That events during critical or sensitive periods of development may "program" long-term or life-time structure or function of the organism is well recognized. Evidence for programming by nutrition is established in animals, in whom brief pre- or postnatal nutritional manipulations may program adult size, metabolism, blood lipids, diabetes, blood pressure, obesity, atherosclerosis, learning, behavior and life span. Human epidemiological data link potential markers of early nutrition (size at birth or in infancy) to cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in adulthood. However, these retrospective data cannot prove nutritional cause or underpin health policies. After 16 y, however, of ethical, randomized intervention studies of early nutrition in humans with long-term follow-up to test experimentally the nutritional programming hypothesis, we find that humans, like other species, have sensitive windows for nutrition in terms of later outcomes; for instance, perinatal diet influences neurodevelopment and bone mineralization into mid-childhood. Possible biological mechanisms for storing throughout life the "memory" of early nutritional experience and its expression in adulthood include adaptive changes in gene expression, preferential clonal selection of adapted cells in programmed tissues and programmed differential proliferation of tissue cell types. Animal and human evidence supporting nutritional programming has major potential biological and medical significance.
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Poston, Lucilla; Godfrey, Keith; Demmelmair, Hans
Increasing evidence from the EU Project EARNEST and many other investigators demonstrates that early nutrition and lifestyle have long-term effects on later health and the risk of common non-communicable diseases (known as 'developmental programming'). Because of the increasing public health importance and the transgenerational nature of the problem, obesity and associated disorders are the focus of the new EU funded project 'EarlyNutrition'. Currently, three key hypotheses have been defined: the fuel mediated 'in utero' hypothesis suggests that intrauterine exposure to an excess of fuels, most notably glucose, causes permanent changes of the fetus that lead to obesity in postnatal life; the accelerated postnatal weight gain hypothesis proposes an association between rapid weight gain in infancy and an increased risk of later obesity and adverse outcomes; and the mismatch hypothesis suggests that experiencing a developmental 'mismatch' between a sub-optimal perinatal and an obesogenic childhood environment is related to a particular predisposition to obesity and corresponding co-morbidities. Using existing cohort studies, ongoing and novel intervention studies and a basic science programme to investigate those key hypotheses, project EarlyNutrition will provide the scientific foundations for evidence-based recommendations for optimal nutrition considering long-term health outcomes, with a focus on obesity and related disorders. Scientific and technical expertise in placental biology, epigenetics and metabolomics will provide understanding at the cellular and molecular level of the relationships between early life nutritional status and the risk of later adiposity. This will help refine strategies for intervention in early life to prevent obesity.
Vickers, Mark H
The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be
Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie
Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans
Differences in nutritional experiences during sensitive periods in early life, both before and after birth, can program a person's future development, metabolism, and health. A better scientific understanding of early nutrition programming holds enormous potential for implementing preventive strategies to enhance individuals' long-term health, well-being, and performance. This understanding could reduce costs of health care and social services and may enhance the wealth of societies. The Early Nutrition Programming Project (EARNEST) brought together a multidisciplinary team of international scientists and leaders in key areas of the early nutrition programming field from 40 major research centers across 16 European countries. The project had a total budget of 16.5 million Euros and was funded by the European Communities under the Sixth Framework Program for Research and Technical Development and coordinated by the Children's Hospital at Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. The integrated program of work combined experimental studies in humans, prospective observational studies, and mechanistic animal work, including physiologic studies, cell culture models, and molecular biology techniques. The project lasted from April 2005 to October 2010. After the end of the project, the Early Nutrition Academy (http://www.early-nutrition.org) continues to serve as a platform for the exchange of information, scientific collaboration, and training activities in the area of programming. This article highlights some of the scientific results, achievements, and efforts of EARNEST.
Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.
Because the development of healthy eating and physical activity habits during early childhood can prevent disease and support a lifetime of good health, nutrition services are a critical component of early childhood programs. This publication provides guidance to preschool programs to help them meet the Connecticut state goal of practicing…
Appleton, Julie; McCrea, Nadine; Patterson, Carla
Noting that young children learn about food and nutrition through food preparation, eating together, play, science activities, and games, this resource guide addresses food learning and nutritional provisions in early childhood programs. The guide is designed to meet the needs of children and adults in child care centers, family child care…
Session 6: Infant nutrition: future research developments in Europe EARNEST, the early nutrition programming project: EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research.
Fewtrell, M S
Increasing evidence from lifetime experimental studies in animals and observational and experimental studies in human subjects suggests that pre- and postnatal nutrition programme long-term health. However, key unanswered questions remain on the extent of early-life programming in contemporary European populations, relevant nutritional exposures, critical time periods, mechanisms and the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reverse programming effects. The EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research (EARNEST) consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scientists from European research institutions in an integrated programme of work that includes experimental studies in human subjects, modern prospective observational studies and mechanistic animal work including physiological studies, cell-culture models and molecular techniques. Theme 1 tests early nutritional programming of disease in human subjects, measuring disease markers in childhood and early adulthood in nineteen randomised controlled trials of nutritional interventions in pregnancy and infancy. Theme 2 examines associations between early nutrition and later outcomes in large modern European population-based prospective studies, with detailed measures of diet in pregnancy and early life. Theme 3 uses animal, cellular and molecular techniques to study lifetime effects of early nutrition. Biomedical studies are complemented by studies of the social and economic importance of programming (themes 4 and 5), and themes encouraging integration, communication, training and wealth creation. The project aims to: help formulate policies on the composition and testing of infant foods; improve the nutritional value of infant formulas; identify interventions to prevent and reverse adverse early nutritional programming. In addition, it has the potential to develop new products through industrial
Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia
To present the evidence in relation to early life nutrition and foetal programming for adult disease. Epigenetics is a new and growing area of study investigating the impact of the intrauterine environment on the lifelong health of individuals. Discursive paper. Searches were conducted in a range of electronic health databases. Hand searches located additional articles for review. Maternal search terms included: pregnancy; nutrition; diet; obesity; over nutrition; under nutrition. Offspring related search terms included: macrosomia; intrauterine growth restriction; epigenetics; foetal programming; childhood obesity; adolescent obesity; adolescent type 2 diabetes. Results indicate that foetal programming for adult disease occurs in response to particular insults during vulnerable developmental periods. Four main areas of foetal exposure were identified in this review: (1) under nutrition; (2) over nutrition; (3) gestational diabetes mellitus; and (4) infant catch-up growth. Numerous studies also described the trans-generational nature of foetal programming. Overall, foetal exposure to excess or insufficient nutrition during vulnerable developmental periods appears to result in a lifelong predisposition to obesity and adult disease, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiac disease. For the infant who has been undernourished during early life, a predisposition to renal disease also occurs. Pregnancy is a time when women are engaged in health systems and are receptive to health messages. These factors suggest that pregnancy may be an optimal time for dietary education and intervention. There is a particular need for education on healthy diet and for interventions which aim to limit over consumption of calories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moreno Villares, José Manuel
Development during fetal life and infancy is characterized by rapid growth as well as the maturation of organs and systems. Changes, both in quality and quality, in nutrients during these periods may permanently infl uence the way these organs mature and function. These effects are termed as “programming” and play an important role in the presence of non-transmissible diseases through the lifespan. Specially cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders and carbohydrate intolerance. Nutritional deficits during pregnancy, leading to intrauterine growth restriction, are associated to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, and coronary disease among the offspring. This infl uence does not stop with the delivery but early nutrition in infancy, type of lactation, and the way and time solid foods are introduced, does play a role in this programming. Nutritional and non-nutritional factors alter the expression of some genes, resulting in effective remodeling of tissue structure and functionality. These epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to further generations, adding evidence that hereditable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming. But, at the same time, it opens a window of opportunity to decrease the burden of non-transmissible disease by a clever advise on nutrition during pregnancy and across the first 2 years of life (the so-called 1000 days strategy).
Chadio, S; Kotsampasi, B
Accumulating evidence suggest that the concept of programming can also be applied to reproductive development and function, representing an ever expanding research area. Recently issues such as peri- or even preconceptional nutrition, transgenerational effects and underlying mechanisms have received considerable attention. The present chapter presents the existed evidence and reviews the available data from numerous animal and human studies on the effects of early life nutritional environment on adult reproductive function. Specific outcomes depend on the severity, duration and stage of development when nutritional perturbations are imposed, while sex-specific effects are also manifested. Apart from undernutrition, effects of relative overnutrition as well as the complex interactions between pre- and postnatal nutrition is of high importance, especially in the context of our days obesity epidemic. Mechanisms underlying reproductive programming are yet unclear, but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modulation of critical genes involved in the control of reproductive function and potential intergenerational effects represent an exciting area of interdisciplinary research toward the development of new nutritional approaches during pre- and postnatal periods to ensure reproductive health in later life.
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Grote, Veit; Kirchberg, Franca F; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina
The Power of Programming conference 2016 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich brought together about 600 researchers and other stakeholders from around the world who reviewed the recent evidence on the lasting health impact of environment and nutrition during early life, from pre-pregnancy to early childhood. The conference was hosted by the Early Nutrition Project, a multidisciplinary research collaboration funded by the European Commission with collaborating researchers from 35 institutions in 15 countries in Europe, the United States and Australia. The project explores the early origins of obesity, adiposity and associated non-communicable diseases, underlying mechanisms and opportunities for prevention. The project also proactively supports translational application of research findings. In fact, some existing evidence has already been rapidly adopted into policy, regulatory standards and practice. Further, broad dissemination of findings is achieved through the established digital eLearning platform of the Early Nutrition eAcademy, video clip-based learning and graphically supported messaging to consumers. The project demonstrated powerful effects of early metabolic programming on later health. Compared to other common prevention strategies, modifying risk trajectories in early life can achieve a much larger risk reduction and be more cost-effective. While some effective prevention strategies have been promptly implemented in policy and guidelines, legislation and practice, in other areas, the uptake is limited by a paucity of quality human intervention trials and insufficient evaluation of the feasibility of implementation and econometric impact. This needs to be strengthened by future collaborative research work. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Chourdakis, Michael; Cramer, Simone; Grote, Veit; Hellmuth, Christian; Kirchberg, Franca; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina
At The Power of Programming 2014 Conference, researchers from multiple disciplines presented and discussed the effects of early nutrition and other environmental cues during the first thousand days of life and beyond on the lifelong risk of noncommunicable diseases. This paper aims to summarize the concepts and some of the first achievements of the EarlyNutrition research project that initiated the conference. The EarlyNutrition consortium is a multinational, multidisciplinary research collaboration of researchers from Europe, the USA, and Australia. A focus is placed on exploration of the developmental origins of obesity, adiposity, and related health outcomes. Here we report on the first findings of experimental approaches, cohort studies, randomized clinical trials, and systematic reviews of current information, as well as position papers, which have all been developed with the involvement of project partners. We conclude that the EarlyNutrition project has successfully established itself during the first 2 project years as a very strong platform for collaborative research on early programming effects. The first results, available already at this early stage of the project, point to great opportunities for health prevention strategies via the implementation of dietary and lifestyle modifications, with large effect sizes. Further results are expected which should support improved recommendations and related policies for optimized nutrition and lifestyle choices before and during pregnancy, in infancy, and in early childhood. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Moore, Sophie E
Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. We investigated the link between early-life nutritional exposures and long-term health in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomised controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy, and the "experiment of nature" that seasonality in this region provides, we investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs. Key Messages: Our work in rural Gambia suggests that in populations with high rates of under-nutrition in early life, the immune system may be sensitive to nutritional deficiencies early in life, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infection-related morbidity and mortality. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Vera, L M; Metochis, C; Taylor, J F; Clarkson, M; Skjærven, K H; Migaud, H; Tocher, D R
To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon. In the present study we explored the molecular mechanisms occurring in the liver of salmon when challenged with a plant-based diet in order to determine the metabolic processes affected, and the effect of ploidy. Microarray analysis revealed that nutritional history had a major impact on the expression of genes. Key pathways of intermediary metabolism were up-regulated, including oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis and fatty acid metabolism. Other differentially expressed pathways affected by diet included protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, RNA transport, endocytosis and purine metabolism. The interaction between diet and ploidy also had an effect on the hepatic transcriptome of salmon. The biological pathways with the highest number of genes affected by this interaction were related to gene transcription and translation, and cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation, communication and membrane trafficking. The present study revealed that nutritional programming induced changes in a large number of metabolic processes in Atlantic salmon, which may be associated with the improved fish performance and nutrient utilisation demonstrated previously. In addition, differences between diploid and triploid salmon were found, supporting recent data that indicate nutritional requirements of triploid salmon may differ from those of their diploid counterparts.
Vaiserman, Alexander M.
Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies (‘natural experiments’). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed. PMID:28273874
Vaiserman, Alexander M
Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies ('natural experiments'). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed.
Zhang, S; Rattanatray, L; McMillen, I C; Suter, C M; Morrison, J L
Women entering pregnancy with a high body weight and fat mass have babies at increased risk of becoming overweight or obese in childhood and later life. It is not known, whether exposure to a high level of maternal nutrition before pregnancy and exposure to a high transplacental nutrient supply in later pregnancy act through similar mechanisms to program later obesity. Using the pregnant sheep we have shown that maternal overnutrition in late pregnancy results in an upregulation of PPARγ activated genes in fetal visceral fat and a subsequent increase in the mass of subcutaneous fat in the postnatal lamb. Exposure to maternal overnutrition during the periconceptional period alone, however, results in an increase in total body fat mass in female lambs only with a dominant effect on visceral fat depots. Thus the early programming of later obesity may result from 'two hits', the first occurring as a result of maternal overnutrition during the periconceptional period and the second occurring as a result of increased fetal nutrition in late pregnancy. Whilst a short period of dietary restriction during the periconceptional period reverses the impact of periconceptional overnutrition on the programming of obesity, it also results in an increased lamb adrenal weight and cortisol stress response, together with changes in the epigenetic state of the insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene in the adrenal. Thus, not all of the effects of dietary restriction in overweight or obese mother in the periconceptional period may be beneficial in the longer term. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moore, S E
Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a 'mismatch' between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in countries where an excess of infants are born with low birth weight and where there is a rapid transition to nutritional adequacy or excess in adulthood. Here, I will review data from work conducted in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomized controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and the 'experiment of nature' that seasonality in this region provides, we have investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs.
Stamey, J A; Janovick, N A; Kertz, A F; Drackley, J K
Our objectives were to determine the effect of starter crude protein (CP) content on growth of Holstein calves from birth to 10 wk of age in an enhanced early nutrition program, and to compare the enhanced program to a conventional milk replacer program. Calves (64 female, 25 male) were assigned to 3 treatments in a randomized block design: 1) conventional milk replacer (20% CP, 20% fat) plus conventional starter [19.6% CP, dry matter (DM) basis], 2) enhanced milk replacer (28.5% CP, 15% fat) plus conventional starter, and 3) enhanced milk replacer plus high-CP starter (25.5% CP, DM basis). Calves began treatments (n=29, 31, and 29 for treatments 1 to 3) at 3 d of age. Conventional milk replacer (12.5% solids) was fed at 1.25% of birth body weight (BW) as DM daily in 2 feedings from wk 1 to 5 and at 0.625% of birth BW once daily during wk 6. Enhanced milk replacer (15% solids) was fed at 1.5% of BW as DM during wk 1 and 2% of BW as DM during wk 2 to 5, divided into 2 daily feedings. During wk 6, enhanced milk replacer was fed at 1% of BW as DM once daily. Calves were weaned at d 42. Starter was available for ad libitum intake starting on d 3. Starter intake was greater for calves fed conventional milk replacer. For calves fed enhanced milk replacer, starter intake tended to be greater for calves fed enhanced starter. During the weaning period, enhanced starter promoted greater starter DM intake than the conventional starter. Over the 10-wk study, the average daily gain of BW (0.64, 0.74, and 0.80 kg/d) was greater for calves fed enhanced milk replacer with either starter and, for calves fed enhanced milk replacer, tended to be greater for calves fed high-CP starter. Rates of change in withers height, body length, and heart girth were greater for calves fed enhanced milk replacer but did not differ between starter CP concentrations. The postweaning BW for enhanced milk replacer treatments was greater for calves receiving the enhanced starter at wk 8 (73.7, 81.3, and
Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko
Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909
Forsythe, Hazel; Wesley, Myrna
This study sought to determine the needs of early childhood teachers in Kentucky for education to help them manage children's nutrition in early childhood programs. The study also sought to determine whether formal classes, self-study via computer, or site-based inservice workshops is the most desirable format for teacher nutrition education. A…
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0575 TITLE: Nutritional and Genetic Determinants...CONTRACT NUMBER Nutritional and Genetic Determinants of Early Puberty 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0575 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...later in life. Nutritional factors during childhood and puberty, and inherited genetic factors are suspected to interact in modulating these early
Olson, Christine; And Others
This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…
Deiner, Penny Low; Qiu, Wei
The infant and toddler years provide a window of opportunity to establish healthy habits as part of daily routines and activities that prevent childhood obesity. Early care and education programs have the opportunity to make a significant impact on physical development when they promote healthy eating and physical activity in their daily routines.…
Moody, Laura; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang
The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment. Diseases characterized by learning and memory impairments, such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease, are hypothesized to be attributed in part to environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the etiology of these conditions may date back to very early life. In this review, we discuss the role of the early-life diet in shaping cognitive outcomes in offspring. We explore the endocrine and immune mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes and discuss how these systemic factors converge to change the brain's epigenetic landscape and regulate learning and memory across the lifespan. Through understanding the maternal programming of cognition, critical steps may be taken toward preventing and treating diseases that compromise learning and memory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Stephens, Samuel A.
Child care centers, Head Start programs, and family child care providers serving young children--as well as after school programs and homeless shelters that reach older children, adults, and families--are supported in providing healthy meals and snacks by reimbursements through the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Administered by the…
Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R; McCullough, Peter A; Roberts, Tricia; McFarlane, Samy I; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Wang, Changchun; Collins, Allan J; Bakris, George L
Diabetes contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to describe CKD awareness and identify factors associated with optimal glycemic control in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals both aware and unaware of CKD. This cross-sectional analysis compared Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) and National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2006 participants with diabetes and CKD. CKD was defined and staged using glomerular filtration rate (estimated by using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio. NHANES defined diabetes as self-reported diabetes or fasting plasma blood glucose level of 126 mg/dL or greater, and KEEP as self-reported diabetes or diabetic retinopathy, use of diabetes medications, fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dL or greater, or nonfasting glucose level of 200 mg/dL or greater. Of 77,077 KEEP participants, 20,200 (26.2%) were identified with CKD and 23,082 (29.9%) were identified with diabetes. Of 9,536 NHANES participants, 1,743 (18.3%) were identified with CKD and 1,127 (11.8%) were identified with diabetes. Of KEEP participants with diabetes and CKD (n = 7,853), 736 (9.4%) were aware of CKD. Trends in lack of CKD awareness were similar for KEEP participants with and without diabetes. Unaware participants with and without diabetes identified with stages 1 and 2 CKD were less likely to reach target glucose levels, defined as fasting glucose level less than 126 mg/dL or nonfasting glucose level less than 140 mg/dL, than those with stages 3 to 5 (odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.78; odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.81; P < 0.001, respectively). Our data support that KEEP, as a targeted screening program, is a more enriched population with CKD and comorbid diabetes than NHANES. In addition, our findings highlight the relationship between dysglycemia and early
New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.
This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…
Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Ball, Kylie; McCallum, Zoë; Lynch, John; Crawford, David A
Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month) and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement), version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. ACTRN12611000386932. Registered 13 April 2011.
Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko
Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity.
Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.
This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support…
Pomeranz, Jennifer L.; Chriqui, Jamie F.
Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public’s support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators’ formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA’s public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law. PMID:26091926
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This Notice announces the..., Supervisory Program Analyst, School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child Nutrition Programs--Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces the..., Supervisory Program Analyst, School Programs Section, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service...
Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.
Despite recognition of the importance of good nutrition for children's cognitive development, many children in America are poorly nourished. This digest reviews programs designed to address this problem and suggests ways to improve child nutrition and school meal programs. Federal programs administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the…
75th Ranger Regiment Nutrition Program LTC Russ Kotwal CPT Nick Barringer Medical Director Dietician SFC Cesar Veliz SFC Justin...Siple Medical Training Culinary Advisor Warfighter Nutrition Conference USUHS, Bethesda, MD 15 JULY 2008 Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 75th Ranger Regiment Nutrition Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT
School nutrition directors face challenges on many fronts, from changing nutrition standards to addressing community interest in sustainability and local food sourcing. Programs are constantly changing to meet these new demands. How does a school business administrator know which changes will affect his/her school nutrition program positively? The…
Barnes, Roberta Ott
This report describes the analyses of student participation in two school nutrition programs, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Data were collected from students and their families during the 1983-84 school year as part of the National Evaluation of the School Nutrition Programs (NESNP). Each program…
Wade, Cheryl; And Others
This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…
Ricciuto, Laurie; Haresign, Helen; Steele, Valerie
In 1998, Dietitians of Canada and the team of registered dietitians at Kellogg Canada Inc. partnered to develop Mission Nutrition, a national bilingual nutrition education program that provides curriculum-based resources to teachers. The main objectives of this study were to measure the awareness and utility of the Mission Nutrition program among elementary teachers, and to identify opportunities to enhance the Mission Nutrition resources to increase use. A ten-minute telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of 203 elementary school teachers. A sub-sample of 20 teachers then participated in a more in-depth 30-minute telephone survey. A need for increased promotion of the Mission Nutrition program was identified on the basis of the 22% awareness among teachers participating in the initial interview. All teachers who had used the educator guides and student activity sheets reported that they would use them again. Teachers found that the Mission Nutrition materials were well-researched and contained useful activities relevant to students. The findings indicate that, to be most effective, nutrition education resources should be provided in a ready-to-use format and integrated with core curricula. Teachers also suggested that materials should include fresh ideas to engage students at different grade levels, and ways to involve parents. Dietitians are ideally positioned to work collaboratively with educators to develop these types of nutrition education resources.
Martindale, Robert G; McClave, Stephen; Heyland, Daren; August, David
Mentoring programs in nutrition are essential to the survival of clinical nutrition as we know it today. The best method known to maintain an influx of talent to a discipline is by developing an active mentoring program. This paper describes 1 concept for development of a viable mentor program. Mentoring should be flexible and based on mentees' training background. Realistic goals should be set, with written and verbal feedback, to sustain a successful program. Programs should incorporate the Socratic Method whenever possible. Factors that leave doubt about the survival of nutrition as a viable area of focus for physicians include the inability to generate adequate funds to support oneself and limited numbers of mentors available with dedicated time to be a mentor. A healthy, sustainable mentoring program in clinical nutrition will ensure survival of physician-based nutrition programs.
Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.
This paper provides an overview of the Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), which is designed to shift teaching and learning away from remediation and failure to prevention, early achievement, and sustained growth for every student. WERP includes three levels of instruction: emergent, beginning, and fluent readers. It targets pre-K through…
Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Agricultural Extension Service.
The Extension Food and Nutrition Education program was set up by the University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service to assist low-income families in improving their diets. Carrying out the program on a one-to-one basis are 365 assistants who are taught the basics of nutrition by trained home economics extension agents. These assistants…
Lee, Sun Eun; Kim, Hyeyoung
With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy.
This 1971 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle and an early Space Shuttle docked with an Orbital Propellant Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, an orbital modular propellant storage depot, supplied periodically by the Space Shuttle or Earth-to-orbit fuel tankers, would be critical in making available large amounts of fuel to various orbital vehicles and spacecraft.
This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle docked to an Orbital Propellant Depot and an early Space Shuttle. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle, in either manned or unmanned mode, would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additonal missions.
As part of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in America's space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers proposed an orbiting propellant storage facility to augment Space Shuttle missions. In this artist's concept from 1969 an early version of the Space Shuttle is shown refueling at the facility.
Vinci, D M
This paper presents an overview of the Husky Sport Nutrition Program at the University of Washington. This program is a component of the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics Total Student-Athlete Program, an NCAA-sponsored CHAMPS/Life Skills Program that provides life skills assistance to student-athletes. Successful integration of a sport nutrition program requires an understanding of the athletic culture, physiological milestones, and life stressors faced by college athletes. The sport nutritionist functions as an educator, counselor, and administrator. Team presentations and individual nutrition counseling provide athletes with accurate information on healthy eating behaviors for optimal performance. For women's sports, a multidisciplinary team including the sport nutritionist, team physician, clinical psychologist, and athletic trainer work to prevent and treat eating disorders. Case studies are presented illustrating the breadth of nutrition-related issues faced by a sport nutritionist working with college athletes.
Olson, Christine M.; And Others
Evaluated a 16-week nutrition education program that combined a mass media campaign with provision of point-of-purchase materials in supermarkets. Small gains in nutrition knowledge were found, especially among those recalling exposure to the educational materials. Evidence of short-term increases in target food usage were also found. (Author/JN)
Balsam, A L; Rogers, B L
The foodservice delivery aspects of the federally-funded Elderly Nutrition Program (ENP) were examined via an original survey instrument sent to a random sample of nutrition projects nationally. In comparison to a similar survey conducted a decade ago, projects were more apt to rely on a combination of foodservice mechanisms including caterer contracts, on-site preparation, and use of central kitchens.
Jones, J. H., Jr.
In 1969, 385 Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service aides conducted an eight week nutrition education program (expanded to 12 weeks in three parishes) for over 18,000 low income homemakers and children in 31 parishes. Initial interviews were used to ascertain nutrition habits and influences thereon, knowledge levels, homemakers' age and…
Gaskins, Audrey J.; Toth, Thomas L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.
Implantation failure and pregnancy loss are estimated to affect up to 75% of fertilized ova; however as of yet there is limited empirical evidence, particularly at the population level, for understanding the environmental determinants of these losses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on prepregnancy nutrition and early pregnancy outcomes with particular focus on the outcome of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived naturally and early pregnancy end points among pregnancies conceived through in vitro fertilization. To date, there is limited evidence to support associations of prepregnancy vitamin D and caffeine intake with pregnancy loss. There is suggestive data supporting a link between a healthy diet and lower risk of pregnancy loss. High folate and minimal to no alcohol intake prior to conception have the most consistent evidence supporting an association with lower risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26457232
Fivez, Tom; Kerklaan, Dorian; Mesotten, Dieter; Verbruggen, Sascha; Wouters, Pieter J; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Debaveye, Yves; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Desmet, Lars; Casaer, Michael P; Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Hanot, Jan; Joffe, Ari; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Koen; Van den Berghe, Greet
Recent trials have questioned the benefit of early parenteral nutrition in adults. The effect of early parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in critically ill children is unclear. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving 1440 critically ill children to investigate whether withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week (i.e., providing late parenteral nutrition) in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is clinically superior to providing early parenteral nutrition. Fluid loading was similar in the two groups. The two primary end points were new infection acquired during the ICU stay and the adjusted duration of ICU dependency, as assessed by the number of days in the ICU and as time to discharge alive from ICU. For the 723 patients receiving early parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was initiated within 24 hours after ICU admission, whereas for the 717 patients receiving late parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was not provided until the morning of the 8th day in the ICU. In both groups, enteral nutrition was attempted early and intravenous micronutrients were provided. Although mortality was similar in the two groups, the percentage of patients with a new infection was 10.7% in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 18.5% in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.66). The mean (±SE) duration of ICU stay was 6.5±0.4 days in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 9.2±0.8 days in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition; there was also a higher likelihood of an earlier live discharge from the ICU at any time in the late-parenteral-nutrition group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.37). Late parenteral nutrition was associated with a shorter duration of mechanical ventilatory support than was early parenteral nutrition (P=0.001), as well as a smaller proportion of patients
This 1969 artist's concept illustrates the use of three major elements of NASA's Integrated program, as proposed by President Nixon's Space Task Group. In Phases I and II, a Space Tug with a manipulator-equipped crew module removes a cargo module from an early Space Shuttle Orbiter and docks with it. In Phases III and IV, the Space Tug with attached cargo module flys toward a Nuclear Shuttle. As a result of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.
Leung, Cindy W.; Musicus, Aviva; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.
Introduction The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program designed to alleviate food insecurity and improve dietary intake. This study assessed the opinions of SNAP participants and food-insufficient nonparticipants on their perceptions of the program and strategies to improve its nutritional impact. Methods This study surveyed 387 individuals via Amazon Mechanical Turk, of whom 118 were SNAP participants and 269 were food insufficient but not enrolled in SNAP (nonparticipants). Open-ended questions were coded and analyzed for thematic content. For closed-ended questions, response frequencies were compared using chi-square tests. Data were analyzed in 2016. Results SNAP participants reported that the program successfully served its primary purpose: to allow individuals to buy enough food to make ends meet and reduce food insecurity. Importance was placed on buying food for their children/families and the ability to allocate money for other expenses. To improve the nutritional impact, SNAP participants suggested more nutrition education, increasing the benefit allotment, incentivizing healthful foods, and excluding unhealthful foods for purchase with SNAP. When participants and nonparticipants were asked to choose between SNAP and a nutritionally enhanced program combining healthy incentives with exclusions for sugary beverages (i.e., SNAP+), 68% of participants and 83% of nonparticipants chose SNAP+. Of those who initially chose SNAP, 68% of participants and 64% of nonparticipants chose SNAP+ if paired with a 50% increase in total benefits. Conclusions SNAP participants and food-insufficient nonparticipants support policies that facilitate purchases of healthful foods and limit purchases of unhealthful foods, specifically sugary beverages. PMID:28109422
Chuntrasakul, C; Siltharm, S; Chinswangwatanakul, V; Pongprasobchai, T; Chockvivatanavanit, S; Bunnak, A
Multiple trauma is associated with altered metabolism, wasting of the lean body mass and compromised wound healing. Nutritional support is one way to improve the condition of these critically ill patients. We performed a prospective randomized study on the effect of early nutritional support in severely injured patients admitted to the Division of Traumatic Surgery, Siriraj Hospital between June 1992 and January 1994. Thirty-eight severe traumatic patients with ISS between 20-40 were randomly divided into control and study group. The 17 patients in the control group were treated in the conventional method with administration of hypo caloric intravenous regimen and supplement with oral diet as soon as the bowel function was returned. The 21 patients of the study group were fed either by enteral or parenteral feeding or both with an appropriate caloric and protein requirement as soon as hemodynamic status was stabilized. We found the study group had a lower mortality rate, a lower complication rate, a shorter period of ICU stay, and an earlier weaning from the ventilator than the control group. The study group also lost less weight than the control group. Nitrogen balance in the study group was significantly lower than the control group.
Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D
To present data on trends in foods and beverages offered through the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in public middle and high schools in the years immediately preceding and following implementation of new NSLP standards. From 2011 to 2013, primary data collection through the annual Youth, Education, and Society study involved use of mailed questionnaires to obtain data on NSLP meals from schools attended by nationally representative samples of US 8(th), 10(th), and 12(th) grade students (N=792 middle schools and 751 high schools). Each school was weighted to represent the percentage of target grade students enrolled, thus allowing analyses examining changes over time in the percentage of students enrolled in (attending) schools with specified NSLP measure outcomes, as well as disparities in NSLP measures based on school characteristics. Significantly more US secondary students attended schools with specified NSLP measures in 2013 than in 2011; increases were observed at both middle and high school levels. Increase rates for some NSLP measures were moderated by school characteristics; where this was the case, moderating associations decreased prior NSLP nutrition environment disparities that were especially evident in smaller schools and schools with higher percentages of minority students. Meaningful improvements have been made in the nutritional content of NSLP meals offered to US secondary students; these improvements have reduced prior NSLP meal disparities associated with school characteristics. Schools will need continued help with implementation and compliance monitoring in order to have the best opportunity to improve the nutrition environments for US students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
da Vico, Letizia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa; Fattirolli, Francesco
There is some evidence of the efficacy of nutritional care in modifying eating habits and behavior in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation: nutritional care has a relevant role in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The dietitian is the qualified sanitary professional for nutritional care. The aim of this study was to define the role of dietitians within a health care team in programs of cardiac rehabilitation. In this setting, nutritional care starts with a dietary assessment, which includes a measurement of the anthropometric parameters, and a survey of the patient knowledge and eating habits. If there is no need for change in the patient lifestyle, the patient is addressed to the normal cardiac rehabilitation program with no further nutritional intervention except one session of counseling. When lifestyle changes are needed, the dietitian defines, together with the patient, therapeutic aims and expected results. The following phase is represented by group session with patients and their relatives during which nutritional topics are discussed and nutritional education is provided Afterwards, self-monitoring sheets of eating habits are individually discussed in one visit; a last individual visit is used for a final assessment of nutritional knowledge, dietary habits, and anthropometric parameters. In case of unsatisfactory results, patients are invited to participate to three group session to be held biweekly, during which they interact with the dietitian and take part to exercises and group discussions. When the established targets are reached, the nutritional program includes individual follow up visits at six and twelve months for further assessment of medium term results.
National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.
This issue of the "MCH Program Interchange" describes selected materials and publications in maternal and child health (MCH) nutrition services and programs. The materials were developed by or are available from federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, and voluntary and professional organizations. The information is intended to…
Health economic potential of early nutrition programming: a model calculation of long-term reduction in blood pressure and related morbidity costs by use of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented formula.
Straub, Niels; Grunert, Philipp; von Kries, Rüdiger; Koletzko, Berthold
The reported effect sizes of early nutrition programming on long-term health outcomes are often small, and it has been questioned whether early interventions would be worthwhile in enhancing public health. We explored the possible health economic consequences of early nutrition programming by performing a model calculation, based on the only published study currently available for analysis, to evaluate the effects of supplementing infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on lowering blood pressure and lowering the risk of hypertension-related diseases in later life. The costs and health effects of LC-PUFA-enriched and standard infant formulas were compared by using a Markov model, including all relevant direct and indirect costs based on German statistics. We assessed the effect size of blood pressure reduction from LC-PUFA-supplemented formula, the long-term persistence of the effect, and the effect of lowered blood pressure on hypertension-related morbidity. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed an increased life expectancy of 1.2 quality-adjusted life-years and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -630 Euros (discounted to present value) for the LC-PUFA formula in comparison with standard formula. LC-PUFA nutrition was the superior strategy even when the blood pressure-lowering effect was reduced to the lower 95% CI. Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding practice, but infants who are not breastfed should receive an appropriate infant formula. Following this model calculation, LC-PUFA supplementation of infant formula represents an economically worthwhile prevention strategy, based on the costs derived from hypertension-linked diseases in later life. However, because our analysis was based on a single randomized controlled trial, further studies are required to verify the validity of this thesis.
Watt, Toni Terling; Appel, Louis; Roberts, Kelley; Flores, Bianca; Morris, Sarajane
The nationwide epidemic of pediatric obesity is more prevalent among Hispanic children than white children. Recent literature suggests that obesity has early origins, leading scholars to call for interventions in pregnancy and infancy. However, there is little theoretical or empirical research to guide the development of early prevention programs for Hispanics. The present study seeks to identify risk factors for early childhood obesity among a low-income, predominately Hispanic sample. Data were gathered to inform the design of a primary care childhood obesity prevention program targeting pregnancy through age 12 months. Baseline data were gathered on 153 women attending the clinic for prenatal care or for their child's 2, 6 or 12 month well-check. All women completed surveys on diet, exercise, social support, food security, stress, infant feeding practices, health, and demographics. For women with children (n = 66), survey data were matched with medical records data on infant weight. Results reveal that 55 % of women in the sample had an infant profiling in the 85th percentile or higher, confirming the need for an early childhood obesity intervention. While mothers exhibited several potential risk factors for childhood obesity (e.g. fast food consumption), only maternal consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages, stress, and SNAP (food stamp receipt) were associated with infant overweight. Findings further reveal that stress and SNAP relate to child overweight, in part, through mothers' sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results suggest that obesity prevention efforts must address specific individual choices as well as the external environment that shapes these consumption patterns.
