Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J.; Must, Aviva
Purpose of review Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Recent findings Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Summary Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible. PMID:28455678
Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G
Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia
Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Ross, Lynda J; Capra, Sandra; Baguley, Brenton; Sinclair, Kate; Munro, Kate; Lewindon, Peter; Lavin, Martin
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare genomic syndrome resulting in severe disability. Chronic childhood disorders can profoundly influence growth and development. Nutrition-related issues in A-T are not well described, and there are no nutritional guidelines. This study investigated the nutrition-related characteristics and behaviours of Australian A-T patients attending a national clinic. A cross-sectional analysis of 13 A-T patients (nine females; aged: 4-23 years): nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric and body cell mass (BCM) calculations. Parents reported their child's diet history and physical and behavioural factors that affect nutrition including fatigue and need for assistance. Ten (77%) had short stature (height for age z scores <-1), and seven (54%) were underweight for height (weight/height z scores <-1). Significant malnutrition (BCM z scores <-2) was detected in nine (69%) including the one adult who was severely malnourished. Malnutrition increased significantly with age (BCM for height z scores and age, r = -0.937, P < 0.001). Eight (62%) patients ate poorly compared with estimated energy requirement for weight. Poor diet quality was characterised by high fat and sugar choices. Parents reported significant nutritional barriers as chronic tiredness and the need for care giver assistance with meals. This study confirms profound malnutrition in Australian A-T patients. Poor intakes and diet quality suggest the need for early nutrition intervention. Ongoing support for families and early discussions on tube feeding are required to address changing needs in childhood and likely nutritional decline into adulthood. A prospective study is required to assess feasibility and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in young people with A-T. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Vaivada, Tyler; Gaffey, Michelle F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Although effective health and nutrition interventions for reducing child mortality and morbidity exist, direct evidence of effects on cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development is lacking. To review existing evidence for health and nutrition interventions affecting direct measures of (and pathways to) early child development. Reviews and recent overviews of interventions across the continuum of care and component studies. We selected systematic reviews detailing the effectiveness of health or nutrition interventions that have plausible links to child development and/or contain direct measures of cognitive, motor, and psychosocial development. A team of reviewers independently extracted data and assessed their quality. Sixty systematic reviews contained the outcomes of interest. Various interventions reduced morbidity and improved child growth, but few had direct measures of child development. Of particular benefit were food and micronutrient supplementation for mothers to reduce the risk of small for gestational age and iodine deficiency, strategies to reduce iron deficiency anemia in infancy, and early neonatal care (appropriate resuscitation, delayed cord clamping, and Kangaroo Mother Care). Neuroprotective interventions for imminent preterm birth showed the largest effect sizes (antenatal corticosteroids for developmental delay: risk ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 1.00; magnesium sulfate for gross motor dysfunction: risk ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.85). Given the focus on high-quality studies captured in leading systematic reviews, only effects reported within studies included in systematic reviews were captured. These findings should guide the prioritization and scale-up of interventions within critical periods of early infancy and childhood, and encourage research into their implementation at scale. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Adair, Linda S
Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Batura, Neha; Hill, Zelee; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Lingam, Raghu; Colbourn, Timothy; Kim, Sungwook; Sikander, Siham; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene
There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost
Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia
Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. PMID:26980819
Wang, Chao; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dang, Rui; Wang, Decai
To observe the early prevention effect of the compound nutrients recipe for cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer' s disease model-APP-PSN transgenic mouse. 36 APP-PSN transgenic mice aged two months randomly were divided into the intervention group supplied with compound recipe in the diet and the control group fed based feed, the former had high dose and low dose, 12 APP-PSN transgenic negative mice aged two months as the negative control were fed based feed. After 3 months' intervention, four groups' cognitive functions were evaluated using the Morris water maze, active avoidance experiment and jumping stair experiment. There was not statistically different between all the four groups for the weight and food intake. Compared with the control group, Morris water maze's incubation period of the intervention group was lower obviously, and jumping stair experiment's incubation period of the intervention group was higher obviously. In the active avoidance experiment, the high and low dose intervention group' s conditioned response accounted about 46.67% and 45.00% respectively, and the control group's conditioned response accounted about 20.83%. The differences of the three behavioral experiments between control group and intervention group had the statistical significance (P < 0.05), so the same as between control group and negative control group (P < 0.05). And there was no difference between intervention group and negative control group for the three behavioral experiments. The early supplementation with compound nutrition could postpone the occurrence and development of Alzheimer' s disease mice model's cognitive dysfunction.
Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.
This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…
Schneider, Nora; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.
Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother’s breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants’ neurodevelopment compared to infant formula. The differences in methodologies make it difficult to conclude any effects of interventions with individual nutrients. Only protein and iron level studies showed some consistent findings regarding optimal doses; however, confirmatory studies are needed. This review does not support some widely accepted associations, such as that between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and visual development. Clear nutritional recommendations cannot be made based on this review. However, the type of infant nutrition (i.e., breast milk versus formula or donor milk), the timing of the nutritional intervention, and the dose of the nutrient/supplement have been found to be relevant factors in determining the success of nutritional intervention studies in preterm infants. PMID:28241501
Luecking, C T; Hennink-Kaminski, H; Ihekweazu, C; Vaughn, A; Mazzucca, S; Ward, D S
Social marketing is a promising planning approach for influencing voluntary lifestyle behaviours, but its application to nutrition and physical activity interventions in the early care and education setting remains unknown. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, PsycInfo and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched to identify interventions targeting nutrition and/or physical activity behaviours of children enrolled in early care centres between 1994 and 2016. Content analysis methods were used to capture information reflecting eight social marketing benchmark criteria. The review included 135 articles representing 77 interventions. Two interventions incorporated all eight benchmark criteria, but the majority included fewer than four. Each intervention included behaviour and methods mix criteria, and more than half identified audience segments. Only one-third of interventions incorporated customer orientation, theory, exchange and insight. Only six interventions addressed competing behaviours. We did not find statistical significance for the effectiveness of interventions on child-level diet, physical activity or anthropometric outcomes based on the number of benchmark criteria used. This review highlights opportunities to apply social marketing to obesity prevention interventions in early care centres. Social marketing could be an important strategy for early childhood obesity prevention efforts, and future research investigations into its effects are warranted. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.
Batura, Neha; Hill, Zelee; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Lingam, Raghu; Colbourn, Timothy; Kim, Sungwook; Sikander, Siham; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rahman, Atif; Kirkwood, Betty; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene
There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost
Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M
This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Thompson, Julie; Silliman, Kathryn; Clifford, Dawn E
The purpose of the educational intervention was to measure changes in knowledge, perceived benefit of nutrition, and perceived self efficacy in handling side effects of chemotherapy before and after viewing a 15 minute DVD among patients with cancer. A convenience sample of 14 (4 male, 10 female, 61 ± 9 years) patients with cancer, early to chemotherapy, participated in the study. Participants completed a survey with demographic, knowledge items, and perceived health belief and self efficacy statements; viewed the DVD; and were then sent home with a one page handout. Two weeks after the nutrition education intervention, a second survey was completed including an item about tips used. Change was measured using paired t-test and wilcoxon signed rank tests. The mean score on the four knowledge items significantly increased (p < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in statements intended to evaluate changes in perceived health beliefs. However, perceived knowledge and skills related to managing side effects increased (p < 0.05). All participants responded that the DVD was informative and most (n = 11, 79%) responded that it was useful. The majority reported (n = 10, 71%) a tip they used from the DVD. This short multimedia nutrition education intervention was found primarily to increase knowledge and could form a useful component of counseling services for patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P
Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olson, Christine; And Others
This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…
Abecia, Leticia; Waddams, Kate E.; Martínez-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Martín-García, A. Ignacio; Ramos-Morales, Eva; Newbold, C. Jamie; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.
The aim of this work was to study whether feeding a methanogen inhibitor from birth of goat kids and their does has an impact on the archaeal population colonizing the rumen and to what extent the impact persists later in life. Sixteen goats giving birth to two kids were used. Eight does were treated (D+) with bromochloromethane after giving birth and over 2 months. The other 8 goats were not treated (D−). One kid per doe in both groups was treated with bromochloromethane (k+) for 3 months while the other was untreated (k−), resulting in four experimental groups: D+/k+, D+/k−, D−/k+, and D−/k−. Rumen samples were collected from kids at weaning and 1 and 4 months after (3 and 6 months after birth) and from does at the end of the treating period (2 months). Pyrosequencing analyses showed a modified archaeal community composition colonizing the rumen of kids, although such effect did not persist entirely 4 months after; however, some less abundant groups remained different in treated and control animals. The different response on the archaeal community composition observed between offspring and adult goats suggests that the competition occurring in the developing rumen to occupy different niches offer potential for intervention. PMID:24803846
Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Ball, Kylie; McCallum, Zoë; Lynch, John; Crawford, David A
Understanding how we can prevent childhood obesity in scalable and sustainable ways is imperative. Early RCT interventions focused on the first two years of life have shown promise however, differences in Body Mass Index between intervention and control groups diminish once the interventions cease. Innovative and cost-effective strategies seeking to continue to support parents to engender appropriate energy balance behaviours in young children need to be explored. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Extend Program builds on the early outcomes of the Melbourne InFANT Program. This cluster randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an extended (33 versus 15 month) and enhanced (use of web-based materials, and Facebook® engagement), version of the original Melbourne InFANT Program intervention in a new cohort. Outcomes at 36 months of age will be compared against the control group. This trial will provide important information regarding capacity and opportunities to maximize early childhood intervention effectiveness over the first three years of life. This study continues to build the evidence base regarding the design of cost-effective, scalable interventions to promote protective energy balance behaviors in early childhood, and in turn, promote improved child weight and health across the life course. ACTRN12611000386932. Registered 13 April 2011.
That events during critical or sensitive periods of development may "program" long-term or life-time structure or function of the organism is well recognized. Evidence for programming by nutrition is established in animals, in whom brief pre- or postnatal nutritional manipulations may program adult size, metabolism, blood lipids, diabetes, blood pressure, obesity, atherosclerosis, learning, behavior and life span. Human epidemiological data link potential markers of early nutrition (size at birth or in infancy) to cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in adulthood. However, these retrospective data cannot prove nutritional cause or underpin health policies. After 16 y, however, of ethical, randomized intervention studies of early nutrition in humans with long-term follow-up to test experimentally the nutritional programming hypothesis, we find that humans, like other species, have sensitive windows for nutrition in terms of later outcomes; for instance, perinatal diet influences neurodevelopment and bone mineralization into mid-childhood. Possible biological mechanisms for storing throughout life the "memory" of early nutritional experience and its expression in adulthood include adaptive changes in gene expression, preferential clonal selection of adapted cells in programmed tissues and programmed differential proliferation of tissue cell types. Animal and human evidence supporting nutritional programming has major potential biological and medical significance.
Ard, Jamy D; Miller, Gary; Kahan, Scott
Obesity is a common disorder with complex causes. The epidemic has spurred significant advances in the understanding of nutritional approaches to treating obesity. Although the primary challenge is to introduce a dietary intake that creates an energy deficit, clinicians should also consider targeted risk factor modification with manipulation of the nutrient profile of the weight-reducing diet. These strategies produce significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. Future research is needed to better understand how to personalize nutrient prescriptions further to promote optimal risk modification and maintenance of long-term energy balance in the weight-reduced state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McGorry, Patrick D.
Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380
desensitization and reprocessing ( EMDR ) as a early mental health intervention, following mass violence and disasters, is a treatment of choice over other...village. Military operations take place under the eye of the world and are surrounded by high political attention. International missions far exceed...consistently reduce risks of later post-traumatic stress disorder or related adjustment difficulties. • There is no evidence that eye movement
Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John
Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small
Prentice, Andrew M; Ward, Kate A; Goldberg, Gail R; Jarjou, Landing M; Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J; Prentice, Ann
An analysis of early growth patterns in children from 54 resource-poor countries in Africa and Southeast Asia shows a rapid falloff in the height-for-age z score during the first 2 y of life and no recovery until ≥5 y of age. This finding has focused attention on the period -9 to 24 mo as a window of opportunity for interventions against stunting and has garnered considerable political backing for investment targeted at the first 1000 d. These important initiatives should not be undermined, but the objective of this study was to counteract the growing impression that interventions outside of this period cannot be effective. We illustrate our arguments using longitudinal data from the Consortium of Health Oriented Research in Transitioning collaboration (Brazil, Guatemala, India, Philippines, and South Africa) and our own cross-sectional and longitudinal growth data from rural Gambia. We show that substantial height catch-up occurs between 24 mo and midchildhood and again between midchildhood and adulthood, even in the absence of any interventions. Longitudinal growth data from rural Gambia also illustrate that an extended pubertal growth phase allows very considerable height recovery, especially in girls during adolescence. In light of the critical importance of maternal stature to her children's health, our arguments are a reminder of the importance of the more comprehensive UNICEF/Sub-Committee on Nutrition Through the Life-Cycle approach. In particular, we argue that adolescence represents an additional window of opportunity during which substantial life cycle and intergenerational effects can be accrued. The regulation of such growth is complex and may be affected by nutritional interventions imposed many years previously.
Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.
This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…
Laforest, Sophie; Goldin, Benita; Nour, Kareen; Roy, Marie-Andree; Payette, Helene
Nutrition screening and early intervention in home-bound older adults are key to preventing unfavourable health outcomes and functional decline. This pilot study's objectives were (a) to test the reliability of the Elderly Nutrition Screening Tool (ENS [C]) when administered by dietician-trained and supervised nutrition volunteers, and (b) to…
Assessing outcomes and impact from behavioral nutrition interventions in the community has remained challenging for a variety of reasons. One main reason is the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With current global obesity and related chronic dis...
Abood, Doris A; Black, David R; Birnbaum, Rachel D
To evaluate the efficacy of a nutrition education intervention for college female athletes to improve nutrition knowledge, build self-efficacy with respect to making healthful dietary choices, and improve dietary intake. A pretest-posttest control group design was implemented. A women's soccer team (n =15) and a women's swim team (n = 15) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. The intervention focused on nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy in making healthful dietary choices, and dietary practices to demonstrate treatment effect. Dependent variables were nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, and dietary practices. Independent variables were group assignment. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results between groups, and the Fisher exact probability test was used to detect differences between groups in the number of positive dietary changes. Treatment participants significantly improved nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy (P <.05), and the overall number of positive dietary changes (P <.03). This study reduces the paucity of nutrition education intervention research among athletes and demonstrates the ability to increase not only nutrition knowledge, which is typically reported, but also self-efficacy and improvement in overall positive dietary changes during an 8-week intervention.
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0575 TITLE: Nutritional and Genetic Determinants...CONTRACT NUMBER Nutritional and Genetic Determinants of Early Puberty 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0575 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...later in life. Nutritional factors during childhood and puberty, and inherited genetic factors are suspected to interact in modulating these early
Forsythe, Hazel; Wesley, Myrna
This study sought to determine the needs of early childhood teachers in Kentucky for education to help them manage children's nutrition in early childhood programs. The study also sought to determine whether formal classes, self-study via computer, or site-based inservice workshops is the most desirable format for teacher nutrition education. A…
Karim, Tasneem; Muhit, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam
Malnutrition is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and nutrition plays a critical role in both acute and chronic respiratory conditions. Inadequacies in the nutritional requirements of a developing lung in utero and in early life can compromise the respiratory system integrity and result in poor lung function, reduced protection against infections, greater likelihood of acute illnesses in childhood and chronic illness in adulthood. Nutritional interventions harness great potential in reducing respiratory illness related morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In this review we have summarized the findings from published systematic reviews/meta-analysis, experimental and observational studies that looked into different nutritional interventions for preventing respiratory diseases in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Cheryl A M; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Rifkin, Dena E
Dietary modification is recommended in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with CKD often have multiple comorbidities, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, for which dietary modification is also recommended. As CKD progresses, nutrition plays an important role in mitigating risk for cardiovascular disease and decline in kidney function. The objectives of nutrition interventions in CKD include management of risk factors, ensuring optimal nutritional status throughout all stages of CKD, preventing buildup of toxic metabolic products, and avoiding complications of CKD. Recommended dietary changes should be feasible, sustainable, and suited for patients' food preferences and clinical needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A
This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children.
Ruel, Marie T; Alderman, Harold
Acceleration of progress in nutrition will require effective, large-scale nutrition-sensitive programmes that address key underlying determinants of nutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions. We reviewed evidence of nutritional effects of programmes in four sectors--agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling. The need for investments to boost agricultural production, keep prices low, and increase incomes is undisputable; targeted agricultural programmes can complement these investments by supporting livelihoods, enhancing access to diverse diets in poor populations, and fostering women's empowerment. However, evidence of the nutritional effect of agricultural programmes is inconclusive--except for vitamin A from biofortification of orange sweet potatoes--largely because of poor quality evaluations. Social safety nets currently provide cash or food transfers to a billion poor people and victims of shocks (eg, natural disasters). Individual studies show some effects on younger children exposed for longer durations, but weaknesses in nutrition goals and actions, and poor service quality probably explain the scarcity of overall nutritional benefits. Combined early child development and nutrition interventions show promising additive or synergistic effects on child development--and in some cases nutrition--and could lead to substantial gains in cost, efficiency, and effectiveness, but these programmes have yet to be tested at scale. Parental schooling is strongly associated with child nutrition, and the effectiveness of emerging school nutrition education programmes needs to be tested. Many of the programmes reviewed were not originally designed to improve nutrition yet have great potential to do so. Ways to enhance programme nutrition-sensitivity include: improve targeting; use conditions to stimulate participation; strengthen nutrition goals and actions; and optimise women's nutrition, time
... intervention, however. If you’re concerned about your child’s development, you may contact your local program directly and ... learn, so it’s always of concern when a child’s development seems slow or more difficult than would normally ...
Clements, Douglas H; Sarama, Julie
Preschool and primary grade children have the capacity to learn substantial mathematics, but many children lack opportunities to do so. Too many children not only start behind their more advantaged peers, but also begin a negative trajectory in mathematics. Interventions designed to facilitate their mathematical learning during ages 3 to 5 years have a strong positive effect on these children's lives for many years thereafter.
The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy of early parenteral and enteral nutrition (PN + EN) support in neurosurgical coma patients. Eighty cases of neurosurgical coma patients were randomly divided into intervention group and control group. The intervention group received early PN + EN support, and the control group received only total enteral nutritional (TEN) support. The levels of hemoglobin (HGB), serum albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in two groups on days 1, 10, and 20 were observed. The incidences of pneumonia, stress ulcer, abnormal liver function, abdominal distension, and diarrhea between two groups were also compared. Results found that, on day 10, compared with the control group, the levels of HGB, PA, and RBP in the intervention group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). On day 20, ALB in the intervention group significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the incidences of pneumonia, abdominal distension, and diarrhea in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with only TEN support, early PN + EN support can obviously improve the nutritional status of neurosurgical coma patients and reduce the occurrence of complications.
Marín Caro, Mónica María; Laviano, Alessandro; Pichard, Claude
The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) assesses patients' well-being by taking into account physical, psychological and social conditions. Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of QoL. These metabolic changes lead to decreased food intake and promote wasting. Cancer-related malnutrition can evolve to cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and host metabolism. Beside and beyond the physical and the metabolic effects of cancer, patients often suffer as well from psychological distress, including depression. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative) and on patients' clinical conditions and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counselling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition). Such an approach, which should be started as early as possible, can reduce or even reverse their poor nutritional status, improve their performance status and consequently their QoL. Nutritional intervention accompanying curative treatment has an additional and specific role, which is to increase the tolerance and response to the oncology treatment, decrease the rate of complications and possibly reduce morbidity by optimizing the balance between energy expenditure and food intake. In palliative care, nutritional support aims at improving patient's QoL by controlling symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and pain related to food intake and postponing loss of autonomy. The literature review supports that nutritional care should be integrated into the global oncology care because of its significant contribution to QoL. Furthermore, the assessment of QoL should be part of the evaluation of any nutritional support to optimize its adequacy to the patient's needs and expectations.
Gullett, Norleena P.; Mazurak, Vera; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R.
Cancer-induced cachexia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer treatment. Cancer research and development continues at an aggressive pace and yet a degree of cancer-induced cachexia is experienced by up to 80% of advanced stage cancer patients. Unfortunately, there are no established treatment regimens for this condition. Weight loss and fatigue consistently appear in patient oncologic histories and progress notes. However, few oncologists fully understand the pathologic mechanisms causing cachexia resulting in well-meaning advice to increase caloric intake with minimal results. Our goal is to describe the pathologic basis of cancer-induced cachexia and to detail accompanying metabolic derangements. Understanding the causes of cachexia sheds light on the subsequent need for multi-modality therapy including clinical intervention with specialized nutrition support, drug therapy, lifestyle and diet changes. In addition to nutrition support modalities, practicing oncologists may prescribe medical therapies designed to increase body weight and lean body mass, including megestrol acetate, tetrahydrocannibinol, oxandrolone, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A variety of experimental therapies are also being investigated for cancer-induced cachexia including tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors and ghrelin infusions. We review the available data to support nutrition-oriented interventions in cancer-induced cachexia, including omega-3 fatty acids, amino-acid loading/protein supplementation, parenteral and enteral nutrition support, and food-derived compounds such as curcumin, reservatrol, and pomegranate. PMID:21420558
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Foorman, Barbara
The purpose of this paper is to describe the efficacy of early literacy interventions and to discuss possible roles for volunteer tutors in helping prevent reading difficulties within the Response to Intervention process. First, we describe a landmark study that evaluated the impact of primary classroom instruction on reducing the proportion of students at risk for reading failure, and a more recent series of studies exploring the effects of individualizing classroom reading instruction based on students’ initial skills. Second, we review studies of more intensive early intervention to demonstrate how these interventions substantially reduce the proportion of students at risk. Third, we examine effective tutoring models that utilize volunteers. Finally, we discuss the potential role of community tutors in supporting primary classroom instruction and secondary interventions. PMID:25221452
Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha
Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Poston, Lucilla; Godfrey, Keith; Demmelmair, Hans
Increasing evidence from the EU Project EARNEST and many other investigators demonstrates that early nutrition and lifestyle have long-term effects on later health and the risk of common non-communicable diseases (known as 'developmental programming'). Because of the increasing public health importance and the transgenerational nature of the problem, obesity and associated disorders are the focus of the new EU funded project 'EarlyNutrition'. Currently, three key hypotheses have been defined: the fuel mediated 'in utero' hypothesis suggests that intrauterine exposure to an excess of fuels, most notably glucose, causes permanent changes of the fetus that lead to obesity in postnatal life; the accelerated postnatal weight gain hypothesis proposes an association between rapid weight gain in infancy and an increased risk of later obesity and adverse outcomes; and the mismatch hypothesis suggests that experiencing a developmental 'mismatch' between a sub-optimal perinatal and an obesogenic childhood environment is related to a particular predisposition to obesity and corresponding co-morbidities. Using existing cohort studies, ongoing and novel intervention studies and a basic science programme to investigate those key hypotheses, project EarlyNutrition will provide the scientific foundations for evidence-based recommendations for optimal nutrition considering long-term health outcomes, with a focus on obesity and related disorders. Scientific and technical expertise in placental biology, epigenetics and metabolomics will provide understanding at the cellular and molecular level of the relationships between early life nutritional status and the risk of later adiposity. This will help refine strategies for intervention in early life to prevent obesity.
Sawyer, Brook E.; Campbell, Philippa H.
