=4, mean age=59 years), from a bigger cohort who were prospectively followed, had multiple post-NIV semistructured interviews, covering more than 12 months, along with ventilator interaction data. The transcribed phenomenological data were analysed using qualitative methodology. Three themes emerged: experience of NIV, influence on attitudes and perceived impact of NIV on prognosis. The ventilator interaction data identified regular use of NIV by four participants who each gave positive account of their experience of NIV treatment, and irregular use by one participant who at interview revealed a negative attitude to NIV treatment and in whom MND induced feelings of hopelessness. This exploratory study suggests that a positive coping style, adaptation and hope are key factors for psychological well-being and better adherence to NIV. More studies are needed to determine these relationships.

  2. Bulbar impairment score predicts noninvasive volume-cycled ventilation failure during an acute lower respiratory tract infection in ALS.

    PubMed

    Servera, Emilio; Sancho, Jesús; Bañuls, Pilar; Marín, Julio

    2015-11-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients can suffer episodes of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) leading to an acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring noninvasive ventilation (NIV). To determine whether clinical or functional parameters can predict noninvasive management failure during LRTI causing ARF in ALS. A prospective study involving all ALS patients with ARF requiring NIV in a Respiratory Care Unit. NIV was provided with volume-cycled ventilators. 63 ALS patients were included (APACHE II: 14.93±3.56, Norris bulbar subscore (NBS): 18.78±9.68, ALSFRS-R: 19.90±6.98, %FVC: 40.01±18.07%, MIC: 1.62±0.74L, PCF 2.51±1.15L/s, PImax -34.90±19.44cmH2O, PEmax 51.20±28.84cmH2O). In 73.0% of patients NIV was successful in averting death or endotracheal intubation. Differences were found between the success and failure in the NBS (22.08±6.15 vs 8.66±3.39, p<0.001), ALSFRS (22.08±6.11 vs 12.71±4.39, p<0.001), PCFMI-E (3.85±0.77 vs 2.81±0.91L/s, p=0.007) and ALS onset (spinal/bulbar 33/13 vs 7/10, p=0.03). The predictor of NIV failure was the NBS (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.31-0.92, p 0.002) with a cut-off point of 12 (S 0.93; E 0.97; PPV 0.76; NPV 0.97). NBS can predict noninvasive management failure during LRTI in ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of heart rate, acidosis, consciousness, oxygenation, and respiratory rate to predict noninvasive ventilation failure in hypoxemic patients.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jun; Han, Xiaoli; Bai, Linfu; Zhou, Lintong; Huang, Shicong

    2017-02-01

    To develop and validate a scale using variables easily obtained at the bedside for prediction of failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in hypoxemic patients. The test cohort comprised 449 patients with hypoxemia who were receiving NIV. This cohort was used to develop a scale that considers heart rate, acidosis, consciousness, oxygenation, and respiratory rate (referred to as the HACOR scale) to predict NIV failure, defined as need for intubation after NIV intervention. The highest possible score was 25 points. To validate the scale, a separate group of 358 hypoxemic patients were enrolled in the validation cohort. The failure rate of NIV was 47.8 and 39.4% in the test and validation cohorts, respectively. In the test cohort, patients with NIV failure had higher HACOR scores at initiation and after 1, 12, 24, and 48 h of NIV than those with successful NIV. At 1 h of NIV the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.88, showing good predictive power for NIV failure. Using 5 points as the cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy for NIV failure were 72.6, 90.2, 87.2, 78.1, and 81.8%, respectively. These results were confirmed in the validation cohort. Moreover, the diagnostic accuracy for NIV failure exceeded 80% in subgroups classified by diagnosis, age, or disease severity and also at 1, 12, 24, and 48 h of NIV. Among patients with NIV failure with a HACOR score of >5 at 1 h of NIV, hospital mortality was lower in those who received intubation at ≤12 h of NIV than in those intubated later [58/88 (66%) vs. 138/175 (79%); p = 0.03). The HACOR scale variables are easily obtained at the bedside. The scale appears to be an effective way of predicting NIV failure in hypoxemic patients. Early intubation in high-risk patients may reduce hospital mortality.

  4. Low minute ventilation episodes during anesthesia recovery following intraperitoneal surgery as detected by a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Alexandre N; Martin, Yvette N; Sprung, Juraj; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Weingarten, Toby N

    2017-12-20

    An electrical impedance-based noninvasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) accurately reports minute volume, tidal volume and respiratory rate. Here we used the RVM to quantify the occurrence of and evaluate the ability of clinical factors to predict respiratory depression in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). RVM generated respiratory data were collected from spontaneously breathing patients following intraperitoneal surgeries under general anesthesia admitted to the PACU. Respiratory depression was defined as low minute ventilation episode (LMVe, < 40% predicted minute ventilation for at least 2 min). We evaluated for associations between clinical variables including minute ventilation prior to opioid administration and LMVe following the first PACU administration of opioid. Also assessed was a low respiratory rate (< 8 breaths per minute) as a proxy for LMVe. Of 107 patients, 38 (36%) had LMVe. Affected patients had greater intraoperative opioid dose, P = 0.05. PACU opioids were administered to 45 (42.1%) subjects, of which 27 (25.2%) had LMVe (P = 0.42) within 30 min following opioid. Pre-opioid minute ventilation < 70% of predicted normal value was associated with LMVe, P < 0.01, (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 81%).Low respiratory rate was a poor predictor of LMVe (sensitivity = 11.8%). Other clinical variables (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea) were not found to be predictors of LMVe. Using RVM we identified that mild, clinically nondetectable, respiratory depression prior to opioid administration in the PACU was associated with the development of substantial subsequent respiratory depression during the PACU stay.

  5. Early use of non invasive ventilation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: what benefits?

    PubMed

    Terzano, C; Romani, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of an early start of NIV in ALS patients, evaluating respiratory and ventilatory parameters. Functional respiratory parameters and arterial blood gas analysis were evaluated in forty-six patients. All patients were informed about the benefits and possible adverse effects of therapeutic support with NIV and divided in two groups based on the compliance to early start therapy with NIV (Group A) or not (Group B). Among 46 ALS patients consecutively visited in our Unit, we included 20 patients in the Group A and 16 in the Group B. We have emphasized the importance of the early use of NIV stressing the difference between two groups analyzed, particularly in terms of pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas analysis. Significant correlation was observed between Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and maximal inspiratory pressures (PImax). Our study highlights the importance of noninvasive mechanical ventilation as a treatment for ALS patients and also shows the early start of NIV as an important approach in order to postpone the functional decline and the decrease of respiratory muscle strength.

  6. Influence of the ventilatory mode on acute adverse effects and facial thermography after noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Suzy Maria Montenegro; Melo, Luiz Henrique de Paula; Maia, Nathalia Parente de Sousa; Nogueira, Andrea da Nóbrega Cirino; Vasconcelos, Thiago Brasileiro; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Bastos, Vasco Pinheiro Diógenes; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    To compare the incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects and the variation in the temperature of facial skin by thermography after the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We included 20 healthy volunteers receiving NIV via oronasal mask for 1 h. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups according to the ventilatory mode: bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Facial thermography was performed in order to determine the temperature of the face where it was in contact with the mask and of the nasal dorsum at various time points. After removal of the mask, the volunteers completed a questionnaire about adverse effects of NIV. The incidence and intensity of acute adverse effects were higher in the individuals receiving BiPAP than in those receiving CPAP (16.1% vs. 5.6%). Thermographic analysis showed a significant cooling of the facial skin in the two regions of interest immediately after removal of the mask. The more intense acute adverse effects occurred predominantly among the participants in whom the decrease in the mean temperature of the nasal dorsum was lower (14.4% vs. 7.2%). The thermographic visual analysis of the zones of cooling and heating on the face identified areas of hypoperfusion or reactive hyperemia. The use of BiPAP mode was associated with a higher incidence and intensity of NIV-related acute adverse effects. There was an association between acute adverse effects and less cooling of the nasal dorsum immediately after removal of the mask. Cutaneous thermography can be an additional tool to detect adverse effects that the use of NIV has on facial skin. Comparar a incidência e a intensidade de efeitos adversos agudos e a variação da temperatura da pele da face através da termografia após a aplicação de ventilação não invasiva (VNI). Foram incluídos 20 voluntários sadios, de ambos os gêneros, submetidos à VNI com máscara oronasal por 1 h e divididos aleatoriamente em

  7. Effect of Noninvasive Ventilation Delivered by Helmet vs Face Mask on the Rate of Endotracheal Intubation in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhakti K; Wolfe, Krysta S; Pohlman, Anne S; Hall, Jesse B; Kress, John P

    2016-06-14

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with a face mask is relatively ineffective at preventing endotracheal intubation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Delivery of NIV with a helmet may be a superior strategy for these patients. To determine whether NIV delivered by helmet improves intubation rate among patients with ARDS. Single-center randomized clinical trial of 83 patients with ARDS requiring NIV delivered by face mask for at least 8 hours while in the medical intensive care unit at the University of Chicago between October 3, 2012, through September 21, 2015. Patients were randomly assigned to continue face mask NIV or switch to a helmet for NIV support for a planned enrollment of 206 patients (103 patients per group). The helmet is a transparent hood that covers the entire head of the patient and has a rubber collar neck seal. Early trial termination resulted in 44 patients randomized to the helmet group and 39 to the face mask group. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who required endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included 28-day invasive ventilator-free days (ie, days alive without mechanical ventilation), duration of ICU and hospital length of stay, and hospital and 90-day mortality. Eighty-three patients (45% women; median age, 59 years; median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, 26) were included in the analysis after the trial was stopped early based on predefined criteria for efficacy. The intubation rate was 61.5% (n = 24) for the face mask group and 18.2% (n = 8) for the helmet group (absolute difference, -43.3%; 95% CI, -62.4% to -24.3%; P < .001). The number of ventilator-free days was significantly higher in the helmet group (28 vs 12.5, P < .001). At 90 days, 15 patients (34.1%) in the helmet group died compared with 22 patients (56.4%) in the face mask group (absolute difference, -22.3%; 95% CI, -43.3 to -1.4; P = .02). Adverse events included 3

  8. Tension pneumocephalus secondary to non-invasive mechanical ventilation in a patient with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Ruiz, Antonio; Ros-Argente Del Castillo, Tomas; Moya-Sánchez, José; Garcia-Ortega, Ana Azahara

    The presence of air inside intracranial cavity is a rare entity known as pneumocephalus and in most cases doesńt present any clinical repercussion except in case of elevated intracranial pressure that can lead to a decreasing level of consciousness, coma and even death. We present a rare case of a young male, without medical precedents of interest, hospitalized in an intensive care unit for vigilance after a traffic accident with asymptomatic crane encephalic trauma and cranial computerized tomography without meaningful findings. During the intensive care unit stay positive pressure is applied in airway with non-invasive mechanical ventilation that produces air entrance in cranial cavity (pneumocephalus) causing neurological deterioration and necessity of urgent surgery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Turner, W A; Bearg, D W; Brennan, T

    1995-01-01

    This chapter begins with an overview of the history of ventilation guidelines, which has led to the guidelines that are in effect today. Of particular interest is the most recent return in the past 5 years to ventilation rates that more closely reflect a mean or average of the range of guidelines that have existed over the past century. OSHA's and the EPA's recognition of the need to operate ventilation systems in buildings in an accountable manner is also of note. Of even more interest is the resurgence of the concept of minimum mixing and once-through ventilation air that has been pursued in parts of Northern Europe for the past 10 years, and in a school that is being designed with this concept in New Hampshire. In addition, the design concept of equipping office buildings with low pressure drop high efficiency particle filtration to remove fine particles from all of the air that is supplied to the occupants is being used increasingly in the U.S. This chapter also presents an overview of the various types of ventilation systems found in homes and commercial office buildings and the common indoor air quality problems that may be associated with them. It also offers an overview of common HVAC evaluation techniques that can be used to determine if a ventilation system is performing in a manner that makes sense for the use of the space and the needs of the occupants. Are the occupants receiving a reasonable supply of outdoor air? Is the air that they receive of reasonable quality? Are obvious pollutants being exhausted? Ventilation systems have become extremely complex and more difficult to run and maintain over the past 40 years. This trend will continue to drive the need for professionally maintained HVAC equipment that is serviced and run by individuals who are accountable for the quality of the air that the system delivers.

  10. Comparison of the effects of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers on ventilation and gas exchange during non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Samir; Chanques, Gérald; Matecki, Stefan; Ramonatxo, Michèle; Souche, Bruno; Perrigault, Pierre-François; Eledjam, Jean-Jacques

    2002-11-01

    To compare the short-term effects of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) and a heated humidifier (HH) during non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Prospective, clinical investigation. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twenty-four patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Each patient was studied with a HME and a HH in a random order during two consecutive 20min periods of NIV. Respiratory rate (RR), expiratory tidal volume (VTe) and expiratory minute ventilation (VE) were measured during the last 5 min of each period and blood gases were measured. Mean pressure support and positive end-expiratory pressure levels were, respectively, 15+/-4 and 6+/-2 cmH(2)O. VE was significantly greater with HME than with HH (14.8+/-4.8 vs 13.2+/-4.3 l/min; p<0.001). This increase in VE was the result of a greater RR for HME than for HH (26.5+/-10.6 vs 24.1+/-9.8 breaths/min; p=0.002), whereas the VT for HME was similar to that for HH (674+/-156 vs 643+/-148 ml; p=0.09). Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) was significantly higher with a HME than with a HH (43.4+/-8.9 vs 40.8+/-8.2 mmHg; p<0.005), without significantly changing oxygenation. During NIV the increased dead space of a HME can negatively affect ventilatory function and gas exchange. The effect of HME dead space may decrease efficiency of NIV in patients with ARF.

  11. Influence of total face, facial and nasal masks on short-term adverse effects during noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara; Reis, Ricardo Coelho; Winkeler, Georgia Freire Paiva; Fortaleza, Simone Castelo Branco; Lima, José Wellington de Oliveira; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros

    2009-02-01

    Failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been associated with short-term adverse effects related to the use of masks. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence, type and intensity of adverse effects, as well as the comfort, of total face masks (TFMs), facial masks (FMs) and nasal masks (NMs) during NIV. This was a randomized crossover trial involving 24 healthy volunteers submitted to six sessions of NIV in bilevel positive airway pressure mode using the TFM, FM and NM masks at low and moderate-to-high pressure levels. A written questionnaire was applied in order to evaluate eleven specific adverse effects related to the use of the masks. Comfort was assessed using a visual analog scale. The CO2 exhaled into the ventilator circuit was measured between the mask and the exhalation port. The performance of the TFM was similar to that of the NM and FM in terms of comfort scores. Higher pressure levels reduced comfort and increased adverse effects, regardless of the mask type. When the TFM was used, there were fewer air leaks and less pain at the nose bridge, although there was greater oronasal dryness and claustrophobia. Air leaks were most pronounced when the FM was used. The partial pressure of exhaled CO2 entering the ventilator circuit was zero for the TFM. The short-term adverse effects caused by NIV interfaces are related to mask type and pressure settings. The TFM is a reliable alternative to the NM and FM. Rebreathing of CO2 from the circuit is less likely to occur when a TFM is used.

  12. Evolution of the use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a Spanish region, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Carpe-Carpe, Bienvenida; Hernando-Arizaleta, Lauro; Ibáñez-Pérez, M Carmen; Palomar-Rodríguez, Joaquín A; Esquinas-Rodríguez, Antonio M

    2013-08-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) appeared in the 1980s as an alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in patients with acute respiratory failure. We evaluated the introduction of NIV and the results in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Region of Murcia (Spain). A retrospective observational study based on the minimum basic hospital discharge data of all patients hospitalised for this pathology in all public hospitals in the region between 1997 and 2010. We performed a time trend analysis on hospital attendance, the use of each ventilatory intervention and hospital mortality through joinpoint regression. We identified 30.027 hospital discharges. Joinpoint analysis: downward trend in attendance (annual percentage change [APC]=-3.4, 95% CI: - 4.8; -2.0, P <.05) and in the group without ventilatory intervention (APC=-4.2%, -5.6; -2.8, P <.05); upward trend in the use of NIV (APC=16.4, 12.0; 20. 9, P <.05), and downward trend that was not statistically significant in IMV (APC=-4.5%, -10.3; 1.7). We observed an upward trend without statistical significance in overall mortality (APC=0.5, -1.3; 2.4) and in the group without intervention (APC=0.1, -1.6; 1.9); downward trend with statistical significance in the NIV group (APC=-7.1, -11.7; -2.2, P <.05) and not statistically significant in the IMV group (APC=-0,8, -6, 1; 4.8). The mean stay did not change substantially. The introduction of NIV has reduced the group of patients not receiving assisted ventilation. No improvement in results was found in terms of mortality or length of stay. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon dioxide rebreathing during non-invasive ventilation delivered by helmet: a bench study.

    PubMed

    Mojoli, Francesco; Iotti, Giorgio A; Gerletti, Maddalena; Lucarini, Carlo; Braschi, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    To define how to monitor and limit CO(2) rebreathing during helmet ventilation. Physical model study. Laboratory in a university teaching hospital. We applied pressure-control ventilation to a helmet mounted on a physical model. In series 1 we increased CO(2) production (V'CO(2)) from 100 to 550 ml/min and compared mean inhaled CO(2) (iCO(2),mean) with end-inspiratory CO(2) at airway opening (eiCO(2)), end-tidal CO(2) at Y-piece (yCO(2)) and mean CO(2) inside the helmet (hCO(2)). In series 2 we observed, at constant V'CO(2), effects on CO(2) rebreathing of inspiratory pressure, respiratory mechanics, the inflation of cushions inside the helmet and the addition of a flow-by. In series 1, iCO(2),mean linearly related to V'CO(2). The best estimate of CO(2) rebreathing was provided by hCO(2): differences between iCO(2),mean and hCO(2), yCO(2) and eiCO(2) were 0.0+/-0.1, 0.4+/-0.2 and -1.3+/-0.5%. In series 2, hCO(2) inversely related to the total ventilation (MVtotal) delivered to the helmet-patient unit. The increase in inspiratory pressure significantly increased MVtotal and lowered hCO(2). The low lung compliance halved the patient:helmet ventilation ratio but led to minor changes in MVtotal and hCO(2). Cushion inflation, although it decreased the helmet's internal volume by 33%, did not affect rebreathing. A 8-l/min flow-by effectively decreased hCO(2). During helmet ventilation, rebreathing can be assessed by measuring hCO(2) or yCO(2), but not eiCO(2). It is directly related to V'CO(2), inversely related to MVtotal and can be lowered by increasing inspiratory pressure or adding a flow-by.

  14. Effect of tubing condensate on non-invasive positive pressure ventilators tested under simulated clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hart, Diana Elizabeth; Forman, Mark; Veale, Andrew G

    2011-09-01

    Water condensate in the humidifier tubing can affect bi-level ventilation by narrowing tube diameter and increasing airflow resistance. We investigated room temperature and tubing type as ways to reduce condensate and its effect on bi-level triggering and pressure delivery. In this bench study, the aim was to test the hypothesis that a relationship exists between room temperature and tubing condensate. Using a patient simulator, a Res-med bi-level device was set to 18/8 cm H(2)O and run for 6 h at room temperatures of 16°C, 18°C and 20°C. The built-in humidifier was set to a low, medium or high setting while using unheated or insulated tubing or replaced with a humidifier using heated tubing. Humidifier output, condensate, mask pressure and triggering delay of the bi-level were measured at 1 and 6 h using an infrared hygrometer, metric weights, Honeywell pressure transducer and TSI pneumotach. When humidity output exceeded 17.5 mg H(2)O/L, inspiratory pressure fell by 2-15 cm H(2)O and triggering was delayed by 0.2-0.9 s. Heating the tubing avoided any such ventilatory effect whereas warmer room temperatures or insulating the tubing were of marginal benefit. Users of bi-level ventilators need to be aware of this problem and its solution. Bi-level humidifier tubing may need to be heated to ensure correct humidification, pressure delivery and triggering.

  15. [Face protective patches do not reduce facial pressure ulcers in a simulated model of non-invasive ventilation].

    PubMed

    Riquelme M, Hugo; Wood V, David; Martínez F, Santiago; Carmona M, Fernando; Peña V, Axel; Wegner A, Adriana

    2017-06-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) frequently involves the development of facial pressure ulcers (FPU). Its prevention considers the empirical use of protective patches between skin and mask, in order to reduce the pressure exerted by it. To evaluate the effect of protective patches on the pressure exerted by the facial mask, and its impact on the programmed ventilatory parameters. Bilevel NIV simulated model using full face mask in phantom with a physiological airway (ALS PRO +) in supine position. Forehead, chin and cheekbones pressure were measured using 3 types of standard protective patches versus a control group using pressure sensors (Interlinks Electronics®). The values obtained with the protective patches-mask model were evaluated in the programmed variables maximum inspiratory flow (MIF)), expired tidal volume (Vte) and positive inspiratory pressure (IPAP), with Trilogy 100 ventilator, Respironics®. The programming and recording of the variables was carried out in 8 opportunities in each group by independent operators. There was no decrease in facial pressure with any of the protective patches compared to the control group. Moltopren increased facial pressure at all support points (p < 0.001), increased leakage, it decreased MIF, Vte and IPAP (p < 0.001). Hydrocolloid patches increased facial pressure only in the left cheekbone, increased leakage and decreased MIF. Polyurethane patches did not produce changes in facial pressure or ventilatory variables. The use of protective patches of moltopren, hydrocolloid and polyurethane transparent did not contribute to the decrease of the facial pressure. A deleterious effect of the moltopren and hydrocolloid patches was observed on the administration of ventilatory variables, concluding that the non-use of the protective patches allowed a better administration of the programmed parameters.

  16. Effects of non-invasive ventilation on objective sleep and nocturnal respiration in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Boentert, Matthias; Brenscheidt, Inga; Glatz, Christian; Young, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is indicated if sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), daytime hypercapnia, or significant diaphragmatic weakness is present. We investigated both short-term and long-term effects of NIV on objective measures of sleep and nocturnal respiration in patients with ALS. Polysomnography (PSG) and transcutaneous capnography were conducted for diagnosis of SDB (T0), for treatment initiation (T1), and follow-up 3, 9, and 15 months later (T2, T3, and T4, respectively). Records from 65 patients were retrospectively analyzed at T0 and T1. At subsequent timepoints, the number of full data sets decreased since follow-up sleep studies frequently included polygraphy rather than PSG (T2, 38 patients, T3, 17 patients, T4, 11 patients). At T0, mean age was 63.2 years, 29 patients were female, and 22 patients had bulbar ALS. Immediate sequelae of NIV initiation included significant increases of slow wave sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and oxygen saturation. Mean apnea-hypopnea index, respiratory rate, and the maximum transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension were reduced. At T2-T4, normoxia and normocapnia were preserved. Sleep quality measures showed no alteration as diurnal use of NIV gradually increased reflecting disease progression. In contrast to previous reports, improvement of sleep and respiratory outcomes was found in both non-bulbar and bulbar patients. NIV significantly improves objective sleep quality and SDB in the first night of treatment in patients with bulbar and non-bulbar ALS. NIV warrants nocturnal normoventilation without deterioration of sleep quality in the long run with only minor changes to ventilator settings.

  17. Mixed acid-base disorders, hydroelectrolyte imbalance and lactate production in hypercapnic respiratory failure: the role of noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Terzano, Claudio; Di Stefano, Fabio; Conti, Vittoria; Di Nicola, Marta; Paone, Gregorino; Petroianni, Angelo; Ricci, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Hypercapnic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation in patients with comorbidities and multidrug therapy is complicated by mixed acid-base, hydro-electrolyte and lactate disorders. Aim of this study was to determine the relationships of these disorders with the requirement for and duration of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) when treating hypercapnic respiratory failure. Sixty-seven consecutive patients who were hospitalized for hypercapnic COPD exacerbation had their clinical condition, respiratory function, blood chemistry, arterial blood gases, blood lactate and volemic state assessed. Heart and respiratory rates, pH, PaO(2) and PaCO(2) and blood lactate were checked at the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 24th hours after starting NIV. Nine patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. NIV was performed in 11/17 (64.7%) mixed respiratory acidosis-metabolic alkalosis, 10/36 (27.8%) respiratory acidosis and 3/5 (60%) mixed respiratory-metabolic acidosis patients (p = 0.026), with durations of 45.1 ± 9.8, 36.2 ± 8.9 and 53.3 ± 4.1 hours, respectively (p = 0.016). The duration of ventilation was associated with higher blood lactate (p<0.001), lower pH (p = 0.016), lower serum sodium (p = 0.014) and lower chloride (p = 0.038). Hyponatremia without hypervolemic hypochloremia occurred in 11 respiratory acidosis patients. Hypovolemic hyponatremia with hypochloremia and hypokalemia occurred in 10 mixed respiratory acidosis-metabolic alkalosis patients, and euvolemic hypochloremia occurred in the other 7 patients with this mixed acid-base disorder. Mixed acid-base and lactate disorders during hypercapnic COPD exacerbations predict the need for and longer duration of NIV. The combination of mixed acid-base disorders and hydro-electrolyte disturbances should be further investigated.

  18. Mixed Acid-Base Disorders, Hydroelectrolyte Imbalance and Lactate Production in Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure: The Role of Noninvasive Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Terzano, Claudio; Di Stefano, Fabio; Conti, Vittoria; Di Nicola, Marta; Paone, Gregorino; Petroianni, Angelo; Ricci, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypercapnic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) exacerbation in patients with comorbidities and multidrug therapy is complicated by mixed acid-base, hydro-electrolyte and lactate disorders. Aim of this study was to determine the relationships of these disorders with the requirement for and duration of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) when treating hypercapnic respiratory failure. Methods Sixty-seven consecutive patients who were hospitalized for hypercapnic COPD exacerbation had their clinical condition, respiratory function, blood chemistry, arterial blood gases, blood lactate and volemic state assessed. Heart and respiratory rates, pH, PaO2 and PaCO2 and blood lactate were checked at the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 24th hours after starting NIV. Results Nine patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. NIV was performed in 11/17 (64.7%) mixed respiratory acidosis–metabolic alkalosis, 10/36 (27.8%) respiratory acidosis and 3/5 (60%) mixed respiratory-metabolic acidosis patients (p = 0.026), with durations of 45.1±9.8, 36.2±8.9 and 53.3±4.1 hours, respectively (p = 0.016). The duration of ventilation was associated with higher blood lactate (p<0.001), lower pH (p = 0.016), lower serum sodium (p = 0.014) and lower chloride (p = 0.038). Hyponatremia without hypervolemic hypochloremia occurred in 11 respiratory acidosis patients. Hypovolemic hyponatremia with hypochloremia and hypokalemia occurred in 10 mixed respiratory acidosis–metabolic alkalosis patients, and euvolemic hypochloremia occurred in the other 7 patients with this mixed acid-base disorder. Conclusions Mixed acid-base and lactate disorders during hypercapnic COPD exacerbations predict the need for and longer duration of NIV. The combination of mixed acid-base disorders and hydro-electrolyte disturbances should be further investigated. PMID:22539963

  19. Non-invasive ventilation in complex obstructive sleep apnea--a 15-year experience of a pediatric tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Girbal, I C; Gonçalves, C; Nunes, T; Ferreira, R; Pereira, L; Saianda, A; Bandeira, T

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 1-3% of pediatric population and is associated with significant morbidity. As adenotonsillar hypertrophy (ATH) is its primary cause in children, elective adenotonsillectomy is the first treatment of choice. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been increasingly considered as an option, mainly for children with complex diseases, ineligible or waiting for surgeries, or after surgery failure. To describe the experience in the management of children with complex OSA, and to evidence the feasibility and advantages of NIV. This was a retrospective cohort study of 68 children on NIV, in whom complex OSA was the main indication for ventilation, in a Pediatric Respiratory Unit at a University Hospital between January 1997 and March 2012. Demographic and clinical data were collected on the underlying diagnosis, therapeutic interventions prior to NIV, NIV related issues and outcome. Forty (59%) children were male, median age at starting NIV was 6 years and 7 months, with interquartile range (IQR) of 15-171 months. Twenty-two (32%) were infants and 25 (37%) adolescents. The most common diagnosis was congenital malformations and genetic disorders in 34 (50%) patients. Nine patients had cerebral palsy, 8 were post treatment for central nervous system tumors and 6 had inborn errors of metabolism. Three children had ATH and three obesity. The majority of patients (76%) had exclusively obstructive OSA and started CPAP. Ten patients had minor complications. Twenty-two patients stopped NIV due to clinical improvement, 8 were non-compliant and 8 patients died. NIV median duration was 21.5 months (IQR: 7-72). NIV is feasible and well tolerated by children with OSA associated with complex disorders, and has been shown to have few complications even in infants and toddlers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Hygrometric properties of inspired gas and oral dryness in patients with acute respiratory failure during noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Oto, Jun; Nakataki, Emiko; Okuda, Nao; Onodera, Mutsuo; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2014-01-01

    Because noninvasive ventilation (NIV) delivers medical gas at high flow, inadequate humidification may cause oral dryness and patient discomfort. Heated humidification can be used during NIV, but little has been reported about the effects on the hygrometric conditions inside an oronasal mask and oral dryness during 24 hours on NIV. We measured absolute humidity (AH) inside oronasal masks on subjects with acute respiratory failure during 24 hours on NIV. A single-limb turbine ventilator and oronasal mask with an exhalation port were used for NIV. Oral moistness was evaluated using an oral moisture-checking device, and 3 times during the 24 hours the subjects subjectively scored the feeling of dryness on a 0-10 scale in which 10 was the most severe dryness. Sixteen subjects were enrolled. The mean ± SD AH inside the mask was 30.0 ± 2.6 mg H2O/L (range 23.1-33.3 mg H2O/L). The median oral moistness was 19.2% (IQR 4.4-24.0%), and the median oral dryness score was 5.5 (IQR 4-7). AH and inspired gas leak correlated inversely, both within the subjects (r = -0.56, P < .001) and between the subjects (r = -0.58, P = .02). AH and oral moistness correlated within the subjects (r = 0.39, P = .04). Oral breathing was associated with reduced oral moistness (P = .001) and increased oral dryness score (P = .002). AH varied among the subjects, and some complained of oral dryness even with heated humidifier. Oral breathing decreased oral moistness and worsened the feeling of dryness.

  1. Long term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in children: Initiation criteria in real life.

    PubMed

    Amaddeo, A; Moreau, J; Frapin, A; Khirani, S; Felix, O; Fernandez-Bolanos, M; Ramirez, A; Fauroux, B

    2016-09-01

    Long term noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are increasingly used in children but limited information is available on the criteria and conditions leading to the initiation of these treatments. The aim of the study is to describe the objective overnight respiratory parameters and clinical situations that led to the initiation of CPAP/NIV in a pediatric NIV unit. Retrospective analysis of the data of all the children discharged on home CPAP/NIV over a 1 year period. Seventy-six patients were started on CPAP (n = 64) or NIV (n = 12). CPAP/NIV was initiated because of CPAP/NIV weaning failure (Acute group) in 15 patients. None of these patients had an overnight gas exchange or sleep study before CPAP/NIV initiation. In 18 patients, CPAP/NIV was initiated on abnormal nocturnal gas exchange alone (Subacute group). These patients had a median of three of the following five overnight gas exchange abnormalities: minimal pulse oximetry (SpO2 ) <90%, maximal transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtcCO2 ) >50 mmHg, time spent with SpO2 <90% or PtcCO2 >50 mmHg ≥2% of recording time, oxygen desaturation index >1.4/hr. In the last 43 patients, CPAP/NIV was initiated after an abnormal sleep study (Chronic group) on a mean of four of the aforementioned criteria and an apnea-hypopnea index >10/hr. In clinical practice, CPAP/NIV was initiated in an acute, subacute and chronic setting with most patients having an association of several abnormal gas exchange or sleep study parameters. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of CPAP/NIV according to the clinical situation and initiation criteria. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 51:968-974. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A survey of combined epidural-propofol anesthesia with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation as a minimally invasive anesthetic protocol.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Hiroshi; Obara, Shinju; Ozawa, Sachie; Furuta, Setsuo; Ohmizo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Toshikazu

    2003-07-01

    Combined epidural-propofol anesthesia with use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) via the nose has been used routinely in our operating theaters. The purpose of this report was to present a survey of this anesthesia. 265 adult patients undergoing lower extremity or lower abdominal gynecological surgery during 1999 were examined. After epidural anesthesia, patients were given propofol infusion. NPPV was applied with an inspiratory/expiratory positive airway pressure of 14/8 cm H2O, a respiratory rate of 10 breaths/min, and oxygen delivery into the nasal mask resulting in a concentration of 40% or an inspiratory oxygen fraction of 0.35. Epidural anesthesia was continuously applied after surgery for postoperative pain relief. Various data related to the surgery or anesthesia were evaluated both on the day of surgery and on postoperative day 1. Of 265 patients, 3 patients could not receive our anesthetic protocol. Of the residual 262 patients, no patients showed serious clinical problems during anesthesia, excluding for hypotension, which was observed in 31-56% patients and was treated with ephedrine injection. Patients informed us of good analgesia (98%), feelings (78%) and dreams (47%). On postoperative day 1, postoperative analgesia and mood conditions were satisfactory. There were no patients complaining of intraoperative awareness. The principle of our anesthesia consists of epidural anesthesia, sole propofol infusion and noninvasive airway management, so as to provide an anesthetic technique with minimal invasiveness. Although airway maintenance by NPPV is not always suitable, our anesthesia is practicable for certain kinds of operations.

  3. Respiratory training during rehabilitation of acute organic fluorine-poisoned patients treated by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Liu, D Z; Wang, Q P; Zhu, Z L; Li, H M; Lu, X Y

    2017-01-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the effects of respiratory training on pulmonary function during the rehabilitation period for acute organic fluorine-poisoned patients treated by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Sixty-two acute organic fluorine-poisoned patients admitted to the Xinxiang Central Hospital, Xinxiang City, China, from May 2012 to March 2016 were selected and randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 31 cases in each. Both groups received NIPPV. The patients in the control group exercised daily, while the patients in the observation group received contracting lips-abdominal breathing training. The therapeutic effects, pulmonary ventilation function, serum levels of α-antitrypsin1 (α-AT1), surfactant protein D (SP-D), neutrophil elastase (NE), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and quality of life were analyzed and compared between the two groups both before and after the administration of treatment. The total effective rate of the observation group was 93.55%, which was significantly higher when compared with the control group (74.19%) (P less than 0.05). The levels of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, vital capacity (VC), carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLco), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) of the observation group were better when compared with the control group and had statistical significance (P less than 0.05). Before treatment, the serum levels of α-AT1, SP-D, NE, and TGF-β1, and quality of life had no statistical significance in either group (P>0.05); after treatment, these indexes and the quality of life for the observation group were significantly higher when compared with the control group, with statistical significance (P less than 0.05). The respiratory training in acute organic fluorine-poisoned patients treated by NIPPV can improve the serum indexes, dilute toxicity, and recover pulmonary function, which play key roles in improving the

  4. Impact of invasive and noninvasive quantitative culture sampling on outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Nieto, J M; Torres, A; Garcia-Cordoba, F; El-Ebiary, M; Carrillo, A; Ruiz, J; Nuñez, M L; Niederman, M

    1998-02-01

    We performed an open, prospective, randomized clinical trial in 51 patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 72 h, in order to evaluate the impact of using either invasive (protected specimen brush [PSB] and bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] via fiberoptic bronchoscopy) or noninvasive (quantitative endotracheal aspirates [QEA]) diagnostic methods on the morbidity and mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A patients (n = 24) underwent QEA, PSB, and BAL; Group B patients (n = 27) underwent only QEA cultures. Empiric antibiotic treatment was given according to the attending physician and was modified according to the results of cultures and sensitivity in Group A using PSB and BAL results and in Group B based upon QEA cultures. Bacteriologic cultures were done quantitatively for EA, PSB, and BAL. Thresholds of > or = 10(5), > or = 10(3), and > or = 10(4) CFU/ml were used for QEA, PSB, and BAL, respectively. Microbial cultures from Group A patients were positive in 16 (67%) BAL samples, 14 (58%) PSB samples, and 16 (67%) QEA samples. In Group B patients, QEA microbial cultures yielded positive results in 20 of 27 (74%) samples. In Group A, there was total agreement between culture results of the three techniques on 17 (71%) occasions. In five (21%) cases, QEA coincided with either BAL or PBS. In only two (8%) cases, QEA cultures did not coincide with either PSB or BAL. No cases of positive BAL or PSB cultures had negative QEA cultures. Initial antibiotic treatment was modified in 10 (42%) patients from Group A and in four (16%) patients from Group B (p < 0.05). The observed crude mortality rate was 11 of 24 (46%) in Group A, and 7 of 27 (26%) in Group B, whereas the adjusted mortality rates (observed crude minus predicted at admission) for Groups A and B were 29 and 10%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing crude and adjusted mortality rates of Groups

  5. Psychological as well as illness factors influence acceptance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and gastrostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): a prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Naomi H; Landau, Sabine; Janssen, Anna; Lyall, Rebecca; Higginson, Irene; Burman, Rachel; McCrone, Paul; Sakel, Mohammed; Ellis, Catherine M; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Leigh, P Nigel; Goldstein, Laura H

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to identify factors associated with acceptance of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and gastrostomy in an exploratory population-based study. Seventy-eight people with ALS at least six months post-diagnosis, and 50 caregivers, were recruited from the South-East ALS Register. Baseline physical, cognitive and psychological measures were obtained. Three-monthly follow-ups monitored whether patients had accepted or refused NIV or gastrostomy. Following an intervention decision, post-decision interviews repeated baseline measures and included further intervention-specific questionnaires. Results showed that 32 people with ALS made at least one intervention decision and of these 10 decided about both NIV and gastrostomy. While illness factors predicted those needing to make an intervention decision, cognitive and education status, and level of executive dysfunction were associated with decision-making and acceptance or refusal of interventions. Patients' understanding of their illness, their early approach to considering interventions and carer-related factors were also associated with treatment decisions. In conclusion, our findings highlight the complexity of decision-making and provide a platform for designing further studies. Cognitive and psychosocial factors may assume a greater role in palliative care decisions for people with ALS than has been explicitly recognized. Future work must clarify how to ensure patients are not inadvertently being denied suitable interventions.

  6. Factors predicting survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients on non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Calzada, Nuria; Prats Soro, Enric; Mateu Gomez, Lluis; Giro Bulta, Esther; Cordoba Izquierdo, Ana; Povedano Panades, Monica; Dorca Sargatal, Jordi; Farrero Muñoz, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non invasive ventilation (NIV) improves quality of life and extends survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. However, few data exist about the factors related to survival. We intended to assess the predictive factors that influence survival in patients after NIV initiation. Patients who started NIV from 2000 to 2014 and were tolerant (compliance ≥ 4 hours) were included; demographic, disease related and respiratory variables at NIV initiation were analysed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier test and Cox proportional hazard models. 213 patients were included with median survival from NIV initiation of 13.5 months. In univariate analysis, the identified risk factors for mortality were severity of bulbar involvement (HR 2), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) % (HR 0.99) and ALSFRS-R (HR 0.97). Multivariate analysis showed that bulbar involvement (HR 1.92) and ALSFRS-R (HR 0.97) were independent predictive factors of survival in patients on NIV. In our study, the two prognostic factors in ALS patients following NIV were the severity of bulbar involvement and ALSFRS-R at the time on NIV initiation. A better assessment of bulbar involvement, including evaluation of the upper airway, and a careful titration on NIV are necessary to optimize treatment efficacy.