Langley-Evans, Simon C
Nutritional programming is the process through which variation in the quality or quantity of nutrients consumed during pregnancy exerts permanent effects upon the developing fetus. Programming of fetal development is considered to be an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases of adulthood, including coronary heart disease and other disorders related to insulin resistance. The study of programming in relation to disease processes has been advanced by development of animal models, which have utilized restriction or over-feeding of specific nutrients in either rodents or sheep. These consistently demonstrate the biological plausibility of the nutritional programming hypothesis and, importantly, provide tools with which to examine the mechanisms through which programming may occur. Studies of animals subject to undernutrition in utero generally exhibit changes in the structure of key organs such as the kidney, heart and brain. These appear consistent with remodelling of development, associated with disruption of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Whilst the causal pathways which extend from this tissue remodelling to disease can be easily understood, the processes which lead to this disordered organ development are poorly defined. Even minor variation in maternal nutritional status is capable of producing important shifts in the fetal environment. It is suggested that these environmental changes are associated with altered expression of key genes, which are responsible for driving the tissue remodelling response and future disease risk. Nutrition-related factors may drive these processes by disturbing placental function, including control of materno-fetal endocrine exchanges, or the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. PMID:19175805
Evans, Joanne; Magee, Alexandra; Dickman, Kathy; Sutter, Rebecca; Sutter, Caroline
: Proper nutrition is an important but often overlooked component of preventive care and disease management. Following a plant-based diet in particular has been shown to have dramatic effects on health and well-being in a relatively short period of time. For this reason, nurses at three faculty-led community health clinics participated in a nutrition educational program, following a plant-based diet for 21 days. They sought to improve their knowledge of plant-based nutrition and experience firsthand the benefits of such a diet. The authors conclude that this type of program, with its experiential component and beneficial personal health results, has the potential to influence a larger nursing audience as participants apply their knowledge and experience to patient care and to classroom discussions with nursing students.
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the project was to develop a research based resource to support SN professionals in effectively utilizing KPIs to manage their programs. Methods: This project consisted of four phases. In Phase 1, a think tank of eight school nutrition professionals identified the general topic areas and format for the resource.…
McMillan, Daniel C.; Vigil, Herminia J.
This report describes federal and state child nutrition programs in effect in Colorado elementary and secondary schools. Programs discussed include the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), the School Breakfast Program (SBP), school breakfast start-up grants, the Special Milk Program, the Summer Food Service Program, and the Nutrition Education…
McMillan, Daniel C.; Vigil, Herminia J.
This report provides descriptive and statistical data on the status of child nutrition programs in Colorado. The report contains descriptions of the National School Lunch Program, school breakfast programs, the Special Milk Program, the Summer Food Service Program, the Nutrition Education and Training Program, state dietary guidelines, Colorado…
This rule adopts the interim rule implementing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program with changes as provided in this rule. This rule also amends SNAP regulations to implement section 28 of the Food and Nutrition Act (FNA) of 2008, as added by section 241 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010, to award grants to States for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs provide services for eligible individuals that promote healthy food choices consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). The rule provides State agencies with requirements for implementing section 28, including the grant award process and describes the process for allocating the Federal grant funding for each State's approved SNAP-Ed plan authorized under the FNA to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal year. This final rule also implements section 4028 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill of 2014), which authorizes physical activity promotion in addition to promotion of healthy food choices as part of this nutrition education and obesity prevention program.
As is the case with other worksite wellness programs, company-sponsored nutrition programs have been expanding both in numbers and in depth. Besides offering a convenient health-enhancing benefit to employees, worksite nutrition programs benefit business by preventing several costly nutrition-related health problems, enhancing employees' overall…
Palmer, Amanda C
A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of a mother's nutrition from preconception through lactation in programming the emerging organ systems and homeostatic pathways of her offspring. The developing immune system may be particularly vulnerable. Indeed, examples of nutrition-mediated immune programming can be found in the literature on intra-uterine growth retardation, maternal micronutrient deficiencies, and infant feeding. Current models of immune ontogeny depict a "layered" expansion of increasingly complex defenses, which may be permanently altered by maternal malnutrition. One programming mechanism involves activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to nutritional stress. Fetal or neonatal exposure to elevated stress hormones is linked in animal studies to permanent changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, with diverse manifestations such as an attenuated inflammatory response or reduced resistance to tumor colonization. Maternal malnutrition may also have a direct influence, as evidenced by nutrient-driven epigenetic changes to developing T regulatory cells and subsequent risk of allergy or asthma. A 3rd programming pathway involves placental or breast milk transfer of maternal immune factors with immunomodulatory functions (e.g. cytokines). Maternal malnutrition can directly affect transfer mechanisms or influence the quality or quantity of transferred factors. The public health implications of nutrition-mediated immune programming are of particular importance in the developing world, where prevalent maternal undernutrition is coupled with persistent infectious challenges. However, early alterations to the immune system, resulting from either nutritional deficiencies or excesses, have broad relevance for immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma, and chronic inflammatory conditions like cardiovascular disease.
Palmer, Amanda C.
A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of a mother’s nutrition from preconception through lactation in programming the emerging organ systems and homeostatic pathways of her offspring. The developing immune system may be particularly vulnerable. Indeed, examples of nutrition-mediated immune programming can be found in the literature on intra-uterine growth retardation, maternal micronutrient deficiencies, and infant feeding. Current models of immune ontogeny depict a “layered” expansion of increasingly complex defenses, which may be permanently altered by maternal malnutrition. One programming mechanism involves activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to nutritional stress. Fetal or neonatal exposure to elevated stress hormones is linked in animal studies to permanent changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, with diverse manifestations such as an attenuated inflammatory response or reduced resistance to tumor colonization. Maternal malnutrition may also have a direct influence, as evidenced by nutrient-driven epigenetic changes to developing T regulatory cells and subsequent risk of allergy or asthma. A 3rd programming pathway involves placental or breast milk transfer of maternal immune factors with immunomodulatory functions (e.g. cytokines). Maternal malnutrition can directly affect transfer mechanisms or influence the quality or quantity of transferred factors. The public health implications of nutrition-mediated immune programming are of particular importance in the developing world, where prevalent maternal undernutrition is coupled with persistent infectious challenges. However, early alterations to the immune system, resulting from either nutritional deficiencies or excesses, have broad relevance for immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma, and chronic inflammatory conditions like cardiovascular disease. PMID:22332080
After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.
Craft, Patricia; Herring, Blanche
The curriculum guide contains objectives and activities for teaching nutrition education to trainable mentally retarded students. Section I explains nutrition education as a means of promoting positive attitudes about food and developing the knowledge and abilities to make healthful food selections. Nutrition education as it relates to the…
Stosich, Marie C.; LeBlanc, Heidi; Kudin, Janette S.; Christofferson, Debra
Internet-based nutrition education is becoming an important tool in serving the rural, low-income community, yet the task of creating such programming can be daunting. The authors describe the key resources used in developing an Internet-based nutrition education program for those participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program…
Khanh, Linh Ngo; Ivey, Susan L; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Barkan, Howard; Ngo, Kimberly M; Hoang, Hung T; Vuong, Ivy; Thai, Nam
We investigated the relationships among early childhood caries (ECC), mouth pain, and nutritional status in children aged 1 to 6 years in Southern and Central Vietnam. A total of 593 parent-child pairs were recruited from 5 kindergartens or preschools in Ho-Chi Minh City and Da Nang. Parents completed surveys about dietary habits, oral health practices, and children's mouth pain experience; children received anthropometric assessment and dental examinations. There was a high prevalence of dental caries (74.4%), mostly untreated, and mouth pain (47.1%). Moderate correlations were found between parents' and children's consumption of soda (ρ = 0.361; P < .001) and salty snacks (ρ = 0.292; P < .001). Severity of ECC was associated with decreased weight- and body mass index-for-age z-scores. Presence of pulp-involved caries was associated with strikingly lower height-for-age (mean difference = 0.66; P = .001), weight-for-age (mean difference = 1.17; P < .001), and body mass index-for-age (mean difference = 1.18; P < .001) z-scores. Mouth pain was associated with lower body mass index-for-age z-scores (mean difference = 0.29; P = .013). ECC might negatively affect children's nutritional status, which might be mediated by the depth of decay, chronic inflammation, and mouth pain. Family-based and prevention-oriented nutrition and oral health programs are needed and should start during pregnancy and infancy.
This 1970 artist's concept illustrates the use of the Space Shuttle, Nuclear Shuttle, and Space Tug in NASA's Integrated Program. As a result of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.
Gray, Kelsey Farson; Eslami, Esa
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) serves as the foundation of America's national nutrition safety net. It is the nation's first line of defense against food insecurity and offers a powerful tool to improve nutrition among low-income individuals. SNAP is the largest of the 15 domestic food and nutrition assistance programs…
Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G
Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of donated...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of donated...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of donated...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of donated...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of donated...
Smith, H. D.
The Early Career Fellowship program was established in 2005 to facilitate the integration of outstanding early career planetary science researchers into established research funding programs by providing tools and experience useful to maintain a successful research program. Executing a successful research program requires a few key elements such as: successful proposal writing; adequate (paid) research time; management of a laboratory; collaboration and networking; frequent and high-quality publications; and adequate start-up equipment funds. These elements may be particularly critical for early career researchers searching for a tenure- track or equivalent position. The Early Career Fellowship program recognizes the importance of these skills and provides extra funding and resources to begin a successful research program. For consideration into The Early Career Fellowship program, the candidate needs to be the P. I. or Science P.I. of a funded research proposal from one of the participating R&A program areas, be within 7 years of earning a PhD, hold a non-tenure track position, and indicate the early career candidacy when submitting the research proposal. If the research proposal is funded and the discipline scientist nominates the candidate as an early career fellow, the candidate is then considered a Fellow and eligible to propose for Step 2. Upon obtaining a tenure-track equivalent position the Fellow submits a Step 2 proposal for up to one hundred thousand dollars in start-up funds. Start-up funds may be used for salary; undergraduate and/or graduate research assistants; supplies and instrument upgrades; travel to conferences, meetings, and advisory groups; time and travel for learning new skills; publication page charges; books and journal subscriptions; computer time and/or specialized software; and other justified research-specific needs. The early career fellowship program provides resources that a more established scientist would have acquired allowing
This artist's concept illustrates the Module Nova concept - Solid C-3 Basis. From 1960 to 1962, the Marshall Space Flight Center considered the Nova launch vehicle as a means to achieve a marned lunar landing with a direct flight to the Moon. Various configurations of the vehicle were examined. The latest configuration was a five-stage vehicle using eight F-1 engines in the first stage. Although the program was canceled after NASA planners selected the lunar/orbital rendezvous mode, the proposed F-1 engine would eventually be used in the Apollo Program to propel the first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle.
This artist's concept illustrates the Module Nova concept - Solid C-3 Basis. From 1960 to 1962, the Marshall Space Flight Center considered the Nova launch vehicle as a means to achieve a marned lunar landing with a direct flight to the Moon. Various configurations of the vehicle were examined. The latest configuration was a five-stage vehicle using eight F-1 engines in the first stage. Although the program was canceled after NASA planners selected the lunar/orbital rendezvous mode, the proposed F-1 engine would eventually be used in the Apollo Program to propel the first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle.
This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle taking on fuel from an orbiting Liquid Hydrogen Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.
This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.
In this artist's concept from 1970, propulsion concepts such as the Nuclear Shuttle and Space Tug are shown in conjunction with other proposed spacecraft. As a result of the recommendations from President Nixon's Space Task Group for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.
In this 1971 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in various space-based applications. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to geosychronous Earth orbits or lunar orbits then return to low Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.
This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.
As part of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in America's space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers proposed the use of a Nuclear Shuttle in conjunction with a space station module, illustrated in this 1970 artist's concept, as the basis for a Mars excursion module.
Hayes, Dayle; Contento, Isobel R; Weekly, Carol
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. Through the continued use of multidisciplinary teams, local school needs will be better identified and addressed within updated wellness policies. Updated nutrition standards are providing students with a wider variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, while limiting sodium, calories, and saturated fat. Millions of students enjoy school meals every day in the US, with the majority of these served to children who are eligible for free and reduced-priced meals. To maximize impact, the Academy, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus, nutrition initiatives such as farm to school and school gardens, wellness policies, nutrition education and promotion, food and beverage marketing at school, and consideration of roles and responsibilities. It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. To maximize impact, the Academy, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus; nutrition initiatives such as farm to school and school gardens; wellness policies; nutrition education and promotion; food and beverage marketing at school; and consideration of
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service... Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC). These income...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS... Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC). These income...
In this 1962 artist's concept , a proposed Nova rocket, shown at right, is compared to a Saturn C-1, left, and a Saturn C-5, center. The Marshall Space Flight Center directed studies of Nova configuration from 1960 to 1962 as a means of achieving a marned lunar landing with a direct flight to the Moon. Various configurations of the vehicle were examined, the largest being a five-stage vehicle using eight F-1 engines in the first stage. Although the program was effectively cancelled in 1962 when NASA planners selected the lunar-orbital rendezvous mode, the proposed F-1 engine was eventually used to propel the first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle in the Apollo Program.
As a result of the recommendations from President Nixon's Space Task Group, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied various ways to enhance commonality and integration in the American space program. This artist's concept from 1969 shows a possible spacecraft configuration for a marned Mars mission. In this mode, two planetary vehicles, each powered by a Nuclear Shuttle, are joined together during the flight and rotated to provide artificial gravity for crew members.
In this 1970 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in its lunar and geosynchronous orbit configuration and in its planetary mission configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.
Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J.; Must, Aviva
Purpose of review Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Recent findings Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Summary Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible. PMID:28455678
Early Childhood Screen Time and Parental Attitudes Toward Child Television Viewing in a Low-Income Latino Population Attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
Asplund, Karin M; Kair, Laura R; Arain, Yassar H; Cervantes, Marlene; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Zuckerman, Katharine E
Early childhood media exposure is associated with obesity and multiple adverse health conditions. The aims of this study were to assess parental attitudes toward childhood television (TV) viewing in a low-income population and examine the extent to which child BMI, child/parent demographics, and household media environment are associated with adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for screen time. This was a cross-sectional survey study of 314 parents of children ages 0-5 years surveyed in English or Spanish by self-administered questionnaire at a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) clinic in Oregon. In this majority Latino sample (73%), half (53%) of the children met AAP guidelines on screen time limits, 56% met AAP guidelines for no TV in the child's bedroom, and 29% met both. Children were more likely to meet AAP guidelines when there were <2 TVs in the home, there was no TV during dinner, or their parents spent less time viewing electronic media. Parents who spent less time viewing electronic media were more likely to report believing that TV provides little value or usefulness. In this low-income, predominantly Latino population attending WIC, parent media-viewing and household media environment are strongly associated with child screen time. Programs aimed at reducing child screen time may benefit from interventions that address parental viewing habits.
Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug would have been capable of numerous space applications. The Tug could dock with the Space Shuttle to receive propellants and cargo, as visualized in this 1970 artist's concept. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.
Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept illustrates a Space Tug with an attached landing configuration kit as it prepares for a lunar application. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.
Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug would have been capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 illustration depicts the primary modules of the Space Tug system along with some of the supplementary kits: lunar landing legs, extendable support arms, astrionics, and the satellite probe. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.
Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept represents a typical configuration required to conduct operations and tasks in Earth orbit. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.
Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug would have been capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept illustrates a Space Tug Concept, crew module attached, in conjunction with other space vehicles. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.
Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug concept was intended to be a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug would have been capable of numerous space applications. This 1971 image shows the basic Propulsion Module and attached elements in their functional configurations. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.
Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.
Hayes, Dayle; Dodson, Linette
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior (SNEB) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. To maximize impact, the Academy, SNA, and SNEB recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus, nutrition initiatives such as Farm to School and school gardens, wellness policies, nutrition education and promotion, and consideration of roles and responsibilities. This paper supports the joint position paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, SNA, and SNEB published in the May 2018 Journal of Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. In alignment with the joint position paper, this practice paper provides registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered with an overview of current school nutrition services and opportunities for professional careers in school settings. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has several position papers related to youth preschool through adolescence that cover specific nutrition needs in more detail at www.eatright.org. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan
Objective: To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. Design: An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and…
Martinez, J Andres; Koyama, Tatsuki; Acra, Sari; Mascarenhas, Maria R; Shulman, Robert J
The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, including sites in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The data were examined for patterns in teaching methodology and coverage of specific nutrition topics based on level 1 training in nutrition, which is the minimum requirement according to the published North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition fellowship training guidelines. The majority of the teaching was conducted by MD-degree faculty (61%), and most of the education was provided through clinical care experiences. Only 31% of the level 1 nutrition topics were consistently covered by >80% of programs, and coverage did not correlate with the size of the programs. Competency in nutrition training was primarily assessed through questions to individuals or groups of fellows (77% and 65%, respectively). Program directors cited a lack of faculty interested in nutrition and a high workload as common obstacles for teaching. The methodology of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training is, for the most part, unstructured and inconsistent among the different programs. The minimum level 1 requirements are not consistently covered. The development of core curriculums and learning modules may be beneficial in improving nutrition education.
Savage, Amy; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Worsley, Anthony
Adolescence is a critical life-stage that sets the foundation for health in adulthood. Adolescent women are a unique population and should be targeted as such for nutrition promotion activities. Using Indonesia as a case study, this qualitative study aimed to identify existing nutrition promotion programs aimed at adolescent girls, how best to target this population and effective recommendations to inform nutrition education program design for this important group. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were conducted with ten key informants working in public health in Indonesia. Interview transcripts were analysed and coded to identify key themes. No existing nutrition education programs targeting adolescent women in Indonesia were identified. Several strategies apply to nutrition programs for adolescent girls: 1) nutrition promotion messages that are relevant to the lifestyles and interests of adolescent women; 2) technology-based interventions show promise, however, they need to be appropriately targeted to sub-groups; 3) school remains an important setting; and 4) early marriage is an important issue affecting nutritional status and engagement of adolescent girls. The informants recommended that: 1) more research is needed about the underlying motivations for behaviour change among adolescent women and ways to effectively implement the identified engagement strategies; 2) adolescent girls should be included in program design to improve its suitability and uptake; and 3) government budget and policy support is crucial to success. Adolescent women are an important population group and more research is required to identify the optimal forms of engagement to improve nutrition programs for them.
Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie
A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…
Yamada, Shoko M
Comatose acute stroke patients are at high risk of malnutrition, especially hypoproteinemia. However, when to start and how to provide nutrition to these patients are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum timing and methods of nutritional supplementation to comatose acute stroke patients. A total of 273 comatose acute stoke patients who were unable to eat were enrolled. They received peripheral intravenous low-calorie solutions for the first 4 days after admission (days 0-3), and serum protein concentrations were measured on days 2, 3, and 4. From day 4, 5 different nutritional regimens were administered (25 kcal/kg/day), (including enteral nutrition [EN], total parenteral nutrition [TPN], tube feeding of 20% glucose solution, and combinations of these nutritional supplementations),. Serum concentrations of total protein and albumin were measured on days 10, 14, and 21. The patients who had EN until day 21 from day 4 were defined as EN group, and who had TPN were as TPN group. Serum protein concentrations decreased slightly on day 2 and decreased significantly on days 3 and 4. From day 4 to 14, the recovery of serum protein was better in the TPN group than in the EN group. Conversely, after day 14, recovery from hypoproteinemia was better in the EN group than in the TPN group. However, when diarrhea was caused by EN, further hypoproteinemia occurred and caused patients to require TPN. The recovery from hypoproteinemia was earliest in patients receiving TPN with 20% glucose fed through a nasogastric tube from day 4 to 13 followed by EN after day 14. Hospitalization was statistically shorter for patients with a nutritionally early recovery than for patients with a delayed recovery, but clinical outcome did not differ significantly between the groups. It is nutritionally disadvantageous not to start nutritional support within 3 days after admission in comatose acute stroke patients. However, starting EN too early is not nutritionally
Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M
There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service... persons applying to participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility--Listening Sessions AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service... for Information (RFI) published by FNS regarding Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP...
Christofferson, Debra; Christensen, Nedra; LeBlanc, Heidi; Bunch, Megan
To develop an online certification program for nutrition education paraprofessionals to increase knowledge and confidence and to overcome training barriers of programming time and travel expenses. An online interactive certification course based on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program core competencies was delivered to employees of both programs. Traditional vs online training was compared. Course content validity was determined through expert review by registered dietitians. Parameters studied included increase of nutrition knowledge and teaching technique/ability, educator satisfaction, and programming costs related to training. Utah State University Extension. Twenty-two Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education and Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program educators in Utah. Knowledge and skills were measured using pre/posttest statistics. Participant satisfaction was measured with a survey. Paired t test; satisfaction survey. The change in paraprofessional knowledge score was statistically significant (P < .001). Forty percent of paraprofessionals strongly agreed and 60% agreed they were better prepared as nutrition educators because of the training. An estimated $16,000 was saved by providing the training online as compared to a face-to-face training. This interactive online program is a cost-effective way to increase paraprofessional knowledge and job satisfaction. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.
Nutrition concepts, school food service guidelines, and related materials (such as nutrition charts, menu planning worksheets, and student survey forms) are provided in this nutrition handbook. Prepared by the Oklahoma State Department of Education's School Lunch Section, the handbook consists of nine sections that are organized in outline format.…
Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.
This packet contains 12 lesson plans, listing learning activities, for teaching elementary school students about nutrition. The learning activities described involve art and art appreciation, encompassing such areas as drama, music, movement/dance, and visual arts. Recipes and cooking instruction are also included, along with references and notes…
Porter, Kathleen J.; Koch, Pamela A.; Contento, Isobel R.
Background: There are many potential health benefits to having nutrition education programs offered by expert outside sources in schools. However, little is known about why and how schools initiate, implement, and institutionalize them. Gaining this understanding may allow the impact and reach of nutrition and other health education programs in…
St. Pierre, Robert; And Others
Summarizing the first year report of a multi-year study of the Food and Nutrition Service's (Department of Agriculture) Child Nutrition Programs, this report describes the programs and methods of the study. Data were collected through telephone interviews with states and School Food Authorities (SFAs) between 1987 and 1992. Findings from 1987-1988…
Heien, Dale; Wessells, Cathy Roheim
Examined the impact of the dairy price support program and its resulting higher prices on nutrition intake, especially calcium. A demand system emphasizing dairy products was estimated. Concluded that nutrient intake would increase substantially if the program was terminated. (JOW)
DePaola, Dominick P.; And Others
Presents a diagonal system of nutrition education in a dental program that integrates didactic, clinical work, and community sites. Discusses the three phases including educational methodology, evaluation strategy, and unique program features. (MA)
Palmer, Debra J; Huang, Rae-Chi; Craig, Jeffrey M; Prescott, Susan L
Observational studies show consistent links between early-life nutritional exposures as important risk factors for the development of asthma, allergy, and obesity. Reliance on increasing use of dietary supplementation and fortification (eg, with folate) to compensate for increased consumption of processed foods is also influencing immune and metabolic outcomes. Epigenetics is providing substantial advances in understanding how early-life nutritional exposures can effect disease development. This article summarizes current evidence linking the influence of early-life nutritional exposures on epigenetic regulation with a focus on the disease outcomes of asthma, allergy, and obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaetke, Lisa; Gaetke, Kara; Bowen, Christa
Since 2000, the University of Kentucky's (UK's) Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP) Community Outreach Core has provided support and guidance through Superfund Community Action through Nutrition (SCAN) programs, which meet the needs of individuals and communities affected by environmental contaminants. It has been shown that nutrition may modulate the toxicity of Superfund chemicals. SCAN programs integrate nutrition education, nutrition science research, and health communication to increase understanding of health risks associated with residing near Superfund sites. Two critical tasks must be accomplished. SCAN personnel must identify and recruit affected community members, and then, offer meaningful programs. Certain quantitative outcome measures and legal issues presented both challenges and opportunities. Community members preferred qualitative evaluation discussions, which showed increased knowledge and improved attitudes following SCAN programs. SCAN, in full partnership with affected communities, translates safe, effective nutrition information to reduce health risks associated with exposure to Superfund pollutants. PMID:18443657
Gaetke, Lisa; Gaetke, Kara; Bowen, Christa
Since 2000, the University of Kentucky's (UK's) Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP) Community Outreach Core has provided support and guidance through Superfund Community Action through Nutrition (SCAN) programs, which meet the needs of individuals and communities affected by environmental contaminants. It has been shown that nutrition may modulate the toxicity of Superfund chemicals. SCAN programs integrate nutrition education, nutrition science research, and health communication to increase understanding of health risks associated with residing near Superfund sites. Two critical tasks must be accomplished. SCAN personnel must identify and recruit affected community members, and then, offer meaningful programs. Certain quantitative outcome measures and legal issues presented both challenges and opportunities. Community members preferred qualitative evaluation discussions, which showed increased knowledge and improved attitudes following SCAN programs. SCAN, in full partnership with affected communities, translates safe, effective nutrition information to reduce health risks associated with exposure to Superfund pollutants.
Martinez, J. Andres; Koyama, Tatsuki; Acra, Sari; Mascarenhas, Maria R.; Shulman, Robert J.
Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. Methods A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to NASPGHAN, including sites in the United States, Canada and Mexico. The data were examined for patterns in teaching methodology and coverage of specific nutrition topics based on Level 1 training in nutrition, which is the minimum requirement according to published NASPGHAN fellowship training guidelines. Results The majority of the teaching was conducted by MD degree faculty (61%), and most of the education was provided through clinical care experiences. Only 31% of Level 1 nutrition topics were consistently covered by more than 80% of programs, and coverage did not correlate with the size of the programs. Competency in nutrition training was primarily assessed through questions to individuals or groups of fellows (77 and 65%, respectively). Program directors cited a lack of faculty interested in nutrition and a high workload as common obstacles for teaching. Conclusions The methodology of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training is for the most part unstructured and inconsistent among the different programs. The minimum Level 1 requirements are not consistently covered. The development of core curriculums and learning modules may be beneficial in improving nutrition education. PMID:22343911
Gavazzi, Cecilia; Colatruglio, Silvia; Sironi, Alessandro; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Miceli, Rosalba
In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between nutritional status, disease stage and quality of life (QoL) in 100 patients recently diagnosed with gastric carcinoma. The patients' nutritional status was investigated with anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables; and we also evaluated the nutritional risk with the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Oncological staging was standard. QoL was evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy questionnaire. The statistical correlation between nutritional risk score (NRS) and oncological characteristics or QoL was evaluated using both univariable and multivariable analyses. Weight loss and reduction of food intake were the most frequent pathological nutritional indicators, while biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables were in the normal range. According to NRS, thirty-six patients were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition. Patients with NRS ≥ 3 presented a significantly greater percentage of stage IV gastric cancer and pathological values of C-reactive protein, while no correlation was found with the site of tumour. NRS was negatively associated with QoL (P < 0·001) and this relation was independent from oncological and inflammatory variables as confirmed by multivariable analysis. In the present study, we found that in patients with gastric cancer malnutrition is frequent at diagnosis and this is likely due to reduction in food intake. Moreover, NRS is directly correlated with tumour stage and inversely correlated with QoL, which makes it a useful tool to identify patients in need of an early nutritional intervention during oncological treatments.
The influence of nutrition on reproductive function in females has been studied for decades. In cows, early studies focused on the influence of nutritional status on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, demonstrating that in circumstances of extreme negative energy balance estrous cycles cease....
Hayes, Dayle; Contento, Isobel R; Weekly, Carol
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior that comprehensive, integrated nutrition programs in preschool through high school are essential to improve the health, nutritional status, and academic performance of our nation's children. Through the continued use of multidisciplinary teams, local school needs will be better identified and addressed within updated wellness policies. Updated nutrition standards are providing students with a wider variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, while limiting sodium, calories, and saturated fat. Millions of students enjoy school meals every day in the United States, with the majority of these served to children who are eligible for free and reduced-priced meals. To maximize impact, the Academy, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: food and nutrition services available throughout the school campus, nutrition initiatives such as farm to school and school gardens, wellness policies, nutrition education and promotion, food and beverage marketing at school, and consideration of roles and responsibilities. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior, and School Nutrition Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy of early parenteral and enteral nutrition (PN + EN) support in neurosurgical coma patients. Eighty cases of neurosurgical coma patients were randomly divided into intervention group and control group. The intervention group received early PN + EN support, and the control group received only total enteral nutritional (TEN) support. The levels of hemoglobin (HGB), serum albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in two groups on days 1, 10, and 20 were observed. The incidences of pneumonia, stress ulcer, abnormal liver function, abdominal distension, and diarrhea between two groups were also compared. Results found that, on day 10, compared with the control group, the levels of HGB, PA, and RBP in the intervention group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). On day 20, ALB in the intervention group significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the incidences of pneumonia, abdominal distension, and diarrhea in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with only TEN support, early PN + EN support can obviously improve the nutritional status of neurosurgical coma patients and reduce the occurrence of complications.
Pratt, Peggy; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee
Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the types of technology/software currently used by Southwest Region school nutrition directors (SNDs) and assessed their perceptions of barriers to purchasing new technology/software. In addition, the importance of future technology/software acquisitions in meeting school nutrition program (SNP) goals…
Colle, Royal D.
Primary health and nutrition have been linked with communication in a variety of well-publicized projects. This partnership between communication and nutrition was made necessary by the confrontation between an expanded demand for services and limited resources for meeting the demand. Senior officials have a substantial role to play in seeing that…
Springstroh, Kelly A; Gal, Nancy J; Ford, Amanda L; Whiting, Susan J; Dahl, Wendy J
The aim of this study was to determine if handgrip strength (HGS) is a predictor of nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the relationship between HGS and nutritional risk using SCREEN 1. The setting was Congregate Nutrition program meal sites (n = 10) in North Central Florida and included community-dwelling older adults participating in the Congregate Nutrition program. Older adults (n = 136; 77.1 ± 8.9 y; 45 M, 91 F) participated in the study. Nutritional risk was identified in 68% of participants, with 10% exhibiting clinically relevant weakness (men, HGS < 26 kg; women, HGS < 16 kg), suggesting a vulnerable population. HGS was weakly associated with nutritional risk as assessed by SCREEN 1 (AUC = 0.59), but alternate cutpoints, 33 kg for men (mean of both hands) and 22 kg for women (highest of either hand), provided the best comparison to nutritional risk. In community-dwelling older adults, HGS was weakly associated with nutritional risk assessed using traditional screening. However, as existing research supports the inclusion of HGS in malnutrition screening in acute care, further research into the usefulness of HGS and possibly other measures of functional status in nutrition risk screening of community-dwelling older adults may be warranted.
Devine, Sharon Mayne; Daly, Kerry; Lero, Donna; MacMartin, Clare
Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, which is offered at the University of Guelph, is an interdisciplinary department that previously offered three undergraduate majors: child, youth, and family; applied human nutrition; and gerontology; as well as graduate programs at the master's and doctoral levels. Several factors have precipitated a review…
Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr
Maternal diet, nutritional status during pregnancy, and the early diet of the offspring play an important role in later health. The short- and long-term outcomes of early nutrition have been extensively studied in recent decades. One of the most commonly investigated nutritional interventions is breastfeeding, which is associated with a number of positive short- and long-term outcomes. A short-term effect of breastfeeding is reduced morbidity and mortality in children from poor living conditions and in preterm infants. Breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development and also has a long-term protective effect on obesity risk, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and a lowering effect on blood pressure. Selected nutrients have undergone extensive investigation to show their role in disease prevention or improved development, e.g. protein intake in infancy seems to be associated with a later risk of obesity or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has a positive impact on cognitive function. Another consideration is the fast catch-up growth in small for gestational age infants as an important factor associated with adult risk of cardiovascular problems. On the other hand, high protein and energy intake seems to be positively associated with some indicators of cognitive development. Most of the evidence comes from observational studies that cannot exclude potential confounders. Animal studies demonstrate causality but should not be directly extrapolated to humans. The number of randomized controlled studies is increasing but long-term follow-ups are necessary to obtain convincing results. The majority of these trials compare different infant formula compositions and macro- or micronutrient supplementation. One of the major questions is to define a critical (or opportunity) window and a mechanism of nutritional influence on several health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Moore, Jean Burley
This research examines the impact of a nutrition education intervention program on the nutritional status and knowledge of Nicaraguan adolescent girls. Anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin values, and data concerning nutritional knowledge were collected from adolescent girls living in Managua, Nicaragua. Using a pre-test/post-test design, data are compared prior to and after the nutrition intervention program. When using Mexican American reference data, statistically significant differences in height-for-age z-scores and weight-for-age z-scores were found when comparing the entire sample of baseline data with data collected after three years of the nutrition intervention program (p < 0.05). Significant improvement was also found concerning the indicators of nutritional knowledge (p < 0.05). However, hemoglobin data revealed a significant decrease which may be due to specific environmental factors and pubertal changes. This research has implications concerning the development of successful adolescent focused nutrition intervention programs in Nicaragua, and examines the possibility that catch-up growth occurs during adolescence.
Xiao, Gui-zhen; Tang, Li-qun; Duan, Peng-kai; Qiu, Xiao-wen; Su, Lei
To evaluate energy and protein intake changes in early supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) in trauma patients, and to assess its impact on clinical outcomes. Clinical results of patients receiving or not receiving additional PN during the first 7 days after injury were retrospectively analyzed, with a total of 195 patients classified into two groups: control group (n=105) and mixed nutrition group (n=90). The time of nutrition support, intakes of protein and energy within 14 days after trauma, and clinical outcomes were compared between two groups. The degree of injury was comparable between two groups with no significant differences in acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, injury severity score (ISS) and Glasgow coma score (GCS). Compared with the control group, the mixed nutrition group received parenteral nutritional support earlier (40.0±21.0 hours vs. 55.1±23.5 hours, P<0.01), with later beginning of enteral nutrition (EN, 75.2±54.5 hours vs. 55.1±23.5 hours, P<0.01) and lower rate of EN in 48 hours after admission [14.4% (13/90) vs. 43.8% (46/105), P<0.01]. The time of restoring oral diet was not different between the mixed nutrition group and control group (10.8±3.7 days vs. 11.4±3.6 days, P>0.05). The energy intake was significantly higher in the mixed nutrition group than in the control group in 3, 7, 14 days (3 days: 3981.6±2209.3 kJ vs. 2683.2±1414.9 kJ, 7 days: 5477.5±2008.4 kJ vs. 3619.1±1429.9 kJ, 14 days: 6250.2±2533.2 kJ vs. 5199.9±1972.7 kJ, P<0.05 or P<0.01). In both groups the protein intake was insufficient, and it was significantly lower in the mixed nutrition group than in the control group on day 3 (20.6±18.4 g vs. 26.5±13.8 g, P<0.05). The patients in the mixed nutrition group had longer hospital stay time (73.9±62.5 days vs. 50.9±33.3 days, P<0.01). The mortality rate of mixed nutrition group and control group was 4.4% (4/90) and 3.8% (4/105) respectively, the rate of infection and acute respiratory
National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2011
Since 1969, the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) has improved the diets and food-related behaviors of program participants. Each year EFNEP enrolls more than half a million new program participants. In 2010, EFNEP reached 137,814 adults and 463,530 youth directly and nearly 400,000 family members indirectly. This paper…
Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Chen, Jian-Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E
Low birth weight and rapid postnatal growth increases risk of cardiovascular-disease (CVD); however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that rats exposed to a low-protein diet in utero that underwent postnatal catch-up growth (recuperated) have a programmed deficit in cardiac coenzyme Q (CoQ) that was associated with accelerated cardiac aging. It is unknown whether this deficit occurs in all tissues, including those that are clinically accessible. We investigated whether aortic and white blood cell (WBC) CoQ is programmed by suboptimal early nutrition and whether postweaning dietary supplementation with CoQ could prevent programmed accelerated aging. Recuperated male rats had reduced aortic CoQ [22 d (35±8.4%; P<0.05); 12 m (53±8.8%; P<0.05)], accelerated aortic telomere shortening (P<0.01), increased DNA damage (79±13% increase in nei-endonucleaseVIII-like-1), increased oxidative stress (458±67% increase in NAPDH-oxidase-4; P<0.001), and decreased mitochondrial complex II-III activity (P<0.05). Postweaning dietary supplementation with CoQ prevented these detrimental programming effects. Recuperated WBCs also had reduced CoQ (74±5.8%; P<0.05). Notably, WBC CoQ levels correlated with aortic telomere-length (P<0.0001) suggesting its potential as a diagnostic marker of vascular aging. We conclude that early intervention with CoQ in at-risk individuals may be a cost-effective and safe way of reducing the global burden of CVDs. © FASEB.