The overarching research aim of this study was to examine learning opportunities available for caregivers during early intervention sessions. Of specific interest were providers' purposeful (i.e., explicit) teaching behaviors and opportunities from which caregivers might learn incidentally. Relations between teaching behaviors, caregiver…
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane
With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…
Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J
Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases. The primary aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of a range of nutritional interventions designed to improve the nutritional intake of childhood cancer survivors, as compared to a control group of childhood cancer survivors who did not receive the intervention. Secondary objectives were to assess metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, measures of weight and body fat distribution, behavioural change, changes in knowledge regarding disease risk and nutritional intake, participants' views of the intervention, measures of health status and quality of life, measures of harm associated with the process or outcomes of the intervention, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention We searched the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to April 2013), and Embase/Ovid (from 1980 to April 2013). We ran the search again in August 2015; we have not yet fully assessed these results, but we have identified one ongoing trial. We conducted additional searching of ongoing trial registers - the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number register and the National Institutes of Health register (both screened in the first half of 2013) - reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (both 2008 to
Skinner, Harvey A.; Holt, Stephen
Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in clinical practice. There is increasing evidence that problem drinking can be successfully treated by brief intervention. The general practitioner is in a good position to identify patients who drink excessively, and to intervene with brief counselling at an early stage when prognosis is more favourable. A practical strategy is described for diagnosis and intervention that could be readily implemented in clinical practice. PMID:6361249
Mudd, Austin T
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes. The piglet has emerged as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young pigs and humans, the piglet is being used increasingly in developmental nutritional neuroscience studies. The piglet primarily has been used to assess the effects of dietary fatty acids and their accretion in the brain throughout neurodevelopment. However, recent research indicates that other dietary components, including choline, iron, cholesterol, gangliosides, and sialic acid, among other compounds, also affect neurodevelopment in the pig model. Moreover, novel analytical techniques, including but not limited to MRI, behavioral assessments, and molecular quantification, allow for a more holistic understanding of how nutrition affects neurodevelopmental patterns. By combining early-life nutritional interventions with innovative analytical approaches, opportunities abound to quantify factors affecting neurodevelopmental trajectories in the neonate. This review discusses research using the translational pig model with primary emphasis on early-life nutrition interventions assessing neurodevelopment outcomes, while also discussing nutritionally-sensitive methods to characterize brain maturation. PMID:28096130
Schneider, Nora; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L
Adequate nutrition is important for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm-born infants. In this review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge on nutritional interventions initiated during the hospital stay targeting brain and cognitive development benefits in preterm human infants. Studies can broadly be split in general dietary intervention studies and studies investigating specific nutrients or nutritional supplements. In general, mother's breast milk was reported to be better for preterm infants' neurodevelopment compared to infant formula. The differences in methodologies make it difficult to conclude any effects of interventions with individual nutrients. Only protein and iron level studies showed some consistent findings regarding optimal doses; however, confirmatory studies are needed. This review does not support some widely accepted associations, such as that between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and visual development. Clear nutritional recommendations cannot be made based on this review. However, the type of infant nutrition (i.e., breast milk versus formula or donor milk), the timing of the nutritional intervention, and the dose of the nutrient/supplement have been found to be relevant factors in determining the success of nutritional intervention studies in preterm infants.
Bell, Jack J; Bauer, Judith D; Capra, Sandra; Pulle, Ranjeev Chrys
Malnutrition is highly prevalent and resistant to intervention following hip fracture. This study investigated the impact of individualised versus multidisciplinary nutritional care on nutrition intake and outcomes in patients admitted to a metropolitan hospital acute hip fracture unit. A prospective, controlled before and after comparative interventional study aligning to the CONSORT guidelines for pragmatic clinical trials. Randomly selected patients receiving individualised nutritional care (baseline) were compared with post-interventional patients receiving a new model of nutritional care promoting nutrition as a medicine, multidisciplinary nutritional care, foodservice enhancements, and improved nutrition knowledge and awareness. Malnutrition was diagnosed using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics criteria. Fifty-eight weighed food records were available for each group across a total of 82 patients (n = 44, n = 38). Group demographics were not significantly different with predominantly community dwelling (72%), elderly (82.2 years), female (70%), malnourished (51.0%) patients prone to co-morbidities (median 5) receiving early surgical intervention (median D1). Multidisciplinary nutritional care reduced intake barriers and increased total 24-h energy (6224 vs. 2957 kJ; p < 0.001) and protein (69.0 vs. 33.8 g; p < 0.001) intakes, reduced nutritional deterioration over admission (5.4 vs. 20.5%; p = 0.049), and increased discharge directly back to the community setting (48.0 vs. 17.6%; p = 0.012). Trends suggested a reduction in median length of stay (D13 vs. D14). Inpatient mortality remained low across groups (5.2%, 2.3%). Multidisciplinary nutritional care improves nutrition intake and outcomes in acute hip fracture inpatients. Similar pragmatic study designs should be considered in other elderly inpatient populations perceived resistant to nutritional intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and
John, Chandy C.; Black, Maureen M.; Nelson, Charles A.
The early to middle childhood years are a critical period for child neurodevelopment. Nutritional deficiencies, infection and inflammation are major contributors to impaired child neurodevelopment in these years, particularly in low resource settings. This review identifies global research priorities relating to nutrition, infection, and inflammation in early to middle childhood neurodevelopment. Research priority areas identified include: 1) assessment of how nutrition, infection or inflammation in the pre-conception, prenatal and infancy periods (or interventions in these periods) affect function in early to middle childhood; 2) assessment of whether effects of nutritional interventions vary by poverty or inflammation; 3) determination of the feasibility of pre-school and school-based integrated nutritional interventions; 4) improved assessment of the epidemiology of infection- and inflammation-related neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI); 5) identification of mechanisms through which infection causes NDI; 6) identification of non-infectious causes of inflammation-related NDI and interventions for causes already identified (e.g, environmental factors); and 7) studies on the effects of interactions between nutritional, infectious and inflammatory factors on neurodevelopment in early to middle childhood. Areas of emerging importance which require further study include the effects of maternal Zika virus infection, childhood environmental enteropathy, and alterations in the child’s microbiome on neurodevelopment in early to middle childhood. Research in these key areas will be critical to the development of interventions to optimize the neurodevelopmental potential of children worldwide in the early to middle childhood years. PMID:28562249
Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…
Kerley, Conor P
There is a growing body of evidence that nutritional factors influence the incidence of heart failure (HF). The current manuscript aims to collate evidence relating to nutritional intervention in the treatment of HF as well as to provide context regarding challenges and opportunities in the field. Despite the accepted importance of nutritional factors relating to cardiovascular disease severity, there is surprisingly little human intervention research regarding dietary intake and HF. Further, existing nutritional interventions in HF were mostly pilot studies with small samples and short follow-up. There is consistent evidence that nutritional factors majorly influence HF. Despite limited research, there is evidence that nutritional modification can rapidly and profoundly influence multiple aspects of HF. There is an urgent need for well-conducted research to ascertain if nutritional modification can alter the long-term course of HF.
Gavazzi, Cecilia; Colatruglio, Silvia; Sironi, Alessandro; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Miceli, Rosalba
In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between nutritional status, disease stage and quality of life (QoL) in 100 patients recently diagnosed with gastric carcinoma. The patients' nutritional status was investigated with anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables; and we also evaluated the nutritional risk with the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Oncological staging was standard. QoL was evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy questionnaire. The statistical correlation between nutritional risk score (NRS) and oncological characteristics or QoL was evaluated using both univariable and multivariable analyses. Weight loss and reduction of food intake were the most frequent pathological nutritional indicators, while biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables were in the normal range. According to NRS, thirty-six patients were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition. Patients with NRS ≥ 3 presented a significantly greater percentage of stage IV gastric cancer and pathological values of C-reactive protein, while no correlation was found with the site of tumour. NRS was negatively associated with QoL (P < 0·001) and this relation was independent from oncological and inflammatory variables as confirmed by multivariable analysis. In the present study, we found that in patients with gastric cancer malnutrition is frequent at diagnosis and this is likely due to reduction in food intake. Moreover, NRS is directly correlated with tumour stage and inversely correlated with QoL, which makes it a useful tool to identify patients in need of an early nutritional intervention during oncological treatments.
Laugero, Kevin D; Cunningham, Brian T; Lora, Karina R; Reicks, Marla
Assessing outcomes and the impact from behavioral nutrition interventions has remained challenging because of the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With the current high global obesity and related chronic disease rates, novel methods to evaluate the impact of behavioral nutrition-based interventions are much needed. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and review the current status of knowledge as it relates to 4 different innovative methods or tools to assess behavioral nutrition interventions. Methods reviewed include 1) the assessment of stress and stress responsiveness to enhance the evaluation of nutrition interventions, 2) eye-tracking technology in nutritional interventions, 3) smartphone biosensors to assess nutrition and health-related outcomes, and 4) skin carotenoid measurements to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Specifically, the novel use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, by characterizing the brain’s responsiveness to an intervention, can help researchers develop programs with greater efficacy. Similarly, if eye-tracking technology can enable researchers to get a better sense as to how participants view materials, the materials may be better tailored to create an optimal impact. The latter 2 techniques reviewed, smartphone biosensors and methods to detect skin carotenoids, can provide the research community with portable, effective, nonbiased ways to assess dietary intake and quality and more in the field. The information gained from using these types of methodologies can improve the efficacy and assessment of behavior-based nutrition interventions. PMID:28096132
Whaley, Shannon E; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise
To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis of variance tests showed that the intervention had a small but significant impact on TV watching and fruit intake. The intervention was most protective for children younger than 2 years of age. Although the impact of the intervention was relatively small and limited to the youngest children served by WIC, findings suggest that the WIC setting is appropriate for improving healthful behaviors that are linked to reducing the rates of early childhood overweight. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaskins, Audrey J.; Toth, Thomas L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.
Implantation failure and pregnancy loss are estimated to affect up to 75% of fertilized ova; however as of yet there is limited empirical evidence, particularly at the population level, for understanding the environmental determinants of these losses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on prepregnancy nutrition and early pregnancy outcomes with particular focus on the outcome of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived naturally and early pregnancy end points among pregnancies conceived through in vitro fertilization. To date, there is limited evidence to support associations of prepregnancy vitamin D and caffeine intake with pregnancy loss. There is suggestive data supporting a link between a healthy diet and lower risk of pregnancy loss. High folate and minimal to no alcohol intake prior to conception have the most consistent evidence supporting an association with lower risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26457232
Tilley, B C; Glanz, K; Kristal, A R; Hirst, K; Li, S; Vernon, S W; Myers, R
The Next Step Trial tested interventions encouraging prevention and early detection practices in automotive-industry employees at increased colorectal cancer risk. This article describes results of the nutrition intervention promoting low-fat, high-fiber eating patterns. Twenty-eight worksites (5,042 employees at baseline) were randomized to a 2-year nutrition intervention including classes, mailed self-help materials, and personalized dietary feedback. Control worksites received no intervention. Nutrition outcomes were assessed by mailed food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) Primary nutrition outcomes included percentage energy from fat and fiber density (g/1,000 kcal) at 1 year postrandomization. Secondary outcomes included servings of fruits/vegetables and dietary measures at 2 years postrandomization. Analyses were adjusted for within worksite correlations and baseline covariates. Fifty-eight percent of employees returned FFQs. At 1 year, there were modest but statistically significant intervention effects for fat (-0.9 %en), fiber (+0.5 g/1,000 kcal), and fruits/vegetables (+0.2 servings/day) (all P < 0.007). At 2 years, due to significant positive changes in control worksites, intervention effects were smaller, significant for fiber only. Intervention effects were larger in younger (<50 years), active employees and class attendees. The nutrition intervention produced significant but modest effects on dietary fat and fiber and fruits/vegetables in these high-risk employees. Age and dose effects suggest younger employees may be more responsive to this intervention. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.
Session 6: Infant nutrition: future research developments in Europe EARNEST, the early nutrition programming project: EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research.
Fewtrell, M S
Increasing evidence from lifetime experimental studies in animals and observational and experimental studies in human subjects suggests that pre- and postnatal nutrition programme long-term health. However, key unanswered questions remain on the extent of early-life programming in contemporary European populations, relevant nutritional exposures, critical time periods, mechanisms and the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reverse programming effects. The EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research (EARNEST) consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scientists from European research institutions in an integrated programme of work that includes experimental studies in human subjects, modern prospective observational studies and mechanistic animal work including physiological studies, cell-culture models and molecular techniques. Theme 1 tests early nutritional programming of disease in human subjects, measuring disease markers in childhood and early adulthood in nineteen randomised controlled trials of nutritional interventions in pregnancy and infancy. Theme 2 examines associations between early nutrition and later outcomes in large modern European population-based prospective studies, with detailed measures of diet in pregnancy and early life. Theme 3 uses animal, cellular and molecular techniques to study lifetime effects of early nutrition. Biomedical studies are complemented by studies of the social and economic importance of programming (themes 4 and 5), and themes encouraging integration, communication, training and wealth creation. The project aims to: help formulate policies on the composition and testing of infant foods; improve the nutritional value of infant formulas; identify interventions to prevent and reverse adverse early nutritional programming. In addition, it has the potential to develop new products through industrial
Fivez, Tom; Kerklaan, Dorian; Mesotten, Dieter; Verbruggen, Sascha; Wouters, Pieter J; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Debaveye, Yves; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Desmet, Lars; Casaer, Michael P; Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Hanot, Jan; Joffe, Ari; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Koen; Van den Berghe, Greet
Recent trials have questioned the benefit of early parenteral nutrition in adults. The effect of early parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in critically ill children is unclear. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving 1440 critically ill children to investigate whether withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week (i.e., providing late parenteral nutrition) in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is clinically superior to providing early parenteral nutrition. Fluid loading was similar in the two groups. The two primary end points were new infection acquired during the ICU stay and the adjusted duration of ICU dependency, as assessed by the number of days in the ICU and as time to discharge alive from ICU. For the 723 patients receiving early parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was initiated within 24 hours after ICU admission, whereas for the 717 patients receiving late parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was not provided until the morning of the 8th day in the ICU. In both groups, enteral nutrition was attempted early and intravenous micronutrients were provided. Although mortality was similar in the two groups, the percentage of patients with a new infection was 10.7% in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 18.5% in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.66). The mean (±SE) duration of ICU stay was 6.5±0.4 days in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 9.2±0.8 days in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition; there was also a higher likelihood of an earlier live discharge from the ICU at any time in the late-parenteral-nutrition group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.37). Late parenteral nutrition was associated with a shorter duration of mechanical ventilatory support than was early parenteral nutrition (P=0.001), as well as a smaller proportion of patients
Olson, Christine M
e- and m-Health communication technologies are now common approaches to improving population health. The efficacy of behavioral nutrition interventions using e-health technologies to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake was demonstrated in studies conducted from 2005 to 2009, with approximately 75% of trials showing positive effects. By 2010, an increasing number of behavioral nutrition interventions were focusing on body weight. The early emphasis on interventions that were highly computer tailored shifted to personalized electronic interventions that included weight and behavioral self-monitoring as key features. More diverse target audiences began to participate, and mobile components were added to interventions. Little progress has been made on using objective measures rather than self-reported measures of dietary behavior. A challenge for nutritionists is to link with the private sector in the design, use, and evaluation of the many electronic devices that are now available in the marketplace for nutrition monitoring and behavioral change.
Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at present it is unknown whether early intervention is…
Jeffreys, JoAnn; Spang, Joan
This action research outlines an early reading intervention project for improving students' reading skills and promoting the implementation of early reading intervention programs. The targeted population includes first and second grade students in one school located in the suburbs of a major city in Illinois. The problem of early reading…
Schroder, Kerstin E. E.
Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…
This newsletter addresses the nutritional needs of people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (PWAs) which are of concern to recreational professionals who are responsible for providing leisure services for them. Recreation professionals need to incorporate into their programs nutritional counseling, food banks or referrals to such, healthy…
The focus of this article is the development of a nutrition education intervention for food bank clients. Formative research using mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) and community-based participatory research principles was conducted to assess the nutrition education needs of clients obtai...
Chuntrasakul, C; Siltharm, S; Chinswangwatanakul, V; Pongprasobchai, T; Chockvivatanavanit, S; Bunnak, A
Multiple trauma is associated with altered metabolism, wasting of the lean body mass and compromised wound healing. Nutritional support is one way to improve the condition of these critically ill patients. We performed a prospective randomized study on the effect of early nutritional support in severely injured patients admitted to the Division of Traumatic Surgery, Siriraj Hospital between June 1992 and January 1994. Thirty-eight severe traumatic patients with ISS between 20-40 were randomly divided into control and study group. The 17 patients in the control group were treated in the conventional method with administration of hypo caloric intravenous regimen and supplement with oral diet as soon as the bowel function was returned. The 21 patients of the study group were fed either by enteral or parenteral feeding or both with an appropriate caloric and protein requirement as soon as hemodynamic status was stabilized. We found the study group had a lower mortality rate, a lower complication rate, a shorter period of ICU stay, and an earlier weaning from the ventilator than the control group. The study group also lost less weight than the control group. Nitrogen balance in the study group was significantly lower than the control group.
Gould, Jacqueline F; Best, Karen; Makrides, Maria
Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mood disorder associated with childbirth. No single cause of PPD has been identified, however the increased risk of nutritional deficiencies incurred through the high nutritional requirements of pregnancy may play a role in the pathology of depressive symptoms. Three nutritional interventions have drawn particular interest as possible non-invasive and cost-effective prevention and/or treatment strategies for PPD; omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), vitamin D and overall diet. We searched for meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCT's) of nutritional interventions during the perinatal period with PPD as an outcome, and checked for any trials published subsequently to the meta-analyses. Fish oil: Eleven RCT's of prenatal fish oil supplementation RCT's show null and positive effects on PPD symptoms. Vitamin D: no relevant RCT's were identified, however seven observational studies of maternal vitamin D levels with PPD outcomes showed inconsistent associations. Diet: Two Australian RCT's with dietary advice interventions in pregnancy had a positive and null result on PPD. With the exception of fish oil, few RCT's with nutritional interventions during pregnancy assess PPD. Further research is needed to determine whether nutritional intervention strategies during pregnancy can protect against symptoms of PPD. Given the prevalence of PPD and ease of administering PPD measures, we recommend future prenatal nutritional RCT's include PPD as an outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Flynn, B; Barrett, M; Sui, J; Halpin, C; Paz, G; Walsh, D
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterised by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass. It adversely influences quality of life, treatment response and survival. Early identification and multimodal interventions can potentially treat cancer cachexia. However, healthcare professionals demonstrate a lack of understanding and the ability to identify cancer cachexia early. The present study aimed to evaluate the assessment by physicians of nutritional status in cancer patients admitted to hospice. A retrospective medical record review was conducted on all cancer admissions to a specialist in-patient palliative care unit over a 4-month period between October 2016 and January 2017. Charts were reviewed for evidence of documented nutritional assessment by physicians. Data were collected from the referral letter, admission notes, drug kardex and discharge letter. The information extracted included: (i) patient demographics and characteristics; (ii) terms used by physicians to describe nutritional status; (iii) any record of nutritional impact symptoms (NIS) experienced by the patient; and (iv) nutritional interventions prescribed. One hundred and forty admissions were evaluated. Nutritional terminology and NIS were most commonly documented on the admission notes. Only 41% of documents recorded any nutritional term used by physicians to assess nutritional status. Furthermore, 71% of documents recorded at least one NIS experienced by the patient. Fatigue was the most frequent NIS. We identified an inadequate nutritional assessment of cancer patients admitted to hospice. Implementation of a nutritional symptom checklist and nutrition screening tools, along with enhanced physician education and multidisciplinary nutrition care, could improve the identification and management of cancer cachexia in the palliative care setting. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Vir, Sheila C
The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr
Maternal diet, nutritional status during pregnancy, and the early diet of the offspring play an important role in later health. The short- and long-term outcomes of early nutrition have been extensively studied in recent decades. One of the most commonly investigated nutritional interventions is breastfeeding, which is associated with a number of positive short- and long-term outcomes. A short-term effect of breastfeeding is reduced morbidity and mortality in children from poor living conditions and in preterm infants. Breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development and also has a long-term protective effect on obesity risk, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and a lowering effect on blood pressure. Selected nutrients have undergone extensive investigation to show their role in disease prevention or improved development, e.g. protein intake in infancy seems to be associated with a later risk of obesity or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has a positive impact on cognitive function. Another consideration is the fast catch-up growth in small for gestational age infants as an important factor associated with adult risk of cardiovascular problems. On the other hand, high protein and energy intake seems to be positively associated with some indicators of cognitive development. Most of the evidence comes from observational studies that cannot exclude potential confounders. Animal studies demonstrate causality but should not be directly extrapolated to humans. The number of randomized controlled studies is increasing but long-term follow-ups are necessary to obtain convincing results. The majority of these trials compare different infant formula compositions and macro- or micronutrient supplementation. One of the major questions is to define a critical (or opportunity) window and a mechanism of nutritional influence on several health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Halson, Shona L
Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep.
The ethical issues surrounding early intervention services to young children with disabilities are discussed. The conflict between parental autonomy and paternalistic interventions is evaluated. Value-based intervention decisions, such as parent choice of alternative therapies, refusal of services, and family-centered versus child-centered care,…
Woestenenk, J W; Castelijns, S J A M; van der Ent, C K; Houwen, R H J
To systematically assess the literature published after 1997 describing the effectiveness of nutritional interventions in Cystic Fibrosis patients. An online search in PUBMED, EMBASE and COCHRANE databases was conducted. Original studies with 4 patients or more, describing a nutritional intervention and giving at least weight as an outcome parameter were included. The inclusion criteria were met by 17 articles, focusing on respectively behavioural interventions (n=6), oral supplementation (n=4) or enteral tube feeding (n=7). This latter intervention was universally successful to induce weight gain. One behavioural study and 2 oral supplementation studies also reported significant weight gain. Enteral tube feeding is effective to improve nutritional status, while the described effects of behavioural intervention and oral supplementation are not consistent at present. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5.
Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd
State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…
Kuhn, Miriam; Marvin, Christine A.
Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 requires early intervention teams craft individualized and effective plans to meet the needs of young children with special needs and their families (Küpper, 2012). Many early intervention teams, however, may struggle to follow a process that results in…
This review of the literature on early childhood intervention with special needs children provides a Canadian perspective on theory, models, program development, effects, and training. After an introductory chapter, the second chapter identifies theoretical influences on early childhood intervention, including the work of Piaget, Bronfenbrenner,…
Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele; Enkenberg, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Vesa
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of nutrition health intervention on pupils' nutrition knowledge and eating habits from grade seven to grade nine. The study was part of the ENHPS (since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe (SHE)) program in Finland, and more specifically its sub-project titled "From Puijo to the…
Engelborghs, S; Gilles, C; Ivanoiu, A; Vandewoude, M
Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the maintenance of cognitive function, particularly during aging. Malnutrition is amongst the risk factors for developing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies have associated deficiencies in some nutrients with a higher risk of cognitive dysfunction and/or AD. Cognitive decline in AD is correlated with synaptic loss and many of the components required to maintain optimal synaptic function are derived from dietary sources. As synapses are part of the neuronal membrane and are continuously being remodelled, the availability of sufficient levels of nutritional precursors (mainly uridine monophosphate, choline and omega-3 fatty acids) to make the phospholipids required to build neuronal membranes may have beneficial effects on synaptic degeneration in AD. In addition, B-vitamins, phospholipids and other micronutrients act as cofactors to enhance the supply of precursors required to make neuronal membranes and synapses. Despite this, no randomized controlled trial has hitherto provided evidence that any single nutrient has a beneficial effect on cognition or lowers the risk for AD. However, a multi-target approach using combinations of (micro)nutrients might have beneficial effects on cognitive function in neurodegenerative brain disorders like AD leading to synaptic degeneration. Here we review the clinical evidence for supplementation, based on a multi-target approach with a focus on key nutrients with a proposed role in synaptic dysfunction. Based on preclinical evidence, a nutrient mixture, Souvenaid(®) (Nutricia N.V., Zoetermeer, The Netherlands) was developed. Clinical trials with Souvenaid(®) have shown improved memory performance in patients with mild AD. Further clinical trials to evaluate the effects of nutritional intervention in MCI and early dementia due to AD are on-going.
Ravasco, Paula; Monteiro Grillo, Isabel; Camilo, Maria
To devise a meaningful nutritional therapy in cancer, a greater understanding of nutritional dimensions as well as patients' expectations and disease impact is essential. We have shown that nutritional deterioration in patients with gastrointestinal and head and neck cancer was multifactorial and mainly determined by the tumour burden and location. In a larger cohort, stage and location were yet again the major determinants of patients' quality of life (QoL), despite the fact that nutritional deterioration combined with intake deficits were functionally more relevant than cancer stage. Based on this framework, the potential role of integrated oral nutritional support on outcomes was investigated. In a pilot study using individualized nutritional counselling on a heterogeneous patient population, the achieved improvement of nutritional intake was proportional to a better QoL. The role of early nutritional support was further analysed in a prospective randomized controlled trial in head and neck cancer patients stratified by stage undergoing radiotherapy. Pre-defined outcomes were: nutritional status and intake, morbidity and QoL, at the end and 3 months after radiotherapy. Nutritional interventions, only given during radiotherapy, consisted of three randomization arms: (1) individualized nutritional counselling vs. (2) ad libitum diet+high protein supplements vs. (3) ad libitum diet. Nutritional interventions 1 and 2 positively influenced outcomes during radiotherapy; however, 3 months after its completion individualized nutritional counselling was the single method capable of sustaining a significant impact on patients' outcomes. The early provision of the appropriate mixture of foods and textures using regular foods may modulate outcomes in cancer patients.