  7. Outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion in respiratory impaired amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients under noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Czell, David; Bauer, Matthias; Binek, Janek; Schoch, Otto D; Weber, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with impaired respiratory function is associated with an increased risk of peri-procedural and post-interventional complications. It was the aim of the study to analyze peri- and post-interventional complications and survival after PEG tube placement under noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS patients with various degrees of respiratory impairment. Twenty-six subjects were included in this retrospective case study. Prior to PEG tube placement, training with ventilatory support via an oronasal mask was performed with ALS subjects on the pneumology ward. PEG placement was then performed under continuous NIV. FVC, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure, and demographic data were assessed. Complication rates and 1-month and overall survival rates were analyzed. There were no deaths within 24 hours after PEG placement. One subject died within the first month. The mean survival rate after PEG was 12 ± 10 months (range 0.6-42 months). There was no difference in post-PEG survival between subjects with moderately (> 50%) and severely (< 50%) impaired FVC. In this case series, PEG tube insertion was associated with minimal peri- and post-procedural complications. The low complication rate might be due to the systematic use of procedural NIV in ALS subjects.

  8. Outcome of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis treated with non-invasive ventilation and riluzole.

    PubMed

    Sívori, Martín; Rodríguez, Gabriel E; Pascansky, Daniel; Sáenz, César; Sica, Roberto E P

    2007-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is a progressive degenerative motor neuron disorder lacking specific treatment. Riluzole is the only drug able to modestly slow down the course of the disease. Respiratory insufficiency is the main cause of death; non invasive ventilation (NIV) has shown to improve survival. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of NIV and riluzole on survival. Ninety seven patients with a diagnosis of sALS were assessed and followed up for 60 months. Twenty nine patients received NIV and 68 did not (nNIV). Overall median survival In the NIV group was 15.41 +/- 7.78 months vs. 10.88 +/- 7.78 months in the nNIV group (p= 0.028). Median survival time was not different in patients receiving riluzole (n=44), as compared with those who did not (n=53), although at month 4th and 5th riluzole treated patients showed a modest benefit. In those who only received NIV (n=11) or only riluzole (n=26), survival time was 13.45 +/- 13.44 months and 11.19 +/- 7.79 months, respectively. Patients who received both NIV and riluzole (n=18) had a median survival time of 16.61 +/- 10.97 months vs. 10.69 +/- 7.86 months for those who received only supportive treatment (n=42) (p= 0.021). NIV improved survival in our series of patients. Riluzole did not show any significant impact on survival when employed as the only therapy. Patients receiving both treatments simultaneously had a significant longer survival.

  9. The use of subcutaneous glycopyrrolate in the management of sialorrhoea and facilitating the use of non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Shaw, Pamela

    2011-11-01

    Sialorrhoea is a recognized complication of bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that leads to an increased risk of potentially harmful aspiration and often prevents patients from tolerating non-invasive ventilation (NIV). A case of treatment-resistant sialorrhoea in bulbar ALS is described where subcutaneous glycopyrrolate was effective without significant side-effects. The patient went on to markedly increase the length of time she could tolerate NIV each night.

  10. Perspectives on advance care planning among patients recently requiring non-invasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure: A qualitative study using thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracy A; Disler, Rebecca T; Jenkins, Christine R; Ingham, Jane M; Davidson, Patricia M

    2017-06-01

    Patients requiring non-invasive ventilation for acute-on-chronic respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure exacerbations may have a poor prognosis underscoring the importance of advance care planning. We aimed to describe attitudes to, and experiences of, discussing the future among patients recently treated with non-invasive ventilation. Qualitative research using thematic analysis. Tertiary teaching hospital. Patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring non-invasive ventilation. Individuals recently treated with non-invasive ventilation describe feeling the future is beyond their control and instead controlled by their illness. Participants often recognised their poor prognosis but avoided discussing some difficult topics. The majority preferred not to undergo cardiopulmonary resuscitation but most had not discussed this with healthcare professionals. When participants voiced concerns about their future health to family members, they were met with polarised responses. Some encountered willingness for further discussion, while others met deflection, deterring further conversation. An overarching narrative of 'Looking through my illness to an uncertain but concerning future' unites these themes. This study suggests opportunities and barriers for advance care planning in individuals with chronic disease. Patients' understanding of their prognosis and their attitudes to cardiopulmonary resuscitation suggests an opportunity for advance care planning. Structuring discussions around patients' preferences for care during future exacerbations may foster a sense of control over the future despite illness. The diversity of familial responses to patients' concerns about their future health has implications for advance care planning. These findings have the potential to improve care for patients with respiratory failure and suggest an important ongoing research agenda.

  11. Early application of airway pressure release ventilation may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongfang; Jin, Xiaodong; Lv, Yinxia; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yunqing; Liang, Guopeng; Wang, Bo; Kang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Experimental animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have shown that the updated airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) methodologies may significantly improve oxygenation, maximize lung recruitment, and attenuate lung injury, without circulatory depression. This led us to hypothesize that early application of APRV in patients with ARDS would allow pulmonary function to recover faster and would reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation as compared with low tidal volume lung protective ventilation (LTV). A total of 138 patients with ARDS who received mechanical ventilation for <48 h between May 2015 to October 2016 while in the critical care medicine unit (ICU) of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive APRV (n = 71) or LTV (n = 67). The settings for APRV were: high airway pressure (P high ) set at the last plateau airway pressure (P plat ), not to exceed 30 cmH 2 O) and low airway pressure ( P low ) set at 5 cmH 2 O; the release phase (T low ) setting adjusted to terminate the peak expiratory flow rate to ≥ 50%; release frequency of 10-14 cycles/min. The settings for LTV were: target tidal volume of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight; P plat not exceeding 30 cmH 2 O; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) guided by the PEEP-FiO 2 table according to the ARDSnet protocol. The primary outcome was the number of days without mechanical ventilation from enrollment to day 28. The secondary endpoints included oxygenation, P plat , respiratory system compliance, and patient outcomes. Compared with the LTV group, patients in the APRV group had a higher median number of ventilator-free days {19 [interquartile range (IQR) 8-22] vs. 2 (IQR 0-15); P < 0.001}. This finding was independent of the coexisting differences in chronic disease. The APRV group had a shorter stay in the ICU (P = 0.003). The ICU mortality rate was 19.7% in the APRV group versus 34.3% in the

  12. Chronic respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease under home noninvasive ventilation: Real-life study.

    PubMed

    Durão, V; Grafino, M; Pamplona, P

    2018-04-05

    Home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been increasingly used in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF). However its effectiveness remains debatable. To describe a follow-up of COPD patients under home NIV. Retrospective descriptive study based on a prospective 3-year database that included COPD patients under home NIV between August 2011 and July 2014. Within the 334 patients initially screened, 109 (32.6%) had COPD with a mean±SD post-bronchodilator FEV1 of 38.6±14.9% predicted; age of 65.6±9.6 years. The mean±SD duration of ventilation was 63.4±51.1 months. Heterogeneous comorbidities that can contribute to CHRF were not excluded: obstructive sleep apnea and obesity were the most prevalent. Sixty-two (56.9%) patients started NIV during admission with acute respiratory failure. During follow-up there was a significant increase in mean inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and respiratory rate (19.5±4.4 vs. 23.6±5.3cmH 2 O and 10.7±5.2 vs. 15.2±1.4 breaths/min, respectively, p<0.0001), with a significant improvement in hypercapnia (PaCO 2 : 52.9±7.7 vs. 49.5±7.5mmHg, p<0.0001), with 93.3% of patients compliant to NIV. Admissions and days spent in hospital for respiratory illness significantly decreased after institution of NIV (respectively, 1.2±1.1 vs. 0.7±1.8 and 15.0±16.8 vs. 8.8±19.4, p<0.001). At final evaluation, patients with severe hypercapnia (n=47; PaCO 2 ≥50mmHg) performing NIV at higher pressures (n=30; IPAP ≥25cmH 2 O) were more compliant (10.1±3.3 vs. 6.1±3.6h/day). Three-year mortality was 24.8% (27 of 109 patients). This is a real-life retrospective study in COPD patients with CHRF which results suggest benefit from home NIV. For most, NIV was effective and tolerable even at high pressures. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypercapnia Response in Patients with Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome Treated with Non-Invasive Ventilation at Home.

    PubMed

    Fernández Álvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Ruiz Alvarez, Ines; Hermida Valverde, Tamara; Iscar Urrutia, Marta; Vázquez Lopez, María José; Casan Clara, Pere

    2018-06-02

    Respiratory center (RC) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), and often requires treatment with home non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Our objective was to measure the effect of NIV on RC function in patients with OHS, and the factors that determine such an effect. We performed a prospective, repeated measures study to evaluate hypercapnia response (HR) by determining the p01/pEtCO 2 ratio slope at baseline and after 6months of treatment with NIV in a group of OHS patients. A threshold of 0.22cmH 2 O/mmHg had previously been established in a control group, in order to differentiate optimal RC response from suboptimal RC response. A total of 36 cases were included, 19 men (52%) aged 65 (SD 9) years, 63% of whom had p01/pEtCO 2 below the reference value. Baseline p01/pEtCO 2 was 0.17 (SD: 0.14) cmH 2 O/mmHg and, after 6 months of NIV, 0.30 (SD: 0.22) cmH 2 O/mmHg (p=0.011). After 6months of treatment with NIV, depressed RC function persisted in 12 cases (33%). In total, 63% of OHS patients had RC dysfunction. The application of NIV improves RC function but not in all cases. Copyright © 2018 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Mid- and Long-Term Efficacy of Non-Invasive Ventilation in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: The Pickwick's Study.

    PubMed

    López-Jiménez, María José; Masa, Juan F; Corral, Jaime; Terán, Joaquín; Ordaz, Estrella; Troncoso, Maria F; González-Mangado, Nicolás; González, Mónica; Lopez-Martínez, Soledad; De Lucas, Pilar; Marín, José M; Martí, Sergi; Díaz-Cambriles, Trinidad; Díaz-de-Atauri, Josefa; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Egea, Carlos; Romero, Auxiliadora; Benítez, José M; Sánchez-Gómez, Jesús; Golpe, Rafael; Santiago-Recuerda, Ana; Gómez, Silvia; Barbe, Ferrán; Bengoa, Mónica

    2016-03-01

    The Pickwick project was a prospective, randomized and controlled study, which addressed the issue of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), a growing problem in developed countries. OHS patients were divided according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥30 and <30 determined by polysomnography. The group with AHI≥30 was randomized to intervention with lifestyle changes, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP); the group with AHI<30 received NIV or lifestyle changes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of NIV treatment, CPAP and lifestyle changes (control) in the medium and long-term management of patients with OHS. The primary variables were PaCO2 and days of hospitalization, and operating variables were the percentage of dropouts for medical reasons and mortality. Secondary medium-term objectives were: (i)to evaluate clinical-functional effectiveness on quality of life, echocardiographic and polysomnographic variables; (ii)to investigate the importance of apneic events and leptin in the pathogenesis of daytime alveolar hypoventilation and change according to the different treatments; (ii)to investigate whether metabolic, biochemical and vascular endothelial dysfunction disorders depend on the presence of apneas and hypopneasm and (iv)changes in inflammatory markers and endothelial damage according to treatment. Secondary long-term objectives were to evaluate: (i)clinical and functional effectiveness and quality of life with NIV and CPAP; (ii)changes in leptin, inflammatory markers and endothelial damage according to treatment; (iii)changes in pulmonary hypertension and other echocardiographic variables, as well as blood pressure and incidence of cardiovascular events, and (iv)dropout rate and mortality. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of accepting non-invasive ventilation treatment in motor neurone disease: a quantitative analysis at point of need.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Rosanna; Ando, Hikari; Thornton, Everard; Chakrabarti, Biswajit; Angus, Robert; Young, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Motor neurone disease (MND) progressively damages the nervous system causing wasting to muscles, including those used for breathing. There is robust evidence that non-invasive ventilation (NIV) relieves respiratory symptoms and improves quality of life in MND. Nevertheless, about a third of those who would benefit from NIV decline the treatment. The purpose of the study was to understand this phenomenon. Design : A cross-sectional quantitative analysis. Methods : Data including age, sex, MND symptomatology, general physical and mental health and psychological measures were collected from 27 patients and their family caregivers at the point of being offered ventilatory support based on physiological markers. Results : Quantitative analyses indicated no difference in patient characteristics or symptomatology between those who tolerated ( n  = 17) and those who declined ( n  = 10) NIV treatment. A comparison of family caregivers found no differences in physical or mental health or in caregiving distress, emphasising that this was high in both groups; however, family caregivers supporting NIV treatment were significantly more resilient, less neurotic and less anxious than family caregivers who did not. Regression analyses, forcing MND symptoms to enter the equation first, found caregiver resilience:commitment the strongest predictor of uptake of NIV treatment adding 22% to the 56% explained variance. Conclusion : Patients who tolerated NIV treatment had family caregivers who cope through finding meaning and purpose in their situation. Psychological support and proactive involvement for family caregivers in the management of the illness situation is indicated if acceptance of NIV treatment is to be maximised in MND.

  16. Determinants of accepting non-invasive ventilation treatment in motor neurone disease: a quantitative analysis at point of need

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Rosanna; Ando, Hikari; Thornton, Everard; Chakrabarti, Biswajit; Angus, Robert; Young, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Motor neurone disease (MND) progressively damages the nervous system causing wasting to muscles, including those used for breathing. There is robust evidence that non-invasive ventilation (NIV) relieves respiratory symptoms and improves quality of life in MND. Nevertheless, about a third of those who would benefit from NIV decline the treatment. The purpose of the study was to understand this phenomenon. Design: A cross-sectional quantitative analysis. Methods: Data including age, sex, MND symptomatology, general physical and mental health and psychological measures were collected from 27 patients and their family caregivers at the point of being offered ventilatory support based on physiological markers. Results: Quantitative analyses indicated no difference in patient characteristics or symptomatology between those who tolerated (n = 17) and those who declined (n = 10) NIV treatment. A comparison of family caregivers found no differences in physical or mental health or in caregiving distress, emphasising that this was high in both groups; however, family caregivers supporting NIV treatment were significantly more resilient, less neurotic and less anxious than family caregivers who did not. Regression analyses, forcing MND symptoms to enter the equation first, found caregiver resilience:commitment the strongest predictor of uptake of NIV treatment adding 22% to the 56% explained variance. Conclusion: Patients who tolerated NIV treatment had family caregivers who cope through finding meaning and purpose in their situation. Psychological support and proactive involvement for family caregivers in the management of the illness situation is indicated if acceptance of NIV treatment is to be maximised in MND. PMID:25264500

  17. An international survey on noninvasive ventilation use for acute respiratory failure in general non-monitored wards.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, Luca; Esquinas, Antonio; Pasin, Laura; Nardelli, Pasquale; Frati, Elena; Pintaudi, Margherita; Matos, Paulo; Landoni, Giovanni; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for the treatment of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) has greatly increased in the last decades. In contrast, the increasing knowledge of its effectiveness and physician confidence in managing this technique have been accompanied by a declining number of available ICU beds. As a consequence, the application of NIV outside the ICU has been reported as a growing phenomenon. Previously published surveys highlighted a great heterogeneity in NIV use, clinical indications, settings, and efficacy. Moreover, they revealed a marked heterogeneity with regard to staff training and technical and organizational aspects. We performed the first worldwide web-based survey focused on NIV use in general wards for ARF. A questionnaire to obtain data regarding hospital and ICU characteristics, settings and modalities of NIV application and monitoring, estimated outcomes, technical and organizational aspects, and observed complications was developed. The multiple-choice anonymous questionnaire to be filled out online was distributed worldwide by mail, LinkedIn, and Facebook professional groups. One-hundred fifty-seven questionnaires were filled out and analyzed. Respondents were from 51 countries from all 5 continents. NIV application in general wards was reported by 66% of respondents. Treatments were reported as increasing in 57% of cases. Limited training and human resources were the most common reasons for not using NIV in general wards. Overall, most respondents perceived that NIV avoids tracheal intubation in most cases; worsening of ARF, intolerance, and inability to manage secretions were the most commonly reported causes of NIV failure. Use of NIV in general wards was reported as effective, common, and gradually increasing. Improvement in staff training and introduction of protocols could help to make this technique safer and more common when applied in general wards setting. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Is the effect of non-invasive ventilation on survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis age-dependent?

    PubMed

    Siirala, Waltteri; Aantaa, Riku; Olkkola, Klaus T; Saaresranta, Tarja; Vuori, Arno

    2013-01-01

    Hypoventilation due to respiratory muscle atrophy is the most common cause of death as a result of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Patients aged over 65 years and presenting bulbar symptoms are likely to have a poorer prognosis. The aim of the study was to assess the possible impact of age and treatment with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on survival in ALS. Based on evidence from earlier studies, it was hypothesized that NIV increases rates of survival regardless of age. Eighty-four patients diagnosed with ALS were followed up on from January 2001 to June 2012. These patients were retrospectively divided into two groups according to their age at the time of diagnosis: Group 1 comprised patients aged ≤ 65 years while Group 2 comprised those aged > 65 years. Each group included 42 patients. NIV was tolerated by 23 patients in Group 1 and 18 patients in Group 2. Survival was measured in months from the date of diagnosis. The median age in Group 1 was 59 years (range 49 - 65) and 76 years in Group 2 (range 66 - 85). Among patients in Group 1 there was no difference in probability of survival between the NIV users and non-users (Hazard Ratio = 0.88, 95% CI 0.44 - 1.77, p = 0.7). NIV users in Group 2 survived longer than those following conventional treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.25, CI 95% 0.11 - 0.55, p <0.001). ALS patients in Group 2 who did not use NIV had a 4-fold higher risk for death compared with NIV users. This retrospective study found that NIV use was associated with improved survival outcomes in ALS patients older than 65 years. Further studies in larger patient populations are warranted to determine which factors modify survival outcomes in ALS.

  19. Non-invasive ventilation abolishes the IL-6 response to exercise in muscle-wasted COPD patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hannink, J D C; van Hees, H W H; Dekhuijzen, P N R; van Helvoort, H A C; Heijdra, Y F

    2014-02-01

    Systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been related to the development of comorbidities. The level of systemic inflammatory mediators is aggravated as a response to exercise in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether unloading of the respiratory muscles attenuates the inflammatory response to exercise in COPD patients. In a cross-over design, eight muscle-wasted stable COPD patients performed 40 W constant work-rate cycle exercise with and without non-invasive ventilation support (NIV vs control). Patients exercised until symptom limitation for maximally 20 min. Blood samples were taken at rest and at isotime or immediately after exercise. Duration of control and NIV-supported exercise was similar, both 12.9 ± 2.8 min. Interleukin- 6 (IL-6) plasma levels increased significantly by 25 ± 9% in response to control exercise, but not in response to NIV-supported exercise. Leukocyte concentrations increased similarly after control and NIV-supported exercise by ∼15%. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, carbonylated proteins, and production of reactive oxygen species by blood cells were not affected by both exercise modes. This study demonstrates that NIV abolishes the IL-6 response to exercise in muscle-wasted patients with COPD. These data suggest that the respiratory muscles contribute to exercise-induced IL-6 release in these patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Impact of High-flow Nasal Cannula Therapy in Quality Improvement and Clinical Outcomes in a Non-invasive Ventilation Device-free Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Can, Fulva Kamit; Anil, Ayse Berna; Anil, Murat; Zengin, Neslihan; Bal, Alkan; Bicilioglu, Yuksel; Gokalp, Gamze; Durak, Fatih; Ince, Gulberat

    2017-10-15

    To analyze the change in quality indicators due to the use of high-flow nasal cannula therapy as a non-invasive ventilation method in children with respiratory distress/failure in a non-invasive ventilation device-free pediatric intensive care unit. Retrospective chart review of children with respiratory distress/failure admitted 1 year before (period before high-flow nasal cannula therapy) and 1 year after (period after high-flow nasal cannula therapy) the introduction of high-flow nasal cannula therapy. We compared quality indicators as rate of mechanical ventilation, total duration of mechanical ventilation, rate of re-intubation, pediatric intensive care unit length of stay, and mortality rate between these periods. Between November 2012 and November 2014, 272 patients: 141 before and 131 after high-flow nasal cannula therapy were reviewed (median age was 20.5 mo). Of the patients in the severe respiratory distress/failure subgroup, the rate of intubation was significantly lower in period after than in period before high-flow nasal cannula therapy group (58.1% vs. 76.1%; P <0.05). The median pediatric intensive care unit length of stay was significantly shorter in patients who did not require mechanical ventilation in the period after than in the period before high-flow nasal cannula therapy group (3d vs. 4d; P<0,05). Implementation of high-flow nasal cannula therapy in pediatric intensive care unit significantly improves the quality of therapy and its outcomes.

  1. Effects of non-invasive ventilation and posture on chest wall volumes and motion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Cristiana M.; Fregonezi, Guilherme A.; Vidigal-Lopes, Mauro; Vieira, Bruna S. P. P.; Vieira, Danielle S. R.; Parreira, Verônica F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The effects of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on the breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are unknown. Objectives 1) To analyze the influence of NIV on chest wall volumes and motion assessed by optoelectronic plethysmography in ALS patients and 2) to compare these parameters in the supine and sitting positions to those of healthy individuals (without NIV). Method Nine ALS patients were evaluated in the supine position using NIV. In addition, the ALS patients and nine healthy individuals were evaluated in both sitting and supine positions. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student t-test or Wilcoxon test and the Student t-test for independent samples or Mann-Whitney U test. Results Chest wall volume increased significantly with NIV, mean volume=0.43 (SD=0.16)L versus 0.57 (SD=0.19)L (p=0.04). No significant changes were observed for the pulmonary rib cage, abdominal rib cage, or abdominal contribution. The index of the shortening velocity of the diaphragmatic muscle, mean=0.15 (SD=0.05)L/s versus 0.21 (SD=0.05)L/s (p<0.01), and abdominal muscles, mean=0.09 (SD=0.02)L/s versus 0.14 (SD=0.06)L/s (p<0.01), increased during NIV. Comparisons between the supine and sitting positions showed similar changes in chest wall motion in both groups. However, the ALS patients presented a significantly lower contribution of the abdomen in the supine position compared with the controls, mean=56 (SD=13) versus 69 (SD=10) (p=0.02). Conclusions NIV improved chest wall volumes without changing the contribution of the chest wall compartment in ALS patients. In the supine position, ALS patients had a lower contribution of the abdomen, which may indicate early diaphragmatic dysfunction. PMID:27556390

  2. Effects of non-invasive ventilation and posture on chest wall volumes and motion in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Cristiana M; Fregonezi, Guilherme A; Vidigal-Lopes, Mauro; Vieira, Bruna S P P; Vieira, Danielle S R; Parreira, Verônica F

    2016-01-01

    The effects of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on the breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are unknown. 1) To analyze the influence of NIV on chest wall volumes and motion assessed by optoelectronic plethysmography in ALS patients and 2) to compare these parameters in the supine and sitting positions to those of healthy individuals (without NIV). Nine ALS patients were evaluated in the supine position using NIV. In addition, the ALS patients and nine healthy individuals were evaluated in both sitting and supine positions. Statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student t-test or Wilcoxon test and the Student t-test for independent samples or Mann-Whitney U test. Chest wall volume increased significantly with NIV, mean volume=0.43 (SD=0.16)L versus 0.57 (SD=0.19)L (p=0.04). No significant changes were observed for the pulmonary rib cage, abdominal rib cage, or abdominal contribution. The index of the shortening velocity of the diaphragmatic muscle, mean=0.15 (SD=0.05)L/s versus 0.21 (SD=0.05)L/s (p<0.01), and abdominal muscles, mean=0.09 (SD=0.02)L/s versus 0.14 (SD=0.06)L/s (p<0.01), increased during NIV. Comparisons between the supine and sitting positions showed similar changes in chest wall motion in both groups. However, the ALS patients presented a significantly lower contribution of the abdomen in the supine position compared with the controls, mean=56 (SD=13) versus 69 (SD=10) (p=0.02). NIV improved chest wall volumes without changing the contribution of the chest wall compartment in ALS patients. In the supine position, ALS patients had a lower contribution of the abdomen, which may indicate early diaphragmatic dysfunction.

  3. The Impact of Ventilation and Early Diagnosis on Tuberculosis Transmission in Brazilian Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Urrego, Juliana; Ko, Albert I.; da Silva Santos Carbone, Andrea; Paião, Dayse Sanchez Guimarães; Sgarbi, Renata Viebrantz Enne; Yeckel, Catherine W.; Andrews, Jason R.; Croda, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Prisoners have among the highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally. However, the contribution of the prison environment on transmission is not well understood and structural characteristics have received little attention as effective epidemiological interventions in TB control. We evaluated architectural characteristics and estimated ventilation rates in 141 cells in three prisons in central west Brazil using steady-state exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. We used a modified Wells–Riley equation to estimate the probability of infection for inmates sharing a cell with an infectious case and projected the impact of interventions, including early diagnosis and improved ventilation. Overall, prison cells were densely populated (mean 2.1 m2 per occupant) and poorly ventilated, with only three cells meeting World Health Organization (WHO) standards for per-person ventilation (60 L/s) applied in infection control settings. In the absence of interventions, projected mean risk of infection was 78.0% during a 6-month period. Decreasing time-to-diagnosis by 25% reduced transmission risk by 8.3%. Improving ventilation to WHO standards decreased transmission by 38.2%, whereas optimizing cross-ventilation reduced transmission by 64.4%. Prison environments promote high infection risk over short-time intervals. In this context, enhanced diagnostics have a limited impact on reducing transmission. Improving natural ventilation may be required to effectively control TB in prisons. PMID:26195459

  4. The Impact of Ventilation and Early Diagnosis on Tuberculosis Transmission in Brazilian Prisons.

    PubMed

    Urrego, Juliana; Ko, Albert I; da Silva Santos Carbone, Andrea; Paião, Dayse Sanchez Guimarães; Sgarbi, Renata Viebrantz Enne; Yeckel, Catherine W; Andrews, Jason R; Croda, Julio

    2015-10-01

    Prisoners have among the highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally. However, the contribution of the prison environment on transmission is not well understood and structural characteristics have received little attention as effective epidemiological interventions in TB control. We evaluated architectural characteristics and estimated ventilation rates in 141 cells in three prisons in central west Brazil using steady-state exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. We used a modified Wells-Riley equation to estimate the probability of infection for inmates sharing a cell with an infectious case and projected the impact of interventions, including early diagnosis and improved ventilation. Overall, prison cells were densely populated (mean 2.1 m(2) per occupant) and poorly ventilated, with only three cells meeting World Health Organization (WHO) standards for per-person ventilation (60 L/s) applied in infection control settings. In the absence of interventions, projected mean risk of infection was 78.0% during a 6-month period. Decreasing time-to-diagnosis by 25% reduced transmission risk by 8.3%. Improving ventilation to WHO standards decreased transmission by 38.2%, whereas optimizing cross-ventilation reduced transmission by 64.4%. Prison environments promote high infection risk over short-time intervals. In this context, enhanced diagnostics have a limited impact on reducing transmission. Improving natural ventilation may be required to effectively control TB in prisons. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Best Clinical Practices for the Sleep Center Adjustment of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) in Stable Chronic Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) devices are used during sleep to treat patients with diurnal chronic alveolar hypoventilation (CAH). Bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) using a mask interface is the most commonly used method to provide ventilatory support in these patients. BPAP devices deliver separately adjustable inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP). The IPAP and EPAP levels are adjusted to maintain upper airway patency, and the pressure support (PS = IPAP-EPAP) augments ventilation. NPPV devices can be used in the spontaneous mode (the patient cycles the device from EPAP to IPAP), the spontaneous timed (ST) mode (a backup rate is available to deliver IPAP for the set inspiratory time if the patient does not trigger an IPAP/EPAP cycle within a set time window), and the timed (T) mode (inspiratory time and respiratory rate are fixed). During NPPV titration with polysomnography (PSG), the pressure settings, backup rate, and inspiratory time (if applicable) are adjusted to maintain upper airway patency and support ventilation. However, there are no widely available guidelines for the titration of NPPV in the sleep center. A NPPV Titration Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine reviewed the available literature and developed recommendations based on consensus and published evidence when available. The major recommendations derived by this consensus process are as follows: General Recommendations:The indications, goals of treatment, and side effects of NPPV treatment should be discussed in detail with the patient prior to the NPPV titration study.Careful mask fitting and a period of acclimatization to low pressure prior to the titration should be included as part of the NPPV protocol.NPPV titration with PSG is the recommended method to determine an effective level of nocturnal ventilatory support in patients with CAH. In circumstances in which NPPV treatment is initiated

  6. Non-invasive ventilation with intelligent volume-assured pressure support versus pressure-controlled ventilation: effects on the respiratory event rate and sleep quality in COPD with chronic hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Nilius, Georg; Katamadze, Nato; Domanski, Ulrike; Schroeder, Maik; Franke, Karl-Josef

    2017-01-01

    COPD patients who develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure have a poor prognosis. Treatment of choice, especially the best form of ventilation, is not well known. This study compared the effects of pressure-controlled (spontaneous timed [ST]) non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and NIV with intelligent volume-assured pressure support (IVAPS) in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients regarding the effects on alveolar ventilation, adverse patient/ventilator interactions and sleep quality. This prospective, single-center, crossover study randomized patients to one night of NIV using ST then one night with the IVAPS function activated, or vice versa. Patients were monitored using polysomnography (PSG) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (PtcCO 2 ) measurement. Patients rated their subjective experience (total score, 0-45; lower scores indicate better acceptability). Fourteen patients were included (4 females, age 59.4±8.9 years). The total number of respiratory events was low, and similar under pressure-controlled (5.4±6.7) and IVAPS (8.3±10.2) conditions ( P =0.064). There were also no clinically relevant differences in PtcCO 2 between pressure-controlled and IVAPS NIV (52.9±6.2 versus 49.1±6.4 mmHg). Respiratory rate was lower under IVAPS overall; between-group differences reached statistical significance during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Ventilation pressures were 2.6 cmH 2 O higher under IVAPS versus pressure-controlled ventilation, resulting in a 20.1 mL increase in breathing volume. Sleep efficiency was slightly higher under pressure-controlled ventilation versus IVAPS. Respiratory arousals were uncommon (24.4/h [pressure-controlled] versus 25.4/h [IVAPS]). Overall patient assessment scores were similar, although there was a trend toward less discomfort during IVAPS. Our results show that IVAPS NIV allows application of higher nocturnal ventilation pressures versus ST without affecting sleep quality or inducing ventilation- associated

  7. [Nasal CPAP versus mechanical ventilation in 28 to 32-week preterm infants with early surfactant administration].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Luis Alfonso; González, Diana Marcela; Álvarez, Karen Margarita de Jesús; Díaz-Martínez, Luis Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is useful in low birth weight infants with respiratory distress, but it is not known if it is a better alternative to mechanical ventilation after early pulmonary surfactant administration. To compare the incidence of adverse events in 28 to 32-week newborns with respiratory distress managed with mechanical ventilation or CPAP after early surfactant administration. In total, 176 newborns were treated with CPAP and 147 with mechanical ventilation, all with Apgar scores >3 at five minutes and without apnea. The incidence of CPAP failure was 6.5% (95% CI: 11.3-22.8%); 29 patients died: 7 with CPAP (4.0%) and 22 with mechanical ventilation (15.0%, p<0.001). The relative risk of dying with CPAP versus mechanical ventilation was 0.27 (95% CI: 0.12-0.61), but after adjusting for confounding factors, CPAP use did not imply a higher risk of dying (RR=0.60; 95% CI: 0.29-1.24). Mechanical ventilation fatality rate was 5.70 (95% CI: 3.75-8.66) deaths/1,000 days-patient, while with CPAP it was 1.37 (95% CI: 0.65-2.88, p<0.001). Chronic lung disease incidence was lower with CPAP than with mechanical ventilation (RR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.54-0.96), as were intracranial hemorrhage (RR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.09-0.84) and sepsis (RR=0.67; 95%CI: 0.52-0.86), and it was similar for air leaks (RR=2.51; 95% CI: 0.83-7.61) and necrotizing enterocolitis (RR=1.68, 95% CI: 0.59-4.81). CPAP exposure of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome is protective against chronic lung disease, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis compared to mechanical ventilation. No differences were observed regarding air leak syndrome or death.

  8. Randomized crossover trial of a pressure sensing visual feedback system to improve mask fitting in noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Brill, Anne-Kathrin; Moghal, Mohammad; Morrell, Mary J; Simonds, Anita K

    2017-10-01

    A good mask fit, avoiding air leaks and pressure effects on the skin are key elements for a successful noninvasive ventilation (NIV). However, delivering practical training for NIV is challenging, and it takes time to build experience and competency. This study investigated whether a pressure sensing system with real-time visual feedback improved mask fitting. During an NIV training session, 30 healthcare professionals (14 trained in mask fitting and 16 untrained) performed two mask fittings on the same healthy volunteer in a randomized order: one using standard mask-fitting procedures and one with additional visual feedback on mask pressure on the nasal bridge. Participants were required to achieve a mask fit with low mask pressure and minimal air leak (<10 L/min). Pressure exerted on the nasal bridge, perceived comfort of mask fit and staff- confidence were measured. Compared with standard mask fitting, a lower pressure was exerted on the nasal bridge using the feedback system (71.1 ± 17.6 mm Hg vs 63.2 ± 14.6 mm Hg, P < 0.001). Both untrained and trained healthcare professionals were able to reduce the pressure on the nasal bridge (74.5 ± 21.2 mm Hg vs 66.1 ± 17.4 mm Hg, P = 0.023 and 67 ± 12.1 mm Hg vs 60 ± 10.6 mm Hg, P = 0.002, respectively) using the feedback system and self-rated confidence increased in the untrained group. Real-time visual feedback using pressure sensing technology supported healthcare professionals during mask-fitting training, resulted in a lower pressure on the skin and better mask fit for the volunteer, with increased staff confidence. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. [Physiological parameters of breathing and the impact of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)].

    PubMed

    Czudaj, K-P; Suchi, S; Schönhofer, B

    2009-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as a consequence of the progressive failure of respiratory muscles, often causes chronic ventilatory failure (CVF), indicated by hypercapnia. This study analyses the physiological parameters of breathing in patients with ALS over time and the variables which influence survival time. In this observational study we analysed the data of physiological parameters (respiratory function, blood gas levels and breathing during sleep), as well as survival rate (according to Kaplan-Meier) of all 85 ALS patients who stayed in our hospital during the period of 1st January 2003 until 31st December 2007. After ALS had been diagnosed, all patients ran through standardised pneumological diagnostics during the observation period, this procedure was repeated every 3-6 months. If hypercapnia (carbon dioxide tension pCO(2) > 45 mm Hg) was detected, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) was indicated and offered to the respective patients. In the course of the observation, the parameters of respiratory function IVC (inspiratory vital capacity) and FEV1 (forced expiratory volume after 1 second) have shown a significant reduction by 14-15% per year. Half of the patients died within 3.1 years after ALS had been diagnosed. IVC and FEV1 had no impact on the survival time. In contrast, pCO(2) correlates negatively with the survival time. The period between diagnosis of ALS and manifestation of hypercapnia is about 1.9 +/- 2.4 years. In spite of a clear indication, some of the patients did not comply with NIV or did not accept it (19 patients, 22%). Twenty-eight patients (33%) started NIV with a good compliance. The survival rate of patients with NIV was 1.27 years on average--after the initial measurement of hypercapnia. The survival time of hypercapnic patients without NIV was only 0.12 years. Hypercapnia has a significant impact on the prognosis for ALS patients. In the case of CVF (hypercapnia), the survival time of ALS patients is significantly reduced. NIV

  10. Hot Topics in Noninvasive Ventilation: Report of a Working Group at the International Symposium on Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Leuven, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vrijsen, Bart; Chatwin, Michelle; Contal, Oliver; Derom, Eric; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Kampelmacher, Mike J; Muir, Jean-Francois; Pinto, Susana; Rabec, Claudio; Ramsay, Michelle; Randerath, Winfried J; Storre, Jan H; Wijkstra, Peter J; Windisch, Wolfram; Testelmans, Dries

    2015-09-01

    During the last few decades, attention has increasingly focused on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the treatment of chronic respiratory failure. The University of Leuven and the University Hospitals Leuven therefore chose this topic for a 2-day working group session during their International Symposium on Sleep-Disordered Breathing. Numerous European experts took part in this session and discussed (1) NIV in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (when to start NIV, NIV and sleep, secretion management, and what to do when NIV fails), (2) recent insights in NIV and COPD (high-intensity NIV, NIV in addition to exercise training, and NIV during exercise training), (3) monitoring of NIV (monitoring devices, built-in ventilator software, leaks, and asynchronies) and identifying events during NIV; and (4) recent and future developments in NIV (target-volume NIV, electromyography-triggered NIV, and autoregulating algorithms). Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. [Role of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with severe avian influenza A (H7N9) complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Luo, Haili; Wang, Shaohong; Shen, Feng; Yuan, Tongmei; Pan, Xianguo; Liu, Jingtao; Yao, Ling; Wu, Juncheng; Long, Xuemei

    2018-05-01

    Human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) is an acute contagious respiratory disease. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common complication in patients with severe avian influenza A (H7N9), for whom mechanical ventilation (MV) is an important supportive method. A patient, suffered from severe avian influenza A (H7N9) and complicated with ARDS, was admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University in January 2017. With very intensive care for oxygenation, respiration and consciousness, and monitoring, she was successfully cured by comprehensive managements, among which noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) was the major respiratory support method. The result demonstrate that, in patients with conscious state, satisfied expectoration ability and relatively good cooperation, and with close observation of oxygenation and respiratory rate, NIV may be accepted as an effective method for patient with ARDS caused by severe avian influenza A (H7N9).

  12. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in delirious patients: understudied, underreported, or underappreciated? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Michael; Elliott, Mark W; Holmes, John D

    2012-12-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the prevalence of delirium in patients receiving noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) for acute respiratory failure and to quantify the prognostic impact of delirium with respect to NPPV failure. We searched the databases EMBASE (1996 to present), MEDLINE (1996 to present), PsycINFO(®) (2002 to present) and CINAHL (1992 to present). A Google™ search and hand searching of bibliographies or relevant articles were also performed. We searched for prospective observational studies conducted in a setting where patients with acute respiratory failure receiving NPPV were screened for delirium. All authors independently assessed references for inclusion and extracted data. Information was collated regarding study design, baseline characteristics of included patients, and the prevalence of delirium. Where prognostic information regarding NPPV failure was reported, a risk ratio for the association between delirium and NPPV failure was derived. These values were pooled in the meta-analysis. Three articles were retrieved by the search strategy. These included 239 patients receiving noninvasive ventilation who were assessed for delirium. The prevalence of delirium was recorded at between 33 and 38 % with a pooled prevalence of 37 %. Two studies reported prognostic data and the risk ratios for noninvasive ventilation failure in delirium were calculated as 1.79 (95 % CI 1.09-2.94) and 3.28 (95 % CI 1.60-6.73). A meta-analysis was performed and the pooled risk ratio was found to be 2.12 (95 % CI 1.41-3.18). The data in this context was scarce and of low quality. A diagnosis of delirium was made in 9 patients and inferred in 80. Despite the current lack of high-quality data and studies, the high reported prevalence of delirium and the association with noninvasive ventilation failure lends support for more awareness amongst health-care professionals and more routine screening. More

  13. Role of non-Invasive Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Speaker | Dr. Nickolas Papadopoulos will present "Role of non-Invasive Tests for the Early Detection of Cancers". Date: June 5, 2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove, Conference Room: Seminar 110 Terrace Level East

  14. A comparison of maximal inspiratory pressure and forced vital capacity as potential criteria for initiating non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Michelle; Gelinas, Deborah F; Moore, Dan H; Miller, Robert G

    2007-04-01

    Using a retrospective analysis of 161 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from the Western ALS study group (WALS) database, the sensitivity of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP)< -60 cm H(2)O and forced vital capacity (FVC)< 50% as US Medicare thresholds for initiating non-invasive ventilation (NIV) were compared. Sixty-five per cent of patients at enrollment met the MIP criterion, compared with only 8% of patients who met the FVC criterion. There were no cases in which FVC< 50% antedated MIP< -60 cm H(2)O. The longitudinal data showed that patients reached the MIP criterion 4 to 6.5 months earlier than the FVC criterion. For patients with clinical signs and symptoms needing treatment with NIV, a MIP< -60 cm H(2)O allows US clinicians to obtain non-invasive ventilatory support for patients earlier than if using the FVC criterion alone.