Molina-López, Jorge; Molina, José Manuel; Chirosa, Luis Javier; Florea, Daniela; Sáez, Laura; Jiménez, Jorge; Planells, Paloma; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Planells, Elena
To evaluate nutritional status and dietary habits after implementation of a nutritional education program in professional handball players. Longitudinal study of 14 handball players evaluated with 72-h recall, a questionnaire on food consumption and anthropometric measures during 4 months. The intervention consisted of a nutrition education program. Energy intake was consistently below the recommended allowances. Macronutrient intakes as a percentage of total energy intake were below the recommended allowances for carbohydrates, and above recommended allowances for fats. Nutritional education was followed by a significant increase (p < 0.01) in total energy and macronutrient intakes, with no significant changes in macronutrient or micronutrient intakes after adjustment for energy intake. The imbalance in nutrient intake in handball players suggests that detailed re-analysis is needed to determine specific recommendations for this population. Nutritional education with continuous follow-up to monitor athletes' dietary habits may lead them to adopt appropriate nutritional habits to optimize dietary intakes. The lack of specific recommendations for micronutrient intakes in athletes leads to confusion regarding appropriate intakes; biochemical tests that yield normal values (albeit approaching cut-off values for deficiency) may disguise deficient status for some nutrients when strenuous exercise is involved. In-depth studies with nutrition education programs that include long-term follow-up are advisable to avoid deficiencies that can lead to irreversible damage in competitive athletes. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Singh, Deepti
The consequences of early childbearing on the growth and nutritional status of women in India has not been quantified in previous studies. Our study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the association between early marriage and early childbearing on nutritional status of Indian women, with a focus on Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, the two states accounting for the highest proportion of women marrying and giving first birth before 18 years of age. Our findings revealed that a substantial number of women were married before 18 years and thereby exposed to early pregnancy. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of women in the 'thin' category were married before 18 years, both in the Indian sample (33 %, p < 0.001) and in the selected states, Andhra Pradesh (31 %, p < 0.001) and Bihar (43 %, p < 0.001), compared to those women married at higher ages. Similarly, across all our samples women whose first birth was before age 18 years also had a significantly higher probability of being in the 'thin' category across all our samples. This pattern was also observed for associations between early childbirth and anemia levels. We conclude that the net effect of the early age at marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant. Our results underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states. This will help to improve nutritional status and health care utilisation among women, thereby, prevent maternal and child mortality and thus, achieve the MDGs 4-5.
Kamp, Barbara J; Wellman, Nancy S; Russell, Carlene
Given the federal cost-containment policy to rebalance long-term care away from nursing homes to home- and community-based services, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education that all older adults should have access to food and nutrition programs that ensure the availability of safe, adequate food to promote optimal nutritional status. Appropriate food and nutrition programs include adequately funded food assistance and meal programs, nutrition education, screening, assessment, counseling, therapy, monitoring, evaluation, and outcomes documentation to ensure more healthful aging. The growing number of older adults, the health care focus on prevention, and the global economic situation accentuate the fundamental need for these programs. Yet far too often food and nutrition programs are disregarded or taken for granted. Growing older generally increases nutritional risk. Illnesses and chronic diseases; physical, cognitive, and social challenges; racial, ethnic, and linguistic differences; and low socioeconomic status can further complicate a situation. The beneficial effects of nutrition for health promotion, risk reduction, and disease management need emphasis. Although many older adults are enjoying longer and more healthful lives in their own homes, others, especially those with health disparities and poor nutritional status, would benefit from greater access to food and nutrition programs and services. Food and nutrition practitioners can play a major role in promoting universal access and integrating food and nutrition programs and nutrition services into home- and community-based services.
Chaffee, Benjamin Wilk; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto
Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.
Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Maoming; Meng, Xiangling; Dai, Fen; Fang, Jun; Wan, Hong; Wang, Miaofeng
To assess the difference between early enteral nutrition (EEN group) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN group) after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The nutrition index, liver function, patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) score, the post-operation complications, the hospital stay and hospitalization expense of the postoperative patient after total gastrectomy, admitted to our Department of Surgery from May 2011 to May 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 72 patients including 37 cases in the EEN group and 35 cases in the TPN group were recruited. Hypoalbuminemia gradually improved in the EEN group about 3-5 days, but it did not increase until average 21 days in the TPN group. The body weight decreased in the EEN group during the first 2 weeks and recovered gradually in 21 days; body weight in the TPN group was significantly lower than the EEN group at 21 days (p<0.05). There were significant differences in both the groups (p<0.05) in nutrition indicators. The incidence of complications in the EEN group and TPN group were 8.1% and 25.7% respectively, with no significant differences (p>0.05). The days of hospital stays in the EEN and in the TPN group were up to 12.2 ± 2.5 d vs 14.9 ± 2.9 d (p<0.05) and the hospitalization expenses were 36472 ± 4833 CNY vs 40140 ± 3927 CNY (p<0.05), respectively. Compared with TPN, EEN was safe and well tolerated and can shorten the hospital stay as well as reduce costs incurred with total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Kennedy, Eileen; Tessema, Masresha; Hailu, Tesfaye; Zerfu, Dilnesaw; Belay, Adamu; Ayana, Girmay; Kuche, Desalegn; Moges, Tibebu; Assefa, Tsehai; Samuel, Aregash; Kassaye, Tarik; Fekadu, Habtamu; Van Wassenhove, Joan
Governments globally are stressing both direct nutrition interventions combined with nutrition sensitive policies and programs to combat malnutrition. Governance at all levels has been identified as a critical element in ensuring success of national nutrition plans. For example, the most recent National Nutrition Program (NNP) in Ethiopia discusses the essentiality of governance and coordination at all levels. The research uses a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with key informant. The research discussed in this article focuses on governance structures from national to regional to district level in Ethiopia with an emphasis on translation of a strategy and implementation of the NNP. This article concentrates primarily on results from the national and regional levels. Data at both the national and regional levels indicate that there is general agreement on the nature of the nutrition problems in Ethiopia. At all levels of government, under nutrition, food insecurity, and micronutrient deficiencies were listed as the main nutrition problems. The challenges in governance and implementation identified at both the national and regional levels, however, varied. The implementation of the 2013 NNP was in its early stages at the time of this research. While there was palpable energy around the launch of the NNP, respondents indicated issues related to leadership, coordination, collaboration, advocacy, and budget would be challenges in sustaining momentum. © The Author(s) 2015.
The aim of the study was to assess the methodology and content of nutrition education during gastroenterology fellowship training and the variability among the different programs. A survey questionnaire was completed by 43 fellowship training directors of 62 active programs affiliated to the North A...
...] Early Retiree Reinsurance Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice establishes a timeframe by which plan sponsors participating in the Early... Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP) which provides reimbursement to eligible sponsors of employment...
Fleischhacker, Sheila E; Ballard, Rachel M; Starke-Reed, Pamela E; Galuska, Deborah A; Neuhouser, Marian L
The Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) is charged with improving the planning, coordination, and communication among federal agencies engaged in nutrition research and with facilitating the development and updating of plans for federal research programs to meet current and future domestic and international needs for nutrition. The ICHNR is co-chaired by the USDA Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics and Chief Scientist and the US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Health and is made up of >10 departments and agencies. Once the ICHNR was reassembled after a 10-y hiatus, the ICHNR recognized a need for a written roadmap to identify critical human nutrition research gaps and opportunities. This commentary provides an overview of the process the ICHNR undertook to develop a first-of-its-kind National Nutrition Research Roadmap, which was publicly released on 4 March 2016. The primary audience for the Roadmap is federal science agency leaders, along with relevant program and policy staff who rely on federally supported human nutrition research, in addition to the broader scientific community. The Roadmap is framed around the following 3 questions: 1 ) How can we better understand and define eating patterns to improve and sustain health? 2 ) What can be done to help people choose healthy eating patterns? 3 ) How can we develop and engage innovative methods and systems to accelerate discoveries in human nutrition? Within these 3 questions, 11 topical areas were identified on the basis of the following criteria: population impact, feasibility given current technological capacities, and emerging scientific opportunities. This commentary highlights initial federal and some professional research society efforts to address the Roadmap's research and resource priorities. We conclude by noting examples of early collaborations and partnerships to move human nutrition research forward in the 21st century. © 2017
Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan
Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P < 0.05). The median postoperative length of stay in the multimodal EON group was 8 days (6, 12) versus 10 days (7, 18) in the conventional care group (P < 0.001). The total cost of treatment and nutritional support were also less in the multi-modal early oral nutrition group (P < 0.001). The effectiveness was 84.9 and 79.9% in the multimodal EON and conventional care group, respectively (P = 0.475). However, the cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 537.6 (506.1, 589.3) and USD 637.8 (593.9, 710.3), respectively (P < 0.001). The multi-modal early oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal
Shor, Ron; Friedman, Adina
Poor nutrition is a major risk factor affecting proper development of children. However, there is limited knowledge about the way in which this subject is being integrated into professionals' work in early childhood education programs dealing with situations of children-at-risk. A study on this subject was conducted with 60 professionals who…
White, Christine M; Lillico, Heather G; Vanderlee, Lana; Hammond, David
Health Check (HC) was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013). Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake. Significantly more patrons at HC restaurants noticed nutrition information than at comparison restaurants (34.2% vs. 28.1%; OR = 1.39; p = 0.019); however, only 5% of HC restaurant patrons recalled seeing the HC symbol. HC restaurant patrons were more likely to say that their order was influenced by nutrition information (10.9% vs. 4.5%; OR = 2.96, p < 0.001); and consumed less saturated fat and carbohydrates, and more protein and fibre (p < 0.05). Approximately 15% of HC restaurant patrons ordered HC approved items; however, only 1% ordered a HC item and mentioned seeing the symbol in the restaurant in an unprompted recall task, and only 4% ordered a HC item and reported seeing the symbol on the item when asked directly. The HC program was associated with greater levels of noticing and influence of nutrition information, and more favourable nutrient intake; however, awareness of the HC program was very low and differences most likely reflect the type of restaurants that "self-selected" into the program.
Schultz, Jennifer; Litchfield, Ruth
Short dietary assessment instruments known as screeners have potential for use in evaluating nutrition education programming because detecting change in dietary intake can demonstrate movement toward program goals. Using screeners results in objective dietary intake data but involves less administrative time, training, and cost than other…
Klerman, Jacob Alex; Danielson, Caroline
Between 2000 and 2005, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, until recently, the Food Stamp Program) caseload increased by half. As the Great Recession unfolded, the SNAP caseload grew even more rapidly. Further, over the past two decades the composition of the caseload has shifted sharply away from families combining food and cash…
Iannotti, Lora; Gillespie, Stuart
This report on the key findings from a series of assessments of successful community nutrition programming conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda between 1999 and 2000. The aim of the assessments was to identify key lessons learned from the successful processes and outcomes in these programs. The report is divided into eight chapters: (1)…
Cater, Jerry B.; Mann, Nadine; Conklin, Martha
A study of revenue-generation and cost-control measures currently employed at four school districts operating financially successful child-nutrition programs disclosed the importance of student participation to each program's financial integrity. Financial reports, productivity monitoring, and procurement plans to curb food costs were also…
Many low income families depend on foods from food banks. The objective of the study was to determine program content and examine feasibility of a pilot nutrition education program for food bank clients. Formative research was conducted with staff at a local food bank and its pantries and adult clie...
Lu, Yuan; Klimovich, Charlotte M; Robeson, Kalen Z; Boswell, William; Ríos-Cardenas, Oscar; Walter, Ronald B; Morris, Molly R
Nutritional programming takes place in early development. Variation in the quality and/or quantity of nutrients in early development can influence long-term health and viability. However, little is known about the mechanisms of nutritional programming. The live-bearing fish Xiphophorus multilineatus has the potential to be a new model for understanding these mechanisms, given prior evidence of nutritional programming influencing behavior and juvenile growth rate. We tested the hypotheses that nutritional programming would influence behaviors involved in energy homeostasis as well gene expression in X. multilineatus. We first examined the influence of both juvenile environment (varied in nutrition and density) and adult environment (varied in nutrition) on behaviors involved in energy acquisition and energy expenditure in adult male X. multilineatus . We also compared the behavioral responses across the genetically influenced size classes of males. Males stop growing at sexual maturity, and the size classes of can be identified based on phenotypes (adult size and pigment patterns). To study the molecular signatures of nutritional programming, we assembled a de novo transcriptome for X. multilineatus using RNA from brain, liver, skin, testis and gonad tissues, and used RNA-Seq to profile gene expression in the brains of males reared in low quality (reduced food, increased density) and high quality (increased food, decreased density) juvenile environments. We found that both the juvenile and adult environments influenced the energy intake behavior, while only the adult environment influenced energy expenditure. In addition, there were significant interactions between the genetically influenced size classes and the environments that influenced energy intake and energy expenditure, with males from one of the four size classes (Y-II) responding in the opposite direction as compared to the other males examined. When we compared the brains of males of the Y-II size class
Hegerová, Petra; Dědková, Zuzana; Sobotka, Luboš
An acute disease is regularly associated with inflammation, decreased food intake, and low physical activity; the consequence is loss of muscle mass. However, the restoration of muscle tissue is problematic, especially in older patients. Loss of muscle mass leads to further decrease of physical activity which leads, together with recurring disease, to the progressive muscle mass loss accompanied by loss of self-sufficiency. Early nutrition support and physical activity could reverse this situation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether an active approach based on early nutritional therapy and exercise would influence the development of sarcopenia and impaired self-sufficiency during acute illness. Two hundred patients >78 y were admitted to a hospital internal medicine department and participated in a prospective, randomized controlled study. The patients were randomized to a control group receiving standard treatment (n = 100) or to an intervention group (n = 100). The intervention consisted of nutritional supplements (600 kcal, 20 g/d protein) added to a standard diet and a simultaneous intensive rehabilitation program. The tolerance of supplements and their influence on spontaneous food intake, self-sufficiency, muscle strength, and body composition were evaluated during the study period. The patients were then regularly monitored for 1 y post-discharge. The provision of nutritional supplements together with early rehabilitation led to increased total energy and protein intake while the intake of standard hospital food was not reduced. The loss of lean body mass and a decrease in self-sufficiency were apparent at discharge from the hospital and 3 mo thereafter in the control group. Nutritional supplementation and the rehabilitation program in the study group prevented these alterations. A positive effect of nutritional intervention and exercise during the hospital stay was apparent at 6 mo post-discharge. The early nutritional intervention
Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki
The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.
Vaid, Nidhi; Fekadu, Sintayehu; Alemu, Shitaye; Dessie, Abere; Wabe, Genale; Phillips, David I W; Parry, Eldryd H O; Prevett, Martin
The incidence of epilepsy in Ethiopia is high compared with industrialised countries, but in most cases the cause of epilepsy is unknown. Childhood malnutrition remains widespread. We performed a case-control study to determine whether epilepsy is associated with poverty and markers of early under-nutrition. Patients with epilepsy (n=112), aged 18-45years, were recruited from epilepsy clinics in and around two towns in Ethiopia. Controls with a similar age and gender distribution (n=149) were recruited from patients and relatives attending general outpatient clinics. We administered a questionnaire to define the medical and social history of cases and controls, and then performed a series of anthropometric measurements. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate adjusted odds ratios. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate adjusted case-control differences for continuously distributed outcomes. Epilepsy was associated with illiteracy/low levels of education, odds ratio=3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.6), subsistence farming, odds ratio=2.6 (1.2-5.6) and markers of poverty including poorer access to sanitation (p=0.009), greater overcrowding (p=0.008) and fewer possessions (p<0.001). Epilepsy was also associated with the father's death during childhood, odds ratio=2.2 (1.0-4.6). Body mass index was similar in cases and controls, but patients with epilepsy were shorter and lighter with reduced sitting height (p<0.001), bitrochanteric diameter (p=0.029) and hip size (p=0.003). Patients with epilepsy also had lower mid-upper arm circumference (p=0.011) and lean body mass (p=0.037). Epilepsy in Ethiopia is strongly associated with poor education and markers of poverty. Patients with epilepsy also had evidence of stunting and disproportionate skeletal growth, raising the possibility of a link between early under-nutrition and epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berry, Elliot M; Fatunmbi, Bayo S; Kaluski, Dorit Nitzan
The health of populations is related to the norms and characteristics of society and its socio-economic organization. The causes of food-related ill health are located at the national and international levels and the cure must be sought in good governance. Thus, it is obvious that a Master's Degree in International Public Health must include a thorough overview of the "food chain" from "plough to plate" within the political, economical, socio-economic changes, environmental, industrial, scientific, and health contexts. Nutritional deficiencies are addressed by a variety of measures, including food supply and utilization programs, specific supplementation for high-risk groups, and food fortification to reach a general population. All are part of a wide-based public health nutrition approach, applicable in developed, redeveloping, and newly developing countries. This article is based on experience in teaching Public Health Nutrition to a mixed group of foreign students from different countries. Our goal is to prepare students for a variety of public health careers related to nutrition and health. The aim of this course is to introduce current roles and aspects of food and nutrition policy, focusing on food and nutrition security, human rights for food and nutrition, and the complex interactions among local and global systems. Students are introduced to nutrition screening, assessment, and research skills, and nutrition in emergency situations and in disaster relief. During the course the students learn about the design and the evaluation of nutrition interventions at the individual, community, and national level. The course gives a broad-based examination of major themes related to development and underdevelopment, poverty and wealth, equality and inequality. It also introduces program planning from the perspective of international organisations such as the World Food Program and the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation of the United
Rochman, C.; Nasrudin, D.; Helsy, I.; Rokayah; Kusbudiah, Y.
Increased wellness for a person becomes a necessity now and for the future. Various ways people do to get fit include following and understanding nutrition. This review will inventory the concepts of science involved to understand the nutritional program and its impact on fitness levels. The method used is a quantitative and qualitative descriptive mixed method based on treatment to a number of nutrition group participants in a nutrition group in Bandung. The concepts of science that are the subject of study are the concepts of physics, chemistry, and biology. The results showed that the ability of science literacy and respondent's wellness level varies and there is a relationship between science literacy with one's wellness level. The implications of this research are the need for science literacy and wellness studies for community based on educational level and more specific scientific concepts.
Kamp, Barbara J; Wellman, Nancy S; Russell, Carlene
Given the federal cost-containment policy to rebalance long-term care away from nursing homes to home- and community-based services, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education that all older adults should have access to food and nutrition programs that ensure the availability of safe, adequate food to promote optimal nutritional status. Appropriate food and nutrition programs include adequately funded food assistance and meal programs, nutrition education, screening, assessment, counseling, therapy, monitoring, evaluation, and outcomes documentation to ensure more healthful aging. The growing number of older adults, the health care focus on prevention, and the global economic situation accentuate the fundamental need for these programs. Yet far too often food and nutrition programs are disregarded or taken for granted. Growing older generally increases nutritional risk. Illnesses and chronic diseases; physical, cognitive, and social challenges; racial, ethnic, and linguistic differences; and low socioeconomic status can further complicate a situation. The beneficial effects of nutrition for health promotion, risk reduction, and disease management need emphasis. Although many older adults are enjoying longer and more healthful lives in their own homes, others, especially those with health disparities and poor nutritional status, would benefit from greater access to food and nutrition programs and services. Food and nutrition practitioners can play a major role in promoting universal access and integrating food and nutrition programs and nutrition services into home- and community-based services. Copyright 2010 The American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adair, Linda S
Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mudd, Austin T
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes. The piglet has emerged as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young pigs and humans, the piglet is being used increasingly in developmental nutritional neuroscience studies. The piglet primarily has been used to assess the effects of dietary fatty acids and their accretion in the brain throughout neurodevelopment. However, recent research indicates that other dietary components, including choline, iron, cholesterol, gangliosides, and sialic acid, among other compounds, also affect neurodevelopment in the pig model. Moreover, novel analytical techniques, including but not limited to MRI, behavioral assessments, and molecular quantification, allow for a more holistic understanding of how nutrition affects neurodevelopmental patterns. By combining early-life nutritional interventions with innovative analytical approaches, opportunities abound to quantify factors affecting neurodevelopmental trajectories in the neonate. This review discusses research using the translational pig model with primary emphasis on early-life nutrition interventions assessing neurodevelopment outcomes, while also discussing nutritionally-sensitive methods to characterize brain maturation. PMID:28096130
Developmental programming is the biological process by which environmental factors influence the development of the organs and tissues in the body. There are two areas of developmental programming being investigated with applicability to beef production systems to improve performance of replacement...
Anton, Philip M; Partridge, Julie A; Morrissy, Margaret J
Little research has addressed exercise and nutrition-based interventions for cancer caregivers. This study explored cancer caregivers' perceptions of participating in a structured exercise and nutrition program alongside cancer survivors for whom they provided care. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted by one interviewer with 12 cancer caregivers about their experiences participating in a structured, 12-week exercise and nutrition program designed for cancer survivors and caregivers to complete concurrently. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached. Inductive content analysis from individual interviews indicated three separate, but interrelated, themes: (1) the program was a positive mechanism through which caregivers shared and supported the cancer journey concurrently with survivors, (2) the program led to perceived physical and psychological benefits for both caregivers and survivors, and (3) participants perceived that participation in the program led to feeling increased social support in their caregiving duties. Findings from this study suggest that participating in an exercise- and nutrition-based intervention is viewed positively by caregivers and that the outcomes are seen as beneficial to both caregivers and survivors. Interventions that address the health needs of both members of the caregiver-survivor dyad should continue to be encouraged by allied health professionals.
Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Beneítez Moralejo, Belén; Piedra León, María; Enciso Izquierdo, Fidel Jesús; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Amado Señaris, José Antonio
Disease related malnutrition (DRM) is highly prevalent in Spain, affecting 23% of in-hospital patients, and is associated with clinical complications. Specialized nutritional support (SNS) can reduce these complications. Prospective study carried out in standard clinical practice conditions to test if SNS during the first 5 days of hospitalization, or subsequently, was associated to a lower length of stay or reduced complications in patients with a NRS-2002 score≥3 points. In the group of patients who initiated early SNS, the length of stay was 8.83 days shorter than in the group with a later introduction (95% CI 3.55-14.10); nevertheless, the higher prevalence of male and oncological patients in this group could have impacted the results. A tendency towards a statistically significant lower mortality rate and a reduced amount of total complications was described. The early introduction of SNS (within the first 5 days of hospitalization) in patients with DRM was associated with a 32.4% reduction in the length of stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Moran, Victoria Hall
Even though it is widely recognized that early childhood development (ECD) is one of the most important predictors of future social capital and national productivity, the recently published ECD Lancet Series reports that about 250 million children under 5 years are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, mainly as a result of poverty and social injustice. So why is this and what will it take to reverse this situation? The purpose of this special issue is to highlight important contributions from previously published articles in Maternal & Child Nutrition to the field of nutrition and ECD. The collection of papers presented in this special issue collectively indicates that although nutrition-specific interventions are essential for child development, they are not sufficient by themselves for children to reach their full developmental potential. This is because ECD is influenced by many other factors besides nutrition, including hand washing/sanitation, parenting skills, psychosocial stimulation, and social protection. Future research should focus on mixed-methods implementation science seeking to understand how best to translate evidence-based integrated ECD packages into effective intersectoral policies and programs on a large scale. In addition to health and nutrition, these programs need to consider and include responsive parenting (including responsive feeding), learning stimulation, education, and social protection. Future studies should also address if and how childhood obesity affects human physical, socioemotional, and cognitive development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Haggblade, Steven; Duodu, Kwaku G; Kabasa, John D; Minnaar, Amanda; Ojijo, Nelson K O; Taylor, John R N
Sub-Saharan Africa is the last region to undergo a nutrition transition and can still avoid its adverse health outcomes. The article explores emerging responses to "bend the curve" in sub-Saharan Africa's nutrition transition to steer public health outcomes onto a healthier trajectory. Early responses in 3 countries at different stages of food system transformation are examined: South Africa-advanced, Ghana-intermediate, and Uganda-early. By comparing these with international experience, actions are proposed to influence nutrition and public health trajectories as Africa's food systems undergo rapid structural change. Arising from rapid urbanization and diet change, major public health problems associated with overweight are taking place, particularly in South Africa and among adult women. However, public health responses are generally tepid in sub-Saharan Africa. Only in South Africa have policy makers instituted extensive actions to combat overweight and associated noncommunicable diseases through regulation, education, and public health programs. Elsewhere, in countries in the early and middle stages of transition, public health systems continue to focus their limited resources primarily on undernutrition. Related pressures on the supply side of Africa's food systems are emerging that also need to be addressed. Three types of intervention appear most feasible: maternal and child health programs to simultaneously address short-term undernutrition problems while at the same time helping to reduce future tendencies toward overweigh; regulatory and fiscal actions to limit access to unhealthy foods; and modernization of Africa's agrifood food system through job skills training, marketing reforms, and food industry entrepreneurship. © The Author(s) 2016.
Elwood Martin, Ruth; Adamson, Sue; Korchinski, Mo; Granger-Brown, Alison; R Ramsden, Vivian; A Buxton, Jane; Espinoza-Magana, Nancy; L Pollock, Sue; J F Smith, Megan; C Macaulay, Ann; Lisa Condello, Lara; Gregory Hislop, T
Women in prison throughout the world experience higher rates of mental and physical illness compared with the general population and compared with men in prison. The paper finds no published studies that report on men or women in prison engaging in participatory health research to address their concerns about nutrition and fitness. The purpose of this paper is to describe a pilot nutrition and fitness program, which resulted from a unique prison participatory health research project. Women in prison designed, led, and evaluated a six-week pilot fitness program in a minimum/medium security women's prison. Pre- and post-program assessments included a self-administered questionnaire and body measures. Open-ended questionnaire responses illuminated the quantitative findings. Sixteen women in prison completed the program evaluation. Weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and chest measurements decreased, and energy, sleep, and stress levels improved by the end of the program. As a component of a participatory research project, incarcerated women designed and led a nutrition and fitness program, which resulted in improved body measures and self-reported health benefits. ORIGINALITY VALUE: Incarceration provides opportunities to engage women in designing their own health programs with consequent potential long-term "healing" benefits.
National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2010
Obesity, poor health, and limited physical activity are major health concerns. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) improves the health and well-being of limited resource families and youth. Additionally, EFNEP leads to public savings. Research shows that better health is associated with reduced health care costs, less…
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Food and Nutrition Services.
This guide sets forth federal and Wisconsin state policy regarding administration and financial management of child nutrition programs. The first of the three main sections of the document covers United States Department of Agriculture administrative policies. The topics included in this section are as follows: (1) "Reimbursement"…
Gray, David S.; And Others
A nutrition education program at the University of South Alabama Medical Center that was based on the "co-counseling model" as described by Moore and Larsen is described. Patients with one of three problem areas were selected for evaluation: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and pregnancy. (MLW)
Partnerships with other campus college units can provide ways of improving Extension's impact documentation. Nutrition programs have relied upon knowledge gained and people's self report of behavior change. Partnering with the College of Nursing, student nurses provided blood screenings during the pre and 6 month follow-up of a pilot heart risk…
Prescott, Susan L
Early-life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. Dietary changes are at the center of the emerging epigenetic paradigms that underpin the rise in many modern inflammatory and metabolic diseases. There is growing evidence that exposures in pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease susceptibility. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients. Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, folate and other vitamins have documented effects on immune function as well as metabolism. Some have also been implicated in modified risk of allergic diseases in observational studies. Intervention studies are largely limited to trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids and oligosaccharides, showing preliminary but yet unconfirmed benefits in allergy prevention. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programming is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While an epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function--including diet-induced changes in the microbiome. A better understanding of nutritional programming of immune health, nutritional epigenetics and the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures early in life may lead to dietary strategies that provide more tolerogenic conditions during early immune programming and reduce the
Reynolds, Clare M.; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.
The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:26402696
Olsho, Lauren E W; Klerman, Jacob A; Bartlett, Susan H; Logan, Christopher W
Price incentives, or rebates, have been proposed as one promising strategy for improving diet quality among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants. This paper explores the existing evidence on effectiveness of rebates in this program. In particular, this paper considers findings from a recent RCT of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program rebates, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Healthy Incentives Pilot, in the context of the broader literature on rebate strategies. The paper concludes that rebates have a moderate impact on food intake, at moderate cost relative to alternative interventions. There is further evidence that implicit promotional effects may contribute to impacts of rebate interventions, beyond the impacts of price effects alone. However, existing studies on complementary effects of explicit promotion have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and correspondingly low power to detect differences. This appears to be a promising area for future research. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Indrio, Flavia; Martini, Silvia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Corvaglia, Luigi; Cristofori, Fernanda; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Neu, Josef; Rautava, Samuli; Russo Spena, Giovanna; Raimondi, Francesco; Loverro, Giuseppe
Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects. PMID:28879172
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela
Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…
Ross, Lynda J; Capra, Sandra; Baguley, Brenton; Sinclair, Kate; Munro, Kate; Lewindon, Peter; Lavin, Martin
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare genomic syndrome resulting in severe disability. Chronic childhood disorders can profoundly influence growth and development. Nutrition-related issues in A-T are not well described, and there are no nutritional guidelines. This study investigated the nutrition-related characteristics and behaviours of Australian A-T patients attending a national clinic. A cross-sectional analysis of 13 A-T patients (nine females; aged: 4-23 years): nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric and body cell mass (BCM) calculations. Parents reported their child's diet history and physical and behavioural factors that affect nutrition including fatigue and need for assistance. Ten (77%) had short stature (height for age z scores <-1), and seven (54%) were underweight for height (weight/height z scores <-1). Significant malnutrition (BCM z scores <-2) was detected in nine (69%) including the one adult who was severely malnourished. Malnutrition increased significantly with age (BCM for height z scores and age, r = -0.937, P < 0.001). Eight (62%) patients ate poorly compared with estimated energy requirement for weight. Poor diet quality was characterised by high fat and sugar choices. Parents reported significant nutritional barriers as chronic tiredness and the need for care giver assistance with meals. This study confirms profound malnutrition in Australian A-T patients. Poor intakes and diet quality suggest the need for early nutrition intervention. Ongoing support for families and early discussions on tube feeding are required to address changing needs in childhood and likely nutritional decline into adulthood. A prospective study is required to assess feasibility and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in young people with A-T. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
The Soviet Space Food and Nutrition programs are compared with those of the U.S. The Soviets established the first Space Food programs in 1961, when one of the Soviet Cosmonauts experienced eating in zero gravity. This study indicates that some major differences exist between the two space food and nutrition programs regarding dietary habits. The major differences are in recommended nutrient intake and dietary patterns between the cosmonauts and astronauts. The intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats are significantly higher in cosmonaut diets compared to astronauts. Certain mineral elements such as phosphorus, sodium and iron are also significantly higher in the cosmonauts' diets. Cosmonauts also experience intake of certain unconventional food and plant extracts to resist stress and increase stamina.
Klerman, Jacob A; Collins, Ann M; Olsho, Lauren E W
In contrast to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) currently allows the purchase of almost any food. This paper reconsiders the role of two forms of limiting choice in SNAP. Using economic theory, descriptive analysis of survey data, and discussion of random assignment evaluation evidence from the Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children Demonstration, the paper argues that because households can substitute cash for SNAP, banning the use of SNAP for less nutritionally desirable foods (e.g., soda, candy) is unlikely to have a large impact. By contrast, because many households currently consume so little of more nutritionally desirable foods (e.g., whole grains, fruits, and vegetables), requiring that some portion of SNAP benefits be spent on those foods is likely to improve dietary intake. Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children Demonstration impact estimates are consistent with this conjecture. Furthermore, these data and evidence from the Healthy Incentives Pilot implementation suggest that such a policy can be feasibly integrated into existing operational processes. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in Schools as Required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids... All Foods Sold in Schools as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 was published on...
... Early Retiree Reinsurance Program (ERRP), is exercising its authority under the ERRP regulations at 45... for ERRP as of May 6, 2011. II. Provisions of This Notice CMS is exercising our authority under 45 CFR...
Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Deshmukh, Urmila S
It is traditionally believed that genetic susceptibility and adult faulty lifestyle lead to type 2 diabetes, a chronic non-communicable disease. The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) model proposes that the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes originates in the intrauterine life by environmental fetal programming, further exaggerated by rapid childhood growth, i.e. a biphasic nutritional insult. Both fetal under nutrition (sometimes manifested as low birth weight) and over nutrition (the baby of a diabetic mother) increase the risk of future diabetes. The common characteristic of these two types of babies is their high adiposity. An imbalance in nutrition seems to play an important role, and micronutrients seem particularly important. Normal to high maternal folate status coupled with low vitamin B(12) status predicted higher adiposity and insulin resistance in Indian babies. Thus, 1-C (methyl) metabolism seems to play a key role in fetal programming. DOHaD represents a paradigm shift in the model for prevention of the chronic non-communicable diseases.
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226, App...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App. C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226, App...
... nutrition education programs. 1150.153 Section 1150.153 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Qualified dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs. (a) Any producer organization that conducts a State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education program...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App. C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App. C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226, App...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App. C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App. C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Pt. 226, App...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App. C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Child Nutrition Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM Pt. 210, App. C Appendix C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 220 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM Pt. 220, App. C...
... nutrition education programs. 1150.153 Section 1150.153 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Qualified dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs. (a) Any producer organization that conducts a State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education program...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program C Appendix C to Part 225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM Pt. 225, App. C...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants...
... nutrition education programs. 1150.153 Section 1150.153 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Qualified dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs. (a) Any producer organization that conducts a State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education program...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD... ITS JURISDICTION Household Programs § 250.66 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants...
Banta, Trudy W.; And Others
The Tennessee Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program is part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture effort to develop a coordinated nutrition education program for children from preschool through grade 12. In its first year of operation, the Tennessee NET program conducted summer nutrition education workshops for elementary teachers and…
... Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Vendor Cost Containment AGENCY: Food and... Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Vendor Cost Containment.'' DATES: Effective Date... Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Vendor Cost Containment,'' 74 FR 51745...
Bush, Robert; Box, Selina; McCallum, David; Khalil, Stephanie
In the context of stubbornly high childhood obesity rates, health promotion activities in schools provide a potential avenue to improve children’s nutritional behaviours. Theatre production has a rich history as a health behaviour promotion strategy but lacks sound, outcome-based evaluation. This study evaluated the effect of an integrated, two-part, place-based theatre performance program with 212 students in five schools in a regional urban and semi-rural area. The program included a theatre performance and a healthy eating competition. A brief survey assessed student healthy eating knowledge and attitudes at three time points. Nutrition behaviour was measured by scoring the contents of children’s lunch boxes before, during and up to six weeks after the intervention. Statistical analysis tested change over time on five variables (Knowledge, Attitude, Sometimes foods, Everyday foods, Overall lunch box score). Results showed that both components of the integrated program improved nutrition knowledge and that the theatre performance improved children’s healthy eating attitudes. All three lunch box scores peaked after the integrated program and remained significantly higher than baseline at 4–6 weeks follow-up. Interaction effects were identified for school catchment area on four of the five dependent variables. Evaluation of this integrated theatre production program indicates the potential benefit of taking a “super-setting” approach. It demonstrates an effect from students taking home information they had learned and incorporating it into lunch box preparation. It also showed consistent effects for school geographical catchment. This study suggests that, with careful, theory-based design, theatre productions in schools can improve student nutritional activities. PMID:29498690
Bush, Robert; Capra, Sandra; Box, Selina; McCallum, David; Khalil, Stephanie; Ostini, Remo
In the context of stubbornly high childhood obesity rates, health promotion activities in schools provide a potential avenue to improve children's nutritional behaviours. Theatre production has a rich history as a health behaviour promotion strategy but lacks sound, outcome-based evaluation. This study evaluated the effect of an integrated, two-part, place-based theatre performance program with 212 students in five schools in a regional urban and semi-rural area. The program included a theatre performance and a healthy eating competition. A brief survey assessed student healthy eating knowledge and attitudes at three time points. Nutrition behaviour was measured by scoring the contents of children's lunch boxes before, during and up to six weeks after the intervention. Statistical analysis tested change over time on five variables (Knowledge, Attitude, Sometimes foods, Everyday foods, Overall lunch box score). Results showed that both components of the integrated program improved nutrition knowledge and that the theatre performance improved children's healthy eating attitudes. All three lunch box scores peaked after the integrated program and remained significantly higher than baseline at 4-6 weeks follow-up. Interaction effects were identified for school catchment area on four of the five dependent variables. Evaluation of this integrated theatre production program indicates the potential benefit of taking a "super-setting" approach. It demonstrates an effect from students taking home information they had learned and incorporating it into lunch box preparation. It also showed consistent effects for school geographical catchment. This study suggests that, with careful, theory-based design, theatre productions in schools can improve student nutritional activities.