Zigler, Edward; Berman, Winnie
Examines the recent history of early childhood intervention efforts; discusses principles that guided the formation of intervention programs in the 1960s and 1970s; describes the Head Start program and lessons learned from its development; considers issues in evaluating intervention programs; and presents suggestions for future directions in early…
Nores, Milagros; Barnett, W. Steven
This paper reviews the international (non-U.S.) evidence on the benefits of early childhood interventions. A total of 38 contrasts of 30 interventions in 23 countries were analyzed. It focuses on studies applying a quasi-experimental or random assignment. Studies were coded according to: the type of intervention (cash transfer, nutritional,…
Mizumoto, Kaori; Murakami, Genki; Oshidari, Kenro; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Yoshiike, Nobuo
Asia has recorded the fastest economic growth in the world. However, some countries are still struggling with economic stagnation and poverty. Even in the emerging countries, there are economic disparities between urban and rural areas within a country. Reflecting the situations, nutritional issues in Asia came to be the antithetical situation of excess and insufficiency. The rate of overweight and obesity keeps increasing, especially in emerging countries. Meanwhile, underweight is still a critical problem in the region. Although the importance of nutrition is well recognized for social and economic development, it is difficult to identify the immediate outcome of nutrition interventions. Evidence-based decision-making is an important element of quality health care and efficiency and effectiveness are always key words. Along with enhanced attention to accountability and transparency of budget use in health services, attention to the economic evaluation of nutrition interventions has increased in recent years. In this symposium, we will review the current situation of nutritional issues and economic evaluation of nutrition interventions in Asia through experience of an international organization, the basis and trends for health care economics, and also efforts have been made in an Asian country. Discussion will be made about efficient and effective ways to evaluate projects/programmes for nutrition improvement.
Del Cura, Isabel; Huertas, Rafael
We describe a nutritional intervention by the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Division in Spain after the Spanish Civil War, delineating the relationships between the technicians sent by the Rockefeller Foundation and the Spanish health authorities. We analyze reports of the nutritional situation in Spain in the early 1940s and the design and outcomes of a nutrition survey conducted in a district of Madrid by American and Spanish nutritionists. This nutritional survey, which was based on food intake interviews and was complemented with anthropometric measurements, clinical examinations, and blood tests, found several symptoms and signs of malnutrition. The Rockefeller Foundation's nutritional research was an important historical precedent for later studies made in emergency situations or armed conflicts. Similar surveys have been carried out in the last several decades by distinguished academic departments of public health and epidemiology and by humanitarian aid agencies.
Grabert, John C.
This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…
Sharma, Priya; Rani, M Usha
The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in knowledge of information technology (IT) professionals after receiving a nutrition education intervention for a month. The sample comprised of 40 IT professionals (29 males and 11 females). The sample was drawn from four IT companies of Hyderabad city using random sampling techniques. The data on the general information of the subjects was collected. The data regarding the commonly accessed sources of nutrition and health information by the subjects was also obtained from the study. The intervention study group received nutrition education by distribution of the developed CD-ROMs to them followed by interactive sessions. To assess the impact of nutrition education intervention, the knowledge assessment questionnaire (KAQ) was developed and administered before and after the education programme. A significant improvement in the mean nutritional knowledge scores was observed among the total study subjects from 22.30 to 40.55 after the intervention (p < 0.05). The findings support the importance of providing professionals with nutrition knowledge to promote healthy dietary behaviors.Thus, the method of e-learning and development of CD-Rom is essential for teaching the educated groups on nutrition, physical activity and overall health education to improve their health, lifestyle and eating habits.
Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Moore, Jean Burley
This research examines the impact of a nutrition education intervention program on the nutritional status and knowledge of Nicaraguan adolescent girls. Anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin values, and data concerning nutritional knowledge were collected from adolescent girls living in Managua, Nicaragua. Using a pre-test/post-test design, data are compared prior to and after the nutrition intervention program. When using Mexican American reference data, statistically significant differences in height-for-age z-scores and weight-for-age z-scores were found when comparing the entire sample of baseline data with data collected after three years of the nutrition intervention program (p < 0.05). Significant improvement was also found concerning the indicators of nutritional knowledge (p < 0.05). However, hemoglobin data revealed a significant decrease which may be due to specific environmental factors and pubertal changes. This research has implications concerning the development of successful adolescent focused nutrition intervention programs in Nicaragua, and examines the possibility that catch-up growth occurs during adolescence.
Sevilla-Villanueva, B; Gibert, K; Sanchez-Marre, M; Fito, M; Covas, M I
Classical pre-post intervention studies are often analyzed using traditional statistics. Nevertheless, the nutritional interventions have small effects on the metabolism and traditional statistics are not enough to detect these subtle nutrient effects. Generally, this kind of studies assumes that the participants are adhered to the assigned dietary intervention and directly analyzes its effects over the target parameters. Thus, the evaluation of adherence is generally omitted. Although, sometimes, participants do not effectively adhere to the assigned dietary guidelines. For this reason, the trajectory map is proposed as a visual tool where dietary patterns of individuals can be followed during the intervention and can also be related with nutritional prescriptions. The trajectory analysis is also proposed allowing both analysis: 1) adherence to the intervention and 2) intervention effects. The analysis is made by projecting the differences of the target parameters over the resulting trajectories between states of different time-stamps which might be considered either individually or by groups. The proposal has been applied over a real nutritional study showing that some individuals adhere better than others and some individuals of the control group modify their habits during the intervention. In addition, the intervention effects are different depending on the type of individuals, even some subgroups have opposite response to the same intervention.
Murimi, Mary W; Kanyi, Michael; Mupfudze, Tatenda; Amin, Md Ruhul; Mbogori, Teresia; Aldubayan, Khalid
To examine systematically factors that contribute to the efficacy of nutrition education interventions in promoting behavior change for good health based on their stated objective. In a departure from previous reviews, the researchers investigated factors that lead to success of various types of interventions. Critical analysis of these factors constituted the outcome of this review. This study followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis criteria. A total of 246 original articles published between 2009 and 2015 in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, Science Direct, Cochrane Reviews, ERIC, and PsychLIT were initially considered. The number was screened and scaled down to 40 publications for the final analysis. Quality assessment was based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Studies were rated as having low risk of bias, moderate risk, or high risk. Efficacy of nutrition education interventions depended on major factors: interventions that lasted ≥5 months; having ≤3 focused objectives; appropriate design and use of theories; fidelity in interventions; and support from policy makers and management for worksite environmental interventions. Intervention duration of ≥5 months, ≤3 focused objectives, randomization, use of theories, and fidelity are factors that enhance success of interventions based on the results of this study. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting
Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the
Abstract The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non‐nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision‐making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre‐conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition‐specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. PMID:27187909
van den Heuvel, M; Chen, Y; Abdullah, K; Maguire, J L; Parkin, P C; Birken, C S
Early childhood temperament is increasingly recognized as an important attribute that may impact screen time use, outdoor play and childhood obesity. The relationship between temperament and nutrition in preschool children is less clear. The objective of the study is to investigate if temperament dimensions (negative affectivity, effortful control and surgency) in early childhood are associated with nutritional risk factors. Six hundred seventy-eight children were followed (mean age at baseline visit 3.1 years; mean time to follow-up 16.5 months). Parents reported on child temperament and nutritional risk factors during regularly scheduled well-child clinic visits. A mixed effect model demonstrated a significant association between higher negative affectivity (1.03; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.37) and higher effortful control (-0.88; 95% CI -1.27 to -0.49) on concurrent nutritional risk, independent of covariates. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified that higher effortful control, and not negative affectivity, was significantly associated with a decrease in nutritional risk (-0.67; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.24) over time, independent of covariates. There was no relationship identified between surgency and nutritional risk. Three-year-old children with higher effortful control had reduced nutritional risk at 5 years of age. Future nutritional risk prevention strategies may benefit from interventions to increase effortful control in early childhood. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Boyer, Valerie E.; Fullman, Leah I.; Bruns, Deborah A.
Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), the most common microdeletion syndrome, is increasingly diagnosed in young children because of advances in diagnostic testing. The result is an increase in the number of young children with VCFS referred for early intervention (EI) services. We describe early development of children with VCFS and strategies to…
Randomized controlled trials were launched in 1985 to test the effects of multiple vitamin and mineral interventions on total mortality and total and cause-specific cancer mortality in a rural Chinese population
John, Chandy C; Black, Maureen M; Nelson, Charles A
The early to middle childhood years are a critical period for child neurodevelopment. Nutritional deficiencies, infection, and inflammation are major contributors to impaired child neurodevelopment in these years, particularly in low-resource settings. This review identifies global research priorities relating to nutrition, infection, and inflammation in early to middle childhood neurodevelopment. The research priority areas identified include: (1) assessment of how nutrition, infection, or inflammation in the preconception, prenatal, and infancy periods (or interventions in these periods) affect function in early to middle childhood; (2) assessment of whether effects of nutritional interventions vary by poverty or inflammation; (3) determination of the feasibility of preschool- and school-based integrated nutritional interventions; (4) improved assessment of the epidemiology of infection- and inflammation-related neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI); (5) identification of mechanisms through which infection causes NDI; (6) identification of noninfectious causes of inflammation-related NDI and interventions for causes already identified (eg, environmental factors); and (7) studies on the effects of interactions between nutritional, infectious, and inflammatory factors on neurodevelopment in early to middle childhood. Areas of emerging importance that require additional study include the effects of maternal Zika virus infection, childhood environmental enteropathy, and alterations in the child's microbiome on neurodevelopment in early to middle childhood. Research in these key areas will be critical to the development of interventions to optimize the neurodevelopmental potential of children worldwide in the early to middle childhood years. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Ramakrishnan, Usha; Lowe, Alyssa; Vir, Sheila; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Chaturvedi, Anuraag; Noznesky, Elizabeth A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mason, John B
Inadequate nutrient intake, early and multiple pregnancies, poverty, caste discrimination, and gender inequality contribute to poor maternal nutrition in India. While malnutrition is seen throughout the life cycle, it is most acute during childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation. Although nutrition policies are on the books and interventions are in place, child malnutrition and maternal undernutrition persist as severe public health problems. To evaluate the implementation of maternal nutrition programs in India. The research was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of a desk review of national and state policies pertinent to maternal nutrition and national-level key informant interviews with respondents who have a working knowledge of relevant organizations and interventions. Phase 2 utilized in-depth interviews and focus group discussions at the state, district, and community levels in eight districts of two states: Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. All data were analyzed thematically. India has a rich portfolio of programs and policies that address maternal health and nutrition; however, systematic weaknesses, logistical gaps, resource scarcity, and poor utilization continue to hamper progress. Elevating the priority given to maternal nutrition in government health programs and implementing strategies to improve women's status will help to address many of the challenges facing India's nutrition programs. Programs can be strengthened by promoting integration of services, ensuring effective procurement mechanisms for micronutrient and food supplements, establishing regional training facilities for improved program implementation, and strengthening program monitoring and evaluation.
Bailey, Pamela W.; Trohanis, Pascal L.
The document contains summaries of over 50 publicly available publications which support the case for early intervention for handicapped children and their families. Section 1 contains studies pertaining to the effectiveness of any intervention. This section also describes projects approved by the United States Department of Education's Joint…
Slaughter, Diana T.
The purposes of this longitudinal study of early intervention with 83 black mother-child dyads were (a) to test the thesis that sociocultural transmission influences childhood development in educationally significant ways, and (b) to describe the process through which such transmission can occur. Two social intervention programs were contrasted;…
Geoffray, Marie-Maude; Thevenet, Marion; Georgieff, Nicolas
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental trouble which prevents the child from socio-communicative interaction, and learning from his environment. Non-medical early intervention attempts to improve prognosis. We will review the main current hypothesis, intervention models and scientific supports about early intervention. We conducted a search of the literature published on Medline between 2010 and 2015 related to intervention models provided to children with ASD aged less than 3 years. Data were extracted from systematic reviews and recent randomized controlled trials with moderate to high GRADE quality of evidence. Early intervention refers to brain plasticity theory. With the epidemiological studies of infant "at risk" there is an attempt to intervene earlier before full syndrome is present. Interventions tend to follow more on a developmental hierarchy of socio-communicative skills and to focus on the dyadic relation between the child and the caregivers to improve the core autistic symptoms. Over the last 6 years, there's been news and fine-tuned ways about early intervention, and more and more systematic evaluation. However, there are only few interventions which were evaluated in trial with a strong GRADE recommendation and all of them have methodological concerns. It is important to be cautious in recommendations for mental health politic, even if it is important to improve access to services for all children and their families, hence finance and design rigorous project in research.
Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia
To present the evidence in relation to early life nutrition and foetal programming for adult disease. Epigenetics is a new and growing area of study investigating the impact of the intrauterine environment on the lifelong health of individuals. Discursive paper. Searches were conducted in a range of electronic health databases. Hand searches located additional articles for review. Maternal search terms included: pregnancy; nutrition; diet; obesity; over nutrition; under nutrition. Offspring related search terms included: macrosomia; intrauterine growth restriction; epigenetics; foetal programming; childhood obesity; adolescent obesity; adolescent type 2 diabetes. Results indicate that foetal programming for adult disease occurs in response to particular insults during vulnerable developmental periods. Four main areas of foetal exposure were identified in this review: (1) under nutrition; (2) over nutrition; (3) gestational diabetes mellitus; and (4) infant catch-up growth. Numerous studies also described the trans-generational nature of foetal programming. Overall, foetal exposure to excess or insufficient nutrition during vulnerable developmental periods appears to result in a lifelong predisposition to obesity and adult disease, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiac disease. For the infant who has been undernourished during early life, a predisposition to renal disease also occurs. Pregnancy is a time when women are engaged in health systems and are receptive to health messages. These factors suggest that pregnancy may be an optimal time for dietary education and intervention. There is a particular need for education on healthy diet and for interventions which aim to limit over consumption of calories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In late 2005, individuals from across the country traveled to attend the national Office of Special Education Conference on Early Childhood in Washington, DC. Connected by networking at the conference, a group of parents with children with special needs left committed to collaboratively formulate a plan to create a family-centered and…
Almeida, Thamine Andrade Siqueira; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Mecca, Fabíola Del Nero; De Martino, Eliana; Paulino, Adriana Machado
Different etiologies are related to tinnitus including metabolic disorders (blood glucose and lipids). The aim of this study was compare tinnitus severity by self-report measures pre and post nutritional intervention, using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. Participants of this study were twenty one male and female subjects, with ages ranging from 40 to 82 years. Inclusion criteria involved the presence of tinnitus and metabolic disorder diagnosed by laboratory exams. All subjects were submitted to a nutritional intervention program. Audiological evaluation and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory were applied pre and post intervention. When comparing the presence of tinnitus pre and post intervention, data analysis indicates statistical difference concerning tinnitus sensation--71.5% of the individuals referred less impact of tinnitus in daily activities. An important difference was observed concerning tinnitus influence in subject's life by self-report measures. A direct relation between tinnitus and metabolic disorders in cases related with this symptom was verified.
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
"Early Risers" is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children's emotional and behavioral…
As the preschool and early years of schooling were becoming the focus of increasing attention, the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department commissioned a review of United Kingdom and international literature on the use of early intervention schemes for disadvantaged students. The resulting review presents evidence on the most appropriate…
This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed
Hawley, John A; Tipton, Kevin D; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L
Training and nutrition are highly interrelated in that optimal adaptation to the demands of repeated training sessions typically requires a diet that can sustain muscle energy reserves. As nutrient stores (i.e. muscle and liver glycogen) play a predominant role in the performance of prolonged, intense, intermittent exercise typical of the patterns of soccer match-play, and in the replenishment of energy reserves for subsequent training sessions, the extent to which acutely altering substrate availability might modify the training impulse has been a key research area among exercise physiologists and sport nutritionists for several decades. Although the major perturbations to cellular homeostasis and muscle substrate stores occur during exercise, the activation of several major signalling pathways important for chronic training adaptations take place during the first few hours of recovery, returning to baseline values within 24 h after exercise. This has led to the paradigm that many chronic training adaptations are generated by the cumulative effects of the transient events that occur during recovery from each (acute) exercise bout. Evidence is accumulating that nutrient supplementation can serve as a potent modulator of many of the acute responses to both endurance and resistance training. In this article, we review the molecular and cellular events that occur in skeletal muscle during exercise and subsequent recovery, and the potential for nutrient supplementation (e.g. carbohydrate, fat, protein) to affect many of the adaptive responses to training.
Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Chen, Jian-Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E
Low birth weight and rapid postnatal growth increases risk of cardiovascular-disease (CVD); however, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that rats exposed to a low-protein diet in utero that underwent postnatal catch-up growth (recuperated) have a programmed deficit in cardiac coenzyme Q (CoQ) that was associated with accelerated cardiac aging. It is unknown whether this deficit occurs in all tissues, including those that are clinically accessible. We investigated whether aortic and white blood cell (WBC) CoQ is programmed by suboptimal early nutrition and whether postweaning dietary supplementation with CoQ could prevent programmed accelerated aging. Recuperated male rats had reduced aortic CoQ [22 d (35±8.4%; P<0.05); 12 m (53±8.8%; P<0.05)], accelerated aortic telomere shortening (P<0.01), increased DNA damage (79±13% increase in nei-endonucleaseVIII-like-1), increased oxidative stress (458±67% increase in NAPDH-oxidase-4; P<0.001), and decreased mitochondrial complex II-III activity (P<0.05). Postweaning dietary supplementation with CoQ prevented these detrimental programming effects. Recuperated WBCs also had reduced CoQ (74±5.8%; P<0.05). Notably, WBC CoQ levels correlated with aortic telomere-length (P<0.0001) suggesting its potential as a diagnostic marker of vascular aging. We conclude that early intervention with CoQ in at-risk individuals may be a cost-effective and safe way of reducing the global burden of CVDs. © FASEB.
Palermo, C; Hughes, R; McCall, L
Workforce development is a key element for building the capacity to effectively address priority population nutrition issues. On-the-job learning and mentoring have been proposed as strategies for practice improvement in public health nutrition; however, there is limited evidence for their effectiveness. An evaluation of a mentoring circle workforce development intervention was undertaken. Thirty-two novice public health nutritionists participated in one of three mentoring circles for 2 h, every 6 weeks, over a 7-month period. Pre- and post-intervention qualitative (questionnaire, interview, mentor diary) and quantitative (competence, time working in public health nutrition) data were collected. The novice public health nutritionists explained the intervention facilitated sharing of ideas and strategies and promoted reflective practice. They articulated the important attributes of the mentor in the intervention as having experience in and a passion for public health, facilitating a trusting relationship and providing effective feedback. Participants reported a gain in competency and had an overall mean increase in self-reported competence of 15% (range 3-48% change; P < 0.05) across a broad range of competency elements. Many participants described re-orienting their practice towards population prevention, with quantifiable increases in work time allocated to preventive work post-intervention. Mentoring supported service re-orientation and competency development in public health nutrition. The nature of the group learning environment and the role and qualities of the mentor were important elements contributing to the interventions effects. Mentoring circles offer a potentially effective strategy for workforce development in nutrition and dietetics.
Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children’s linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208
Bentley, Margaret E.; Johnson, Susan L.; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa
Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term impacts on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of the individual's fullest potential therefore requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than twenty years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component to the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study—the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate integrated interventions. PMID:24673167
Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa
Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Barker, Mary; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Colbourn, Tim; Fall, Caroline H D; Kriznik, Natasha M; Lawrence, Wendy T; Norris, Shane A; Ngaiza, Gloria; Patel, Dilisha; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine; Vogel, Christina; Woods-Townsend, Kathryn; Stephenson, Judith
The nutritional status of both women and men before conception has profound implications for the growth, development, and long-term health of their offspring. Evidence of the effectiveness of preconception interventions for improving outcomes for mothers and babies is scarce. However, given the large potential health return, and relatively low costs and risk of harm, research into potential interventions is warranted. We identified three promising strategies for intervention that are likely to be scalable and have positive effects on a range of health outcomes: supplementation and fortification; cash transfers and incentives; and behaviour change interventions. On the basis of these strategies, we suggest a model specifying pathways to effect. Pathways are incorporated into a life-course framework using individual motivation and receptiveness at different preconception action phases, to guide design and targeting of preconception interventions. Interventions for individuals not planning immediate pregnancy take advantage of settings and implementation platforms outside the maternal and child health arena, since this group is unlikely to be engaged with maternal health services. Interventions to improve women's nutritional status and health behaviours at all preconception action phases should consider social and environmental determinants, to avoid exacerbating health and gender inequalities, and be underpinned by a social movement that touches the whole population. We propose a dual strategy that targets specific groups actively planning a pregnancy, while improving the health of the population more broadly. Modern marketing techniques could be used to promote a social movement based on an emotional and symbolic connection between improved preconception maternal health and nutrition, and offspring health. We suggest that speedy and scalable benefits to public health might be achieved through strategic engagement with the private sector. Political theory supports
Kim, Seong Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Ly, Sun Yung
Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common pediatric chronic inflammatory skin diseases, and certain food allergens and nutrients are closely related to the development and severity of atopic dermatitis. While avoidance of the causative foods is considered the mainstay of treatment, unverified excessive restriction might induce unnecessary limitations in the food intake, consequently leading to nutritional deficiencies and poor growth. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and nutrient intake status in children with atopic dermatitis and to investigate the effects of individualized nutrition intervention. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of 77 pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis who received 4 months of individualized nutrition intervention combined with an elimination diet. The patient characteristics, nutrient intake status, and clinical status were examined before and after the intervention. Before the intervention, 5 children had a weight for height z-score below -2.0, and 48.1% had experienced food restriction; these children showed a significantly higher SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis index than those without experiences, with the number of restricted foods before the intervention positively correlating with the disease severity. The intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, calcium, folate, and vitamin D were lower than the recommended nutrient intakes for Koreans. After the intervention, the weight for height z-score of 35 children was significantly increased and their SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis index was significantly reduced (p<0.05). Individualized nutrition intervention appears useful for alleviating the severity of atopic dermatitis and improving the growth status by improving the nutrient intake.
Lemaire, Jane B; Wallace, Jean E; Dinsmore, Kelly; Lewin, Adriane M; Ghali, William A; Roberts, Delia
Physicians are often unable to eat and drink properly during their work day. Nutrition has been linked to cognition. We aimed to examine the effect of a nutrition based intervention, that of scheduled nutrition breaks during the work day, upon physician cognition, glucose, and hypoglycemic symptoms. A volunteer sample of twenty staff physicians from a large urban teaching hospital were recruited from the doctors' lounge. During both the baseline and the intervention day, we measured subjects' cognitive function, capillary blood glucose, "hypoglycemic" nutrition-related symptoms, fluid and nutrient intake, level of physical activity, weight, and urinary output. Cognition scores as measured by a composite score of speed and accuracy (Tput statistic) were superior on the intervention day on simple (220 vs. 209, p = 0.01) and complex (92 vs. 85, p < 0.001) reaction time tests. Group mean glucose was 0.3 mmol/L lower (p = 0.03) and less variable (coefficient of variation 12.2% vs. 18.0%) on the intervention day. Although not statistically significant, there was also a trend toward the reporting of fewer hypoglycemic type symptoms. There was higher nutrient intake on intervention versus baseline days as measured by mean caloric intake (1345 vs. 935 kilocalories, p = 0.008), and improved hydration as measured by mean change in body mass (+352 vs. -364 grams, p < 0.001). Our study provides evidence in support of adequate workplace nutrition as a contributor to improved physician cognition, adding to the body of research suggesting that physician wellness may ultimately benefit not only the physicians themselves but also their patients and the health care systems in which they work.
Women of child-bearing age (especially pregnant and lactating women), infants and young children are in the most nutritionally-vulnerable stages of the life cycle. Maternal malnutrition is a major predisposing factor for morbidity and mortality among African women. The causes include inadequate food intake, poor nutritional quality of diets, frequent infections and short inter-pregnancy intervals. Evidence for maternal malnutrition is provided by the fact that between 5 and 20% of African women have a low BMI as a result of chronic hunger. Across the continent the prevalence of anaemia ranges from 21 to 80%, with similarly high values for both vitamin A and Zn deficiency levels. Another challenge is the high rates of HIV infection, which compromise maternal nutritional status. The consequences of poor maternal nutritional status are reflected in low pregnancy weight gain and high infant and maternal morbidity and mortality. Suboptimal infant feeding practices, poor quality of complementary foods, frequent infections and micronutrient deficiencies have largely contributed to the high mortality among infants and young children in the region. Feeding children whose mothers are infected with HIV continues to remain an issue requiring urgent attention. There are successful interventions to improve the nutrition of mothers, infants and young children, which will be addressed. Interventions to improve the nutrition of infants and young children, particularly in relation to the improvement of micronutrient intakes of young children, will be discussed. The recent release by WHO of new international growth standards for assessing the growth and nutritional status of children provides the tool for early detection of growth faltering and for appropriate intervention.
Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Haws, Rachel A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Background The vast majority of global stillbirths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and in many settings, the majority of stillbirths occur antenatally, prior to the onset of labour. Poor nutritional status, lack of antenatal care and a number of behaviours increase women's risk of stillbirth in many resource-poor settings. Interventions to reduce these risks could reduce the resulting burden of stillbirths, but the evidence for the impact of such interventions has not yet been comprehensively evaluated. Methods This second paper of a systematic review of interventions that could plausibly impact stillbirth rates covers 12 different interventions relating to behavioural and socially mediated risk factors, including exposures to harmful practices and substances, antenatal care utilisation and quality, and maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy. The search strategy reviewed indexed medical journals on PubMed and the Cochrane Library. If any eligible randomised controlled trials were identified that were published after the most recent Cochrane review, they were added to generate new meta-analyses. Interventions covered in this paper have a focus on low- and middle-income countries, both because of the large burden of stillbirths and because of the high prevalence of risk factors including maternal malnutrition and harmful environmental exposures. The reviews and studies belonging to these interventions were graded and conclusions derived about the evidence of benefit of these interventions. Results From a programmatic perspective, none of the interventions achieved clear evidence of benefit. Evidence for some socially mediated risk factors were identified, such as exposure to indoor air pollution and birth spacing, but still require the development of appropriate interventions. There is a need for additional studies on culturally appropriate behavioural interventions and clinical trials to increase smoking cessation and reduce exposure to smokeless
Horning, Melissa L; Olsen, Jeanette M; Lell, Shay; Thorson, Diane R; Monsen, Karen A
The purpose of this manuscript was to describe: Public Health Nurse (PHN) home-visited, female client Nutrition Knowledge (K), Behavior (B), and Status (S); the number and types of nutrition interventions PHNs used with these clients; and the types of clients receiving nutrition interventions. This descriptive study used PHN-generated Omaha System, electronic health record data from January 2012 to July 2015. The analytic sample contains 558 women who received home visits in a rural Midwestern U.S. county that employed universal nutrition assessment for clients. Omaha System data included nutrition KBS scores (from 1 = low to 5 = high) and nutrition interventions delivered. Analyses included descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses (means, frequencies, chi-squares, general linear models). PHNs assessed nutrition KBS scores for 84.1% of clients; average Nutrition Knowledge was 3.4 (SD = 0.7), Behavior 3.7 (SD = 0.8), and Status 4.3 (SD = 1.0). PHNs provided 0-36 nutrition interventions per client. Nutrition intervention patterns were detected by the type of visit clients received. Results suggest home-visited women have room to improve Nutrition KBS and PHNs utilize myriad nutrition interventions. Results also point to opportunities to improve home-visited client care by providing more nutrition interventions, especially to those not receiving interventions, and revising standard care plans to reflect important Case Management nutrition interventions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Russell, Mark; Kingsley, Michael
The use of nutritional ergogenic aids in team sports such as soccer is now commonplace. Aligned with the primary aim of soccer, which is to score more goals than the opposition within the allotted time, the quality of performance of technical actions (i.e., skills) executed during soccer-specific exercise is likely to determine success. However, when seeking to maintain soccer skill performance, information about the efficacy of nutritional interventions is lacking and factors which might modulate the efficacy of such strategies are unclear. This review aimed (i) to systematically evaluate the current research that examines the efficacy of nutritional interventions on soccer skills, and (ii) to provide a qualitative commentary on factors that have the potential to modulate the efficacy of such strategies. Relevant databases (PubMed and SPORTDiscus) were searched up to and including 1 July, 2013 for studies that investigated the efficacy of acute nutritional interventions on soccer skill performances. Overall, 279 records were retrieved. Articles were sequentially excluded from the review based on specific criteria, being: (A) articles that did not report outcomes directly relating to skilled performances in soccer, (B) articles that examined the influence of interventions that were not nutritional in origin and/or were nutritional in origin but provided >3 hours before skill testing commenced, (C) articles that were review papers, and (D) post-acceptance withdrawal of articles methods from database. Articles were independently assessed for the quality of the methods employed based upon the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Records achieving a minimum PEDro score of 5 out of 10 were included in this review. Qualitative appraisal of 13 articles was performed after the application of exclusion criteria and quality assurance processes. The majority (n = 8) of articles examined the influence of carbohydrates on technical performance whereas fewer studies
Wadsworth, Donna E. Dugger; Wartelle, Noah L.
Prior to the 1986 passage of PL 99-457, an extension of the special services coverage under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, early intervention programs were primarily interventionist directed and child focused. The new legislation provided incentives for providing programs that were family-centered and family-driven. The goal of…
Dinnebeil, Laurie A.
This response to Mahoney et al. (EC 623 392) offers a definition of parent education and discusses the importance of identifying intended outcomes and providing effective educational opportunities. Two models of parent education in early intervention are described: Parents Interacting with Infants and the Individualized Support Project. Some…
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela
Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…
Wade, Darryl; Johnston, Amy; Campbell, Bronwyn; Littlefield, Lyn
Mental and substance use disorders are leading contributors to the burden of disease among young people in Australia, but young people experience a range of barriers to accessing appropriate treatment for their mental health concerns. The development of early intervention services that provide accessible and effective mental health care has the…
O'Connor, Michelle; Fleischmann, Charles; Kenner, Emily; McCobin, Allison; McGoey, Kara
In the area of early childhood gifted education and effective interventions for young children identified as intellectually gifted, there appears to be a persistent lack of research. There is also very little research on the characteristics and social-emotional development of young gifted children, particularly those of preschool age. The small…
Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka
The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…
Mitchell, Kevin, Ed.
"The ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This issue focuses on early intervention and its role in making higher education accessible to all students, especially those who are traditionally underrepresented or at risk. An introductory section contains one article,…
Wolfe, David A.
A longitudinal study was made of a prevention-oriented early intervention program intended to help parents who had insufficient and inappropriate childrearing abilities. The program was designed for young parents with fewer than 5 years of childrearing experience; participants were referred from a child protection agency following investigation of…
Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.
This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is intended to apply to all types of service and support program models for children (birth to age 5) with various developmental delays and/or disabilities. The measures are appropriate for either home-based or center-based service delivery models. Section 1…
Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the introduction in several countries of universal neonatal hearing screening programs has changed the landscape of education for deaf children. Due to the increasing provision of early intervention services for children identified with hearing loss, public education for deaf children often starts…
Lu, Lucia Y.
Clay's Reading Recovery has been one of the most effective one-to-one tutorial sessions. To make the daily lesson more interesting and fully engage the at-risk readers, the author modified Clay's Reading Recovery Program by conceptualizing phonics and semiotics into early intervention. In this case study, three at-risk first graders formed an…
Margalit, M.; Kleitman, T.
The aim of the study was to examine factors that predict maternal stress, reported by mothers whose infants were diagnosed as having developmental disabilities at the beginning of participating in an early intervention programme "Me and My Mommy" and after one year. A second goal was to identify and to portray a subgroup of resilient…
Gaskill, D; Isenring, E A; Black, L J; Hassall, S; Bauer, J D
To investigate the impact of a train-the-trainer program on the nutritional status of older people in residential care. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Eight nursing homes in Southeast Queensland, Australia. A total of 352 residents participated - 245 were female (69.6%). The mean age was 84.2 years and the majority (79.4%) were classified as high dependency. Residents from four nursing homes were randomly selected for a nutrition education program coordinated by Nutrition Coordinators. Residents from the other four nursing homes (control) received usual care. The Subjective Global Assessment was used to determine prevalence of malnutrition at baseline and six months post intervention. The Resident Classification Scale measured functional dependency. Prescribed diet, fluids, oral hygiene status and allied health referrals were obtained by chart audit. Approximately half the residents were well nourished with 49.4% moderately or severely malnourished. Residents in the intervention group were more likely to maintain or improve their nutritional status compared with the control group who were more likely to experience a deterioration (P=0.027). The odds of the control group being malnourished post test was 1.6 times more likely compared with the intervention group but this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.1). The results of the study encourage the implementation of a Nutrition Coordinator program to maintain nutritional status of aged care residents. Nevertheless, malnutrition rates continue to be unacceptably high. In a rapidly aging society, the aged care sector needs to confront malnutrition and provide better resources for staff to take measures against this problem.
Protein-calorie malnutrition and involuntary weight loss continue to be prevalent among hospitalized and long-term care patients, particularly the elderly. Studies on nutritional intervention have established a correlation between nutritional status, body weight, and rate of wound healing. Nutritional intervention, however, must be provided early enough to prevent a catabolic-induced decline in lean muscle mass, which can further impair wound healing. Chronic, nonhealing wounds are particularly difficult to treat and contribute to significant morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations. More aggressive nutritional management and a greater understanding of the role of nutrition and weight gain in wound healing can result in more effective patient care. This article discusses the role of protein-calorie malnutrition and involuntary weight loss in hindering the wound-healing process, and the need to establish an optimal anabolic environment for weight gain and improved wound healing.
Schiavon, Cecilia C; Vieira, Francilene G K; Ceccatto, Vanessa; de Liz, Sheyla; Cardoso, Alyne L; Sabel, Cristiane; Gonzalez-Chica, David A; da Silva, Edson L; Galvan, Daisy; Crippa, Carlos G; Di Pietro, Patricia F
To assess the effect of a nutrition education intervention on nutritional factors and oxidative stress during treatment of breast cancer. Nonrandomized clinical trial conducted in 2010-2011, including an evaluation at baseline and after 12 months. Women from Brazil who had breast cancer, divided into an intervention group (IG) (n = 18) and comparison group (n = 75). To increase intake of fruits and vegetables and reduce red and processed meats, via telephone and printed materials. Food intake, anthropometry, and levels of lipid hydroperoxide, carbonyl proteins, reduced glutathione, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Chi-square, Mann-Whitney or t tests for baseline data; Wilcoxon or paired t tests for intra-group outcomes, linear regression models, and Bonferroni multiplicity adjustment. The researchers observed an increase in fruit and vegetable intake, reduction in red and processed meat intake, no change in body weight, and an increase in glutathione in the IG over the comparison group. However, after Bonferroni adjustment, only the consumption of fruits and vegetables and fruit was significantly higher in IG. This study presents improved dietary changes after a theory-driven nutrition education intervention. Although the sample size is small, it has proven to be clinically relevant. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Null, Gary; Pennesi, Luanne; Feldman, Martin
This group study explored how an intervention of diet and lifestyle, including a vegan diet, fruit and vegetable juicing, nutritional supplements, regular exercise, and destressing techniques, would affect 27 subjects with anxiety, depression, poor memory, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, history of stroke, or multiple sclerosis. Several subjects had overlapping conditions. Videotaped testimonials were obtained describing subjective results. Testimonials stated multiple benefits across all conditions addressed by the study, with subjects often reporting substantial benefits. These results demonstrate that an intervention of diet, juicing, supplements, exercise, and lifestyle may provide considerable benefits for all conditions addressed. PMID:26976087
Dave, Jayna M; Thompson, Deborah I; Svendsen-Sanchez, Ann; McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria
The focus of this article is the development of a nutrition education intervention for food bank clients. Formative research using mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) and community-based participatory research principles was conducted to assess the nutrition education needs of clients obtaining service from the Houston Food Bank (HFB). Participants were HFB and pantry staff and clients. Interview data were coded and analyzed using grounded theory approach. Themes were then identified. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies and descriptives. Data were used to tailor the curriculum to the target population. Six HFB staff, 49 pantry staff from 17 pantries, and 54 clients from 10 pantries participated in interviews and focus groups and completed questionnaires. The participants provided opinion on the current nutrition education provided via the food bank and made suggestions on strategies for development of an intervention. Their feedback was used to develop the six-session intervention curriculum to be delivered over 6 months. This research provides evidence that it is critical for members of the target audience be included in formative research to develop behavior change programs that are relevant and appealing and target their needs and interests.
Balhara, Kamna S; Silvestri, David M; Tyler Winders, W; Selvam, Anand; Kivlehan, Sean M; Becker, Torben K; Levine, Adam C
Malnutrition contributes to paediatric morbidity and mortality in disasters and complex emergencies, but summary data describing specific nutritional interventions in these settings are lacking. This systematic review aimed to characterise such interventions and their effects on paediatric mortality, anthropometric measures and serum markers of nutrition. A systematic search of OVID MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and relevant grey literature was conducted. We included all randomised controlled trials and observational controlled studies evaluating effectiveness of nutritional intervention(s) on defined health outcomes in children and adolescents (0-18 years) within a disaster or complex emergency. We extracted study characteristics, interventions and outcomes data. Study quality was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. A total of 31 studies met inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in Africa (17), during periods of conflict or hunger gaps (14), and evaluated micronutrient supplementation (14) or selective feeding (10). Overall study quality was low, with only two high and four moderate quality studies. High- and medium-quality studies demonstrated positive impact of fortified spreads, ready-to-use therapeutic foods, micronutrient supplementation, and food and cash transfers. In disasters and complex emergencies, high variability and low quality of controlled studies on paediatric malnutrition limit meaningful data aggregation. If existing research gaps are to be addressed, the inherent unpredictability of humanitarian emergencies and ethical considerations regarding controls may warrant a paradigm shift in what constitutes adequate methods. Periodic hunger gaps may offer a generalisable opportunity for robust trials, but consensus on meaningful nutritional endpoints is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ha, Eun-Jeong; Caine-Bish, Natalie
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of implementing nutrition intervention using a general nutrition class to promote consumption of fruits and vegetables in college students. Design: 3-day food records were collected, verified, and analyzed before and after the intervention. Setting: A midwestern university. Participants: 80 college…
Kearns, Megan C.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Zatzick, Doug; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov
The high prevalence of trauma exposure and subsequent negative consequences for both survivors and society as a whole emphasize the need for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder. However, clinicians and relief workers remain limited in their ability to intervene effectively in the aftermath of trauma and alleviate traumatic stress reactions that can lead to chronic PTSD. The scientific literature on early intervention for PTSD is reviewed, including early studies on psychological debriefing, pharmacological, and psychosocial interventions aimed at preventing chronic PTSD. Studies on fear extinction and memory consolidation are discussed in relation to PTSD prevention and the potential importance of immediate versus delayed intervention approaches and genetic predictors are briefly reviewed. Preliminary results from a modified prolonged exposure intervention applied within hours of trauma exposure in an emergency room setting are discussed, along with considerations related to intervention reach and overall population impact. Suggestions for future research are included. Prevention of PTSD, although currently not yet a reality, remains an exciting and hopeful possibility with current research approaches translating work from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:22941845
Gangadharan, Anju; Choi, Sung Eun; Hassan, Ahmed; Ayoub, Nehad M; Durante, Gina; Balwani, Sakshi; Kim, Young Hee; Pecora, Andrew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K Stephen
Cancer patients often experience weight loss caused by protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) during the course of the disease or treatment. PCM is expressed as severe if the patient has two or more of the following characteristics: obvious significant muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat; nutritional intake of <50% of recommended intake for 2 weeks or more; bedridden or otherwise significantly reduced functional capacity; weight loss of >2% in 1 week, 5% in 1 month, or 7.5% in 3 months. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a multifactorial condition of advanced PCM associated with underlying illness (in this case cancer) and is characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. Cachexia is defined as weight loss of more than 5% of body weight in 12 months or less in the presence of chronic disease. Hence with a chronic illness on board even a small amount of weight loss can open the door to cachexia. These nutritional challenges can lead to severe morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. In the clinic, the application of personalized medicine and the ability to withstand the toxic effects of anti-cancer therapies can be optimized when the patient is in nutritional homeostasis and is free of anorexia and cachexia. Routine assessment of nutritional status and appropriate intervention are essential components of the effort to alleviate effects of malnutrition on quality of life and survival of patients.
Gangadharan, Anju; Choi, Sung Eun; Hassan, Ahmed; Ayoub, Nehad M.; Durante, Gina; Balwani, Sakshi; Kim, Young Hee; Pecora, Andrew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K. Stephen
Cancer patients often experience weight loss caused by protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) during the course of the disease or treatment. PCM is expressed as severe if the patient has two or more of the following characteristics: obvious significant muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat; nutritional intake of <50% of recommended intake for 2 weeks or more; bedridden or otherwise significantly reduced functional capacity; weight loss of >2% in 1 week, 5% in 1 month, or 7.5% in 3 months. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a multifactorial condition of advanced PCM associated with underlying illness (in this case cancer) and is characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. Cachexia is defined as weight loss of more than 5% of body weight in 12 months or less in the presence of chronic disease. Hence with a chronic illness on board even a small amount of weight loss can open the door to cachexia. These nutritional challenges can lead to severe morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. In the clinic, the application of personalized medicine and the ability to withstand the toxic effects of anti-cancer therapies can be optimized when the patient is in nutritional homeostasis and is free of anorexia and cachexia. Routine assessment of nutritional status and appropriate intervention are essential components of the effort to alleviate effects of malnutrition on quality of life and survival of patients. PMID:28177923
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...
Palop Montoro, M Victoria; Párraga Montilla, Juan Antonio; Lozano Aguilera, Emilio; Arteaga Checa, Milagros
Aging is accompanied by changes in body composition among which is a progressive reduction in muscle mass, which may contribute to the development of functional limitations in older people, and where the lifestyle plays a particularly important role. To test the effectiveness of progressive resistance training, protein nutritional supplements and both interventions combined in the treatment of sarcopenia. Review of literature in Medline, ScienceDirect, CINAHL, ISI WOK and PEDro data by combining the descriptors of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) concerning sarcopenia, progressive resistance training, protein supplements and seniors. A total of 147 studies were found which resistance exercise performed by sessions 45-60 minutes, 2-3 times a week, and 3-4 sets of 8 repetitions, to an increasing intensity. This exercise resulted in increased muscle mass and strength, and increased skeletal muscle protein synthesis and muscle fiber size. Nutritional supplements such as beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, leucine and essential amino acids produced gains in muscle mass. All supplements increased strength, especially when combined with resistance exercise. The combination of progressive resistance training and protein included in the diet, either in the form of nutritional supplements, strengthens the impact that each of these interventions can have on the treatment of sarcopenia in the elderly. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Amendum, Steven J.
The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…
Yamada, Shoko M
Comatose acute stroke patients are at high risk of malnutrition, especially hypoproteinemia. However, when to start and how to provide nutrition to these patients are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum timing and methods of nutritional supplementation to comatose acute stroke patients. A total of 273 comatose acute stoke patients who were unable to eat were enrolled. They received peripheral intravenous low-calorie solutions for the first 4 days after admission (days 0-3), and serum protein concentrations were measured on days 2, 3, and 4. From day 4, 5 different nutritional regimens were administered (25 kcal/kg/day), (including enteral nutrition [EN], total parenteral nutrition [TPN], tube feeding of 20% glucose solution, and combinations of these nutritional supplementations),. Serum concentrations of total protein and albumin were measured on days 10, 14, and 21. The patients who had EN until day 21 from day 4 were defined as EN group, and who had TPN were as TPN group. Serum protein concentrations decreased slightly on day 2 and decreased significantly on days 3 and 4. From day 4 to 14, the recovery of serum protein was better in the TPN group than in the EN group. Conversely, after day 14, recovery from hypoproteinemia was better in the EN group than in the TPN group. However, when diarrhea was caused by EN, further hypoproteinemia occurred and caused patients to require TPN. The recovery from hypoproteinemia was earliest in patients receiving TPN with 20% glucose fed through a nasogastric tube from day 4 to 13 followed by EN after day 14. Hospitalization was statistically shorter for patients with a nutritionally early recovery than for patients with a delayed recovery, but clinical outcome did not differ significantly between the groups. It is nutritionally disadvantageous not to start nutritional support within 3 days after admission in comatose acute stroke patients. However, starting EN too early is not nutritionally
Forbes, Scott C; Little, Jonathan P; Candow, Darren G
Skeletal muscle mass declines with age (i.e., sarcopenia) resulting in muscle weakness and functional limitations. Sarcopenia has been associated with physiological changes in muscle morphology, protein and hormonal kinetics, insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutritional intervention strategies may benefit aging muscle. It is well known that resistance exercise training increases muscle strength and size and evidence also suggests that resistance training can increase mitochondrial content and decrease oxidative stress in older adults. Recent findings suggest that fast-velocity resistance exercise may be an effective intervention for older adults to enhance muscle power and functional capacity. Aerobic exercise training may also benefit aging skeletal muscle by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics, improving insulin sensitivity, and/or decreasing oxidative stress. In addition to exercise, creatine monohydrate, milk-based proteins, and essential fatty acids all have biological effects which could enhance some of the physiological adaptations from exercise training in older adults. Additional research is needed to determine whether skeletal muscle adaptations to increased activity in older adults are further enhanced with effective nutritional interventions and whether this is due to enhanced muscle protein synthesis, improved mitochondrial function, and/or a reduced inflammatory response.
Crockett, S J; Mullis, R; Perry, C L; Luepker, R V
Since parents play a pivotal role in helping their children to implement eating pattern changes, interest in parent education in youth-directed nutrition interventions is likely to increase along with heightened interest in primary prevention. Previous experience indicates, however, that it may be difficult to recruit and sustain parent involvement. This article describes an evaluation of the effect on parents of two youth-directed interventions with a parent component, a classroom curriculum called Hearty Heart and Friends and a mailed-home, parent-taught approach called Hearty Heart Home Team. Using incentives, a participation rate of 85.6% was achieved in Hearty Heart Home Team. This parent-taught intervention had significantly greater impact on parent than did the school-only curriculum in the following areas: knowledge about diet and heart disease; attitudes of efficacy, intention, outcome expectation and modeling; and parent-child communication and child involvement in food or nutrition-related issues in the home. In addition, the parent-taught approach influenced foods present in the home as evidenced by Home Team groups having significantly more encouraged foods and more positive choices in six scores on a shelf inventory measure conducted by in-home interviewers.
Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M
There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
Lee, Sun Eun; Kim, Hyeyoung
With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy.
Carroll, Grace J; Lama, Sonam D; Martinez-Brockman, Josefa L; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
Food and nutrition insecurity becomes increasingly worse in areas affected by armed conflict. Children affected by conflict, or in war-torn settings, face a disproportionate burden of malnutrition and poor health outcomes. As noted by humanitarian response reviews, there is a need for a stronger evidence-based response to humanitarian crises. To achieve this, we systematically searched and evaluated existing nutrition interventions carried out in conflict settings that assessed their impact on children's nutrition status. To evaluate the impact of nutrition interventions on children's nutrition and growth status, we identified published literature through EMBASE, PubMed, and Global Health by using a combination of relevant text words and Medical Subject Heading terms. Studies for this review must have included children (aged ≤18 y), been conducted in conflict or postconflict settings, and assessed a nutrition intervention that measured ≥1 outcome for nutrition status (i.e., stunting, wasting, or underweight). Eleven studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Five different nutrition interventions were identified and showed modest results in decreasing the prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight, reduction in severe or moderate acute malnutrition or both, mortality, anemia, and diarrhea. Overall, nutrition interventions in conflict settings were associated with improved children's nutrition or growth status. Emergency nutrition programs should continue to follow recent recommendations to expand coverage and access (beyond refugee camps to rural areas) and ensure that aid and nutrition interventions are distributed equitably in all conflict-affected populations. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Hegerová, Petra; Dědková, Zuzana; Sobotka, Luboš
An acute disease is regularly associated with inflammation, decreased food intake, and low physical activity; the consequence is loss of muscle mass. However, the restoration of muscle tissue is problematic, especially in older patients. Loss of muscle mass leads to further decrease of physical activity which leads, together with recurring disease, to the progressive muscle mass loss accompanied by loss of self-sufficiency. Early nutrition support and physical activity could reverse this situation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether an active approach based on early nutritional therapy and exercise would influence the development of sarcopenia and impaired self-sufficiency during acute illness. Two hundred patients >78 y were admitted to a hospital internal medicine department and participated in a prospective, randomized controlled study. The patients were randomized to a control group receiving standard treatment (n = 100) or to an intervention group (n = 100). The intervention consisted of nutritional supplements (600 kcal, 20 g/d protein) added to a standard diet and a simultaneous intensive rehabilitation program. The tolerance of supplements and their influence on spontaneous food intake, self-sufficiency, muscle strength, and body composition were evaluated during the study period. The patients were then regularly monitored for 1 y post-discharge. The provision of nutritional supplements together with early rehabilitation led to increased total energy and protein intake while the intake of standard hospital food was not reduced. The loss of lean body mass and a decrease in self-sufficiency were apparent at discharge from the hospital and 3 mo thereafter in the control group. Nutritional supplementation and the rehabilitation program in the study group prevented these alterations. A positive effect of nutritional intervention and exercise during the hospital stay was apparent at 6 mo post-discharge. The early nutritional intervention
Yusoff, Hafzan; Wan Daud, Wan Nudri; Ahmad, Zulkifli
This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 - 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb = 7 - 12.9 g/dL for boys). They were divided into 2 groups. The first group received nutrition education package (Nutrition education, NE), whereas another group was entitled to receive non-nutrition education intervention (Non-Nutrition Education, NNE) (supplement only). Both interventions were implemented for 3 months. The changes in awareness among respondents of both groups were evaluated using multi-choices questionnaire. Nutrition education receiver group (NE) demonstrated improvement in awareness at post-intervention. No substantial improvement was demonstrated by the counterpart group (NNE). Multimedia nutrition education program conducted at school setting was in fact practical and effective in improving awareness on iron deficiency among anemic adolescents.