  15. Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure counteracts inward air leaks during preoxygenation: a randomised crossover controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hanouz, J-L; Le Gall, F; Gérard, J-L; Terzi, N; Normand, H

    2018-04-01

    During preoxygenation, the lack of tight fit between the mask and the patient's face results in inward air leak preventing effective preoxygenation. We hypothesized that non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) could counteract inward air leak. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to preoxygenated through spontaneous breathing without leak (SB), spontaneous breathing with a calibrated air leak (T-shaped piece between the mouth and the breathing system; SB-leak), or non-invasive positive inspiratory pressure ventilation (inspiratory support +6 cm H 2 O; PEEP +5 cm H 2 O) with calibrated leak (PPV-leak). The volunteers breathed through a mouthpiece connected to an anaesthesia ventilator. The expired oxygen fraction (FeO 2 ) and air-leak flow (ml s -1 ) were measured. The primary end point was the proportion of volunteers with FeO 2 >90% at 3 min. The secondary end points were FeO 2 at 3 min, time to reach FeO 2 of 90%, and the inspiratory air-leak flow. Twenty healthy volunteers were included. The proportion of volunteers with FeO 2 >90% at 3 min was 0% in the SB-leak group, 95% in the SB group, and 100% in the PPV-leak group (P<0.001). At 3 min, the mean [standard deviation (sd)] FeO 2 was 89 (1)%, 76 (1)%, and 90 (0)% in the SB, SB-leak, and PPV-leak groups, respectively (P<0.001). The mean (sd) inward air leak was 59 (12) ml s -1 in the SB-leak group, but 0 (0) ml s -1 in the PPV-leak group (P<0.001). Preoxygenation through non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation and PEEP provided effective preoxygenation despite an inward air leak. NCT03087825. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure. A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Scot T; Borasino, Santiago; Asaro, Lisa A; Cheifetz, Ira M; Diane, Shelley; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q

    2016-03-01

    The use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for acute respiratory failure in children is prevalent despite the lack of efficacy data. To compare the outcomes of patients with acute respiratory failure managed with HFOV within 24-48 hours of endotracheal intubation with those receiving conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and/or late HFOV. This is a secondary analysis of data from the RESTORE (Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure) study, a prospective cluster randomized clinical trial conducted between 2009 and 2013 in 31 U.S. pediatric intensive care units. Propensity score analysis, including degree of hypoxia in the model, compared the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality of patients treated with early HFOV matched with those treated with CMV/late HFOV. Among 2,449 subjects enrolled in RESTORE, 353 patients (14%) were ever supported on HFOV, of which 210 (59%) had HFOV initiated within 24-48 hours of intubation. The propensity score model predicting the probability of receiving early HFOV included 1,064 patients (181 early HFOV vs. 883 CMV/late HFOV) with significant hypoxia (oxygenation index ≥ 8). The degree of hypoxia was the most significant contributor to the propensity score model. After adjusting for risk category, early HFOV use was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.89; P = 0.001) but not with mortality (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.79; P = 0.15) compared with CMV/late HFOV. In adjusted models including important oxygenation variables, early HFOV was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation. These analyses make supporting the current approach to HFOV less convincing.

  17. Palliative use of non-invasive ventilation in end-of-life patients with solid tumours: a randomised feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Nava, Stefano; Ferrer, Miguel; Esquinas, Antonio; Scala, Raffaele; Groff, Paolo; Cosentini, Roberto; Guido, Davide; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Cuomo, Anna Maria; Grassi, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Despite best-possible medical management, many patients with end-stage cancer experience breathlessness, especially towards the end of their lives. We assessed the acceptability and effectiveness of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) versus oxygen therapy in decreasing dyspnoea and the amount of opiates needed. In this randomised feasibility study, we recruited patients from seven centres in Italy, Spain, and Taiwan, who had solid tumours and acute respiratory failure and had a life expectancy of less than 6 months. We randomly allocated patients to receive either NIV (using the Pressure Support mode and scheduled on patients' request and mask comfort) or oxygen therapy (using a Venturi or a reservoir mask). We used a computer-generated sequence for randomisation, stratified on the basis of patients' hypercapnic status (PaCO2 >45 mm Hg or PaCO2 ≤45 mm Hg), and assigned treatment allocation using opaque, sealed envelopes. Patients in both groups were given sufficient subcutaneous morphine to reduce their dyspnoea score by at least one point on the Borg scale. Our primary endpoints were to assess the acceptability of NIV used solely as a palliative measure and to assess its effectiveness in reducing dyspnoea and the amount of opiates needed compared with oxygen therapy. Analysis was done by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00533143. We recruited patients between Jan 15, 2008, and March 9, 2011. Of 234 patients eligible for recruitment, we randomly allocated 200 (85%) to treatment: 99 to NIV and 101 to oxygen. 11 (11%) patients in the NIV group discontinued treatment; no patients in the oxygen group discontinued treatment. Dyspnoea decreased more rapidly in the NIV group compared with the oxygen group (average change in Borg scale -0·58, 95% CI -0·92 to -0·23, p=0·0012), with most benefit seen after the first hour of treatment and in hypercapnic patients. The total dose of morphine during the first 48 h was

  18. Noninvasive ventilation for severely acidotic patients in respiratory intermediate care units : Precision medicine in intermediate care units.

    PubMed

    Masa, Juan F; Utrabo, Isabel; Gomez de Terreros, Javier; Aburto, Myriam; Esteban, Cristóbal; Prats, Enric; Núñez, Belén; Ortega-González, Ángel; Jara-Palomares, Luis; Martin-Vicente, M Jesus; Farrero, Eva; Binimelis, Alicia; Sala, Ernest; Serrano-Rebollo, José C; Barrot, Emilia; Sánchez-Oro-Gomez, Raquel; Fernández-Álvarez, Ramón; Rodríguez-Jerez, Francisco; Sayas, Javier; Benavides, Pedro; Català, Raquel; Rivas, Francisco J; Egea, Carlos J; Antón, Antonio; Peñacoba, Patricia; Santiago-Recuerda, Ana; Gómez-Mendieta, M A; Méndez, Lidia; Cebrian, José J; Piña, Juan A; Zamora, Enrique; Segrelles, Gonzalo

    2016-07-07

    Severe acidosis can cause noninvasive ventilation (NIV) failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). NIV is therefore contraindicated outside of intensive care units (ICUs) in these patients. Less is known about NIV failure in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare NIV failure rates between patients with severe and non-severe acidosis admitted to a respiratory intermediate care unit (RICU) with AHRF resulting from ACPE, COPD or OHS. We prospectively included acidotic patients admitted to seven RICUs, where they were provided NIV as an initial ventilatory support measure. The clinical characteristics, pH evolutions, hospitalization or RICU stay durations and NIV failure rates were compared between patients with a pH ≥ 7.25 and a pH < 7.25. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent risk factors contributing to NIV failure. We included 969 patients (240 with ACPE, 540 with COPD and 189 with OHS). The baseline rates of severe acidosis were similar among the groups (45 % in the ACPE group, 41 % in the COPD group, and 38 % in the OHS group). Most of the patients with severe acidosis had increased disease severity compared with those with non-severe acidosis: the APACHE II scores were 21 ± 7.2 and 19 ± 5.8 for the ACPE patients (p < 0.05), 20 ± 5.7 and 19 ± 5.1 for the COPD patients (p < 0.01) and 18 ± 5.9 and 17 ± 4.7 for the OHS patients, respectively (NS). The patients with severe acidosis also exhibited worse arterial blood gas parameters: the PaCO2 levels were 87 ± 22 and 70 ± 15 in the ACPE patients (p < 0.001), 87 ± 21 and 76 ± 14 in the COPD patients, and 83 ± 17 and 74 ± 14 in the OHS patients (NS)., respectively Further, the patients with severe acidosis

  19. The effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) on cognitive function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Newsom-Davis, I; Lyall, R; Leigh, P; Moxham, J; Goldstein, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Neuropsychological investigations have shown a degree of cognitive dysfunction in a proportion of non-demented patients with ALS. Respiratory muscle weakness in ALS can lead to nocturnal hypoventilation, resulting in sleep disturbance and daytime somnolence. Sleep deprivation of this type may cause impairments in cognitive function, but this has not been formally evaluated in ALS.
METHODS—Cognitive functioning was evaluated in nine patients with ALS with sleep disturbance caused by nocturnal hypoventilation (NIPPV group), and in a comparison group of 10 similar patients without ventilation problems (control group). The NIPPV group then started non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) at night. After about 6 weeks, change in cognitive function was evaluated.
RESULTS—Statistically significant improvement in scores on two of the seven cognitive tests was demonstrated in the NIPPV group postventilation, and a trend towards significant improvement was found for two further tests. Scores in the control group did not improve significantly for these four tests, although an improvement was found on one other test.
CONCLUSIONS—Nocturnal hypoventilation and sleep disturbance may cause cognitive dysfunction in ALS. These deficits may be partially improved by NIPPV over a 6 week period. This has important implications for investigations of both cognitive dysfunction in non-demented patients with ALS, and the effect of ventilation on quality of life.

 PMID:11561031

  20. Home telemonitoring of non-invasive ventilation decreases healthcare utilisation in a prospective controlled trial of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Anabela; Almeida, José Pedro; Pinto, Susana; Pereira, João; Oliveira, António Gouveia; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2010-11-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an efficient method for treating respiratory failure in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it requires a process of adaptation not always achieved due to poor compliance. The role of telemonitoring of NIV is not yet established. To test the advantage of using modem communication in NIV of ALS patients. Prospective, single blinded controlled trial. Population and methods According to their residence, 40 consecutive ventilated ALS patients were assigned to one of two groups: a control group (G1, n=20) in which compliance and ventilator parameter settings were assessed during office visits; or an intervention group (G2, n=20) in which patients received a modem device connected to the ventilator. The number of office and emergency room visits and hospital admissions during the entire span of NIV use and the number of parameter setting changes to achieve full compliance were the primary outcome measurements. Demographic and clinical features were similar between the two groups at admission. No difference in compliance was found between the groups. The incidence of changes in parameter settings throughout the survival period with NIV was lower in G2 (p<0.0001) but it was increased during the initial period needed to achieve full compliance. The number of office or emergency room visits and inhospital admissions was significantly lower in G2 (p<0.0001). Survival showed a trend favouring G2 (p=0.13). This study shows that telemonitoring reduces health care utilisation with probable favourable implications on costs, survival and functional status.

  1. Non-invasive ventilation: evaluation of CO2 washout by intentional leaking in three recent oronasal masks. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Medrinal, C; Prieur, G; Contal, O; Villiot-Danger, E; Doyle, C; Reychler, G; Quieffin, J

    2015-05-01

    Many types of interfaces with intentional leaks exist for Non Invasive Ventilation. The purpose of intentional leaks is to remove CO2 from the interface, however the calibration does not allow a sufficiently large flow and rebreathing of CO2 can occur. The aim of this study was to compare the CO2 rinsing capacities of three new generation oronasal masks with intentional leaks (A: Quattro®, [Resmed]; B: Amara® [Respironics]; C: Forma® [Fisher&Paykel]) in healthy subjects. Seventeen healthy volunteers were included in this prospective cross-sectional, randomized, double-blinded trial. Each subject underwent ventilation with a home ventilator (IPAP: 14 cmH2O; EPAP: 4 cmH2O) with each mask consecutively. Transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2) recordings were carried out throughout the trial and ventilator data (tidal volume, respiratory rate, minute ventilation and unintentional leaks) were also analyzed. Mask comfort was assessed using a visual analog scale (0 to 10). The results showed no differences in PtcCO2 between masks (P=0.82). There were no significant differences in respiratory parameters (tidal volume, P=0.79; respiratory rate, P=0.65; minute ventilation, P=0.12) between masks. The rate of unintentional leaks were significantly lower for Mask A (P=0.016). Subjects rated Mask A and Mask C as more comfortable than Mask B (P=0.041). There was no effect of mask on PtcCO2 in healthy subjects. The mask with the highest comfort rating had not the lowest rate of unintentional leaks.

  2. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for prevention of complications after pulmonary resection in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Torres, Maria F S; Porfirio, Gustavo J M; Carvalho, Alan P V; Riera, Rachel

    2015-09-25

    Pulmonary complications are often observed during the postoperative period of lung resection for patients with lung cancer. Some conditions such as intubation, a long stay in the intensive care unit, the high cost of antibiotics and mortality may be avoided with the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is widely accepted and often used in hospitals, and may reduce the number of pulmonary complications and mortality after this type of surgery. Therefore, a systematic review is required to map and critically assess the benefits and harms of NIPPV for patients undergoing lung resection. To assess the efficacy and safety of NIPPV for preventing complications in patients who underwent pulmonary resection for lung cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and PEDro, to identify potentially eligible trials. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches. The databases were last searched on 17 March 2015. We searched the reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the field for information about additional published and unpublished studies. We also searched the Register of Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov) to identify ongoing studies. We considered randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials that compared NIPPV in the immediate postoperative period after pulmonary resection with no intervention or conventional respiratory therapy. Two authors collected data and assessed trial risk of bias. Where possible, we pooled data from the individual studies using a fixed-effect model (quantitative synthesis), but where this was not possible we tabulated or presented the data in the main text (qualitative synthesis). Where substantial heterogeneity existed, we applied a random-effects model. Of the 155 references retrieved from searches, 6 randomised

  3. Healthcare professionals' views on the provision of gastrostomy and noninvasive ventilation to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Ruffell, Tamatha O; Martin, Naomi H; Janssen, Anna; Wijesekera, Lokesh; Knights, Catherine; Burman, Rachel; Oliver, David J; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Goldstein, Laura H

    2013-01-01

    Gastrostomy and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are recommended interventions for the management of symptoms associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study aimed to quantify the views of a range of healthcare professionals (HCPs) on the provision of these interventions in the United Kingdom. A total of 177 HCPs participated in an online survey. Significant differences were found between medical and allied HCPs' views on: whether HCPs adhere to policy and accept legal constraints when it comes to making gastrostomy available to people with ALS; the impressions that HCPs receive of the way patients and caregivers understand the effects of gastrostomy and NIV on symptoms and quality of life; and the challenges HCPs face when caring for patients who have refused gastrostomy. More widely available guidelines for the provision of gastrostomy and advice on the best way to impart information to patients and caregivers about gastrostomy and NIV appear to be needed.

  4. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation with a facial interface during sedation for a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    González-Frasquet, M C; García-Covisa, N; Vidagany-Espert, L; Herranz-Gordo, A; Llopis-Calatayud, J E

    2015-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system which affects the motor neurons and produces a progressive muscle weakness, leading to atrophy and muscle paralysis, and ultimately death. Performing a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with sedation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can be a challenge for the anesthesiologist. The case is presented of a 76-year-old patient who suffered from advanced stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ASA III, in which a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed with deep sedation, for which non-invasive ventilation was used as a respiratory support to prevent hypoventilation and postoperative respiratory complications. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Modes, Obesity, and Body Position on Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Success in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Türk, Murat; Aydoğdu, Müge; Gürsel, Gül

    2018-01-01

    Different outcomes and success rates of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF) still pose a significant problem in intensive care units. Previous studies investigating different modes, body positioning, and obesity-associated hypoventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure showed that these factors may affect ventilator mechanics to achieve a better minute ventilation. This study tried to compare pressure support (BiPAP-S) and average volume targeted pressure support (AVAPS-S) modes in patients with acute or acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. In addition, short-term effects of body position and obesity within both modes were analyzed. We conducted a randomized controlled study in a 7-bed intensive care unit. The course of blood gas analysis and differences in ventilation variables were compared between BiPAP-S (n=33) and AVAPS-S (n=29), and between semi-recumbent and lateral positions in both modes. No difference was found in the length of hospital stay and the course of PaCO2, pH, and HCO3 levels between the modes. There was a mean reduction of 5.7±4.1 mmHg in the PaCO2 levels in the AVAPS-S mode, and 2.7±2.3 mmHg in the BiPAP-S mode per session (p<0.05). Obesity didn't have any effect on the course of PaCO2 in both the modes. Body positioning had no notable effect in both modes. Although the decrease in the PaCO2 levels in the AVAPS-S mode per session was remarkably high, the course was similar in both modes. Furthermore, obesity and body positioning had no prominent effect on the PaCO2 response and ventilator mechanics. Post hoc power analysis showed that the sample size was not adequate to detect a significant difference between the modes.

  6. Small dead space heat and moisture exchangers do not impede gas exchange during noninvasive ventilation: a comparison with a heated humidifier.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Alexandre; Vargas, Frederic; Hilbert, Gilles; Gruson, Didier; Mousset-Hovaere, Maud; Castaing, Yves; Dreyfuss, Didier; Ricard, Jean Damien

    2010-08-01

    Adverse respiratory and gasometrical effects have been described in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) undergoing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with standard heat and moisture exchangers (HME). We decided to evaluate respiratory parameters and arterial blood gases (ABG) of patients during NIV with small dead space HME compared with heated humidifier (HH). Prospective randomized crossover study. A 16-bed medical intensive care unit (ICU). Fifty patients receiving NIV for ARF. The effects of HME and HH on respiratory rate, minute ventilation, EtCO(2), oxygen saturation, airway occlusion pressure at 0.1 s, ABG, and comfort perception were compared during two randomly determined NIV periods of 30 min. The relative impact of HME and HH on these parameters was successively compared with or without addition of a flex tube (40 and 10 patients, respectively). No difference was observed between HME and HH regarding any of the studied parameters, whether or not a flex tube was added. If one decides to humidify patients' airways during NIV, one may do so with small dead space HME or HH without altering respiratory parameters.

  7. Initiation of non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and clinical practice guidelines: Single-centre, retrospective, descriptive study in a national reference centre.

    PubMed

    Georges, Marjolaine; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Llontop, Claudia; Shoukri, Amr; Salachas, François; Similowski, Thomas; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus

    2017-02-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), respiratory muscle weakness leads to respiratory failure. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) maintains adequate ventilation in ALS patients. NIV alleviates symptoms and improves survival. In 2006, French guidelines established criteria for NIV initiation based on limited evidence. Their impact on clinical practice remains unknown. Our objective was to describe NIV initiation practices of the main French ALS tertiary referral centre with respect to guidelines. In this retrospective descriptive study, 624 patients followed in a single national reference centre began NIV between 2005 and 2013. We analysed criteria used to initiate NIV, including symptoms, PaCO 2 , forced vital capacity, maximal inspiratory pressures and time spent with SpO 2 <90% at night. At NIV initiation, 90% of patients were symptomatic. Median PaCO 2 was 48 mmHg. The main criterion to initiate NIV was 'symptoms' followed by 'hypercapnia' in 42% and 34% of cases, respectively. NIV was initiated on functional parameters in only 5% of cases. Guidelines were followed in 81% of cases. In conclusion, despite compliance with French guidelines, the majority of patients are treated at the stage of symptomatic daytime hypoventilation, which suggests that NIV is initiated late in the course of ALS. Whether this practice could be improved by changing guidelines or increasing respiratory-dedicated resources remains to be determined.

  8. The total face mask is more comfortable than the oronasal mask in noninvasive ventilation but is not associated with improved outcome.

    PubMed

    Chacur, Fernando Hauaji; Vilella Felipe, Luis Marcelo; Fernandes, Cintia Gonçalves; Lazzarini, Luiz Claudio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) is commonly used to improve ventilation and oxygenation and avoid endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Although clinically indicated, most patients fail to use NPPV due to mask intolerance. A total face mask was designed to increase compliance, but whether this translates into better outcome (improvement in clinical and blood gas parameters and less intubation) is unknown. We compared the evolution of the clinical parameters, blood gases, levels of ventilatory support and rate of endotracheal intubation using the total face mask or the traditional oronasal mask during NPPV. A total of 60 patients were randomized to use either mask during NPPV. The clinical and laboratory parameters, as well as the level of ventilatory support were recorded at different intervals in both groups for up to 6 h. In addition, the tolerance for each mask and the need for endotracheal intubation were compared. Patients tolerated the total face mask significantly better (p = 0.0010) and used NPPV for a longer time (p = 0.0017) when compared with the oronasal mask. Just 1 patient switched to the total face mask because of intolerance. Although better tolerated, the rate of endotracheal intubation was similar in both groups (p = 0.4376), as was the clinical and laboratory evolution. The total face mask was more comfortable, allowing the patients to tolerate NPPV longer; however, these accomplishments did not translate into a better outcome. Due to its comfort, the total face mask should be available, at least as an option, in units where NPPVs are routinely applied. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Can fiberoptic bronchoscopy be applied to critically ill patients treated with noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome? Prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz Ekren, Pervin; Basarik Aydogan, Burcu; Gurgun, Alev; Tasbakan, Mehmet Sezai; Bacakoglu, Feza; Nava, Stefano

    2016-05-31

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a cornerstone for the treatment of acute respiratory failure of various etiologies. Using NIV is discussed in mild-to-moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients (PaO2/FiO2 > 150). These patients often have comorbidities that increase the risk for bronchoscopy related complications. The primary outcome of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and contribution in diagnosis and/or modification of the ongoing treatment of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in patients with ARDS treated with NIV. ARDS patients treated with NIV and who require FOB as the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure were included the study. Intensive care ventilators or other dedicated NIV ventilators were used. NIV was applied via simple oro-nasal mask or full-face mask. Pressure support or inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP), external positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) or expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) levels were titrated to achieve an expiratory tidal volume of 8 to 10 ml/kg according to ideal body weight, SpO2 > 90 % and respiratory rate below 25/min. Twenty eight subjects (mean age 63.3 ± 15.9 years, 15 men, 13 women, PaO2/FiO2 rate 145 ± 50.1 at admission) were included the study. Overall the procedure was well tolerated with only 5 (17.9 %) patients showing minor complications. There was no impairment in arterial blood gas and cardiopulmonary parameters after FOB. PaO2/FiO2 rate increased from 132.2 ± 49.8 to 172.9 ± 63.2 (p = 0.001). No patient was intubated within 2 h after the bronchoscopy. 10.7, 32.1 and 39.3 % of the patients required invasive mechanical ventilation after 8 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Bronchoscopy provided diagnosis in 27 (96.4 %) patients. Appropriate treatment was decided according to the results of the bronchoscopic sampling in 20 (71.4 %) patients. FOB under NIV could be considered as a feasible tool for

  10. Home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation with built-in software in stable hypercapnic COPD: a short-term prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Luqian; Li, Xiaoying; Guan, Lili; Chen, Jianhua; Guo, Bingpeng; Wu, Weiliang; Huo, Yating; Zhou, Ziqing; Liang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yuqi; Tan, Jie; Chen, Xin; Song, Yuanlin; Chen, Rongchang

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with hypercapnic COPD are controversial. It is presumed that methodology and appropriate use of NIV ventilator might be crucial for the outcomes. With the new built-in software, the performance of NIV can be monitored at home, which can guarantee the compliance and appropriate use. This study investigated effects of home use of NIV in hypercapnia in COPD patients using the NIV ventilator with built-in software for monitoring. The current multicenter prospective, randomized, controlled trial enrolled patients with stable GOLD stages III and IV hypercapnic COPD. Patients were randomly assigned via a computer-generated randomization sequence, with a block size of four patients, to continue optimized treatment (control group) or to receive additional NPPV (intervention group) for 3 months. The primary outcome was arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO 2 ). Data were derived from built-in software and analyzed every 4 weeks. Analysis was carried out with the intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02499718. Patients were recruited from 20 respiratory units in China from October 1, 2015, and recruitment was terminated with a record of the vital statistics on May 31, 2016. A total of 115 patients were randomly assigned to the NPPV group (n=57) or the control group (n=58). Patients complied well with NPPV therapy (mean [± standard deviation] day use 5.6±1.4 h). The mean estimation of leaks was 37.99±13.71 L/min. The changes in PaCO 2 (-10.41±0.97 vs -4.32±0.68 mmHg, P =0.03) and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) (38.2% vs 18.2%, P =0.02) were statistically significant in the NPPV group versus the control group. COPD assessment test (CAT) showed a positive trend ( P =0.06) in favor of the NPPV group. Pulmonary function and dyspnea were not different between groups. Ventilators equipped with built-in software provided methodology for monitoring NIV use at home

  11. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  12. Halothane reduces the early lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in mechanically ventilated rats.

    PubMed

    Giraud, O; Seince, P F; Rolland, C; Leçon-Malas, V; Desmonts, J M; Aubier, M; Dehoux, M

    2000-12-01

    Several studies suggest that anesthetics modulate the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of halothane and thiopental on the lung inflammatory response. Rats submitted or not to intratracheal (IT) instillation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were anesthetized with either halothane (0. 5, 1, or 1.5%) or thiopental (60 mg. kg(-1)) and mechanically ventilated for 4 h. Control rats were treated or not by LPS without anesthesia. Lung inflammation was assessed by total and differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and by cytokine measurements (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], interleukin-6 [IL-6], macrophage inflammatory protein-2 [MIP-2], and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1]) in BALF and lung homogenates. In the absence of LPS treatment, neither halothane nor thiopental modified the moderate inflammatory response induced by tracheotomy or mechanical ventilation. Cell recruitment and cytokine concentrations were increased in all groups receiving IT LPS. However, in halothane-anesthetized rats (halothane > or = 1%), but not in thiopental-anesthetized rats, the LPS-induced lung inflammation was altered in a dose-dependent manner. Indeed, when using 1% halothane, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recruitment was decreased by 55% (p < 0.001) and TNF-alpha, IL-6, and MIP-2 concentrations in BALF and lung homogenates were decreased by more than 60% (p < 0.001) whereas total protein and MCP-1 concentrations remained unchanged. The decrease of MIP-2 (observed at the protein and messenger RNA [mRNA] level) was strongly correlated to the decrease of PMN recruitment (r = 0.73, p < 0.05). This halothane-reduced lung inflammatory response was transient and was reversed 20 h after the end of the anesthesia. Our study shows that halothane > or = 1%, delivered during 4 h by mechanical ventilation, but not mechanical ventilation per se, alters the early LPS-induced lung inflammation in the rat, suggesting a specific

  13. Early Caffeine and Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation in Preterm Infants: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Cynthia M; Bello, Jose A; Jain, Deepak; Ramnath, Alexandra; D'Ugard, Carmen; Vanbuskirk, Silvia; Bancalari, Eduardo; Claure, Nelson

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial the effect of early caffeine on the age of first successful extubation in preterm infants. Preterm infants born at 23-30 weeks of gestation requiring mechanical ventilation in the first 5 postnatal days were randomized to receive a 20 mg/kg loading dose followed by 5 mg/kg/day of caffeine or placebo until considered ready for extubation. The placebo group received a blinded loading dose of caffeine before extubation. Infants were randomized to receive caffeine (n = 41) or placebo (n = 42). Age at first successful extubation did not differ between early caffeine (median, 24 days; IQR, 10-41 days) and control groups (median, 20 days; IQR, 9-43 days; P = .7). An interim analysis at 75% enrollment showed a trend toward higher mortality in 1 of the groups and the data safety and monitoring board recommended stopping the trial. Unblinded analysis revealed mortality did not differ significantly between the early caffeine (9 [22%]) and control groups (5 [12%]; P = .22). Early initiation of caffeine in this group of premature infants did not reduce the age of first successful extubation. A nonsignificant trend toward higher mortality in the early caffeine group led to a cautious decision to stop the trial. These findings suggest caution with early use of caffeine in mechanically ventilated preterm infants until more efficacy and safety data become available. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01751724. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Beneficial effect of nocturnal oximetric control on the clinical and gasometric situation and the prognosis of patients with home non-invasive mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo Carvajal, Raúl; Sánchez Casado, Marcelino; de Miguel-Díez, Javier; López Gabaldón, Encarnación

    2018-02-28

    The effectiveness of home non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is assessed by determining blood gas values in wakefulness, the evolution of their symptoms, and the monitoring of ventilation at night. The aim of our study is to evaluate whether defined values reached with outpatient monitoring by oximetry is related to the clinical, arterial gases and survival of a sample of patients with home NIMV. Retrospective observational cohort study of a series of patients receiving home NIMV treatment for different causes. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and less than 3 months of follow-up were excluded. The evolution of the patient's symptoms, their baseline arterial blood gases in wakefulness, and home nocturnal oximetry records, are evaluated at each outpatient visit. Good maintained oximetry control (MOC) was defined when mean O2 saturation values were reached and maintained until the last revision. Patient groups were considered, according to whether or not a good MOC was achieved during follow-up. Four hundred patients were evaluated. Three hundred and sixty four (91%) were included in the study; their median age was 68 years, 51% were male. 37.6% had a good MOC during follow-up. Compared to patients with not good MOC, a better long-term mortality was obtained (16.8% vs 28.2%, P=.013), and an improvement in symptoms (33.8% vs 18.6%, P=.002) and a lower proportion of patients with persistently>50mmHg PaCO2 (14.2% vs. 33.9%, P<.001) was observed. In the follow-up of patients with home NIMV in our context, values defined in home nocturnal oximetry (good MOC) are positively associated with clinical, gasometric and longer-term survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Non-invasive ventilation in 'do-not-intubate' patients in a chronic disease hospital. One year follow-up study].

    PubMed

    Tabernero Huguet, Eva; Gil Alaña, Pilar; Arana-Arri, Eunate; Citores Martín, Leyre; Alkiza Basañez, Ramon; Hernandez Gil, Anibal; Gil Molet, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Elderly patients with multiple morbidity and do not intubate (DNI) orders frequently present with acute respiratory failure. There are data supporting the effectiveness of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in this context. Our chronic disease hospital developed an integrated care clinical pathway for the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure in the emergency room and wards in 2010. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of NIV in patients with acute respiratory failure who had a DNI order in a sub-acute care hospital. Observational, one year-follow up study. The main variables were in-hospital mortality and one year mortality. Other variables recorded were: demographics, clinical data, functional data, performance of daily life activities, dementia, arterial blood gases and re-admissions. The study included a total of 102 patients, of which 22% were in institutions. The mean age 81±7.47% males, with a Charlson index 3.7±1, and Barthel index 54±31. The overall mortality during the admission was 33% (34 patients). Among those patients ventilated outside the protocol indication, the mortality was significantly greater, at 71% (P>.05). Overall one-year survival rate was 46%. This survival rate was statistically higher in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome and a Barthel >50. NIV is a useful technique in a hospital for chronic patients in an elderly population with a therapeutic ceiling. Despite their disease severity and comorbidity, acceptable survival rates are achieved. A correct case selection is needed. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome and those with Barthel index >50 have a better prognosis. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-related respiratory failure in Indian hospitals without ICU facilities.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shraddha P; Pena, Margarita E; Babcock, Charlene Irvin

    2015-01-01

    The majority of Indian hospitals do not provide intensive care unit (ICU) care or ward-based noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV). Because no mechanical ventilation or NIV is available in these hospitals, the majority of patients suffering from respiratory failure die. To perform a cost-effective analysis of two strategies (ward-based NIV with concurrent standard treatment vs standard treatment alone) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) respiratory failure patients treated in Indian hospitals without ICU care. A decision-analytical model was created to compare the cost-effectiveness for the two strategies. Estimates from the literature were used for parameters in the model. Future costs were discounted at 3%. All costs were reported in USD (2012). One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed. The time horizon was lifetime and perspective was societal. The NIV strategy resulted in 17.7% more survival and was slightly more costly (increased cost of $101 (USD 2012) but resulted in increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (1.67 QALY). The cost-effectiveness (2012 USD)/QALY in the standard and NIV groups was $78/QALY ($535.02/6.82) and $75/QALY ($636.33/8.49), respectively. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was only $61 USD/QALY. This was substantially lower than the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for India (1489 USD), suggesting the NIV strategy was very cost effective. Using a 5% discount rate resulted in only minimally different results. Probabilistic analysis suggests that NIV strategy was preferred 100% of the time when willingness to pay was >$250 2012 USD. Ward-based NIV treatment is cost-effective in India, and may increase survival of patients with COPD respiratory failure when ICU is not available.

  17. Impact of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) trial for various types of acute respiratory failure in the emergency department; decreased mortality and use of the ICU.

    PubMed

    Tomii, Keisuke; Seo, Ryutaro; Tachikawa, Ryo; Harada, Yuka; Murase, Kimihiko; Kaji, Reiko; Takeshima, Yoshimi; Hayashi, Michio; Nishimura, Takashi; Ishihara, Kyosuke

    2009-01-01

    Trial of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the emergency department (ED) for heterogeneous acute respiratory failure (ARF) has been optional and its clinical benefit unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing between two periods, October 2001-September 2003 and October 2004-September 2006, i.e., before and after adopting an NIV-trial strategy in which NIV was applied in the ED to any noncontraindicated ARF patients needing ventilatory support and was then continued in the intermediate-care-unit. During these two periods, we retrieved cases of ARF treated either invasively or with NIV, and compared the patients' in-hospital mortalities and the length of ICU and intermediate-care-unit stay. Compared were 73 (invasive 56, NIV 17) and 125 cases (invasive 31, NIV 94) retrieved from 271 and 415 emergent admissions with proper pulmonary etiologies for mechanical ventilation, respectively. Of their respiratory failures, type (hypercapnic/non-hypercapnic, 0.97 vs. 0.98) and severity (pH 7.23 vs. 7.21 for hypercapnic; PaO(2)/FiO(2) 133 vs. 137 for non-hypercapnic) were similar, and the rate of predisposing etiologies was not significantly different. However, excluding those with recurrent aspiration pneumonia for whom NIV was mostly used as "ceiling" treatment, significant reductions in both overall in-hospital mortality (38%-19%, risk ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.84), and median length of ICU and intermediate-care-unit stay (12 vs. 5 days, P<0.0001) were found. NIV-trial in the ED for all possible patients with ARF of pulmonary etiologies, excluding those with recurrent aspiration pneumonia, may reduce overall in-hospital mortality and ICU stays.

  18. Why don't they accept non-invasive ventilation?: insight into the interpersonal perspectives of patients with motor neurone disease.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hikari; Williams, Carl; Angus, Robert M; Thornton, Everard W; Chakrabarti, Biswajit; Cousins, Rosanna; Piggin, Lucy H; Young, Carolyn A

    2015-05-01

    Although non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can benefit survival and quality of life, it is rejected by a substantial proportion of people with motor neurone disease (MND). The aim of this study was to understand why some MND patients decline or withdraw from NIV. Nine patients with MND (male = 7, mean age = 67 years) participated in this study. These patients, from a cohort of 35 patients who were offered NIV treatment to support respiratory muscle weakness, did not participate in NIV treatment when it was clinically appropriate. Semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) were employed to explore these patient's experience of MND and their thoughts and understanding of NIV treatment. Using IPA, four themes were identified: preservation of the self, negative perceptions of NIV, negative experience with health care services, and not needing NIV. Further analysis identified the fundamental issue to be the maintenance of perceived self, which was interpreted to consist of the sense of autonomy, dignity, and quality of life. The findings indicate psychological reasons for disengagement with NIV. The threat to the self, the sense of loss of control, and negative views of NIV resulting from anxiety were more important to these patients than prolonging life in its current form. These findings suggest the importance of understanding the psychological dimension involved in decision-making regarding uptake of NIV and a need for sensitive holistic evaluation if NIV is declined. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Non-invasive ventilation is widely used as an effective symptomatic therapy in MND, yet about a third of patients decline the treatment. Psychological disturbance generated by NIV use leads to negative experiences of the treatment. Decision-making about treatment potentials is complex and unique to each individual affected by perceived impact of disease. What does this study add? A decision concerning

  19. EARLY STABILIZING ALVEOLAR VENTILATION PREVENTS ARDS- A NOVEL TIMING-BASED VENTILATORY INTERVENTION TO AVERT LUNG INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Shreyas; Sadowitz, Benjamin; Andrews, Penny; Gatto, Louis; Marx, William; Ge, Lin; Wang, Guirong; Lin, Xin; Dean, David A.; Kuhn, Michael; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Joshua; Snyder, Kathy; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary; Habashi, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Background Established ARDS is often refractory to treatment. Clinical trials have demonstrated modest treatment effects, and mortality remains high. Ventilator strategies must be developed to prevent ARDS. Hypothesis Early ventilatory intervention will block progression to ARDS if the ventilator mode: 1) maintains alveolar stability and 2) reduces pulmonary edema formation. Methods Yorkshire Pigs (38–45kg) were anaesthetized and subjected to "2-hit" Ischemia-Reperfusion and Peritoneal Sepsis. Following injury, animals were randomized into two groups: Early Preventative Ventilation (Airway Pressure Release Ventilation- APRV) vs. Non-Preventative Ventilation (NPV) and followed for 48hr. All animals received anesthesia, antibiotics, and fluid/vasopressor therapy per Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Ventilation parameters: 1) NPV Group - Tidal volume (Vt): 10cc/kg + PEEP- 5 cm/H2O volume-cycled mode, 2) APRV Group - Vt: 10–15 cc/kg; Phigh, Plow, Thigh, Tlow were titrated for optimal alveolar stability. Physiologic data and plasma were collected throughout the 48hr study period, followed by BAL and necropsy. Results APRV prevented development of ARDS (p<0.001 vs NPV) by PaO2/FiO2 ratio. Quantitative histological scoring showed APRV prevented lung tissue injury (p<0.001 vs. NPV). BALF showed APRV lowered total protein and IL-6, while preserving surfactant proteins A & B (p<0.05 vs. NPV). APRV significantly lowered lung water (p<0.001 vs. NPV). Plasma IL-6 concentrations were similar between groups. Conclusions Early preventative mechanical ventilation with APRV blocked ARDS development, preserved surfactant proteins, and reduced pulmonary inflammation and edema, despite systemic inflammation similar to NPV. These data suggest early preventative ventilation strategies stabilizing alveoli and reducing pulmonary edema can attenuate ARDS after ischemia-reperfusion-sepsis. PMID:22846945

  20. Early stabilizing alveolar ventilation prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome: a novel timing-based ventilatory intervention to avert lung injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shreyas; Sadowitz, Benjamin; Andrews, Penny; Gatto, Louis A; Marx, William; Ge, Lin; Wang, Guirong; Lin, Xin; Dean, David A; Kuhn, Michael; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Joshua; Snyder, Kathy; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary; Habashi, Nader

    2012-08-01

    Established acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often refractory to treatment. Clinical trials have demonstrated modest treatment effects, and mortality remains high. Ventilator strategies must be developed to prevent ARDS. Early ventilatory intervention will block progression to ARDS if the ventilator mode (1) maintains alveolar stability and (2) reduces pulmonary edema formation. Yorkshire pigs (38-45 kg) were anesthetized and subjected to a "two-hit" ischemia-reperfusion and peritoneal sepsis. After injury, animals were randomized into two groups: early preventative ventilation (airway pressure release ventilation [APRV]) versus nonpreventative ventilation (NPV) and followed for 48 hours. All animals received anesthesia, antibiotics, and fluid or vasopressor therapy as per the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Titrated for optimal alveolar stability were the following ventilation parameters: (1) NPV group--tidal volume, 10 mL/kg + positive end-expiratory pressure - 5 cm/H2O volume-cycled mode; (2) APRV group--tidal volume, 10 to 15 mL/kg; high pressure, low pressure, time duration of inspiration (Thigh), and time duration of release phase (Tlow). Physiological data and plasma were collected throughout the 48-hour study period, followed by BAL and necropsy. APRV prevented the development of ARDS (p < 0.001 vs. NPV) by PaO₂/FIO₂ ratio. Quantitative histological scoring showed that APRV prevented lung tissue injury (p < 0.001 vs. NPV). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed that APRV lowered total protein and interleukin 6 while preserving surfactant proteins A and B (p < 0.05 vs. NPV). APRV significantly lowered lung water (p < 0.001 vs. NPV). Plasma interleukin 6 concentrations were similar between groups. Early preventative mechanical ventilation with APRV blocked ARDS development, preserved surfactant proteins, and reduced pulmonary inflammation and edema despite systemic inflammation similar to NPV. These data suggest that early preventative ventilation

  1. New non-invasive method for early detection of metabolic syndrome in the working population.

    PubMed

    Romero-Saldaña, Manuel; Fuentes-Jiménez, Francisco J; Vaquero-Abellán, Manuel; Álvarez-Fernández, Carlos; Molina-Recio, Guillermo; López-Miranda, José

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new method for the early detection of metabolic syndrome in the working population, which was free of biomarkers (non-invasive) and based on anthropometric variables, and to validate it in a new working population. Prevalence studies and diagnostic test accuracy to determine the anthropometric variables associated with metabolic syndrome, as well as the screening validity of the new method proposed, were carried out between 2013 and 2015 on 636 and 550 workers, respectively. The anthropometric variables analysed were: blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage and waist-hip ratio. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis and obtained receiver operating curves to determine the predictive ability of the variables. The new method for the early detection of metabolic syndrome we present is based on a decision tree using chi-squared automatic interaction detection methodology. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.9%. The area under the curve for waist-height ratio and waist circumference was 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. The anthropometric variables associated with metabolic syndrome in the adjusted model were waist-height ratio, body mass index, blood pressure and body fat percentage. The decision tree was configured from the waist-height ratio (⩾0.55) and hypertension (blood pressure ⩾128/85 mmHg), with a sensitivity of 91.6% and a specificity of 95.7% obtained. The early detection of metabolic syndrome in a healthy population is possible through non-invasive methods, based on anthropometric indicators such as waist-height ratio and blood pressure. This method has a high degree of predictive validity and its use can be recommended in any healthcare context. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  2. Noninvasive Assessment of Early Dental Lesion Using a Dual-Contrast Photoacoustic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Renxiang; Shao, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Chao; Ge, Jiuyu; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Dental hard tissue lesions, including caries, cracked-tooth, etc., are the most prevalent diseases of people worldwide. Dental lesions and correlative diseases greatly decrease the life quality of patients throughout their lifetime. It is still hard to noninvasively detect these dental lesions in their early stages. Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid technology combining the high spatial resolution of ultrasound in deep tissue with the rich optical contrasts. In this study, a dual-contrast photoacoustic tomography is applied to detect the early dental lesions. One contrast, named B-mode, is related to the optical absorption. It is good at providing the sharp image about the morphological and macro-structural features of the teeth. Another contrast, named S-mode, is associated with the micro-structural and mechanical properties of the hard tissue. It is sensitive to the change of tissue properties induced by the early dental lesions. Experiments show that the comprehensive analysis of dual-contrast information can provide reliable information of the early dental lesions. Moreover, the imaging parameter of S-mode is device-independent and it could measure tissue properties quantitatively. We expect that the proposed scheme could be beneficial for improving safety, accuracy and sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis of the dental lesion. PMID:26902394

  3. Noninvasive Assessment of Early Dental Lesion Using a Dual-Contrast Photoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Renxiang; Shao, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Chao; Ge, Jiuyu; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Dental hard tissue lesions, including caries, cracked-tooth, etc., are the most prevalent diseases of people worldwide. Dental lesions and correlative diseases greatly decrease the life quality of patients throughout their lifetime. It is still hard to noninvasively detect these dental lesions in their early stages. Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging hybrid technology combining the high spatial resolution of ultrasound in deep tissue with the rich optical contrasts. In this study, a dual-contrast photoacoustic tomography is applied to detect the early dental lesions. One contrast, named B-mode, is related to the optical absorption. It is good at providing the sharp image about the morphological and macro-structural features of the teeth. Another contrast, named S-mode, is associated with the micro-structural and mechanical properties of the hard tissue. It is sensitive to the change of tissue properties induced by the early dental lesions. Experiments show that the comprehensive analysis of dual-contrast information can provide reliable information of the early dental lesions. Moreover, the imaging parameter of S-mode is device-independent and it could measure tissue properties quantitatively. We expect that the proposed scheme could be beneficial for improving safety, accuracy and sensitivity of the clinical diagnosis of the dental lesion.