Guilloteau, Paul; Zabielski, Romuald; Hammon, Harald M; Metges, Cornelia C
The consequences of early-life nutritional programming in man and other mammalian species have been studied chiefly at the metabolic level. Very few studies, if any, have been performed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) as the target organ, but extensive GIT studies are needed since the GIT plays a key role in nutrient supply and has an impact on functions of the entire organism. The possible deleterious effects of nutritional programming at the metabolic level were discovered following epidemiological studies in human subjects, and confirmed in animal models. Investigating the impact of programming on GIT structure and function would need appropriate animal models due to ethical restrictions in the use of human subjects. The aim of the present review is to discuss the use of pigs as an animal model as a compromise between ethically acceptable animal studies and the requirement of data which can be interpolated to the human situation. In nutritional programming studies, rodents are the most frequently used model for man, but GIT development and digestive function in rodents are considerably different from those in man. In that aspect, the pig GIT is much closer to the human than that of rodents. The swine species is closely comparable with man in many nutritional and digestive aspects, and thus provides ample opportunity to be used in investigations on the consequences of nutritional programming for the GIT. In particular, the 'sow-piglets' dyad could be a useful tool to simulate the 'human mother-infant' dyad in studies which examine short-, middle- and long-term effects and is suggested as the reference model.
Smith, Teresa M; Blaser, Casey; Geno-Rasmussen, Cristy; Shuell, Julie; Plumlee, Catherine; Gargano, Tony; Yaroch, Amy L
The National Early Care and Education Learning Collaboratives (ECELC) project aims to facilitate best practices in nutrition, physical activity, screen time, and breastfeeding support and infant feeding among early care and education (ECE) programs across multiple states. The project uses a train-the-trainer approach with 5, in-person learning-collaborative sessions, technical assistance, and action planning. We describe the longitudinal practice-based evaluation of the project and assess whether ECE programs evaluated (n = 104) sustained changes in policies and practices 1 year after completing the project. The number of best practices increased from pre-assessment to post-assessment (P < .01) but did not change significantly from post-assessment to follow-up assessment. ECELC shows promise as an approach to incorporate professional development and training focused on improving best practices for environment-level child nutrition and physical activity, which is one strategy among many that are warranted for obesity prevention in young children.
Valtonen, T M; Roff, D A; Rantala, M J
The impact of nutritional deficiencies early in life in determining life-history variation in organisms is well recognized. The negative effects of inbreeding on fitness are also well known. Contrary to studies on vertebrates, studies on invertebrates are not consistent with the observation that inbreeding compromises resistance to parasites and pathogens. In this study, we investigated the effect of early nutrition on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that early nutritional environment had no effect on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time or adult body size but may have played a small role in adult resistance to the bacterial infection. Estimates of heritabilities for development time under the poor nutritional environment were larger than those measured under the standard nutritional conditions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Wilcox, Sara; Parrot, Allen; Baruth, Megan; Laken, Marilyn; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Dowda, Marsha; Evans, Rebecca; Addy, Cheryl; Warren, Tatiana Y.; Kinnard, Deborah; Zimmerman, Lakisha
.17, p=0.03) and self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption (d=0.17, p=0.03). Trainings were evaluated very positively (training evaluation item means of 4.2–4.8 on a 5-point scale). Conclusions This faith-based structural intervention using a CBPR framework showed small but significant increases in self-reported leisure-time MVPA. This program has potential for broad-based dissemination and reach. Trial registration This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00379925. PMID:23332327
Olivares, S; Andrade, M; Harper, L; Kain, J; Eskenazi, M E; Sánchez, F; Domínguez, J I; Valiente, S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a set of teaching materials on food, nutrition and agriculture, adapted at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, within the scope of a project with AID and the School of Agronomy of the Chilean Catholic University (U. C.) aimed at incorporating the teaching of human nutrition into the curriculum of Latin American agronomists. A one semester course (54 hours) was given to 22 students of the 7th semester of Agronomy and two Ecuatorian agronomists (with AID scholarships). A set of knowledge evaluation instruments was applied at the beginning and at the end of the course. A total of 83.3% of the students passed the final examination (with more than 75% of correct answers). The difference between the initial and final performance was highly significant (p less than 0.001). According to the students' and teachers' opinions, the general textbook and the teachers book contributed effectively to meet the learning objectives whereas the students handbook needed some modifications. In conclusion, the program is an important contribution to the education of agronomists in a new conception of their role in regard to improvement of the nutritional status and quality of life of the rural population. With a few minor modifications, a final version to be used in the countries of the Region, shall soon become available.
Ravasco, Paula; Monteiro Grillo, Isabel; Camilo, Maria
To devise a meaningful nutritional therapy in cancer, a greater understanding of nutritional dimensions as well as patients' expectations and disease impact is essential. We have shown that nutritional deterioration in patients with gastrointestinal and head and neck cancer was multifactorial and mainly determined by the tumour burden and location. In a larger cohort, stage and location were yet again the major determinants of patients' quality of life (QoL), despite the fact that nutritional deterioration combined with intake deficits were functionally more relevant than cancer stage. Based on this framework, the potential role of integrated oral nutritional support on outcomes was investigated. In a pilot study using individualized nutritional counselling on a heterogeneous patient population, the achieved improvement of nutritional intake was proportional to a better QoL. The role of early nutritional support was further analysed in a prospective randomized controlled trial in head and neck cancer patients stratified by stage undergoing radiotherapy. Pre-defined outcomes were: nutritional status and intake, morbidity and QoL, at the end and 3 months after radiotherapy. Nutritional interventions, only given during radiotherapy, consisted of three randomization arms: (1) individualized nutritional counselling vs. (2) ad libitum diet+high protein supplements vs. (3) ad libitum diet. Nutritional interventions 1 and 2 positively influenced outcomes during radiotherapy; however, 3 months after its completion individualized nutritional counselling was the single method capable of sustaining a significant impact on patients' outcomes. The early provision of the appropriate mixture of foods and textures using regular foods may modulate outcomes in cancer patients.
John, Chandy C.; Black, Maureen M.; Nelson, Charles A.
The early to middle childhood years are a critical period for child neurodevelopment. Nutritional deficiencies, infection and inflammation are major contributors to impaired child neurodevelopment in these years, particularly in low resource settings. This review identifies global research priorities relating to nutrition, infection, and inflammation in early to middle childhood neurodevelopment. Research priority areas identified include: 1) assessment of how nutrition, infection or inflammation in the pre-conception, prenatal and infancy periods (or interventions in these periods) affect function in early to middle childhood; 2) assessment of whether effects of nutritional interventions vary by poverty or inflammation; 3) determination of the feasibility of pre-school and school-based integrated nutritional interventions; 4) improved assessment of the epidemiology of infection- and inflammation-related neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI); 5) identification of mechanisms through which infection causes NDI; 6) identification of non-infectious causes of inflammation-related NDI and interventions for causes already identified (e.g, environmental factors); and 7) studies on the effects of interactions between nutritional, infectious and inflammatory factors on neurodevelopment in early to middle childhood. Areas of emerging importance which require further study include the effects of maternal Zika virus infection, childhood environmental enteropathy, and alterations in the child’s microbiome on neurodevelopment in early to middle childhood. Research in these key areas will be critical to the development of interventions to optimize the neurodevelopmental potential of children worldwide in the early to middle childhood years. PMID:28562249
Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia
Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
van den Heuvel, M; Chen, Y; Abdullah, K; Maguire, J L; Parkin, P C; Birken, C S
Early childhood temperament is increasingly recognized as an important attribute that may impact screen time use, outdoor play and childhood obesity. The relationship between temperament and nutrition in preschool children is less clear. The objective of the study is to investigate if temperament dimensions (negative affectivity, effortful control and surgency) in early childhood are associated with nutritional risk factors. Six hundred seventy-eight children were followed (mean age at baseline visit 3.1 years; mean time to follow-up 16.5 months). Parents reported on child temperament and nutritional risk factors during regularly scheduled well-child clinic visits. A mixed effect model demonstrated a significant association between higher negative affectivity (1.03; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.37) and higher effortful control (-0.88; 95% CI -1.27 to -0.49) on concurrent nutritional risk, independent of covariates. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified that higher effortful control, and not negative affectivity, was significantly associated with a decrease in nutritional risk (-0.67; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.24) over time, independent of covariates. There was no relationship identified between surgency and nutritional risk. Three-year-old children with higher effortful control had reduced nutritional risk at 5 years of age. Future nutritional risk prevention strategies may benefit from interventions to increase effortful control in early childhood. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
You, Wen; Mitchell, Paul D; Nayga, Rodolfo M
We used a principal-agent framework to examine the feasibility of two proposed modifications to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program with the goal of encouraging healthier food choices among program participants. Specifically, we analyzed two types of contract: a restricted contract and an incentive contract. The restricted contract did not allow the purchase of unhealthy foods with program benefits, but compensated participants by increasing total benefits. The incentive contract provided increased benefits that varied according to the percentage of healthy foods purchased with program benefits. The theoretical results revealed the mechanisms for the two alternative contracts, the conditions under which each would be effective, and the key empirical questions to be examined for future policy analysis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Koenings, Mallory; Arscott, Sara
Grandparents University ® (GPU) is a 2-day campus-based nutrition education program for grandparents and grandchildren based on constructs from Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior. This article describes how program theory was used to develop a working model, design activities, and select outcome measures of a 2-day…
A manual on nutrition during pregnancy and lactation was developed and used with pregnant teenagers. Evaluation of the program showed that, while participants' knowledge of nutrition improved, their eating habits did not. The need for behavioral assessment of nutrition education programs is pointed out. (Author/PP)
...,'' to identify and address any major civil rights impacts the rule might have on minorities, women, and... Nutrition Assistance Program: Civil Rights Protections for SNAP Households AGENCY: Food and Nutrition... Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) regulations that secure civil rights protections for SNAP households and...
St. Pierre, Robert G.; Rezmovic, Victor
Presents the organizing framework used in evaluating the National Nutrition Education and Training Program (NET) and summarizes the descriptive, evaluative, and meta-evaluative findings. Concludes that positive effects on children's nutrition-related knowledge have resulted from different nutrition education programs. (DC)
St. Pierre, Robert G.
This project summary reviews and extends the findings of prior reports made by Abt Associates, Inc. (Cambridge, Massachusetts) on the Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program, synthesizes evaluation efforts in nutrition education, and presents a set of conclusions based on the evaluations of nutrition programs. Chapter 1 presents background…
This report summarizes the results of the 1997 Texas Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program, one of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Child Nutrition Programs. NET provides nutrition education and instructional resources for children and key individuals in their learning environment. NET's target population includes parents or…
Becvarova, Iveta; Pleasant, R Scott; Thatcher, Craig D
Veterinarians are a primary source of nutritional information and advice for horse owners. This article reviews methods for clinical assessment of nutritional status and feeding programs that can be applied to an individual horse or group of horses. Physical examination, including measurement of body weight and evaluation of body condition score, estimation of nutrient requirements and the nutrient content of the horse's diet, and evaluation of the feeding method are important components of the assessment. Ongoing clinical assessment of health and body condition will gauge the need for reassessment of the feeding plan. Obvious indications for prompt reevaluation of diet and feeding include changes in health status (eg, body condition), life stage or physiologic state (eg, pregnancy), or performance status.
Castillo, Alexandra; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research project was to identify goals and establish best practices for school nutrition (SN) programs that serve students with special food and/or nutrition needs based on the four practice categories identified in previous National Food Service Management Institute, Applied Research Division (NFSMI, ARD)…
Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl
Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.
The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module is to provide the CDA intern with knowledge of how to use nutrition information with children and parents, as well as how to structure and carry out a nutrition program, including mealtime and food preparation activities. Objectives are presented along with suggested activities…
..., multi- level interventions; and community and public health approaches. To improve program design... prevention services and an evidence-based approach are provided for States to use in their SNAP-Ed programming. These definitions provide States with greater flexibility to include environmental approaches and...
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie
Nourishing the young child can be a challenge. This stage of life is critical to the development of positive attitudes toward maintaining a healthy diet and learning to make reasonable food choices. Educators of young children are often the gatekeepers of child nutrition. This article reports on the current nutrient needs of young children,…
Stang, Jamie; Taft Bayerl, Cynthia; Flatt, Michelle M
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that all children and adolescents, regardless of age, sex, socioeconomic status, racial diversity, ethnic diversity, linguistic diversity, or health status, should have access to food and nutrition programs that ensure the availability of a safe and adequate food supply that promotes optimal physical, cognitive, social, and emotional growth and development. Appropriate food and nutrition programs include food assistance and meal programs, nutrition education initiatives, and nutrition screening and assessment followed by appropriate nutrition intervention and anticipatory guidance to promote optimal nutrition status. Food and nutrition programs create a safety net that ensures that children and adolescents at risk for poor nutritional intakes have access to a safe, adequate, and nutritious food supply and nutrition screening, assessment, and intervention. It is important that continued funding be provided for these programs, which consistently have been shown to have a positive impact on child and adolescent health and well-being. Food and nutrition programs serve as a means to prevent or reduce hunger and food insecurity, but also as a vehicle for nutrition education and promotion of physical activity designed to prevent or reduce overweight and prevent chronic disease. It is the role of the registered dietitian to support adequate and sustained funding for food and nutrition programs, universal health care reimbursement for nutrition services, and the use of research and surveillance programs to evaluate and improve these programs. In addition, the registered dietitian and dietetic technician, registered, are responsible for serving as a nutrition resource to all groups and individuals providing services to children and adolescents, acting as an advocate for the establishment of child-care, school, and community settings conducive to the development of good nutrition habits.
Hochman, Darlene; Kaplan, Paul
The Early Childhood Program (ECP) at Suffolk County Community College (SCCC) was established to train students in the instruction of young children by providing them with theoretical knowledge, skills training, and practical experience. This report provides information on the philosophy, structure, and outcomes of the ECP. The first section…
Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth
This meta-analysis reports on the use of practitioner inquiry (PI) with early program teacher candidates in conjunction with elementary science and math methods courses using cognitive load theory as a theoretical framework. The findings suggest that the teacher candidates enhanced their knowledge of practice within practice across 5 dimensions of…
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services [CMS-9996-N] Early Retiree Reinsurance Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces that CMS is exercising its authority under section 1102(f) of the...
Dickerson, Roland N.; Martinez, Eva M.; Fraile, M. Carmen; Giménez, Josefina; Calvo, M. Victoria
A clinical nutrition support pharmacist training program, in collaboration with the Spanish Foundation of Hospital Pharmacy, Spanish Society of Clinical Nutrition, Abbott Nutrition International, University of Tennessee, College of Pharmacy and Regional One Health, is described. Nutrition support pharmacists from Spain were selected to participate in a one-month training program with an experienced board-certified nutrition support pharmacist faculty member within an interdisciplinary nutrition support team environment in the U.S. Participants were expected to actively engage in an advanced clinical practice role with supervision. Clinical activities included daily intensive patient monitoring, physical assessment, critical evaluation of the patient and development of an appropriate treatment plan for patients receiving either enteral or parenteral nutrition therapy. Upon successful completion of the training program, participants were anticipated to incorporate these techniques into their current practice in Spain and to train other pharmacists to function in an advanced clinical role independently or within an interdisciplinary nutrition support team environment. PMID:28975899
...This rule proposes to amend the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations consistent with amendments made in the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA). The HHFKA requires that the Secretary promulgate proposed regulations to establish nutrition standards for foods sold in schools other than those foods provided under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) and the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA). The HHFKA amends the CNA, requiring that such standards shall be consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans and that the Secretary shall consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, a la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). The HHFKA also amended the NSLA to require that schools participating in the National School Lunch Program make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service. These proposed changes are intended to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits.
Four Brazilian food and nutrition programs operating during some part of 1974-86 are evaluated for their effectiveness in curing or preventing infant and child malnutrition, including low birth weight when pregnant women were beneficiaries. Two programs distributed free food to identified clients: traditional commercial foods in one case and specially formulated supplements in the other. The other two programs subsidized four or more basic foodstuffs: one experiment quantitatively restricted a subsidy to identified families, and the other was unrestricted and open to all families patronizing certain shops. The programs were more effective at curing than at preventing malnutrition, and more effective at increasing weight than height. Many beneficiaries, even when initially underweight, showed no change, and some deteriorated despite the food transfer. Results were better after than during the first year of life, when deterioration is most likely. Donation programs including medical and educational components proved more effective than pure subsidies, showing that while poverty may be the chief cause of malnutrition, the problem should be seen as poor health rather than simply low food consumption. Evaluation also shows that programs were inefficient in transferring benefits, and that clients were deterred from participating by the costs of obtaining the food and its poor quality and small volume. Longer participation improved results, but more frequent participation in a given interval did not necessarily do so.
Grummon, Anna H; Taillie, Lindsey Smith
Background: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which is the largest federal nutrition assistance program in the United States, serves nearly 1 of 7 Americans. To date, few studies have examined food and beverage purchase behaviors in SNAP participants with the use of electronic purchase data. Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we examined household store purchases of key food, beverage, and nutrient groups in SNAP participants and nonparticipants. Design: Using a data set of US households' ( n = 98,256 household-by-quarter observations) packaged food and beverage purchases and SNAP status [current participant, income-eligible nonparticipant (income ≤130% of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]), and higher-income nonparticipants (income >130% of the FPL)] from 3 quarters during 2012-2013, we estimated pooled ordinary least-squares models, clustered at the household level, to examine the association between SNAP status and purchases while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. We examined purchases of health- and policy-relevant food and beverage groups [e.g., fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)] and nutrients (e.g., total calories and sodium). Results: Regardless of SNAP status, households had low mean purchases of fruit, vegetables, and fiber and high mean purchases of junk foods, saturated fat, and sodium. After adjustment for multiple comparisons and demographic characteristics, we found significant differences by SNAP status of purchases of fruit, processed meat, salty snacks, sweeteners and toppings, SSBs, and total calories, fiber, sugar, and sodium. Several of these differences were clinically important. For example, compared with income-eligible and higher-income nonparticipants, SNAP participants purchased an additional ∼15-20 kcal · person -1 · d -1 from SSBs ( P < 0.0001) and ∼174-195 mg total Na · person -1 · d -1 ( P <0.0001). Results were robust to corrections for sample-selection bias and to the
Pravosudov, Vladimir V; Lavenex, Pierre; Omanska, Alicja
Development rates vary among individuals, often as a result of direct competition for food. Survival of young might depend on their learning abilities, but it remains unclear whether learning abilities are affected by nutrition during development. The authors demonstrated that compared with controls, 1-year-old Western scrub jays (Aphelocoma californica) that experienced nutritional deficits during early posthatching development had smaller hippocampi with fewer neurons and performed worse in a cache recovery task and in a spatial version of an associative learning task. In contrast, performance of nutritionally deprived birds was similar to that of controls in 2 color versions of an associative learning task. These findings suggest that nutritional deficits during early development have long-term consequences for hippocampal structure and spatial memory, which, in turn, are likely to have a strong impact on animals' future fitness.
Basson, Jean-Charles; Haschar-Noé, Nadine; Theis, Ivan
Inspired by the Hygienist Movement, which associates good health with regular, moderate exercise, the National Health and Nutrition Program identifies a lack of physical activity as a risk factor for many chronic diseases. As such, the Program encourages people to take care of their bodies by inciting a moral obligation to develop a physically active lifestyle and follow a healthy diet. With the overall goal of improving the health of the population by acting on nutrition, the Program focuses on primary prevention, screening and early treatment of conditions like heart disease, cancer, obesity, osteoporosis and diabetes. As an incentive program developed in keeping with the biopolitical views of the 1970s that saw education as an alternative means to hospitals for achieving good health, the Program is also a good public action tool for controlling costs. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.
Kulkarni, Bharati; Kuper, Hannah; Radhakrishna, K. V.; Hills, Andrew P.; Byrne, Nuala M.; Taylor, Amy; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Wells, Jonathan C.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah; Kinra, Sanjay
In the present study, we examined the associations of early nutrition with adult lean body mass (LBM) and muscle strength in a birth cohort that was established to assess the long-term impact of a nutrition program. Participants (n = 1,446, 32% female) were born near Hyderabad, India, in 29 villages from 1987 to 1990, during which time only intervention villages (n = 15) had a government program that offered balanced protein-calorie supplementation to pregnant women and children. Participants’ LBM and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; grip strength and information on lifestyle indicators, including diet and physical activity level, were also obtained. Ages (mean = 20.3 years) and body mass indexes (weight (kg)/height (m)2; mean = 19.5) of participants in 2 groups were similar. Current dietary energy intake was higher in the intervention group. Unadjusted LBM and grip strength were similar in 2 groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, the intervention group had lower LBM (β = −0.75; P = 0.03), appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and grip strength than did controls, but these differences were small in magnitude (<0.1 standard deviation). Multivariable regression analyses showed that current socioeconomic position, energy intake, and physical activity level had a positive association with adult LBM and muscle strength. This study could not detect a “programming” effect of early nutrition supplementation on adult LBM and muscle strength. PMID:24553777
Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda
The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…
... Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Privacy Protections of Information From Applicant Households AGENCY... National School Lunch Program established under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act or the School Breakfast Program established under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966, in order to directly certify...
Hunt, Mary K.; And Others
Evaluates a point-of-purchase nutrition education program in Pawtucket (Rhode Island). Uses consumer interviews to evaluate the effect of awareness of shelf labels on purchase behavior. Reports increases in shoppers' ability to identify correct shelf labels and in the number of shoppers who were encouraged to buy the identified foods. (FMW)
Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Chriqui, Jamie F
Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA's Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public's support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators' formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA's public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 271 and 274 RIN 0584-AE26 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Trafficking Controls and Fraud Investigations AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule, Interim final rule; notice of approval of Information...
Guerrero, Frank; Hunt, Daniel M.
The New York City Board of Education's Nutrition Education and Training Program was developed and implemented to improve the quality of nutrition education in elementary schools. The project's primary objectives were to: (1) provide elementary school teachers and food service personnel with enhanced knowledge of sound nutrition; (2) provide…
Mohanty, Pranoti S.
This practicum project sought to improve nutrition in a day care program serving children ages 2 through 14 years by increasing staff, student, and parent knowledge about nutrition. The primary goal was to increase knowledge and interest in nutrition and its relation to wellness of students, staff, and parents. The second goal was to provide…
Cole, Amanda; Vidgen, Helen; Cleland, Phoebe
The aim of this study was to explore the methods, processes and strategies used by early childhood education and care (ECEC) services when determining the nutritional adequacy of food provided to children in their care. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were conducted with directors, educators and cooks at long day care services (LDCS) (n = 12) regarding nutritional adequacy, the use of tools, guidelines and checklists, menu planning and identification and management of unhealthy foods. A qualitative thematic approach was used to identify anticipated and emergent themes. Case-by-case comparisons were then made, and tables and models were created to allow for comparative analysis. LDCS relied on personal knowledge, experience and 'common sense' when determining the nutritional adequacy of the food provided to children. LDCS demonstrated a lack of awareness and use of current regulatory requirements, nutrition guidelines and recommendations, although the services were confident in providing nutrition advice to parents/carers. LDCS staff use personal knowledge and experience over evidence-based nutrition guidelines and recommendations when determining if the food provided to children is nutritionally adequate. ECEC services are recognised as important settings for obesity prevention and the development of lifetime healthy eating habits. This study highlights the complexities and inconsistencies in providing food that is nutritious and appropriate to children in care while highlighting the need to improve the use and accessibility of nutrition guidelines. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Dudrick, Stanley J
This article recounts the conditions and status of surgical nutrition support in the 1960s and the antecedent basic and clinical investigational work leading to the development of a practical and efficacious method of adequate nourishment entirely by vein in Beagle puppies; describes the subsequent clinical application of the knowledge, techniques, and technology to the first successful long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support of critically ill pediatric and adult patients; and admonishes nutritionists of all backgrounds that some need for parenteral nutrition will likely always exist and that it is incumbent upon everyone to continue endeavors to advance the germinal methodology to perfection. The relevant indications, limitations, hindrances, motivational factors, and studies regarding the development of TPN are reviewed, and the fundamental investigational work culminating in the first successful growth and development of Beagle puppies and a human infant fed entirely by vein are described firsthand. The details of the orderly and logical scientific development of the principles and components of the techniques in animals, infants, and adults are related. Knowledge, techniques, and technologic constituents of the first successful long-term TPN system were developed in the basic biochemical and animal laboratories initially in 6 puppies and subsequently adapted clinically for the efficacious long-term i.v. support of 6 critically ill surgical adult patients and a newborn infant before its widespread clinical application. Long-term TPN was inaugurated successfully as a safe and effective i.v. feeding technique nearly 4 decades ago. However, basic and clinical investigations must continue to be encouraged, supported, and carried out in the quest to perfect the current rudimentary technology, methodology, and outcomes.
Coverdale, J A; Hammer, C J; Walter, K W
Many environmental factors can alter the phenotype of offspring when applied during critical periods of early development. In most domestic species, maternal nutrition influences fetal development and the fetus is sensitive to the nutrition of the dam during pregnancy. Many experimental models have been explored including both under- and overnutrition of the dam. Both nutritional strategies have yielded potential consequences including altered glucose tolerance, pancreatic endocrine function, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and colostrum quality. Although the impact of maternal nutrition on fetal development in the equine has not been thoroughly investigated, overnutrition is a common occurrence in the industry. Work in our laboratory has focused on effects of maternal overnutrition on mare and foal performance, mare DMI, foaling parameters, colostrum quality and passive transfer of immunity, and glucose and insulin dynamics. Over several trials, mares were fed either 100 or 140% of NRC requirements for DE, and supplemental Se and arginine were added to diets in an attempt to mitigate potential intrauterine growth retardation resulting from dams overfed during the last third of pregnancy. As expected, when mares were overfed, BW, BCS, and rump fat values increased. Foal growth over 150 d was also not influenced. Maternal nutrition did not alter colostrum volume but influenced colostrum quality. Maternal overnutrition resulted in lower colostrum IgG concentrations but did not cause failure of passive transfer in foals. Supplemental Se and arginine were unable to mitigate this reduction in colostrum IgG. Additionally, mare and foal glucose and insulin dynamics were influenced by maternal nutrition. Mare glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) increased with increased concentrate supplementation. Foal insulin AUC and peak insulin concentrations were increased when mares were fed concentrate and, in a later trial, foal peak glucose values were reduced
Borkoski Barreiro, Silvia A; Falcón González, Juan C; Bueno Yanes, Jorge; Pérez Bermúdez, José L; López Cano, Zoraida; Ramos Macías, Ángel
Neonatal hearing loss is a public health problem that meets the requirements for submission to universal screening. Our objective was to analyse the results of the early hearing detection and intervention program implemented at our centre between January 2007 and December 2010. We studied 26,717 newborns during the period mentioned, using transient otoacoustic emissions (TOAEs) for the screening. The diagnostic phase was carried out at the hearing loss department. In our area, there were 27,935 births between January 2007 and December 2010. The screening was performed on 26,717 children. Of these, 24,173 had positive TOAEs, 1,040 had no TOAEs and 1,504 presented TOAEs in 1 ear with absence of TOAEs in the contralateral ear. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were found in 4,674 infants. In a second phase of the program, TOAEs were given to 5,156 children, of whom 4,626 had positive otoacoustic emissions in both ears, 323 had no TOAEs in 1 ear and 207 failed this second phase. Of all children studied, 3.8% were referred to auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and 26 children entered the cochlear implant program. The program reached coverage of 95.64%. The early hearing detection and intervention program at our hospital is suitable for our environment, reaching 95.64% of coverage. We consider the relationship between effectiveness and efficiency to be positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Khan, M Mahmud; Ahmed, Shakil; Protik, Ali Ehsan; Dhar, Badal Chandra; Roy, S K
The Government of Bangladesh implemented a comprehensive nutrition intervention in 1997 to reduce the rates of malnutrition among women and children. The pilot program, the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP), adopted a multisectoral approach targeting women and children through food supplementation, home gardening, and health and nutrition education. This paper estimates the effectiveness of BINP's food supplementation and nutrition education on the nutritional status of pregnant women. Methods. Three effectiveness measures were considered: target efficiency, improvements in the nutritional status of beneficiaries, and the persistence of nutritional effects. To isolate the effects of the intervention, the nutritional status of participants and nonparticipants was compared after controlling for various demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data were collected in 2000 from a random sample of 3262 households in a BINP intervention area. Thirty-nine percent of pregnant women were correctly targeted by the program's food supplementation activities. The nutrition program reduced the prevalence of thinness among participant pregnant women by about 3 percentage points per month of enrollment. The prevalence of thinness among program graduates was 62%, which was much higher than that of the matched (nonparticipant) group (35%). This finding is perplexing but it may simply imply that those who enrolled at the initial phase of the project were severely underweight and they fell back to their original status within a short period of time. The nutrition program was intended to improve the nutritional status of women in the longer run through the provision of nutrition education during the food supplementation phase. The prevalence of thinness or severe underweight in women who exited the program after completion of the enrollment period was found to be much higher than in women of similar age and socioeconomic status in the community. This apparent lack of
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...
Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141
Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...
Powers, Alicia Raby; Struempler, Barbara J.; Guarino, Anthony; Parmer, Sondra M.
This research investigated the effects of a nutrition education program on dietary behavior and nutrition knowledge among elementary school-aged children participating in a Social Cognitive Theory-based nutrition education program. Participants included 1100 second-grade and third-grade students selected by convenience-type sampling from public…
Wang, Junli; Zhao, Jiamin; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Chong
Effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support on nutritional status and blood glucose in patients with gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus after radical gastrectomy were investigated. One hundred and twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus type 2 admitted to the First People's Hospital of Jinan (Jinan, China), from June 2012 to June 2016 were selected into the study. According to different nutrition support pathways, these patients were randomly divided into the EEN group and the TPN group. The improvement of nutritional indexes, postoperative complications, gastrointestinal function recovery and perioperative blood glucose fluctuation were compared between the two groups. On the 4th day after operation, the improvement levels of total bilirubin (TBL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (TP), prealbumin (PAB), hemoglobin (HGB) and weight (Wt) in the EEN group were significantly higher than those in the conventional group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups on the 8th day after operation (P>0.05). No patients had complications in the EEN group, while a total of 29 patients in the TPN group suffered adverse reactions, indicating that the incidence rate of complications in the EEN group was significantly lower than that in the TPN group (P<0.05). The postoperative evacuation time was earlier, hospitalization time was shorter and cost of postoperative hospitalization was less in the EEN group than those in the TPN group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The blood glucose fluctuation values at fasting and 2 h after a meal in the TPN group were higher than those in the EEN group within 8 days after operation, and the differences were statistically significant (χ 2 =13.219, P=0.002; χ 2 =20.527, P<0.001). EEN support provides nutrition for patients with gastric cancer complicated
Snowman, M K; Dibble, M V
Nutritional services were integrated in a comprehensive child development program for sixty-eight disadvantaged urban families in an attempt to promote maximum cognitive and psychosocial functioning in their children. Child development trainers made weekly home visits beginning in pregnancy, which combined data gathering, direct nutritional counseling, and early sensory excercises for infants. This paper describes the prenatal home visit program, the training of the home visitors, how the 24-hr. food recall method was adapted for their use, the nature of the home visits, and the complex role of the home visitor. The group whose families participated in the prenatal home visits and were also followed for six months after the infants' birth scored higher on six-month Cattell Scales than did a control group who entered the program at six months of age. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. The incidence of low-birth-weight infants was lower than the national averages. Participation in the program was high.
Cousineau, Tara; Houle, Brian; Bromberg, Jonas; Fernandez, Kathrine C.; Kling, Whitney C.
Objective: Tailored nutrition Web programs constitute an emerging trend in obesity prevention. Initial investment in innovative technology necessitates that the target population be well understood. This pilot study's purpose was to determine the feasibility of a workplace nutrition Web program. Design: Formative research was conducted with gaming…
de Haan, Jacco J; Thuijls, Geertje; Lubbers, Tim; Hadfoune, M'hamed; Reisinger, Kostan; Heineman, Erik; Greve, Jan-Willem M; Buurman, Wim A
Early gut wall integrity loss and local intestinal inflammation are associated with the development of inflammatory complications in surgical and trauma patients. Prevention of these intestinal events is a potential target for therapies aimed to control systemic inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated in a rodent shock model that lipid-rich enteral nutrition attenuated systemic inflammation and prevented organ damage through a cholecystokinin receptor-dependent vagal pathway. The influence of lipid-rich nutrition on very early intestinal compromise as seen after shock is investigated. Next, the involvement of cholecystokinin receptors on the nutritional modulation of immediate gut integrity loss and intestinal inflammation is studied. Randomized controlled in vivo study. University research unit. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Liquid lipid-rich nutrition or control low-lipid feeding was administered per gavage before hemorrhagic shock. Cholecystokinin receptor antagonists were used to investigate involvement of the vagal antiinflammatory pathway. Gut permeability to horseradish peroxidase increased as soon as 30 mins postshock and was prevented by lipid-rich nutrition compared with low-lipid (p<.01) and fasted controls (p<.001). Furthermore, lipid-rich nutrition reduced plasma levels of enterocyte damage marker ileal lipid binding protein at 60 mins (p<.05). Early gut barrier dysfunction correlated with rat mast cell protease plasma concentrations at 30 mins (rs=0.67; p<.001) and intestinal myeloperoxidase levels at 60 mins (rs=0.58; p<.05). Lipid-rich nutrition significantly reduced plasma rat mast cell protease (p<.01) and myeloperoxidase (p<.05) before systemic inflammation was detectable. Protective effects of lipid-rich nutrition were abrogated by cholecystokinin receptor antagonists (horseradish peroxidase; p<.05 and rat mast cell protease; p<.05). Lipid-rich enteral nutrition prevents early gut barrier loss, enterocyte damage, and local intestinal inflammation
Washington, Novella M.
This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…
Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Gan, Wan Ying; Tan, Kit-Aun
The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Infants are followed-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Pre-natal factors that include mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, blood glucose and blood pressure during pregnancy, infant's gestational age, birth weight and head circumference at birth are obtained from patient card. Post-natal factors assessed at each follow-up are feeding practices, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements and cognitive development of infants. Iron status is assessed at 6 months, while infant temperament and home environment are assessed at 12 months. Maternal intelligence is assessed at 18 months. Early life nutritional programming is of current interest as many longitudinal studies are actively being conducted in developed countries to investigate this concept. The concept however is relatively new in developing countries such as Malaysia. This study will provide useful information on early nutrition and infant development in the first two years of life which can be further followed up to identify factors that track into childhood and contribute to growth and cognitive deviations.
ADA supports achievement of comprehensive nutrition standards in child-care programs. The standards presented in this position paper focus on meeting the child's nutrition needs and providing a safe and pleasant environment that promotes acquisition of eating habits that prevent disease and enable healthy growth and development. Dietetics professionals can play a powerful role in advocating and assisting the acceptance of child-care nutrition standards by parents, caregivers, foodservice personnel, and directors and policy makers for child-care programs.
Park, Joon Seong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Jae Keun
The benefits of early enteral feeding (EEN) have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal surgery. But, the impact of EEN has not been elucidated yet. We assessed the postoperative nutritional status of patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) according to the postoperative nutritional method and compared the clinical outcomes of two methods. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken following PD. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the EEN group received the postoperative enteral feed and the control group received the postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) management. Thirty-eight patients were included in our analyses. The first day of bowel movement and time to take a normal soft diet was significantly shorter in EEN group than in TPN group. Prealbumin and transferrin were significantly reduced on post-operative day (POD) 7 and were slowly recovered until POD 90 in the TPN group than in the EEN group. EEN group rapidly recovered weight after POD 21 whereas it was gradually decreased in TPN group until POD 90. EEN after PD is associated with preservation of weight compared with TPN and impact on recovery of digestive function after PD. PMID:22379336
Banta, Trudy W.; And Others
The Tennessee Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program is part of a U.S. Department of Agriculture effort to develop a coordinated nutrition education program for children from preschool through grade 12. For this second-year evaluation, researchers associated with the University of Tennessee collected data for the evaluation of program…
Wauchope, Barbara; Shattuck, Anne
This brief, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau, examines how rural families use four of the major federal child nutrition programs. It finds that 29 percent of rural families with children participate but that there are barriers to these nutrition programs, such as the lack of public transportation and high operating costs for rural schools…
... Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Exclusion of Combat Pay From WIC Income Eligibility... Children (WIC) a statutory provision set forth in Section 734(b) of the Agriculture, Rural Development... NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN (WIC) 0 1. The authority citation for part 246 continues...
Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven J.
This study develops estimates of the efficacy of school nutrition programs in improving a broad range of dietary outcomes by comparing the nutritional status of students and their families during the school year with the status when school is out. The study finds evidence that children who have a School Breakfast Program (SBP) available consume a…
Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Mikami, Masamitsu; Oda, Hirotsugu; Hata, Daisuke
This report describes a small-for-date extremely low birth weight infant who manifested bradycardic events, respiratory failure, and hemolytic jaundice during her first week of life. These complications were attributed to severe hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia. Inadequate supply and refeeding syndrome triggered by early aggressive parenteral nutrition were responsible for electrolyte abnormalities. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.
... calculated using the Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs (Program Aid Number 1331). 5. In the... Marine Fisheries Service of the USDC, Food and Drug Administration, or the Department of Justice for...
... calculated using the Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs (Program Aid Number 1331). 5. In the... Marine Fisheries Services of the USDC, Food and Drug Administration, or the Department of Justice for...
... using the Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs (Program Aid Number 1331). 5. In the event a... and AMS of the USDA, National Marine Fisheries Services of the USDC, Food and Drug Administration, or...
... calculated using the Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs (Program AID Number 1331). 5. In the... Drug Administration, or the Department of Justice for action against the company. Any or all of the...
Bradford, Traliece; Serrano, Elena L.; Cox, Ruby H.; Lambur, Michael
Objective: To develop and assess reliability and validity of the Nutrition, Food Safety, and Physical Activity Checklist to measure nutrition, food safety, and physical activity practices among adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and Food Stamp Nutrition Education program (FSNE) participants. Methods: Test-retest…
Meiklejohn, Sarah; Ryan, Lisa; Palermo, Claire
To update evidence on the impact of multi-strategy nutrition education interventions on adolescents' health and nutrition outcomes and behaviors. Systematic review of randomized controlled studies of multi-strategy interventions encompassing nutrition education published from 2000 to 2014 guided by the Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement. Secondary schools in developed countries. Adolescents aged 10-18 years. Anthropometric and dietary intake. Systematic search of 7,009 unduplicated articles and review of 11 studies (13 articles) meeting inclusion criteria using qualitative comparison. Four studies reported significant changes in anthropometric measures and 9 showed significant changes in dietary intake. Type of nutrition education varied. Components of the interventions that showed statistically significant changes in anthropometric and dietary intake included facilitation of the programs by school staff and teachers, parental involvement, and using theoretical models to guide the intervention's development. Changes in canteens, food supply, and vending machines were associated with significant changes in dietary intake. Multi-strategy interventions can have significant impacts on nutrition of adolescents when the nutrition education is theoretically based and facilitated by school staff in conjunction with parents and families, and includes changes to the school food environment. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brener Dik, P H; Galletti, M F; Fernández Jonusas, S A; Alonso, G; Mariani, G L; Fustiñana, C A
To report the prevalence of hypophosphatemia during the first week of life in preterm infants receiving aggressive parenteral nutrition and to analyze population variables associated with severe hypophosphatemia. A retrospective cohort of 61 neonates below 1250 g birth weight consecutively born at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires exposed to high caloric and protein intake from the first day of birth. Primary outcome was hypophosphatemia (phosphate <4 mg dl(-1)). A one-sample mean comparison test was used to compare our sample with a hypothesized population mean. The prevalence of hypophosphatemia was 91% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82 to 97%). The mean phosphatemia value was 2.52 mg dl(-1) (95% CI 2.18 to 2.86), significantly different from the hypothesized population mean (P<0.001). Patients with severe hypophosphatemia (<2 mg dl(-1)) were smaller. They presented with sepsis more frequently and received more vasoactive drugs and mechanical ventilation. The prevalence of hypophosphatemia in this group of preterm infants is high. The potential association with adverse clinical outcomes deserves further research.
Howard-Pitney, B; Winkleby, M A; Albright, C L; Bruce, B; Fortmann, S P
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the Stanford Nutrition Action Program, an experimental trial to reduce dietary fat intake among low-literacy, low-income adults. METHODS: Twenty-four paired adult education classes (351 participants, 85% women, mean age = 31 years) were randomly assigned to receive a newly developed dietary fat curriculum (the Stanford Nutrition Action Program) or an existing general nutrition curriculum. Food frequency and nutrition-related data, body mass index, and capillary blood cholesterol were collected at baseline and at two postintervention follow-ups. RESULTS: The Stanford Nutrition Action Program classes showed significantly greater net improvements in nutrition knowledge (+7.7), attitudes (/0.2), and self-efficacy (-0.2) than the general nutrition classes; they also showed significantly greater reductions in the percentage of calories from total (-2.3%) and saturated (-0.9%) fat. There were no significant differences in body mass index or blood cholesterol. All positive intervention effects were maintained for 3 months postintervention. CONCLUSIONS: The Stanford Nutrition Action Program curriculum, tailored to the cultural, economic, and learning needs of low-literacy, low-income adults, was significantly more effective in achieving fat-related nutritional changes than the general nutrition curriculum. PMID:9431286
Fan, Mingchao; Wang, Qiaoling; Fang, Wei; Jiang, Yunxia; Li, Liandi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Zhihong
aspirated pneumonia (27.5% vs. 50.0%; χ 2 = 6.39, P<0.05), hypoproteinemia (17.5% vs. 55.0%; χ 2 = 18.26, P<0.01) and diarrhea (20.0% vs. 60.0%; χ 2 = 20.00, P<0.01). The EN+PN group also had significant less length of stay in NICU (t=2.51, 4.82; P<0.05, P<0.01), number of patients receiving assisted mechanical ventilation (χ 2 = 6.08, 12.88; P<0.05, P<0.01) and its durations (t=3.41, 9.08; P<0.05, P<0.01), and the death rate (χ 2 =7.50, 16.37; P<0.05, P<0.01) than those of EN or PN group. Conclusion Early EN+PN treatment could promote the recovery of the immune function, enhance nutritional status, decrease complications and improve the clinical outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
Lesoway, Maryna P; Collin, Rachel; Abouheif, Ehab
Investigation of alternative phenotypes, different morphologies produced by a single genome, has contributed novel insights into development and evolution. Yet, the mechanisms underlying developmental switch points between alternative phenotypes remain poorly understood. The calyptraeid snails Crepidula navicella and Calyptraea lichen produce two phenotypes: viable and nutritive embryos, where nutritive embryos arrest their development after gastrulation and are ingested by their viable siblings as a form of intracapsular nutrition. Here, we investigate the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, ERK1/2) and apoptosis during early cleavage. MAPK and apoptosis, found in a previous transcriptomic study, are known to be involved in organization of other spiralian embryos and nutritive embryo development, respectively. In the model Crepidula fornicata, MAPK activation begins at the 16-cell stage. In contrast, we discovered in C. navicella and C. lichen that many embryos begin MAPK activation at the one-cell stage. A subset of embryos shows a similar pattern of MAPK activation to C. fornicata at later stages. In all stages where MAPK is detected, the activation pattern is highly variable, frequently occurring in all quadrants or in multiple tiers of cells. We also detected apoptosis in cleaving embryos, while C. fornicata and Crepidula lessoni, which do not produce nutritive embryos, show no signs of apoptosis during cleavage. Our results show that MAPK and apoptosis are expressed during early development in species with nutritive embryos, and raises the possibility that these processes may play a role and even interact with one another in producing the nutritive embryo phenotype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Browne, Jennifer; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Gleeson, Deborah; Hayes, Rick
Objective To provide an overview of previous reviews of programs that aimed to improve nutritional status or diet-related health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, in order to determine what programs are effective and why. Methods A systematic search of databases and relevant websites was undertaken to identify reviews of nutrition interventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Pairs of reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction and performed quality assessment using a validated tool. Results Twelve papers reporting 11 reviews were identified. Two reviews were rated high quality, three were rated medium and six were rated low quality. The reviews demonstrated that a positive effect on nutrition and chronic disease indicators can be a result of: 1) incorporating nutrition and breastfeeding advice into maternal and child health care services; and 2) multifaceted community nutrition programs. The evidence suggests that the most important factor determining the success of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander food and nutrition programs is community involvement in (and, ideally, control of) program development and implementation. Conclusions Community-directed food and nutrition programs, especially those with multiple components that address the underlying causes of nutrition issues, can be effective in improving nutrition-related outcomes. What is known about the topic? More effective action is urgently required in order to reduce the unacceptable health inequalities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Food insecurity and nutrition-related chronic conditions are responsible for a large proportion of the ill health experienced by Australia's First Peoples. What does this paper add? This narrative overview of 11 reviews published between 2005 and 2015 provides a synthesis of the current evidence for improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nutrition
Ammerman, Alice S; Hartman, Terry; DeMarco, Molly M
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) serves as an important nutritional safety net program for many Americans. Given its aim to use traditional economic levers to provide access to food, the SNAP program includes minimal nutritional requirements and restrictions. As food choices are influenced by more than just economic constraints, behavioral economics may offer insights and tools for altering food purchases for SNAP users. This manuscript outlines behavioral economics strategies that have potential to encourage healthier food choices within the SNAP program. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huston, Robert K; Markell, Andrea M; McCulley, Elizabeth A; Marcus, Matthew J; Cohen, Howard S
Computerized software programs reduce errors and increase consistency when ordering parenteral nutrition (PN). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of our computerized neonatal PN calculator ordering program in reducing errors and optimizing nutrient intake. This was a retrospective study of infants requiring PN during the first 2-3 weeks of life. Caloric, protein, calcium, and phosphorus intakes; days above and below amino acid (AA) goals; and PN ordering errors were recorded. Infants were divided into 3 groups by birth weight for analysis: ≤1000 g, 1001-1500 g, and >1500 g. Intakes and outcomes of infants before (2007) vs after (2009) implementation of the calculator for each group were compared. There were no differences in caloric, protein, or phosphorus intakes in 2007 vs 2009 in any group. Mean protein intakes were 97%-99% of goal for ≤1000-g and 1001- to 1500-g infants in 2009 vs 87% of goal for each group in 2007. In 2007, 7.6 per 100 orders were above and 11.5 per 100 were below recommended AA intakes. Calcium intakes were higher in 2009 vs 2007 in ≤1000-g (46.6 ± 6.1 vs 39.5 ± 8.0 mg/kg/d, P < .001) and >1500-g infants (50.6 ± 7.4 vs 39.9 ± 8.3 mg/kg/d, P < .001). Ordering errors were reduced from 4.6 per 100 in 2007 to 0.1 per 100 in 2009. Our study reaffirms that computerized ordering systems can increase the quality and safety of neonatal PN orders. Calcium and AA intakes were optimized and ordering errors were minimized using the computer-based ordering program.
Daley, Brian J; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill; Van Way, Charles W; Collier, Bryan; Gramlich, Leah; McMahon, M Molly; McClave, Stephen A
Nutrition leaders surmised graduate medical nutrition education was not well addressed because most medical and surgical specialties have insufficient resources to teach current nutrition practice. A needs assessment survey was constructed to determine resources and commitment for nutrition education from U.S. graduate medical educators to address this problem. An online survey of 36 questions was sent to 495 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Program Directors in anesthesia, family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, and general surgery. Demographics, resources, and open-ended questions were included. There was a 14% response rate (72 programs), consistent with similar studies on the topic. Most (80%) of the program directors responding were from primary care programs, the rest surgical (17%) or anesthesia (3%). Program directors themselves lacked knowledge of nutrition. While some form of nutrition education was provided at 78% of programs, only 26% had a formal curriculum and physicians served as faculty at only 53%. Sixteen programs had no identifiable expert in nutrition and 10 programs stated that no nutrition training was provided. Training was variable, ranging from an hour of lecture to a month-long rotation. Seventy-seven percent of program directors stated that the required educational goals in nutrition were not met. The majority felt an advanced course in clinical nutrition should be required of residents now or in the future. Nutrition education in current graduate medical education is poor. Most programs lack the expertise or time commitment to teach a formal course but recognize the need to meet educational requirements. A broad-based, diverse universal program is needed for training in nutrition during residency. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
The initial plans for the National Institute of Education (NIE) program in early childhood education are described. The first part of the document contains a discussion of the relationship between planned NIE programs and existing early childhood federal programs. In both planned and existing programs, disadvantaged children are the primary…
Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack
At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control).
Lane, Helen W.
This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.
Estaquio, Carla; Castetbon, Katia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Deschamps, Valérie; Dauchet, Luc; Péneau, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge
Few studies have found that adherence to dietary guidelines reduces the incidence of chronic disease. In 2001, a National Nutrition and Health Program (Program National Nutrition Santé) was implemented in France and included 9 quantified priority nutritional goals involving fruit, vegetable, and nutrient intakes, nutritional status, and physical activity. We developed an index score that includes indicators of these public health objectives and examined the association between this score and the incidence of major chronic diseases in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort. Data from middle-aged adults free of major chronic diseases and who provided at least 3 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up have been included in the present analysis (n = 4,976). Major chronic disease, documented during the 8-y follow-up period (n = 455), was defined as the combination of cardiovascular disease (n = 131), cancer (n = 261), or death (n = 63), whichever came first. In fully adjusted Cox models, men in the top tertile score compared with those in the lowest one had a 36% lower risk of major chronic diseases (hazard ratio = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96). No association was found in women. Healthy diet and lifestyle were associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases, particularly in men, thereby underlying relevance of the French nutritional recommendations.
Peng, J; Cai, J; Niu, Z-X; Chen, L-Q
Early postoperative enteral nutrition (EN) after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patient has been reported to be correlated with a better rehabilitation than parenteral nutrition (PN). However, a robust conclusion has not been achieved. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the postoperative EN and PN in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy. Three electronic databases were searched for eligible studies to be included in the meta-analysis. The summary relative risk/weighted mean difference (RR/WMD) estimates and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The analysis demonstrated that the early postoperative EN could significantly decrease the pulmonary complications (RR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.22-0.62, P = 0.00, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.89) and anastomotic leakage (RR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22-0.96, P = 0.04, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.66) compared with PN. On the eighth postoperative day, the EN group had a higher levels of albumin (WMD = 1.84, 95% CI = 0.47-3.21, P = 0.01, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 84.5%, P = 0.00) and prealbumin (WMD = 12.96, 95% CI = 3.63-22.29, P = 0.01, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.63) compared with the PN group. However, there was no difference in digestive complications between these two approaches (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.79-2.13, P = 0.30, test for heterogeneity: I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.97). For patients with esophageal cancer following esophagectomy, the early postoperative EN support could decrease the morbidity of severe complications, such as pulmonary complications and anastomotic leakage, and maintain patients at a better nutritional status than parenteral nutrion support. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
Derscheid, Linda E.; Umoren, Josephine; Kim, So-Yeun; Henry, Beverly W.; Zittel, Lauriece L.
Child care teachers and staff are important influences on preschoolers' nutrition and physical activity habits, and their views may be influenced by education level, years of field experience, and program involvement. For the 360 participants surveyed, responses on 5 of 18 survey items significantly differed by education level (e.g., less…
Laverentz, M L; Cox, C C; Jordan, M
Very little is known about the Nuer culture, partly because of its widely misunderstood language and because of the mixture of its people with the other tribes in Africa, according to Evans-Pritchard). However, it is known that the Nuer women's roles in the family seem to be centered around cooking duties. In the Nuer culture, no work is considered degrading, and the women know and accept their domestic duties. During the summer of 1996, a pilot project was conducted as an attempt to help Nuer refugee women of Des Moines, Iowa, incorporate nutritional concepts and American food preparation techniques into their existing methods of food preparation. The barriers faced involved the Nuer women's unfamiliarity with American foods and household items and their inability to read and understand English. Cultural issues and barriers were overcome when the health educator was willing to take the time to gain the trust and respect of the Nuer people. Structured interviews indicated an increase in knowledge of American foods and cooking skills. This education program in no way meant to replace traditional Nuer cooking methods; rather, it acted as a way to adjust to life in the United States.
..., research or nutrition education programs. 1150.153 Section 1150.153 Agriculture Regulations of the... § 1150.153 Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs... nutrition education program may apply to the Secretary for certification of qualification so that producers...
..., research or nutrition education programs. 1150.153 Section 1150.153 Agriculture Regulations of the... § 1150.153 Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs... nutrition education program may apply to the Secretary for certification of qualification so that producers...
Hermann, Janice; Parker, Stephany; Phelps, Josh; Brown, Barbara
Extension is positioned to provide school-based nutrition education programs as required by the 2004 Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act. To enhance program acceptance and sustainability, it is important to consider school administrators' and teachers' interests and preferences regarding nutrition education programming. The project…
Mabli, James; Worthington, Julie
This article investigates the association between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation and child food security by using data from the largest national survey of the food security of SNAP participants to date. The analysis used a survey of nearly 3000 households with children and a quasi-experimental research design that consisted of 2 sets of comparisons. Using a cross-sectional sample, we compared information collected from SNAP households within days of program entry with information collected from a contemporaneous sample of SNAP households that had participated for ∼6 months. Next, by using a longitudinal sample, we compared baseline information collected from new-entrant SNAP households with information from those same households 6 months later. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between SNAP and child food security. SNAP participation was associated with an approximately one-third decrease in the odds of children being food insecure in both samples. In the cross-sectional analysis only, SNAP was also associated with a decrease in the odds of children experiencing severe food insecurity (designated very low food security). Findings were qualitatively robust to different empirical specifications. After controlling for other possible confounders, we found children in households that had participated in SNAP for 6 months experienced improvements in food security. On the basis of these findings, we conclude SNAP serves a vital role in improving the health and well-being of low-income children by increasing food security. Future research is needed to determine whether specific groups of children experience differential improvements in food security.
Cousineau, Tara; Houle, Brian; Bromberg, Jonas; Fernandez, Kathrine C; Kling, Whitney C
Tailored nutrition Web programs constitute an emerging trend in obesity prevention. Initial investment in innovative technology necessitates that the target population be well understood. This pilot study's purpose was to determine the feasibility of a workplace nutrition Web program. Formative research was conducted with gaming industry employees and benefits managers to develop a consensus on workplace-specific nutrition needs. A demonstration Web program was piloted with stakeholders to determine feasibility. Indiana, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Jersey gaming establishments. 86 employees, 18 benefits managers. Prototype Web program. Concept mapping; 16-item nutrition knowledge test; satisfaction. Concept mapping was used to aggregate importance ratings on programmatic content, which informed Web program curriculum. Chi-square tests were performed postintervention to determine knowledge improvement. (1) Employees and benefits managers exhibited moderate agreement about content priorities for the program (r = 0.48). (2) There was a significant increase in employees' nutrition knowledge scores postintervention (t = 7.16, df = 36, P < .001); those with less knowledge exhibited the greatest gains in knowledge scores (r = -0.647, P < .001). Employees and benefit managers do not necessarily agree on the priority of nutrition-related content, suggesting a need for programs to appeal to various stakeholders. Computer-based approaches can address various stakeholder health concerns via tailored, customized programming.
Cousineau, Tara; Houle, Brian; Bromberg, Jonas; Fernandez, Kathrine C.; Kling, Whitney C.
Objective Tailored nutrition Web programs constitute an emerging trend in obesity prevention. Initial investment in innovative technology necessitates that the target population be well understood. This pilot study’s purpose was to determine the feasibility of a workplace nutrition Web program. Design Formative research was conducted with gaming industry employees and benefits managers to develop a consensus on workplace-specific nutrition needs. A demonstration Web program was piloted with stakeholders to determine feasibility. Setting Indiana, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Jersey gaming establishments. Participants 86 employees, 18 benefits managers. Intervention Prototype Web program. Main Outcome Measures Concept mapping; 16-item nutrition knowledge test; satisfaction. Analysis Concept mapping was used to aggregate importance ratings on programmatic content, which informed Web program curriculum. Chi-square tests were performed postintervention to determine knowledge improvement. Results (1) Employees and benefits managers exhibited moderate agreement about content priorities for the program (r = 0.48). (2) There was a significant increase in employees’ nutrition knowledge scores postintervention (t = 7.16, df = 36, P < .001); those with less knowledge exhibited the greatest gains in knowledge scores (r = −0.647, P < .001). Conclusions and Implications Employees and benefit managers do not necessarily agree on the priority of nutrition-related content, suggesting a need for programs to appeal to various stakeholders. Computer-based approaches can address various stakeholder health concerns via tailored, customized programming. PMID:18457784
Meffert, Cornelia; Gerdes, Nikolaus
Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a commercial nutrition program in improving weight, blood lipids, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods. Prospective observational study with followup after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with data from questionnaires and blood samples. Subjects. After 12 months, we had data from 524 subjects (= 60.6% of the initial samples). 84.1% of the subjects were women. The average BMI at baseline was 30.3 (SD = 5.7). Results. After 12 months, the average weight loss was 6.8 kg (SD = 7.1 kg). Program adherence declined over time but was still high after 12 months and showed a positive linear correlation with weight loss. Relevant blood parameters as well as HRQOL improved significantly. Conclusion. After 12 months, nearly two thirds of the samples had achieved >5% reduction of their initial weights. The high degree of program adherence is probably due to personal counseling and individually designed nutrition plans provided by the program.
Cason, K L
This report describes the evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences. Forty-six nutrition educators provided a series of 12 lessons to 6102 preschool-age children. The program was evaluated using a pretest/post-test design to assess differences in fruit and vegetable identification, healthy snack choices, willingness to taste foods, and eating behaviors. Subjects showed significant improvement in food identification and recognition, healthy snack identification, willingness to taste foods, and frequency of fruit, vegetable, meat, and dairy consumption. The evaluation indicates that the program was an effective approach for educating preschool children about nutrition.
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Beckett, Celia; Kreppner, Jana; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Stevens, Suzanne; Hawkins, Amanda; Rutter, Michael
Institutional deprivation is multifaceted and includes adverse psychosocial and nutrition-related components. In this study we partitioned these risks in relation to cognitive impairment and mental ill health, and explored the mediating role of reduced head/brain size. There were 138 participants (61 males, 77 females) in the study. Participants were Romanian adoptees who had experienced at least 2 weeks of early institutional deprivation. The sample was stratified on the basis of duration of deprivation (high risk >6 mo in institutions) and sub-nutrition (i.e. 1.5 SD below UK age-related norms for weight at UK entry). UK children adopted before 6 months of age and a group of non-institutionally deprived Romanian children constituted the comparison groups. Duration of deprivation was associated with smaller head circumference, lowered IQ, and increased mental heath problems, independently of effects found for sub-nutrition on head circumference and IQ. The mediating role of head circumference was limited to either sub-nourished (IQ) or non-sub-nourished (inattention/overactivity and disinhibited attachment) subgroups. Many negative effects of early deprivation, including stunted brain growth, occur without sub-nutrition: psychosocial deprivation plays a major role in neurodevelopmental effects of deprivation. Further studies of functional and structural neuroanatomy following institutional deprivation are required to delineate the role of brain development in its effects.
Porcelli, Peter J; Weaver, R Grey
Retinopathy of prematurity(ROP) is the most common serious ophthalmic disease in preterm infants. Human milk may provide a protective effect for ROP; however, beneficial effects of human milk preclude randomized trials. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing early postnatal nutrition with ROP development. Evaluate relationship between early postnatal nutriture and ROP surgery. Nutrition data was collected for inborn AGA infants, BW 700-1000 g. ROP surgery was the primary outcome variable. A single pediatric ophthalmologist supervised examinations. All infants received triweekly IM vitamin A as chronic lung disease prophylaxis (Tyson: NEJM, 1999). BW and gestational age were 867+/-85 g and 26.3+/-1.2 weeks (n=77, mean+/-1SD). ROP surgery infants(n=11) received more parenteral nutrition, 1648 mL, and less human milk, 13.8 mL/kg-day, and vitamin E, 1.4 mg/kg-day, during the second postnatal week. Human milk was a negative predictor for ROP surgery, odds ratio=0.94. Both groups met vitamin A recommendations; however, 74% was administered via IM injections. Neither group met vitamin E recommendations. Human milk feeding, parenteral nutrition volume and vitamin E intake were predictors for ROP surgery. IM vitamin A injections provided the majority of vitamin A; vitamin E administration was insufficient. Improving human milk feeding rates and vitamin dosing options may affect ROP surgery rates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...
Rep. Stutzman, Marlin A. [R-IN-3
House - 05/03/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, and Nutrition. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-6547 appearing on pages 17631-17632 in the issue of Friday, March 22, 2013, make the following correction: On...
Bell, Chelsea; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee; Carithers, Teresa
Purpose/Objectives: The Mississippi Recipes for Success (MRS), a customizable selective menu system resource, was developed for child nutrition program (CNP) directors to comply with USDA nutrition regulations. The resource is available in printed and online formats and includes recipes, menu matrixes, food safety, and training materials for meal…
Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie
Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…
Banta, Trudy W.; And Others
The Bureau of Educational Research and Service at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) conducted the 1981-82 evaluation of the Tennessee Nutrition Education and Training Program. Instruments developed, field tested, and revised by the UTK team were used to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceptions of students…
Bell State Univ., Muncie, IN. Dept. of Home Economics.
This guidebook consists of two main parts: a user's guide for training teachers in nutrition; and the educational materials to be used in the training program. The object of this guidebook is to increase the knowledge and competence of inservice elementary and secondary teachers in nutrition education. Sections in the user's guide describe three…
Van Offelen, Sara; Sherman, Shelley; May, Jill; Rhodes, Felisha
A focus group of Somali immigrants was conducted as part of a larger study of underserved communities in Minnesota. The goal was to capture Somali women's personal experiences and views on nutrition. This understanding assists Health and Nutrition educators in assessing the quality and effectiveness of current programming efforts and making…
Weaver, Robert Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Webster, Collin; Beighle, Aaron; Huberty, Jennifer
Background: After-school programs (ASPs, 3 pm to 6 pm) have been called upon to increase the amount of daily physical activity children accumulate and improve the nutritional quality of the snacks served. To this end, state and national physical activity and nutrition (PAaN) policies have been proposed. Frontline staff who directly interact with…
Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Montgomery, Margrethe; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Wilbraham, Brooke
This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…
Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Montgomery, Margrethe; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Wilbraham, Brooke
This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…
... retailers to be fundamental to the effectiveness of this critical nutrition assistance program. FNS is... delivered to: Shanta Swezy, Chief, Retailer Management and Issuance Branch, Retailer Policy and Management..., Retailer Management and Issuance Branch, Food and Nutrition Service, (703) 305- 2238. SUPPLEMENTARY...
... Monitoring Branch, Child Nutrition Division, 3101 Park Center Drive, Alexandria, VA 22302. SUPPLEMENTARY... in meals; and meet the nutrition needs of school children within their calorie requirements. These improvements to the school meal programs, largely based on recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine of...
The Texas Nutrition Education and Training Program (NET) provides: (1) workshops to teach children about good eating habits in school and in child care facilities; (2) a circulating NET library collection; (3) instructional and promotional materials on nutrition and food service management; (4) presentations, exhibits, and publications on…
Valla, Frederic V; Ford-Chessel, Carole; Meyer, Rosan; Berthiller, Julien; Dupenloup, Christine; Follin-Arbelet, Nathalie; Hubert, Anna; Javouhey, Etienne; Peretti, Noel
The cornerstone of an optimal nutrition approach in PICUs is to evaluate the nutritional status of any patient. Anthropometric measurements and nutritional indices calculation allow for nutritional status assessment, which is not often part of routine management, as it is considered difficult to perform in this setting. We designed a study to evaluate the impact of a training program by the PICU nutritional support team on the implementation of routine anthropometric measurements on our PICU. A prospective study was performed over a 2-year period, which included: a baseline evaluation of nutritional assessment, knowledge, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and head and mid upper arm circumferences), and nutritional indices calculation in patient files. This was followed by a training program to implement the newly developed nutrition assessment guidelines, which included anthropometrical measurements and also the interpretation of these. The impact of this nutritional assessment program was reviewed annually for 2 years after the implementation. PICU--Lyon, France. PICU nursing and medical staff, and patients admitted in February 2011, 2012, and 2013. Training program. Ninety-nine percent of staff (n = 145) attended the individual teaching. We found significant progress in nutritional awareness and confidence about nutritional assessment following the teaching program. In addition, an improvement in staff knowledge about undernutrition and its consequences were found. We enrolled 41, 55, and 91 patients in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. There was a significant increase in anthropometric measurements during this time: 32%, 65% (p = 0.002), and 96% in 2013 (p < 0.001). Nutritional indices were calculated in 20%, 74% (p < 0.001), and 96% (p < 0.001) of cases. This is the first study, showing that a targeted nutritional assessment teaching program that highlights both the importance and techniques of anthropometrical measurements has successfully been
Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah
The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest,…
Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan
To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (P<0.05). However, the other age groups had significantly smaller body length and weight than the rural averages in China (P<0.05). After the implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (P<0.05), but the prevalence rate of emaciation increased (P<0.05). At the same time, the prevalence rate of overweight/obesity increased (P<0.05) and the prevalence rate of anemia decreased (P<0.05). The implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".
Wimer, Christopher; Seligman, Hilary
Objectives. To examine the association of county-level cost of living with nutrition among low-income Americans. Methods. We used the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (2012–2013; n = 14 313; including 5414 persons in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]) to examine associations between county-level cost-of-living metrics and both food acquisitions and the Healthy Eating Index, with control for individual-, household-, and county-level covariates and accounting for unmeasured confounders influencing both area of living and food acquisition. Results. Living in a higher-cost county—particularly one with high rent costs—was associated with significantly lower volume of acquired vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; greater volume of acquired refined grains, fats and oils, and added sugars; and an 11% lower Healthy Eating Index score. Participation in SNAP was associated with nutritional improvements among persons living in higher-cost counties. Conclusions. Living in a higher-cost county (particularly with high rent costs) is associated with poorer nutrition among low-income Americans, and SNAP may mitigate the negative nutritional impact of high cost of living. PMID:27631742
Basu, Sanjay; Wimer, Christopher; Seligman, Hilary
To examine the association of county-level cost of living with nutrition among low-income Americans. We used the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (2012-2013; n = 14 313; including 5414 persons in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP]) to examine associations between county-level cost-of-living metrics and both food acquisitions and the Healthy Eating Index, with control for individual-, household-, and county-level covariates and accounting for unmeasured confounders influencing both area of living and food acquisition. Living in a higher-cost county-particularly one with high rent costs-was associated with significantly lower volume of acquired vegetables, fruits, and whole grains; greater volume of acquired refined grains, fats and oils, and added sugars; and an 11% lower Healthy Eating Index score. Participation in SNAP was associated with nutritional improvements among persons living in higher-cost counties. Living in a higher-cost county (particularly with high rent costs) is associated with poorer nutrition among low-income Americans, and SNAP may mitigate the negative nutritional impact of high cost of living.
Kim, Hyunjung; Chang, Sun Ju
Although international nutrition societies recommend enteral nutrition guidelines for patients in intensive care units (ICUs), large gaps exist between these recommendations and actual clinical practice. Education programs designed to improve nurses' knowledge about enteral nutrition are therefore required. In Korea, there are no educational intervention studies about evidence-based guidelines of enteral nutrition for critically ill patients. We aimed to evaluate the effects of an education program to improve critical care nurses' perceptions, knowledge, and practices towards providing enteral nutritional support for ICU patients. A quasi-experimental, one-group study with a pre- and post-test design was conducted from March to April 2015. Nurses (N = 205) were recruited from nine ICUs from four tertiary hospitals in South Korea. The education program comprised two sessions of didactic lectures. Data were collected before (pre-test) and 1 month after (post-test) the education program using questionnaires that addressed nurses' perceptions, knowledge, and practices relating to providing enteral nutritional support for ICU patients. After the program, nurses showed a significant improvement in their perceptions and knowledge of enteral nutrition for ICU patients. There was a significant improvement in inspecting nostrils daily, flushing the feeding tube before administration, providing medication that needs to be crushed correctly, changing feeding sets, and adjusting feeding schedules. The findings indicate that an enteral nutrition education program could be an effective strategy to increase critical care nurses' support for the critically ill. This education program can be incorporated into hospital education or in-service training for critical care nurses to strengthen their perceptions and knowledge of nutritional support in the ICU. This may improve the clinical outcomes of ICU patients. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2008
In 1994, the federal Early Head Start program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income children under age 3 and pregnant women. Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the…
Mosier, Michael J.; Pham, Tam N.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.
Early nutritional support is an essential component of burn care to prevent ileus, stress ulceration, and the effects of hypermetabolism. The American Burn Association practice guidelines state that enteral feedings should be initiated as soon as practical. The authors sought to evaluate compliance with early enteral nutrition (EN) guidelines, associated complications, and hospitalization outcomes in a prospective multicenter observational study. They conducted a retrospective review of mechanically ventilated burn patients enrolled in the prospective observational multicenter study “Inflammation and the Host Response to Injury.” Timing of initiation of tube feedings was recorded, with early EN defined as being started within 24 hours of admission. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish barriers to initiation of EN and the impact of early feeding on development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, infectious complications, days on mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and survival. A total of 153 patients met study inclusion criteria. The cohort comprised 73% men, with a mean age of 41 ± 15 years and a mean %TBSA burn of 46 ± 18%. One hundred twenty-three patients (80%) began EN in the first 24 hours and 145 (95%) by 48 hours. Age, sex, inhalation injury, and full-thickness burn size were similar between those fed by 24 hours vs after 24 hours, except for higher mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (26 vs 23, P = .03) and smaller total burn size (44 vs 54% TBSA burn, P = .01) in those fed early. There was no significant difference in rates of hyperglycemia, abdominal compartment syndrome, or gastrointestinal bleeding between groups. Patients fed early had shorter ICU length of stay (adjusted hazard ratio 0.57, P = 0.03, 95% confidence interval 0.35–0.94) and reduced wound infection risk (adjusted odds ratio 0.28, P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 0.10–0.76). The
Havens, Erin K; Martin, Katie S; Yan, Jun; Dauser-Forrest, Deborah; Ferris, Ann M
Literature on food environments is expanding rapidly, yet a gap exists regarding the role of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on healthy food availability. In October 2009, the U.S. Department of Agriculture revised the WIC food package, requiring certified stores to stock fresh produce, whole grains, and lower-fat milk. The goal of this study is to compare availability of foods in stores that are versus those that are not WIC-certified before and after the policy change. Store inventories were collected in 45 corner stores in Hartford CT with four inventories each (180 total inventories) from January 2009 to January 2010. Data on availability and variety of fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, whole grains, and lower-fat milk were recorded. Analyses were completed in 2012 using Fisher's exact test, chi-square, and t-tests for descriptive analyses and multilevel models to measure food availability longitudinally (significance at p<0.05). Controlling for covariates, WIC-certified vendors carried more varieties of fresh fruit (p<0.01); a greater proportion of lower-fat milk (p<0.01); and had greater availability of whole grain bread (p<0.01) and brown rice (p<0.05) than vendors without WIC authorization after the policy change. Conversely, for all outcomes, stores without WIC authorization did not significantly increase healthy food availability. The 2009 WIC revisions increased availability of healthy foods among WIC-certified vendors compared to those without WIC authorization in Hartford CT. For many residents without a car, these changes can create a convenient shopping location for healthy foods when a larger supermarket is not nearby. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Position of the American Dietetic Association, Society for Nutrition Education, and American School Food Service Association--Nutrition services: an essential component of comprehensive school health programs.