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Availability of early intervention services. 303.112... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.112 Availability of early intervention services...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention service provider. 303.12 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.12 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of early intervention services. 303.112... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.112 Availability of early intervention services...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention service provider. 303.12 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.12 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of early intervention services. 303.112... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.112 Availability of early intervention services...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention service provider. 303.12 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.12 Early intervention service...
Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon
The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Yanping; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Fang, Hongyun; Hao, Linan; Duan, Yifan; Xu, Haiquan; Shang, Xianwen; Ma, Jun; Xu, Guifa; Du, Lin; Li, Ying; Guo, Hongwei; Li, Tingyu; Ma, Guansheng
Childhood obesity and its related metabolic and psychological abnormalities are becoming serious health problems in China. Effective, feasible and practical interventions should be developed in order to prevent the childhood obesity and its related early onset of clinical cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a multi-centred random controlled school-based clinical intervention for childhood obesity in China. The secondary objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of the comprehensive intervention strategy with two other interventions, one only focuses on nutrition education, the other only focuses on physical activity. The study is designed as a multi-centred randomised controlled trial, which included 6 centres located in Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Shandong province, Heilongjiang province and Guangdong province. Both nutrition education (special developed carton style nutrition education handbook) and physical activity intervention (Happy 10 program) will be applied in all intervention schools of 5 cities except Beijing. In Beijing, nutrition education intervention will be applied in 3 schools and physical activity intervention among another 3 schools. A total of 9750 primary students (grade 1 to grade 5, aged 7-13 years) will participate in baseline and intervention measurements, including weight, height, waist circumference, body composition (bioelectrical impendence device), physical fitness, 3 days dietary record, physical activity questionnaire, blood pressure, plasma glucose and plasma lipid profiles. Data concerning investments will be collected in our study, including costs in staff training, intervention materials, teachers and school input and supervising related expenditure. Present study is the first and biggest multi-center comprehensive childhood obesity intervention study in China. Should the study produce comprehensive results, the intervention strategies would justify a national school
Valle, Neiva J; Santos, Iná S dos; Gigante, Denise P
The aim of this study was to collect evidence of the impact of nutritional interventions on child growth. A systematic review of the literature on nutritional interventions in under-two-year-old children from 1980 to 2002 was conducted in the electronic databases (MEDLINE, LILACS, and MedCarib). The following descriptors were used: "nutrition", "child", "trial", "intervention", "growth", "infant", "programs", "impact", "counseling", "support", "body height", and "body weight". A complementary search was implemented by screening the bibliography cited in the previously located articles. Fourteen publications were found. The strategies used in the studies included distribution of nutritional supplements and/or nutritional counseling. Publication bias aside, most interventions presented a positive impact on child growth when applied during the first year of life. Nutritional counseling had the additional advantage of improving maternal and health professional practices on child nutrition and feeding.
Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Srihari, Vinod H.; Pollard, Jessica M.; Addington, Donald N.; Woods, Scott W.
Aim The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. Methods We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Results Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches (‘pick-a-point’ and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Conclusion Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness. PMID:20536970
Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Srihari, Vinod H; Pollard, Jessica M; Addington, Donald N; Woods, Scott W
The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches ('pick-a-point' and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness.
Camp, Kathryn M.; Krotoski, Danuta; Parisi, Melissa A.; Gwinn, Katrina A.; Cohen, Bruce H.; Cox, Christine S.; Enns, Gregory M.; Falk, Marni J.; Goldstein, Amy C.; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Gorman, Gráinne S.; Hersh, Stephen P.; Hirano, Michio; Hoffman, Freddie Ann; Karaa, Amel; MacLeod, Erin L.; McFarland, Robert; Mohan, Charles; Mulberg, Andrew E.; Odenkirchen, Joanne C.; Parikh, Sumit; Rutherford, Patricia J.; Suggs-Anderson, Shawne K.; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Vockley, Jerry; Wolfe, Lynne A.; Yannicelli, Steven; Yeske, Philip E.; Coates, Paul M.
In December 2014, a workshop entitled “Nutritional Interventions in Primary Mitochondrial Disorders: Developing an Evidence Base” was convened at the NIH with the goals of exploring the use of nutritional interventions in primary mitochondrial disorders (PMD) and identifying knowledge gaps regarding their safety and efficacy; identifying research opportunities; and forging collaborations among researchers, clinicians, patient advocacy groups, and federal partners. Sponsors included the NIH, the Wellcome Trust, and the United Mitochondrial Diseases Foundation. Dietary supplements have historically been used in the management of PMD due to their potential benefits and perceived low risk, even though little evidence exists regarding their effectiveness. PMD are rare and clinically, phenotypically, and genetically heterogeneous. Thus patient recruitment for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has proven to be challenging. Only a few RCTs examining dietary supplements, singly or in combination with other vitamins and cofactors, are reported in the literature. Regulatory issues pertaining to the use of dietary supplements as treatment modalities further complicate the research and patient access landscape. As a preface to exploring a research agenda, the workshop included presentations and discussions on what PMD are; how nutritional interventions are used in PMD; challenges and barriers to their use; new technologies and approaches to diagnosis and treatment; research opportunities and resources; and perspectives from patient advocacy, industry, and professional organizations. Seven key areas were identified during the workshop. These areas were: 1) defining the disease, 2) clinical trial design, 3) biomarker selection, 4) mechanistic approaches, 5) challenges in using dietary supplements, 6) standards of clinical care, and 7) collaboration issues. Short and long-term goals within each of these areas were identified. An example of an overarching goal is the
Mische, Leah J; Mowry, Ellen M
This review aims to critically evaluate published studies examining diets and nutritional supplements (excepting vitamin D) for the impact on prevention and prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a negative relationship between the Mediterranean diet and vascular disease, and vascular co-morbidities are associated with a worse MS prognosis. Low-fat, fish-based diets, sodium-restricted diets, calorie restriction, the paleo diet, and gluten-free diets have been examined, mostly in observational studies; results are inconclusive. With regard to nutritional supplements, pilot data show a possible benefit of biotin with respect to disability worsening in people with progressive MS (PMS). The best designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for PUFA supplementation have not shown significant impact, but several weaker RCTs have. Many other nutritional supplements have been tested, including several anti-oxidants. While some early studies show positive results, no result has been definitive. Unfortunately, there is no strong evidence for a direct benefit of any given dietary intervention on MS risk or prognosis. However, due to its relationship with vascular co-morbidities, the Mediterranean diet has the strongest rationale for employment in PwMS. Higher-quality clinical trials are needed to ascertain the possible benefits of nutritional supplements.
Robinson, Sian M
Alongside declining activity levels, energy needs fall in older age and eating less is expected. However, as total food consumption declines, intakes of many nutrients are also likely to fall; while energy requirements may be met, other nutrient needs may not. Although this highlights the importance of nutrient-dense foods and overall diet quality in older age to ensure nutrient intakes are sufficient, maintaining or increasing diet quality may be difficult at a time when food access and preparation are becoming more challenging, and diets may be more monotonous. Poor nutrition, even in developed settings, is common. Older malnourished adults are more likely to have poorer health outcomes, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Thus, apart from the evident personal costs, the economic burden of disease-related malnutrition is significant, and effective preventive strategies to promote good nutrition among older populations are needed. In particular, there is a need for wider recognition of malnutrition risk among older adults, including implementation of routine screening of nutritional status and early diagnosis. Design of future interventions to support older community-dwelling adults requires a clear understanding of the personal and contextual influences that affect patterns of food choice and consumption, including consideration of the importance of social and psychological factors. In addition, there are opportunities to intervene earlier in the lifecourse; the most effective preventive efforts to promote good nutrition in older age may need to start ahead of age-related changes in physiology and function, including younger adulthood and at the retirement transition.
Sizonenko, Stéphane V.; Babiloni, Claudio; Sijben, John W.; Walhovd, Kristine B.
Throughout the life span, the brain is a metabolically highly active organ that uses a large proportion of total nutrient and energy intake. Furthermore, the development and repair of neural tissue depend on the proper intake of essential structural nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Therefore, what we eat, or refrain from eating, may have an important impact on our cognitive ability and mental performance. Two of the key areas in which diet is thought to play an important role are in optimizing neurodevelopment in children and in preventing neurodegeneration and cognitive decline during aging. From early development to aging, brain imaging can detect structural, functional, and metabolic changes in humans and modifications due to altered nutrition or to additional nutritional supplementation. Inclusion of imaging measures in clinical studies can increase understanding with regard to the modification of brain structure, metabolism, and functional endpoints and may provide early sensitive measures of long-term effects. In this symposium, the utility of existing brain imaging technologies to assess the effects of nutritional intervention in humans is described. Examples of current research showing the utility of these markers are reviewed. PMID:24038255
Mercieca, Daniela; Mercieca, Duncan P.
Early intervention comes in-between the lives of children, families and teachers. This article uses part of a report written by an educational psychologist about a little girl to question the nature of intervention through Rancière's writings. As children and parents are seen as put into the position of inadequacy, they require such…
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Grote, Veit; Kirchberg, Franca F; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina
The Power of Programming conference 2016 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich brought together about 600 researchers and other stakeholders from around the world who reviewed the recent evidence on the lasting health impact of environment and nutrition during early life, from pre-pregnancy to early childhood. The conference was hosted by the Early Nutrition Project, a multidisciplinary research collaboration funded by the European Commission with collaborating researchers from 35 institutions in 15 countries in Europe, the United States and Australia. The project explores the early origins of obesity, adiposity and associated non-communicable diseases, underlying mechanisms and opportunities for prevention. The project also proactively supports translational application of research findings. In fact, some existing evidence has already been rapidly adopted into policy, regulatory standards and practice. Further, broad dissemination of findings is achieved through the established digital eLearning platform of the Early Nutrition eAcademy, video clip-based learning and graphically supported messaging to consumers. The project demonstrated powerful effects of early metabolic programming on later health. Compared to other common prevention strategies, modifying risk trajectories in early life can achieve a much larger risk reduction and be more cost-effective. While some effective prevention strategies have been promptly implemented in policy and guidelines, legislation and practice, in other areas, the uptake is limited by a paucity of quality human intervention trials and insufficient evaluation of the feasibility of implementation and econometric impact. This needs to be strengthened by future collaborative research work. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Training early childcare providers in evidence-based nutrition strategies can help improve nutrition policies and practices of early childcare centres serving racially and ethnically diverse children from low-income families.
Hollar, T Lucas; Cook, Nicole; Natale, Ruby; Quinn, David; Phillips, Teina; DeLucca, Michael
We evaluated the extent to which providing training and technical assistance to early childcare centre (ECC) directors, faculty and staff in the implementation of evidence-based nutrition strategies improved the nutrition contexts, policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse, low-income children in Broward County, Florida, USA. The nutrition strategies targeted snack and beverage policies and practices, consistent with Caring for Our Children National Standards. We used the nutrition observation and document review portions of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument to observe ECC as part of a one-group pre-test/post-test evaluation design. ECC located within areas of high rates of poverty, diabetes, minority representation and unhealthy food index in Broward County, Florida, USA. Eighteen ECC enrolled, mean 112·9 (sd 53·4) children aged 2-5 years; 12·3 (sd 7·2) staff members; and 10·2 (sd 4·6) children per staff member at each centre. We found significant improvements in centres' overall nutrition contexts, as measured by total EPAO nutrition scores (P=0·01). ECC made specific significant gains within written nutrition policies (P=0·03) and nutrition training and education (P=0·01). Our findings support training ECC directors, faculty and staff in evidence-based nutrition strategies to improve the nutrition policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse children from low-income families. The intervention resulted in improvements in some nutrition policies and practices, but not others. There remains a need to further develop the evaluation base involving the effectiveness of policy and practice interventions within ECC serving children in high-need areas.
Brown, N; Finch, J E; Obradović, J; Yousafzai, A K
Undernutrition contributes to at least half the estimated six million annual childhood deaths worldwide. Furthermore, one in three children fails to meet their developmental potential because of risks including stunting, illness, under-stimulation, poor responsive interactions and maternal depressive symptoms. Our study investigates the role of caregiving processes on children's height-for-age at 2 and 4 years. The Pakistan Early Child Development Scale-up study assessed the longitudinal effectiveness of early nutrition and responsive stimulation interventions on growth and development at 4 years of age. In total, 1302 children were followed up from birth to 4 years. We leveraged path analyses to explore potential mediators of early intervention effects on children's height-for-age at 4 years, including maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child interaction quality, diarrhoeal illness and height-for-age at 2 years. Our final model had excellent model fit (comparative fix index = 0.999, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.998, root mean square error of approximation = 0.008) and showed that mother-child interaction quality mediated the effects of both enhanced nutrition and responsive stimulation interventions on height-for-age at 4 years via its longitudinal stability from 2 years of age (β = 0.016, p = 0.005; β = 0.048, p < 0.001, respectively). Further, diarrhoeal illness mediated the effects of maternal depressive symptoms at 1 year post partum on children's height-for-age at 4 years via the longitudinal stability of height-for-age z-score from 2 years of age onwards (β = -0.007, p = 0.019). The quality of early caregiving experience mediated the association between both interventions and height-for-age. The effect of maternal depressive symptoms on growth was mediated by diarrhoeal illness. Programmatic approaches to child nutrition and growth must address all these potentially modifiable factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Xiao, Gui-zhen; Tang, Li-qun; Duan, Peng-kai; Qiu, Xiao-wen; Su, Lei
To evaluate energy and protein intake changes in early supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) in trauma patients, and to assess its impact on clinical outcomes. Clinical results of patients receiving or not receiving additional PN during the first 7 days after injury were retrospectively analyzed, with a total of 195 patients classified into two groups: control group (n=105) and mixed nutrition group (n=90). The time of nutrition support, intakes of protein and energy within 14 days after trauma, and clinical outcomes were compared between two groups. The degree of injury was comparable between two groups with no significant differences in acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, injury severity score (ISS) and Glasgow coma score (GCS). Compared with the control group, the mixed nutrition group received parenteral nutritional support earlier (40.0±21.0 hours vs. 55.1±23.5 hours, P<0.01), with later beginning of enteral nutrition (EN, 75.2±54.5 hours vs. 55.1±23.5 hours, P<0.01) and lower rate of EN in 48 hours after admission [14.4% (13/90) vs. 43.8% (46/105), P<0.01]. The time of restoring oral diet was not different between the mixed nutrition group and control group (10.8±3.7 days vs. 11.4±3.6 days, P>0.05). The energy intake was significantly higher in the mixed nutrition group than in the control group in 3, 7, 14 days (3 days: 3981.6±2209.3 kJ vs. 2683.2±1414.9 kJ, 7 days: 5477.5±2008.4 kJ vs. 3619.1±1429.9 kJ, 14 days: 6250.2±2533.2 kJ vs. 5199.9±1972.7 kJ, P<0.05 or P<0.01). In both groups the protein intake was insufficient, and it was significantly lower in the mixed nutrition group than in the control group on day 3 (20.6±18.4 g vs. 26.5±13.8 g, P<0.05). The patients in the mixed nutrition group had longer hospital stay time (73.9±62.5 days vs. 50.9±33.3 days, P<0.01). The mortality rate of mixed nutrition group and control group was 4.4% (4/90) and 3.8% (4/105) respectively, the rate of infection and acute respiratory
Pieterse, Moira, Ed.; And Others
A collection of papers on the Australian experience with early intervention for children with disabilities gives regional overviews, describes specific intervention programs, and discusses a variety of issues. Overviews are given of early intervention in Australia in general, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western…
Whaley, Shannon E.; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise
Objective: To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Design: Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.…
Trestini, Ilaria; Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Bonaiuto, Clelia; Auriemma, Alessandra; Melisi, Davide; Salvatore, Lisa; Bria, Emilio; Tortora, Giampaolo
The aim of this analysis was to determine the risk of malnutrition and the prognostic value of nutritional intervention in patients affected by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) undergoing chemotherapy. Clinical-pathological and nutritional data were correlated with overall survival (OS) using a Cox model. Nutritional status was determined by Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), body mass index, weight loss in the past 6 months, presence of nutrition-related symptoms, and current energy intake. Nutritional intervention included appropriate individual dietary counseling. Data from 109 patients were gathered (median age 63 years). The majority of patients (64.2%) presented a MUST value of ≥ 2, corresponding to a high risk of malnutrition. At multivariate analysis for OS in locally advanced and metastatic PDAC patients, the time between the diagnosis and the nutritional intervention (HR 2.22, p = 0.017), the performance status (HR 1.38, p = 0.075), the surgery of the primary (HR 5.89, p = 0.005), and the response to the first line (HR 5.9, p = 0.03) were independent significant predictors of outcome. Furthermore, a weight gain > 2% from the baseline weight was correlated with the time between the diagnosis and the nutritional intervention (p = 0.021): in patients receiving a nutritional support within 3 months from diagnosis, a 2% weight gain was associated with a 2-year OS benefit (50.3% vs. 33.0%, p = 0.04). This analysis suggests that the early nutritional support may contribute to influence the prognosis of patients affected by advanced PDAC undergoing chemotherapy.
Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H
The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.
Mouttapa, Michele; Robertson, Trina P.; McEligot, Archana J.; Weiss, Jie W.; Hoolihan, Lori; Ora, Ann; Trinh, Linda
Objective: To conduct a dietary intervention using the Personal Nutrition Planner (PNP), an on-line nutrition intervention tool. Design: Randomized controlled trial with pretest, posttest, and 2-month follow-up self-report assessments. Setting: Web/on-line. Participants: Female university staff (n = 307; 59.1% Caucasian) recruited via e-mail.…
Larsen, Andrew L.; Liao, Yue; Alberts, Janel; Huh, Jimi; Robertson, Trina; Dunton, Genevieve F.
Background: Few nutrition interventions in kindergarten classes have been evaluated, and none has been tested for program effectiveness, implementation, and dissemination. Building a Healthy Me (BHM) is a nutrition intervention for kindergarteners that is classroom-based and includes a family component. This study evaluated the public health…
Breedveld-Peters, José J L; Reijven, Petronella L M; Wyers, Caroline E; van Helden, Svenhjalmar; Arts, J J Chris; Meesters, Berry; Prins, Martin H; van der Weijden, Trudy; Dagnelie, Pieter C
Within a multicentre randomized controlled trial aimed at improving the nutritional status and increase the speed of recovery of elderly hip fracture patients, we performed a process evaluation to investigate the feasibility of the intervention within the present Dutch health care system. Patients in the intervention group received nutritional counseling during 10 contacts. Oral nutritional supplements were advised as needed until three months after hip fracture surgery. The intervention was evaluated with respect to dieticians' adherence to the study protocol, content of nutritional counseling, and patients' adherence to recommendations given. We included 66 patients (mean age of 76, range 55-92 years); 74% women. Eighty-three percent of patients received all 10 contacts as planned, but in 62% of the patients one or more telephone calls had to be replaced by face to face contacts. Nutritional counseling was complete in 91% of contacts. Oral nutritional supplementation was needed for a median period of 76 days; 75% of the patients took the oral nutritional supplements as recommended. Nutritional counseling in elderly hip fracture patients through face to face contacts and telephone calls is feasible. However, individual tailoring of the intervention is recommended. The majority of hip fracture patients needed >2 months oral nutritional supplements to meet their nutritional requirements. The trial was registered at clincialtrails.gov as NCT00523575. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Reynolds, Clare M.; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.
The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:26402696
Goli, Srinivas; Rammohan, Anu; Singh, Deepti
The consequences of early childbearing on the growth and nutritional status of women in India has not been quantified in previous studies. Our study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the association between early marriage and early childbearing on nutritional status of Indian women, with a focus on Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, the two states accounting for the highest proportion of women marrying and giving first birth before 18 years of age. Our findings revealed that a substantial number of women were married before 18 years and thereby exposed to early pregnancy. Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of women in the 'thin' category were married before 18 years, both in the Indian sample (33 %, p < 0.001) and in the selected states, Andhra Pradesh (31 %, p < 0.001) and Bihar (43 %, p < 0.001), compared to those women married at higher ages. Similarly, across all our samples women whose first birth was before age 18 years also had a significantly higher probability of being in the 'thin' category across all our samples. This pattern was also observed for associations between early childbirth and anemia levels. We conclude that the net effect of the early age at marriage and age at first birth on nutritional status is significant. Our results underline the need for preventing early marriages and the consequent high adolescent pregnancies in India, particularly in high prevalence states. This will help to improve nutritional status and health care utilisation among women, thereby, prevent maternal and child mortality and thus, achieve the MDGs 4-5.
Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S
This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.
Chaffee, Benjamin Wilk; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto
Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.
Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zheng; Xiong, Maoming; Meng, Xiangling; Dai, Fen; Fang, Jun; Wan, Hong; Wang, Miaofeng
To assess the difference between early enteral nutrition (EEN group) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN group) after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The nutrition index, liver function, patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) score, the post-operation complications, the hospital stay and hospitalization expense of the postoperative patient after total gastrectomy, admitted to our Department of Surgery from May 2011 to May 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 72 patients including 37 cases in the EEN group and 35 cases in the TPN group were recruited. Hypoalbuminemia gradually improved in the EEN group about 3-5 days, but it did not increase until average 21 days in the TPN group. The body weight decreased in the EEN group during the first 2 weeks and recovered gradually in 21 days; body weight in the TPN group was significantly lower than the EEN group at 21 days (p<0.05). There were significant differences in both the groups (p<0.05) in nutrition indicators. The incidence of complications in the EEN group and TPN group were 8.1% and 25.7% respectively, with no significant differences (p>0.05). The days of hospital stays in the EEN and in the TPN group were up to 12.2 ± 2.5 d vs 14.9 ± 2.9 d (p<0.05) and the hospitalization expenses were 36472 ± 4833 CNY vs 40140 ± 3927 CNY (p<0.05), respectively. Compared with TPN, EEN was safe and well tolerated and can shorten the hospital stay as well as reduce costs incurred with total gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Early Intervention; Child of Impaired Parents; Child; Adolescent; Mental Disorders, Severe; Schizophrenia; Bipolar Disorder; Depressive Disorder, Recurrent; Psychotic Disorders; Parent-Child Relations
Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen
Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…
Kang, Hyelim; Yang, Yu Jin; Park, Juyeon; Heo, Gyu Jin; Hong, Jeong-Im; Kim, Hye-Jin
The demand for hospice services as well as for 'well-dying' of terminal patients is increasing as patient financial burden is decreasing due to National Health Insurance coverage for hospice care. Hospice institutions utilize interdisciplinary teams comprising doctors, nurses, dietitians, and other health staffs to provide comprehensive patient management. This report examined the nutritional status of a hospice patient from admission to death as well as the nutrition management of this patient in the hospice ward through nutrition interventions performed by a dietitian in the interdisciplinary team. The patient in the present case was a 74-year-old man diagnosed with pancreatic head cancer who died after 26 days of hospice care following transfer from the general ward. During hospice care, the dietitian monitored the patient's nutritional status and performed 8 nutrition interventions, but his oral intake decreased as the patient's symptoms worsened. The average energy intake rates were 30% and 17% of required rates for oral and artificial nutrition, respectively. In line with a report suggesting that the main focus of nutrition in palliative care should be on improving the quality of life and reducing worry in patients, rather than aggressive nutritional management, there is a need for nutrition interventions that are personalized to individual patients by monitoring progress and offering continuous counseling from the time of admission. In addition, further studies such as comparative analysis of nutritional management in Korean hospice ward will be needed for better nutrition management for terminally ill patients.
Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Nuijten, M J C; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Poley, M J; Segal, L; Bresson, J L; van Ganse, E; Jones, P; Moreno, L; Salminen, S; Dubois, D
Improving health through better nutrition of the population may contribute to enhanced efficiency and sustainability of healthcare systems. A recent expert meeting investigated in detail a number of methodological aspects related to the discipline of nutrition economics. The role of nutrition in health maintenance and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases is now generally recognised. However, the main scope of those seeking to contain healthcare expenditures tends to focus on the management of existing chronic diseases. Identifying additional relevant dimensions to measure and the context of use will become increasingly important in selecting and developing outcome measurements for nutrition interventions. The translation of nutrition-related research data into public health guidance raises the challenging issue of carrying out more pragmatic trials in many areas where these would generate the most useful evidence for health policy decision-making. Nutrition exemplifies all the types of interventions and policy which need evaluating across the health field. There is a need to start actively engaging key stakeholders in order to collect data and to widen health technology assessment approaches for achieving a policy shift from evidence-based medicine to evidence-based decision-making in the field of nutrition.