  4. Noninvasive testing, early surgery, and seizure freedom in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, J Y; Salamon, N; Kirsch, H E; Mantle, M M; Nagarajan, S S; Kurelowech, L; Aung, M H; Sankar, R; Shields, W D; Mathern, G W

    2010-02-02

    The unambiguous identification of the epileptogenic tubers in individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) can be challenging. We assessed whether magnetic source imaging (MSI) and coregistration of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) with MRI could improve the identification of the epileptogenic regions noninvasively in children with TSC. In addition to standard presurgical evaluation, 28 children with intractable epilepsy from TSC referred from 2000 to 2007 had MSI and FDG-PET/MRI coregistration without extraoperative intracranial EEG. Based on the concordance of test results, 18 patients with TSC (64%) underwent surgical resection, with the final resection zone confirmed by intraoperative electrocorticography. Twelve patients are seizure free postoperatively (67%), with an average follow-up of 4.1 years. Younger age at surgery and shorter seizure duration were associated with postoperative seizure freedom. Conversely, older age and longer seizure duration were linked with continued seizures postoperatively or prevented surgery because of nonlateralizing or bilateral independent epileptogenic zones. Complete removal of presurgery MSI dipole clusters correlated with postoperative seizure freedom. Magnetic source imaging and (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MRI coregistration noninvasively localized the epileptogenic zones in many children with intractable epilepsy from tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), with 67% seizure free postoperatively. Seizure freedom after surgery correlated with younger age and shorter seizure duration. These findings support the concept that early epilepsy surgery is associated with seizure freedom in children with TSC and intractable epilepsy.

  5. Early Discrimination Of Microorganisms Involved In Ventilator Associated Pneumonia Using Qualitative Volatile Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planas, Neus; Kendall, Catherine; Barr, Hugh; Magan, Naresh

    2009-05-01

    This study has examined the use of an electronic nose for the detection of volatile organic compounds produced by different microorganisms responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), an important disease among patients who require mechanical ventilation. Based on the analysis of the volatile organic compounds, electronic nose technology is being evaluated for the early detection and identification of many diseases. It has been shown that effective discrimination of two bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and yeast (Candida albicans), could be obtained after 24 h and filamentous fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus) after 72 h. Discrimination between blank samples and those with as initial concentration of 102 CFU ml-1 was shown with 24 h incubation for bacteria and 48 h for fungi. Effective discrimination between all the species was achieved 72 h after incubation. Initial studies with mixtures of microorganisms involved in VAP suggest that complex interactions between species occur which influences the ability to differentiate dominant species using volatile production patterns. A nutrient agar base medium was found to be optimum for early discrimination between two microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans).

  6. Comparison of Comfort and Effectiveness of Total Face Mask and Oronasal Mask in Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Somayeh; Fakharian, Atefeh; Nasri, Peiman; Kiani, Arda

    2017-01-01

    Background . There is a growing controversy about the use of oronasal masks (ONM) or total facemask (TFM) in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), so we designed a trial to compare the uses of these two masks in terms of effectiveness and comfort. Methods . Between February and November 2014, a total of 48 patients with respiratory failure were studied. Patients were randomized to receive NPPV via ONM or TFM. Data were recorded at 60 minutes and six and 24 hours after intervention. Patient comfort was assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t -test and chi-square test. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare clinical and laboratory data. Results . There were no differences in venous blood gas (VBG) values between the two groups ( P > 0.05). However, at six hours, TFM was much more effective in reducing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) ( P = 0.04). Patient comfort and acceptance were statistically similar in both groups ( P > 0.05). Total time of NPPV was also similar in the two groups ( P > 0.05). Conclusions . TFM was superior to ONM in acute phase of respiratory failure but not once the patients were out of acute phase.

  7. Polysomnography versus limited respiratory monitoring and nurse-led titration to optimise non-invasive ventilation set-up: a pilot randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Patout, Maxime; Arbane, Gill; Cuvelier, Antoine; Muir, Jean Francois; Hart, Nicholas; Murphy, Patrick Brian

    2018-03-30

    Polysomnography (PSG) is recommended for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) set-up in patients with chronic respiratory failure. In this pilot randomised clinical trial, we compared the physiological effectiveness of NIV set-up guided by PSG to limited respiratory monitoring (LRM) and nurse-led titration in patients with COPD-obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) overlap. The principal outcome of interest was change in daytime arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) at 3 months. Fourteen patients with daytime PaCO 2 >6 kPa and body mass index >30 kg/m 2 were recruited. At 3 months, PaCO 2 was reduced by -0.88 kPa (95% CI -1.52 to -0.24 kPa) in the LRM group and by -0.36 kPa (95% CI -0.96 to 0.24 kPa) in the PSG group. These pilot data provide support to undertake a clinical trial investigating the clinical effectiveness of attended limited respiratory monitoring and PSG to establish NIV in patients with COPD-OSA overlap. Results, NCT02444806. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Non-invasive ventilation with bubble CPAP is feasible and improves respiratory physiology in hospitalised Malawian children with acute respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Walk, J.; Dinga, P.; Banda, C.; Msiska, T.; Chitsamba, E.; Chiwayula, N.; Lufesi, N.; Mlotha-Mitole, R.; Costello, A.; Phiri, A.; Colbourn, T.; McCollum, E. D.; Lang, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In low-income countries and those with a high prevalence of HIV, respiratory failure is a common cause of death in children. However, the role of non-invasive ventilation with bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) in these patients is not well established. Methods A prospective observational study of bCPAP was undertaken between July and September 2012 in 77 Malawian children aged 1 week to 14 years with progressive acute respiratory failure despite oxygen and antimicrobial therapy. Results Forty-one (53%) patients survived following bCPAP treatment, and an HIV-uninfected single-organ disease subgroup demonstrated bCPAP success in 14 of 17 (82%). Compared with children aged ≥60 months, infants of 0–2 months had a 93% lower odds of bCPAP failure (odds ratio 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.004–1.02, P = 0.05). Following commencement of bCPAP, respiratory physiology improved, the average respiratory rate decreased from 61 to 49 breaths/minute (P = 0.0006), and mean oxygen saturation increased from 92.1% to 96.1% (P = 0.02). Conclusions bCPAP was well accepted by caregivers and patients and can be feasibly implemented into a tertiary African hospital with high-risk patients and limited resources. PMID:25434361

  9. Advanced statistical methods to study the effects of gastric tube and non-invasive ventilation on functional decline and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Nazem; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Schoenfeld, David A

    2011-07-01

    A few studies suggest that non-invasive ventilation (1) and gastric tube (G-tube) may have a positive impact on survival but the effect on functional decline is unclear. Confounding by indication may have produced biased estimates of the benefit seen in some of these retrospective studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of G-tube and NIV on survival and functional decline using advanced statistical models that adjust for confounding by indications. A database of 331 subjects enrolled in previous clinical trials in ALS was available for analysis. Marginal structural models (MSM) were used to compare the mortality hazards and ALSFRS-R slopes between treatment and non-treatment groups, after adjusting for confounding by indication. Results showed that the placement of a G-tube was associated with an additional 1.42 units/month decline in the ALSFRS-R slope (p < 0.0001) and increased mortality hazard of 0.28 (p = 0.02). The use of NIV had no significant effect on ALSFRS-R decline or mortality. In conclusion, marginal structural models can be used to adjust for confounding by indication in retrospective ALS studies. G-tube placement could be followed by a faster rate of functional decline and increased mortality. Our results may suffer from some of the limitations of retrospective analyses.

  10. Positive pressure--analysing the effect of the addition of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to home airway clearance techniques (ACT) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Gemma; Parrott, Helen; Bilton, Diana; Agent, Penny

    2015-05-01

    There is no published literature on the frequency of use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) with airway clearance techniques (ACT) throughout the cystic fibrosis (CF) population; 3.9% (191 people of 5062 registered) of the United Kingdom CF population older than 16 years are reported to use NIV in registry data; however, it is not specified if this is for ACT or respiratory failure. Using NIV with ACT decreases work of breathing and fatigue during in-patient admissions for CF patients. We hypothesised these effects could be replicated at home, potentially reducing hospital admissions. Fourteen adult patients with CF scored ease of clearance and breathlessness with ACT before and after addition of NIV to normal ACT routine using a visual analog scale. Patient views on NIV with ACT were collected via a structured interview. Number of home intravenous (IV) antibiotic courses and days in hospital was collected for one year pre- and post-NIV provision. Patients reported statistically significant improvements in ease of clearance (p = 0.011) and reduced breathlessness during ACT using NIV (p = 0.011). Structured interview results indicated patient reports of sputum clearance improved. In-patient days were lower, while home IV days were higher after NIV was set up, although not statistically significant. This study is limited by small numbers; however, trends towards less hospital admissions and greater patient ease while using NIV with ACT warrant further investigation.

  11. Non-invasive ventilation during cycle exercise training in patients with chronic respiratory failure on long-term ventilatory support: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vitacca, Michele; Kaymaz, Dicle; Lanini, Barbara; Vagheggini, Guido; Ergün, Pınar; Gigliotti, Francesco; Ambrosino, Nicolino; Paneroni, Mara

    2018-02-01

    The role of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) during exercise training (ET) in patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to test whether NIV during ET had an additional effect in increasing the 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and cycle endurance time compared with ET alone. All patients underwent 20 sessions of cycle training over 3 weeks and were randomly assigned to ET with NIV or ET alone. Outcome measures were 6MWD (primary outcome), incremental and endurance cycle ergometer exercise time, respiratory muscle function, quality of life by the Maugeri Respiratory Failure questionnaire (MRF-28), dyspnoea (Medical Research Council scale) and leg fatigue at rest. Forty-two patients completed the study. Following training, no significant difference in 6MWD changes were found between groups. Improvement in endurance time was significantly greater in the NIV group compared with the non-NIV training group (754 ± 973 vs 51 ± 406 s, P = 0.0271); dyspnoea improved in both groups, while respiratory muscle function and leg fatigue improved only in the NIV ET group. MRF-28 improved only in the group training without NIV. In CRF patients on long-term NIV and long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT), the addition of NIV to ET sessions resulted in an improvement in endurance time, but not in 6MWD. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. Switch of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Orfanos, Sarah; Jaffuel, Dany; Perrin, Christophe; Molinari, Nicolas; Chanez, Pascal; Palot, Alain

    2017-03-14

    Obesity is a major worldwide public health issue. The main respiratory complication stemming from obesity is obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Most of the OHS patients diagnosed during an exacerbation are treated with non invasive ventilation (NIV). Up to date, no prospective study has demonstrated in real life conditions the feasibility of a systematic protocoled switch of NIV to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), once stability is achieved. In this prospective study, we included stable patients with OHS, with moderate to severe concomitant obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and without obstructive pulmonary disease, who had been undergoing NIV for more than 2 months. The following measurements were performed, first with NIV and then after the switch to CPAP: diurnal arterial blood gas measurements; nocturnal oximetry and capnometry; mean compliance and AHI; measures of quality of life and quality of sleep. 22/30 patients accepted to participate in the study and 15/22 patients completed the study. There were no significant differences for pooled data in diurnal alveolar blood gases, nocturnal capnometry (p = 0.534), nocturnal oximetry (p = 0.218), mean compliance (p = 0.766), mean AHI (p = 0.334), quality of life or quality of sleep. Eighty percent of the patients treated in this study favored CPAP over NIV. This pilot study showed in real life conditions the possibility of a systematic switch of NIV to CPAP, in most stable patients with OHS, with similar efficacy on diurnal and nocturnal alveolar gas exchange, quality of life and quality of sleep. ISRCTN13981084 . Registered: 27 February 2017 (retrospectively registered).

  13. Effect of Home Noninvasive Ventilation With Oxygen Therapy vs Oxygen Therapy Alone on Hospital Readmission or Death After an Acute COPD Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Rehal, Sunita; Arbane, Gill; Bourke, Stephen; Calverley, Peter M. A.; Crook, Angela M.; Dowson, Lee; Duffy, Nicholas; Gibson, G. John; Hughes, Philip D.; Hurst, John R.; Lewis, Keir E.; Mukherjee, Rahul; Nickol, Annabel; Oscroft, Nicholas; Patout, Maxime; Pepperell, Justin; Smith, Ian; Stradling, John R.; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A.; Polkey, Michael I.; Elliott, Mark W.; Hart, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Importance Outcomes after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring acute noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are poor and there are few treatments to prevent hospital readmission and death. Objective To investigate the effect of home NIV plus oxygen on time to readmission or death in patients with persistent hypercapnia after an acute COPD exacerbation. Design, Setting, and Participants A randomized clinical trial of patients with persistent hypercapnia (Paco2 >53 mm Hg) 2 weeks to 4 weeks after resolution of respiratory acidemia, who were recruited from 13 UK centers between 2010 and 2015. Exclusion criteria included obesity (body mass index [BMI] >35), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, or other causes of respiratory failure. Of 2021 patients screened, 124 were eligible. Interventions There were 59 patients randomized to home oxygen alone (median oxygen flow rate, 1.0 L/min [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.5-2.0 L/min]) and 57 patients to home oxygen plus home NIV (median oxygen flow rate, 1.0 L/min [IQR, 0.5-1.5 L/min]). The median home ventilator settings were an inspiratory positive airway pressure of 24 (IQR, 22-26) cm H2O, an expiratory positive airway pressure of 4 (IQR, 4-5) cm H2O, and a backup rate of 14 (IQR, 14-16) breaths/minute. Main Outcomes and Measures Time to readmission or death within 12 months adjusted for the number of previous COPD admissions, previous use of long-term oxygen, age, and BMI. Results A total of 116 patients (mean [SD] age of 67 [10] years, 53% female, mean BMI of 21.6 [IQR, 18.2-26.1], mean [SD] forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration of 0.6 L [0.2 L], and mean [SD] Paco2 while breathing room air of 59 [7] mm Hg) were randomized. Sixty-four patients (28 in home oxygen alone and 36 in home oxygen plus home NIV) completed the 12-month study period. The median time to readmission or death was 4.3 months (IQR, 1.3-13.8 months) in the home oxygen plus home NIV group vs 1.4 months (IQR, 0

  14. Noninvasive analysis of volatile biomarkers in human emanations for health and early disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita; Kato, Hisato; Masuda, Kazufumi

    2013-06-01

    Early disease diagnosis is crucial for human healthcare and successful therapy. Since any changes in homeostatic balance can alter human emanations, the components of breath exhalations and skin emissions may be diagnostic biomarkers for various diseases and metabolic disorders. Since hundreds of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from the human body, analysis of these VOCs may be a noninvasive, painless, and easy diagnostic tool. Sampling and preconcentration by sorbent tubes/traps and solid-phase microextraction, in combination with GC or GC-MS, are usually used to analyze VOCs. In addition, GC-MS-olfactometry is useful for simultaneous analysis of odorants and odor quality. Direct MS techniques are also useful for the online real-time detection of VOCs. This review focuses on recent developments in sampling and analysis of volatile biomarkers in human odors and/or emanations, and discusses future use of VOC analysis.

  15. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  16. [Noninvasive ventilation. The 2015 guidelines from the Groupe Assistance Ventilatoire (GAV) of the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF)].

    PubMed

    Rabec, C; Cuvelier, A; Cheval, C; Jaffre, S; Janssens, J-P; Mercy, M; Prigent, A; Rouault, S; Talbi, S; Vandenbroeck, S; Gonzalez-Bermejo, J

    2016-12-01

    A task force issued from the Groupe Assistance Ventilatoire (GAV) of the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF) was committed to develop a series of expert advice concerning various practical topics related to long-term non invasive ventilation by applying the Choosing Wisely ® methodology. Three topics were selected: monitoring of noninvasive ventilation, the interpretation of data obtained from built-in devices coupled to home ventilators and the role of hybrid modes (target volume with variable pressure support. For each topic, the experts have developed practical tips based on a comprehensive analysis of recent insights and evidence from the literature and from clinical experience. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of positive end expiratory pressure administration during non-invasive ventilation in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Crescimanno, Grazia; Greco, Francesca; Arrisicato, Salvo; Morana, Noemi; Marrone, Oreste

    2016-10-01

    No studies have evaluated the impact of different settings of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We explored consequences of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application on effectiveness of ventilation, sleep architecture and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with ALS naïve to ventilatory treatment. In two consecutive nights, 25 patients received in random order 0 or 4 cm H2 0 of PEEP during nocturnal NIV administration (Idea Ultra ResMed) with the same level of total positive inspiratory pressure. Polysomnographies were performed to evaluate sleep and NIV quality, as well as HRV. HRV was analyzed on 4-h periods and on 5-min segments of stable NREM sleep. We did not observe differences in gas exchanges during NIV with and without PEEP. Conversely, during PEEP application increases in leaks (41.4 ± 29.3% vs 31.0 ± 25.7%, P = 0.0007) and in autotriggerings (4.2 (IQR 1.3-10.0) vs 0.9 (IQR 0.0-3.0) events/h, P < 0.001, PEEP vs no PEEP, respectively) occurred. Besides, N3 sleep stage duration decreased (2.5% (IQR 0.0-18.0) vs 0.0% (IQR0.0-12.1), P = 0.001) and arousal/awakening index increased (16.9 ± 7.4 vs 13.4 ± 5.0 events/h, P = 0.01). Data on HRV were available in 15 patients. A higher low/high frequency ratio, either in the 4-h (3.8 ± 2.6 vs 2.9 ± 1.7, P = 0.04, PEEP vs no PEEP, respectively) or in the 5-min segments (2.6 ± 1.8 vs 1.45 ± 0.9 P = 0.01) was found during PEEP administration. In ALS patients, PEEP application during NIV was associated with worse NIV and sleep quality and with higher sympathetic activity. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Noninvasive diagnosis of early caries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    There is no diagnostic technology presently available utilizing non-ionizing radiation that can image the state of demineralization of dental enamel in vivo for the detection, characterization and monitoring of early, incipient caries lesions. In this study, a Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) system was evaluated for its potential for the non-invasive diagnosis of early carious lesions. We demonstrated clear discrimination in PS-OCT imags between regions of normal and demineralized enamel in bovine enamel blocks containing well-characterized artificial lesions. Moreover, high-resolution, cross- sectional images were acquired that clearly discriminate between the normal and carious regions of extracted human teeth. Regions that appeared to be demineralized in the PS- OCT imags were verified using histological thin sections examined under polarized light. The PS-OCT system discriminates between normal and carious regions by measuring the state of polarization of the back-scattered 1310 nm light, which is affected by the state of demineralization of the enamel. The demineralized regions of enamel have a large scattering coefficient, thus depolarizing the incident light. This initial study shows that PS-OCT has great potential for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of incipient caries lesions.

  19. Non-invasive tool for foetal sex determination in early gestational age.

    PubMed

    Mortarino, M; Garagiola, I; Lotta, L A; Siboni, S M; Semprini, A E; Peyvandi, F

    2011-11-01

    Free foetal DNA in maternal blood during early pregnancy is an ideal source of foetal genetic material for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of free foetal DNA analysis at early gestational age as pretest for the detection of specific Y-chromosome sequences in maternal plasma of women who are carriers of X-linked disorders, such as haemophilia. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of maternal plasma was performed for the detection of the SRY or DYS14 sequence. A group of 208 pregnant women, at different gestational periods from 4 to 12 weeks, were tested to identify the optimal period to obtain an adequate amount of foetal DNA for prenatal diagnosis. Foetal gender was determined in 181 pregnant women sampled throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy outcome and foetal gender were confirmed using karyotyping, ultrasonography or after birth. The sensitivity, which was low between 4th and 7th week (mean 73%), increased significantly after 7+1th weeks of gestation (mean 94%). The latter sensitivity after 7+1th week of gestation is associated to a high specificity (100%), with an overall accuracy of 96% for foetal gender determination. This analysis demonstrates that foetal gender determination in maternal plasma is reliable after the 9th week of gestation and it can be used, in association with ultrasonography, for screening to determine the need for chorionic villus sampling for prenatal diagnosis of X-linked disorders, such as haemophilia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. High flow nasal cannula oxygen versus noninvasive ventilation in adult acute respiratory failure: a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Beng Leong, Lim; Wei Ming, Ng; Wei Feng, Lee

    2018-06-19

    We reviewed the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) versus high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen in adult acute respiratory failure (ARF). We searched major databases and included randomized trials comparing at least NIV with HFNC or NIV+HFNC with NIV in ARF. Primary outcomes included intubation/re-intubation rates. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality and morbidities. Five trials were included; three compared HFNC with NIV, one compared HFNC, NIV and oxygen whereas one compared HFNC+NIV with NIV. Patients had hypoxaemic ARF (PaO2/FiO2≤300 mmHg). Heterogeneity prevented result pooling. Three and two studies had superiority and noninferiority design, respectively. Patients were postcardiothoracic surgery, mixed medical/surgical patients and those with pneumonia. Two trials were conducted after extubation, two before intubation and one during intubation. Three trials reported intubation/re-intubation rates as the primary outcomes. The other two trials reported the lowest peripheral capillary oxygen saturation readings during bronchoscopy or intubation. In the former three trials, the odds ratio for intubation/re-intubation rates between HFNC versus the NIV group ranged from 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.54-1.19) to 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.96-2.84). In the latter two trials, only one reported a difference in the lowest peripheral capillary oxygen saturation between NIV+HFNC versus the NIV group during intubation [100% (interquartile range: 95-100) vs. 96% (interquartile range: 92-99); P=0.029]. The secondary outcomes included differences in ICU mortality and patient tolerability, favouring HFNC, were conflicting, but highlighted future research directions. These include patients with hypercapneic ARF, more severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2≤200 mmHg), a superiority design, an oxygen arm and patient-centred outcomes.

  1. A psychological intervention to promote acceptance and adherence to non-invasive ventilation in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Eleonora; Banfi, Paolo; Pagnini, Francesco

    2017-02-06

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) sometimes experience anxiety, depression and comorbid cognitive deficits. Rather than being merely a consequence of symptom-related physical impairments these additional problems may be part of the clinical course of the condition. The relationship between the physical and psychological aspects of the condition is illustrated by the patterns of use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV); NIV is often rejected or used inappropriately, resulting in clinical deterioration and an increase in health care costs. The study aims to analyse the effects of psychological support on the acceptance of, and adherence to, NIV. The primary outcome will be a latent variable related to indices of use of NIV equipment and adherence to treatment regime; while survival rates and psychological variables will constitute the secondary outcomes. A two-arm randomised controlled trial will be conducted. We aim to recruit 150 COPD patients for whom NIV is indicated. The experimental group will receive a brief course of psychological support that will include counselling, relaxation and mindfulness-based exercises. In some cases, it will also include neuropsychological rehabilitation exercises. Support will be delivered via four to eight meetings at the HD Respiratory Rehabilitation Unit, at home or via telemedicine. Controls will receive standard care and watch educational videos related to the management of their disease. This investigation will gain insight about the role of a psychological intervention as part of a treatment plan during the process of adaptation to NIV in COPD patients. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02499653 . Registered on 14 July 2015.

  2. Effects of non-invasive ventilation on survival and quality of life in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Stephen C; Tomlinson, Mark; Williams, Tim L; Bullock, Robert E; Shaw, Pamela J; Gibson, G John

    2006-02-01

    Few patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis currently receive non-invasive ventilation (NIV), reflecting clinical uncertainty about the role of this intervention. We aimed to assess the effect of NIV on quality of life and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a randomised controlled trial. 92 of 102 eligible patients participated. They were assessed every 2 months and randomly assigned to NIV (n=22) or standard care (n=19) when they developed either orthopnoea with maximum inspiratory pressure less than 60% of that predicted or symptomatic hypercapnia. Primary validated quality-of-life outcome measures were the short form 36 mental component summary (MCS) and the sleep apnoea quality-of-life index symptoms domain (sym). Both time maintained above 75% of baseline (T(i)MCS and T(i)sym) and mean improvement (microMCS and microsym) were measured. NIV improved T(i)MCS, T(i)sym, microMCS, microsym, and survival in all patients and in the subgroup with better bulbar function (n=20). This subgroup showed improvement in several measures of quality of life and a median survival benefit of 205 days (p=0.006) with maintained quality of life for most of this period. NIV improved some quality-of-life indices in those with poor bulbar function, including microsym (p=0.018), but conferred no survival benefit. In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis without severe bulbar dysfunction, NIV improves survival with maintenance of, and improvement in, quality of life. The survival benefit from NIV in this group is much greater than that from currently available neuroprotective therapy. In patients with severe bulbar impairment, NIV improves sleep-related symptoms, but is unlikely to confer a large survival advantage.

  3. The use of a prospective audit proforma to improve door-to-mask times for acute exacerbations chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring non-invasive ventilation (NIV).

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Howes, T Q; Parker, M; Roberts, C M

    2014-12-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an evidence based management of acidotic, hypercapnic exacerbations of COPD. Previous national and international audits of clinical practice have shown variation against guideline standards with significant delays in initiating NIV. We aimed to map the clinical pathway to better understand delays and reduce the door-to-NIV time to less than 3 hours for all patients with acidotic, hypercapnic exacerbations of COPD requiring this intervention, by mandating the use of a guideline based educational management proforma.The proforma was introduced at 7 acute hospitals in North London and Essex and initiated at admission of the patient. It was used to record the clinical pathway and patient outcomes until the point of discharge or death. Data for 138 patients were collected. 48% of patients commenced NIV within 3 hours with no reduction in door-to-mask time during the study period. Delays in starting NIV were due to: time taken for review by the medical team (101 minutes) and time taken for NIV to be started once a decision had been made (49 minutes). There were significant differences in door-to-NIV decision and mask times between differing respiratory on-call systems, p < 0.05). The introduction of the proforma had no effect on door-to-mask times over the study period. Main reasons for delay were related to timely access to medical staff and to NIV equipment; however, a marked variation in practice within these hospitals was been noted, with a 9-5 respiratory on-call system associated with shorter NIV initiation times.

  4. Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) Index in Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients with Chronic Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Dimoulis, Andreas; Pastaka, Chaido; Tsolaki, Vasiliki; Tsilioni, Irini; Pournaras, Spyridon; Liakos, Nikolaos; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos

    2015-08-01

    The effects of Non-invasive Ventilation (NIV) on Insulin Resistance (IR) in stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of NIV on IR and adiponectin levels during one year application of NIV in stable COPD patients with Chronic Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure. Twenty-five (25) stable COPD patients with Chronic Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure and with no self-reported comorbidities completed the study. NIV was administered in the spontaneous/timed mode via a full face mask using a bi-level positive airway pressure system. Spirometry, blood pressure, arterial blood gases, dyspnea, daytime sleepiness, serum fasting glucose and insulin levels were assessed. IR was assessed with the calculation of the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) index. Adiponectin was measured with radioimmunoassay. Study participants were re-evaluated on the first, third, sixth, ninth and twelfth month after the initial evaluation. There was a significant improvement in FEV1 values from the first month (34.1 ± 11.6% vs 37 ± 12.3%, p = 0.05). There was a significant decrease in IR by the ninth month of NIV use (3.4 ± 2.3 vs 2.2 ± 1.4, p < 0.0001), while adiponectin levels significantly improved from the first month of NIV use. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that baseline HOMA index was associated with paCO2 (β = 0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.001), while baseline adiponectin levels were associated with FVC (β = 0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.035) and the concentration of serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) (-β = 0.18 ± 0.06, p = 0.002). Insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism as well as adiponectin levels improved along with the improvements in respiratory failure.

  5. The Chinese version of the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency questionnaire for patients with chronic hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving non-invasive positive pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongchang; Guan, Lili; Wu, Weiliang; Yang, Zhicong; Li, Xiaoying; Luo, Qun; Liang, Zhenyu; Wang, Fengyan; Guo, Bingpeng; Huo, Yating; Yang, Yuqiong; Zhou, Luqian

    2017-08-28

    The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI) questionnaire is the best assessment tool for health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receiving non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). This study aimed to translate the SRI Questionnaire into Chinese and to validate it. Prospective validation study. A total of 149 participants with chronic hypercapnic COPD receiving NIPPV completed the study. The SRI questionnaire was translated into Chinese using translation and back-translation. Reliability was gauged using Cronbach's α coefficient. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to assess construct validity. Content validity was confirmed by evaluating the relationship between the score of each item and the total score of the relevant subscale. Cronbach's α coefficients for each subscale and summary scale were above 0.7. Using EFA, one factor was extracted from the anxiety and summary scales and two factors were extracted from the remaining six subscales. Based on the EFA results, subsequent CFA revealed a good model fit for each subscale, but the extracted factors of each subscale were correlated. Content validity was confirmed by the good relationship between the score of each item and the total score of the relevant subscale. The Chinese version of the SRI questionnaire is valid and reliable for patients with chronic hypercapnic COPD receiving NIPPV in China. NCT02499718. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Survival of patients with chronic respiratory failure on long-term oxygen therapy and or non-invasive ventilation at home.

    PubMed

    Cano, Noël J; Pichard, Claude; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Costes, Frédéric; Cynober, Luc; Gérard-Boncompain, Michèle; Molano, Luis Carlos; Cuvelier, Antoine; Laaban, Jean-Pierre; Melchior, Jean-Claude; Raphaël, Jean-Claude; France, Julie; Lloret, Thomas; Roth, Hubert; Pison, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Chronic respiratory failure (CRF) is the common fate of respiratory diseases where systemic effects contribute to outcomes. In a prospective cohort of home-treated patients with CRF, we looked for predictors of long-term survival including respiratory, nutritional and inflammatory dimensions. 637 stable outpatients with CRF, 397 men, 68 ± 11 years, on long-term oxygen therapy and/or non-invasive ventilation from 21 chest clinics were enrolled and followed over 53 ± 31 months. CRF resulted from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in 48.5%, restrictive disorders 32%, mixed (obstructive and restrictive patterns) respiratory failure 13.5%, bronchiectasis 6%. Demographic characteristics, smoking habits, underlying respiratory diseases, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), arterial blood gases, 6-min walking distance (6MWD), hemoglobin, body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, transthyretin, C-reactive protein (CRP), history of respiratory assistance, antibiotic and oral corticosteroid use during the previous year were recorded. 322 deaths occurred during the follow-up. One-, five- and 8-year actuarial survival was 89%, 56% and 47%. By Cox univariate analysis, age, respiratory disease, PaO2, PaCO2, FEV1/FVC, BMI, 6MWD, activity score, type and length of home respiratory assistance, smoking habits, oral corticosteroid and antibiotic uses, albumin, transthyretin, hemoglobin and CRP levels were associated with survival. Multivariate analysis identified eight independent markers of survival: age, FEV1/FVC, PaO2, PaCO2, 6MWD, BMI, serum transthyretin, CRP ≥ 5 mg/l. In CRF, whatever the underlying diseases, besides the levels of obstructive ventilatory defect and gas exchange failure, 6MWD, BMI, serum transthyretin and CRP ≥ 5 mg/l predicted long-term survival identifying potential targets for nutritional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights

  7. Can patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory failure from COPD be treated safely with noninvasive mechanical ventilation on the ward?

    PubMed

    Yalcinsoy, Murat; Salturk, Cuneyt; Oztas, Selahattin; Gungor, Sinem; Ozmen, Ipek; Kabadayi, Feyyaz; Oztim, Aysem Askim; Aksoy, Emine; Adıguzel, Nalan; Oruc, Ozlem; Karakurt, Zuhal

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) usage outside of intensive care unit is not recommended in patients with COPD for severe acute respiratory failure (ARF). We assessed the factors associated with failure of NIMV in patients with ARF and severe acidosis admitted to the emergency department and followed on respiratory ward. This is a retrospective observational cohort study conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital specialized in chest diseases and thoracic surgery between June 1, 2013 and May 31, 2014. COPD patients who were admitted to our emergency department due to ARF were included. Patients were grouped according to the severity of acidosis into two groups: group 1 (pH=7.20-7.25) and group 2 (pH=7.26-7.30). Group 1 included 59 patients (mean age: 70±10 years, 30.5% female) and group 2 included 171 patients (mean age: 67±11 years, 28.7% female). On multivariable analysis, partial arterial oxygen pressure to the inspired fractionated oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio <200, delta pH value <0.30, and pH value <7.31 on control arterial blood gas after NIMV in the emergency room and peak C-reactive protein were found to be the risk factors for NIMV failure in COPD patients with ARF in the ward. NIMV is effective not only in mild respiratory failure but also with severe forms of COPD patients presenting with severe exacerbation. The determination of the failure criteria of NIMV and the expertise of the team is critical for treatment success.

  8. Natural history and risk stratification of patients undergoing non-invasive ventilation in a non-ICU setting for severe COPD exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Sainaghi, Pier Paolo; Colombo, Davide; Re, Azzurra; Bellan, Mattia; Sola, Daniele; Balbo, Piero Emilio; Campanini, Mauro; Della Corte, Francesco; Navalesi, Paolo; Pirisi, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) delivered in an intensive care unit (ICU) has become the cornerstone in the treatment of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. A trend towards managing these patients in non-ICU setting has emerged in recent years, although out-of-hospital survival by this approach and how to prognosticate it is unknown. We aimed to investigate these issues. We consecutively recruited 100 patients (49 males; median age 82 years) who received NIV treatment for acute respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbation in non-ICU medical wards of our hospital, between November 2008 and July 2012. We assessed survival (both in-hospital and out-of-hospital) of all these patients, and analyzed baseline parameters in a Cox proportional hazards model to develop a prognostic score. The median survival in the study population was 383 days (240-980). Overall survival rates were 71.0, 65.3, and 52.7 % at 1, 3, and 12 months, respectively. Age >85 years, a history of heart disorders and a neutrophil count ≥10 × 10(9) were associated with higher mortality at Cox's analysis (χ (2) = 35.766, p = 0.0001), and were used to build a prognostic score (NC85). The presence of two or more factors determined the deepest drop in survival (when NC85 ≥2, mortality at 1, 3, and 12 was 60.7, 70.4, and 77.2 %, respectively, while when NC85 = 0 were 4.0, 4.0, and 14.0 %). A simple model, based on three variables (age, neutrophil count and history of heart disease), accurately predicts survival of COPD patients receiving NIV in a non-ICU setting.