Briggs, Marilyn; Safaii, SeAnne; Beall, Deborah Lane
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), the Society for Nutrition Education (SNE), and the American School Food Service Association (ASFSA) that comprehensive nutrition services must be provided to all of the nation's preschool through grade twelve students. These nutrition services shall be integrated with a coordinated, comprehensive school health program and implemented through a school nutrition policy. The policy should link comprehensive, sequential nutrition education; access to and promotion of child nutrition programs providing nutritious meals and snacks in the school environment; and family, community, and health services' partnerships supporting positive health outcomes for all children. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is directly attributed to physical inactivity and diet. Schools can play a key role in reversing this trend through coordinated nutrition services that promote policies linking comprehensive, sequential nutrition education programs, access to and marketing of child nutrition programs, a school environment that models healthy food choices, and community partnerships. This position paper provides information and resources for nutrition professionals to use in developing and supporting comprehensive school health programs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:505-514.
Stinson, Wendy Bounds; Carr, Deborah; Nettles, Mary Frances; Johnson, James T.
Purpose/Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the extent to which school nutrition (SN) programs have implemented food safety programs based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles, as well as factors, barriers, and practices related to implementation of these programs. Methods: An online survey was…
Rep. Moore, Gwen [D-WI-4
House - 11/16/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Department Operations, Oversight, Nutrition and Forestry. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen
School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in Basic Schools (NEBS) project, this article examines whether and to what extent school-based health and nutrition education can contribute directly to improving the health and nutrition behaviors of school children. Initial results suggest that gains in awareness, knowledge and behavior can be achieved among children and their families with an actively implemented classroom program backed by teacher training and parent involvement, even in the absence of school-based nutrition and health services.
We investigate the factors that contribute to participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and the effects of such participation on self-assessed health (SAH). An endogenous switching ordered probability model is developed with alternative error distributional assumptions, ...
Zhu, Xin-Hua; Wu, Ya-Fu; Qiu, Yu-Dong; Jiang, Chun-Ping; Ding, Yi-Tao
To investigate the effect of early enteral nutrition (EEN) combined with parenteral nutritional support in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). From January 2006, all patients were given EEN combined with parenteral nutrition (PN) (EEN/PN group, n = 107), while patients prior to this date were given total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (TPN group, n = 67). Venous blood samples were obtained for a nutrition-associated assessment and liver function tests on the day before surgery and 6 d after surgery. The assessment of clinical outcome was based on postoperative complications. Follow-up for infectious and noninfectious complications was carried out for 30 d after hospital discharge. Readmission within 30 d after discharge was also recorded. Compared with the TPN group, a significant decrease in prealbumin (PAB) (P = 0.023) was seen in the EEN/PN group. Total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased on day 6 in the EEN/PN group (P = 0.006, 0.004 and 0.032, respectively). The rate of grade I complications, grade II complications and the length of postoperative hospital stay in the EEN/PN group were significantly decreased (P = 0.036, 0.028 and 0.021, respectively), and no hospital mortality was observed in our study. Compared with the TPN group (58.2%), the rate of infectious complications in the EEN/PN group (39.3%) was significantly decreased (P = 0.042). Eleven cases of delayed gastric emptying were noted in the TPN group, and 6 cases in the EEN/PN group. The rate of delayed gastric emptying and hyperglycemia was significantly reduced in the EEN/PN group (P = 0.031 and P = 0.040, respectively). Early enteral combined with PN can greatly improve liver function, reduce infectious complications and delayed gastric emptying, and shorten postoperative hospital stay in patients undergoing PD.
Nestor, B; McKenzie, J; Hasan, N; AbuSabha, R; Achterberg, C
Past evaluation research has documented improved nutritional outcomes resulting from participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). However, these evaluations have not examined the program from the clients' perspective, nor have they examined the independent effect of the nutrition education component. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively examine client satisfaction with the nutrition education component of the California WIC program. The methodology consisted of two phases. During phase I of the study (the quantitative component), participants completed Client Satisfaction Surveys immediately following attendance of one nutrition class. During phase II (the qualitative component), four focus groups were conducted. All subjects were participants in the California WIC program. Client Satisfaction Surveys were completed by 2138 participants, and the focus groups included 29 participants. Results from both phases of the study indicated that client satisfaction with the nutrition education component of the California WIC program was high. Between 80% and 95% of participants responded positively to five satisfaction questions, and focus group participants unanimously agreed that the nutrition education was an essential component of the program. Hispanic participants were more likely than non-Hispanic Caucasians, Asians, or African Americans to respond positively to three of the five satisfaction questions. For two of the questions, the frequency of positive responses increased as age increased and decreased as education level increased. A small segment of clients reported some dissatisfaction by responding negatively to one or more of the satisfaction questions (4% to 20% of respondents). Some suggestions for improvement were made by survey respondents. Identification of some WIC participants who are not completely satisfied with the nutrition education that they have received, paired with
This cluster-randomized trial was designed to determine the efficacy of a 6-month exercise-nutritional supplement program (ENP) on physical function and nutritional status for older adults and the feasibility of implementing this program in a senior living setting. Twenty senior living facilities we...
Arnold, Mary E.; Schreiber, Debera
This article reports the results of a descriptive evaluation of the impact of an in-school Extension nutrition education program in a small, very rural county. The evaluation focused on understanding the nature of the role the Extension educator plays in delivering nutrition education, the impact of the program on student learning and achievement…
Giraldo Giraldo, Nubia Amparo; Vásquez Velásquez, Johanna; Roldán Cano, Paula Andrea; Ospina Astudillo, Carolina; Sosa Cardona, Yuliet Paulina
hospital malnutrition is a frequent worldwide problem and its potential issues related include increased complications, length of stay, mortality, and healthcare costs. the aim of this study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of early nutritional therapy for malnourished patients in a high complexity hospital. this analytical study with economic assessment included 227 adult hospitalised and malnourished according to the Subjective Global Assessment. The cohort prospective received Early Nutrition Therapy (ENT), whereas the cohort retrospective received Delayed Nutrition Therapy (DNT). The measures of cost-effectiveness included costs by: length of stay, complications and discharge condition. the cohorts were similar in demographic and clinical characteristics, except that the median age, for the ENT was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 48-71) and for the DNT was 55 years (IQR: 44-67) (p = 0.024). The median length of stay was lower in the ENT (11 days, IQR: 7-17) than in the DNT (18 days, IQR: 10-28) (p < 0.001). The cost per patient discharged alive was US $ 10,261.55 in the ENT and US $ 15,553.11 in the DNT (p=0.043); the cost per patient with complications was US $ 13,663.90 in the ENT and US $ 17,860.32 in the DNT (p= 0.058). ENT increased the likelihood of being discharged alive, RR adjusted=0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1; 0.6; (p<0.001) and decreased the likelihood of complications RR crude=0.8; 95% CI: 0.6; 0.9; (p=0.006). early nutritional therapy for malnourished adult patients appears to be cost-effective because it can reduce the length of stay, complications, mortality and associated costs. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Li, B; Liu, H Y; Guo, S H; Sun, P; Gong, F M; Jia, B Q
The impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients was investigated. Three hundred pa-tients undergoing gastric cancer surgery from July 2010 to May 2014 were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n = 150/group). Experimental group patients received enteral nutrition in water during the early postoperative period. Control group patients received conventional perioperative treatment. Patients' clinical outcomes, post-operative immune function, and nutritional statuses were compared, which revealed that the postoperative fever duration (80.2 ± 6.0 vs 88.1 ± 8.1 h, P < 0.05), anal exhaust time (78.8 ± 9.3 vs 85.3 ± 8.4 h, P < 0.05), and length of hospitalization (7.73 ± 2.13 vs 9.77 ± 1.76 days, P < 0.01) differed significantly. Treatment costs in thousands of dol-lars were 31.24 ± 3.21 for the experimental group and 35.61 ± 2.32 for the control group; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative complications did not significantly differ between the experimental and control groups [14.0% (21/150) vs 17.3% (26/150), P > 0.05]. At postoperative days 3 and 7, the CD3(+), CD4(+), natural killer cell, albumin, and prealbumin levels and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ra-tio were significantly higher in the experimental group than the control group (all P < 0.05). CD8(+) cell counts were significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05). Postsurgical oral EEN can improve nutritional status and immune function and promote early recovery of intestinal function in patients with gastric cancer.
Larmar, Stephen; Gatfield, Terry
The Early Impact (EI) program is an early intervention and prevention program for reducing the incidence of conduct problems in pre-school aged children. The EI intervention framework is ecological in design and includes universal and indicated components. This paper delineates key principles and associated strategies that underpin the EI program.…
This report presents federally mandated evaluations and needs assessments conducted by the Texas Nutrition Education and Training (NET) program during Federal Fiscal Year 1994. General program performance of NET reflected an increase in the number of children in Texas and expansion in NET program activities. Needs assessment data collected from…
This is a summary of the final report of a study (begun in 1979) of the National School Lunch, School Breakfast, and Special Milk Programs. The major objectives of the evaluation were to (1) identify existing information on the school nutrition programs; (2) identify determinants of participation in the programs and develop statistical models for…
Kessler, Lisa; Kalodner, Cynthia
Collaboration between a dietitian and a psychologist has been described as critical to the development and implementation of this weight control programs, and this paper describes such a program conducted through a college student health center. Nutritional components of weight loss programs should provide information which will enable…
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0015] Child Nutrition... Nutrition Labeling Program. DATES: Comments on this document must be received by July 18, 2011 to be assured... INFORMATION: Title: Child Nutrition Labeling Program. OMB Number: 0581-0261 . Expiration Date of Approval: 3...
This study conducted formative research (surveys, focus groups); to assess the nutrition education needs of clients in the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program prior to curriculum revision. Current participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program from 3 Texas cities (...
Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Wakai, Toshifumi
We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. PMID:24067386
Zhou, Xiaoli; Du, Lina; Shi, Ronghua; Chen, Zhidong; Zhou, Yiming; Li, Zongjie
The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state. Therefore it is commonly believed early-life perturbation of the microbial community structure and the dietary nutrition interference on the child mucosal immunity contribute to the whole life susceptibility to chronic diseases. In all, the combined interrelationship between food ingredients nutrition, intestinal microbiota configurations and host system immunity provides new therapeutic targets to treat various kinds of pathogenic inflammations and chronic diseases.
Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo
Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) has recently been applied for early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper stomach as a minimally invasive and function-preserving surgery. This study aimed to clarify the feasibility and nutritional benefits of LPG over laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG). This was a retrospective study of 77 patients with clinical stage I gastric cancer in the upper stomach. Of these patients, 25 underwent LPG, while 52 underwent LTG. Surgical outcomes and postoperative nutritional status such as changes in body weight and blood chemistries were compared between LPG and LTG. Intraoperative blood loss and C-reactive protein levels at 3 and 7 days after surgery were significantly lower in LPG than in LTG (p = 0.018, 0.036, and 0.042, respectively). No significant differences were observed in postoperative early or late complication rates between LPG and LTG. The incidence of Los Angeles Grade B or more severe reflux esophagitis after LPG was 9.1 %, which was similar to that after LTG (9.3 %). Postoperative changes in body weight at 6 months and 1 and 2 years after surgery were consistently less in LPG than in LTG (p = 0.001, 0.022, and 0.001, respectively). Moreover, postoperative levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin and total lymphocyte count were also higher in LPG than in LTG. LPG may be a better choice for EGC in the upper stomach than LTG because it has distinct advantages in terms of surgical invasiveness and postoperative nutritional status.
Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.
Noting that children have different appetites and adjust their food intake on a meal by meal basis, this self study guide presents ideas to help home child care providers meet the nutritional needs of the children in their care. The guide is to be used by individuals and small groups of adults working with infants and children. The guide's eight…
Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
This publication offers practical guidance to help food service professionals provide sound nutrition to America's children and serves as a basis for the revision of U.S. Department of Agriculture meal patterns, menu planning guides, and the development of new recipes. The guide is organized into two sections. The first, "Implementation of…
John, Chandy C; Black, Maureen M; Nelson, Charles A
The early to middle childhood years are a critical period for child neurodevelopment. Nutritional deficiencies, infection, and inflammation are major contributors to impaired child neurodevelopment in these years, particularly in low-resource settings. This review identifies global research priorities relating to nutrition, infection, and inflammation in early to middle childhood neurodevelopment. The research priority areas identified include: (1) assessment of how nutrition, infection, or inflammation in the preconception, prenatal, and infancy periods (or interventions in these periods) affect function in early to middle childhood; (2) assessment of whether effects of nutritional interventions vary by poverty or inflammation; (3) determination of the feasibility of preschool- and school-based integrated nutritional interventions; (4) improved assessment of the epidemiology of infection- and inflammation-related neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI); (5) identification of mechanisms through which infection causes NDI; (6) identification of noninfectious causes of inflammation-related NDI and interventions for causes already identified (eg, environmental factors); and (7) studies on the effects of interactions between nutritional, infectious, and inflammatory factors on neurodevelopment in early to middle childhood. Areas of emerging importance that require additional study include the effects of maternal Zika virus infection, childhood environmental enteropathy, and alterations in the child's microbiome on neurodevelopment in early to middle childhood. Research in these key areas will be critical to the development of interventions to optimize the neurodevelopmental potential of children worldwide in the early to middle childhood years. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Djalalinia, Shirin; Ramezani-Tehrani, Fahimeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Hejazi, Farzaneh; Peykari, Niloofar
Background: Unhealthy nutritional behaviors are a threat to adolescents. In this regard, we compared different training methods through a participatory interventional study. Materials and Methods: Through proportional random selection, 1823 female students were selected from 15 middle schools of Tehran. Following 2 years of intervention, nutritional habits of three different interventional groups were assessed. Results: Eating breakfast was significantly higher in the trained groups, and the use of weight loss diets was lower in them than in the control group. Also, satisfactory consumption of various kinds of nutrients in the trained groups was more than in the control group. Conclusion: Participatory health training, especially through parents, leads to adolescence nutritional health promotion. PMID:24403948
Stotz, Sarah; Lee, Jung Sun; Rong, Hui; Murray, Deborah
Online eLearning may be an innovative, efficient, and cost-effective method of providing nutrition education to a diverse low-income audience. The intent of this project is to examine perceptions of nutrition educators regarding the feasibility of an eLearning nutrition education program tailored to low-income Georgians. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted, guided by the constructivist theory. The interview guide focused on three themes: accessibility, literacy, and content. A prototype of the program also served as a talking point. Interviews were conducted in two urban Georgian counties in a location chosen by each participant. We recruited a convenience sample of Georgian nutrition educators (n = 10, 100% female, 50% Black). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative method. Motivation is considered the primary barrier to program feasibility. Neither access to the Internet nor literacy are considered significant barriers. Inclusion of skill-based, visual education methods such as cooking videos, recipes, and step-by-step teaching tools was highlighted. Nutrition educators perceived this program would be a feasible form of nutrition education for the priority audience. Findings from this study will inform the user-centered development of the program. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…
Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Lopez, Andrea; Seligman, Hilary K.
Free meals often serve as a primary food source for adults living in poverty, particularly the homeless. We conducted a nutritional analysis of 22 meals from 6 free meal sites in San Francisco to determine macronutrient and micronutrient content. Meals provided too little fiber and too much fat but appropriate levels of cholesterol. They were also below target for potassium, calcium, and vitamins A and E. These findings may inform development of nutritional content standards for free meals, particularly for vulnerable patients who might have, or be at risk of developing, a chronic illness. PMID:23721791
Lyles, Courtney R; Drago-Ferguson, Soledad; Lopez, Andrea; Seligman, Hilary K
Free meals often serve as a primary food source for adults living in poverty, particularly the homeless. We conducted a nutritional analysis of 22 meals from 6 free meal sites in San Francisco to determine macronutrient and micronutrient content. Meals provided too little fiber and too much fat but appropriate levels of cholesterol. They were also below target for potassium, calcium, and vitamins A and E. These findings may inform development of nutritional content standards for free meals, particularly for vulnerable patients who might have, or be at risk of developing, a chronic illness.
Hochman, Darlene; Cummings, Kathleen; Elek-Fisk, Elvira; Jefferson, Marcia; Means, Robin; Weber, Alan
This report reviews Suffolk County Community College's (New York) Early Childhood Program. The document begins with an overview of the program's goals, intentions, student requirements, recent student outcomes, and recommendations for future goals and focuses of the program. The program's intent is to prepare individuals for working with young…
Porter, Catherine; Goyal, Radhika
We investigate the impact of a large-scale social protection scheme, the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) in Ethiopia, on child nutritional outcomes. Children living in households that receive cash transfers should experience improved child nutrition. However, in the case of the PSNP, which for the majority of participants is a public works program, there are several potential threats to finding effects: first, without conditionality on child inputs, increased household income may not be translated into improved child nutrition. Second, the work requirement may impact on parental time, child time use and calories burned. Third, if there is a critical period for child human capital investment that closes before the age of 5 then children above this age may not see any improvement in medium-term nutritional outcomes, measured here as height-for-age. Using a cohort study that collected data both pre-and post-program implementation in 2002, 2006 and 2009, we exploit several novel aspects of the survey design to find estimates that can deal with non-random program placement. We present both matching and difference-in-differences estimates for the index children, as well as sibling-differences. Our estimates show an important positive medium-term nutritional impact of the program for children aged 5-15 that are comparable in size to Conditional Cash Transfer program impacts for much younger children. We show indicative evidence that the program impact on improved nutrition is associated with improved food security and reduced child working hours. Our robustness checks restrict the comparison group, by including only households who were shortlisted, but never received PSNP, and also exclude those who never received aid, thus identifying impact based on timing alone. We cannot rule out that the nutritional impact of the program is the same for younger and older children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Puma, Jini; Romaniello, Catherine; Crane, Lori; Scarbro, Sharon; Belansky, Elaine; Marshall, Julie A
To examine the long-term effects of the Integrated Nutrition and Physical Activity Program (INPAP), a school-based nutrition education program. Quasi-experimental design comparing intervention and comparison cohorts at 3-6 years after delivery of the INPAP intervention on nutrition- and physical activity-related outcomes. This study was conducted in 1 school district in a low-income rural county of ∼15,000 residents in south-central Colorado. In second grade, intervention and comparison cohorts included 173 (fall 2000) and 190 (fall 1999) students, respectively. Approximately 60% of these students completed assessments in eighth grade. INPAP is an experiential school-based nutrition education program, grounded in social cognitive theory and Piaget's cognitive development theory and adapted for use in a rural setting. Nutrition and physical activity knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors, body mass index. Wilcoxon signed rank test, chi-square test for proportions, and t test for means. Long-term effects were observed in nutrition-related knowledge and attitudes but not self-efficacy or behavior change. The effects that did occur were attenuated over time. This study found that INPAP implemented in elementary school had limited lasting effects by the end of middle school, a time when students have increased autonomy to make food choices. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nikniaz, Zeinab; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Nagashi, Shahnaz; Nikniaz, Leila
The present systematic review and meta-analysis study evaluated the impact of early enteral nutrition (EN) on postoperative nutritional and immunological outcomes of gastric cancer (GC) patients. The databases of PubMed, Embase, Springer, and Cochrane library were searched till September 2016 to identify studies which evaluated the effects of EN compared with parenteral nutrition (PN) on postoperative immunological and nutritional status and hospitalization time in GC patients. Mean difference (MD) or standard mean difference (SMD) was calculated and I-square statistic test was used for heterogeneity analysis. The present systematic review and meta-analysis have consisted of seven trials, containing 835 GC patients. According to the result of meta-analysis, compared with PN, EN significantly resulted in more increase in the level of albumin [MD = 2.07 (0.49, 3.64)], prealbumin [MD = 9.41 (049, 33.55)], weight [MD = 1.52 (0.32, 2.72)], CD3+ [SMD = 1.96 (1.50, 2.43)], CD4+ [SMD = 2.45 (1.97, 2.93)], natural killers [MD = 5.80 (3.75, 7.85)], and also a decrease in the hospitalization time [MD=-2.39 (-2.74, -2.03)]. The results demonstrated that early administration of EN is more effective in improving postsurgical nutrition status and immune index in GC patients. So, based on these results, postoperative early administration of EN is recommended for GC patients where possible.
Erinosho, Temitope; Vaughn, Amber; Hales, Derek; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Gizlice, Ziya; Ward, Dianne
Describe foods and beverages offered, nutrition practices, and nutrition policies of family child care homes in Mississippi and differences by participation in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Cross-sectional study conducted between fall, 2015 and spring, 2016. Mississippi. Random, stratified sample of 134 family child care homes that enroll 3- to 5-year-olds. Providers completed a modified version of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation-self-report tool. Foods and beverages offered at lunch, provider practices regarding nutrition, and presence or absence of written nutrition policies. Descriptive statistics, likelihood ratio chi-square, and t tests. Most homes (>75%) provided components from the fruit, vegetable, grain/bread, meat/meat alternative, and milk food groups at lunch. At some homes, the food and beverage selections offered were high in fat, sugar, and refined grains. Providers at CACFP-participating homes (P < .05) reported healthier beverage selections, more healthful nutrition practices, and more written nutrition policies compared with providers at non-CACFP homes. Interventions and regulatory standards are needed, particularly in non-CACFP homes, to ensure that food and beverage offerings, provider practices, and policies regarding nutrition support the development of healthful dietary behaviors in early childhood. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
National Live Stock and Meat Board, Chicago, IL.
This nutrition education kit is designed for use with 3- to 5-year old children. It introduces children to new foods, involves them in the process of food preparation, and creates an awareness of the importance of eating foods from all food groups. The kit has been designed to provide a variety of opportunities to develop and practice language…
Fischer, Leslie M; Sutherland, Lisa A; Kaley, Lori A; Fox, Tracy A; Hasler, Clare M; Nobel, Jeremy; Kantor, Mark A; Blumberg, Jeffrey
PURPOSE . To describe the collaborative process between a grocery retailer and a panel of nutrition experts used to develop a nutrition guidance system (Guiding Stars) that evaluates the nutrient profile of all edible products in the supermarket, and to report the results of the food and beverage ratings. DESIGN . A collaboration between a private retailer and members of the scientific community that led to the development of a scoring algorithm used to evaluate the nutritional quality of foods and beverages. SETTING/SUBJECTS . Northeast supermarkets (n = 160). MEASURES . Food and beverage nutrition ratings and distribution of stars across different grocery categories. ANALYSIS . Descriptive statistics for rating distributions were computed. T-tests were conducted to assess differences in mean nutrient values between foods with zero versus three stars or a dichotomized variable representing all foods with one to three stars. RESULTS . All edible grocery items (n = 27,466) were evaluated, with 23.6% earning at least one star. Items receiving at least one star had lower mean levels of sodium, saturated fat, and sugars and higher amounts of fiber than products not earning stars. CONCLUSION . The Guiding Stars system rates edible products without regard to brand or manufacturer, and provides consumers with a simple tool to quickly identify more nutritious choices while shopping. The low percentage of products qualifying for stars reflects poorly on the food choices available to Americans.
From weaning to breeding, nutritional management of replacement females is critical to their lifetime productivity. Traditionally, cereal grains have been used to develop replacement heifers to enter the breeding system at a younger age. Overfeeding heifers decreases the number of calves weaned, w...
Wu, Y W; Liu, J; Jin, J; Liu, L J; Wu, Y F
Objective: To investigate the effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) in the treatment of patients with severe burns. Methods: Medical records of 52 patients with severe burns hospitalized in the three affiliations of authors from August to September in 2014 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into EEN group ( n =28) and non-early enteral nutrition (NEEN) group ( n =24) according to the initiation time of enteral nutrition. On the basis of routine treatment, enteral nutrition was given to patients in group EEN within post injury day (POD) 3, while enteral nutrition was given to patients in group NEEN after POD 3. The following items were compared between patients of the two groups, such as the ratio of enteral nutrition intake to total energy intake, the ratio of parenteral nutrition intake to total energy intake, the ratio of total energy intake to energy target on POD 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21, and 28, the levels of prealbumin, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) score on POD 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28, the first operation time, the number of operations, and the frequencies of abdominal distension, diarrhea, vomiting, aspiration, catheter blockage, and low blood sugar within POD 28. Data were processed with χ (2)test, t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) The ratio of parenteral nutrition intake to total energy intake of patients in group EEN on POD 1 was obviously lower than that in group NEEN ( Z =2.078, P <0.05). The ratio of enteral nutrition intake to total energy intake and the ratio of total energy intake to energy target of patients in group EEN on POD 2 and 3 were obviously higher than those in group NEEN ( Z =5.766, 6.404, t =4.907, 6.378, P <0.01). The ratio of total energy intake to energy target of patients in group EEN was obviously lower than that in group NEEN on POD 4, 5, 6, and 7 ( t =4.635, 2.547, 3
Elicker, James; Wen, Xiaoli; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Sprague, Jill B.
Research Findings: Interpersonal relationships among staff caregivers, parents, and children have been recommended as essential aspects of early childhood intervention. This study explored the associations of these relationships with program outcomes for children and parents in 3 Early Head Start programs. A total of 71 children (8-35 months,…
Roggman, Lori A.; Cook, Gina A.; Peterson, Carla A.; Raikes, Helen H.
Research Findings: Early Head Start home-based programs provide services through weekly home visits to families with children up to age 3, but families vary in how long they remain enrolled. In this study of 564 families in home-based Early Head Start programs, "dropping out" was predicted by specific variations in home visits and certain family…
Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.
This handbook has been prepared as a guide for the nutritionist providing services to Head Start and other preschool day care programs. Introductory sections describe Project Head Start; the program's major components and aspects of the program; center-based, home-based, child and family development, and Child Development Associate (CDA) programs;…
Lee, Jounghee; Jeong, Soyeon; Ko, Gyeongah; Park, Hyunshin; Ko, Youngsook
The purpose of this study was to develop an educational model regarding food safety and nutrition. In particular, we aimed to develop educational materials, such as middle- and high-school textbooks, a teacher's guidebook, and school posters, by applying social cognitive theory. To develop a food safety and nutrition education program, we took into account diverse factors influencing an individual's behavior, such as personal, behavioral, and environmental factors, based on social cognitive theory. We also conducted a pilot study of the educational materials targeting middle-school students (n = 26), high-school students (n = 24), and dietitians (n = 13) regarding comprehension level, content, design, and quality by employing the 5-point Likert scale in May 2016. The food safety and nutrition education program covered six themes: (1) caffeine; (2) food additives; (3) foodborne illness; (4) nutrition and meal planning; (5) obesity and eating disorders; and (6) nutrition labeling. Each class activity was created to improve self-efficacy by setting one's own goal and to increase self-control by monitoring one's dietary intake. We also considered environmental factors by creating school posters and leaflets to educate teachers and parents. The overall evaluation score for the textbook was 4.0 points among middle- and high-school students, and 4.5 points among dietitians. This study provides a useful program model that could serve as a guide to develop educational materials for nutrition-related subjects in the curriculum. This program model was created to increase awareness of nutrition problems and self-efficacy. This program also helped to improve nutrition management skills and to promote a healthy eating environment in middle- and high-school students.
Hercberg, Serge; Chat-Yung, Stacie; Chaulia, Michel
Established in 2001-2005 then extended to 2010, the French National Nutrition and Health Program (PNNS) is a nutrition policy whose objective is to improve the health status of the population by acting on one of its major determinants, nutrition. Nine priority objectives focusing on diet, physical activity and nutritional status were determined. Program strategies are based on fundamental principles including food culture, pleasure, and gastronomy. This multidisciplinary program involves stakeholders from ministries, research and educational institutions, food industry, healthcare, and consumers. More than 75% of the public health actions planned were accomplished or in progress by the end of 2005, particularly those concerning nutrition communication, education, research and nutritional surveillance. Dietary guidelines were established and are now considered the official reference in France. Actions focusing on the healthcare system, economic actors and players and specific population groups need further development. The success of a public health program like the PNNS requires a combination of synergistic and complementary actions, measures, regulations and laws. A national study at the end of the PNNS will determine if objectives were achieved.
Cooper, Brittany Rhoades; Barale, Karen; Funaiole, Angie; Power, Thomas G; Combe, Angela
To examine empirically participant and household characteristics associated with Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) graduation and to determine whether they differ across 2 counties. Survey of EFNEP participants from 2011 to 2012. Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program sites serving limited-resource families in 1 rural and 1 urban/suburban county in Washington State. Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program participants (urban/suburban: n = 647; rural: n = 569). Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program completion/graduation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations of participant (ethnicity, race, age, education, pregnancy status, and nutrition knowledge/behavior at baseline) and household (number of people in the house, place of residence, and public assistance services) characteristics with EFNEP graduation. Associations were moderated by county. For the urban/suburban county, participants living with more people (after controlling for the total number of adults) were more likely to graduate. For the rural county, participants living with fewer total adults (after controlling for the total number in the house) and those with better food safety practices at baseline were more likely to graduate. This study aids in understanding which participants are more or less likely to complete EFNEP successfully, and therefore can inform strategies aimed at increasing graduation rates. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vicente de Sousa, Odete; Soares Guerra, Rita; Sousa, Ana Sofia; Pais Henriques, Bebiana; Pereira Monteiro, Anabela; Amaral, Teresa Freitas
This study aims to evaluate the impact of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) and a psychomotor rehabilitation program on nutritional and functional status of community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A 21-day prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted and third intervention group performed a psychomotor rehabilitation program. Patients were followed up for 180 days. Mean (standard deviation) score of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) increased both in the nutritional supplementation group (NSG; n = 25), 0.4 (0.8), and in the nutritional supplementation psychomotor rehabilitation program group (NSPRG; n = 11), 1.5 (1.0), versus -0.1 (1.1) in the control group (CG; n = 43), P < .05. Further improvements at 90-day follow-up for MNA in NSG: 1.3 (1.2) and NSPRG: 1.6 (1.0) versus 0.3 (1.7) in CG ( P < .05) were observed. General linear model analysis showed that the NSG and NSPRG ▵MNA score improved after intervention, at 21 days and 90 days, was independent of the MNA and Mini-Mental State Examination scores at baseline ( Ps > .05). The ONS and a psychomotor rehabilitation program have a positive impact on long-term nutritional and functional status of patients with AD.
Vaivada, Tyler; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Although effective health and nutrition interventions for reducing child mortality and morbidity exist, direct evidence of effects on cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development is lacking. To review existing evidence for health and nutrition interventions affecting direct measures of (and pathways to) early child development. Reviews and recent overviews of interventions across the continuum of care and component studies. We selected systematic reviews detailing the effectiveness of health or nutrition interventions that have plausible links to child development and/or contain direct measures of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development. A team of reviewers independently extracted data and assessed their quality. Sixty systematic reviews contained the outcomes of interest. Various interventions reduced morbidity and improved child growth, but few had direct measures of child development. Of particular benefit were food and micronutrient supplementation for mothers to reduce the risk of small for gestational age and iodine deficiency, strategies to reduce iron deficiency anemia in infancy, and early neonatal care (appropriate resuscitation, delayed cord clamping, and Kangaroo Mother Care). Neuroprotective interventions for imminent preterm birth showed the largest effect sizes (antenatal corticosteroids for developmental delay: risk ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.00; magnesium sulfate for gross motor dysfunction: risk ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.85). Given the focus on high-quality studies captured in leading systematic reviews, only effects reported within studies included in systematic reviews were captured. These findings should guide the prioritization and scale-up of interventions within critical periods of early infancy and childhood, and encourage research into their implementation at scale. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Discusses how to initiate a preventive maintenance (PM) program: (1) make inventory of equipment that needs a PM program; (2) gather data about each piece of equipment; and (3) set maintenance goals. (Author/PG)
Sharma, Renee; Gaffey, Michelle F; Alderman, Harold; Bassani, Diego G; Bogard, Kimber; Darmstadt, Gary L; Das, Jai K; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph E; Hamadani, Jena D; Horton, Susan; Huicho, Luis; Hussein, Julia; Lye, Stephen; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Proulx, Kerrie; Marfo, Kofi; Mathews-Hanna, Vanessa; Mclean, Mireille S; Rahman, Atif; Silver, Karlee L; Singla, Daisy R; Webb, Patrick; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Existing health and nutrition services present potential platforms for scaling up delivery of early childhood development (ECD) interventions within sensitive windows across the life course, especially in the first 1000 days from conception to age 2 years. However, there is insufficient knowledge on how to optimize implementation for such strategies in an integrated manner. In light of this knowledge gap, we aimed to systematically identify a set of integrated implementation research priorities for health, nutrition and early child development within the 2015 to 2030 timeframe of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method, and consulted a diverse group of global health experts to develop and score 57 research questions against five criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, impact, and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question. The research priority scores ranged from 61.01 to 93.52, with a median of 82.87. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.90, with a median of 0.75. The top-ranked research question were: i) "How can interventions and packages to reduce neonatal mortality be expanded to include ECD and stimulation interventions?"; ii) "How does the integration of ECD and MNCAH&N interventions affect human resource requirements and capacity development in resource-poor settings?"; and iii) "How can integrated interventions be tailored to vulnerable refugee and migrant populations to protect against poor ECD and MNCAH&N outcomes?". Most highly-ranked research priorities varied across the life course and highlighted key aspects of scaling up coverage of integrated interventions in resource-limited settings, including: workforce and capacity development, cost-effectiveness and strategies to reduce financial barriers, and quality assessment of programs
Sharma, Renee; Gaffey, Michelle F; Alderman, Harold; Bassani, Diego G; Bogard, Kimber; Darmstadt, Gary L; Das, Jai K; de Graft–Johnson, Joseph E; Hamadani, Jena D; Horton, Susan; Huicho, Luis; Hussein, Julia; Lye, Stephen; Pérez–Escamilla, Rafael; Proulx, Kerrie; Marfo, Kofi; Mathews–Hanna, Vanessa; Mclean, Mireille S; Rahman, Atif; Silver, Karlee L; Singla, Daisy R; Webb, Patrick; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Background Existing health and nutrition services present potential platforms for scaling up delivery of early childhood development (ECD) interventions within sensitive windows across the life course, especially in the first 1000 days from conception to age 2 years. However, there is insufficient knowledge on how to optimize implementation for such strategies in an integrated manner. In light of this knowledge gap, we aimed to systematically identify a set of integrated implementation research priorities for health, nutrition and early child development within the 2015 to 2030 timeframe of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Methods We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method, and consulted a diverse group of global health experts to develop and score 57 research questions against five criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, impact, and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question. Findings The research priority scores ranged from 61.01 to 93.52, with a median of 82.87. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.90, with a median of 0.75. The top–ranked research question were: i) “How can interventions and packages to reduce neonatal mortality be expanded to include ECD and stimulation interventions?”; ii) “How does the integration of ECD and MNCAH&N interventions affect human resource requirements and capacity development in resource–poor settings?”; and iii) “How can integrated interventions be tailored to vulnerable refugee and migrant populations to protect against poor ECD and MNCAH&N outcomes?”. Most highly–ranked research priorities varied across the life course and highlighted key aspects of scaling up coverage of integrated interventions in resource–limited settings, including: workforce and capacity development, cost–effectiveness and strategies to reduce financial
Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam
Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)), moderate (16.0 ≤ BMI <17.0 kg/m(2)), and severe (BMI < 16.0 kg/m(2)). Multiple logistic regression model was used to examine the effect of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status. Mean age of the mothers was 20.49 ± 2.37 years (ranged 15-24 years). The prevalence of underweight among early childbearing mothers was 32.1 % (urban 25 % and rural 35.1 %). Most of the underweight mothers had mild (62.2 %) CED, while the remaining had either moderate (25.9 %) or severe (11.9 %) CED. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that young mothers from rural areas, poor families, and those who were illiterate or with low level of education, working, and married to unemployed husband were at higher risk for being underweight. Young mothers who had non-caesarean delivered, delivered at home, or married at early age and had more than two children were also at higher risk for being underweight. The prevalence of underweight among early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce
Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni
Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia
Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. PMID:26980819
Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary
Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
Like food-service establishments, child nutrition programs are responsible for preserving the quality and wholesomeness of food. Proper food-handling practices prevent contamination and job-related accidents. Application of the evaluation instrument presented in this document to individual programs helps to define proper practices, assess the…
US Department of Agriculture, 2009
The McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program (McGovern-Dole program) helps support education, child development, and food security for some of the world's poorest children. It provides for donations of U.S. agricultural products, as well as financial and technical assistance, for school feeding and maternal and…
Intended for those working with moderately mentally retarded adolescents, the manual offers guidelines for social, recreation, and nutrition education. An introduction points out that the program model contains specific program strategies, assessment techniques, and methods to teach specific skills and concepts in the areas of leisure…
Wyker, Brett A.; Jordan, Patricia; Quigley, Danielle L.