Fleischer, David M; Spergel, Jonathan M; Assa'ad, Amal H; Pongracic, Jacqueline A
With the rising prevalence of atopic disease, primary prevention may play a role in reducing its burden, especially in high-risk infants. With this in mind, the Adverse Reactions to Foods Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology was charged with the task of developing recommendations for primary care physicians and specialists about the primary prevention of allergic disease through nutritional interventions according to current available literature and expert opinion. Recommendations that are supported by data are as follows. Avoidance diets during pregnancy and lactation are not recommended at this time, but more research is necessary for peanut. Exclusive breast-feeding for at least 4 and up to 6 months is endorsed. For high-risk infants who cannot be exclusively breast-fed, hydrolyzed formula appears to offer advantages to prevent allergic disease and cow's milk allergy. Complementary foods can be introduced between 4 and 6 months of age. Because no formal recommendations have been previously provided about how and when to introduce the main allergenic foods (cow's milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish), these are now provided, and reasons to consider allergy consultation for development of a personalized plan for food introduction are also presented. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila
Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents' nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t -test and paired t -test were used. Paired t -test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit ( P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables ( P < 0.05) were significant statistical difference, but in other aspects of nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t -test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents.
Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila
BACKGROUND: Family participation is an important element on nutritional education especially for students. Parents have a key role in instilling and understanding healthy eating habits, but yet the use of family participation strategies in the nutrition education was low. The aim of this study is determining the effect of parental educational intervention program for parents on adolescents’ nutritional behaviors in Isfahan, Iran in 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a kind of field trial that conducted on 63 girl teenagers from junior high schools of Isfahan in 2016 that were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. The data collection tool which was a researcher made questionnaire was completed in both groups before and 1 month after the intervention. The intervention included three training sessions for parents and giving educational compact disc and forwarding SMS. To analysis of data independent t-test and paired t-test were used. RESULTS: Paired t-test showed that in intervention group the average score of fruit (P = 0.03) and in control group the average score of vegetables (P < 0.05) were significant statistical difference, but in other aspects of nutritional behaviors was not a significant difference. Independent t-test showed that after intervention, mean scores nutritional behavior of adolescent girls in both groups had no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference was in the nutritional behaviors before and after the intervention. Hence, just educating the parents is not enough for achieving appropriate nutritional behaviors in the adolescents. PMID:29296604
van Barneveld, Kevin W Y; Smeets, Boudewijn J J; Heesakkers, Fanny F B M; Bosmans, Joanna W A M; Luyer, Misha D; Wasowicz, Dareczka; Bakker, Jaap A; Roos, Arnout N; Rutten, Harm J T; Bouvy, Nicole D; Boelens, Petra G
To investigate direct postoperative outcome and plasma amino acid concentrations in a study comparing early enteral nutrition versus early parenteral nutrition after major rectal surgery. Previously, it was shown that a low plasma glutamine concentration represents poor prognosis in ICU patients. A preplanned substudy of a previous prospective, randomized, open-label, single-centre study, comparing early enteral nutrition versus early parenteral nutrition in patients at high risk of postoperative ileus after surgery for locally advanced or locally recurrent rectal cancer. Early enteral nutrition reduced postoperative ileus, anastomotic leakage, and hospital stay. Tertiary referral centre for locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer. A total of 123 patients with locally advanced or recurrent rectal carcinoma requiring major rectal surgery. Patients were randomized (ALEA web-based external randomization) preoperatively into two groups: early enteral nutrition (early enteral nutrition, intervention) by nasojejunal tube (n = 61) or early parenteral nutrition (early parenteral nutrition, control) by jugular vein catheter (n = 62). Eight hours after the surgical procedure artificial nutrition was started in hemodynamically stable patients, stimulating oral intake in both groups. Blood samples were collected to measure plasma glutamine, citrulline, and arginine concentrations using a validated ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Baseline concentrations were comparable for both groups. Directly after rectal surgery, a decrease in plasma amino acids was observed. Plasma glutamine concentrations were higher in the parenteral group than in the enteral group on postoperative day 1 (p = 0.027) and day 5 (p = 0.008). Arginine concentrations were also significantly increased in the parenteral group at day 1 (p < 0.001) and day 5 (p = 0.001). Lower plasma glutamine and arginine concentrations were measured in the enteral group, whereas a
Ravasco, Paula; Monteiro-Grillo, Isabel; Camilo, Maria
In our published randomized trial in colorectal cancer, group 1 (n = 37) received individualized nutritional counseling and education about regular foods, group 2 (n = 37) received dietary supplements and consumed their usual diet of regular foods, and group 3 (n = 37) consumed their usual diet of regular foods. Neither group 2 nor group 3 received individualized counseling. Early nutritional counseling during radiotherapy was highly effective at reducing acute radiotherapy toxicity and improving nutritional intake/status and quality of life (QoL). Efficacy persisted for 3 mo after the intervention. The objective was to perform long-term follow-up in survivors of that clinical trial to specifically evaluate survival, late toxicity, QoL, and nutritional variables. Medical data were collected from patients' records, and prescheduled interviews were conducted by dietitians for individualized evaluations. Analyses and comparisons between groups (adjusted for stage) were performed after a median follow-up of 6.5 (range: 4.9-8.1) y. Patients complied with the Radiotherapy Department's follow-up protocol. Nutritional deterioration was higher (P < 0.001) in group 3 (n = 26) and group 2 (n = 29) than in group 1 (n = 34). Adequate nutritional status was maintained in 91% of group 1 patients but not in any of the group 3 patients (P < 0.002). Intakes in group 1 were similar to reference values, and the patients adhered to the prescribed recommendations. Intakes in groups 2 and 3 were lower than recommended intakes: group 3 ≃ group 2 < group 1 (P = 0.001). Median survival in group 3 was 4.9 y (30% died), in group 2 was 6.5 y (22% died), and in group 1 was 7.3 y (only 8% died): group 3 > group 2 > group 1 (P < 0.01). Late radiotherapy toxicity was higher in group 3 (n = 17; 65%) and group 2 (n = 17; 59%) than in group 1 (n = 3; 9%): group 3 ≃ group 2 > group 1 (P < 0.001). QoL was worse in groups 3 and 2 than in group 1: group 3 ≃ group 2 < group 1 (P < 0.002). Worse
Vickers, Mark H
The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be
Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko
Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909
Barbadoro, Pamela; Ponzio, Elisa; Pertosa, Maria Elisabetta; Aliotta, Federica; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea
To evaluate the nutritional status and the impact of an educational intervention on nutritional behaviour in alcohol-dependent patients. A pre-and post-intervention questionnaire and a follow-up interview were administered to 58 patients of a residential alcohol treatment service. Females were at lower risk of being overweight than males, even after adjusting for amount and preferred type of alcohol beverage. Before intervention, 19% consumed 3 meals/day. Following the educational intervention, 22.2% of participants improved their knowledge. After 6 months, when 45 patients agreed to a telephone interview of whom 80% reported continued abstinence, 70.7% reported eating more than 3 meals/day. Nutritional behaviour of alcohol patients after residential treatments improved during follow-up, and it is possible that an educational intervention to increase knowledge on healthy nutrition style may have contributed.
This report provides a description of a national consultation that was undertaken in 2001-2002 to provide feedback on two companion national policy documents: "National Action Plan for Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health 2000" and "Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: A…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
Hu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xijie
Early intervention services to young children with developmental delays in China have experienced significant growth since 1978, the beginning of the period of Reform and Opening. This article described the present situation of early intervention practices in mainland China, framed around the key components and guiding principles of Guralnick's…
Scarborough, Anita A.; Spiker, Donna; Mallik, Sangeeta; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Bailey Jr., Donald B.; Simeonsson, Rune J.
The National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS) is the first study of Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) early intervention system with a nationally representative sample of infants and toddlers with disabilities. This article presents national estimates of characteristics of infants and toddlers and their…
This study documents the wide range of early intervention services across the province of Ontario. The services are mapped across the province showing geographic information as well as the scope of services (clinical, family-based, resource support, etc.), the range of early intervention professionals, sources of funding and the populations served…
McWilliam, Robin; Tocci, Lynn; Sideris, John; Harbin, Gloria
A case study approach was used to examine the complexities of service utilization in early intervention with infants, toddlers, and young children with disabilities. Seventy-two families of children (ages birth to 4) participating in nine early intervention programs in three states (Colorado, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania) and their service…
Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Block, Stephen R.; Robinson, Cordelia C.
This study compared levels of parent involvement in early intervention services for children under three which were delivered in community settings (children's homes and child care programs) and specialized settings (early intervention centers and provider offices) in the USA. Respondents reported the highest levels of parental involvement in the…
Hurley, Jennifer J.; Looby, Winnie; Goodrum, Ashley R.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Bonti, Gregg K.; Raymon, Becca A.; Condon, Rebecca; Schwaeber, Sami E.; Mauceri, Melina E.; Bourne, Erin M.; Callahan, Elizabeth D.; Hardy, Danielle L.; Mathews, Pamela
Early intervention (EI) services are provided for families and children at risk for or with developmental delays. Early intervention includes services that are provided in the natural environment as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2004). The natural environment is where children and families would naturally spend…
Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.
This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is designed to assist families in evaluating the quality of early intervention services they receive. The measures apply to all types of service and support program models for children with various developmental delays and/or disabilities and their families.…
The need to ask educators about their opinions on the subject to what extent early intervention methods enhance mathematical performance is long overdue. The purpose of this quantitative research is to examine the extent to which teachers agree that early intervention methods enhance the mathematical performance of students with mathematical…
Francois, Jennifer R.; Coufal, Kathy L.; Subramanian, Anu
The preparation of students for professional practice in the field of early intervention has changed as a result of mandates through Part C, Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this survey research was to describe the knowledge and skill areas, specific to early intervention, included in pre-professional curricula…
Foorman, Barbara; Dombek, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin
The objective of this article is to describe seven elements important to successful implementation of early literacy intervention. The seven elements are drawn from research as well as from the authors' recent randomized controlled trial of effective early literacy interventions in kindergarten through second grade in 55 schools across Florida.…
Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masatoshi; Takeda, Akihiro; Furukawa, Yoshiyuki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki
The efficacy of enteral nutrition in postoperative nutritional management is known, but the effects on gastrointestinal motility and nutrition have not yet been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition soon after open abdominal surgery on gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status. A partial resection of rectum models was prepared to compare two types of nutrient administration: enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition. The differences between the effects of nutrition types in terms of gastrointestinal motility and nutritional status were investigated. Enteral nutrition contributed to recovery of gastrointestinal motility and maintenance of nutritional status. Enteral nutrition should therefore be initiated soon after surgery if the gastrointestinal tract is available.
Khanh, Linh Ngo; Ivey, Susan L; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Barkan, Howard; Ngo, Kimberly M; Hoang, Hung T; Vuong, Ivy; Thai, Nam
We investigated the relationships among early childhood caries (ECC), mouth pain, and nutritional status in children aged 1 to 6 years in Southern and Central Vietnam. A total of 593 parent-child pairs were recruited from 5 kindergartens or preschools in Ho-Chi Minh City and Da Nang. Parents completed surveys about dietary habits, oral health practices, and children's mouth pain experience; children received anthropometric assessment and dental examinations. There was a high prevalence of dental caries (74.4%), mostly untreated, and mouth pain (47.1%). Moderate correlations were found between parents' and children's consumption of soda (ρ = 0.361; P < .001) and salty snacks (ρ = 0.292; P < .001). Severity of ECC was associated with decreased weight- and body mass index-for-age z-scores. Presence of pulp-involved caries was associated with strikingly lower height-for-age (mean difference = 0.66; P = .001), weight-for-age (mean difference = 1.17; P < .001), and body mass index-for-age (mean difference = 1.18; P < .001) z-scores. Mouth pain was associated with lower body mass index-for-age z-scores (mean difference = 0.29; P = .013). ECC might negatively affect children's nutritional status, which might be mediated by the depth of decay, chronic inflammation, and mouth pain. Family-based and prevention-oriented nutrition and oral health programs are needed and should start during pregnancy and infancy.
Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.
Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…
Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-man; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Simmons, Leslie E.; Fogarty, Melissa; Oslund, Eric; Coyne, Michael D.
This study compared the effects of Tier 2 reading interventions that operated in response-to-intervention contexts. Kindergarten children (N = 90) who were identified as at risk for reading difficulties were stratified by school and randomly assigned to receive (a) Early Reading Intervention (ERI; Pearson/Scott Foresman, 2004) modified in response…
Vaid, Nidhi; Fekadu, Sintayehu; Alemu, Shitaye; Dessie, Abere; Wabe, Genale; Phillips, David I W; Parry, Eldryd H O; Prevett, Martin
The incidence of epilepsy in Ethiopia is high compared with industrialised countries, but in most cases the cause of epilepsy is unknown. Childhood malnutrition remains widespread. We performed a case-control study to determine whether epilepsy is associated with poverty and markers of early under-nutrition. Patients with epilepsy (n=112), aged 18-45years, were recruited from epilepsy clinics in and around two towns in Ethiopia. Controls with a similar age and gender distribution (n=149) were recruited from patients and relatives attending general outpatient clinics. We administered a questionnaire to define the medical and social history of cases and controls, and then performed a series of anthropometric measurements. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate adjusted odds ratios. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate adjusted case-control differences for continuously distributed outcomes. Epilepsy was associated with illiteracy/low levels of education, odds ratio=3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.6), subsistence farming, odds ratio=2.6 (1.2-5.6) and markers of poverty including poorer access to sanitation (p=0.009), greater overcrowding (p=0.008) and fewer possessions (p<0.001). Epilepsy was also associated with the father's death during childhood, odds ratio=2.2 (1.0-4.6). Body mass index was similar in cases and controls, but patients with epilepsy were shorter and lighter with reduced sitting height (p<0.001), bitrochanteric diameter (p=0.029) and hip size (p=0.003). Patients with epilepsy also had lower mid-upper arm circumference (p=0.011) and lean body mass (p=0.037). Epilepsy in Ethiopia is strongly associated with poor education and markers of poverty. Patients with epilepsy also had evidence of stunting and disproportionate skeletal growth, raising the possibility of a link between early under-nutrition and epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hisashige, Akinori; Ohura, Takehiko
Pressure ulcers not only affect quality of life among the elderly, but also bring a large economic burden. There is limited evidence available for the effectiveness of nutritional interventions for treatment of pressure ulcers. In Japan, recently, a 60-patient randomized controlled trial of nutritional intervention on pressure ulcers demonstrated improvement in healing of pressure ulcers, compared with conventional management. To evaluate value for money of nutritional intervention on healing of pressure ulcers, cost-effective analysis was carried out using these trial results. The analysis was carried out from a societal perspective. As effectiveness measures, pressure ulcer days (PUDs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Utility score for pressure ulcers is derived from a cross-sectional survey among health professionals related to pressure ulcers. Costs (e.g., nutritional interventions and management of pressure ulcers) were estimated from trial data during observation and follow-up. Stochastic and qualitative sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of results. For observation (12 weeks) and follow-up (12-week observation plus 4-week follow-up), nutritional intervention reduced PUDs by 9.6 and 16.2 per person, and gained 0.226 × 10(-2) QALYs and 0.382 × 10(-2) QALYs per person, respectively. In addition, costs were reduced by $542 and $881 per person, respectively. This means nutritional intervention is dominant (cost savings and greater effectiveness). The sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of these results. Economic evaluation of nutritional intervention on healing pressure ulcers from a small randomized controlled trial showed that this intervention is cost saving with health improvement. Further studies are required to determine whether this is a cost-effective intervention for widespread use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and
Shahar, Suzana; Adznam, Siti Nur'asyura; Lee, Lai Kuan; Yusof, Noor Aini Mohd; Salleh, Mohmad; Mohamed Sakian, Noor Ibrahim
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a nutrition education intervention package in improving anthropometric, clinical and biochemical indicators of rural older Malays with metabolic syndrome (MS). In this study, 47 older Malays diagnosed with MS were assigned to either the intervention group (n = 24) or the control group (n = 23) based on their geographical site. The intervention group received nutrition education via group counselling sessions, talks, and cooking and exercise demonstrations using a specifically developed healthy aging package for 6 months. The efficacy of the nutrition education intervention on anthropometric and biochemical parameters was assessed. Women in the nutrition education group showed a significant reduction in waist circumference (p < .01) compared to the control group. Men who received the nutrition education intervention maintained their total cholesterol (TC) level (p < .05) compared to the control group. The nutrition education intervention showed potential for improving TC levels in men and waist circumference in women with MS. Similar intervention studies could be initiated among the older adults in the community as a preventive measure. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rosander, Karin; Sims, Laura S.
Describes an affective-based nutrition education program that promotes improvement of attitudes about nutrition and health as a means of improving dietary behavior. Content emphasizes nutrients of particular concern for women during childbearing years. Stability of instruments used in the program was demonstrated. (CS)
Franz, Marion J; MacLeod, Janice
A systematic review was conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to determine the evidence for the effectiveness of individualized nutrition therapy provided by a dietitian nutritionist and evidence-based (EB) nutrition-therapy interventions in adults with diabetes. This article briefly reviews the systematic process used and summarizes the effectiveness evidence and intervention recommendations. In persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 18 studies met study criteria for the effectiveness question. A 0.3%-2.0% decrease from baseline in glycated hemoglobin was reported at 3 months in 13 study arms, a 0.3%-1.8% decrease at 6 months in 12 study arms, a 0.3%-1.6% decrease at 12 months with ongoing support in six study arms, and a 0.6%-1.8% decrease at >12 months in four study arms. An initial series of encounters with follow-up visits and implementation of a variety of nutrition-therapy interventions, all of which reduced energy intake, were reported. Nutrition therapy also significantly decreased doses or number of glucose-lowering medications used and resulted in improvements in quality of life. Mixed effects on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight were reported. Fourteen questions were identified related to nutrition-therapy interventions. A total of 38 studies met study criteria for the nutrition-intervention questions, from which 30 conclusion statements and 19 nutrition-practice guideline recommendations for T2D were written. Three additional NPG recommendations for T2D were written based on evidence reviewed by the American Diabetes Association. The 22 nutrition-intervention recommendations for T2D are summarized. How to implement nutrition-practice guideline recommendations effectively by health care providers and individuals with T2D remains challenging. Of importance, it is recognized that identifying and integrating EB digital health-technology tools into clinical practice are major challenges for future management of diabetes, self
Green, Lisa M; Ratcliffe, Desi; Masters, Kathleen; Story, Lachel
The purpose of this study was to determine whether nurses could use a structured intervention to educate patients with wounds about foods that promote healing and whether this educational intervention could be provided in a cost-effective manner. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted at an outpatient wound care center located on a hospital campus in the Southern United States; 3 full-time nurses and 2 nurses employed on part-time status delivered the intervention. A nutrition education intervention was developed through collaborative efforts of a registered dietitian and a nurse. A cross-sectional survey design was used to (1) evaluate nurses' perceptions of the intervention and (2) identify barriers to implementation of the intervention. Direct costs related to materials and nursing time required to deliver the intervention were calculated. Participants indicated they were competent to deliver the structured intervention, and all were willing to continue its use. Survey results indicated that nurses believed the intervention was beneficial to their patients and they indicated that patients were responsive to the intervention. The intervention was found to be low cost ($8.00 per teaching session); no barriers to implementation of the intervention were identified. The results of this exploratory study suggest that a structured nutrition education intervention can be provided by nurses in outpatient wound clinics at low cost. Further study is needed to determine the impact of this intervention on nutritional intake and wound healing.
Boyd, Neal Richard, Jr.; Windsor, Richard A.
Meta-analysis of five studies advocating nutrition education for pregnant women led to recommendations for research: (1) define nutrition education to aid replication; (2) describe the intervention thoroughly; (3) use experimental designs; (4) collect follow-up data; and (5) describe baseline demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of…
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828
Spence, Christine M.; Connor, Susan M.; Burke, Ted; Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.
A statewide needs assessment was conducted with early interventionists to gather information on perceived professional development (PD) needs. Across 3 years, 4,455 early interventionists responded to an online survey. Data were analyzed for reported needs on PD topics in seven broad areas related to early intervention processes and content.…
Banerjee, Rashida; Chopra, Ritu V.; DiPalma, Geraldine
Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of…
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Koerting, Johanna; Smith, Elizabeth; McCann, Donna C; Thompson, Margaret
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a high-cost/high-burden disorder. Early detection and intervention may prevent or ameliorate the development of the disorder and reduce its long-term impact. In this article, we set out a rationale for an early detection and intervention program. First, we highlight the costs of the condition and second, we discuss the limitations of the current treatments. We then outline the potential value of an early detection and intervention program. We review evidence on predictors of poor outcomes for early ADHD signs and discuss how these might allow us to target early intervention more cost-effectively. We then examine potential barriers to engagement with at-risk samples. This leads to a discussion of possible intervention approaches and how these could be improved. Finally, we describe the Program for Early Detection and Intervention for ADHD (PEDIA), a 5-year program of research supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research and conducted at the University of Southampton (Southampton, UK), which aims to develop and evaluate a strategy for early intervention.
Austoker, J; Bankhead, C; Forbes, L J L; Atkins, L; Martin, F; Robb, K; Wardle, J; Ramirez, A J
Background: Low cancer awareness contributes to delay in presentation for cancer symptoms and may lead to delay in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to raise cancer awareness and promote early presentation in cancer to inform policy and future research. Methods: We searched bibliographic databases and reference lists for randomised controlled trials of interventions delivered to individuals, and controlled or uncontrolled studies of interventions delivered to communities. Results: We found some evidence that interventions delivered to individuals modestly increase cancer awareness in the short term and insufficient evidence that they promote early presentation. We found limited evidence that public education campaigns reduce stage at presentation of breast cancer, malignant melanoma and retinoblastoma. Conclusions: Interventions delivered to individuals may increase cancer awareness. Interventions delivered to communities may promote cancer awareness and early presentation, although the evidence is limited. PMID:19956160
Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Beneítez Moralejo, Belén; Piedra León, María; Enciso Izquierdo, Fidel Jesús; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Amado Señaris, José Antonio
Disease related malnutrition (DRM) is highly prevalent in Spain, affecting 23% of in-hospital patients, and is associated with clinical complications. Specialized nutritional support (SNS) can reduce these complications. Prospective study carried out in standard clinical practice conditions to test if SNS during the first 5 days of hospitalization, or subsequently, was associated to a lower length of stay or reduced complications in patients with a NRS-2002 score≥3 points. In the group of patients who initiated early SNS, the length of stay was 8.83 days shorter than in the group with a later introduction (95% CI 3.55-14.10); nevertheless, the higher prevalence of male and oncological patients in this group could have impacted the results. A tendency towards a statistically significant lower mortality rate and a reduced amount of total complications was described. The early introduction of SNS (within the first 5 days of hospitalization) in patients with DRM was associated with a 32.4% reduction in the length of stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
The influence of nutritional status on susceptibility to the toxicity of lead is discussed. Emphasis is given to dietary factors of substantial clinical importance. Subtle changes in susceptibility are difficult to evaluate under conditions of overwhelming lead exposure. It is clear that subtle effects of lead exposure on neurobehavioral and cognitive development are a major concern. The role of nutrition is considered to be an adjunct to reduction of environmental lead exposure, which is the primary means of reducing adverse health effects of lead. Nutrition should be evaluated as a component of strategies to address this broad societal issue.
Nutritional status in children with cancer is an important prognostic factor. Assessment consisting of anthropometry, biochemistry, clinical, and diet that needs to be done on diagnosis and regularly to ensure that patient's nutritional status does not deteriorate. In developing countries, assessment will depend on the availability of all resources, but monitoring is essential. The development of malnutrition during treatment is possible and the reasons are multifactorial. Nutrition plays a deciding role and a key factor in children with cancer and can influence their outcome.
LaRocque, Michelle; Brown, Sharan E.; Johnson, Kurt L.
This article advocates the use of functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) in the development of Individualized Family Service Plans for children with or at risk of developing behavioral disorders. It describes the FBA and BIP processes and proposes a parent collaborative model for assessment and…
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Moran, Victoria Hall
Even though it is widely recognized that early childhood development (ECD) is one of the most important predictors of future social capital and national productivity, the recently published ECD Lancet Series reports that about 250 million children under 5 years are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential, mainly as a result of poverty and social injustice. So why is this and what will it take to reverse this situation? The purpose of this special issue is to highlight important contributions from previously published articles in Maternal & Child Nutrition to the field of nutrition and ECD. The collection of papers presented in this special issue collectively indicates that although nutrition-specific interventions are essential for child development, they are not sufficient by themselves for children to reach their full developmental potential. This is because ECD is influenced by many other factors besides nutrition, including hand washing/sanitation, parenting skills, psychosocial stimulation, and social protection. Future research should focus on mixed-methods implementation science seeking to understand how best to translate evidence-based integrated ECD packages into effective intersectoral policies and programs on a large scale. In addition to health and nutrition, these programs need to consider and include responsive parenting (including responsive feeding), learning stimulation, education, and social protection. Future studies should also address if and how childhood obesity affects human physical, socioemotional, and cognitive development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Haggblade, Steven; Duodu, Kwaku G; Kabasa, John D; Minnaar, Amanda; Ojijo, Nelson K O; Taylor, John R N
Sub-Saharan Africa is the last region to undergo a nutrition transition and can still avoid its adverse health outcomes. The article explores emerging responses to "bend the curve" in sub-Saharan Africa's nutrition transition to steer public health outcomes onto a healthier trajectory. Early responses in 3 countries at different stages of food system transformation are examined: South Africa-advanced, Ghana-intermediate, and Uganda-early. By comparing these with international experience, actions are proposed to influence nutrition and public health trajectories as Africa's food systems undergo rapid structural change. Arising from rapid urbanization and diet change, major public health problems associated with overweight are taking place, particularly in South Africa and among adult women. However, public health responses are generally tepid in sub-Saharan Africa. Only in South Africa have policy makers instituted extensive actions to combat overweight and associated noncommunicable diseases through regulation, education, and public health programs. Elsewhere, in countries in the early and middle stages of transition, public health systems continue to focus their limited resources primarily on undernutrition. Related pressures on the supply side of Africa's food systems are emerging that also need to be addressed. Three types of intervention appear most feasible: maternal and child health programs to simultaneously address short-term undernutrition problems while at the same time helping to reduce future tendencies toward overweigh; regulatory and fiscal actions to limit access to unhealthy foods; and modernization of Africa's agrifood food system through job skills training, marketing reforms, and food industry entrepreneurship. © The Author(s) 2016.
Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona; Perry, Ivan J
The workplace has been identified as a priority setting to positively influence individuals' dietary behaviours. However, a dearth of evidence exists regarding the costs of implementing and delivering workplace dietary interventions. This study aimed to conduct a cost-analysis of workplace nutrition education and environmental dietary modification interventions from an employer's perspective. Cost data were obtained from a workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Micro-costing methods estimated costs associated with implementing and delivering the interventions for 1 year in four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Ireland. The workplaces were allocated to one of the following groups: control, nutrition education alone, environmental dietary modification alone and nutrition education and environmental dietary modification combined. A total of 850 employees were recruited across the four workplaces. For comparison purposes, total costs were standardised for 500 employees per workplace. The combined intervention reported the highest total costs of €31,108. The nutrition education intervention reported total costs of €28,529. Total costs for the environmental dietary modification intervention were €3689. Total costs for the control workplace were zero. The average annual cost per employee was; combined intervention: €62, nutrition education: €57, environmental modification: €7 and control: €0. Nutritionist's time was the main cost contributor across all interventions, (ranging from 53 to 75% of total costs). Within multi-component interventions, the relative cost of implementing and delivering nutrition education elements is high compared to environmental modification strategies. A workplace environmental modification strategy added marginal additional cost, relative to the control. Findings will inform employers and public health policy-makers regarding the economic feasibility of implementing and scaling dietary
Park, Yong Eun; Park, Soo Jung; Park, Yehyun; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho
Nutritional support has become an important intervention for critically ill patients. Many studies have reported on the effects of nutritional support for the patients within the intensive care unit (ICU); however, no studies have specifically assessed patients with gastrointestinal diseases who may have difficulty absorbing enteral nutrition (EN) in the ICU.Sixty-two patients with gastrointestinal disease were admitted to the ICU between August 2014 and August 2016 at a single tertiary university hospital. We analyzed 2 different patient groups in a retrospective cohort study: those who received nutritional support team (NST) intervention and those who did not.Forty-four (71.0%) patients received nutritional support in ICU and 18 (29.0%) did not. Variables including male sex, high albumin or prealbumin level at the time of ICU admission, and short transition period into EN showed statistically significant association with lower mortality on the univariate analysis (all P < .05). Multivariate analysis revealed that longer length of hospital stay (P = .013; hazard ratio [HR], 0.972; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.951-0.994), shorter transition into EN (P = .014; HR, 1.040; 95% CI, 1.008-1.072), higher prealbumin level (P = .049; HR, 0.988; 95% CI, 0.976-1.000), and NST intervention (P = .022; HR, 0.356; 95% CI, 0.147-0.862) were independent prognostic factors for lower mortality.In conclusion, NST intervention related to early initiated EN, and high prealbumin levels are beneficial to decrease mortality in the acutely ill patients with GI disease.
San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Rankin, Audrey; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; O'Donovan, Clare B; Forster, Hannah; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Manios, Yannis; Jarosz, Miroslaw; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Gundersen, Thomas E; Drevon, Christian A; Gibney, Mike; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Saris, Wim H M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Frewer, Lynn J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo
National guidelines emphasize healthy eating to promote wellbeing and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The perceived healthiness of food is determined by many factors affecting food intake. A positive perception of healthy eating has been shown to be associated with greater diet quality. Internet-based methodologies allow contact with large populations. Our present study aims to design and evaluate a short nutritional perception questionnaire, to be used as a screening tool for assessing nutritional status, and to predict an optimal level of personalisation in nutritional advice delivered via the Internet. Data from all participants who were screened and then enrolled into the Food4Me proof-of-principle study (n = 2369) were used to determine the optimal items for inclusion in a novel screening tool, the Nutritional Perception Screening Questionnaire-9 (NPSQ9). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on anthropometric and biochemical data and on dietary indices acquired from participants who had completed the Food4Me dietary intervention (n = 1153). Baseline and intervention data were analysed using linear regression and linear mixed regression, respectively. A final model with 9 NPSQ items was validated against the dietary intervention data. NPSQ9 scores were inversely associated with BMI (β = -0.181, p < 0.001) and waist circumference (Β = -0.155, p < 0.001), and positively associated with total carotenoids (β = 0.198, p < 0.001), omega-3 fatty acid index (β = 0.155, p < 0.001), Healthy Eating Index (HEI) (β = 0.299, p < 0.001) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) (β = 0. 279, p < 0.001). Findings from the longitudinal intervention study showed a greater reduction in BMI and improved dietary indices among participants with lower NPSQ9 scores. Healthy eating perceptions and dietary habits captured by the NPSQ9 score, based on nine questionnaire items, were associated with
Raffaele, Barbara; Matarese, Maria; Alvaro, Rosaria; De Marinis, Maria Grazia
To identify theories applied in interventions promoting healthy nutrition among community-dwelling older adults and determine the efficacy of theories in changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and ERIC databases were searched for English articles from January 1990 to December 2015. Mono or multicomponent randomized controlled trial studies were included, whereas research on nutritional interventions related to acute or chronic diseases were excluded. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. Only three articles referred explicitly to health promotion theories. Nutritional programs varied in terms of contents, outcomes, lengths of interventions and follow-up. Pooling the results and identifying the most effective theories were therefore impossible. Although researchers and practitioners recognize the significance of theoretical models in guiding the health-promoting interventions, referring to a theoretical model for such interventions is still relatively recent.
Agozzino, E; Esposito, D; Genovese, S; Manzi, E; Russo Krauss, P
This study values the effectiveness of nutrition education interventions carried out by teachers with active didactic methodologies. The research was carried out by administering a frequency of food intake questionnaire, before and after the intervention. To compare the answers given before and after the educational intervention the Wilcoxon-test was applied to dependent data. Our research confirmed that a substantial percentage of children do not show a correct nutrition and therefore nutrition education interventions are opportune and necessary. In the group with "insufficient execution" particular variations are not taken place. In the group with "sufficient execution" increase the number of subjects having breakfast, particularly with milk and biscuits, and decrease the snakes intake. Moreover there is a general decrease of intake food as meat, fish, vegetables, salami and legumes. So this educational intervention seems to have only partial effectiveness.
Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Fraser, Drora; Friger, Michael; Geva, Dikla; Bilenko, Natalya; Vardi, Hillel; Elhadad, Naama; Mor, Karen; Feine, Zvi; Shahar, Danit R
Early social and economic deprivation, associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, may lead to adverse health trajectories. A cluster-randomized controlled-trial examining the effect of a school-based comprehensive intervention on nutrition knowledge, eating habits, and behaviors among low socioeconomic status (LSES) school-aged children was performed. LSES school-aged children (4-7 years) and their mothers were recruited from 11 schools, located in one town. The intervention was implemented on three levels: children, mothers, and teachers. The intervention (IArm) included nutrition classes for children, mothers, and teachers and physical activity (PA) classes for children; the control (CArm) received PA only. Interventions were conducted by professional personnel, who were trained during in a two-day session to deliver the specific program in schools. Family data were obtained by parental interviews. Food knowledge observations, packed lunch records, and anthropometric measurements were obtained in school at baseline, six months, and at the end of the school year. Of 258 children enrolled, 220 (87.6%) completed the six-month program. Only children in the IArm improved their nutrition knowledge and eating-habits and increased food variety and fruit and vegetable consumption, quality score of packed lunches (p < 0.001 for all), habitual water drinking increased (p = 0.02), and decreased sweet-drink consumption (p = 0.05). A school-based comprehensive nutrition intervention targeting LSES population improved eating habits, nutritional knowledge, and healthier packed lunches.
Connell, Arin; Bullock, Bernadette Marie; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel; Wilson, Melvin; Gardner, Frances
This study used latent transition analysis (LTA) to examine changes in early emotional and behavioral problems in children age 2 to 4 years resulting from participation in a family-centered intervention. A sample of 731 economically disadvantaged families was recruited from among participants in a national food supplement and nutrition program.…
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. In this narrative review, we will summarize the nutritional interventions evaluated in numerous observational studies and a few randomized clinical trials. The AREDS and AREDS2 studies demonstrated that supplements including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc may reduce the progression to advanced AMD, in some patients, by 25% in five years. This is one of the few nutritional supplements known to have beneficial effects in any eye disease. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation may have beneficial effects in some individuals whereas omega-3 fatty acids supplementation needs to be further investigated and supported by more evidence. Genetic factors may explain the different patterns of response and explain differences found among individuals. More importantly, a combination of lifestyle behaviors such as the avoidance of smoking, physical activity, and the adoption of a healthy dietary pattern like the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower prevalence of AMD. The adoption of these lifestyles may reduce the prevalence of the early stages of AMD and decrease the number of individuals who develop advanced AMD and consequently the onerous and climbing costs associated with the treatment of this disease. PMID:28154734
Iranagh, Jamileh Amirzadeh; Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Motalebi, Seyedeh Ameneh
Nutrition is a determinant factor of health in elderly people. Independent living in elderly people can be maintained or enhanced by improvement of nutritional behavior. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the impact of Health Belief Model (HBM)-based intervention on the nutritional behavior of elderly women. Cluster-random sampling was used to assess the sample of this clinical trial study. The participants of this study attended a 12-week nutrition education program consisting of two (2) sessions per week. There was also a follow-up for another three (3) months. Smart PLS 3.5 and SPSS 19 were used for structural equation modeling, determination of model fitness, and hypotheses testing. The findings indicate that intervention had a significant effect on knowledge improvement as well as the behavior of elderly women. The model explained 5 to 70% of the variance in nutritional behavior. In addition, nutritional behavior was positively affected by the HBM constructs comprised of perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and barriers after the intervention program. The results of this study show that HBM-based educational intervention has a significant effect in improving nutritional knowledge and behavior among elderly women.
Van Eys, J
Most cancers in children are acute diseases. Therefore, the incidence of malnutrition, in general, is not different from the incidence in the referral population. Some specific tumors, such as neuroblastoma and those resulting in the diencephalic syndrome, can be exceptions. By contrast, malnutrition is a frequent problem during modern intensive cancer treatment as the result of the associated anorexia, altered taste sensations and catabolic effects of drugs. In addition, there are psychogenic factors and metabolic consequences associated with the tumor itself. Nutritional support does improve the feeling of well-being and performance status, while maintaining or improving the immune competence, thereby potentially affecting survival by limiting infectious episodes. There is no convincing evidence to date that nutritional support has an antineoplastic effect per se, but deficiency of a specific nutrient might be beneficial because of a differential requirement between tumor and normal cells. Theoretically, nutritional support might enhance tumor growth but also susceptibility to chemotherapy. In either case, nutrition is a support modality that must be given with appropriate tumor-directed therapy if curative intent is the goal of treatment. Nutrition remains a consideration after therapy is completed. This generates different challenges. If further tumor-directed therapy is futile, the decision to continue nutritional support is difficult, but if the child is well, nutritional rehabilitation must be pursued. Finally, the cured child continues to benefit from dietary advice. Nutrition should be viewed for what it is: supplying the most basic need of children.
Pearson, Ruth; Killedar, Madhura; Petravic, Janka; Kakietek, Jakub J; Scott, Nick; Grantham, Kelsey L; Stuart, Robyn M; Kedziora, David J; Kerr, Cliff C; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Shekar, Meera; Wilson, David P
Child stunting due to chronic malnutrition is a major problem in low- and middle-income countries due, in part, to inadequate nutrition-related practices and insufficient access to services. Limited budgets for nutritional interventions mean that available resources must be targeted in the most cost-effective manner to have the greatest impact. Quantitative tools can help guide budget allocation decisions. The Optima approach is an established framework to conduct resource allocation optimization analyses. We applied this approach to develop a new tool, 'Optima Nutrition', for conducting allocative efficiency analyses that address childhood stunting. At the core of the Optima approach is an epidemiological model for assessing the burden of disease; we use an adapted version of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Six nutritional interventions have been included in the first release of the tool: antenatal micronutrient supplementation, balanced energy-protein supplementation, exclusive breastfeeding promotion, promotion of improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, public provision of complementary foods, and vitamin A supplementation. To demonstrate the use of this tool, we applied it to evaluate the optimal allocation of resources in 7 districts in Bangladesh, using both publicly available data (such as through DHS) and data from a complementary costing study. Optima Nutrition can be used to estimate how to target resources to improve nutrition outcomes. Specifically, for the Bangladesh example, despite only limited nutrition-related funding available (an estimated $0.75 per person in need per year), even without any extra resources, better targeting of investments in nutrition programming could increase the cumulative number of children living without stunting by 1.3 million (an extra 5%) by 2030 compared to the current resource allocation. To minimize stunting, priority interventions should include promotion of improved IYCF practices as well as vitamin A
Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine
This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…
Ghali, Sharif; Fisher, Helen L; Joyce, John; Major, Barnaby; Hobbs, Lorna; Soni, Sujata; Chisholm, Brock; Rahaman, Nikola; Papada, Peggy; Lawrence, Jo; Bloy, Sally; Marlowe, Karl; Aitchison, Katherine J; Power, Paddy; Johnson, Sonia
Ethnic variations have previously been identified in the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and pathways into psychiatric services. These have not been examined in the context of early intervention services, which may alter these trajectories. To explore ethnic differences in the nature and duration of pathways into early intervention services. In a naturalistic cohort study, data were collected for 1024 individuals with psychotic disorders accepted for case management by eight London early intervention services. Duration of untreated psychosis was prolonged in the White British group compared with most other ethnic groups. White British individuals were more likely to make contact with their general practitioner and less likely to be seen within emergency medical services. All Black patient groups were more likely than their White British counterparts to experience involvement of criminal justice agencies. Variations continue to exist in how and when individuals from different ethnic groups access early intervention services. These may account for disparities in DUP.
Muhajarine, Nazeem; Ridalls, Tracy; Abonyi, Sylvia; Vatanparast, Hassan; Whiting, Susan; Walker, Ryan
Background This is a 2-year study to assess the early impacts of a new grocery store intervention in a former food desert. Objective The purpose of the study is to understand the early health effects of the introduction of a large-scale food and nutrition-focused community-based population health intervention, the Good Food Junction (GFJ) Cooperative Store, in a geographically bounded group of socially disadvantaged neighborhoods (the “core neighborhoods”) in a midsized Canadian city. The GFJ grocery store was tasked with improving the access of residents to healthy, affordable food. The 5 research questions are: (1) What is the awareness and perception of the GFJ store among residents of the core neighborhoods? (2) Are there differences in awareness and perception among those who do and do not shop at the GFJ? (3) Will healthy food purchasing at the GFJ by residents of the core neighborhoods change over time, and what purchases are these individuals making at this store? (4) What early impact(s) will the GFJ have on key health-related outcomes (such as household food security status, vegetable and fruit intake, key aspects of self-reported mental health, self-reported health)? and (5) Are the effects of the intervention seen for specific vulnerable population groups, such as Aboriginal people, seniors (65 years old or older) and new immigrants (settled in Saskatoon for less than 5 years)? Methods The research project examined initial impacts of the GFJ on the health of the residents in surrounding neighborhoods through a door-to-door cross-sectional survey of food access and household demographics; an examination of GFJ sales data by location of shoppers' residences; and a 1-year, 3-time-point longitudinal study of self-reported health of GFJ shoppers. Results Analyses are on-going, but preliminary results show that shoppers are using the store for its intended purpose, which is to improve access to healthy food in a former food desert. Conclusions To our
Huxman, Frankie; Klassen, Eydie; Koontz, Barbara; Nottingham, Cheryl; Vierthaler, Charlene
This is a report on a school-wide ethnographic study of intervention strategies for at-risk students in kindergarten through second grade. A group of 5 teachers from an elementary school of approximately 250 students in a Midwest community of about 18,000 people (2 first-grade teachers, 2 second-grade teachers, and 1 music teacher) comprised the…
Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.
This report briefly describes the Marin City, California community and summarizes progress made by the Far West Laboratory's Western Regional Laboratory in the development of a long-range community intervention program. Marin City is a predominantly low-income, black community in which 30 percent of households, mainly those headed by single women,…
Sarimski, Klaus; Hintermair, Manfred; Lang, Markus
Parental self-efficacy is seen as an important concern in family-centered early intervention. This article reports the data from 125 parents of young children with intellectual disabilities, hearing impairment or visual impairment. The relationship between parental self-efficacy, parental stress and several parent and child variables is analyzed. The results support the relevance of parental self-efficacy for parental coping. Some recommendations for promoting their experience of participation and partnership in early intervention services are discussed.
Ng, Tze Pin; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Feng, Lei; Niti, Mathew; Tan, Boon Yeow; Chan, Gribson; Khoo, Sue Anne; Chan, Sue Mei; Yap, Philip; Yap, Keng Bee
It is important to establish whether frailty among older individuals is reversible with nutritional, physical, or cognitive interventions, singly or in combination. We compared the effects of 6-month-duration interventions with nutritional supplementation, physical training, cognitive training, and combination treatment vs control in reducing frailty among community-dwelling prefrail and frail older persons. We conducted a parallel group, randomized controlled trial in community-living prefrail and frail old adults in Singapore. The participants' mean age was 70.0 years, and 61.4% (n = 151) were female. Five different 6-month interventions included nutritional supplementation (n = 49), cognitive training (n = 50), physical training (n = 48), combination treatment (n = 49), and usual care control (n = 50). Frailty score, body mass index, knee extension strength, gait speed, energy/vitality, and physical activity levels and secondary outcomes (activities of daily living dependency, hospitalization, and falls) were assessed at 0 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Frailty score and status over 12 months were reduced in all groups, including control (15%), but were significantly higher (35.6% to 47.8%) in the nutritional (odds ratio [OR] 2.98), cognition (OR 2.89), and physical (OR 4.05) and combination (OR 5.00) intervention groups. Beneficial effects were observed at 3 months and 6 months, and persisted at 12 months. Improvements in physical frailty domains (associated with interventions) were most evident for knee strength (physical, cognitive, and combination treatment), physical activity (nutritional intervention), gait speed (physical intervention), and energy (combination intervention). There were no major differences with respect to the small numbers of secondary outcomes. Physical, nutritional, and cognitive interventional approaches were effective in reversing frailty among community-living older persons. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by
Shaw, Daniel S.; Connell, Arin; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances
Maternal depression has been consistently linked to the development of child problem behavior, particularly in early childhood, but few studies have examined whether reductions in maternal depression serve as a mediator in relation to changes associated with a family-based intervention. The current study addressed this issue with a sample of 731 families receiving services from a national food supplement and nutrition program. Families with toddlers between ages 2 and 3 were sereened and then randomized to a brief family intervention, the Family Check-Up, which included linked interventions that were tailored and adapted to the families needs. Follow-up intervention services were provided at age 3 and follow-up of child outcomes oecurred at ages 3 and 4. Latent growth models revealed intervention effects for early externalizing and internalizing problems from 2 to 4, and reductions in maternal depression from ages 2 to 3. In addition, reductions in maternal depression mediated improvements in both child externalizing and internalizing problem behavior after accounting for the potential mediating effects of improvements in positive parenting. The results are discussed with respect to targeting maternal depression in future intervention studies aimed at improving early child problem behavior. PMID:19338691
Bryant, Richard A
The potentially debilitating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created much interest in early intervention strategies that can reduce PTSD. This review critiques the evidence for psychological debriefing approaches and alternate early intervention strategies. The review critiques the randomized controlled trials of psychological debriefing, and early provision of cognitive behavior therapy. The latter approach involves therapy attention on acutely traumatized individuals who are high risk for PTSD development, and particularly in people with acute stress disorder (ASD). Psychological debriefing does not prevent PTSD. Cognitive behaviour therapy strategies have proven efficacy in reducing subsequent PTSD in ASD populations. Despite the promising evidence for early provision of CBT, many people do not benefit from CBT. This review concludes with consideration of major challenges facing early intervention approaches in the context of terrorist attacks and mass disasters.
Fisher, Philip A; Beauchamp, Kate G; Roos, Leslie E; Noll, Laura K; Flannery, Jessica; Delker, Brianna C
Early adverse experiences are well understood to affect development and well-being, placing individuals at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. A growing literature documents the effects of adversity on developing neurobiological systems. Fewer studies have examined stress neurobiology to understand how to mitigate the effects of early adversity. This review summarizes the research on three neurobiological systems relevant to interventions for populations experiencing high levels of early adversity: the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis, the prefrontal cortex regions involved in executive functioning, and the system involved in threat detection and response, particularly the amygdala. Also discussed is the emerging field of epigenetics and related interventions to mitigate early adversity. Further emphasized is the need for intervention research to integrate knowledge about the neurobiological effects of prenatal stressors (e.g., drug use, alcohol exposure) and early adversity. The review concludes with a discussion of the implications of this research topic for clinical psychology practice and public policy.
Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj
The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…
Werkhoven, Thea; Cotton, Wayne; Dudley, Dean
Objectives: To synthesize and review pedagogically informed interventions that increase nutrition knowledge and decrease weight prejudice among practicing and pre-service health and education professionals. These factors have been addressed as separate entities in intervention-based research and this represents a gap in current literature. The…
Howard-Pitney, B; Winkleby, M A; Albright, C L; Bruce, B; Fortmann, S P
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the Stanford Nutrition Action Program, an experimental trial to reduce dietary fat intake among low-literacy, low-income adults. METHODS: Twenty-four paired adult education classes (351 participants, 85% women, mean age = 31 years) were randomly assigned to receive a newly developed dietary fat curriculum (the Stanford Nutrition Action Program) or an existing general nutrition curriculum. Food frequency and nutrition-related data, body mass index, and capillary blood cholesterol were collected at baseline and at two postintervention follow-ups. RESULTS: The Stanford Nutrition Action Program classes showed significantly greater net improvements in nutrition knowledge (+7.7), attitudes (/0.2), and self-efficacy (-0.2) than the general nutrition classes; they also showed significantly greater reductions in the percentage of calories from total (-2.3%) and saturated (-0.9%) fat. There were no significant differences in body mass index or blood cholesterol. All positive intervention effects were maintained for 3 months postintervention. CONCLUSIONS: The Stanford Nutrition Action Program curriculum, tailored to the cultural, economic, and learning needs of low-literacy, low-income adults, was significantly more effective in achieving fat-related nutritional changes than the general nutrition curriculum. PMID:9431286
Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle
This study examined the effectiveness of a targeted early literacy intervention among Spanish-speaking kindergarten English Learners (ELs). Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, participants were screened in English to ensure a need for additional literacy support. Selected students were then screened in Spanish, and students with…
Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…
Kemp, Peggy; Turnbull, Ann P.
The purpose of this article was to synthesize intervention studies using coaching with parents in early intervention with a focus on (a) definitions and descriptions of coaching with parents; (b) characteristics of families and coaches; (c) parameters such as settings, contexts, dosage, and professional development related to coaching; and (d)…
Brian, Ali; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Logan, Jessica A.; Sutherland, Sue
Background: Fundamental motor skill (FMS) interventions when delivered by an expert can significantly improve the FMS of young children with and without developmental delays. However, there is a gap in the literature as few early childhood centers employ experts with the professional background to deliver FMS intervention. Purpose: The primary…
Shapiro, Cheri J.