  9. Effect of Postextubation High-Flow Nasal Cannula vs Noninvasive Ventilation on Reintubation and Postextubation Respiratory Failure in High-Risk Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Gonzalo; Vaquero, Concepción; Colinas, Laura; Cuena, Rafael; González, Paloma; Canabal, Alfonso; Sanchez, Susana; Rodriguez, Maria Luisa; Villasclaras, Ana; Fernández, Rafael

    2016-10-18

    High-flow conditioned oxygen therapy delivered through nasal cannulae and noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) may reduce the need for reintubation. Among the advantages of high-flow oxygen therapy are comfort, availability, lower costs, and additional physiopathological mechanisms. To test if high-flow conditioned oxygen therapy is noninferior to NIV for preventing postextubation respiratory failure and reintubation in patients at high risk of reintubation. Multicenter randomized clinical trial in 3 intensive care units in Spain (September 2012-October 2014) including critically ill patients ready for planned extubation with at least 1 of the following high-risk factors for reintubation: older than 65 years; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score higher than 12 points on extubation day; body mass index higher than 30; inadequate secretions management; difficult or prolonged weaning; more than 1 comorbidity; heart failure as primary indication for mechanical ventilation; moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; airway patency problems; or prolonged mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomized to undergo either high-flow conditioned oxygen therapy or NIV for 24 hours after extubation. Primary outcomes were reintubation and postextubation respiratory failure within 72 hours. Noninferiority margin was 10 percentage points. Secondary outcomes included respiratory infection, sepsis, and multiple organ failure, length of stay and mortality; adverse events; and time to reintubation. Of 604 patients (mean age, 65 [SD, 16] years; 388 [64%] men), 314 received NIV and 290 high-flow oxygen. Sixty-six patients (22.8%) in the high-flow group vs 60 (19.1%) in the NIV group were reintubation (absolute difference, -3.7%; 95% CI, -9.1% to ∞); 78 patients (26.9%) in the high-flow group vs 125 (39.8%) in the NIV group experienced postextubation respiratory failure (risk difference, 12.9%; 95% CI, 6.6% to ∞) [corrected]. Median time to

  10. Non-invasive assessment determine the swallowing and respiration dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-Man; Shieh, Wann-Yun; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Yih-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is common among patients with Parkinson's disease. Swallowing and its coordination with respiration is extremely important to achieve safety swallowing. Different tools have been used to assess this coordination, however the results have been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate this coordination in patients with Parkinson's disease using a non-invasive method. Signals of submental muscle activity, thyroid cartilage excursion, and nasal airflow during swallowing were recorded simultaneously. Five different water boluses were swallowed three times, and the data were recorded and analyzed. Thirty-seven controls and 42 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease were included. The rates of non-expiratory/expiratory pre- and post-swallowing respiratory phase patterns were higher in the patients than in the controls (P < 0.001). The rates of piecemeal deglutition when swallowing 10-ml and 20-ml water boluses and overall were also significantly higher in the patients (all P < 0.001). There were differences in oropharyngeal swallowing parameters between the patients and controls, including a pharyngeal phase delay with longer total excursion duration and excursion time in the patients swallowing small water boluses (1 ml, 3 ml and 5 ml), but no difference in the length of swallowing respiratory pause. Oropharyngeal swallowing and its coordination with respiration are affected in patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease, and safety compensation mechanisms were used more than efficiency during swallowing. The results of this study may serve as a baseline for further research into new treatment regimens and to improve the management of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Response of Mouse Joint Tissues to Noninvasive Knee Injury Suggests Treatment Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, P.; Holguin, N.; Silva, M. J.; Fu, M.; Liao, W.; Sandell, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Joint trauma can lead to a spectrum of acute lesions, including cartilage degradation, ligament or meniscus tears, and synovitis, all potentially associated with osteoarthritis. The goal of this study was to generate and validate a murine model of knee joint trauma following non-invasive controlled injurious compression in vivo and to investigate early molecular events. Methods The right knees of 8-week old mice were placed in a hyperflexed position and subjected to compressive joint loading at one of three peak forces (3, 6, 9 N) for 60 cycles in a single loading period and harvested at 5, 9 and 14 days post loading (n=3–5 mice for each time point and for each loading). The left knees were not loaded and served as the contralateral controls. Histological, immunohistochemical and ELISA analyses were performed to evaluate acute pathologic features in chondrocyte viability, cartilage matrix metabolism, synovial reaction, and serum COMP levels. Results Acute joint pathology was associated with increased injurious loads. All loading regimens induced chondrocyte apoptosis, cartilage matrix degradation, disruption of cartilage collagen fibril arrangement, and increased levels of serum COMP. We also observed that 6N loading induced mild synovitis by day 5 whereas at 9 N, with tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament, severe posttraumatic synovitis and ectopic cartilage formation were observed. Conclusion We have established and analyzed some early events in a murine model of knee joint trauma with different degrees of over-loading in vivo. These results suggest that immediate therapies particularly targeted to apoptosis and synovial cell proliferation could affect the acute posttraumatic reaction to potentially limit chronic consequences and osteoarthritis. PMID:24470303

  12. Effectiveness and safety of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for severe hypercapnic encephalopathy due to acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guang-fa; Zhang, Wei; Zong, Hua; Xu, Qiu-fen; Liang, Ying

    2007-12-20

    Although severe encephalopathy has been proposed as a possible contraindication to the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV), increasing clinical reports showed it was effective in patients with impaired consciousness and even coma secondary to acute respiratory failure, especially hypercapnic acute respiratory failure (HARF). To further evaluate the effectiveness and safety of NPPV for severe hypercapnic encephalopathy, a prospective case-control study was conducted at a university respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) during the past 3 years. Forty-three of 68 consecutive AECOPD patients requiring ventilatory support for HARF were divided into 2 groups, which were carefully matched for age, sex, COPD course, tobacco use and previous hospitalization history, according to the severity of encephalopathy, 22 patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) < 10 served as group A and 21 with GCS = 10 as group B. Compared with group B, group A had a higher level of baseline arterial partial CO2 pressure ((102 +/- 27) mmHg vs (74 +/- 17) mmHg, P < 0.01), lower levels of GCS (7.5 +/- 1.9 vs 12.2 +/- 1.8, P < 0.01), arterial pH value (7.18 +/- 0.06 vs 7.28 +/- 0.07, P < 0.01) and partial O(2) pressure/fraction of inspired O(2) ratio (168 +/- 39 vs 189 +/- 33, P < 0.05). The NPPV success rate and hospital mortality were 73% (16/22) and 14% (3/22) respectively in group A, which were comparable to those in group B (68% (15/21) and 14% (3/21) respectively, all P > 0.05), but group A needed an average of 7 cm H2O higher of maximal pressure support during NPPV, and 4, 4 and 7 days longer of NPPV time, RICU stay and hospital stay respectively than group B (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). NPPV therapy failed in 12 patients (6 in each group) because of excessive airway secretions (7 patients), hemodynamic instability (2), worsening of dyspnea and deterioration of gas exchange (2), and gastric

  13. The effect of domiciliary noninvasive ventilation on clinical outcomes in stable and recently hospitalized patients with COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dretzke, Janine; Moore, David; Dave, Chirag; Mukherjee, Rahul; Price, Malcolm J; Bayliss, Sue; Wu, Xiaoying; Jordan, Rachel E; Turner, Alice M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival among patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure in hospital, but evidence for its use in domiciliary settings is limited. A patient’s underlying risk of having an exacerbation may affect any potential benefit that can be gained from domiciliary NIV. This is the first comprehensive systematic review to stratify patients based on a proxy for exacerbation risk: patients in a stable state and those immediately post-exacerbation hospitalization. Methods A systematic review of nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken in order to compare the relative effectiveness of different types of domiciliary NIV and usual care on hospital admissions, mortality, and health-related quality of life. Standard systematic review methods were used for identifying studies (until September 2014), quality appraisal, and synthesis. Data were presented in forest plots and pooled where appropriate using random-effects meta-analysis. Results Thirty-one studies were included. For stable patients, there was no evidence of a survival benefit from NIV (relative risk [RR] 0.88 [0.55, 1.43], I2=60.4%, n=7 RCTs), but there was a possible trend toward fewer hospitalizations (weighted mean difference −0.46 [−1.02, 0.09], I2=59.2%, n=5 RCTs) and improved health-related quality of life. For posthospital patients, survival benefit could not be demonstrated within the three RCTs (RR 0.89 [0.53, 1.49], I2=25.1%), although there was evidence of benefit from four non-RCTs (RR 0.45 [0.32, 0.65], I2=0%). Effects on hospitalizations were inconsistent. Post hoc analyses suggested that NIV-related improvements in hypercapnia were associated with reduced hospital admissions across both populations. Little data were available comparing different types of NIV. Conclusion The effectiveness of domiciliary NIV remains uncertain; however, some patients may benefit. Further research is required to identify these patients and to

  14. A novel technique of non-invasive ventilation: Pharyngeal oxygen with nose-closure and abdominal-compression--Aid for pediatric flexible bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Soong, Wen-Jue; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Tsao, Pei-Chen; Harloff, Morgan; Matthew Soong, Yen-Hui

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the safety, feasibility and efficacy of a novel non-invasive ventilation (NIV) technique--pharyngeal oxygen with nose-closure and abdominal-compression (PhO2 -NC-AC)--to aid pediatric flexible bronchoscopy (FB). A prospective 1 year study of patients who received FB. A basic PhO2 flow (0.5-1.0 L/kg/min, maximal 5.0 L/min) was routinely applied. Active NIV was initiated when the heart rate dropped <80 beats/min or desaturation was <80% for >10 sec. It was performed as follows: NC 1 sec for inspiration then released, followed by AC 1 sec for active expiration at a rate of 20-30 cycles/min until vital signs returned to acceptable levels for >10 sec. When the patients were stable, supplementary NIV was optionally given. Cardiopulmonary parameters were collected and analyzed. Three hundred thirty-seven FBs, including 188 therapeutic, were conducted in 286 patients with a mean age of 18.3 months (± 14.4, 10 min to 12 years) and a mean body weight of 13.5 kg (± 6.7, 0.5-35 kg). Three hundred thirty-three active NIVs were executed with a mean duration of 87.8 sec (± 40.4, 28-190 sec). A significantly longer FB duration (33.2 ± 16.7 min vs. 7.2 ± 2.8 min, P < 0.001) and a higher application rate of active NIV (1.44/FB vs. 0.42/FB) were noted in the therapeutic compared to the diagnostic group. Vital signs and blood gases (35 cases) improved rapidly and returned to baseline within 3 min. All FBs were safely and successfully completed without significant complications. PhO2 -NC-AC is a simple, safe and effective NIV technique for respiratory support and rescue during various pediatric FB procedures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Determination and significance of serum MPO and amylin in adult patients with OSAHS after short-range noninvasive positive pressure ventilation].

    PubMed

    Chen, X H; Chen, P J; Long, Y; Huang, Q P

    2017-06-05

    Objective: The aim of this study to investigate the determination and significance of serum MPO and amylin in adult patients with OSAHS after short-range noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Method: Eighty-seven OSAHS patients were divided into severe group (30 cases), moderate group (30 cases) and mild group (27 cases) according to the AHI range. Twenty-seven outpatient health persons were selected as the control group. Serum amylin and myeloperoxidase were measured by ELISA; Amyloid and myeloperoxidase were reassessed in 30 patients with severe OSAHS after 6 months of combined therapy, and the relationship between amylin, myeloperoxidase and PSG was analyzed. Result: ①With the severity of OSAHS patients increased, the serum amylin and myeloperoxidase levels gradually increased ( F =22.486, 19.755; P <0.01); There was no significant difference in MPO and amylin concentration between the mild group and the control group ( P >0.05), and the other groups were significantly different from each other ( P <0.01). ②There was no correlation among serum amylin and myeloperoxidase level and BMI and age in OSAHS patients ( P >0.05); and a negative correlation with SaO₂, and AHI was positively correlated ( P <0.01). ③After 3 months of CPAP treatment, LSaO₂ increased which the AHI and peripheral blood MPO, amylin levels lower than before in 30 patients ( P <0.05); The amylin and myeloperoxidase concentrations of blood after 6 months of treatment were significantly lower than those of 3 months after treatment ( P <0.05), which still increased compared with the control group. Conclusion: The determination of serum amylin and MPO in patients with OSAHS has a certain reference value in predicting the condition and curative effect of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. CPAP treatment can significantly reduce the degree of hypoxiapatients and cardiovascular damage in OSAHS patients, which was significantly correlated with the treatment time. Copyright© by the

  16. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the clinical management of acute COPD in 233 UK hospitals: results from the RCP/BTS 2003 National COPD Audit.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sundeep; Pearson, Michael; Coutts, Ian; Lowe, Derek; Roberts, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a clinically proven, cost-effective intervention for acidotic exacerbations of COPD that is recommended by UK national guidelines. This study examines the extent to which these recommendations are being followed in the UK. Between August and October 2003 a national audit of COPD exacerbations was conducted by the Royal College of Physicians and the British Thoracic Society. 233 (94%) UK hospitals submitted data for 7,529 prospectively recruited acute COPD admissions, documenting process of care and outcomes from a retrospective case note audit. They also completed a resources and organisation of care proforma. Nineteen hospitals (8%) reported they did not offer NIV. There was no access to NIV in 92 (39%) intensive care units in 88 (36%), high-dependency units or on general wards of 85 (34%) hospitals. In 74 (30%) NIV was available on all 3 sites. A low pH (<7.35) was noted at some time during admission for 26% (1714/6544) of patients and NIV was administered to 31%. Patients receiving NIV were more often admitted under a respiratory physician, or seen at some stage by a respiratory specialist and had more severe disease (higher PaCO2 (median 9.8 v 7.8 kPa), lower oxygen tension (median 8.8 v 9.8 kPa), higher incidence of peripheral oedema (48% v 39%), of pneumonia (27% v 16%), higher in-hospital mortality (26% v 14%) and at 90 days (37% v 24%) and longer hospital stays (median 9 v 7 days) than those not receiving NIV. Hospitals with least usage of NIV had similar mortality rates to those using NIV more often. A comprehensive NIV service is not available in many hospitals admitting patients with acute respiratory failure secondary to COPD. Access to acute NIV is inadequate and does not conform with NICE and BTS guidelines. These observational audit data do not demonstrate benefits of NIV on survival when compared to conventional management, contrary to results from randomised trials. Reasons for this are unclear but unmeasured

  17. Two-year home-based nocturnal noninvasive ventilation added to rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure remains controversial as long-term data are almost lacking. The aim was to compare the outcome of 2-year home-based nocturnal NIPPV in addition to rehabilitation (NIPPV + PR) with rehabilitation alone (PR) in COPD patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Methods Sixty-six patients could be analyzed for the two-year home-based follow-up period. Differences in change between the NIPPV + PR and PR group were assessed by a linear mixed effects model with a random effect on the intercept, and adjustment for baseline values. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQoL); secondary outcomes were mood state, dyspnea, gas exchange, functional status, pulmonary function, and exacerbation frequency. Results Although the addition of NIPPV did not significantly improve the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire compared to rehabilitation alone (mean difference in change between groups -1.3 points (95% CI: -9.7 to 7.4)), the addition of NIPPV did improve HRQoL assessed with the Maugeri Respiratory Failure questionnaire (-13.4% (-22.7 to -4.2; p = 0.005)), mood state (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale -4.0 points (-7.8 to 0.0; p = 0.05)), dyspnea (Medical Research Council -0.4 points (-0.8 to -0.0; p = 0.05)), daytime arterial blood gases (PaCO2 -0.4 kPa (-0.8 to -0.2; p = 0.01); PaO2 0.8 kPa (0.0 to 1.5; p = 0.03)), 6-minute walking distance (77.3 m (46.4 to 108.0; p < 0.001)), Groningen Activity and Restriction scale (-3.8 points (-7.4 to -0.4; p = 0.03)), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (115 ml (19 to 211; p = 0.019)). Exacerbation frequency was not changed. Conclusions The addition of NIPPV to pulmonary rehabilitation for 2 years in severe COPD patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure improves HRQoL, mood, dyspnea, gas exchange, exercise

  18. Effect of adding postoperative noninvasive ventilation to usual care to prevent pulmonary complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Al Jaaly, Emad; Fiorentino, Francesca; Reeves, Barnaby C; Ind, Philip W; Angelini, Gianni D; Kemp, Scott; Shiner, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    We compared the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation with bilevel positive airway pressure added to usual care versus usual care alone in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. We performed a 2-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was time until fit for discharge. Secondary outcomes were partial pressure of carbon dioxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, atelectasis, adverse events, duration of intensive care stay, and actual postoperative stay. A total of 129 patients were randomly allocated to bilevel positive airway pressure (66) or usual care (63). Three patients allocated to bilevel positive airway pressure withdrew. The median duration of bilevel positive airway pressure was 16 hours (interquartile range, 11-19). The median duration of hospital stay until fit for discharge was 5 days for the bilevel positive airway pressure group (interquartile range, 4-6) and 6 days for the usual care group (interquartile range, 5-7; hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.31; P = .019). There was no significant difference in duration of intensive care, actual postoperative stay, and mean percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second on day 3. Mean partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly reduced 1 hour after bilevel positive airway pressure application, but there was no overall difference between the groups up to 24 hours. Basal atelectasis occurred in 15 patients (24%) in the usual care group and 2 patients (3%) in the bilevel positive airway pressure group. Overall, 30% of patients in the bilevel positive airway pressure group experienced an adverse event compared with 59% in the usual care group. Among patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting, the use of bilevel positive airway pressure at extubation reduced the recovery time. Supported by trained staff, more than 75% of all patients allocated to bilevel positive airway pressure tolerated it for more

  19. Early and simple detection of diastolic dysfunction during weaning from mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation imposes additional work on the cardiovascular system and can provoke or unmask left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with consecutive pulmonary edema or systolic dysfunction with inadequate increase of cardiac output and unsuccessful weaning. Echocardiography, which is increasingly used for hemodynamic assessment of critically ill patients, allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic failure. For various reasons, transthoracic echocardiographic assessment was limited to patients with good echo visibility and to those with sinus rhythm without excessive tachycardia. In these patients, often selected after unsuccessful weaning, echocardiographic findings were predictive for weaning failure of cardiac origin. In some studies, patients with various degrees of systolic dysfunction were included, making evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction to the weaning failure even more difficult. The recent study by Moschietto and coworkers included unselected patients and used very simple diastolic variables for assessment of diastolic function. They also included patients with atrial fibrillation and repeated echocardiographic examination only 10 minutes after starting a spontaneous breathing trial. The main finding was that weaning failure was not associated with systolic dysfunction but with diastolic dysfunction. By measuring simple and robust parameters for detection of diastolic dysfunction, the study was able to predict weaning failure in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation as early as 10 minutes after beginning a spontaneous breathing trial. Further studies are necessary to determine whether appropriate treatment tailored according to the echocardiographic findings will result in successful weaning. PMID:22770365

  20. Early and simple detection of diastolic dysfunction during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Voga, Gorazd

    2012-07-06

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation imposes additional work on the cardiovascular system and can provoke or unmask left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with consecutive pulmonary edema or systolic dysfunction with inadequate increase of cardiac output and unsuccessful weaning. Echocardiography, which is increasingly used for hemodynamic assessment of critically ill patients, allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic failure. For various reasons, transthoracic echocardiographic assessment was limited to patients with good echo visibility and to those with sinus rhythm without excessive tachycardia. In these patients, often selected after unsuccessful weaning, echocardiographic findings were predictive for weaning failure of cardiac origin. In some studies, patients with various degrees of systolic dysfunction were included, making evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction to the weaning failure even more difficult. The recent study by Moschietto and coworkers included unselected patients and used very simple diastolic variables for assessment of diastolic function. They also included patients with atrial fibrillation and repeated echocardiographic examination only 10 minutes after starting a spontaneous breathing trial. The main finding was that weaning failure was not associated with systolic dysfunction but with diastolic dysfunction. By measuring simple and robust parameters for detection of diastolic dysfunction, the study was able to predict weaning failure in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation as early as 10 minutes after beginning a spontaneous breathing trial. Further studies are necessary to determine whether appropriate treatment tailored according to the echocardiographic findings will result in successful weaning.

  1. Applications in Bioastronautics and Bioinformatics: Early Radiation Cataracts Detected by Noninvasive, Quantitative, and Remote Means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Giblin, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars is a key goal in NASA's exploration planning in the next 20 years. Maintaining crew health and good vision is certainly an important aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts because radiation exposure in space travel has the potential of accelerating the aging process (ref. 1). A patented compact device (ref. 2) based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) was designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An Internet web-based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. The new technology detects cataracts very early (at the molecular level). Cataract studies onboard the International Space Station will be helpful in quantifying any adverse effect of radiation to ocular health. The normal lens in a human eye, situated behind the cornea, is a transparent tissue. It contains 35 wt % protein and 65 wt % water. Aging, disease (e.g., diabetes), smoking, dehydration, malnutrition, and exposure to ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation can cause agglomeration of the lens proteins. Protein aggregation can take place anywhere in the lens, causing lens opacity. The aggregation and opacification could produce nuclear (central portion of the lens) or cortical (peripheral) cataracts. Nuclear and posterior subcapsular (the membrane's capsule surrounds the whole lens) cataracts, being on the visual optical axis of the eye, cause visual impairment that can finally lead to blindness. The lens proteins, in their native state, are small in size. As a cataract develops, this size grows from a few nanometers

  2. The cost-effectiveness of domiciliary non-invasive ventilation in patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dretzke, Janine; Blissett, Deirdre; Dave, Chirag; Mukherjee, Rahul; Price, Malcolm; Bayliss, Sue; Wu, Xiaoying; Jordan, Rachel; Jowett, Sue; Turner, Alice M; Moore, David

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic progressive lung disease characterised by non-reversible airflow obstruction. Exacerbations are a key cause of morbidity and mortality and place a considerable burden on health-care systems. While there is evidence that patients benefit from non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in hospital during an acute exacerbation, evidence supporting home use for more stable COPD patients is limited. In the U.K., domiciliary NIV is considered on health economic grounds in patients after three hospital admissions for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of domiciliary NIV by systematic review and economic evaluation. Bibliographic databases, conference proceedings and ongoing trial registries up to September 2014. Standard systematic review methods were used for identifying relevant clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies assessing NIV compared with usual care or comparing different types of NIV. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane guidelines and relevant economic checklists. Results for primary effectiveness outcomes (mortality, hospitalisations, exacerbations and quality of life) were presented, where possible, in forest plots. A speculative Markov decision model was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of domiciliary NIV with usual care from a UK perspective for post-hospital and more stable populations separately. Thirty-one controlled effectiveness studies were identified, which report a variety of outcomes. For stable patients, a modest volume of evidence found no benefit from domiciliary NIV for survival and some non-significant beneficial trends for hospitalisations and quality of life. For post-hospital patients, no benefit from NIV could be shown in terms of survival (from randomised controlled trials) and findings for hospital admissions were inconsistent and based on limited evidence. No conclusions could be drawn regarding

  3. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens in the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Mimoz, O; Karim, A; Mazoit, J X; Edouard, A; Leprince, S; Nordmann, P

    2000-11-01

    We evaluated prospectively the use of Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens to allow the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), compared with the use of 60 bronchoscopic protected specimen brushes (PSB) and 126 blinded plugged telescopic catheters (PTC) obtained from 134 patients. Gram stains were from Cytospin slides; they were studied for the presence of microorganisms in 10 and 50 fields by two independent observers and classified according to their Gram stain morphology. Quantitative cultures were performed after serial dilution and plating on appropriate culture medium. A final diagnosis of VAP, based on a culture of > or = 10(3) c.f.u. ml-1, was established after 81 (44%) samplings. When 10 fields were analysed, a strong relationship was found between the presence of bacteria on Gram staining and the final diagnosis of VAP (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 74 and 81%, specificity 94 and 100%, positive predictive value 91 and 100%, negative predictive value 82 and 88%). The correlation was less when we compared the morphology of microorganisms observed on Gram staining with those of bacteria obtained from quantitative cultures (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 54 and 69%, specificity 86 and 89%, positive predictive value 72 and 78%, negative predictive value 74 and 84%). Increasing the number of fields read to 50 was associated with a slight decrease in specificity and positive predictive value of Gram staining, but with a small increase in its sensitivity and negative predictive value. The results obtained by the two observers were similar to each other for both numbers of fields analysed. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens performed on 10 fields predicted the presence of VAP and partially identified (using Gram stain morphology) the microorganisms growing at significant concentrations, and could help in the early choice of the treatment of VAP. Increasing the number of fields read or having the Gram

  4. Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for noninvasive diagnostics: applications to early cancer detection in the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mycek, Mary-Ann; Urayama, Paul; Zhong, Wei; Sloboda, Roger D.; Dragnev, Konstantin H.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2003-10-01

    Tissue fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging are being investigated as potential methods for non-invasive detection of pre-neoplastic change in the lung and other organ systems. A substantial contribution to tissue fluorescence is known to arise from endogenous cellular fluorophores. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging, we characterized the endogenous fluorescence properties of immortalized and carcinogen-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells. Non-invasive sensing of endogenous molecular biomarkers associated with human bronchial pre-neoplasia will be discussed.

  5. Effect of early vs late tracheostomy placement on survival in patients receiving mechanical ventilation: the TracMan randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Young, Duncan; Harrison, David A; Cuthbertson, Brian H; Rowan, Kathy

    2013-05-22

    Tracheostomy is a widely used intervention in adult critical care units. There is little evidence to guide clinicians regarding the optimal timing for this procedure. To test whether early vs late tracheostomy would be associated with lower mortality in adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation in critical care units. An open multicentered randomized clinical trial conducted between 2004 and 2011 involving 70 adult general and 2 cardiothoracic critical care units in 13 university and 59 nonuniversity hospitals in the United Kingdom. Of 1032 eligible patients, 909 adult patients breathing with the aid of mechanical ventilation for less than 4 days and identified by the treating physician as likely to require at least 7 more days of mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomized 1:1 to early tracheostomy (within 4 days) or late tracheostomy (after 10 days if still indicated). The primary outcome measure was 30-day mortality and the analysis was by intention to treat. Of the 455 patients assigned to early tracheostomy, 91.9% (95% CI, 89.0%-94.1%) received a tracheostomy and of 454 assigned to late tracheostomy, 44.9% (95% CI, 40.4%-49.5%) received a tracheostomy. All-cause mortality 30 days after randomization was 30.8% (95% CI, 26.7%-35.2%) in the early and 31.5% (95% CI, 27.3%-35.9%) in the late group (absolute risk reduction for early vs late, 0.7%; 95% CI, -5.4% to 6.7%). Two-year mortality was 51.0% (95% CI, 46.4%-55.6%) in the early and 53.7% (95% CI, 49.1%-58.3%) in the late group (P = .74). Median critical care unit length of stay in survivors was 13.0 days in the early and 13.1 days in the late group (P = .74). Tracheostomy-related complications were reported for 6.3% (95% CI, 4.6%-8.5%) of patients (5.5% in the early group, 7.8% in the late group). For patients breathing with the aid of mechanical ventilation treated in adult critical care units in the United Kingdom, tracheostomy within 4 days of critical care admission was not associated with an

  6. Electronic-nose devices - Potential for noninvasive early disease-detection applications

    Treesearch

    Alphus Dan Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Significant progress in the development of portable electronic devices is showing considerable promise to facilitate clinical diagnostic processes. The increasing global trend of shifts in healthcare policies and priorities toward shortening and improving the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures by utilizing non-invasive methods should provide multiple benefits of...

  7. Efficacy of single-dose antibiotic against early-onset pneumonia in comatose patients who are ventilated.

    PubMed

    Vallés, Jordi; Peredo, Raquel; Burgueño, Maria Jose; Rodrigues de Freitas, A Patrícia; Millán, Susana; Espasa, Mateu; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio; Ferrer, Ricard; Suarez, David; Artigas, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    Comatose patients present a high risk of early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (EO-VAP) for which antibiotic prophylaxis has been proposed. Comatose patients were studied to evaluate the efficacy of a single-dose of antibiotic prophylaxis at intubation against EO-VAP. A prospective cohort of comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Score ≤ 8) who were admitted in 2009-2010 and administered a single-dose of antibiotic within 4 h of intubation was compared with comatose patients (admitted ≥ 4 h after intubation in 2009-2010 or admitted in 2007-2008) who did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis. We analyzed the incidence of EO-VAP, late-onset VAP, and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in both groups. Propensity scores for receiving antibiotic prophylaxis were derived on the basis of patients' characteristics (eg, age and severity) to assess its impact on EO-VAP development. We included 129 patients (71 in the prophylaxis group and 58 in the control group). The global incidence of VAP and incidence of EO-VAP were lower in the prophylaxis group: 10.8 vs 28.4 episodes/1,000 days on mechanical ventilation (P = .015) and 4.4 vs 23.1 episodes/1,000 days on mechanical ventilation (P = .02), respectively. The incidence of late-onset VAP did not differ. The prophylaxis group tended toward lower incidence of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (15.5% vs 25.9%, P = .14). No differences in mortality were found between groups. The propensity-score regression analysis confirmed that a single dose of antibiotic prophylaxis was independently associated with lower incidence of EO-VAP (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.58; P = .009). A single dose of antibiotic prophylaxis at intubation might lower the incidence of EO-VAP. However, a randomized clinical trial should be conducted to confirm our findings.

  8. Practice patterns and outcomes associated with early sedation depth in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Robert J; Dettmer, Matthew R; Roberts, Brian W; Fowler, Susan A; Fuller, Brian M

    2017-06-09

    Mechanical ventilation is a commonly performed intervention in critically ill patients. Frequently, these patients experience deep sedation early in their clinical course. Emerging data suggest that the practice of early deep sedation may negatively impact patient outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess the world's literature to describe and determine the impact of early deep sedation on the outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients. Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies will be eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. With the assistance of a medical librarian, we will comprehensively search MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews and Effects, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for peer-reviewed literature. Grey literature from appropriate professional society conferences, held from 2010 to 2017, will be reviewed manually. Two authors will independently review all search results, and disagreements will be resolved through arbitration by a third author. If appropriate, meta-analysis will be used for quantitative analysis of the data. Heterogeneity between studies will be assessed using the I 2 statistic. The proposed systematic review will not collect data that are associated with individual patients and does not require ethical approval. Results of this study will contribute to the understanding of early sedation, identify future research targets and guide early care in mechanically ventilated patients. This systematic review has been registered in the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO #CRD42017057264). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Clinical challenges in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Goligher, Ewan C; Ferguson, Niall D; Brochard, Laurent J

    2016-04-30

    Mechanical ventilation supports gas exchange and alleviates the work of breathing when the respiratory muscles are overwhelmed by an acute pulmonary or systemic insult. Although mechanical ventilation is not generally considered a treatment for acute respiratory failure per se, ventilator management warrants close attention because inappropriate ventilation can result in injury to the lungs or respiratory muscles and worsen morbidity and mortality. Key clinical challenges include averting intubation in patients with respiratory failure with non-invasive techniques for respiratory support; delivering lung-protective ventilation to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury; maintaining adequate gas exchange in severely hypoxaemic patients; avoiding the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction; and diagnosing and treating the many pathophysiological mechanisms that impair liberation from mechanical ventilation. Personalisation of mechanical ventilation based on individual physiological characteristics and responses to therapy can further improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ventilation and ventilators.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B

    1982-01-01

    The history of ventilation is reviewed briefly and recent developments in techniques of ventilation are discussed. Operating features of ventilators have changed in the past few years, partly as the result of clinical progress; yet, technology appears to have outstripped the clinician's ability to harness it most effectively. Clinical discipline and training of medical staff in the use of ventilators could be improved. The future is promising if clinician and designer can work together closely. Ergonomics of ventilators and their controls and the provision of alarms need special attention. Microprocessors are likely to feature prominently in the next generation of designs.

  11. Evaluation of ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation in neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Delord, Vincent; Leroux, Karl; Lofaso, Frédéric; Hautot, Solène; Toussaint, Michel; Orlikowski, David; Louis, Bruno; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    Daytime mouthpiece ventilation is a useful adjunct to nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with neuromuscular disease. The aims of the study were to analyze the practice of mouthpiece ventilation and to evaluate the performance of ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation. Practice of mouthpiece ventilation was assessed by a questionnaire, and the performance of 6 home ventilators with mouthpiece ventilation was assessed in a bench test using 24 different conditions per ventilator: 3 mouthpieces, a child and an adult patient profile, and 4 ventilatory modes. Questionnaires were obtained from 30 subjects (mean age 33 ± 11 y) using NIV for 12 ± 7 y. Fifteen subjects used NIV for > 20 h/day, and 11 were totally ventilator-dependent. The subject-reported benefits of mouthpiece ventilation were a reduction in dyspnea (73%) and fatigue (93%) and an improvement in speech (43%) and eating (27%). The bench study showed that none of the ventilators, even those with mouthpiece ventilation software, were able to deliver mouthpiece ventilation without alarms and/or autotriggering in each condition. Alarms and/or ineffective triggering or autotriggering were observed in 135 of the 198 conditions. The occurrence of alarms was more common with a large mouthpiece without a filter compared to a small mouthpiece with a filter (P < .001), but it was not related to the patient profile, the ventilatory mode, or the type of ventilator. Subjects are satisfied with mouthpiece ventilation. Alarms are common with home ventilators, although less common in those with mouthpiece ventilation software. Improvements in home ventilators are needed to facilitate the expansion of mouthpiece ventilation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Non-invasive high-frequency ventilation versus bi-phasic continuous positive airway pressure (BP-CPAP) following CPAP failure in infants <1250 g: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, A; Sarmiento, K; Lee, B; Hassall, K; Shah, V

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive high-frequency ventilation (NIHFV), a relatively new modality, is gaining popularity despite limited data. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of NIHFV versus bi-phasic continuous positive airway pressure (BP-CPAP) in preterm infants failing CPAP. Infants with BW<1250 g on CPAP were randomly assigned to NIHFV or BP-CPAP if they met pre-determined criteria for CPAP failure. Infants were eligible for randomization after 72 h age and until 2000 g. Guidelines for adjustment of settings and criteria for failure of assigned mode were implemented. The primary aim was to assess feasibility of a larger trial. In addition, failure of assigned non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) mode, invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) 72 h and 7 days post-randomization, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were assessed. Thirty-nine infants were randomized to NIHFV (N=16) or BP-CPAP (N=23). There were no significant differences in mean (s.d.) postmenstrual age (28.6 (1.5) versus 29.0 (2.3) weeks, P=0.47), mean (s.d.) weight at randomization (965.0 (227.0) versus 958.1 (310.4) g, P=0.94) or other baseline demographics between the groups. Failure of assigned NRS mode was lower with NIHFV (37.5 versus 65.2%, P=0.09), although not statistically significant. There were no differences in rates of invasive MV 72 h and 7 days post-randomization or BPD. NIHFV was not superior to BP-CPAP in this pilot study. Effectiveness of NIHFV needs to be proven in larger multi-center, appropriately powered trials before widespread implementation.

  13. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-05-06

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increasing, and facing these challenges is common in the operating rooms and critical care units worldwide. In this review we summarize the existing literature which supports the following recommendations for the perioperative ventilation in obese patients: (1) the use of protective ventilation with low tidal volumes (approximately 8 mL/kg, calculated based on predicted -not actual- body weight) to avoid volutrauma; (2) a focus on lung recruitment by utilizing PEEP (8-15 cmH2O) in addition to recruitment maneuvers during the intraoperative period, as well as incentivized deep breathing and noninvasive ventilation early in the postoperative period, to avoid atelectasis, hypoxemia and atelectrauma; and (3) a judicious oxygen use (ideally less than 0.8) to avoid hypoxemia but also possible reabsorption atelectasis. Obesity poses an additional challenge for achieving adequate protective ventilation during one-lung ventilation, but different lung isolation techniques have been adequately performed in obese patients by experienced providers. Postoperative efforts should be directed to avoid hypoventilation, atelectasis and hypoxemia. Further studies are needed to better define optimum protective ventilation strategies and analyze their impact on the perioperative outcomes of surgical patients with obesity.

  14. Determinants of ventilation and pulmonary artery pressure during early acclimatization to hypoxia in humans.

    PubMed

    Fatemian, Marzieh; Herigstad, Mari; Croft, Quentin P P; Formenti, Federico; Cardenas, Rosa; Wheeler, Carly; Smith, Thomas G; Friedmannova, Maria; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary arterial pressure both rise progressively during the first few hours of human acclimatization to hypoxia. These responses are highly variable between individuals, but the origin of this variability is unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether the variabilities between different measures of response to sustained hypoxia were related, which would suggest a common source of variability. Eighty volunteers individually underwent an 8-h isocapnic exposure to hypoxia (end-tidal P(O2)=55 Torr) in a purpose-built chamber. Measurements of ventilation and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) assessed by Doppler echocardiography were made during the exposure. Before and after the exposure, measurements were made of the ventilatory sensitivities to acute isocapnic hypoxia (G(pO2)) and hyperoxic hypercapnia, the latter divided into peripheral (G(pCO2)) and central (G(cCO2)) components. Substantial acclimatization was observed in both ventilation and PASP, the latter being 40% greater in women than men. No correlation was found between the magnitudes of pulmonary ventilatory and pulmonary vascular responses. For G(pO2), G(pCO2) and G(cC O2), but not the sensitivity of PASP to acute hypoxia, the magnitude of the increase during acclimatization was proportional to the pre-acclimatization value. Additionally, the change in G(pO2) during acclimatization to hypoxia correlated well with most other measures of ventilatory acclimatization. Of the initial measurements prior to sustained hypoxia, only G(pCO2) predicted the subsequent rise in ventilation and change in G(pO2) during acclimatization. We conclude that the magnitudes of the ventilatory and pulmonary vascular responses to sustained hypoxia are predominantly determined by different factors and that the initial G(pCO2) is a modest predictor of ventilatory acclimatization. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological

  15. Noninvasive Imaging of Early Venous Thrombosis by 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Targeted Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Temme, Sebastian; Grapentin, Christoph; Quast, Christine; Jacoby, Christoph; Grandoch, Maria; Ding, Zhaoping; Owenier, Christoph; Mayenfels, Friederike; Fischer, Jens W; Schubert, Rolf; Schrader, Jürgen; Flögel, Ulrich

    2015-04-21

    Noninvasive detection of deep venous thrombi and subsequent pulmonary thromboembolism is a serious medical challenge, since both incidences are difficult to identify by conventional ultrasound techniques. Here, we report a novel technique for the sensitive and specific identification of developing thrombi using background-free 19F magnetic resonance imaging, together with α2-antiplasmin peptide (α2AP)-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFCs) as contrast agent, which is cross-linked to fibrin by active factor XIII. Ligand functionality was ensured by mild coupling conditions using the sterol-based postinsertion technique. Developing thrombi with a diameter<0.8 mm could be visualized unequivocally in the murine inferior vena cava as hot spots in vivo by simultaneous acquisition of anatomic matching 1H and 19F magnetic resonance images at 9.4 T with both excellent signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (71±22 and 17±5, respectively). Furthermore, α2AP-PFCs could be successfully applied for the diagnosis of experimentally induced pulmonary thromboembolism. In line with the reported half-life of factor XIIIa, application of α2AP-PFCs>60 minutes after thrombus induction no longer resulted in detectable 19F magnetic resonance imaging signals. Corresponding results were obtained in ex vivo generated human clots. Thus, α2AP-PFCs can visualize freshly developed thrombi that might still be susceptible to pharmacological intervention. Our results demonstrate that 1H/19F magnetic resonance imaging, together with α2AP-PFCs, is a sensitive, noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of acute deep venous thrombi and pulmonary thromboemboli. Furthermore, ligand coupling by the sterol-based postinsertion technique represents a unique platform for the specific targeting of PFCs for in vivo 19F magnetic resonance imaging. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Early mobilization and recovery in mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU: a bi-national, multi-centre, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Carol; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Berney, Susan; Bailey, Michael; Buhr, Heidi; Denehy, Linda; Harrold, Megan; Higgins, Alisa; Presneill, Jeff; Saxena, Manoj; Skinner, Elizabeth; Young, Paul; Webb, Steven

    2015-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate current mobilization practice, strength at ICU discharge and functional recovery at 6 months among mechanically ventilated ICU patients. This was a prospective, multi-centre, cohort study conducted in twelve ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Patients were previously functionally independent and expected to be ventilated for >48 hours. We measured mobilization during invasive ventilation, sedation depth using the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS), co-interventions, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) at ICU discharge, mortality at day 90, and 6-month functional recovery including return to work. We studied 192 patients (mean age 58.1 ± 15.8 years; mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) (IQR) II score, 18.0 (14 to 24)). Mortality at day 90 was 26.6% (51/192). Over 1,351 study days, we collected information during 1,288 planned early mobilization episodes in patients on mechanical ventilation for the first 14 days or until extubation (whichever occurred first). We recorded the highest level of early mobilization. Despite the presence of dedicated physical therapy staff, no mobilization occurred in 1,079 (84%) of these episodes. Where mobilization occurred, the maximum levels of mobilization were exercises in bed (N = 94, 7%), standing at the bed side (N = 11, 0.9%) or walking (N = 26, 2%). On day three, all patients who were mobilized were mechanically ventilated via an endotracheal tube (N = 10), whereas by day five 50% of the patients mobilized were mechanically ventilated via a tracheostomy tube (N = 18). Early mobilization of patients receiving mechanical ventilation was uncommon. More than 50% of patients discharged from the ICU had developed ICU-acquired weakness, which was associated with death between ICU discharge and day-90. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01674608. Registered 14 August 2012.