Objective: Application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) evaluation and development and validation of an evaluation tool used to measure TTM constructs is described. Methods: Surveys were collected from parents of children receiving food at Summer Food Service Program sites prior…
Cirignano, Sherri M.
An increase in consumer interest in functional foods provides an opportunity for FCS educators to use this topic in Extension programming to promote current nutrition recommendations. The Functional Foods for Life Educational Programs (FFL) are a curriculum of six evidence-based mini-seminars that highlight specific functional foods that have the…
Pierce, Michelle B.; Hudson, Kerrian A.; Lora, Karina R.; Havens, Erin K.; Ferris, Ann M.
The Husky Byte program uses interactive displays to deliver quick sound bytes of nutrition information to adults in frequented community settings. This innovative program considers time constraints, adult learning theory, diverse learning styles, and is easily accessible to adults. Both process and impact evaluations have demonstrated positive…
Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Johnson, James T.; Federico, Holly A.
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose was to explore issues associated with school nutrition (SN) programs in large school districts. Specific objectives were to identify operational issues and practices SN directors encounter and describe characteristics of SN directors and their programs. Methods: A panel of seven SN professionals from large school…
Matheson, D; Achterberg, C
The purpose of this research was to describe the context created by students as they worked in groups on a nutrition computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program. Students worked on the program in groups of three. Observational methods were used to collect data from students in two sixth-grade classrooms that were part of an experimental program designed to restructure the educational process. Thirty-two students, from 12 groups, were observed as they completed the program. The groups were assigned by the teachers according to standard principles of cooperative learning. Students completed "Ship to Shore," a program designed specifically for this research. The program required three to five 50-minute classroom periods to complete. The objectives of the program were to change children's knowledge structure of basic nutrition concepts and to increase children's critical thinking skills related to nutrition concepts. We collected observational data focused on three domains: (1) student-computer interaction, (2) student-student interaction, and (3) students' thinking and learning skills. Grounded theory methods were used to analyze the data. Specifically, the constant-comparative method was used to develop open coding categories, defined by properties and described by dimensions. The open coding categories were in turn used in axial coding to differentiate students' learning styles. Five styles of student interaction were defined. These included (1) dominant directors (n = 6; 19%), (2) passive actors (n = 5; 16%), (3) action-oriented students (n = 7; 22%), (4) content-oriented students (n = 8; 25%), and (5) problem solvers (n = 5; 16%). The "student style" groups were somewhat gender specific. The dominant directors and passive actors were girls and the action-oriented and content-oriented students were boys. The problem solvers group was mixed gender. Children's responses to computer-based nutrition education are highly variable. Based on the results of this research
Chávez Zúñiga, María Concepción; Madrigal Fritsch, Herlinda; Villa, Antonio R; Guarneros Soto, Noé
Malnutrition among the indigenous early childhood population is still currently a serious public health problem, and given that no specific studies affording the possibility of knowing the nutritional condition of this population, the question was posed of identifying the prevalence of malnutrition among the indigenous population of Mexico by means of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey. A rural sample was selected from the Northern, Central and Southern regions where 70% or more of the population speak an indigenous language. The weight/age, height/age and weight/height Score Z desviations was calculated for 3,236 preschoolers and 4,899 school-age children. Nationwide and by regions, there were no difference by age group regarding the prevalences of the three indicators. By regions, for preschoolers, the South showed the highest prevalences of underheight (69.8%) and underweight (49.8%) than the North (respectively 36.1% and 22.6%), entailing statistically significant differences (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.04). For overweight and obesity, the North showed a 14.2% prevalence, and the South 5.6% (p < 0.05) for the same age group. The nutritional condition of the children studied reveals a geographical polarization, the greatest prevalences related to underheight and underweight children being found in southern Mexico, whilst those due to overalimentation were located in the North, this phenomenon possibly being due to lifestyles and availability of food differing from one region to the other.
Shamah Levy, Teresa; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Cuevas Nasu, Lucía; Chávez Villasana, Adolfo; Avila Arcos, Marco Antonio; Fernández Mendoza, Carlota
To evaluate the impact of the tortilla subsidy on the family food consumption, on its economy and on the nutritional condition of women and under five children, from three marginal zones, with the purpose of focus nutritional interventions. Fifty families were randomly selected in each one of three similar low income sectors of the Oaxaca city. One received subsidy, other has never received it and the third received it five years ago but not at present. Anthropometry was performed in all women of reproductive age and children under five years old. In the first BMI was the indicator used and in children weight for age with two standard deviations was the cut-off point. The tortilla represents between 13.6% to 20% of the family expenditure. Anyhow the energy, protein and some nutrient consumption was higher. The malnutrition index was better in the subsidy community as 12.0% of under five children were low weight for age against 19.2% in the other two communities. The tortilla family expenditure represents 45% of their income and the subsidy reduces it 9%, surely this help a better nutrient consumption and improves the nutritional condition of the poor and marginated urban sectors of the society.
Background Recent legislation established a requirement for nutrition education in federal assistance programs to be evidence-based. Recruitment of low-income persons to participate and evaluate nutrition education activities can be challenging and costly. Facebook has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy to recruit this target audience to a nutrition program. Objective The purpose of our study was to examine Facebook as a strategy to recruit participants, especially Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) eligible persons, to view and evaluate an online nutrition education program intended to be offered as having some evidence base for SNAP-Ed programming. Methods English-speaking, low-income Pennsylvania residents, 18-55 years with key profile words (eg, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food bank), responded to a Facebook ad inviting participation in either Eating Together as a Family is Worth It (WI) or Everyone Needs Folic Acid (FA). Participants completed an online survey on food-related behaviors, viewed a nutrition education program, and completed a program evaluation. Facebook set-up functions considered were costing action, daily spending cap, and population reach. Results Respondents for both WI and FA evaluations were similar; the majority were white, <40 years, overweight or obese body mass index, and not eating competent. A total of 807 Facebook users clicked on the WI ad with 73 unique site visitors and 47 of them completing the program evaluation (ie, 47/807, 5.8% of clickers and 47/73, 64% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per completed evaluation was US $25.48; cost per low-income completer was US $39.92. Results were similar for the FA evaluation; 795 Facebook users clicked on the ad with 110 unique site visitors, and 73 completing the evaluation (ie, 73/795, 9.2% of ad clickers and 73/110, 66% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per valid completed survey with program evaluation
Lohse, Barbara; Wamboldt, Patricia
Recent legislation established a requirement for nutrition education in federal assistance programs to be evidence-based. Recruitment of low-income persons to participate and evaluate nutrition education activities can be challenging and costly. Facebook has been shown to be a cost-effective strategy to recruit this target audience to a nutrition program. The purpose of our study was to examine Facebook as a strategy to recruit participants, especially Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) eligible persons, to view and evaluate an online nutrition education program intended to be offered as having some evidence base for SNAP-Ed programming. English-speaking, low-income Pennsylvania residents, 18-55 years with key profile words (eg, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food bank), responded to a Facebook ad inviting participation in either Eating Together as a Family is Worth It (WI) or Everyone Needs Folic Acid (FA). Participants completed an online survey on food-related behaviors, viewed a nutrition education program, and completed a program evaluation. Facebook set-up functions considered were costing action, daily spending cap, and population reach. Respondents for both WI and FA evaluations were similar; the majority were white, <40 years, overweight or obese body mass index, and not eating competent. A total of 807 Facebook users clicked on the WI ad with 73 unique site visitors and 47 of them completing the program evaluation (ie, 47/807, 5.8% of clickers and 47/73, 64% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per completed evaluation was US $25.48; cost per low-income completer was US $39.92. Results were similar for the FA evaluation; 795 Facebook users clicked on the ad with 110 unique site visitors, and 73 completing the evaluation (ie, 73/795, 9.2% of ad clickers and 73/110, 66% of site visitors completed the evaluation). Cost per valid completed survey with program evaluation was US $18.88; cost per low
MAXIMA Corp., Silver Spring, MD.
This bibliography was compiled by the Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC) as a resource guide for the Nutrition Education and Training Program (NET). Part I contains descriptive information on materials developed under NET funding, organized by audience level (e.g., kindergarten through grade 6, teacher education, or food service…
Dover, Sally E; Buys, David R; Allocca, Sally; Locher, Julie L
Community-dwelling older adults in disadvantaged neighborhoods may face nutritional risks not mitigated by existing programs. The Senior Market Basket Program, administered by nonprofit organization P.E.E.R., Inc., is a unique approach to serving community-dwelling senior adults and a valuable model for integrating targeted social services into local food systems. The program ensures access to fresh produce during the growing season for a defined target population.
Hertzog, Nancy B.
Hakeem, Emily, Jose, and Latisha are all entering preschool in the fall. Their mothers are looking for the highest quality early childhood program they can find. Is there a guide for them to find a five-star program? Are all certified or accredited programs of equal quality? How do these parents and guardians know what defines quality in early…
Montanari, Ellen Orton
Written for administrators of early childhood program centers, this book offers tips on how to increase enrollment. The book offers suggestions rather than a theoretical overview or a comprehensive marketing strategy. Suggestions offered include: (1) Offer a quality program; (2) be aware of your target market; (3) make your program unique; (4)…
Hustedt, Jason T.; Barnett, W. Steven
The landscape of financing early childhood education in the U.S. is complex. Programs run the gamut from tuition-supported private centers to public programs supported by federal, state, or local funds. Different funding streams are poorly coordinated. The federal government funds several major targeted programs that are available only to specific…
Hanna, Cornelia B.; Levermann, D.
In order to help handicapped children function in regular school programs by the time they enter first grade, the First Chance Early Childhood Program provides precise intervention into the development of children aged 3 to 5 with clearly identified handicapping conditions. Using English and/or Spanish, program staff test and measure the referred…
The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…
Standing, Kim; Judkins, David; Keller, Brad; Shimshak, Amy
In 1998, Congress authorized the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) program. The purpose of the program is to foster increased knowledge, expectations, and preparation for postsecondary education among low-income students and their families. GEAR UP projects may provide services to students, parents and…
LaMontagne, M. J.; Johnson, Lawrence J.; Kilgo, Jennifer L.; Stayton, Vicki; Carr, Victoria; Bauer, Anne M.; Carpenter, Jenny
This study examined perceptions of unified early childhood personnel preparation programs by 28 faculty members in such programs and by graduates (n=42) of unified, dual, or separate exceptional child education or exceptional child special education programs. Faculty stressed the importance of commitment and collaborative problem solving. The…
The features of an early childhood education demonstration program, Visions for Children, are delineated in this paper. The program was designed to facilitate the intellectual development, boost the academic achievement, and enhance the self-concepts of African-American preschool children. The program implements a curriculum that focuses on…
The author describes Minnesota's Early Childhood Family Education program for all children from birth to kindergarten and their parents. Topics include the types of activities each local program undertakes, administration and planning, and financing. A list of important program attributes is included. (CH)
Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L
Concerns about the increasing rates of obesity in developing countries have led many policy makers to question the impacts of maternal and early child nutrition on risk of later obesity. The purposes of the review are to summarise the studies on the associations between nutrition during pregnancy and infant feeding practices with later obesity from childhood through adulthood and to identify potential ways for preventing obesity in developing countries. As few studies were identified in developing countries, key studies in developed countries were included in the review. Poor prenatal dietary intakes of energy, protein and micronutrients were shown to be associated with increased risk of adult obesity in offspring. Female offspring seem to be more vulnerable than male offspring when their mothers receive insufficient energy during pregnancy. By influencing birthweight, optimal prenatal nutrition might reduce the risk of obesity in adults. While normal birthweights (2500-3999 g) were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) as adults, they generally were associated with higher fat-free mass and lower fat mass compared with low birthweights (<2500 g). Low birthweight was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and central obesity in adults. Breastfeeding and timely introduction of complementary foods were shown to protect against obesity later in life in observational studies. High-protein intake during early childhood however was associated with higher body fat mass and obesity in adulthood. In developed countries, increased weight gain during the first 2 years of life was associated with a higher BMI in adulthood. However, recent studies in developing countries showed that higher BMI was more related to greater lean body mass than fat mass. It appears that increased length at 2 years of age was positively associated with height, weight and fat-free mass, and was only weakly associated with fat mass. The protective associations between breastfeeding
Guyon, Agnes; Bock, Ariella; Buback, Laura; Knittel, Barbara
Implementing complex nutrition and other public health projects and tracking nutrition interventions, such as women's diet and supplementation and infant and young child feeding practices, requires reliable routine data to identify potential program gaps and to monitor trends in behaviors in real time. However, current monitoring and evaluation practices generally do not create an environment for this real-time tracking. This article describes the development and application of a mobile-based nutrition and health monitoring system, which collected monitoring data on project activities, women's nutrition, and infant and young child feeding practices in real time. The Liberia Agricultural Upgrading Nutrition and Child Health (LAUNCH) project implemented a nutrition and health monitoring system between April 2012 and June 2014. The LAUNCH project analyzed project monitoring and outcome data from the system and shared selected behavioral and programmatic indicators with program managers through a short report, which later evolved into a visual data dashboard, during program-update meetings. The project designed protocols to ensure representativeness of program participants. LAUNCH made programmatic adjustments in response to findings from the monitoring system; these changes were then reflected in subsequent quarterly trends, indicating that the availability of timely data allowed for the project to react quickly to issues and adapt the program appropriately. Such issues included lack of participation in community groups and insufficient numbers of food distribution points. Likewise, the system captured trends in key outcome indicators such as breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, linking them to project activities and external factors including seasonal changes and national health campaigns. Digital data collection platforms can play a vital role in improving routine programmatic functions. Fixed gathering locations such as food distribution points
Child Nutrition Programs: Reauthorization and Budget Issues. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.
Witnesses offered testimony bearing on budget issues and the reauthorization of the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Programs; the Special Supplemental Summer Food Program; the State Administrative Expense Program; the Commodity Distribution Program; and the Nutrition Education and Training Program. Testimony concerning permanently authorized…
Templin, Patricia A.
Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with local parents…
... Reinsurance Program (ERRP) in preparation for the January 1, 2014 program sunset date. These operational... submission of reimbursement requests; the reporting and correction of data inaccuracies; and the request for... previously submitted data inaccuracies, as well as elective activities, such as requesting a reopening of a...
Sulo, Suela; Feldstein, Josh; Partridge, Jamie; Schwander, Bjoern; Sriram, Krishnan; Summerfelt, Wm Thomas
Nutrition interventions can alleviate the burden of malnutrition by improving patient outcomes; however, evidence on the economic impact of medical nutrition intervention remains limited. A previously published nutrition-focused quality improvement program targeting malnourished hospitalized patients showed that screening patients with a validated screening tool at admission, rapidly administering oral nutritional supplements, and educating patients on supplement adherence result in significant reductions in 30-day unplanned readmissions and hospital length of stay. To assess the potential cost-savings associated with decreased 30-day readmissions and hospital length of stay in malnourished inpatients through a nutrition-focused quality improvement program using a web-based budget impact model, and to demonstrate the clinical and fiscal value of the intervention. The reduction in readmission rate and length of stay for 1269 patients enrolled in the quality improvement program (between October 13, 2014, and April 2, 2015) were compared with the pre-quality improvement program baseline and validation cohorts (4611 patients vs 1319 patients, respectively) to calculate potential cost-savings as well as to inform the design of the budget impact model. Readmission rate and length-of-stay reductions were calculated by determining the change from baseline to post-quality improvement program as well as the difference between the validation cohort and the post-quality improvement program, respectively. As a result of improved health outcomes for the treated patients, the nutrition-focused quality improvement program led to a reduction in 30-day hospital readmissions and length of stay. The avoided hospital readmissions and reduced number of days in the hospital for the patients in the quality improvement program resulted in cost-savings of $1,902,933 versus the pre-quality improvement program baseline cohort, and $4,896,758 versus the pre-quality improvement program in the
Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
This guide is designed primarily for nutritionists and other health providers who work with pregnant adolescents, aged 17 or younger. The guide lists psychosocial, educational, and health implications of early pregnancy, and discusses the nutritional risks and requirements of pregnant teenagers. The guide then identifies counseling and educational…
Training early childcare providers in evidence-based nutrition strategies can help improve nutrition policies and practices of early childcare centres serving racially and ethnically diverse children from low-income families.
Hollar, T Lucas; Cook, Nicole; Natale, Ruby; Quinn, David; Phillips, Teina; DeLucca, Michael
We evaluated the extent to which providing training and technical assistance to early childcare centre (ECC) directors, faculty and staff in the implementation of evidence-based nutrition strategies improved the nutrition contexts, policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse, low-income children in Broward County, Florida, USA. The nutrition strategies targeted snack and beverage policies and practices, consistent with Caring for Our Children National Standards. We used the nutrition observation and document review portions of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument to observe ECC as part of a one-group pre-test/post-test evaluation design. ECC located within areas of high rates of poverty, diabetes, minority representation and unhealthy food index in Broward County, Florida, USA. Eighteen ECC enrolled, mean 112·9 (sd 53·4) children aged 2-5 years; 12·3 (sd 7·2) staff members; and 10·2 (sd 4·6) children per staff member at each centre. We found significant improvements in centres' overall nutrition contexts, as measured by total EPAO nutrition scores (P=0·01). ECC made specific significant gains within written nutrition policies (P=0·03) and nutrition training and education (P=0·01). Our findings support training ECC directors, faculty and staff in evidence-based nutrition strategies to improve the nutrition policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse children from low-income families. The intervention resulted in improvements in some nutrition policies and practices, but not others. There remains a need to further develop the evaluation base involving the effectiveness of policy and practice interventions within ECC serving children in high-need areas.
Misyak, Sarah; Ledlie Johnson, Meredith; McFerren, Mary; Serrano, Elena
To explore Family Nutrition Program assistants' perception of farmers' markets and alternative agricultural practices for themselves and their clients. Cross-section design, survey of Virginia Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (NEP) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education Family Nutrition Program assistants (n = 52) working with limited-resource populations. Twenty-one percent to 55% of FNP assistants valued alternative agricultural practices, and only 5% to 8% of FNP assistants perceived that their clients did so. Benefits to shopping at farmers' markets included supporting local economies, and food price, quality, and safety. Barriers included lack of transportation, location/convenience, hours, and food prices. Assistants rated the benefits to shopping at farmers' markets similarly for themselves and their clients, but rated many of the barriers to shopping at farmers' markets as significantly lower (P < .05) for themselves than for their clients. Future assistant trainings should address the connection between agriculture and health, and how to overcome barriers to shopping at farmers' markets for their clients. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Japakasetr, Suchada; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chindavijak, Busba; Kagawa, Masaharu; Nokdee, Somjai
Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program to reduce post-discharge growth restriction in Thai VLBW preterm infants. A prospective, non-randomized interventional cohort study was undertaken to assess the growth of 22 VLBW preterm infants who received the PIN program and compared them with 22 VLBW preterm infants who received conventional nutrition services. Infant's growth was recorded monthly until the infants reached six months' corrected age (6-moCA). Intervention infants had significantly greater body weights ( p = 0.013) and head circumferences ( p = 0.009). Also, a greater proportion of the intervention group recovered their weight to the standard weight at 4-moCA ( p = 0.027) and at 6-moCA ( p = 0.007) and their head circumference to the standard head circumference at 6-moCA ( p = 0.004) compared to their historical comparison counterparts. Enlistment in the PIN program thus resulted in significantly reduced post-discharge growth restriction in VLBW preterm infants. Further research on longer term effects of the program on infant's growth and development is warranted.
Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Soo-Young; Oh, Heung-Kwon; In, Myung-Hoon
During the past several decades, early rehabilitation programs for the care of patients with colorectal surgery have gained popularity. Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have confirmed that the implementation of these evidence-based detailed perioperative care protocols is useful for early recovery of patients after colorectal resection. Patients cared for based on these protocols had a rapid recovery of bowel movement, shortened length of hospital stay, and fewer complications compared with traditional care programs. However, most of the previous evidence was obtained from studies of early rehabilitation programs adapted to open colonic resection. Currently, limited evidence exists on the effects of early rehabilitation after laparoscopic rectal resection, although this procedure seems to be associated with a higher morbidity than that reported with traditional care. In this article, we review previous studies and guidelines on early rehabilitation programs in patients undergoing rectal surgery. We investigated the status of early rehabilitation programs in rectal surgery and analyzed the limitations of these studies. We also summarized indications and detailed protocol components of current early rehabilitation programs after rectal surgery, focusing on laparoscopic resection. PMID:24379571
Kolasa, K M; Jobe, A C; Miller, M G; Clay, M C
There are many barriers to medical students receiving education about the linkage between nutrition and cancer, including the lack of role models and teachers and insufficient curricular time. We tested the use of a multimedia program as a possible solution to teaching diet-risk assessment and counseling skills. Images of Cancer Prevention, The Nutrition Link is a CD-ROM multimedia program that was developed and evaluated by 147 medical students. Pre-use and post-use surveys, computer log files, and recorded response sessions were used to determine the learner's 1) ease in using the program, 2) attitudes about the treatment of the content, 3) knowledge gain, and 4) attitudes about the role of physicians in nutrition assessment and counseling for cancer risk reduction. Students improved their knowledge of dietary guidelines for cancer risk reduction and made positive changes in their attitudes toward the role of physicians in dietary counseling. However, most students reported that they would not use the program unless it was required that they do so. The multimedia program was successful; it affected students' knowledge and attitudes concerning nutrition as a modifiable risk factor for some cancers. In addition, the design and delivery of the multimedia product was positively reviewed by the students for ease of access, message design, individualized instruction, and flexibility. Despite these favorable ratings, it was not clear that students would use the program unless required to do so.
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila
Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents' nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t -test and paired t -test were used. Paired t -test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit ( P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables ( P < 0.05) were significant statistical difference, but in other aspects of nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t -test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents.
Hawkes, Corinna; Brazil, Bettina Gerken; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Jaime, Patricia Constante
To provide insights for nutrition and public health practitioners on how to engage with other sectors to achieve public health goals. Specifically, this study provides lessons from the example of integrating family farming and a nutrition into a legal framework in Brazil on how to successfully shift other sectors toward nutrition goals. The study analyzed policy processes that led to a Brazilian law linking family farming with the National School Feeding Program. Main actors involved with the development of the law were interviewed and their narratives were analyzed using a well-established theoretical framework. The study provides five key lessons for promoting intersectorality. First, nutrition and health practitioners can afford to embrace bold ideas when working with other sectors. Second, they should engage with more powerful sectors (or subsectors) and position nutrition goals as providing solutions that meet the interests of these sector. Third is the need to focus on a common goal - which may not be explicitly nutrition-related - as the focus of the intersectoral action. Fourth, philosophical, political, and governance spaces are needed to bring together different sectors. Fifth, evidence on the success of the intersectoral approach increases the acceptance of the process. This study on policy processes shows how a convergence of factors enabled a link between family farming and school feeding in Brazil. It highlights that there are strategies to engage other sectors toward nutrition goals which provides benefits for all sectors involved.
García-Casal, María Nieves; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza; Puche, Rafael; Leets, Irene; Carvajal, Zoila; Patiño, Elijú; Ibarra, Carlos
The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron, folates and retinol deficiencies in school children and to evaluate the changes after an intervention of nutritional education. The project was developed in 17 schools. The sample included 1,301 children (678 males and 623 females). A subsample of 480 individuals, was randomly selected for drawing blood for biochemical determinations before and after the intervention of nutritional education, which included in each school: written pre and post-intervention tests, 6 workshops, 2 participative talks, 5 game activities, 1 cooking course and 1 recipe contest. Anthropometrical and biochemical determinations included weight, height, body-mass index, nutritional status, hematocrit, serum ferritin, retinol and folate concentrations. There was high prevalence of iron (25%), folates (75%) and vitamin A (43%) deficiencies in school children, with a low consumption of fruit and vegetables, high consumption of soft drinks and snacks and almost no physical activity. The nutritional education intervention produced a significant reduction in iron deficiency prevalence (25 to 14%), and showed no effect on vitamin A and folates deficiencies. There was a slight improvement in nutritional status. This study shows, through biochemical determinations, that nutritional education initiatives and programs have an impact improving nutritional health in school children. PMID:21547083
Hawkes, Corinna; Brazil, Bettina Gerken; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro; Jaime, Patricia Constante
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To provide insights for nutrition and public health practitioners on how to engage with other sectors to achieve public health goals. Specifically, this study provides lessons from the example of integrating family farming and a nutrition into a legal framework in Brazil on how to successfully shift other sectors toward nutrition goals. METHODS The study analyzed policy processes that led to a Brazilian law linking family farming with the National School Feeding Program. Main actors involved with the development of the law were interviewed and their narratives were analyzed using a well-established theoretical framework. RESULTS The study provides five key lessons for promoting intersectorality. First, nutrition and health practitioners can afford to embrace bold ideas when working with other sectors. Second, they should engage with more powerful sectors (or subsectors) and position nutrition goals as providing solutions that meet the interests of these sector. Third is the need to focus on a common goal – which may not be explicitly nutrition-related – as the focus of the intersectoral action. Fourth, philosophical, political, and governance spaces are needed to bring together different sectors. Fifth, evidence on the success of the intersectoral approach increases the acceptance of the process. CONCLUSIONS This study on policy processes shows how a convergence of factors enabled a link between family farming and school feeding in Brazil. It highlights that there are strategies to engage other sectors toward nutrition goals which provides benefits for all sectors involved. PMID:27533363
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila
BACKGROUND: Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’ nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t-test and paired t-test were used. RESULTS: Paired t-test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit (P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables (P < 0.05) were significant statistical difference, but in other aspects of nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t-test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents. PMID:29296604
Outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers' market fruit and vegetable purchases and consumption among women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants,
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides participants seasonal Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) vouchers to purchase fruits and vegetables (FV) at farmers' markets and monthly cash value vouchers (CVV) redeemable at farmers' markets. Despite ...
Kerrison, Dorothy Adair
The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source of primary prevention, the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition, and the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition. Based on the literature review, it was determined that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program was appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students interested in pursuing health-related careers. The pilot study design was a semi-crossover study: all four groups received the program, however, two groups were first treated as the control groups. All fifty-four participants received 5 sessions of culinary nutrition information from Cooking With a Chef, collaboratively delivered by a nutrition educator and a chef, and one session of information about shopping healthy on a budget from Cooking Matters at the Store in the form of a grocery store tour led by the nutrition educator. Three questionnaires were administered to the participants that evaluated culinary nutrition and price knowledge, cooking attitudes, and opinions of the programs' relevance to participants' everyday lives and careers. Two of the questionnaires, including a questionnaire developed specifically for the pilot study, were delivered as a pre- and post-test while the third questionnaire was delivered as a post-test. Eight random participants also partook in a focus group session led by the nutrition
This article explores the efforts of tribal communities building more coordinated and effective early childhood systems by taking advantage of federal funding opportunities and partnerships. Given a new level of understanding and response from federal agencies regarding the unique nature of tribal communities, efforts are being made to acknowledge…
In this article, the author presents the challenges faced by early childhood education in 29 countries, according to the World Forum National Representatives and Global Leaders for Young Children. The countries represented in these responses include: Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, India, Iran, Iraq, Japan,…
Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L; Strickland, Amy Williams
Nutrition education programs for elder caregivers (CG) and their elder care recipients (CR) are important in preventing malnutrition. Using Social Marketing Theory, this study assessed the needs and preferences for nutrition education in elder CGs and their CRs in Guilford County, NC. Thirty-two pairs of community-residing elder CGs/CRs and three focus groups (FGs) participated. Health and diet questionnaires were administered to all CGs/CRs during in-home interviews. CGs/CRs and FGs evaluated nutrition education materials. Questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS v9. Ethnograph v5.0 was used to code the interviews regarding the education materials. The CGs were middle age (58.9 years), overweight (BMI = 28.8) Caucasian women. The CRs were old (79.4 years), overweight (BMI = 26.0) Caucasian women. Identified malnutrition risk factors of CGs and CRs included inadequate fluid and dietary intake, polypharmacy, and chronic disease. Identified nutrition needs and education preferences of CGs/CRs were similar. Perceived nutrition education preferences of the FGs did not reflect the interests of the CGs/CRs. This information is being used to revise the education materials and develop an in-home nutrition education program for CGs and CRs in Guilford County, NC.
Bensley, Robert J; Anderson, Judith V; Brusk, John J; Mercer, Nelda; Rivas, Jason
The purpose of this project was to compare the impact of Internet nutrition education to traditional nutrition education on Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant fruit and vegetable consumption. Interventions were delivered at 15 WIC clinics after normal WIC clinic operations or delivered online. A total of 692 and 872 participants from eight WIC agencies self-enrolled into two phases. A quasi-experimental design using an interrupted time series to determine the impact of two methods of nutrition education and follow-up nutrition counseling was used. Data were collected online and at Michigan WIC clinics during 2005-2007 at 3-month intervals during a 9-month period (per phase). Two Internet nutrition education modules were compared to WIC traditional nutrition education, which included either group classes or a self-guided nutrition education information mall. All interventions were based on the same program learning objectives. Optional motivational negotiation counseling followed 3 months post-intervention. Stage of change progression, belief in ability to change, and fruit and vegetable consumption were measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Significance (P<0.05) was analyzed using independent samples t tests, χ(2) distribution, and sample tests for differences in binomial proportions. The Internet group experienced substantial positive differences in stage of change progression, perception that the intervention was helpful and easy to use, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Traditional nutrition education required follow-up counseling to achieve fruit and vegetable consumption levels similar to the Internet nutrition education group. Based on these findings, this study supports Internet nutrition education as a viable alternative to traditional nutrition education for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in some WIC clients. Copyright © 2011
Liu, Zhi-Juan; Liu, Guo-Sheng; Chen, Yong-Ge; Zhang, Hui-Li; Wu, Xue-Fen
To study the short-term response and tolerance of different doses of amino acids in parenteral nutrition among preterm infants. This study included 86 preterm infants who had a birth weight between 1 000 to 2 000 g and were admitted to the hospital within 24 hours of birth between March 2013 and June 2014. According to the early application of different doses of amino acids, they were randomized into low-dose group (n=29, 1.0 g/kg per day with an increase of 1.0 g/kg daily and a maximum of 3.5 g/kg per day), medium-dose group (n=28, 2.0 g/kg per day with an increase of 1.0 g/kg daily and a maximum of 3.7 g/kg per day), and high-dose group (n=29, 3.0 g/kg per day with an increase of 0.5-1.0 g/kg daily and a maximum of 4.0 g/kg per day). Other routine parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition support were also applied. The maximum weight loss was lower and the growth rate of head circumference was greater in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group (P<0.05). The infants in the medium- and high-dose groups had faster recovery of birth weight, earlier attainment of 100 kcal/(kg·d) of enteral nutrition, shorter duration of hospital stay, and less hospital cost than those in the low-dose group (P<0.05). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in the high-dose group increased compared with the other two groups 7 days after birth (P<0.05). The levels of creatinine, pH, bicarbonate, bilirubin, and transaminase and the incidence of complications showed no significant differences between groups (P>0.05). Parenteral administration of high-dose amino acids in preterm infants within 24 hours after birth can improve the short-term nutritional status of preterm infants, but there is a transient increase in BUN level.
Students who appear young on college campuses may be in an "Early College" program. Several factors have increased the popularity of these programs, though a proactive push from higher education to expand them has not been a primary one. The impetus for the growth of such programs has come from legislators as well as from high school…
The effect of a nutritional education program on the nutritional status of elderly patients in a long-term care hospital in Jeollanamdo province: health behavior, dietary behavior, nutrition risk level and nutrient intake
Kim, Bok Hee; Kim, Mi-Ju
This study was conducted to assess improvements in nutritional status following the application of nutrition education to elderly patients in a long-term care hospital. The study was carried out from January to May 2009, during which a preliminary survey, a pretest, the application of nutrition education, and a post-test were applied in stages. The number of subjects at pretest was 81, and the number of participants included in the final analysis was 61 (18 men, 43 women), all of whom participated in both the nutrition education program and the post-test. The survey consisted of general demographic items, health behaviors, dietary behaviors, the Nutrition Screening Initiative checklist, and nutrient intake assessment (24 hour recall method). The nutrition education program lasted for four weeks. It included a basic education program, provided once a week, and mini-education program, which was offered daily during lunch times. The survey was conducted before and after the education program using the same assessment method, although some items were included only at pretest. When analyzing the changes in elderly patients after the nutritional education program, we found that, among subjective dietary behaviors, self-rated perceptions of health (P < 0.001) and of depression (P < 0.001) improved significantly and that dietary behavior scores also improved significantly (P < 0.001), while nutritional risk levels decreased. In terms of nutrient intake, subjects' intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C all increased significantly (P < 0.001). These results indicated that nutritional education is effective in improving the nutritional status of elderly patients. We hope that the results of this study can be used as preliminary data for establishing guidelines for nutrition management tailored to elderly patients in long-term care hospitals. PMID:22413039
Houghtaling, Bailey; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Jenkins, Mica
Breastfeeding is an important public health initiative. Low-income women benefiting from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are a prime population for breastfeeding promotion efforts. Research aim: This study aims to determine factors associated with increased likelihood of breastfeeding for WIC participants. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement guided the systematic review of literature. Database searches occurred in September and October 2014 and included studies limited to the previous 10 years. The following search terms were used: low-income; WIC; women, infants, and children; breastfeeding; breast milk; and maternal and child health. The criterion for inclusion was a study sample of women and children enrolled in the WIC program, thereby excluding non-United States-based research. Factors that increased the likelihood of breastfeeding for WIC participants included sociodemographic and health characteristics ( n = 17); environmental and media support ( n = 4); government policy ( n = 2); intention to breastfeed, breastfeeding in hospital, or previous breastfeeding experience ( n = 9); attitudes toward and knowledge of breastfeeding benefits ( n = 6); health care provider or social support; and time exposure to WIC services ( n = 5). The complexity of breastfeeding behaviors within this population is clear. Results provide multisectored insight for future research, policies, and practices in support of increasing breastfeeding rates among WIC participants.
Bergmans, Rachel S; Berger, Lawrence M; Palta, Mari; Robert, Stephanie A; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Malecki, Kristen
Previous studies have observed an association between participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and depression, which is contrary to SNAP's potential to alleviate food insecurity and financial strain. This study investigated the impact of change in SNAP participation status on maternal depression, and whether perceptions of government assistance moderate this association. Data were from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS). Logistic regression models with individual-specific fixed-effects, were fit to SNAP-eligible mothers who changed SNAP participation and depression status (N = 256) during waves 2 to 4. Perceptions of government assistance were defined as feelings of humiliation or loss of freedom and tested for interactions with SNAP participation. Perceptions of government assistance moderated the association between SNAP participation and depression (p-interaction = 0.0208). Those with positive perceptions of welfare had 0.27 (95% CI = 0.08 to 0.89) times lower odds of depression when enrolled vs. not enrolled in SNAP. Among those with negative perceptions of welfare, SNAP enrollment was not associated with depression (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 0.85 to 1.51). Evidence suggests that SNAP mental health benefits may be context specific. SNAP's capacity to improve mental health may depend on individual perceptions of government assistance. More research is needed to determine whether interventions aimed at mitigating negative perceptions of programs like SNAP could ameliorate poor mental health among program participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levenson, Nancy A.; Sembach, Kenneth
We will introduce the Director's Discretionary Early Release Science (DD-ERS) Program for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). These programs will educate and inform the community about JWST's instruments and capabilities, providing open access to early observations, and science-enabling products that the DD-ERS teams produce. During this session, we will provide updates on JWST status, and the 13 selected teams will give an overview of their planned observations and future work.