  17. Mechanical Ventilation and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Keszler, Martin; Sant'Anna, Guilherme

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important potentially modifiable risk factor for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Effective use of noninvasive respiratory support reduces the risk of lung injury. Lung volume recruitment and avoidance of excessive tidal volume are key elements of lung-protective ventilation strategies. Avoidance of oxidative stress, less invasive methods of surfactant administration, and high-frequency ventilation are also important factors in lung injury prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic value of efficiently correcting nocturnal desaturations after one month of non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a retrospective monocentre observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Arnol, Nathalie; Meininger, Vincent; Kraoua, Salah; Salachas, François; Similowski, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Abstract NIV adherence ('quantity' of ventilation) has a prognostic impact in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We hypothesized that NIV effectiveness ('quality') could also have a similar impact. NIV effectiveness was evaluated in 82 patients within the first month (M1) and every three months (symptoms, arterial blood bases, and nocturnal pulsed oxygen saturation - SpO2). Kaplan-Meier survival and risk factors for mortality one year after NIV initiation were evaluated. Forty patients were considered 'correctly ventilated' at M1 (Group 1, less than 5% of nocturnal oximetry time with an SpO2<90% - TS90) while 42 were not (Group 2). Both groups were comparable in terms of respiratory and neurological baseline characteristics. Survival was better in Group 1 (75% survival at 12 months) than in Group 2 (43% survival at 12 months, p = 0.002). In 12 Group 2 patients corrective measures were efficient in correcting TS90 at six months. In this subgroup, one-year mortality was not different from that in Group 1. Multivariate analysis identified independent mortality risk factors expectedly including bulbar involvement (HR = 4.31 (1.73 - 10.76), p = 0.002), 'rapid respiratory decline' (HR = 3.55 (1.29 - 9.75), p = 0.014) and vital capacity (HR = 0.97 (0.95 - 0.99), p = 0.010), but also inadequate ventilation in the first month (HR = 2.32 (1.09 - 4.94), p = 0.029). In conclusion, in ALS patients NIV effectiveness to correct nocturnal desaturations is an independent prognostic factor.

  19. Early and small changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with mortality in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Nin, Nicolás; Lombardi, Raúl; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente, José A; Ferguson, Niall D; Hurtado, Javier; Apezteguia, Carlos; Brochard, Laurent; Schortgen, Fréderique; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Tomicic, Vinko; Soto, Luis; González, Marco; Nightingale, Peter; Abroug, Fekri; Pelosi, Paolo; Arabi, Yaseen; Moreno, Rui; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that minor changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with increased hospital mortality rates. However, whether serum creatinine concentration (SCr) on admission and its change are associated with an increased mortality rate in mechanically ventilated patients is not known. We have conducted an international, prospective, observational cohort study enrolling adult intensive care unit patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). Recursive partitioning was used to determine the values of SCr at the start of MV (SCr0) and the change in SCr ([DeltaSCr] defined as the maximal difference between the value at start of MV [day 0] and the value on MV day 2 at 8:00 am) that best discriminate mortality. In-hospital mortality, adjusted by a proportional hazards model, was the primary outcome variable. A total of 2,807 patients were included; median age was 59 years and median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 44. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 44%. The variable that best discriminated outcome was a SCr0 greater than 1.40 mg/dL (mortality, 57% vs. 36% for patients with SCr0 ventilated patients.

  20. Why non-invasive maternal hemodynamics assessment is clinically relevant in early pregnancy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vonck, Sharona; Staelens, Anneleen Simone; Bollen, Ine; Broekx, Lien; Gyselaers, Wilfried

    2016-10-12

    The maternal cardiovascular system adapts quickly when embryo implantation is recognized by the body. Those adaptations play an important role, as a normal cardiovascular adaptation is a requirement for a normal course of pregnancy. Disturbed adaptations predispose to potential hypertensive disorders further in pregnancy [1-3]. This report aims to briefly inform the obstetricians, general practitioners and midwives, who are the key players in detecting and treating hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. The PubMed database was used as main tool to find studies involving clearly defined first trimester hemodynamic changes in normal pregnancies and hypertensive pregnancies. In addition, the bibliographies of these studies were investigated for further relevant literature. A comprehensive overview is given concerning the normal adaptations in the cardiovascular tree in a first trimester pregnancy. Additionally, signs of abnormal cardiovascular changes observed in first trimester are described together with the normal reference range for each non-invasive, easily applicable technique for maternal hemodynamics assessment. With a combination of techniques, it is possible to integrate and evaluate the maternal heart, veins and arteries at 12 weeks of pregnancy. Applying those techniques into the daily clinic opens perspectives to prevention and prophylactic treatment, aiming for a reduction of the risk for hypertension during pregnancy.

  1. Early prediction of cardiac resynchronization therapy response by non-invasive electrocardiogram markers.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Pérez-Roselló, Víctor; Donoso, Víctor; Osca, Joaquín; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Fernández, Carmen; Galbis, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for those patients with severe heart failure. Regrettably, there are about one third of CRT "non-responders", i.e. patients who have undergone this form of device therapy but do not respond to it, which adversely affects the utility and cost-effectiveness of CRT. In this paper, we assess the ability of a novel surface ECG marker to predict CRT response. We performed a retrospective exploratory study of the ECG previous to CRT implantation in 43 consecutive patients with ischemic (17) or non-ischemic (26) cardiomyopathy. We extracted the QRST complexes (consisting of the QRS complex, the S-T segment, and the T wave) and obtained a measure of their energy by means of spectral analysis. This ECG marker showed statistically significant lower values for non-responder patients and, joint with the duration of QRS complexes (the current gold-standard to predict CRT response), the following performances: 86% accuracy, 88% sensitivity, and 80% specificity. In this manner, the proposed ECG marker may help clinicians to predict positive response to CRT in a non-invasive way, in order to minimize unsuccessful procedures.

  2. Determinants of ventilation and pulmonary artery pressure during early acclimatization to hypoxia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fatemian, Marzieh; Herigstad, Mari; Croft, Quentin P. P.; Formenti, Federico; Cardenas, Rosa; Wheeler, Carly; Smith, Thomas G.; Friedmannova, Maria; Dorrington, Keith L.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Lung ventilation and pulmonary artery pressure rise progressively in response to 8 h of hypoxia, changes described as ‘acclimatization to hypoxia’. Acclimatization responses differ markedly between humans for unknown reasons.We explored whether the magnitudes of the ventilatory and vascular responses were related, and whether the degree of acclimatization could be predicted by acute measurements of ventilatory and vascular sensitivities.In 80 healthy human volunteers measurements of acclimatization were made before, during, and after a sustained exposure to 8 h of isocapnic hypoxia.No correlation was found between measures of ventilatory and pulmonary vascular acclimatization.The ventilatory chemoreflex sensitivities to acute hypoxia and hypercapnia all increased in proportion to their pre‐acclimatization values following 8 h of hypoxia. The peripheral (rapid) chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2, measured before sustained hypoxia against a background of hyperoxia, was a modest predictor of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. This finding has relevance to predicting human acclimatization to the hypoxia of altitude. Abstract Pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary arterial pressure both rise progressively during the first few hours of human acclimatization to hypoxia. These responses are highly variable between individuals, but the origin of this variability is unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether the variabilities between different measures of response to sustained hypoxia were related, which would suggest a common source of variability. Eighty volunteers individually underwent an 8‐h isocapnic exposure to hypoxia (end‐tidal P O2=55 Torr) in a purpose‐built chamber. Measurements of ventilation and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) assessed by Doppler echocardiography were made during the exposure. Before and after the exposure, measurements were made of the ventilatory sensitivities to acute isocapnic hypoxia (GpO2) and

  3. Bubble CPAP versus ventilator CPAP in preterm neonates with early onset respiratory distress--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tagare, Amit; Kadam, Sandeep; Vaidya, Umesh; Pandit, Anand; Patole, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) is a low cost nasal CPAP delivery system with potential benefits to developing nations. To compare the efficacy and safety of BCPAP with ventilator-derived CPAP (VCPAP) in preterm neonates with respiratory distress. In a randomized controlled trial, preterm neonates with Silverman-Anderson score ≥ 4 and oxygen requirement >30% within first 6 h of life were randomly allocated to BCPAP or VCPAP. Proportion of neonates with success or failure was compared. In all, 47 of 57 (82.5%) neonates from BCPAP group and 36 of 57 (63.2%) neonates from the VCPAP group completed CPAP successfully (p = 0.03). Neonates who failed CPAP had higher Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01), lower arterial to alveolar oxygenation ratio (p < 0.05) and needed surfactant more frequently (p < 0.01). BCPAP has higher success rate than VCPAP for managing preterm neonates with early onset respiratory distress, with comparable safety.

  4. [Prolonged mechanical ventilation probability model].

    PubMed

    Añón, J M; Gómez-Tello, V; González-Higueras, E; Oñoro, J J; Córcoles, V; Quintana, M; López-Martínez, J; Marina, L; Choperena, G; García-Fernández, A M; Martín-Delgado, C; Gordo, F; Díaz-Alersi, R; Montejo, J C; Lorenzo, A García de; Pérez-Arriaga, M; Madero, R

    2012-10-01

    To design a probability model for prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) using variables obtained during the first 24 hours of the start of MV. An observational, prospective, multicenter cohort study. Thirteen Spanish medical-surgical intensive care units. Adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours. None. APACHE II, SOFA, demographic data, clinical data, reason for mechanical ventilation, comorbidity, and functional condition. A multivariate risk model was constructed. The model contemplated a dependent variable with three possible conditions: 1. Early mortality; 2. Early extubation; and 3. PMV. Of the 1661 included patients, 67.9% (n=1127) were men. Age: 62.1±16.2 years. APACHE II: 20.3±7.5. Total SOFA: 8.4±3.5. The APACHE II and SOFA scores were higher in patients ventilated for 7 or more days (p=0.04 and p=0.0001, respectively). Noninvasive ventilation failure was related to PMV (p=0.005). A multivariate model for the three above exposed outcomes was generated. The overall accuracy of the model in the training and validation sample was 0.763 (95%IC: 0.729-0.804) and 0.751 (95%IC: 0.672-0.816), respectively. The likelihood ratios (LRs) for early extubation, involving a cutoff point of 0.65, in the training sample were LR (+): 2.37 (95%CI: 1.77-3.19) and LR (-): 0.47 (95%CI: 0.41-0.55). The LRs for the early mortality model, for a cutoff point of 0.73, in the training sample, were LR (+): 2.64 (95%CI: 2.01-3.4) and LR (-): 0.39 (95%CI: 0.30-0.51). The proposed model could be a helpful tool in decision making. However, because of its moderate accuracy, it should be considered as a first approach, and the results should be corroborated by further studies involving larger samples and the use of standardized criteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Early antibiotic treatment for BAL-confirmed ventilator-associated pneumonia: a role for routine endotracheal aspirate cultures.

    PubMed

    Michel, Fabrice; Franceschini, Bruno; Berger, Pierre; Arnal, Jean-Michel; Gainnier, Marc; Sainty, Jean-Marie; Papazian, Laurent

    2005-02-01

    To test whether routine quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates obtained before the onset of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) could help to predict the causative microorganisms and to select early appropriate antimicrobial therapy before obtaining BAL culture results. Prospective observational study. French medical ICU. A total of 299 patients received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 h. Endotracheal aspiration (EA) was performed twice weekly in all mechanically ventilated patients. A diagnosis of VAP was made by BAL culture. Only the EA performed just before the suspicion of VAP (EA-pre) were evaluated. This strategy (ie, the EA-pre-based strategy) was compared with an antibiotic therapy that would have been prescribed if the recommendations of both the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and Trouillet et al (Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157:531-539) had been applied. VAP was diagnosed (by BAL culture) in 41 of the 75 patients in whom BAL was performed. Among the 41 BAL specimens that were positive for VAP, EA-pre had identified the same microorganisms (with the same antibiotic resistance patterns) in 34 cases (83%). In one case, EA-pre was not available at the time BAL was performed (a case of early-onset VAP), but the empiric antibiotic therapy was adequate. While EA-pre did not give the same results as the BAL culture, the antibiotic therapy based on the results of the EA-pre was adequate in four other cases. Finally, antibiotic therapy was delayed in only two cases. Antibiotic treatment was therefore adequate in 38 of the 40 assessable cases (95%). If the Trouillet-based strategy had been used, the antibiotic treatment would have been adequate in 34 of the 41 cases (83%; p = 0.15 [vs EA-pre strategy]). Based on the ATS classification, the antibiotic treatment would have been adequately prescribed in only 28 of the 41 cases (68%; p = 0.005 [vs EA-pre strategy]). Routine EA performed twice a week makes it possible to prescribe adequate

  6. Affordable Imaging Lab for Noninvasive Analysis of Biomass and Early Vigour in Cereal Crops

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Plant phenotyping by imaging allows automated analysis of plants for various morphological and physiological traits. In this work, we developed a low-cost RGB imaging phenotyping lab (LCP lab) for low-throughput imaging and analysis using affordable imaging equipment and freely available software. LCP lab comprising RGB imaging and analysis pipeline is set up and demonstrated with early vigour analysis in wheat. Using this lab, a few hundred pots can be photographed in a day and the pots are tracked with QR codes. The software pipeline for both imaging and analysis is built from freely available software. The LCP lab was evaluated for early vigour analysis of five wheat cultivars. A high coefficient of determination (R2 0.94) was obtained between the dry weight and the projected leaf area of 20-day-old wheat plants and R2 of 0.9 for the relative growth rate between 10 and 20 days of plant growth. Detailed description for setting up such a lab is provided together with custom scripts built for imaging and analysis. The LCP lab is an affordable alternative for analysis of cereal crops when access to a high-throughput phenotyping facility is unavailable or when the experiments require growing plants in highly controlled climate chambers. The protocols described in this work are useful for building affordable imaging system for small-scale research projects and for education. PMID:29850536

  7. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  8. Anaesthesia ventilators.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-09-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits.

  9. Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Lee

    This is the Final Progress Report for DOE-funded research project DE-PS02-08ER08-01 titled “Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens”. The project focuses on the effects of low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the ocular lens. The lens is an exquisitely radiosensitive tissue with a highly-ordered molecular structure that is amenable to non-invasive optical study from the periphery. These merits point to the lens as an ideal target for laser-based molecular biodosimetry (MBD). Following exposure to different types of ionizing radiations, the lens demonstrates molecular changes (e.g., oxidation, racemization, crosslinkage, truncation, aggregation, etc.) thatmore » impact the structure and function of the long-lived proteins in the cytosol of lens fiber cells. The vast majority of proteins in the lens comprise the highly-ordered crystallins. These highly conserved lens proteins are amongst the most concentrated and stable in the body. Once synthesized, the crystallins are retained in the fiber cell cytoplasm for life. Taken together, these properties point to the lens as an ideal system for quantitative in vivo MBD assessment using quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) analysis. In this project, we deploy a purpose-designed non-invasive infrared laser QLS instrument as a quantitative tool for longitudinal assessment of pre-cataractous molecular changes in the lenses of living mice exposed to low-dose low-LET radiation compared to non-irradiated sham controls. We hypothesize that radiation exposure will induce dose-dependent changes in the molecular structure of matrix proteins in the lens. Mechanistic assays to ascertain radiation-induced molecular changes in the lens focus on protein aggregation and gene/protein expression patterns. We anticipate that this study will contribute to our understanding of early molecular changes associated with radiation-induced tissue pathology. This study also affords

  10. Non-invasive toluene sensor for early diagnosis of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Rahul; Srivastava, Sudha, E-mail: sudha.srivastava@jiit.ac.in

    Here we present, quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath for early detection of lung cancer to increase survival probability. Graphene oxide nanosheets synthesized by modified Hummer’s method were employed as a sensing element to detect the presence of toluene in the sample. Optical and morphological characterization of synthesized nanomaterial was performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Spectroscopic assay shows a linearly decreasing intensity of GO absorption peak with increasing toluene concentration with a linear range from 0-200 pM. While impedimetric sensor developed on a graphene oxide nanosheetsmodified screen printed electrodes displayed a decreasing electronmore » transfer resistance increasing toluene with much larger linear range of 0-1000 pM. Reported techniques are advantageous as these are simple, sensitive and cost effective, which can easily be extended for primary screening of other VOCs.« less

  11. Abnormal plasma DNA profiles in early ovarian cancer using a non-invasive prenatal testing platform: implications for cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul A; Flowers, Nicola; Tong, Stephen; Hannan, Natalie; Pertile, Mark D; Hui, Lisa

    2016-08-24

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) identifies fetal aneuploidy by sequencing cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. Pre-symptomatic maternal malignancies have been incidentally detected during NIPT based on abnormal genomic profiles. This low coverage sequencing approach could have potential for ovarian cancer screening in the non-pregnant population. Our objective was to investigate whether plasma DNA sequencing with a clinical whole genome NIPT platform can detect early- and late-stage high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC). This is a case control study of prospectively-collected biobank samples comprising preoperative plasma from 32 women with HGSOC (16 'early cancer' (FIGO I-II) and 16 'advanced cancer' (FIGO III-IV)) and 32 benign controls. Plasma DNA from cases and controls were sequenced using a commercial NIPT platform and chromosome dosage measured. Sequencing data were blindly analyzed with two methods: (1) Subchromosomal changes were called using an open source algorithm WISECONDOR (WIthin-SamplE COpy Number aberration DetectOR). Genomic gains or losses ≥ 15 Mb were prespecified as "screen positive" calls, and mapped to recurrent copy number variations reported in an ovarian cancer genome atlas. (2) Selected whole chromosome gains or losses were reported using the routine NIPT pipeline for fetal aneuploidy. We detected 13/32 cancer cases using the subchromosomal analysis (sensitivity 40.6 %, 95 % CI, 23.7-59.4 %), including 6/16 early and 7/16 advanced HGSOC cases. Two of 32 benign controls had subchromosomal gains ≥ 15 Mb (specificity 93.8 %, 95 % CI, 79.2-99.2 %). Twelve of the 13 true positive cancer cases exhibited specific recurrent changes reported in HGSOC tumors. The NIPT pipeline resulted in one "monosomy 18" call from the cancer group, and two "monosomy X" calls in the controls. Low coverage plasma DNA sequencing used for prenatal testing detected 40.6 % of all HGSOC, including 38 % of early stage cases. Our

  12. Role of non-Invasive Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Nickolas Papadopoulos is Professor of Oncology & Pathology and Director of Translational Genetics at the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins. He is internationally known as a co-discoverer of the genetic basis of the predisposition to hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), one of the most common hereditary forms of cancer, earlier in his career. He is known for the development of diagnostic tests and is considered an expert in cancer genetics and diagnostics. He was part of the interdisciplinary team that was first to sequence all of the protein coding genes, determine genetic alterations, and construct expression profiles of four common tumor types. Later, he was involved in the identification of genetic alterations that drive tumorigenesis in multiple tumor types. Noteworthy discoveries made by Dr. Papadopoulos include the identification of novel mutations in chromatin remodeling genes in ovarian clear cell carcinomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. He is a co-developer of sensitive methods for the detection of tumor DNA in liquid biopsy, and also the co-founder of two companies that develop diagnostics for cancer. Currently, he is focused on translating the genetic information derived from cancer genome analyses to clinical applications in early detection, diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. Dr. Papadopoulos received his PhD from the University of Texas McGovern Medical School in Houston.

  13. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  14. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wildt, David E.; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify ‘biomarkers’ and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population. PMID:29236714

  15. Identifying who will benefit from non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neurone disease in a clinical cohort.

    PubMed

    Berlowitz, David J; Howard, Mark E; Fiore, Julio F; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Westlake, Justine; Smith, Anna; Beer, Fiona; Mathers, Susan; Talman, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory failure is associated with significant morbidity and is the predominant cause of death in motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (MND/ALS). This study aimed to determine the effect of non-invasive ventilatory (NIV) support on survival and pulmonary function decline across MND/ALS phenotypes. Cohort recruited via a specialist, multidisciplinary clinic. Patients were categorised into four clinical phenotypes (ALS, flail arm, flail leg and primary lateral sclerosis) according to site of presenting symptom and the pattern of upper versus lower motor neurone involvement. NIV was initiated according to current consensus practice guidelines. Between 1991 and 2011, 1198 patients diagnosed with ALS/MND were registered. 929 patients (77.5%) fulfilled the selection criteria and their data were analysed. Median tracheostomy free survival from symptom onset was 28 months in NIV-treated patients compared to 15 months in untreated (Univariate Cox regression HR=0.61 (0.51 to 0.73), p<0.001). The positive survival effect of NIV persisted when the model was adjusted for age, gender, riluzole and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy use (HR=0.72 (0.60 to 0.88, p=0.001). In contrast with the only randomised controlled trial, NIV statistically significantly increased survival by 19 months in those with ALS-bulbar onset (Univariate HR=0.50 (0.36 to 0.70), multivariate HR=0.59 (0.41 to 0.83)). These data confirm that NIV improves survival in MND/ALS. The overall magnitude of benefit is 13 months and was largest in those with ALS-bulbar disease. Future research should explore the optimal timing of NIV initiation within phenotypes in order to optimise respiratory function, quality of life and survival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Ventilation-Induced Modulation of Pulse Oximeter Waveforms: A Method for the Assessment of Early Changes in Intravascular Volume During Spinal Fusion Surgery in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Alian, Aymen A; Atteya, Gourg; Gaal, Dorothy; Golembeski, Thomas; Smith, Brian G; Dai, Feng; Silverman, David G; Shelley, Kirk

    2016-08-01

    Scoliosis surgery is often associated with substantial blood loss, requiring fluid resuscitation and blood transfusions. In adults, dynamic preload indices have been shown to be more reliable for guiding fluid resuscitation, but these indices have not been useful in children undergoing surgery. The aim of this study was to introduce frequency-analyzed photoplethysmogram (PPG) and arterial pressure waveform variables and to study the ability of these parameters to detect early bleeding in children during surgery. We studied 20 children undergoing spinal fusion. Electrocardiogram, arterial pressure, finger pulse oximetry (finger PPG), and airway pressure waveforms were analyzed using time domain and frequency domain methods of analysis. Frequency domain analysis consisted of calculating the amplitude density of PPG and arterial pressure waveforms at the respiratory and cardiac frequencies using Fourier analysis. This generated 2 measurements: The first is related to slow mean arterial pressure modulation induced by ventilation (also known as DC modulation when referring to the PPG), and the second corresponds to pulse pressure modulation (AC modulation or changes in the amplitude of pulse oximeter plethysmograph when referring to the PPG). Both PPG and arterial pressure measurements were divided by their respective cardiac pulse amplitude to generate DC% and AC% (normalized values). Standard hemodynamic data were also recorded. Data at baseline and after bleeding (estimated blood loss about 9% of blood volume) were presented as median and interquartile range and compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests; a Bonferroni-corrected P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were significant increases in PPG DC% (median [interquartile range] = 359% [210 to 541], P = 0.002), PPG AC% (160% [87 to 251], P = 0.003), and arterial DC% (44% [19 to 84], P = 0.012) modulations, respectively, whereas arterial AC% modulations showed nonsignificant increase (41% [1

  17. A Multi-Institutional Study of Feasibility, Implementation, and Early Clinical Results With Noninvasive Breast Brachytherapy for Tumor Bed Boost

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Subarna, E-mail: shamid@tuftsmedicalcenter.org; Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI; Rocchio, Kathy

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, implementation, and early results of noninvasive breast brachytherapy (NIBB) for tumor bed boost with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: NIBB is a commercially available (AccuBoost, Billerica, MA) mammography-based, brachytherapy system in which the treatment applicators are centered on the planning target volume (PTV) to direct {sup 192}Ir emissions along orthogonal axes. A privacy-encrypted online data registry collected information from 8 independent academic and community-based institutions. Data were from 146 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer after lumpectomy and WBRT receiving boost with NIBB between July 2007 and March 2010. Toxicity and cosmesismore » were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (v. 3.0) and the Harvard scale. Median follow-up was 6 months (1-39 months). Results: Grade 1-2 skin toxicity was observed in 64%, 48%, and 21% during the acute (1-3 weeks), intermediate (4-26 weeks), and late-intermediate (>26 weeks) periods. There was no Grade 4 toxicity. At 6 months, for the entire cohort, cosmesis was excellent/good in 62%/38%. The subset receiving NIBB before WBRT had cosmetic scores of 32% and 63%, whereas during WBRT, 58% and 37% were rated as excellent and good, respectively. Breast compression was scored as 'uncomfortable' in 12%, 29%, and 59% when NIBB was delivered before, during, or after WBRT. For each patient, the fraction-to-fraction variability in PTV was low. Skin flash was associated with a higher proportion of excellent cosmesis (58% vs. 42%) relative to having the applicator all within breast tissue. Conclusions: These data indicate that NIBB is feasible and can be consistently implemented in a broad array of practice settings. Preliminary evaluation suggests that NIBB is associated with acceptably mild normal tissue toxicity and favorable early cosmesis. The application of NIBB before WBRT may be associated with better patient tolerance at

  18. [Comparision of risk factors and pathogens in patients with early- and late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Liang, Y J; Li, Z L; Wang, L; Liu, B Y; Ding, R Y; Ma, X C

    2017-10-01

    Objective: To compare risk factors and bacterial etiology in patients with early-onset versus late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours in the first affiliated hospital, China Medical University from Jan 2012 to Jun 2016. Subjects were classified by ventilator status: early-onset VAP (< 5 d ventilation, E-VAP) or late-onset VAP (≥ 5 d ventilation, L-VAP). Potential risk factors and pathogen were evaluated. Results: A total of 4 179 patients in adult ICU were screened, 3 989 (95.5%) of whom were mechanically ventilated, 962 patients with mechanical ventilation time ≥ 48 h. VAP developed in 142 patients. E-VAP and L-VAP had different potential risk factors based on statistical analysis.Independent risk factors for E-VAP included male ( OR =1.825, 95% CI 1.006-3.310), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR =3.746, 95% CI 1.795-7.818), emergency intubation ( OR =1.932, 95% CI 1.139-3.276), aspiration ( OR =3.324, 95% CI 1.359-8.130). Whereas independent risk factors for L-VAP were coma ( OR =2.335, 95% CI 1.300-4.194), renal dysfunction ( OR =0.524, 95% CI 0.290-0.947), emergency intubation ( OR =2.184, 95% CI 1.334-3.574). Mortality in E-VAP and L-VAP group were both higher than the non-VAP group[30.2%(19/63)vs 19.8%(162/820), P =0.044; 29.1%(23/79) vs 19.8%(162/820), P =0.046]. The pathogens isolated from early-onset versus late-onset VAP were not significantly different between groups, which the most common ones were acinetobacter baumannii, pseudomonas aeruginosa and klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusion: E-VAP and L-VAP have different risk factors, however related pathogens are similar. Different specific preventive strategies are suggested based on different onset of VAP.

  19. Noninvasive Recognition and Biomarkers of Early Allergic Asthma in Cats Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of NMR Spectra of Exhaled Breath Condensate

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Yan G.; Fotso, Martial; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Rindt, Hans; Reinero, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is prevalent in children and cats, and needs means of noninvasive diagnosis. We sought to distinguish noninvasively the differences in 53 cats before and soon after induction of allergic asthma, using NMR spectra of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Statistical pattern recognition was improved considerably by preprocessing the spectra with probabilistic quotient normalization and glog transformation. Classification of the 106 preprocessed spectra by principal component analysis and partial least squares with discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) appears to be impaired by variances unrelated to eosinophilic asthma. By filtering out confounding variances, orthogonal signal correction (OSC) PLS-DA greatly improved the separation of the healthy and early asthmatic states, attaining 94% specificity and 94% sensitivity in predictions. OSC enhancement of multi-level PLS-DA boosted the specificity of the prediction to 100%. OSC-PLS-DA of the normalized spectra suggest the most promising biomarkers of allergic asthma in cats to include increased acetone, metabolite(s) with overlapped NMR peaks near 5.8 ppm, and a hydroxyphenyl-containing metabolite, as well as decreased phthalate. Acetone is elevated in the EBC of 74% of the cats with early asthma. The noninvasive detection of early experimental asthma, biomarkers in EBC, and metabolic perturbation invite further investigation of the diagnostic potential in humans. PMID:27764146

  20. CYCLE pilot: a protocol for a pilot randomised study of early cycle ergometry versus routine physiotherapy in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Alexander J; Clarke, France; Herridge, Margaret S; Koo, Karen K Y; Rudkowski, Jill; Seely, Andrew J E; Pellizzari, Joseph R; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Mourtzakis, Marina; Karachi, Timothy; Cook, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early exercise with in-bed cycling as part of an intensive care unit (ICU) rehabilitation programme has the potential to improve physical and functional outcomes following critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of enrolling adults in a multicentre pilot randomised clinical trial (RCT) of early in-bed cycling versus routine physiotherapy to inform a larger RCT. Methods and analysis 60-patient parallel group pilot RCT in 7 Canadian medical-surgical ICUs. We will include all previously ambulatory adult patients within the first 0–4 days of mechanical ventilation, without exclusion criteria. After informed consent, patients will be randomised using a web-based, centralised electronic system, to 30 min of in-bed leg cycling in addition to routine physiotherapy, 5 days per week, for the duration of their ICU stay (28 days maximum) or routine physiotherapy alone. We will measure patients' muscle strength (Medical Research Council Sum Score, quadriceps force) and function (Physical Function in ICU Test (scored), 30 s sit-to-stand, 2 min walk test) at ICU awakening, ICU discharge and hospital discharge. Our 4 feasibility outcomes are: (1) patient accrual of 1–2 patients per month per centre, (2) protocol violation rate <20%, (3) outcome measure ascertainment >80% at the 3 time points and (4) blinded outcomes ascertainment >80% at hospital discharge. Hospital outcome assessors are blinded to group assignment, whereas participants, ICU physiotherapists, ICU caregivers, research coordinators and ICU outcome assessors are not blinded to group assignment. We will analyse feasibility outcomes with descriptive statistics. Ethics and dissemination Each participating centre will obtain local ethics approval, and results of the study will be published to inform the design and conduct of a future multicentre RCT of in-bed cycling to improve physical outcomes in ICU survivors. Trial registration number NCT02377830; Pre

  1. [Relation between ultrasound-measured diaphragm movement and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in blood from patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure after the start of noninvasive ventilation in an emergency department].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Nicolás, José Andrés; Cinesi-Gómez, César; Villén-Villegas, Tomás; Piñera-Salmerón, Pascual; García-Pérez, Bartolo

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the correlation between variations in ultrasound-measured diaphragm movement and changes in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) after the start of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). RDescriptive study of a prospective case series comprised of nonconsecutive patients aged 18 years or older with hypercapnic respiratory failure who were placed on NIV in an emergency department. We recorded clinical data, blood gas measurements, and ultrasound measurements of diaphragm movement. Twenty-one patients with a mean (SD) age of 83 (13) years were studied; 11 (52.4%) were women. The mean (SD) range of diaphragm movement and PCO2 values at 4 moments were as follows: 1) at baseline: diaphragm movement, 13.90 (7.7) mm and PCO2, 71.75 (11.4) mm Hg; 2) after 15 minutes on NIV: diaphragm movement, 17.10 (9.1) mm; 3) at 1 hour: diaphragm movement, 22.40 (10.4) mm and PCO2, 63.45 (16.0) mm Hg; and 4) at 3 hours: diaphragm movement, 26.60 (19.5) mm and PCO2, 61.85 (13.0) mm Hg. We detected a statistically significant correlation between the difference in range of diaphragm movement at baseline and at 15 minutes and the decrease in PCO2 after 1 hour of NIV (r=-0.489, P=.035). In patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure, the increase in range of diaphragm movement 15 minutes after starting NIV is associated with a decrease in PCO2 after 1 hour.

  2. Protocol for a systematic review and economic evaluation of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of non-hospital-based non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with stable end-stage COPD with hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Dave, Chirag; Turner, Alice; Dretzke, Janine; Bayliss, Sue; O'Brien, Deirdre; Jowett, Sue; Moore, David

    2014-03-27

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a significant public health burden. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a method of supported breathing used as standard care for acutely unwell patients in hospital with COPD, but there is uncertainty around the potential benefits of using NIV in the treatment of stable patients in a non-hospital setting. This is a protocol for systematic reviews of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of NIV in this context, being undertaken in support of a model based economic evaluation. Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction for both the clinical and economic systematic reviews. Bibliographic databases (for example MEDLINE, EMBASE) and ongoing trials registers will be searched from 1980 onwards. The search strategy will combine terms for the population with those for the intervention. Studies will be selected for review if the population includes adult patients with COPD and hypercapnic respiratory failure, however defined. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials and observational studies (with n >1) will be included, and quality assessment will be tailored to the different study designs. The primary outcome measures of interest are survival, quality of life, and healthcare utilisations (hospitalisation and Accident and Emergency attendances). Meta-analyses will be undertaken where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists, supported by predefined subgroup analyses where appropriate. A systematic review of the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of non-hospital NIV will be completed, and a model-based cost-utility analysis undertaken to determine the cost-effectiveness of non-hospital-based NIV compared with standard care. These reviews will attempt to clarify the clinical effectiveness of non-hospital NIV in COPD patients as well as the cost-effectiveness. The findings may indicate whether NIV in a non-hospital setting

  3. [Effect of oxygen tubing connection site on percutaneous oxygen partial pressure and percutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation].

    PubMed

    Mi, S; Zhang, L M

    2017-04-12

    Objective: We evaluated the effects of administering oxygen through nasal catheters inside the mask or through the mask on percutaneous oxygen partial pressure (PcO(2))and percutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PcCO(2)) during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to find a better way of administering oxygen, which could increase PcO(2) by increasing the inspired oxygen concentration. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers and 9 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated by type Ⅱ respiratory failure were included in this study. Oxygen was administered through a nasal catheter inside the mask or through the mask (oxygen flow was 3 and 5 L/min) during NPPV. PcO(2) and PcCO(2) were measured to evaluate the effects of administering oxygen through a nasal catheter inside the mask or through the mask, indirectly reflecting the effects of administering oxygen through nasal catheter inside the mask or through the mask on inspired oxygen concentration. Results: Compared to administering oxygen through the mask during NPPV, elevated PcO(2) was measured in administering oxygen through the nasal catheter inside the mask, and the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.05). At the same time, there was no significant change in PcCO(2) ( P >0.05). Conclusion: Administering oxygen through a nasal catheter inside the mask during NPPV increased PcO(2) by increasing the inspired oxygen concentration but did not increase PcCO(2). This method of administering oxygen could conserve oxygen and be suitable for family NPPV. Our results also provided theoretical basis for the development of new masks.

  4. Early Rehabilitation in the Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Units for Patients With and Without Mechanical Ventilation: An Interprofessional Performance Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, John R; Herbsman, Jodi M; Bushnik, Tamara; Van Lew, Steve; Stolfi, Angela; Parkin, Kate; McKenzie, Alison; Hall, Geoffrey W; Joseph, Waveney; Whiteson, Jonathan; Flanagan, Steven R

    2017-02-01

    Most early mobility studies focus on patients on mechanical ventilation and the role of physical and occupational therapy. This Performance Improvement Project (PIP) project examined early mobility and increased intensity of therapy services on patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with and without mechanical ventilation. In addition, speech-language pathology rehabilitation was added to the early mobilization program. We sought to assess the efficacy of early mobilization of patients with and without mechanical ventilation in the ICU on length of stay (LOS) and patient outcomes and to determine the financial viability of the program. PIP. Prospective data collection in 2014 (PIP) compared with a historical patient population in 2012 (pre-PIP). Medical and surgical ICUs of a Level 2 trauma hospital. There were 160 patients in the PIP and 123 in the pre-PIP. Interprofessional training to improve collaboration and increase intensity of rehabilitation therapy services in the medical and surgical intensive care units for medically appropriate patients. Demographics; intensity of service; ICU and hospital LOS; medications; pain; discharge disposition; functional mobility; and average cost per day were examined. Rehabilitation therapy services increased from 2012 to 2014 by approximately 60 minutes per patient. The average ICU LOS decreased by almost 20% from 4.6 days (pre-PIP) to 3.7 days (PIP) (P = .05). A decrease of over 40% was observed in the floor bed average LOS from 6.0 days (pre-PIP) to 3.4 days (PIP) (P < .01). An increased percentage of PIP patients, 40.5%, were discharged home without services compared with 18.2% in the pre-PIP phase (P < .01). Average cost per day in the ICU and floor bed decreased in the PIP group, resulting in an annualized net cost savings of $1.5 million. The results of the PIP indicate that enhanced rehabilitation services in the ICU is clinically feasible, results in improved patient outcomes, and is fiscally sound. Most early

  5. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  6. Detection of early subclinical lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis by lung ventilation imaging with hyperpolarised gas MRI.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen; Horsley, Alex; Taylor, Chris J; Smith, Laurie; Hughes, David; Horn, Felix C; Swift, Andrew J; Parra-Robles, Juan; Hughes, Paul J; Norquay, Graham; Stewart, Neil J; Collier, Guilhem J; Teare, Dawn; Cunningham, Steve; Aldag, Ina; Wild, Jim M

    2017-08-01

    Hyperpolarised 3 He ventilation-MRI, anatomical lung MRI, lung clearance index (LCI), low-dose CT and spirometry were performed on 19 children (6-16 years) with clinically stable mild cystic fibrosis (CF) (FEV 1 >-1.96), and 10 controls. All controls had normal spirometry, MRI and LCI. Ventilation-MRI was the most sensitive method of detecting abnormalities, present in 89% of patients with CF, compared with CT abnormalities in 68%, LCI 47% and conventional MRI 22%. Ventilation defects were present in the absence of CT abnormalities and in patients with normal physiology, including LCI. Ventilation-MRI is thus feasible in young children, highly sensitive and provides additional information about lung structure-function relationships. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. [Anesthesia ventilators].