Millimet, Daniel L.; Tchernis, Rusty; Husain, Muna
Given the recent rise in childhood obesity, the School Breakfast Program (SBP) and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) have received renewed attention. Using panel data on more than 13,500 primary school students, we assess the relationship between SBP and NSLP participation and (relatively) long-run measures of child weight. After documenting a…
Bernath, Penny; Masi, Wendy
By adopting the Smart School Snacks program, administrators and teachers at the Nova Southeastern University (NSU) preschool center have prompted a healthy change in attitude about snacks. Simple healthy snacks have become the norm at the center and are welcomed by children and families alike. Family involvement is a critical part of the program.…
Schwartz, Marlene B
To address the dual problem of food insecurity and poor nutrition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has recently revised the nutrition standards for nearly all of its federal food programs to align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. One notable exception is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Policy proposals to restrict SNAP benefits based on nutrition quality (e.g., excluding sugary drinks) have generated controversy and have polarized previous research and advocacy allies. This essay presents many of the issues that have emerged, which include challenges about the feasibility, justification, and effectiveness of restricting benefits; the risk of a slippery slope; concerns about participant dignity; and finally, distrust about the motives behind promoting and opposing a policy change. The purpose of this review is to increase mutual understanding and respect of different perspectives. The conclusion is that the rationales behind both support and opposition to updating the policies regulating SNAP benefits based on nutrition are fundamentally the same-the belief that a fair and just society cares for and protects vulnerable citizens, which in this case are low-income Americans who need assistance affording healthy food. Recommendations include activities to restore trust between the public health and anti-hunger communities, authentic engagement of SNAP participants in the conversation, and an optional SNAP program that includes both incentives and restrictions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chang, Yunhee; Kim, Jinhee; Chatterjee, Swarn
To examine whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants exhibited lower food insecurity when they also demonstrated desirable behaviors in the areas of financial management, nutrition literacy, and conscientious food shopping. Using data from the US Department of Agriculture's newly launched National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey, this study examined whether consumer competency is a factor that affects food insecurity. A total of 4,158 participants were included. Sampling weights were applied to represent the population better. Very low food insecurity was the dependent variable. Important independent variables were participants' financial management skills, nutrition literacy, and conscientious shopping. Logit and 2-staged least-squares models were used for empirical analyses. The significance of models was tested at .05, .01, and .001. Consumer competency-related factors such as financial management ability, not defaulting on bill payments within the previous 6 months, and using the nutrition panel frequently when shopping were negatively associated with food insecurity and very low food security after controlling for a number of other demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral characteristics. Policies that focus solely on consumer competency programs such as SNAP-Education might marginally achieve program goals but the effect would be modest owing to the unique challenges that SNAP participants may face. Further investigations are needed to understand better why SNAP participants do not benefit successfully from competent consumer practices. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sugimoto, Taiki; Nakamura, Akinori; Kato, Takashi; Iwata, Kaori; Saji, Naoki; Arahata, Yutaka; Hattori, Hideyuki; Bundo, Masahiko; Ito, Kengo; Niida, Shumpei; Sakurai, Takashi
Weight loss is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To clarify the associations between nutritional status and AD-related brain changes using Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and structural MRI. The subjects were 34 amyloid-β (Aβ)-positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early AD (prodromal/early AD), and 55 Aβ-negative cognitively normal (CN) subjects who attended the Multimodal Neuroimaging for AD Diagnosis (MULNIAD) study. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by body mass index and waist to height ratio (waist circumference/height). The associations between nutritional status and brain changes were examined by multiple regression analysis using statistical parametric mapping. In the prodromal/early AD group, nutritional status was significantly positively correlated with regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) in the medial prefrontal cortices, while different topographical associations were seen in the CN group, suggesting these changes were AD-specific. Aβ deposition and gray matter volume were not significantly associated with nutritional status. Sub-analysis in the prodromal/early AD group demonstrated that fat mass index, but not fat-free mass index, was positively correlated with rCGM in the medial prefrontal areas. This present study provides preliminary results suggesting that hypometabolism in the medial prefrontal areas is specifically associated with AD-related weight loss, and decrease in fat mass may have a key role.
In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…
Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina
In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…
In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was created almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services.…
Spielberger, Julie; Zanoni, Wladimir; Barisik, Elizabeth
As a result of policy changes following welfare reform in 1996 and the costs associated with providing high-quality early care and education for children of low-income working families, agency collaboration in the state of Illinois has become an increasingly salient feature of subsidized early care and education programs (SECE). The authors…
Noller, B; Winkler, G; Rummel, C
The State Initiative Be KI is carried out statewide by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry for Nutrition/Food and Rural Area since 1980. Be KI addresses all target groups involved in the upbringing and education of children from age 6 months up to the end of the 6th grade and provides factual, validated, and independent information on child nutrition and nutrition education. Recently a comprehensive evaluation was carried out to assess the public health impact. Program, design and results of the evaluation are presented. According to the RE-AIM Model for health promotion programs the evaluation assesses the public health impact in regard of individual and institutional reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance by various methods (e. g. written surveys and interviews with experts of child nutrition, in day care facilities and primary schools supplemented by internal data of the Ministry). Be KI represents the nutrition education program for children in the German language area with the longest uninterrupted operation span. The number of assignments of the child nutrition experts has been increasing ever since Be KI's official inception in 1980. During the school year 2004/2005 the experts carried out 6090 assignments, predominantly in primary schools which accounted for 60% of the assignments. About a third of schools know Be KI. The majority of kindergarten and school teachers who know the experts of child nutrition or the compilation use these offers. Many teachers use Be KI-components without knowing that they belong to Be KI. As a result of Be KI some of the teachers noticed short-time changes: pupils eat healthier break-time snacks and change their attitude towards a more balanced diet. Concerning the frequency of nutrition education and teachers attitude there are hardly any differences between institutions with Be KI and without Be KI. Be KI meets the main requirements of effective nutrition education programs for children: it is creative
Schermbeck, Rebecca M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.
Abstract Background: Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. Methods: TV ratings data for children 2–5 and 6–11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. Results: A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2–5 and 6–11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Conclusions: Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required. PMID:24206260
Powell, Lisa M; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Chaloupka, Frank J
Given the high rates of childhood obesity, assessing the nutritional content of food and beverage products in television (TV) advertisements to which children are exposed is important. TV ratings data for children 2-5 and 6-11 years of age were used to examine the nutritional content of food and beverage products in advertisements seen by children on all programming and children's programming (≥35% child-audience share). Nutritional content was assessed based on the federal Interagency Working Group (IWG) recommended nutrients to limit (NTL), including saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and sodium. A total of 46.2% of 2- to 5-year-olds' and 43.5% of 6- to 11-year-olds' total exposure to food and beverage TV advertising was for ads seen on children's programming. Among children 2-5 and 6-11 years, respectively, 84.1 and 84.4% of ads seen on all programming and 95.8 and 97.3% seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, and 97.8 and 98.1% of Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) company-member ads seen on children's programming were for products high in NTL, compared to 80.5 and 89.9% of non-CFBAI product ads. Most food and beverage products in TV ads seen by children do not meet the IWG nutrition recommendations and less than one half of such ads are covered by self-regulation. Products advertised on children's versus general-audience programming and by CFBAI- versus non-CFBAI-member companies are particularly of low nutritional quality, suggesting that self-regulation has not successfully protected children from exposure to advertising for unhealthy foods and that continued monitoring is required.
The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science Early Career Program began in FY 2010. The program objectives are to support the development of individual research programs of outstanding scientists early in their careers and to stimulate research careers in the disciplines supported by the DOE Office of Science. Both university and DOE national laboratory early career scientists are eligible. Applicants must be within 10 years of receiving their PhD. For universities, the PI must be an untenured Assistant Professor or Associate Professor on the tenure track. DOE laboratory applicants must be full time, non-postdoctoral employee. University awards are at least 150,000 per year for 5 years for summer salary and expenses. DOE laboratory awards are at least 500,000 per year for 5 years for full annual salary and expenses. The Program is managed by the Office of the Deputy Director for Science Programs and supports research in the following Offices: Advanced Scientific and Computing Research, Biological and Environmental Research, Basic Energy Sciences, Fusion Energy Sciences, High Energy Physics, and Nuclear Physics. A new Funding Opportunity Announcement is issued each year with detailed description on the topical areas encouraged for early career proposals. Preproposals are required. This talk will introduce the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research program and describe opportunities for research relevant to the condensed matter physics community. http://science.energy.gov/early-career/
Luccia, Barbara H. D.; Kunkel, Mary E.; Cason, Katherine L.
Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates (n=1,141) who received either individual (21.3%), group (76.2%), or combined (2.5%) instruction were assessed. Independent of method, participants significantly improved the number of servings consumed from grains, vegetables, dairy, and meat and meat alternatives; total calories consumed;…
Jackson, Maria L.; Russell, Ernest L.
The 7 O'Clock Scholars Program for gifted and talented students at Pontiac (Michigan) Central Senior High School brings speakers from a nearby university to speak to interested high school students during 50-minute sessions before regular classes begin. (PGD)
... option'' in the regulation when discussing the fact that there is only one cost threshold and cost limit... amounts, and to apply the cost threshold and cost limit, to periods of time that are 12 months in duration... program provides reimbursement to participating employment-based plans for a portion of the cost of health...
PRESENT PRESCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN ARE OF 3 KINDS--(1) AN INVENTORY TYPE WHICH ATTEMPTS TO IDENTIFY DEFICITS WHICH WILL AFFECT SCHOOL LEARNING AND TO OVERCOME THESE THROUGH EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES, (2) A PLAN BASED ON A RECAPITULATION THEORY WHICH ATTEMPTS TO DESCRIBE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES AND TO COMPENSATE FOR THOSE WHICH A…
Simser, Judith I.; Steacie, Pamela
The Aural Habilitation Program of Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (Canada) provides weekly, individualized aural habilitation sessions for parents of young children with hearing impairments and offers guidance in creating a listening, learning environment in the home. Strategies for developing parents' skills and confidence are described.…
Klarod, Kultida; Hongsprabhas, Pranithi; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Wirasorn, Kosin; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Tangrassameeprasert, Roongpet; Daduang, Jureerut; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Boonsiri, Patcharee
Malnutrition frequently occurs in lung cancer patients. We aimed to determine nutritional status and antioxidant and mineral levels in Thai patients with lung cancer. A prospective study with matched case-control was conducted. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and subjective global assessment (SGA). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status was used to assess the performance. The serum antioxidant and mineral levels were determined. Forty-nine patients with a mean age of 58.8 (range, 35-82) who were first diagnosed with lung cancer were enrolled. They were compared with 60 healthy controls, and levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, selenium, and zinc were lower (P < 0.05). However, peroxidase activity was higher (P = 0.002) in patients. Selenium levels were higher in early stage compared to advanced stage patients (P = 0.041). Overweight patients had higher selenium levels (0.04 mg/L) than normal BMI patients (β = 0.04, P = 0.035). Patients with SGA class C had lower selenium levels (0.03 mg/L) than those with class A (β = -0.03, P = 0.035). The poorer ECOG performance patients had significantly lower β-carotene (β = -0.192, P = 0.003) and selenium (β = -0.031, P = 0.011) levels compared with those with good ECOG performance status. Significantly lower levels of antioxidants and selenium were found in lung cancer patients compared to healthy controls. Levels of some antioxidants and minerals differed among categories of BMI, SGA categories, or ECOG performance status. These findings may be helpful for further studies, such as the effect of nutritional supplementation on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gabor, S; Renner, H; Matzi, V; Ratzenhofer, B; Lindenmann, J; Sankin, O; Pinter, H; Maier, A; Smolle, J; Smolle-Jüttner, F M
After resective and reconstructive surgery in the gastrointestinal tract, oral feeding is traditionally avoided in order to minimize strain to the anastomoses and to reduce the inherent risks of the postoperatively impaired gastrointestinal motility. However, studies have given evidence that the small bowel recovers its ability to absorb nutrients almost immediately following surgery, even in the absence of peristalsis, and that early enteral feeding would preserve both the integrity of gut mucosa and its immunological function. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early enteral feeding on the postoperative course following oesophagectomy or oesophagogastrectomy, and reconstruction. Between May 1999 and November 2002, forty-four consecutive patients (thirty-eight males and six females; mean age 62, range 30-82) with oesophageal carcinoma (stages I-III), who had undergone radical resection and reconstruction, entered this study (early enteral feeding group; EEF). A historical group of forty-four patients (thirty-seven males and seven females; mean age 64, range 41-79; stages I-III) resected between January 1997 and March 1999 served as control (parenteral feeding group; PF). The duration of both postoperative stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the total hospital stay, perioperative complications and the overall mortality were compared. Early enteral feeding was administered over the jejunal line of a Dobhoff tube. It started 6 h postoperatively at a rate of 10 ml/h for 6 h with stepwise increase until total enteral nutrition was achieved on day 6. In the controls oral enteral feeding was begun on day 7. If compared to the PF group, EEF patients recovered faster considering the duration of both stay in the ICU and in the hospital. There was a significant difference in the interval until the first bowel movements. No difference in overall 30 d mortality was identified. A poor nutritional status was a significant prognostic factor for an
Nitzke, Susan; Riley, Dave; Ramminger, Ann; Jacobs, Georgine
Nutrition has vital and long-lasting effects on children's development. Good nutrition helps children learn better and promotes lifelong healthy eating habits. Connecting current scientific research with best practices, "Rethinking Nutrition" provides information to help you meet and understand children's nutritional and developmental…
Yakubu, D P; Mostyn, A; Hyatt, M A; Kurlak, L O; Budge, H; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E
This study investigated the developmental and nutritional programming of two important mitochondrial proteins, namely voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and cytochrome c, in the sheep kidney, liver and lung. The effect of maternal nutrient restriction between early and mid-gestation (i.e. 28- to 80-day gestation, the period of maximal placental growth) on the abundance of these proteins was also examined in fetal and juvenile offspring. Fetuses were sampled at 80 and 140 days of gestation (term approximately 147 days), and postnatal animals at 1 and 30 days and 6 months of age. The abundance of VDAC peaked at 140 days of gestation in the lung, compared with 1 day after birth in the kidney and liver, whereas cytochrome c abundance was greatest at 140 days of gestation in the liver, 1 day after birth in the kidney and 6 months of age in lungs. This differential ontogeny in mitochondrial protein abundance between tissues was accompanied with very different tissue-specific responses to changes in maternal food intake. In the liver, maternal nutrient restriction only increased mitochondrial protein abundance at 80 days of gestation, compared with no effect in the kidney. In contrast, in the lung mitochondrial protein, abundance was raised near to term, whereas VDAC abundance was decreased by 6 months of age. These findings demonstrate the tissue-specific nature of mitochondrial protein development that reflects differences in functional adaptation after birth. The divergence in mitochondrial response between tissues to maternal nutrient restriction early in pregnancy further reflects these differential ontogenies.
Batura, Neha; Hill, Zelee; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Lingam, Raghu; Colbourn, Timothy; Kim, Sungwook; Sikander, Siham; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene
There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost
Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borelli, Primavera; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; de Oliveira Pires, Ivanir Santana; Tirapegui, Julio
To investigate the effect that early weaning associated with the ingestion of either a glutamine-free or supplemented diet has on the functioning of peritoneal macrophages, hematopoiesis and nutritional status of mice. Swiss Webster mice were early weaned on their 14th day of life and distributed to two groups, being fed either a glutamine-free diet (-GLN) or a glutamine-supplemented diet (+GLN). Animals belonging to a control group (CON) were weaned on their 21st day of life. The -GLN and +GLN groups had a lower lean body mass, carcass protein and ash content, plasma glutamine concentration and lymphocyte counts both in the peripheral blood and bone marrow when compared to the CON group (P<0.05). Dietary supplementation with glutamine reversed both the lower concentrations of protein and DNA in the muscle and liver, as well as the reduced capacity of spreading and synthesizing nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 in cultures of peritoneal macrophages obtained from the -GLN group (P<0.05). These data indicate that the ingestion of glutamine modulates the function of peritoneal macrophages in early weaned mice. However, a glutamine-supplemented diet cannot substitute maternal milk in respect to immunological and metabolic parameters.
Brown, J L; Adams, P A; Kaltreider, D L; Sims, L S
We surveyed 218 county extension agents, 75 state extension specialists, 163 public health nutritionists, and 87 public health administrators in 16 states to compare the nutrition program characteristics of extension personnel with public health personnel. Public health personnel were most strongly influenced by funding regulations--more than 80% of public health nutritionists cited infant/preschool nutrition and nutrition for pregnant/lactating women as program topics. About half of the extension agents listed food preservation and preparation as the dominant topics provided. Public health personnel most frequently designed programs for pregnant and lactating women and low-income clientele; 91% of the nutritionists ranked one-to-one counseling as one of their three most important delivery methods. Extension personnel designed programs more often for homemakers/adults and youth and ranked a combination of group and media delivery methods as most important. Public health personnel use anthropometric measures and food intake records to evaluate their programs; extension personnel use written questionnaires and program records. More than 50% of the nutritionists ranked improving the health of their clients as one of the three most important impacts of their programs; more than 50% of the extension agents ranked increasing knowledge and improving skills as their most important impacts.
Breunig, Gretchen Stahr; Bellm, Dan
Mentoring programs offer experienced caregivers and directors new encouragement to remain in the field by helping them learn to share their skills with others and grow in the profession. This report is the result of an information-gathering process among mentoring programs for early childhood educators in the United States. Following an…
Early childhood programs should be designed to serve the whole child's development within the context of the family and community. This is especially important for children who speak a language other than English at home. Programs must employ developmentally and culturally appropriate practices that respect individual differences and choices and…
Katz, David L.; Katz, Catherine S.; Treu, Judith A.; Reynolds, Jesse; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Michael, Jennifer
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nutrition education program designed to teach elementary school students and their parents, and to distinguish between more healthful and less healthful choices in diverse food categories. Methods: Three schools were assigned to receive the Nutrition Detectives[TM] program and…
Hurtado, Ghaffar Ali
The purpose of this study was to investigate the process of knowledge transfer. The setting is a health and nutrition educational program at University of Minnesota Extension. The main research question was how is Knowledge Transfer being implemented in Extension, specifically Educational Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program? A case study,…
The first national nutrition survey of Thailand in 1960 revealed that malnutrition among children and women in this rice-exporting country was highly prevalent. Malnutrition received national-level attention in the 1970s, when a national multisectoral nutrition plan was included in the Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) (1977-81), followed by effective implementation through Thailand's primary healthcare system and poverty alleviation plan in the 1982-87 NESDP. Nutrition was embedded into primary healthcare, and a community-based nutrition program was successfully implemented through community participation via manpower mobilization and capacity-building, financing, and organization. Growth-monitoring, promotion of infant and young child feeding, and joint financing (government and community) of a nutrition fund were implemented. The poverty alleviation plan made it possible to streamline resource allocations at the national level down to priority poverty areas, which also facilitated microlevel planning. Effective, integrated actions were undertaken using the basic minimum needs approach, wherein community people identified problems and participated in actions with inputs from government personnel. This effective process took about 5 years to put in place. In response, child undernutrition declined significantly. Severe malnutrition was practically eradicated, and it remains resilient despite social and economic challenges, such as the Asian economic crisis in 1977. Currently, stunting and subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain, while overweight and obesity among children are rising rapidly. A different paradigm and strategy will be essential to address the nation's current nutrition challenges.
Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Park, Eunhye; Wang, Yujia; Rushing, Keith
Purpose/Objectives: This study investigated the use of electronic and paper-based point-of-service (POS) systems in school nutrition programs (SNPs), including associated challenges and the desired skills and existing training practices for personnel handling such systems. Methods: A questionnaire was developed based on interviews with 25 SNP…
Bhattacharya, Jayanta; Currie, Janet; Haider, Steven J.
We examine the effect of the School Breakfast Program (SBP) availability with the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III. Our work builds on previous research by developing a transparent difference-in-differences strategy to account for unobserved differences between students with access to SBP and those without, using serum…
Rodeheaver, Daniel G.; Rodeheaver, Denise P.
Between 1978 and 1980, qualitative and numerical data were collected in a health post facility located in Patzite, a rural village in highland Guatemala, in order to determine the effectiveness of rural health service delivery, including nutrition programs. Data were collected by: (1) interviews as to purposes and goals of general health care; (2)…
MkNelly, Barbara; Nishio, Stephanie; Peshek, Cynthia; Oppen, Michelle
Health care providers could help achieve the necessary shift to healthful eating and active living; however, lack of coverage or reimbursement, lack of time, and limited information about appropriate interventions are some of the documented barriers. This report highlights the potential for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education…
Our objective was to evaluate the Kids Café Program (KCP) nutrition education intervention and assess its impact on children's diet quality and body mass index (BMI) percentile. An experimental design consisting of pretest-posttest comparison groups using mixed methods was used to evaluate the 6-ses...
Korenman, Sanders; Abner, Kristin S.; Kaestner, Robert; Gordon, Rachel A.
Children spend a considerable amount of time in preschools and child care centers. As a result, these settings may have an influence on their diet, weight, and food security, and are potentially important contexts for interventions to address nutritional health. The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) is one such intervention. No national…
... Service 7 CFR Parts 278 and 279 RIN 0584-AD88 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Farm Bill of 2008..., Public Law 110-246 (``the 2008 Farm Bill''). The proposal would update SNAP retailer sanction regulations to include authority granted in the 2008 Farm Bill to allow FNS to impose a civil penalty in addition...
Webb, Virginia Susan
Equipment to store foods at proper temperatures is critical to serving safe and nutritious meals in schools yet little is known about the amount or the adequacy of refrigerated storage in school nutrition programs. The purposes of this study were to identify the types and capacity of refrigeration equipment used in schools, determine the perceived…
Designed to assist child care center managers in planning nutritious meals for children in centers or licensed home day care programs, this guide presents information on the nutritional requirements of infants and children, sample menus for child care centers, and resources for further information. The first part of the guide details the…
Price Waterhouse, Washington, DC. Office of Government Services.
In fall 1990, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) contracted with Price Waterhouse to complete a study of the use of food-service management companies (FSMCs) by school districts that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the Tentative findings include: (1) contracts between school…
Humphries, Kathleen; Traci, Meg Ann; Seekins, Tom
To test the efficacy, acceptability, and appropriateness of a nutrition education and support program, 4 community-based group homes for adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities participated in a pilot intervention with extended baseline period and pre--post-test design. Adults (N = 32) with intellectual or developmental…
... Reflect the End of Coupon Issuance Systems AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION... Assistance Program (SNAP) regulations to account for the replacement of the paper coupon issuance system with the Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) system as the nationwide method of distributing benefits to...
North Dakota School Food Service Association., Bismarck.
The American School Food Service Association (ASFSA) has encouraged each state to adapt "Standards of Excellence" for school nutrition programs. The North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (NDDPI), in cooperation with the North Dakota School Food Service Association (NDSFSA), has developed this document, "Growing Toward…
We are attempting to uncover the school nutrition program's role in weight management of 4th grade elementary students. Data was collected within a time frame for the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) set at two months at the WT Cheney Elementary School and South Wood Elementary for 4th grade stud...
Kansas State Board of Education, Topeka.
The Nutrition Education and Training Program (NETP) promotes healthy eating habits to improve the health and well-being of children. It integrates mealtime and learning experiences to help children make informed food choices part of a healthy lifestyle. Kansas NETP has adopted the national NETP philosophy and strategic direction, with goals…
Robinson, Whitney R
In countries undergoing nutrition transition and historically poor minority groups in wealthy countries, obesity tends to be more common in women than men. A potential contributor to this female excess of obesity is a mismatch between perinatal nutritional restriction and a later calorie-rich environment. Several epidemiologic and quasi-experimental studies support a gender-differential effect of early nutritional deprivation on adult obesity. The quasi-experimental studies are of particular interest because results of quasi-experimental studies are typically less vulnerable to confounding bias than observational studies. Four quasi-experimental studies-exploiting 20th century famines that occurred in Europe, Africa, and Asia-provide evidence that perinatal nutritional restriction followed by relative caloric abundance may increase adult obesity risk to a greater extent in women than men. If the findings are accurate and generalizable to contemporary food environments, they suggest that the female offspring of poor, or otherwise nutritionally restricted, women in rapidly developing and wealthy countries may be at particularly high risk of adult obesity. Research into gender-specific effects of early life nutritional deprivation and its interactions with later environmental exposures may provide insight into global gender differences in obesity prevalence.
Li, Bing; Liu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Shao-Hua; Sun, Peng; Gong, Fang-Ming; Jia, Bao-Qing
This study investigated the impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on the clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients after radical gastrectomy. Four hundred gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy of any extend with D2 nodal dissection were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group with 200 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received postoperative parenteral nutrition (PN), while patients in the experimental group received postoperative EEN. After treatment, the clinical outcomes, postoperative immune function, and nutritional status of the two groups were evaluated. The postoperative fever time, intestinal function recovery time, anal exhaust time, and the length of hospital stay for patients in the experimental group were significantly shorter than those of the control group. We did not find significant differences in anastomotic leak, postoperative ileus and regurgitation between the two groups. The activities of multiple immune cell types, including CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and natural killer (NK) cells, were significantly lower in both groups on postoperative day 1 when compared with the preoperative levels (p<0.05). The level of CD8⁺ was not significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05). After treatment, levels of CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and NK cells in the experimental group patients were 35.6 ± 4.2, 42.2 ± 3.0, 1.7 ± 0.3, and 27.3 ± 5.3%, respectively, on postoperative day 7, which were similar to the preoperative levels. The immune cell levels from the control group patients remained significantly lower when compared with preoperative values; in addition, these values were also significantly lower when compared with the EEN patients (p<0.05) CONCLUSION: For gastric cancer patients undergoing radical gastrectomy, the clinical outcome, immune function and nutritional status after EEN were significantly improved. These data suggest the widespread use of EEN in clinical practice.
Maddock, Jane; Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Hardy, Rebecca
Body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position (SEP) in early life have been associated with a range of later life health outcomes. Epigenetic regulation is one mechanism through which these early life factors may impact later life health. The aim of this review protocol is to outline procedures to document the influence of body size, nutrition and SEP in early life on the epigenome. MEDLINE, Embase and BIOSIS will be systematically searched using pre-defined keywords. Additional studies will be identified through manual searching of reference lists. Two independent researchers will assess the eligibility and quality of each study, with disagreements being resolved through discussion or a third reviewer. Studies will be included if they have epigenetic markers measured either at the same time as, or after, the early life exposure and, have a measure of body size, nutrition or SEP in early life (up to 12 years), are in the English language and are from a sample of community-dwelling participants. This protocol will be used to collate the evidence for the effect of early life factors on the epigenome. Findings will form a component of a wider research study examining epigenetic responses to exposures in early life and over the life course and its impact on healthy ageing using data from population-based cohort studies. PROSPERO CRD42016050193.
Raiten, Daniel J; Sakr Ashour, Fayrouz A; Ross, A Catharine; Meydani, Simin N; Dawson, Harry D; Stephensen, Charles B; Brabin, Bernard J; Suchdev, Parminder S; van Ommen, Ben
An increasing recognition has emerged of the complexities of the global health agenda—specifically, the collision of infections and noncommunicable diseases and the dual burden of over- and undernutrition. Of particular practical concern are both 1) the need for a better understanding of the bidirectional relations between nutritional status and the development and function of the immune and inflammatory response and 2) the specific impact of the inflammatory response on the selection, use, and interpretation of nutrient biomarkers. The goal of the Inflammation and Nutritional Science for Programs/Policies and Interpretation of Research Evidence (INSPIRE) is to provide guidance for those users represented by the global food and nutrition enterprise. These include researchers (bench and clinical), clinicians providing care/treatment, those developing and evaluating programs/interventions at scale, and those responsible for generating evidence-based policy. The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations. Each WG was tasked with synthesizing a summary of the evidence for each of these topics and delineating the remaining gaps in our knowledge. This review consists of a summary of the INSPIRE workshop and the WG deliberations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Dukeshire, Steven; Nicks, Emily; Ferguson, Jennifer
To describe and provide recommendations for the implementation of an evaluation for an already existing, in-store Nutrition Label Education Program (NLEP). We describe the development and implementation of an evaluation consisting of a pre- and postsurvey and one month follow-up. The evaluation was designed to assess satisfaction with the NLEP as well as changes in participant nutrition label knowledge, confidence in using nutrition labels, and actual changes in nutrition label use. Nineteen participants took part in the pilot evaluation. The evaluation was successful in demonstrating high levels of satisfaction with the NLEP as well as positive changes in participant confidence and some increased knowledge in using nutrition labels. However, only 3 people participated in the follow-up, limiting the ability to assess behaviour change. Ideally, NLEPs should include ongoing evaluation that extends beyond just assessing participant satisfaction. Recommendations are provided for conducting such evaluations, including the importance of incorporating the evaluation into the program itself, using existing questionnaires when possible, and employing pre- and postsurveys as well as follow-up interviews to assess change.
Sarkar, Dipanwita; Sarkar, Jayanta
The health impact of attending early childhood development programs in developing countries remains largely unknown. In this study, we focus on the health consequences of attending preschool programs in India. Using a unique longitudinal dataset, we allow for heterogeneity in the impact of preschool across the distribution of health outcomes while controlling for time-invariant unobservables. We detect unique temporal variation in the effect of preschool attendance - growth of preschool attendees is slower than non-attendees in various parts of the distributions of several anthropometric measures when evaluated in the early years between ages 1 and 5. This effect is likely to reverse in the longer term at age 8. The early years' adverse effect can be explained in part by over-attendance in the form of long daily hours, excessive attendance days, and early entry. The findings are insensitive to nutritional incentives like free meals provided in public schools. The growth-retarding effect remains robust for weight-for-age z-scores, implying that the impact of preschool attendance is not only heterogeneous, but differs across dimensions of health status. Our study highlights the need for strengthening the delivery of childhood programs in developing countries in order to prevent adverse health effects in the critical years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Botero-Garcés, Jorge H; García-Montoya, Gisela M; Grisales-Patiño, Dayvin; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel C; Alvarez-Uribe, Martha C
Giardia intestinalis infection is prevalent throughout the world and widely distributed in developing countries. In general, children display serious consequences to their state of health, including slow height-weight development; therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the association between Giardia infection and the nutritional status of children who participate in the program of complementary feeding (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia (MANA) - Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF)). A cross-sectional study examining the association of giardiasis with nutritional status was conducted. A total of 2035 children aged eight months to six years-old were studied. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and laboratory analysis of blood and stool samples. Analysis of the results showed that 27.6% of children were infected with G. intestinalis, while 8.1% and 1.9% were mildly and significantly underweight, respectively, and 14.1% presented stunting. Giardiasis was statistically identified as a strong predictor of stunting in this study population.
Heydon, Rachel M.; Wang, Ping
Through a case study of a key Canadian early childhood education program, The Kindergarten Program (Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, 1998a), we explore the relationship between curricular paradigms and early childhood education (ECE) models, and the opportunities that each creates for enacting ethical teaching and learning…
Lord, Robert K; Mayhew, Christopher R; Korupolu, Radha; Mantheiy, Earl C; Friedman, Michael A; Palmer, Jeffrey B; Needham, Dale M
To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.
Davis, Dorothy W.; And Others
This guide is based on the latest federal regulations and meal pattern requirements for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. It considers current food production and marketing techniques, packaging methods, grading standards, and changing food habits in the American population. The guide gives average yield information on over 600…
Raw, Isaias; And Others
Describes a chemistry curriculum for college freshmen that uses laboratory study of the chemical composition of meals eaten by students as the central activity from which theoretical and practical learning are derived. Presents a meal analysis flow diagram and a table of concepts included in the program. (GS)
Introduction The EPaNIC randomized controlled multicentre trial showed that postponing initiation of parenteral nutrition (PN) in ICU-patients to beyond the first week (Late-PN) enhanced recovery, as compared with Early-PN. This was mediated by fewer infections, accelerated recovery from organ failure and reduced duration of hospitalization. Now, the trial's preplanned cost analysis (N = 4640) from the Belgian healthcare payers' perspective is reported. Methods Cost data were retrieved from individual patient invoices. Undiscounted total healthcare costs were calculated for the index hospital stay. A cost tree based on acquisition of new infections and on prolonged length-of-stay was constructed. Contribution of 8 cost categories to total hospitalization costs was analyzed. The origin of drug costs was clarified in detail through the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. The potential impact of Early-PN on total hospitalization costs in other healthcare systems was explored in a sensitivity analysis. Results ICU-patients developing new infection (24.4%) were responsible for 42.7% of total costs, while ICU-patients staying beyond one week (24.3%) accounted for 43.3% of total costs. Pharmacy-related costs represented 30% of total hospitalization costs and were increased by Early-PN (+608.00 EUR/patient, p = 0.01). Notably, costs for ATC-J (anti-infective agents) (+227.00 EUR/patient, p = 0.02) and ATC-B (comprising PN) (+220.00 EUR/patient, p = 0.006) drugs were increased by Early-PN. Sensitivity analysis revealed a mean total cost increase of 1,210.00 EUR/patient (p = 0.02) by Early-PN, when incorporating the full PN costs. Conclusions The increased costs by Early-PN were mainly pharmacy-related and explained by higher expenditures for PN and anti-infective agents. The use of Early-PN in critically ill patients can thus not be recommended for both clinical (no benefit) and cost-related reasons. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00512122
Fernández de Bustos, A; Creus Costas, G; Pujol Gebelli, J; Virgili Casas, N; Pita Mercé, A M
Current less invasive surgical techniques, the use of new analgesic and anesthetic drugs, and early mobilization ("multimodal surgical strategies") reduce the occurrence of post-surgery paralytic ileus and vomiting, making possible early nutrition by the digestive route. With these premises, a nutrition protocol was designed for its implementation in colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery. to assess the efficacy of this protocol that comprises 3 phases. Phase I: home preparation with 7 days duration; low-residues and insoluble fiber diet, supplemented with 400 mL of hyperproteic polymeric formula with no lactose or fiber, bowel cleansing 2 days prior to surgery and hydration with water, sugared infusions, and vegetable broth. Phase II: immediate post-surgical period with watery diet for 3 days with polymeric diet with no fiber. Phase III: semi-solid diet with no residues, nutritional formula and progressive reintroduction of food intake in four stages of varying duration according to surgery and digestive tolerance. prospective study performed at our hospital with patients from our influence area, from February 2003 to May 2004, including 25 patients, 19 men and 6 women, with mean age of 63.3 years (range = 33-79) and mean body mass index of 26.25 kg/m2 (range = 20.84-31.3), all of them suffering from colorectal pathology susceptible of laparoscopy-assisted surgery, and to which the study protocol was applied. Fourteen left hemicolectomies, 5 right hemicolectomies, 4 low anterior resections with protective colostomy, and subtotal colectomies and lateral ileostomy were done. Final diagnoses were: 3 diverticular diseases; 3 adenomas; 7 rectosigmoidal neoplasms; and 12 large bowel neoplasms in other locations. The pathology study confirmed: pT3N0 (n = 7), pT3N1 (n = 3), pT3N2 (n = 1), and pT3N1M1 (n = 1), pT1N0 (n = 4), pT1N1 (n = 2), pTis (n = 1). Twelve patients were started on adjuvant therapy of which 3 had received an initial treatment
Brown, Jennifer S.; Bednar, Carolyn; DiMarco, Nancy M.; Connors, Priscilla L.
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in school nutrition programs and the school environment as reported by school nutrition directors who are following the U.S. Department of Agriculture's HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) program. The objective was to determine before and after changes in the average lunch…
Beckman, Lauren Lautenschlager; Smith, Chery
Unhealthful eating patterns established early in life tend to be maintained into adulthood, and as a result, chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and obesity may develop. These nutrition-related problems could be reduced through dietary changes; and to facilitate these changes, nutrition education for youth that is delivered…
McPherson, Nicole O.; Fullston, Tod; Kang, Wan Xian; Sandeman, Lauren Y.; Corbett, Mark A.; Owens, Julie A.; Lane, Michelle
There is an ever increasing body of evidence that demonstrates that paternal over-nutrition prior to conception programs impaired metabolic health in offspring. Here we examined whether paternal under-nutrition can also program impaired health in offspring and if any detrimental health outcomes in offspring could be prevented by micronutrient supplementation (vitamins and antioxidants). We discovered that restricting the food intake of male rodents reduced their body weight, fertility, increased sperm oxidative DNA lesions and reduced global sperm methylation. Under-nourished males then sired offspring with reduced postnatal weight and growth but somewhat paradoxically increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia, despite being fed standard chow. Paternal vitamin/antioxidant food fortification during under-nutrition not only normalised founder oxidative sperm DNA lesions but also prevented early growth restriction, fat accumulation and dyslipidaemia in offspring. This demonstrates that paternal under-nutrition reduces postnatal growth but increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disease in the next generation and that micronutrient supplementation during this period of under-nutrition is capable of restoring offspring metabolic health. PMID:27255552