    PubMed

    Otteni, J C; Beydon, L; Cazalaà, J B; Feiss, P; Nivoche, Y

    1997-01-01

    To review anaesthesia ventilators in current use in France by categories of ventilators. References were obtained from computerized bibliographic search. (Medline), recent review articles, the library of the service and personal files. Anaesthesia ventilators can be allocated into three groups, depending on whether they readminister expired gases or not or allow both modalities. Contemporary ventilators provide either constant volume ventilation, or constant pressure ventilation, with or without a pressure plateau. Ventilators readministering expired gases after CO2 absorption, or closed circuit ventilators, are either of a double- or a single-circuit design. Double-circuit ventilators, or pneumatical bag or bellows squeezers, or bag-in-bottle or bellows-in-bottle (or box) ventilators, consist of a primary, or driving circuit (bottle or box) and a secondary or patient circuit (including a bag or a bellows or membrane chambers). Bellows-in-bottle ventilators have either standing bellows ascending at expiration, or hanging bellows, descending at expiration. Ascending bellows require a positive pressure of about 2 cmH2O throughout exhalation to allow the bellows to refill. The expired gas volume is a valuable indicator for leak and disconnection. Descending bellows generate a slight negative pressure during exhalation. In case of leak or disconnection they aspirate ambient air and cannot act therefore as an indicator for integrity of the circuit and the patient connection. Closed circuit ventilators with a single-circuit (patient circuit) include a insufflating device consisting either in a bellows or a cylinder with a piston, operated by a electric or pneumatic motor. As the hanging bellows of the double circuit ventilators, they generate a slight negative pressure during exhalation and aspirate ambient air in case of leak or disconnection. Ventilators not designed for the readministration of expired gases, or open circuit ventilators, are generally stand

  8. CYCLE pilot: a protocol for a pilot randomised study of early cycle ergometry versus routine physiotherapy in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Kho, Michelle E; Molloy, Alexander J; Clarke, France; Herridge, Margaret S; Koo, Karen K Y; Rudkowski, Jill; Seely, Andrew J E; Pellizzari, Joseph R; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Mourtzakis, Marina; Karachi, Timothy; Cook, Deborah J

    2016-04-08

    Early exercise with in-bed cycling as part of an intensive care unit (ICU) rehabilitation programme has the potential to improve physical and functional outcomes following critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of enrolling adults in a multicentre pilot randomised clinical trial (RCT) of early in-bed cycling versus routine physiotherapy to inform a larger RCT. 60-patient parallel group pilot RCT in 7 Canadian medical-surgical ICUs. We will include all previously ambulatory adult patients within the first 0-4 days of mechanical ventilation, without exclusion criteria. After informed consent, patients will be randomised using a web-based, centralised electronic system, to 30 min of in-bed leg cycling in addition to routine physiotherapy, 5 days per week, for the duration of their ICU stay (28 days maximum) or routine physiotherapy alone. We will measure patients' muscle strength (Medical Research Council Sum Score, quadriceps force) and function (Physical Function in ICU Test (scored), 30 s sit-to-stand, 2 min walk test) at ICU awakening, ICU discharge and hospital discharge. Our 4 feasibility outcomes are: (1) patient accrual of 1-2 patients per month per centre, (2) protocol violation rate <20%, (3) outcome measure ascertainment >80% at the 3 time points and (4) blinded outcomes ascertainment >80% at hospital discharge. Hospital outcome assessors are blinded to group assignment, whereas participants, ICU physiotherapists, ICU caregivers, research coordinators and ICU outcome assessors are not blinded to group assignment. We will analyse feasibility outcomes with descriptive statistics. Each participating centre will obtain local ethics approval, and results of the study will be published to inform the design and conduct of a future multicentre RCT of in-bed cycling to improve physical outcomes in ICU survivors. NCT02377830; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  9. RETRACTED: Effect of early versus late or no tracheostomy on mortality of critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Siempos, Ilias I; Ntaidou, Theodora K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Choi, Augustine M K

    2014-06-26

    Delay of tracheostomy for roughly 2 weeks after translaryngeal intubation of critically ill patients is the presently recommended practice and is supported by findings from large trials. However, these trials were suboptimally powered to detect small but clinically important effects on mortality. We aimed to assess the mortality benefit of early versus late or no tracheostomy in critically ill patients who need mechanical ventilation. We systematically searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, DOAJ, the Cochrane Library, references of relevant articles, scientific conference proceedings, and grey literature up to Aug 31, 2013, to identify randomised controlled trials comparing early tracheostomy (done within 1 week after translaryngeal intubation) with late (done any time after the first week of mechanical ventilation) or no tracheostomy and reporting on mortality or incidence of pneumonia in critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality during the stay in the intensive-care unit and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. We calculated pooled odds ratios (OR), pooled risk ratios (RR), and 95% CIs with a random-effects model. All but complications analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Analyses of 13 trials (2434 patients, 800 deaths) showed that all-cause mortality in the intensive-care unit was significantly lower in patients assigned to the early versus the late or no tracheostomy group (OR 0·72, 95% CI 0·53-0·98; p=0·04). This finding represents an 18% reduction in the relative risk of death, translating to a 5% absolute improvement in survival (from 65% to 70%). This result persisted when we considered only trials with a low risk of bias (663 deaths; OR 0·68, 95% CI 0·49-0·95; p=0·02; eight trials with 1934 patients). There was no evidence of a difference between the compared groups for 1-year mortality (788 deaths; RR 0·93, 95% CI 0·85-1·02; p=0·14; three trials with

  10. Effect of early versus late or no tracheostomy on mortality and pneumonia of critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Siempos, Ilias I; Ntaidou, Theodora K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Choi, Augustine M K

    2015-02-01

    Delay of tracheostomy for roughly 2 weeks after translaryngeal intubation of critically ill patients is the presently recommended practice and is supported by findings from large trials. However, these trials were suboptimally powered to detect small but clinically important effects on mortality. We aimed to assess the benefit of early versus late or no tracheostomy on mortality and pneumonia in critically ill patients who need mechanical ventilation. We systematically searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, DOAJ, the Cochrane Library, references of relevant articles, scientific conference proceedings, and grey literature up to Aug 31, 2013, to identify randomised controlled trials comparing early tracheostomy (done within 1 week after translaryngeal intubation) with late (done any time after the first week of mechanical ventilation) or no tracheostomy and reporting on mortality or incidence of pneumonia in critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality during the stay in the intensive-care unit and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Mortality during the stay in the intensive-care unit was a composite endpoint of definite intensive-care-unit mortality, presumed intensive-care-unit mortality, and 28-day mortality. We calculated pooled odds ratios (OR), pooled risk ratios (RR), and 95% CIs with a random-effects model. All but complications analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Analyses of 13 trials (2434 patients, 648 deaths) showed that all-cause mortality in the intensive-care unit was not significantly lower in patients assigned to the early versus the late or no tracheostomy group (OR 0·80, 95% CI 0·59-1·09; p=0·16). This result persisted when we considered only trials with a low risk of bias (511 deaths; OR 0·80, 95% CI 0·59-1·09; p=0·16; eight trials with 1934 patients). Incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was lower in mechanically ventilated patients assigned

  11. Nasal high-flow oxygen therapy in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure: effect on functional and subjective respiratory parameters compared to conventional oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation (NIV).

    PubMed

    Schwabbauer, Norbert; Berg, Björn; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Haap, Michael; Hetzel, Jürgen; Riessen, Reimer

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to compare the short-term effects of oxygen therapy via a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on functional and subjective respiratory parameters in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure in comparison to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and standard treatment via a Venturi mask. Fourteen patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure were treated with HFNC (FiO2 0.6, gas flow 55 l/min), NIV (FiO2 0.6, PEEP 5 cm H2O Hg, tidal volume 6-8 ml/kg ideal body weight,) and Venturi mask (FiO2 0.6, oxygen flow 15 l/min,) in a randomized order for 30 min each. Data collection included objective respiratory and circulatory parameters as well as a subjective rating of dyspnea and discomfort by the patients on a 10-point scale. In a final interview, all three methods were comparatively evaluated by each patient using a scale from 1 (=very good) to 6 (=failed) and the patients were asked to choose one method for further treatment. PaO2 was highest under NIV (129 ± 38 mmHg) compared to HFNC (101 ± 34 mmHg, p <0.01 vs. NIV) and VM (85 ± 21 mmHg, p <0.001 vs. NIV, p <0.01 vs. HFNC, ANOVA). All other functional parameters showed no relevant differences. In contrast, dyspnea was significantly better using a HFNC (2.9 ± 2.1, 10-point Borg scale) compared to NIV (5.0 ± 3.3, p <0.05), whereas dyspnea rating under HFNC and VM (3.3 ± 2.3) was not significantly different. A similar pattern was found when patients rated their overall discomfort on the 10 point scale: HFNC 2.7 ± 1.8, VM 3.1 ± 2.8 (ns vs. HFNC), NIV 5.4 ± 3.1 (p <0.05 vs. HFNC). In the final evaluation patients gave the best ratings to HFNC 2.3 ± 1.4, followed by VM 3.2 ± 1.7 (ns vs. HFNC) and NIV 4.5 ± 1.7 (p <0.01 vs. HFNC and p <0.05 vs. VM). For further treatment 10 patients chose HFNC, three VM and one NIV. In hypoxic respiratory failure HFNC offers a good balance between oxygenation and comfort compared to NIV and Venturi mask and seems to be well tolerated by patients. GERMAN

  12. Comparison of exercise capacity in COPD and other etiologies of chronic respiratory failure requiring non-invasive mechanical ventilation at home: retrospective analysis of 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Salturk, Cuneyt; Karakurt, Zuhal; Takir, Huriye Berk; Balci, Merih; Kargin, Feyza; Mocin, Ozlem Yazıcıoglu; Gungor, Gokay; Ozmen, Ipek; Oztas, Selahattin; Yalcinsoy, Murat; Evin, Ruya; Ozturk, Murat; Adiguzel, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the change in 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) in 1 year as an indicator of exercise capacity among patients undergoing home non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) due to chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF) caused by different etiologies. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary pulmonary disease hospital in patients who had completed 1-year follow-up under home NIMV because of CHRF with different etiologies (ie, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], obesity hypoventilation syndrome [OHS], kyphoscoliosis [KS], and diffuse parenchymal lung disease [DPLD]), between January 2011 and January 2012. The results of arterial blood gas (ABG) analyses and spirometry, and 6MWD measurements with 12-month interval were recorded from the patient files, in addition to demographics, comorbidities, and body mass indices. The groups were compared in terms of 6MWD via analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis (independent variables: analysis age, sex, baseline 6MWD, baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and baseline partial carbon dioxide pressure, in reference to COPD group). A total of 105 patients with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 61±12 years of whom 37 had COPD, 34 had OHS, 20 had KS, and 14 had DPLD were included in statistical analysis. There were no significant differences between groups in the baseline and delta values of ABG and spirometry findings. Both univariate ANOVA and MLR showed that the OHS group had the lowest baseline 6MWD and the highest decrease in 1 year (linear regression coefficient -24.48; 95% CI -48.74 to -0.21, P=0.048); while the KS group had the best baseline values and the biggest improvement under home NIMV (linear regression coefficient 26.94; 95% CI -3.79 to 57.66, P=0.085). The 6MWD measurements revealed improvement in exercise capacity test in CHRF patients receiving home NIMV treatment on long-term depends on

  13. Effect of mechanical ventilation on systemic oxygen extraction and lactic acidosis during early septic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Griffel, M I; Astiz, M E; Rackow, E C; Weil, M H

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effect of mechanical ventilation on systemic oxygen extraction and lactic acidosis in peritonitis and shock in rats. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and perforation. After tracheostomy, rats were randomized to spontaneous breathing (S) or mechanical ventilation with paralysis (V). Five animals were studied in each group. The V animals were paralyzed with pancuronium bromide to eliminate respiratory effort. Mechanical ventilation consisted of controlled ventilation using a rodent respirator with periodic adjustment of minute ventilation to maintain PaCO2 and pH within normal range. Arterial and central venous blood gases and thermodilution cardiac output were measured at baseline before abdominal surgery, and sequentially at 0.5, 3.5, and 6 h after surgery. At 6 h, cardiac output was 193 +/- 30 ml/kg.min in S animals and 199 +/- 32 ml/kg.min in V animals (NS). The central venous oxygen saturation was 27.4 +/- 4.7% in S animals and 30.0 +/- 6.4% in V animals (NS). Systemic oxygen extraction was 70 +/- 5% in S animals and 67 +/- 6% in V animals (NS). Arterial lactate was 2.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/L in S animals and 2.2 +/- 0.5 mmol/L in V animals (NS). The S animals developed lethal hypotension at 6.6 +/- 0.4 h compared to 6.8 +/- 0.4 h in V animals (NS). These data suggest that mechanical ventilation does not decrease systemic oxygen extraction or ameliorate the development of lactic acidosis during septic shock.

  14. Early Detection of Ventilation-Induced Brain Injury Using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: An In Vivo Study in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Skiöld, Béatrice; Wu, Qizhu; Hooper, Stuart B.; Davis, Peter G.; McIntyre, Richard; Tolcos, Mary; Pearson, James; Vreys, Ruth; Egan, Gary F.; Barton, Samantha K.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Polglase, Graeme R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim High tidal volume (VT) ventilation during resuscitation of preterm lambs results in brain injury evident histologically within hours after birth. We aimed to investigate whether magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and/or diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used for early in vivo detection of ventilation-induced brain injury in preterm lambs. Methods Newborn lambs (0.85 gestation) were stabilized with a “protective ventilation” strategy (PROT, n = 7: prophylactic Curosurf, sustained inflation, VT 7 mL/kg, positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cmH2O) or an initial 15 minutes of “injurious ventilation” (INJ, n = 10: VT 12 mL/kg, no PEEP, late Curosurf) followed by PROT ventilation for the remainder of the experiment. At 1 hour, lambs underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (Siemens, 3 Tesla). For measures of mean/axial/radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD) and fractional anisotropy (FA), 30 direction DTI was performed. Regions of interests encompassed the thalamus, internal capsule, periventricular white matter and the cerebellar vermis. MRS was performed using a localized single-voxel (15×15×20 mm3, echo time 270 ms) encompassing suptratentorial deep nuclear grey matter and central white matter. Peak-area ratios for lactate (Lac) relative to N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) were calculated. Groups were compared using 2-way RM-ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's correlations. Results No cerebral injury was seen on structural MR images. Lambs in the INJ group had higher mean FA and lower mean RD in the thalamus compared to PROT lambs, but not in the other regions of interest. Peak-area lactate ratios >1.0 was only seen in INJ lambs. A trend of higher mean peak-area ratios for Lac/Cr and Lac/Cho was seen, which correlated with lower pH in both groups. Conclusion Acute changes in brain diffusion measures and metabolite peak-area ratios were observed after injurious ventilation. Early MRS/DTI is

  15. Tracheostomy and invasive mechanical ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: decision-making factors and survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Fumiharu

    2016-04-28

    Invasive and/or non-invasive mechanical ventilation are most important options of respiratory management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We evaluated the frequency, clinical characteristics, decision-making factors about ventilation and survival analysis of 190 people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients from 1990 until 2013. Thirty-one percentage of patients underwent tracheostomy invasive ventilation with the rate increasing more than the past 20 years. The ratio of tracheostomy invasive ventilation in patients >65 years old was significantly increased after 2000 (25%) as compared to before (10%). After 2010, the standard use of non-invasive ventilation showed a tendency to reduce the frequency of tracheostomy invasive ventilation. Mechanical ventilation prolonged median survival (75 months in tracheostomy invasive ventilation, 43 months in non-invasive ventilation vs natural course, 32 months). The life-extending effects by tracheostomy invasive ventilation were longer in younger patients ≤65 years old at the time of ventilation support than in older patients. Presence of partners and care at home were associated with better survival. Following factors related to the decision to perform tracheostomy invasive ventilation: patients ≤65 years old: greater use of non-invasive ventilation: presence of a spouse: faster tracheostomy: higher progression rate; and preserved motor functions. No patients who underwent tracheostomy invasive ventilation died from a decision to withdraw mechanical ventilation. The present study provides factors related to decision-making process and survival after tracheostomy and help clinicians and family members to expand the knowledge about ventilation.

  16. Multifaceted bench comparative evaluation of latest intensive care unit ventilators.

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Quesnel, C; Fulgencio, J-P; Degrain, M; Carteaux, G; Bonnet, F; Similowski, T; Demoule, A

    2015-07-01

    Independent bench studies using specific ventilation scenarios allow testing of the performance of ventilators in conditions similar to clinical settings. The aims of this study were to determine the accuracy of the latest generation ventilators to deliver chosen parameters in various typical conditions and to provide clinicians with a comprehensive report on their performance. Thirteen modern intensive care unit ventilators were evaluated on the ASL5000 test lung with and without leakage for: (i) accuracy to deliver exact tidal volume (VT) and PEEP in assist-control ventilation (ACV); (ii) performance of trigger and pressurization in pressure support ventilation (PSV); and (iii) quality of non-invasive ventilation algorithms. In ACV, only six ventilators delivered an accurate VT and nine an accurate PEEP. Eleven devices failed to compensate VT and four the PEEP in leakage conditions. Inspiratory delays differed significantly among ventilators in invasive PSV (range 75-149 ms, P=0.03) and non-invasive PSV (range 78-165 ms, P<0.001). The percentage of the ideal curve (concomitantly evaluating the pressurization speed and the levels of pressure reached) also differed significantly (range 57-86% for invasive PSV, P=0.04; and 60-90% for non-invasive PSV, P<0.001). Non-invasive ventilation algorithms efficiently prevented the decrease in pressurization capacities and PEEP levels induced by leaks in, respectively, 10 and 12 out of the 13 ventilators. We observed real heterogeneity of performance amongst the latest generation of intensive care unit ventilators. Although non-invasive ventilation algorithms appear to maintain adequate pressurization efficiently in the case of leakage, basic functions, such as delivered VT in ACV and pressurization in PSV, are often less reliable than the values displayed by the device suggest. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  17. Optimal Combination of Non-Invasive Tools for the Early Detection of Potentially Life-Threatening Emergencies in Gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Varas, Catalina; Ravit, Marion; Mimoun, Camille; Panel, Pierre; Huchon, Cyrille; Fauconnier, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Potentially life-threatening gynecological emergencies (G-PLEs) are acute pelvic conditions that may spontaneously evolve into a life-threatening situation, or those for which there is a risk of sequelae or death in the absence of prompt diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to identify the best combination of non-invasive diagnostic tools to ensure an accurate diagnosis and timely response when faced with G-PLEs for patients arriving with acute pelvic pain at the Gynecological Emergency Department (ED). Methods The data on non-invasive diagnostic tools were sourced from the records of patients presenting at the ED of two hospitals in the Parisian suburbs (France) with acute pelvic pain between September 2006 and April 2008. The medical history of the patients was obtained through a standardized questionnaire completed for a prospective observational study, and missing information was completed with data sourced from the medical forms. Diagnostic tool categories were predefined as a collection of signs or symptoms. We analyzed the association of each sign/symptom with G-PLEs using Pearson’s Chi-Square or Fischer’s exact tests. Symptoms and signs associated with G-PLEs (p-value < 0.20) were subjected to logistic regression to evaluate the diagnostic value of each of the predefined diagnostic tools and in various combinations. Results The data of 365 patients with acute pelvic pain were analyzed, of whom 103 were confirmed to have a PLE. We analyzed five diagnostic tools by logistic regression: Triage Process, History-Taking, Physical Examination, Ultrasonography, and Biological Exams. The combination of History-Taking and Ultrasonography had a C-index of 0.83, the highest for a model combining two tools. Conclusions The use of a standardized self-assessment questionnaire for history-taking and focal ultrasound examination were found to be the most successful tool combination for the diagnosis of gynecological emergencies in a

  18. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Neonatal Bowel: Novel, Bedside, Noninvasive, and Radiation-Free Imaging for Early Detection of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamad, Suzanne; Hackam, David J; Goldstein, Seth D; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Darge, Kassa; Hwang, Misun

    2018-05-31

    Despite extensive research and improvements in the field of neonatal care, the morbidity and mortality associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) have remained unchanged over the past three decades. Early detection of ischemia and necrotic bowel is vital in improving morbidity and mortality associated with NEC; however, strategies for predicting and preventing NEC are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are novel techniques in pediatrics that have been proven as safe modalities. CEUS has benefits over conventional ultrasound (US) by its improved real-time evaluation of the micro- and macrovascularities of normally and abnormally perfused tissue. US has been implemented as a useful adjunct to X-ray for earlier evaluation of NEC. NIRS is another noninvasive technique that has shown promise in improving early detection of NEC. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of changes in bowel perfusion in NEC, discuss the accuracy of abdominal US in detecting NEC, and explain how the use of CEUS and NIRS will enhance the precise and early detection of altered/pathological bowel wall perfusion in the initial development and course of NEC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Mechanical ventilation for severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, James

    2015-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of asthma can lead to respiratory failure requiring ventilatory assistance. Noninvasive ventilation may prevent the need for endotracheal intubation in selected patients. For patients who are intubated and undergo mechanical ventilation, a strategy that prioritizes avoidance of ventilator-related complications over correction of hypercapnia was first proposed 30 years ago and has become the preferred approach. Excessive pulmonary hyperinflation is a major cause of hypotension and barotrauma. An appreciation of the key determinants of hyperinflation is essential to rational ventilator management. Standard therapy for patients with asthma undergoing mechanical ventilation consists of inhaled bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and drugs used to facilitate controlled hypoventilation. Nonconventional interventions such as heliox, general anesthesia, bronchoscopy, and extracorporeal life support have also been advocated for patients with fulminant asthma but are rarely necessary. Immediate mortality for patients who are mechanically ventilated for acute severe asthma is very low and is often associated with out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest before intubation. However, patients who have been intubated for severe asthma are at increased risk for death from subsequent exacerbations and must be managed accordingly in the outpatient setting.

  20. Evaluation of cough peak expiratory flow as a predictor of successful mechanical ventilation discontinuation: a narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuan; Esquinas, Antonio; Mina, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    A crucial step in the transition from mechanical ventilation to extubation is the successful performance of a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Guidelines recommend removal of the endotracheal tube upon successful completion of a SBT. However, this does not guarantee successful extubation as there remains a risk of re-intubation. Guidelines have outlined ventilator liberation protocols, selected use of non-invasive ventilation on extubation, early mobilization, and dynamic ventilator metrics to prevent and better predict extubation failure. However, a significant percentage of patients still fail mechanical ventilation discontinuation. A common reason for re-intubation is having a weak cough strength, which reflects the inability to protect the airway. Evaluation of cough strength via objective measures using peak expiratory flow rate is a non-invasive and easily reproducible assessment which can predict extubation failure. We conducted a narrative review of the literature regarding use of cough strength as a predictive index for extubation failure risk. Results of our review show that cough strength, quantified objectively with a cough peak expiratory flow measurement (CPEF), is strongly associated with extubation success. Furthermore, various cutoff thresholds have been identified and can provide reasonable diagnostic accuracy and predictive power for extubation failure. These results demonstrate that measurement of the CPEF can be a useful tool to predict extubation failure in patients on MV who have passed a SBT. In addition, the data suggest that this diagnostic modality may reduce ICU length of stay, ICU expenditures, and morbidity and mortality.

  1. Ventilator associated pneumonia: risk factors and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Vincent, J L; Lobo, S; Struelens, M

    2001-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Various risk factors for VAP have been identified and include the duration of ICU stay and of mechanical ventilation, a diagnosis of trauma, and severity of illness. Knowledge of these factors can promote early diagnosis and hence treatment. In addition to simple, but very effective, basic hygiene, different preventative strategies have been suggested, and can be divided into those that aim to limit airway colonization, and those that improve host defense mechanisms. Of the former, non-invasive ventilation is effective but not always applicable or available, nursing the patient in the semi-recumbent position is also associated with a reduced incidence of VAP but carries its own problems, stress ulcer prophylaxis remains controversial, and selective digestive decontamination is probably only relevant to certain subgroups of patients. Methods to improve host defense include early nutrition. Immunostimulatory therapies, such as interferon and granulocyte colony stimulating factor, require further research to confirm their place in the prevention or management of VAP.

  2. Towards automated early cancer detection: Non-invasive, fluorescence-based approaches for quantitative assessment of cells and tissue to identify pre-cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitt, Jonathan Michael

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, second only to heart disease. As in many diseases, patient survival is directly related to how early lesions are detected. Using conventional screening methods, the early changes associated with cancer, which occur on the microscopic scale, can easily go overlooked. Due to the inherent drawbacks of conventional techniques we present non-invasive, optically based methods to acquire high resolution images from live samples and assess cellular function associated with the onset of disease. Specifically, we acquired fluorescence images from NADH and FAD to quantify morphology and metabolic activity. We first conducted studies to monitor monolayers of keratinocytes in response to apoptosis which has been shown to be disrupted during cancer progression. We found that as keratinocytes undergo apoptosis there are populations of mitochondria that exhibit a higher metabolic activity that become progressively confined to a gradually smaller perinuclear region. To further assess the changes associated with early cancer growth we developed automated methods to rapidly quantify fluorescence images and extract morphological and metabolic information from life tissue. In this study, we simultaneously quantified mitochondrial organization, metabolic activity, nuclear size distribution, and the localization of the structural protein keratin, to differentiate between normal and pre-cancerous engineered tissues. We found the degree mitochondrial organization, as determined from the fractal derived Hurst parameter, was well correlated to level of cellular differentiation. We also found that the metabolic activity in the pre-cancerous cells was greater and more consistent throughout tissue depths in comparison to normal tissue. Keratin localization, also quantified from the fluorescence images, we found it to be confined to the uppermost layers of normal tissue while it was more evenly distributed in the precancerous tissues. To

  3. [Value of optimization of bedside Gram staining of sputum smear in the early diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xinyan; Ran, Yu; Bian, Shichang; Wang, Chao; Xu, Lei

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the significance of optimization of bedside Gram staining of sputum smear in the early diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) patients. The data of patients with VAP undergoing mechanical ventilation over 48 hours in the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Tianjin Fourth Central Hospital from June 2009 to June 2014 were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether or not bedside Gram staining of sputum smear was used or not. The sputum samples from lower respiratory tract of all VAP patients were collected daily with tracheal catheter. In empirical examination group (from June 2009 to December 2011, n=43), the patients received antibiotics at the time of onset of VAP, selection of antibiotics depended on the information of bacterial epidemiology of the intensive care unit (ICU), and also existence of high risk factors of multi-drug resistant bacteria. In target treatment group (from January 2012 to June 2014, n=43), the patients received antibiotics according to the results of bedside instant sputum smear examination and empirical antibiotic regime. The correlation between the results of sputum smear examination and culture result was analyzed. The levels of body temperature, white blood cell (WBC) count, procalcitonin (PCT) level,and high sensitivity C- reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured on the 1st day and 3rd day. The length of antibiotics treatment, duration of mechanical ventilation, and the time of ICU stay were recorded for both groups. There were 512 qualified sputum specimens for culture, from which 336 pathogens were found, and 358 strains of pathogenic bacteria were found from microscopic examination of 512 qualified sputum smear. The coincidence rate of results of bedside examination of sputum smear and that of sputum culture was 78.32%(401/512). The diagnostic acumen of the former was 85.42% (287/336), specificity was 64.77% (114/176), positive predictive value

  4. Liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported.

  5. Non-invasive detection of the early phase of kidney injury by photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wanma; Peng, Wen; Ning, Fengling; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Yinhang; Xie, Weiyi; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Hong; Li, Cong; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-06-29

    The early diagnosis of kidney diseases, which can remarkably impair the quality of life and are costly, has encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the development of methods for early diagnosis has great clinical significance. In this study, we used an emerging technique of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which has relatively high spatial resolution and good imaging depth. Two kinds of PA gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based bioprobes were developed based on their superior photo detectability, size controllability and biocompatibility. The kidney injury mouse model was developed by unilateral ureteral obstruction for 96 h and the release of obstruction model). Giving 3.5 and 5.5 nm bioprobes by tail vein injection, we found that the 5.5 nm probe could be detected in the bladder in the model group, but not in the control group. These results were confirmed by computed tomography imaging. Furthermore, the model group did not show changes in the blood biochemical indices (BUN and Scr) and histologic examination. The 5.5 nm GNPs were found to be the critical point for early diagnosis of kidney injury. This new method was faster and more sensitive and accurate for the detection of renal injury, compared with conventional methods, and can be used for the development of a PA GNP-based bioprobe for diagnosing renal injury.

  6. Non-invasive detection of the early phase of kidney injury by photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wanma; Peng, Wen; Ning, Fengling; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Yinhang; Xie, Weiyi; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Hong; Li, Cong; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-06-01

    The early diagnosis of kidney diseases, which can remarkably impair the quality of life and are costly, has encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the development of methods for early diagnosis has great clinical significance. In this study, we used an emerging technique of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which has relatively high spatial resolution and good imaging depth. Two kinds of PA gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based bioprobes were developed based on their superior photo detectability, size controllability and biocompatibility. The kidney injury mouse model was developed by unilateral ureteral obstruction for 96 h and the release of obstruction model). Giving 3.5 and 5.5 nm bioprobes by tail vein injection, we found that the 5.5 nm probe could be detected in the bladder in the model group, but not in the control group. These results were confirmed by computed tomography imaging. Furthermore, the model group did not show changes in the blood biochemical indices (BUN and Scr) and histologic examination. The 5.5 nm GNPs were found to be the critical point for early diagnosis of kidney injury. This new method was faster and more sensitive and accurate for the detection of renal injury, compared with conventional methods, and can be used for the development of a PA GNP-based bioprobe for diagnosing renal injury.

  7. Early detection of cataract and response to pantethine therapy with non-invasive static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Seeberger, Teri; Clark, John I.

    2003-07-01

    Cataractogenesis is a risk factor for space travelers. Here on earth, half of all blindness is due to cataracts. At this time, the only known treatment is surgical removal of the lens. In this paper, we present static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements of early onset of cataract before it has any effect on vision and to test the effectiveness of pantethine as an anticataract agent in reversing cataracts. In this preliminary study, experiments were conducted on 12 rodents. Static measurements were performed by scanning the animal eye (cornea to retina) at a laser power of 80 microwatts to collect photons or scattered intensity in steps of 10 microns. The rodents studied were control, selenite injected, and selenite plus pantethine injected. Selenite was used to induce cataracts. Static and dynamic changes (increase in light scatter and crystalline size) in the lenses are quantitatively measured as early as 1 day post selenite injections. Scattering intensity and DLS measurements from lenses of animals administered pantethine resembled controls. These subtle molecular changes are not noticeable when the animals are examined with conventional ophthalmic instruments because their lenses remain transparent. Acknowledgements: Technical support from C.Ganders, University of Washington, Seattle, NEI research grant EY04542 (JIC) and support under a NASA-NEI/NIH interagency agreement (RRA) are greatly appreciated. JFK works for QSS Inc. at NASA GRC.

  8. Mechanical Ventilation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to stay in as long as needed. At times a person can talk with a trach tube in place by using a special adapter called a speaking valve . (For more information on having a tracheostomy see ATS patient information series at www. thoracic. org/ patients) . The ventilator blows ...

  9. Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Vincent, J-L

    2004-08-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common nosocomial infection. Mortality rates, morbidity, and costs are all increased in the patient with VAP, and every measure should thus be taken to prevent its development. There are several clearly defined risk factors for VAP, and awareness of these can facilitate early diagnosis and hence treatment. In this article, we discuss the risk factors, strategies for prevention, approaches to diagnosis and management plan for the patient with VAP.

  10. Optical coherence microscopy as a novel, non-invasive method for the 4D live imaging of early mammalian embryos.

    PubMed

    Karnowski, Karol; Ajduk, Anna; Wieloch, Bartosz; Tamborski, Szymon; Krawiec, Krzysztof; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Szkulmowski, Maciej

    2017-06-23

    Imaging of living cells based on traditional fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy has delivered an enormous amount of information critical for understanding biological processes in single cells. However, the requirement for a high numerical aperture and fluorescent markers still limits researchers' ability to visualize the cellular architecture without causing short- and long-term photodamage. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a promising alternative that circumvents the technical limitations of fluorescence imaging techniques and provides unique access to fundamental aspects of early embryonic development, without the requirement for sample pre-processing or labeling. In the present paper, we utilized the internal motion of cytoplasm, as well as custom scanning and signal processing protocols, to effectively reduce the speckle noise typical for standard OCM and enable high-resolution intracellular time-lapse imaging. To test our imaging system we used mouse and pig oocytes and embryos and visualized them through fertilization and the first embryonic division, as well as at selected stages of oogenesis and preimplantation development. Because all morphological and morphokinetic properties recorded by OCM are believed to be biomarkers of oocyte/embryo quality, OCM may represent a new chapter in imaging-based preimplantation embryo diagnostics.

  11. Low tidal volume mechanical ventilation against no ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass heart surgery (MECANO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lee S; Merzoug, Messaouda; Estagnasie, Philippe; Brusset, Alain; Law Koune, Jean-Dominique; Aubert, Stephane; Waldmann, Thierry; Grinda, Jean-Michel; Gibert, Hadrien; Squara, Pierre

    2017-12-02

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. There are no recommendations on mechanical ventilation associated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during surgery and anesthesiologists perform either no ventilation (noV) at all during CPB or maintain low tidal volume (LTV) ventilation. Indirect evidence points towards better pulmonary outcomes when LTV is performed but no large-scale prospective trial has yet been published in cardiac surgery. The MECANO trial is a single-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing two mechanical ventilation strategies, noV and LTV, during cardiac surgery with CPB. In total, 1500 patients are expected to be included, without any restrictions. They will be randomized between noV and LTV on a 1:1 ratio. The noV group will receive no ventilation during CPB. The LTV group will receive 5 breaths/minute with a tidal volume of 3 mL/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. The primary endpoint will be a composite of all-cause mortality, early respiratory failure defined as a ratio of partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen <200 mmHg at 1 hour after arrival in the ICU, heavy oxygenation support (defined as a patient requiring either non-invasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation or high-flow oxygen) at 2 days after arrival in the ICU or ventilator-acquired pneumonia defined by the Center of Disease Control. Lung recruitment maneuvers will be performed in the noV and LTV groups at the end of surgery and at arrival in ICU with an insufflation at +30 cmH20 for 5 seconds. Secondary endpoints are those composing the primary endpoint with the addition of pneumothorax, CPB duration, quantity of postoperative bleeding, red blood cell transfusions, revision surgery requirements, length of stay in the ICU and in the hospital and total hospitalization costs. Patients will be followed until hospital discharge. The MECANO trial is the first of

  12. Early diagnosis of asthma in young children by using non-invasive biomarkers of airway inflammation and early lung function measurements: study protocol of a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    van de Kant, Kim DG; Klaassen, Ester MM; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Nijhuis, Annedien J; van Schayck, Onno CP; Dompeling, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, characterized by chronic airway inflammation. There are problems with the diagnosis of asthma in young children since the majority of the children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms is symptom free at 6 years, and does not have asthma. With the conventional diagnostic tools it is not possible to differentiate between preschool children with transient symptoms and children with asthma. The analysis of biomarkers of airway inflammation in exhaled breath is a non-invasive and promising technique to diagnose asthma and monitor inflammation in young children. Moreover, relatively new lung function tests (airway resistance using the interrupter technique) have become available for young children. The primary objective of the ADEM study (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study), is to develop a non-invasive instrument for an early asthma diagnosis in young children, using exhaled inflammatory markers and early lung function measurements. In addition, aetiological factors, including gene polymorphisms and gene expression profiles, in relation to the development of asthma are studied. Methods/design A prospective case-control study is started in 200 children with recurrent respiratory symptoms and 50 control subjects without respiratory symptoms. At 6 years, a definite diagnosis of asthma is made (primary outcome measure) on basis of lung function assessments and current respiratory symptoms ('golden standard'). From inclusion until the definite asthma diagnosis, repeated measurements of lung function tests and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath (condensate), blood and faeces are performed. The study is registered and ethically approved. Discussion This article describes the study protocol of the ADEM study. The new diagnostic techniques applied in this study could make an early diagnosis of asthma possible. An early and reliable asthma diagnosis at 2–3 years will have consequences for the management of

  13. Benefits of Manometer in Non-Invasive Ventilatory Support.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Rodrigo Silva; de Lima, Fernando Cesar Anastácio; Bastos, Leonardo Pereira; Fardin Vinco, Anderson; Schneider, Felipe Britto Azevedo; Luduvico Coelho, Yves; Fernandes, Heitor Gomes Costa; Bacalhau, João Marcus Ramos; Bermudes, Igor Matheus Simonelli; da Silva, Claudinei Ferreira; da Silva, Luiza Paterlini; Pezato, Rogério

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Effective ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in cardiac arrest. Hyperventilation during CPR reduces the efficiency of compressions and coronary perfusion. Problem How could ventilation in CPR be optimized? The objective of this study was to evaluate non-invasive ventilator support using different devices. The study compares the regularity and intensity of non-invasive ventilation during simulated, conventional CPR and ventilatory support using three distinct ventilation devices: a standard manual resuscitator, with and without airway pressure manometer, and an automatic transport ventilator. Student's t-test was used to evaluate statistical differences between groups. P values <.05 were regarded as significant. Peak inspiratory pressure during ventilatory support and CPR was significantly increased in the group with manual resuscitator without manometer when compared with the manual resuscitator with manometer support (MS) group or automatic ventilator (AV) group. The study recommends for ventilatory support the use of a manual resuscitator equipped with MS or AVs, due to the risk of reduction in coronary perfusion pressure and iatrogenic thoracic injury during hyperventilation found using manual resuscitator without manometer. Lacerda RS , de Lima FCA , Bastos LP , Vinco AF , Schneider FBA , Coelho YL , Fernandes HGC , Bacalhau JMR , Bermudes IMS , da Silva CF , da Silva LP , Pezato R . Benefits of manometer in non-invasive ventilatory support. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):615-620.

  14. TryCYCLE: A Prospective Study of the Safety and Feasibility of Early In-Bed Cycling in Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    PubMed

    Kho, Michelle E; Molloy, Alexander J; Clarke, France J; Ajami, Daana; McCaughan, Magda; Obrovac, Kristy; Murphy, Christina; Camposilvan, Laura; Herridge, Margaret S; Koo, Karen K Y; Rudkowski, Jill; Seely, Andrew J E; Zanni, Jennifer M; Mourtzakis, Marina; Piraino, Thomas; Cook, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of in-bed cycling started within the first 4 days of mechanical ventilation (MV) to inform a future randomized clinical trial. We conducted a 33-patient prospective cohort study in a 21-bed adult academic medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) in Hamilton, ON, Canada. We included adult patients (≥ 18 years) receiving MV who walked independently pre-ICU. Our intervention was 30 minutes of in-bed supine cycling 6 days/week in the ICU. Our primary outcome was Safety (termination), measured as events prompting cycling termination; secondary Safety (disconnection or dislodgement) outcomes included catheter/tube dislodgements. Feasibility was measured as consent rate and fidelity to intervention. For our primary outcome, we calculated the binary proportion and 95% confidence interval (CI). From 10/2013-8/2014, we obtained consent from 34 of 37 patients approached (91.9%), 33 of whom received in-bed cycling. Of those who cycled, 16(48.4%) were female, the mean (SD) age was 65.8(12.2) years, and APACHE II score was 24.3(6.7); 29(87.9%) had medical admitting diagnoses. Cycling termination was infrequent (2.0%, 95% CI: 0.8%-4.9%) and no device dislodgements occurred. Cycling began a median [IQR] of 3 [2, 4] days after ICU admission; patients received 5 [3, 8] cycling sessions with a median duration of 30.7 [21.6, 30.8] minutes per session. During 205 total cycling sessions, patients were receiving invasive MV (150 [73.1%]), vasopressors (6 [2.9%]), sedative or analgesic infusions (77 [37.6%]) and dialysis (4 [2.0%]). Early cycling within the first 4 days of MV among hemodynamically stable patients is safe and feasible. Research to evaluate the effect of early cycling on patient function is warranted. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01885442.

  15. [Pediatric home ventilation--practical approach].

    PubMed

    Rath-Wacenovsky, Regina

    2015-09-01

    Out-of-hospital ventilation represents only a marginal area of paediatric therapeutic concepts. In Austria, the proportion of children to be supplied with invasive and non-invasive ventilation increases significantly, together with the challenges of caring for their long-term demands. Neuromuscular diseases accounted for almost the sole indication group. Premature and newborn infants with persistent respiratory failures are an increasing group, needing more extensive care due to additional comorbidities. Children with congenital disorder have often been tracheotomised in order to secure their airway, and non-invasive ventilation as a bridge- or long-term therapy gains in importance more and more. Usually, infants with primary or secondary CNS disorders suffer from respiratory complications and eventually from chronic respiratory insufficiencies during adolescence or young adulthood. Here, invasive or non-invasive ventilation can contribute both to a significant stabilisation of health status and also quality of life. Spirit of research, experience, appropriate support structures, and appropriate networking constitute the most relevant quality- and success criteria for home care.

  16. Motivations for Undertaking DNA Sequencing-Based Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing for Fetal Aneuploidy: A Qualitative Study with Early Adopter Patients in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Huso; Hallowell, Nina; Griffiths, Sian; Yeung Leung, Tak

    2013-01-01

    Background A newly introduced cell-free fetal DNA sequencing based non-invasive prenatal testing (DNA-NIPT) detects Down syndrome with sensitivity of 99% at early gestational stage without risk of miscarriage. Attention has been given to its public health implications; little is known from consumer perspectives. This qualitative study aimed to explore women’s motivations for using, and perceptions of, DNA-NIPT in Hong Kong. Methods and Findings In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women who had undertaken DNA-NIPT recruited by purposive sampling based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The sample included 31 women identified as high-risk from serum and ultrasound based Down syndrome screening (SU-DSS). Thematic narrative analysis examined informed-decision making of the test and identified the benefits and needs. Women outlined a number of reasons for accessing DNA-NIPT: reducing the uncertainty associated with risk probability-based results from SU-DSS, undertaking DNA-NIPT as a comprehensive measure to counteract risk from childbearing especially at advanced age, perceived predictive accuracy and absence of risk of harm to fetus. Accounts of women deemed high-risk or not high-risk are distinctive in a number of respects. High-risk women accessed DNA-NIPT to get a clearer idea of their risk. This group perceived SU-DSS as an unnecessary and confusing procedure because of its varying, protocol-dependent detection rates. Those women not deemed high-risk, in contrast, undertook DNA-NIPT for psychological assurance and to reduce anxiety even after receiving the negative result from SU-DSS. Conclusions DNA-NIPT was regarded positively by women who chose this method of screening over the routine, less expensive testing options. Given its perceived utility, health providers need to consider whether DNA-NIPT should be offered as part of universal routine care to women at high-risk for fetal aneuploidy. If this is the case, then further development

  17. Variable mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Fontela, Paula Caitano; Prestes, Renata Bernardy; Forgiarini Jr., Luiz Alberto; Friedman, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the use of variable mechanical ventilation and the main outcomes of this technique. Methods Search, selection, and analysis of all original articles on variable ventilation, without restriction on the period of publication and language, available in the electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE®, and PubMed, by searching the terms "variable ventilation" OR "noisy ventilation" OR "biologically variable ventilation". Results A total of 36 studies were selected. Of these, 24 were original studies, including 21 experimental studies and three clinical studies. Conclusion Several experimental studies reported the beneficial effects of distinct variable ventilation strategies on lung function using different models of lung injury and healthy lungs. Variable ventilation seems to be a viable strategy for improving gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and preventing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. However, further clinical studies are necessary to assess the potential of variable ventilation strategies for the clinical improvement of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. PMID:28444076

  18. Noninvasive biosensor for hypoglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, Karunakaran

    2003-01-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar- is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This is especially a concern in early childhood years when the nervous system is still developing. Hypoglycemic unawareness (in which the body"s normal ability to signal low blood sugar doesn"t work and an oncoming low blood sugar episode proceeds undetected) is a particularly frightening problem for many people with diabetes. Researchers have now uncovered evidence that repeated bouts of insulin-induced hypoglycemia can harm the brain over time, causing confusion, abnormal behavior, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Extreme cases have resulted in coma and death. In this paper, a non-invasive biosensor in a wrist watch along with a wireless data downloading system is proposed.

  19. A data mining methodology for predicting early stage Parkinson’s disease using non-invasive, high-dimensional gait sensor data

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Conrad; Han, Yixiang; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Lewis, Mechelle; Lee, Wang-Chien; Sterling, Nicholas W; Huang, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disorder after Alzheimer’s disease. Key clinical features of PD are motor-related and are typically assessed by healthcare providers based on qualitative visual inspection of a patient’s movement/gait/posture. More advanced diagnostic techniques such as computed tomography scans that measure brain function, can be cost prohibitive and may expose patients to radiation and other harmful effects. To mitigate these challenges, and open a pathway to remote patient-physician assessment, the authors of this work propose a data mining driven methodology that uses low cost, non-invasive sensors to model and predict the presence (or lack therefore) of PD movement abnormalities and model clinical subtypes. The study presented here evaluates the discriminative ability of non-invasive hardware and data mining algorithms to classify PD cases and controls. A 10-fold cross validation approach is used to compare several data mining algorithms in order to determine that which provides the most consistent results when varying the subject gait data. Next, the predictive accuracy of the data mining model is quantified by testing it against unseen data captured from a test pool of subjects. The proposed methodology demonstrates the feasibility of using non-invasive, low cost, hardware and data mining models to monitor the progression of gait features outside of the traditional healthcare facility, which may ultimately lead to earlier diagnosis of emerging neurological diseases. PMID:29541376

  20. Can High-flow Nasal Cannula Reduce the Rate of Endotracheal Intubation in Adult Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure Compared With Conventional Oxygen Therapy and Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation?: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yue-Nan; Luo, Jian; Yu, He; Liu, Dan; Ni, Zhong; Cheng, Jiangli; Liang, Bin-Miao; Liang, Zong-An

    2017-04-01

    The effects of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on adult patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) are controversial. We aimed to further determine the effectiveness of HFNC in reducing the rate of endotracheal intubation in adult patients with ARF by comparison to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and conventional oxygen therapy (COT). The PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, as well as the Information Sciences Institute Web of Science, were searched for all controlled studies that compared HFNC with NIPPV and COT in adult patients with ARF. The primary outcome was the rate of endotracheal intubation; the secondary outcomes were ICU mortality and length of ICU stay. Eighteen trials with a total of 3,881 patients were pooled in our final studies. Except for ICU mortality (I 2  = 67%, χ 2  = 12.21, P = .02) and rate of endotracheal intubation (I 2  = 63%, χ 2  = 13.51, P = .02) between HFNC and NIPPV, no significant heterogeneity was found in outcome measures. Compared with COT, HFNC was associated with a lower rate of endotracheal intubation (z = 2.55, P = .01) while no significant difference was found in the comparison with NIPPV (z = 1.40, P = .16). As for ICU mortality and length of ICU stay, HFNC did not exhibit any advantage over either COT or NIPPV. In patients with ARF, HFNC is a more reliable alternative than NIPPV to reduce the rate of endotracheal intubation than COT. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Michael Jan

    2005-05-01

    This review summarises some of the notable papers on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) from January 2003 to October 2004. Ventilator-associated pneumonia remains an important drain on hospital resources. All population groups are affected, but patients with VAP are more likely to be older, sicker, and male, with invasive medical devices in situ. Early VAP diagnosis is desirable to reduce VAP mortality and to retard emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. This may be possible using preliminary culture results or intracellular organism in polymorphonuclear cells. In most intensive care units, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are the commonest organisms isolated in VAP. However, causative organisms vary between and within hospitals. Consequently, individual intensive care units should develop empirical antibiotic policies to target the pathogenic bacteria prevalent in their patient populations. Preventative strategies aimed at reducing aerodigestive tract colonisation by pathogenic organisms, and also their subsequent aspiration, are becoming increasingly important. Educating medical staff about these simple measures is therefore pertinent. To reduce the occurrence of multidrug-resistant organisms, limiting the duration of antibiotic treatment to 8 days and antimicrobial rotation should be contemplated. Empirical therapy with antipseudomonal penicillins plus beta-lactamase inhibitors should be considered. If methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus VAP is a possibility, linezolid may be better than vancomycin. Prevention remains the key to reducing VAP prevalence.

  2. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.

    2016-03-01

    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and <10, and 3:>10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  3. [Development of a diagnostic test system for early non-invasive detection of prostate cancer based on PCA3 mRNA levels in urine sediment using quantitative reverse tanscription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, K A; Shkoporov, A N; Khokhlova, E V; Korchagina, A A; Sidorenkov, A V; Grigor'ev, M É; Pushkar', D Iu; Chekhonin, V P

    2013-01-01

    The wide introduction of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) determination into clinical practice has resulted in a larger number of prostate biopsies, while the lower age threshold for PSA has led to a larger number of unnecessary prostate biopsies. Hence, there is a need for new biomarkers that can detect prostate cancer. PCA3 is a noncoding messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) that is expressed exclusively in prostate cells. The aim of the study has been to develop a diagnostic test system for early non-invasive detection of prostate cancer based on PCA3 mRNA levels in urine sediment using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). As part of the study, a laboratory diagnostic test system prototype has been designed, an application methodology has been developed and specificity and sensitivity data of the method has been assessed. The diagnostic system has demonstrated its ability to detect significantly elevated levels of PCA 3/KLK 3 in samples from prostate cancer (PCa) patients compared with those from healthy men. The findings have shown relatively high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and negative-predictive values for an early non-invasive screening of prostate cancer

  4. Evaluation of the Use of Capnography during the Transport of Critically Ill Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-15

    DISCUSSION: Gervais et a13 demonstrated that respiratory alkalosis developed when ICU patients were manually ventilated, without 7 spirometric...developed a respiratory acidosis. Use of the non-invasive monitor, the capnograph prevented this adverse effect and resulted in inIproved patient safety...ventilation, all patients developed respiratory acidoses. Capnography uniformly prevented the development of respiratory acidosis during transport. We

  5. Are we fully utilizing the functionalities of modern operating room ventilators?

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujie; Kacmarek, Robert M; Oto, Jun

    2017-12-01

    The modern operating room ventilators have become very sophisticated and many of their features are comparable with those of an ICU ventilator. To fully utilize the functionality of modern operating room ventilators, it is important for clinicians to understand in depth the working principle of these ventilators and their functionalities. Piston ventilators have the advantages of delivering accurate tidal volume and certain flow compensation functions. Turbine ventilators have great ability of flow compensation. Ventilation modes are mainly volume-based or pressure-based. Pressure-based ventilation modes provide better leak compensation than volume-based. The integration of advanced flow generation systems and ventilation modes of the modern operating room ventilators enables clinicians to provide both invasive and noninvasive ventilation in perioperative settings. Ventilator waveforms can be used for intraoperative neuromonitoring during cervical spine surgery. The increase in number of new features of modern operating room ventilators clearly creates the opportunity for clinicians to optimize ventilatory care. However, improving the quality of ventilator care relies on a complete understanding and correct use of these new features. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COAN/A47.

  6. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007240.htm Mechanical ventilator - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. ...

  7. A taxonomy for mechanical ventilation: 10 fundamental maxims.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, Robert L; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    The American Association for Respiratory Care has declared a benchmark for competency in mechanical ventilation that includes the ability to "apply to practice all ventilation modes currently available on all invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilators." This level of competency presupposes the ability to identify, classify, compare, and contrast all modes of ventilation. Unfortunately, current educational paradigms do not supply the tools to achieve such goals. To fill this gap, we expand and refine a previously described taxonomy for classifying modes of ventilation and explain how it can be understood in terms of 10 fundamental constructs of ventilator technology: (1) defining a breath, (2) defining an assisted breath, (3) specifying the means of assisting breaths based on control variables specified by the equation of motion, (4) classifying breaths in terms of how inspiration is started and stopped, (5) identifying ventilator-initiated versus patient-initiated start and stop events, (6) defining spontaneous and mandatory breaths, (7) defining breath sequences (8), combining control variables and breath sequences into ventilatory patterns, (9) describing targeting schemes, and (10) constructing a formal taxonomy for modes of ventilation composed of control variable, breath sequence, and targeting schemes. Having established the theoretical basis of the taxonomy, we demonstrate a step-by-step procedure to classify any mode on any mechanical ventilator. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. VENTILATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. (NOTE: Ventilation technology is defined as the hardware necessary to bring outdoor ...

  9. Early invasive versus non-invasive treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (FRISC-II): 15 year follow-up of a prospective, randomised, multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Lars; Lindhagen, Lars; Ärnström, Elisabet; Husted, Steen; Janzon, Magnus; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Kontny, Frederic; Kempf, Tibor; Levin, Lars-Åke; Lindahl, Bertil; Stridsberg, Mats; Ståhle, Elisabeth; Venge, Per; Wollert, Kai C; Swahn, Eva; Lagerqvist, Bo

    2016-10-15

    The FRISC-II trial was the first randomised trial to show a reduction in death or myocardial infarction with an early invasive versus a non-invasive treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Here we provide a remaining lifetime perspective on the effects on all cardiovascular events during 15 years' follow-up. The FRISC-II prospective, randomised, multicentre trial was done at 58 Scandinavian centres in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. Between June 17, 1996, and Aug 28, 1998, we randomly assigned (1:1) 2457 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome to an early invasive treatment strategy, aiming for revascularisation within 7 days, or a non-invasive strategy, with invasive procedures at recurrent symptoms or severe exercise-induced ischaemia. Plasma for biomarker analyses was obtained at randomisation. For long-term outcomes, we linked data with national health-care registers. The primary endpoint was a composite of death or myocardial infarction. Outcomes were compared as the average postponement of the next event, including recurrent events, calculated as the area between mean cumulative count-of-events curves. Analyses were done by intention to treat. At a minimum of 15 years' follow-up on Dec 31, 2014, data for survival status and death were available for 2421 (99%) of the initially recruited 2457 patients, and for other events after 2 years for 2182 (89%) patients. During follow-up, the invasive strategy postponed death or next myocardial infarction by a mean of 549 days (95% CI 204-888; p=0·0020) compared with the non-invasive strategy. This effect was larger in non-smokers (mean gain 809 days, 95% CI 402-1175; p interaction =0·0182), patients with elevated troponin T (778 days, 357-1165; p interaction =0·0241), and patients with high concentrations of growth differentiation factor-15 (1356 days, 507-1650; p interaction =0·0210). The difference was mainly driven by postponement of new myocardial infarction

  10. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: why are we still looking for alternative methods?

    PubMed

    Frutos-Vivar, F; Esteban, A

    2013-12-01

    Most patients who require mechanical ventilation for longer than 24 hours, and who improve the condition leading to the indication of ventilatory support, can be weaned after passing a first spontaneous breathing test. The challenge is to improve the weaning of patients who fail that first test. We have methods that can be referred to as traditional, such as the T-tube, pressure support or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV). In recent years, however, new applications of usual techniques as noninvasive ventilation, new ventilation methods such as automatic tube compensation (ATC), mandatory minute ventilation (MMV), adaptive support ventilation or automatic weaning systems based on pressure support have been described. Their possible role in weaning from mechanical ventilation among patients with difficult or prolonged weaning remains to be established. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanical ventilation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Radunovic, Aleksandar; Annane, Djillali; Rafiq, Muhammad K; Mustfa, Naveed

    2013-03-28

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as motor neuron disease, is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Neuromuscular respiratory failure is the commonest cause of death, usually within two to five years of the disease onset. Supporting respiratory function with mechanical ventilation may improve survival and quality of life. This is the first update of a review first published in 2009. The primary objective of the review is to examine the efficacy of mechanical ventilation (tracheostomy and non-invasive ventilation) in improving survival in ALS. The secondary objectives are to examine the effect of mechanical ventilation on functional measures of disease progression and quality of life in people with ALS; and assess adverse events related to the intervention. We searched The Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (1 May 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE (January 1966 to April 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2012), CINAHL Plus (January 1937 to April 2012), and AMED (January 1985 to April 2012). We also searched for ongoing studies on ClinicalTrials.gov. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving non-invasive or tracheostomy assisted ventilation in participants with a clinical diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, independent of the reported outcomes. We planned to include comparisons with no intervention or the best standard care. For the original review, four authors independently selected studies for assessment and two authors reviewed searches for this update. All authors extracted data independently from the full text of selected studies and assessed the risk of bias in studies that met the inclusion criteria. We attempted to obtain missing data where possible. We planned to collect adverse event data from included studies. For the original Cochrane review, the review authors identified and included two randomised controlled trials involving 54 participants with ALS receiving non-invasive ventilation. There

  12. Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and Mortality in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Courtney M; Gertz, Shira J; McArthur, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Julie C; Nitu, Mara E; Loomis, Ashley; Hsing, Deyin D; Duncan, Christine N; Mahadeo, Kris M; Smith, Lincoln S; Moffet, Jerelyn; Hall, Mark W; Pinos, Emily L; Cheifetz, Ira M; Tamburro, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    To establish the current respiratory practice patterns in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and investigate their associations with mortality across multiple centers. Retrospective cohort between 2009 and 2014. Twelve children's hospitals in the United States. Two hundred twenty-two pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with acute respiratory failure using invasive mechanical ventilation. None. PICU mortality of our cohort was 60.4%. Mortality at 180 days post PICU discharge was 74%. Length of PICU stay prior to initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly lower in survivors, and the odds of mortality increased for longer length of PICU stay prior to intubation. A total of 91 patients (41%) received noninvasive ventilation at some point during their PICU stay prior to intubation. Noninvasive ventilation use preintubation was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.6; p = 0.010). Patients ventilated longer than 15 days had higher odds of death (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.2; p = 0.004). Almost 40% of patients (n = 85) were placed on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation with a mortality of 76.5% (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.7-6.5; p = 0.0004). Of the 20 patients who survived high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, 18 were placed on high-frequency oscillatory ventilation no later than the third day of invasive mechanical ventilation. In this subset of 85 patients, transition to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation within 2 days of the start of invasive mechanical ventilation resulted in a 76% decrease in the odds of death compared with those who transitioned to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation later in the invasive mechanical ventilation course. This study suggests that perhaps earlier more aggressive critical care interventions in the pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient with respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation may

  13. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  14. Mechanical Ventilation and ARDS in the ED

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Nicholas M.; Miller, Christopher N.; Deitchman, Andrew R.; Castagno, Nicole; Hassebroek, Elizabeth C.; Dhedhi, Adam; Scott-Wittenborn, Nicholas; Grace, Edward; Lehew, Courtney; Kollef, Marin H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data regarding mechanical ventilation and ARDS in the ED. This could be a vital arena for prevention and treatment. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, observational, prospective, cohort study aimed at analyzing ventilation practices in the ED. The primary outcome was the incidence of ARDS after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ARDS. RESULTS: We analyzed 219 patients receiving mechanical ventilation to assess ED ventilation practices. Median tidal volume was 7.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW) (interquartile range, 6.9-8.9), with a range of 4.3 to 12.2 mL/kg PBW. Lung-protective ventilation was used in 122 patients (55.7%). The incidence of ARDS after admission from the ED was 14.7%, with a mean onset of 2.3 days. Progression to ARDS was associated with higher illness severity and intubation in the prehospital environment or transferring facility. Of the 15 patients with ARDS in the ED (6.8%), lung-protective ventilation was used in seven (46.7%). Patients who progressed to ARDS experienced greater duration in organ failure and ICU length of stay and higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Lung-protective ventilation is infrequent in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ED, regardless of ARDS status. Progression to ARDS is common after admission, occurs early, and worsens outcome. Patient- and treatment-related factors present in the ED are associated with ARDS. Given the limited treatment options for ARDS, and the early onset after admission from the ED, measures to prevent onset and to mitigate severity should be instituted in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01628523; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:25742126

  15. [Possibilities of bi-level positive pressure ventilation in chronic hypoventilation].

    PubMed

    Saaresranta, Tarja; Anttalainen, Ulla; Polo, Olli

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, noninvasive bi-level positive pressure ventilation has enabled respiratory support in inpatient wards and at home. In many cases, a bi-level airway pressure ventilator can be used to avoid artificial airway and respirator therapy, and may shorten hospital stay and save costs. The treatment alleviates the patient's dyspnea and fatigue, whereby the quality of life improves, and in certain situations also the life span increases. The implementation of bi-level positive pressure ventilation by the physician requires knowledge of the basics of respiratory physiology and familiarization with the bi-level airway pressure ventilator.

  16. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING VENTILATOR NUMBER NINE. THIS VENTILATOR IS SLIGHTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW SHOWING VENTILATOR NUMBER NINE. THIS VENTILATOR IS SLIGHTLY MORE ORNATE THAN WAS GENERALLY USED BECAUSE OF ITS LOCATION - Old Croton Aqueduct, Ventilator Number 9, Spring & Everett Streets, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  17. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING VENTILATOR NO. 9. THIS VENTILATOR IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING VENTILATOR NO. 9. THIS VENTILATOR IS SLIGHTLY MORE ORNATE THAN WAS GENERALLY USED BECAUSE OF ITS LOCATION. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Ventilator Number 9, Spring & Everett Streets, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  18. Diaphragm Dysfunction in Mechanically Ventilated Patients.

    PubMed

    Dot, Irene; Pérez-Teran, Purificación; Samper, Manuel-Andrés; Masclans, Joan-Ramon

    2017-03-01

    Muscle involvement is found in most critical patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Diaphragmatic muscle alteration, initially included in this category, has been differentiated in recent years, and a specific type of muscular dysfunction has been shown to occur in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. We found this muscle dysfunction to appear in this subgroup of patients shortly after the start of mechanical ventilation, observing it to be mainly associated with certain control modes, and also with sepsis and/or multi-organ failure. Although the specific etiology of process is unknown, the muscle presents oxidative stress and mitochondrial changes. These cause changes in protein turnover, resulting in atrophy and impaired contractility, and leading to impaired functionality. The term 'ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction' was first coined by Vassilakopoulos et al. in 2004, and this phenomenon, along with injury cause by over-distention of the lung and barotrauma, represents a challenge in the daily life of ventilated patients. Diaphragmatic dysfunction affects prognosis by delaying extubation, prolonging hospital stay, and impairing the quality of life of these patients in the years following hospital discharge. Ultrasound, a non-invasive technique that is readily available in most ICUs, could be used to diagnose this condition promptly, thus preventing delays in starting rehabilitation and positively influencing prognosis in these patients. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-invasive brain stimulation of the right inferior frontal gyrus may improve attention in early Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Eliasova, Ilona; Anderkova, Lubomira; Marecek, Radek; Rektorova, Irena

    2014-11-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive tool for modulating cortical activity. In this pilot study, we evaluated the effects of high frequency rTMS applied over the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on cognitive functions in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or incipient dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ten patients (6 men; 4 women, mean age of 72 ± 8 years; MMSE 23 ± 3.56) were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled study with a crossover design. All participants received 2 sessions of 10 Hz rTMS over the non-dominant right hemisphere in random order: IFG (active stimulation site) and vertex (control stimulation site). Intensities were adjusted to 90% of resting motor threshold. A total of 2250 pulses were applied in a session. The Trail Making Test (TMT), the Stroop test, and the complex visual scene encoding task (CVSET) were administered before and immediately after each session. The Wilcoxon paired test was used for data analysis. Stimulation applied over the IFG induced improvement in the TMT parts A (p = 0.037) and B (p = 0.049). No significant changes were found in the Stroop test or the CVSET after the IFG stimulation. We observed no significant cognitive aftereffects of rTMS applied over the vertex. High frequency rTMS of the right IFG induced significant improvement of attention and psychomotor speed in patients with MCI/mild dementia due to AD. This pilot study is part of a more complex protocol and ongoing research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. State of the Art: Neonatal Non-invasive Respiratory Support: Physiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Thomas H.; Alapati, Deepthi; Greenspan, Jay S.; Wolfson, Marla R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The introduction of assisted ventilation for neonatal pulmonary insufficiency has resulted in the successful treatment of many previously fatal diseases. During the past three decades, refinement of invasive mechanical ventilation techniques has dramatically improved survival of many high-risk neonates. However, as with many advances in medicine, while mortality has been reduced, morbidity has increased in the surviving high-risk neonate. In this regard, introduction of assisted ventilation has been associated with chronic lung injury, also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This disease, unknown prior to the appearance of mechanical ventilation, has produced a population of patients characterized by ventilator or oxygen dependence with serious accompanying pulmonary and neurodevelopmental morbidity. The purpose of this article is to review non-invasive respiratory support methodologies to address the physiologic mechanisms by which these methods may prevent the pathophysiologic effects of invasive mechanical ventilation. PMID:22777738

  1. Incremental value of right atrial strain for early diagnosis of hemodynamic deterioration in pulmonary hypertension: a new noninvasive tool for a more comprehensive diagnostic paradigma.

    PubMed

    Piccinino, Cristina; Giubertoni, Ailia; Zanaboni, Jacopo; Gravellone, Miriam; Sola, Daniele; Rosso, Roberta; Ferrarotti, Lorena; Marino, Paolo Nicola

    2017-11-01

    identify right atrial functional impairment before structural changes and may be implemented in a comprehensive, noninvasive right heart assessment for diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary hypertension patients.

  2. Assessment of DNA Damage and Telomerase Activity in Exfoliated Urinary Cells as Sensitive and Noninvasive Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer in Ex-Workers of a Rubber Tyres Industry

    PubMed Central

    Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Fresegna, Anna Maria; Ciervo, Aureliano; Buresti, Giuliana; Zoli, Wainer; Calistri, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers of early carcinogenic effect at target organ to use in biomonitoring studies of workers at risk for previous occupational exposure to potential carcinogens. Standard urine cytology (Papanicolaou staining test), comet assay, and quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay were performed in 159 ex-rubber workers employed in tyres production and 97 unexposed subjects. In TRAP positive cases, a second level analysis using FISH (Urovysion) was done. Cystoscopy results were available for 11 individuals whose 6 FISH/TRAP/comet positive showed in 3 cases a dysplastic condition confirmed by biopsy, 1 comet positive resulted in infiltrating UBC to the biopsy and with hyperplasia and slight dysplasia to the urinary cytology, 1 comet positive resulted in papillary superficial UBC to the biopsy, 1 FISH/TRAP positive showed a normal condition, and 2 TRAP positive showed in one case a phlogosis condition. The results evidenced good concordance of TRAP, comet, and FISH assays as early biomarkers of procarcinogenic effect confirmed by the dysplastic condition and UBC found by cystoscopy-biopsy analysis. The analysis of these markers in urine cells could be potentially more accurate than conventional cytology in monitoring workers exposed to mixture of bladder potential carcinogens. PMID:24877087

  3. Assessment of DNA damage and telomerase activity in exfoliated urinary cells as sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex-workers of a rubber tyres industry.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Delia; Casadio, Valentina; Bravaccini, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Fresegna, Anna Maria; Maiello, Raffaele; Ciervo, Aureliano; Buresti, Giuliana; Zoli, Wainer; Calistri, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive and noninvasive biomarkers of early carcinogenic effect at target organ to use in biomonitoring studies of workers at risk for previous occupational exposure to potential carcinogens. Standard urine cytology (Papanicolaou staining test), comet assay, and quantitative telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay were performed in 159 ex-rubber workers employed in tyres production and 97 unexposed subjects. In TRAP positive cases, a second level analysis using FISH (Urovysion) was done. Cystoscopy results were available for 11 individuals whose 6 FISH/TRAP/comet positive showed in 3 cases a dysplastic condition confirmed by biopsy, 1 comet positive resulted in infiltrating UBC to the biopsy and with hyperplasia and slight dysplasia to the urinary cytology, 1 comet positive resulted in papillary superficial UBC to the biopsy, 1 FISH/TRAP positive showed a normal condition, and 2 TRAP positive showed in one case a phlogosis condition. The results evidenced good concordance of TRAP, comet, and FISH assays as early biomarkers of procarcinogenic effect confirmed by the dysplastic condition and UBC found by cystoscopy-biopsy analysis. The analysis of these markers in urine cells could be potentially more accurate than conventional cytology in monitoring workers exposed to mixture of bladder potential carcinogens.

  4. Ventilation practices in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a cohort study exploring the use of lung protective ventilation.

    PubMed

    Marhong, Jonathan D; Ferguson, Niall D; Singh, Jeffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but the influence of mechanical ventilator settings on its development is unclear. We sought to determine adherence to lung protective thresholds in ventilated patients with SAH and describe the association between ventilator settings and subsequent development of ARDS. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients receiving mechanical ventilation within 72 h of SAH at a single academic center. Ventilator settings and blood gas data were collected twice daily for the first 7 days of ventilation along with ICU and hospital outcomes. Lung protective ventilation was defined as follows: tidal volume ≤8 mL/kg of predicted body weight, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ≥5 cm H(2)O, and peak or plateau pressure ≤30 cm H(2)O. The development of ARDS was ascertained retrospectively by PaO(2)/FiO(2) ≤300 with new bilateral lung opacities on chest X-ray within one day of hypoxemia. We identified 62 patients who underwent early mechanical ventilation following SAH. PS and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure were common ventilator modes with a median tidal volume of 7.8 mL/kg [interquartile range 6.8-8.8], median peak pressure of 14 cm H(2)O [IQR 12-17], and median PEEP of 5 cm H(2)O [IQR 5-6]. Adherence to tidal volumes ≤8 mL/kg was seen in 64 % of all observations and peak pressures <30 cm H(2)O were 94 % of all observations. All three lung protective criteria were seen in 58 % of all observations. Thirty-one patients (50 %) were determined to have ARDS. ARDS patients were more frequently ventilated with a peak pressure >30 cm H(2)O (11.3 % of ARDS ventilation days vs. 0 % of non-ARDS ventilation days; p < 0.01). Initial tidal volume was not associated with subsequent development of ARDS in univariate (p = 0.6) or multivariate analysis (p = 0.49). Only the number of ARDS risk factors was independently associated with the development of

  5. Iatrogenic pneumothorax related to mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Wei; Sun, Shu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a potentially lethal complication associated with mechanical ventilation. Most of the patients with pneumothorax from mechanical ventilation have underlying lung diseases; pneumothorax is rare in intubated patients with normal lungs. Tension pneumothorax is more common in ventilated patients with prompt recognition and treatment of pneumothorax being important to minimize morbidity and mortality. Underlying lung diseases are associated with ventilator-related pneumothorax with pneumothoraces occurring most commonly during the early phase of mechanical ventilation. The diagnosis of pneumothorax in critical illness is established from the patients’ history, physical examination and radiological investigation, although the appearances of a pneumothorax on a supine radiograph may be different from the classic appearance on an erect radiograph. For this reason, ultrasonography is beneficial for excluding the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Respiration-dependent movement of the visceral pleura and lung surface with respect to the parietal pleura and chest wall can be easily visualized with transthoracic sonography given that the presence of air in the pleural space prevents sonographic visualization of visceral pleura movements. Mechanically ventilated patients with a pneumothorax require tube thoracostomy placement because of the high risk of tension pneumothorax. Small-bore catheters are now preferred in the majority of ventilated patients. Furthermore, if there are clinical signs of a tension pneumothorax, emergency needle decompression followed by tube thoracostomy is widely advocated. Patients with pneumothorax related to mechanical ventilation who have tension pneumothorax, a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score or PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg were found to have higher mortality. PMID:24834397

  6. Gut Microbiota Dysfunction as Reliable Non-invasive Early Diagnostic Biomarkers in the Pathophysiology of Parkinson’s Disease: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Arun T; Ramachandran, Vadivelan; Joghee, Nanjan M; Antony, Shanish; Ramalingam, Gopalakrishnan

    2018-01-01

    Recent investigations suggest that gut microbiota affects the brain activity through the microbiota-gut-brain axis under both physiological and pathological disease conditions like Parkinson’s disease. Further dopamine synthesis in the brain is induced by dopamine producing enzymes that are controlled by gut microbiota via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Also alpha synuclein deposition and the associated neurodegeneration in the enteric nervous system that increase intestinal permeability, oxidative stress, and local inflammation, accounts for constipation in Parkinson’s disease patients. The trigger that causes blood brain barrier leakage, immune cell activation and inflammation, and ultimately neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is believed to be due to the chronic low-grade inflammation in the gut. The non-motor symptoms that appear years before motor symptoms could be reliable early biomarkers, if they could be correlated with the established and reliable neuroimaging techniques or behavioral indices. The future directions should therefore, focus on the exploration of newer investigational techniques to identify these reliable early biomarkers and define the specific gut microbes that contribute to the development of Parkinson’s disease. This ultimately should pave the way to safer and novel therapeutic approaches that avoid the complications of the drugs delivered today to the brain of Parkinson’s disease patients. PMID:29291606

  7. CFD and ventilation research.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Nielsen, P V

    2011-12-01

    There has been a rapid growth of scientific literature on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the research of ventilation and indoor air science. With a 1000-10,000 times increase in computer hardware capability in the past 20 years, CFD has become an integral part of scientific research and engineering development of complex air distribution and ventilation systems in buildings. This review discusses the major and specific challenges of CFD in terms of turbulence modelling, numerical approximation, and boundary conditions relevant to building ventilation. We emphasize the growing need for CFD verification and validation, suggest ongoing needs for analytical and experimental methods to support the numerical solutions, and discuss the growing capacity of CFD in opening up new research areas. We suggest that CFD has not become a replacement for experiment and theoretical analysis in ventilation research, rather it has become an increasingly important partner. We believe that an effective scientific approach for ventilation studies is still to combine experiments, theory, and CFD. We argue that CFD verification and validation are becoming more crucial than ever as more complex ventilation problems are solved. It is anticipated that ventilation problems at the city scale will be tackled by CFD in the next 10 years. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. [Early exercise training after exacerbation in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Molleyres, Sandrine; Dousse, Nicolas; Contal, Olivier; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-23

    Patients who suffered from an exacerbation of a chronic respiratory disorder are often very limited in terms of their exercise capacity because of severe dyspnea and amyotrophy of peripheral muscles. Early implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation may help these patients to avoid the complications of a prolonged bedridden period, and increase more rapidly their mobility. Early rehabilitation has become more frequent, but requires special skills from the care givers (chest therapists). Techniques which enhance muscular performance and motility of patients who are recovering from an exacerbation such as electromoystimulation or mobilisation under non-invasive ventilation, give encouraging results; their impact on length of hospital stay requires further studies.

  9. [Spontaneous positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation in elderly patients with cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Assessment in an emergency admissions unit].

    PubMed

    L'Her, E; Duquesne, F; Paris, A; Mouline, J; Renault, A; Garo, B; Boles, J M

    1998-06-20

    Intubation and ventilatory assistance are often required in patients presenting severe hypoxemic respiratory distress, but may be contraindicated in elderly subjects due to an underlying condition. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and contribution of early assistance with spontaneous positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation for elderly subjects admitted to an emergency unit for acute respiratory distress due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema. In our emergency admission unit, all patients with life-threatening hypoxemic respiratory distress are initially assisted with noninvasive spontaneous positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation using a standardized commercial device. We retrospectively analyzed the the files of all patients aged over 70 years who were treated with this standard protocol for cardiogenic pulmonary edema from April 1996 through September 1997. During the study period, 36 patients aged over 70 years required ventilatory assistance according to the standard protocol. Intubation was not reasonable in most of the patients (n = 30). After 1 hour of ventilation, none of the patients developed clinical signs of life-threatening distress. Blood gases demonstrated improved oxygenation (AEPO2 = +184.9 +/- 105.4 mmHg; p < 0.000001). Thirty-two patients were considered to be cured (88.9%) and were discharged; the cardiovascular condition was fatal in 4 patients (11.1%). The rapid improvement in clinical signs and blood gases as well as the final outcome suggests that early assistance with spontaneous positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation is warranted at admission for elderly patients with respiratory distress due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Compared with a control group of hospitalized patients cared for during the preceding year and who were not treated with the standard protocol, we also demonstrated a clear improvement in mortality (11% versus 20%).

  10. Acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Gadre, Shruti K.; Duggal, Abhijit; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Krishnan, Sudhir; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zell, Katrina; Guzman, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Abstract There are limited data on the epidemiology of acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prognosis of acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation is believed to be grim in this population. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of patients with underlying severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation. A retrospective study of patients admitted to a quaternary referral medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2008 and December 2012 with a diagnosis of severe COPD and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. We evaluated 670 patients with an established diagnosis of severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure of whom 47% were male with a mean age of 63.7 ± 12.4 years and Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score of 76.3 ± 27.2. Only seventy-nine (12%) were admitted with a COPD exacerbation, 27(4%) had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 78 (12%) had pneumonia, 78 (12%) had sepsis, and 312 (47%) had other causes of respiratory failure, including pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, etc. Eighteen percent of the patients received a trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days (interquartile range IQR 2–7); the median duration for ICU length of stay (LOS) was 5 (IQR 2–9) days and the median duration of hospital LOS was 12 (IQR 7–22) days. The overall ICU mortality was 25%. Patients with COPD exacerbation had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation (2 vs 4 days; P = .04), ICU (3 vs 5 days; P = .01), and hospital stay (10 vs 13 days; P = .01). The ICU mortality (9% vs 27%; P < .001), and the hospital mortality (17% vs 32%; P = .004) for mechanically ventilated patients with an acute

  11. Acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Gadre, Shruti K; Duggal, Abhijit; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Krishnan, Sudhir; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zell, Katrina; Guzman, Jorge

    2018-04-01

    There are limited data on the epidemiology of acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prognosis of acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation is believed to be grim in this population. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of patients with underlying severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation.A retrospective study of patients admitted to a quaternary referral medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2008 and December 2012 with a diagnosis of severe COPD and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure.We evaluated 670 patients with an established diagnosis of severe COPD requiring mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure of whom 47% were male with a mean age of 63.7 ± 12.4 years and Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score of 76.3 ± 27.2. Only seventy-nine (12%) were admitted with a COPD exacerbation, 27(4%) had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 78 (12%) had pneumonia, 78 (12%) had sepsis, and 312 (47%) had other causes of respiratory failure, including pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, etc. Eighteen percent of the patients received a trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 3 days (interquartile range IQR 2-7); the median duration for ICU length of stay (LOS) was 5 (IQR 2-9) days and the median duration of hospital LOS was 12 (IQR 7-22) days. The overall ICU mortality was 25%. Patients with COPD exacerbation had a shorter median duration of mechanical ventilation (2 vs 4 days; P = .04), ICU (3 vs 5 days; P = .01), and hospital stay (10 vs 13 days; P = .01). The ICU mortality (9% vs 27%; P < .001), and the hospital mortality (17% vs 32%; P = .004) for mechanically ventilated patients with an acute exacerbation of severe

  12. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  13. Non-invasive, quantitative, and remote detection of early radiation cataracts for applications in bio-astronautics and bio-informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Giblin, Frank J.; King, James F.

    2001-02-01

    Human exploration of Mars may be a possibility in the next twenty years. Maintaining good vision is an essential aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts. A compact device based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) is designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. Preliminary data on the simulated effects of ionizing radiation exposure to the ocular tissues of non-human animals and results on the sensitivity of DLS over established clinical procedures in investigating cataracts are presented. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An inter-net web based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (tele-ophthalmology) is currently being developed. Cataract studies on-board the International Space Station (ISS) will be helpful in designing better protective radiation shields for future space vehicles and space suits. .

  14. Non-Invasive, Quantitative, and Remote Detection of Early Radiation Cataracts for Applications in Bio-Astronautics and Bio-Informatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Giblin, Frank J.; King, James F.; Singh, B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars may be a possibility in the next twenty years. Maintaining good vision is an essential aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts. A compact device based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) is designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. Preliminary data on the simulated effects of ionizing radiation exposure to the ocular tissues of nonhuman animals and results on the sensitivity of DLS over established clinical procedures in investigating cataracts are presented. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An internet web based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. Cataract studies on-board the International Space Station (ISS) will be helpful in designing better protective radiation shields for future space vehicles and space suits.

  15. Targeted theranostic platinum(IV) prodrug with a built-in aggregation-induced emission light-up apoptosis sensor for noninvasive early evaluation of its therapeutic responses in situ.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Youyong; Kwok, Ryan T K; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Bin

    2014-02-12

    Targeted drug delivery to tumor cells with minimized side effects and real-time in situ monitoring of drug efficacy is highly desirable for personalized medicine. In this work, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a chemotherapeutic Pt(IV) prodrug whose two axial positions are functionalized with a cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) tripeptide for targeting integrin αvβ3 overexpressed cancer cells and an apoptosis sensor which is composed of tetraphenylsilole (TPS) fluorophore with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics and a caspase-3 enzyme specific Asp-Glu-Val-Asp (DEVD) peptide. The targeted Pt(IV) prodrug can selectively bind to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed cancer cells to facilitate cellular uptake. In addition, the Pt(IV) prodrug can be reduced to active Pt(II) drug in cells and release the apoptosis sensor TPS-DEVD simultaneously. The reduced Pt(II) drug can induce the cell apoptosis and activate caspase-3 enzyme to cleave the DEVD peptide sequence. Due to free rotation of the phenylene rings, TPS-DEVD is nonemissive in aqueous media. The specific cleavage of DEVD by caspase-3 generates the hydrophobic TPS residue, which tends to aggregate, resulting in restriction of intramolecular rotations of the phenyl rings and ultimately leading to fluorescence enhancement. Such noninvasive and real-time imaging of drug-induced apoptosis in situ can be used as an indicator for early evaluation of the therapeutic responses of a specific anticancer drug.

  16. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females dur