Young children with disabilities may be at elevated risk for behavior problems as well as maltreatment. preventive approaches that can be infused into early intervention services are needed to support parents, build competencies among young children, and enhance protective factors that may temper risk. Two interventions--Stepping Stones Triple P,…
The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players
Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael
This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players. Key points Sport nutrition education intervention increased nutritional knowledge and nutritional status. Sport nutrition education intervention reduced body fat percentage, total fat mass, 5-10-5 shuttle times, and trended towards greater increases in lean mass compared to controls. Both groups increased strength and jump ability similarly. PMID:28344452
Sutliffe, Jay T; Carnot, Mary Jo; Fuhrman, Joel H; Sutliffe, Chloe A; Scheid, Julia C
Worksite dietary interventions show substantial potential for improving employee health and well-being. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of a worksite nutrition intervention on improving well-being. Thirty-five university employees participated in a 6-week nutrition intervention. The dietary protocol emphasized the daily consumption of greens, beans/legumes, a variety of other vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, and whole grains, referred to as a micronutrient-dense, plant-rich diet. Participants were encouraged to minimize the consumption of refined foods and animal products. Significant improvements in sleep quality, quality of life, and depressive symptoms were found. Findings reveal that a worksite nutrition intervention is effective at improving sleep quality, quality of life, and depressive symptoms with a projected improvement in work productivity and attendance.
Nu, Jennifer; Bersamin, Andrea
To address changing dietary patterns and declining dietary quality in indigenous communities, there is growing interest in implementing interventions that promote nutrient-dense, culturally important foods. To describe formative research and an ongoing collaborative process to design a multilevel nutrition inter vention-Neqa Elicarvigmun or the Fish-to-School (F2S) Program-that reconnects students to their local food system in a remote Yup'ik community in Western Alaska. Qualitative data that explored the connection between salmon and well-being were collected and collaboratively reviewed with a community work group and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings were used to co-design the nutrition intervention. Formative research Thndings and ongoing collaboration between academic and community partners informed the Thnal intervention design. Because people's behaviors and interactions with culturally signiThcant foods are embedded in cultural perceptions and local contexts, it is important for nutrition interventions to address local perceptions of these foods.
Lovett, David L.; Haring, Kathryn A.
This article explores three broad themes about transitions that have emerged in a naturalistic study of experiences of families with young children with disabilities. Generalizations regarding early transitions include families going through a birth crisis have difficulty understanding all the information they are provided. Not only is their role…
Kulkarni, Bharati; Kuper, Hannah; Radhakrishna, K. V.; Hills, Andrew P.; Byrne, Nuala M.; Taylor, Amy; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Wells, Jonathan C.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Davey Smith, George; Ebrahim, Shah; Kinra, Sanjay
In the present study, we examined the associations of early nutrition with adult lean body mass (LBM) and muscle strength in a birth cohort that was established to assess the long-term impact of a nutrition program. Participants (n = 1,446, 32% female) were born near Hyderabad, India, in 29 villages from 1987 to 1990, during which time only intervention villages (n = 15) had a government program that offered balanced protein-calorie supplementation to pregnant women and children. Participants’ LBM and appendicular skeletal muscle mass were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; grip strength and information on lifestyle indicators, including diet and physical activity level, were also obtained. Ages (mean = 20.3 years) and body mass indexes (weight (kg)/height (m)2; mean = 19.5) of participants in 2 groups were similar. Current dietary energy intake was higher in the intervention group. Unadjusted LBM and grip strength were similar in 2 groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, the intervention group had lower LBM (β = −0.75; P = 0.03), appendicular skeletal muscle mass, and grip strength than did controls, but these differences were small in magnitude (<0.1 standard deviation). Multivariable regression analyses showed that current socioeconomic position, energy intake, and physical activity level had a positive association with adult LBM and muscle strength. This study could not detect a “programming” effect of early nutrition supplementation on adult LBM and muscle strength. PMID:24553777
Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...
Prescott, Susan L
Early-life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. Dietary changes are at the center of the emerging epigenetic paradigms that underpin the rise in many modern inflammatory and metabolic diseases. There is growing evidence that exposures in pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease susceptibility. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients. Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, folate and other vitamins have documented effects on immune function as well as metabolism. Some have also been implicated in modified risk of allergic diseases in observational studies. Intervention studies are largely limited to trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids and oligosaccharides, showing preliminary but yet unconfirmed benefits in allergy prevention. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programming is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While an epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function--including diet-induced changes in the microbiome. A better understanding of nutritional programming of immune health, nutritional epigenetics and the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures early in life may lead to dietary strategies that provide more tolerogenic conditions during early immune programming and reduce the
Payne, C.; Larkin, P.J.; McIlfatrick, S.; Dunwoody, L.; Gracey, J.H.
In this systematic review, we sought to evaluate the effect of physical activity or nutrition interventions (or both) in adults with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Methods A systematic search for relevant clinical trials was conducted in 6 electronic databases, by hand searching, and by contacting key investigators. No limits were placed on study language. Information about recruitment rates, protocol adherence, patient-reported and clinical outcome measures, and study conclusions was extracted. Methodologic quality and risk of bias in each study was assessed using validated tools. Main Results Six papers detailing five studies involving 203 participants met the inclusion criteria. Two of the studies were single-cohort physical activity studies (54 participants), and three were controlled nutrition studies (149 participants). All were conducted in an outpatient setting. None of the included studies combined physical activity with nutrition interventions. Conclusions Our systematic review suggests that exercise and nutrition interventions are not harmful and may have beneficial effects on unintentional weight loss, physical strength, and functional performance in patients with advanced nsclc. However, the observed improvements must be interpreted with caution, because findings were not consistent across the included studies. Moreover, the included studies were small and at significant risk of bias. More research is required to ascertain the optimal physical activity and nutrition interventions in advanced inoperable nsclc. Specifically, the potential benefits of combining physical activity with nutrition counselling have yet to be adequately explored in this population. PMID:23904771
Lorefält, B; Wilhelmsson, S
The purpose of this study was with a multifaceted intervention model improve the nutritional status of elderly people living in residential homes to increase their energy intake and to maintain improvements over time. Three different municipal residential homes in the south-east of Sweden. The study population consisted of 67 elderly people. A within-subjects design was used which means that the participants were their own controls. A multifaceted intervention model was chosen, which included education on both theoretical and practical issues, training and support for staff, and individualized snacks to the residents. Nutritional status was measured by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the consumption of food was recorded by the staff using a food record method for 3 consecutive days. The length of night-time fasting has been calculated from the food records. Nutritional status improved after 3 months of intervention and was maintained after 9 months. Weight increased during the whole study period. Night-time fasting decreased but not to the recommended level. This study shows that it is possible by a multifaceted intervention model to increase energy intake including expanding snacks and thereby improve and maintain nutritional status over a longer period in the elderly living in residential homes. This result was possible to achieve because staff received education and training in nutritional issues and by provision of support during a period when new routines were introduced.
Leach, Robert A; Yates, Joyce M
The purpose of this pilot novel chiropractic health education intervention was to gather preliminary evidence regarding possible benefits from recreational youth soccer and nutrition education in overweight women. A secondary purpose was to determine whether some nutrition knowledge is an independent predictor of changes in body mass index (BMI). A quiz developed and validated on separate age and sex appropriate blinded cohorts was used on study participants-22 volunteers of 57 eligible fourth-grade, overweight female Mississippi public school students. At the beginning of a 5-month study period, a 15-minute baseline nutrition intervention, grounded in Social Cognitive Theory and based on the United States Department of Agriculture's "My Tips for Families" information, was applied in a chiropractic clinic. Subjects were then randomized to 2 months of recreational soccer (n = 14) or waiting list control (n = 8). No preintervention differences were found in height, weight, BMI, or age. Higher follow-up BMI scores were found in both groups, and no significant differences between groups were found, possibly because of the small sample sizes and the short 8-week soccer intervention period. Gains in nutrition knowledge were sustained (P < .002); however, there was no association between nutrition knowledge and follow-up BMI (r = -.185; P < .462). Minimal nutrition education alone may be an ineffective intervention for overweight children. The study provides an example of how youth soccer may benefit overweight children.
de van der Schueren, M A E; Wijnhoven, H A H; Kruizenga, H M; Visser, M
With the rapidly increasing number of malnourished older persons in the community, this review aims to summarize the effects of nutritional intervention studies for this target group. Based on 2 previous reviews (2009, 2011) an update of the literature was performed. Selected were higher quality studies which included malnourished community dwelling older adults who received dietetic counselling and/or oral nutritional supplements. Ten studies were included. Six studies showed (trends towards) weight gain. Meta-analysis showed a modest effect of the intervention on weight gain, standardized mean difference 0.210 kg (95% CI 0.03-0.40). Effects on other relevant functional and clinical outcomes were inconsistent. Studies were hampered by low sample sizes, low adherence to the interventions, and participants not meeting nutritional requirements. Currently, nutritional intervention studies for malnourished community dwelling older adults show limited effects, which may be caused by methodological shortcomings and participants not meeting treatment goals. High quality studies are eagerly awaited to be able to identify (sub)groups of older persons who are most likely to benefit from nutritional support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.
Phonemic awareness has been consistently identified as an essential skill for as well as an important predictor of later reading achievement. Children who lack these early literacy skills at kindergarten entry are more likely to demonstrate both short- and long-term reading difficulties. Despite the importance of providing intervention early,…
Boyer, Valerie E.; Thompson, Stacy D.
The National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC) reported 348,604 children received services in the United States under Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 2009, representing 2.7% of the population (NECTAC, 2012). Early Intervention (EI), or Part C, is designed to provide services to families of…
Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla
Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…
Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann; Naig, Lisa A.; Kyzar, Kathleen; Friend, Anna; Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Turnbull, Ann P.
Home visiting in early intervention is the primary model for delivering services and building partnerships with children and families. Using interviews with early interventionists and family members, this study investigated the extent to which families' and professionals' emotional needs were met during home visits and what factors contributed to…
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social and communication development, accompanied by stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. The focus of this paper is on the early development of communication in autism, and early intervention for impairments in communication associated with this disorder. An overview of…
Blasco, Patricia M.; Guy, Sybille; Saxton, Sage N.; Duvall, Susanne W.
Infants with low birth weight (LBW = 2,500 g) are at high risk for developmental delays, including cognitive impairments. Retrospective studies have shown that these children often have learning and/or behavioral difficulties at school age. Early evaluation and enrollment in early intervention (EI) programs may reduce the impact of these…
Larsen, Andrew L; Liao, Yue; Alberts, Janel; Huh, Jimi; Robertson, Trina; Dunton, Genevieve F
Few nutrition interventions in kindergarten classes have been evaluated, and none has been tested for program effectiveness, implementation, and dissemination. Building a Healthy Me (BHM) is a nutrition intervention for kindergarteners that is classroom-based and includes a family component. This study evaluated the public health impact of BHM in California kindergarten classrooms using the RE-AIM (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. A quasi-experimental design assessed pre-to-post changes in nutrition knowledge, dietary consumption, and parent behaviors of 25 intervention classrooms (414 students, 264 parents); and postintervention differences in nutrition knowledge between the intervention classrooms and 4 control classrooms measured at postintervention only (103 students). Intervention students improved in knowledge of food groups and healthy breakfast/snack options, and scored higher than control students in food group knowledge at postintervention (ps < .05). Parents of intervention group children increased their use of food labels, and intervention group children increased intake of several healthy foods and decreased intake of candy and fried potatoes (ps < .05). The BHM program reached 41% of kindergarteners attending public schools in California, and teachers implemented most lesson material. The BHM program was effective, implemented with fidelity, and broadly disseminated, highlighting its potential public health impact for kindergarteners. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Modi, R M; Mikhail, S; Ciombor, K; Perry, K A; Hinton, A; Stanich, P P; Zhang, C; Conwell, D L; Krishna, S G
Esophageal cancer (EC) is increasing in prevalence due to rising incidence and improved treatment strategies. Dysphagia is a significant morbidity in patients with EC requiring nutritional intervention. We sought to evaluate outcomes of nutritional interventions for EC patients hospitalized with dysphagia at a population level. The National Inpatient Sample (2002-2012) was utilized to include all adult inpatients (≥18 years of age) with EC and presence of dysphagia and stricture that underwent nutritional interventions including feeding tube (FT) placement, esophageal stenting, or parenteral nutrition (PN). Temporal trends were examined with multivariate analysis performed for mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost of hospitalization. A total of 509,593 EC patients had 12,205 hospitalizations related to dysphagia. The hospitalization rates doubled over the study period (1.52% vs. 3.28%, p < 0.001). The most common nutritional intervention was FT (27%), followed by esophageal stenting (13%), and PN (11%). PN was more frequently associated with a diagnosis of sepsis (6.1%, p = 0.023) compared to FT (2.5%) or esophageal stenting (1.8%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated FT and esophageal stenting had comparable mortality (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.49, 2.32); however, PN was associated with higher mortality (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.22, 4.63), cost of hospitalization ($5,510, 95% CI: 2,262, 8,759), and LOS (2.13 days, 95% CI: 0.72, 3.54). This study shows that hospitalizations for EC with dysphagia and related nutritional interventions are increasing. As a single modality, parenteral nutrition should be avoided. Among our esophageal stent and FT population, further studies are necessary to determine adequate interventions based on disease stage. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background Improving nutrition knowledge among children may help them to make healthier food choices. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children. Methods We developed a card game 'Top Grub' and a 'healthy eating' curriculum for use in primary schools. Thirty-eight state primary schools comprising 2519 children in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years) were recruited in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The main outcome measures were change in nutrition knowledge scores, attitudes to healthy eating and acceptability of the intervention by children and teachers. Results Twelve intervention and 13 control schools (comprising 1133 children) completed the trial. The main reason for non-completion was time pressure of the school curriculum. Mean total nutrition knowledge score increased by 1.1 in intervention (baseline to follow-up: 28.3 to 29.2) and 0.3 in control schools (27.3 to 27.6). Total nutrition knowledge score at follow-up, adjusted for baseline score, deprivation, and school size, was higher in intervention than in control schools (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.05 to 2.16; p = 0.042). At follow-up, more children in the intervention schools said they 'are currently eating a healthy diet' (39.6%) or 'would try to eat a healthy diet' (35.7%) than in control schools (34.4% and 31.7% respectively; chi-square test p < 0.001). Most children (75.5%) enjoyed playing the game and teachers considered it a useful resource. Conclusions The 'Top Grub' card game facilitated the enjoyable delivery of nutrition education in a sample of UK primary school age children. Further studies should determine whether improvements in nutrition knowledge are sustained and lead to changes in dietary behaviour. PMID:20219104
Roseman, Mary G.; Riddell, Martha C.; Haynes, Jessica N.
Objective: To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Design: Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content…
Yang, Zhenyu; Huffman, Sandra L
and obesity may differ in developing countries compared to developed countries because many studies in developed countries used formula feeding as a control. Future research on the relationship between breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary feeding or rapid weight gain and obesity are warranted in developing countries. The focus of interventions to reduce risk of obesity in later life in developing countries could include: improving maternal nutritional status during pregnancy to reduce low birthweight; enhancing breastfeeding (including durations of exclusive and total breastfeeding); timely introduction of high-quality complementary foods (containing micronutrients and essential fats) but not excessive in protein; further evidence is needed to understand the extent of weight gain and length gain during early childhood are related to body composition in later life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Abshire, Martha; Xu, Jiayun; Baptiste, Diana; Almansa, Johana R; Xu, Jingzhi; Cummings, Abby; Andrews, Martha J; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl
Heart failure (HF) is a major health care burden and there is a growing need to develop strategies to maintain health and sustain quality of life in persons with HF. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise the components of nutrition interventions and to establish an evidence base for future advances in HF nutrition research and practice. Cinahl, Pubmed, and Embase were searched to identify articles published from 2005 to 2015. A total of 17 randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Results were divided into 2 categories of nutrition-related interventions: (1) educational and (2) prescriptive. Educational interventions improved patient outcomes such as adherence to dietary restriction in urine sodium levels and self-reported diet recall. Educational and prescriptive interventions resulted in decreased readmission rates and patient deterioration. Adherence measurement was subjective in many studies. Evidence showed that a normal-sodium diet and 1-liter fluid restriction along with high diuretic dosing enhanced B-type natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-6 markers. Educational nutrition interventions positively affect patient clinical outcomes. Although clinical practice guidelines support a low-sodium diet and fluid restriction, research findings have revealed that a low-sodium diet may be harmful. Future research should examine the role of macronutrients, food quality, and energy balance in HF nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zalaquett, Daniela F; Schönstedt, Marianne G; Angeli, Milagros; Herrrera, Claudia C; Moyano, Andrea C
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. They have a prevalence of 0.6% in the general population, although there are no national statistics. Even though their evolution is variable, it has been observed that early intervention is an important factor determining prognosis. The aim of this study is to update concepts regarding the current available evidence on the importance of early intervention. After analyzing the collected information, the importance of early intervention programs for children with ASD is confirmed, as well as the role of pediatricians and other health professionals in the early detection of these disorders. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Moore, Sophie E
Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. We investigated the link between early-life nutritional exposures and long-term health in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomised controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy, and the "experiment of nature" that seasonality in this region provides, we investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs. Key Messages: Our work in rural Gambia suggests that in populations with high rates of under-nutrition in early life, the immune system may be sensitive to nutritional deficiencies early in life, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infection-related morbidity and mortality. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène
Health care decision-makers have begun to realize that medical nutrition plays an important role in the delivery of care, and it needs to be seen as a sole category within the overall health care reimbursement system to establish the value for money. Indeed, improving health through improving patients' nutrition may contribute to the cost-effectiveness and financial sustainability of health care systems. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill either in Europe or in the United States, which offers specific legislations and guidelines (as provided to patients with special nutritional needs) and indications for nutritional support. Given that the efficacy of medical nutrition has been proven, one can wonder whether the heterogeneous nature of its coverage/reimbursement across countries might be due to the lack of health-related economic evidence or value-for-money of nutritional interventions. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by performing a systematic literature review on health economics evidence regarding medical nutrition, and by summarizing the results of these publications related to the value for money of medical nutrition interventions. A systematic literature search was initiated and executed based on a predefined search protocol following the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) criteria. Following the systematic literature search of recently published literature on health economics evidence regarding medical nutrition, this study aims to summarize the results of those publications that are related to the value for money of medical nutrition interventions. The evaluations were conducted by analyzing different medical nutrition according to their indications, the economic methodology or perspective adopted, the cost source and utility measures, selected efficiency measures, as well as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. A total of 225 abstracts were identified for the detailed review, and the data were
Valtonen, T M; Roff, D A; Rantala, M J
The impact of nutritional deficiencies early in life in determining life-history variation in organisms is well recognized. The negative effects of inbreeding on fitness are also well known. Contrary to studies on vertebrates, studies on invertebrates are not consistent with the observation that inbreeding compromises resistance to parasites and pathogens. In this study, we investigated the effect of early nutrition on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time, adult body size and adult resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that early nutritional environment had no effect on the magnitude of inbreeding depression in development time or adult body size but may have played a small role in adult resistance to the bacterial infection. Estimates of heritabilities for development time under the poor nutritional environment were larger than those measured under the standard nutritional conditions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Low, Chuen Siang; Ho, Jacqueline J; Nallusamy, Revathy
Most of the evidence on early feeding of preterm infants was derived from high income settings, it is equally important to evaluate whether it can be successfully implemented into less resourced settings. This study aimed to compare growth and feeding of preterm infants before and after the introduction of a new aggressive feeding policy in Penang Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in a middle income country. The new aggressive feeding policy was developed mainly from Cochrane review evidence, using early parenteral and enteral nutrition with standardized breastfeeding counselling aimed at empowering mothers to provide early expressed milk. A total of 80 preterm babies (34 weeks and below) discharged from NICU were included (40 pre- and 40 post-intervention). Pre and post-intervention data were compared. The primary outcome was growth at day 7, 14, 21 and at discharge and secondary outcomes were time to full oral feeding, breastfeeding rates, and adverse events. Complete data were available for all babies to discharge. One baby was discharged prior to day 14 and 10 babies before day 21, so growth data for these babies were unavailable. Baseline data were similar in the two groups. There was no significant weight difference at 7, 14, 21 days and at discharge. More post-intervention babies were breastfed at discharge than pre-intervention babies (21 vs. 8, P=0.005). Nosocomial infection (11 vs. 4, P=0.045), and blood transfusion were significantly lower in the postintervention babies than in the pre-intervention babies (31 vs. 13, P=0.01). The post-intervention babies were more likely to achieve shorter median days (interquartile range) to full oral feeding [11 (6) days vs. 13 (11) days, P=0.058] and with lower number affecting necrotising enterocolitis (0 vs. 5, P=0.055). Early aggressive parenteral nutrition and early provision of mother's milk did not result in improved growth as evidenced by weight gain at discharge. However we found more breastfeeding babies
Appleton, Julie; McCrea, Nadine; Patterson, Carla
Noting that young children learn about food and nutrition through food preparation, eating together, play, science activities, and games, this resource guide addresses food learning and nutritional provisions in early childhood programs. The guide is designed to meet the needs of children and adults in child care centers, family child care…
Sharma, Shreela; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Hedberg, Ann Marie
Background: The literature on theoretically-based programs targeting healthy nutrition and physical activity in preschools is scarce. Purpose: To pilot test CATCH Early Childhood (CEC), a preschool-based nutrition and physical activity program among children ages three to five in Head Start. Methods: The study was conducted in two Head Start…
Hansen, Ernst Albin; Emanuelsen, Anders; Gertsen, Robert Mørkegaard; Sørensen S, S R
It was tested whether a marathon was completed faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. Nonelite runners performed a 10 km time trial 7 weeks before Copenhagen Marathon 2013 for estimation of running ability. Based on the time, runners were divided into two similar groups that eventually should perform the marathon by applying the two nutritional strategies. Matched pairs design was applied. Before the marathon, runners were paired based on their prerace running ability. Runners applying the freely chosen nutritional strategy (n = 14; 33.6 ± 9.6 years; 1.83 ± 0.09 m; 77.4 ± 10.6 kg; 45:40 ± 4:32 min for 10 km) could freely choose their in-race intake. Runners applying the scientifically based nutritional strategy (n = 14; 41.9 ± 7.6 years; 1.79 ± 0.11 m; 74.6 ± 14.5 kg; 45:44 ± 4:37 min) were targeting a combined in-race intake of energy gels and water, where the total intake amounted to approximately 0.750 L water, 60 g maltodextrin and glucose, 0.06 g sodium, and 0.09 g caffeine per hr. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-administered postrace questionnaire. Marathon time was 3:49:26 ± 0:25:05 and 3:38:31 ± 0:24:54 hr for runners applying the freely chosen and the scientifically based strategy, respectively (p = .010, effect size=-0.43). Certain runners experienced diverse serious gastrointestinal symptoms, but overall, symptoms were low and not different between groups (p > .05). In conclusion, nonelite runners completed a marathon on average 10:55 min, corresponding to 4.7%, faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, average values of gastrointestinal symptoms were low and not different between groups.
Koh, Katherine A; Bharel, Monica; Henderson, David C
Nutrition is a daily challenge for the homeless population in America. Homeless individuals suffer from a high prevalence of diseases related to poor diet, yet there has been little public health effort to improve nutrition in this population. Shelters and soup kitchens may have an untapped potential to impact food access, choice and quality. We offer ideas for intervention and lessons learned from ten shelters and soup kitchens around Greater Boston, MA, USA. By advancing food quality, education and policies in shelters and soup kitchens, the homeless population can be given an opportunity to restore its nutrition and health.
Hu, Chuanlai; Ye, Dongqing; Li, Yingchun; Huang, Yongling; Li, Li; Gao, Yongqing; Wang, Sufang
To evaluate the impact of nutrition education in kindergartens and to promote healthy dietary habits in children. Prospective cohort study. Four kindergartens with 1252 children were randomized to the intervention group and three with 850 children to the control group. The personal nutritional knowledge, attitudes and dietary behaviours of the parents were also investigated. Each month, children and parents in the intervention group participated in nutrition education activities. The main outcome measures were anthropometrics and diet-related behaviours of the children and the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of the parents at baseline, 6 months (mid-term) and 1 year (post-test). Baseline demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also collected. Seven kindergartens from Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, eastern China. Two thousand one hundred and two 4- to 6-year-old pre-schoolers from seven kindergartens participated. The prevalence of children's unhealthy diet-related behaviours decreased significantly and good lifestyle behaviours increased in the group receiving nutrition education compared with controls. Parental eating habits and attitudes to planning their children's diets also changed appreciably in the intervention group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in children's height, weight, height-for-age Z-score or weight-for-age Z-score between the two groups. Kindergarten-based nutrition education improves pre-schoolers' lifestyle behaviours and brings about beneficial changes in parents' attitudes to planning their children's diets and their own personal eating habits.
Ahmed, Tahmeed; Auble, David; Berkley, James A; Black, Robert; Ahern, Philip P; Hossain, Muttaquina; Hsieh, Andrea; Ireen, Santhia; Arabi, Mandana; Gordon, Jeffrey I
The Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science and the World Health Organization (WHO) have worked together to formulate a research agenda for nutrition science. Undernutrition of children has profound effects on health, development, and achievement of full human capacity. Undernutrition is not simply caused by a lack of food, but results from a complex interplay of intra- and intergenerational factors. Representative preclinical models and comprehensive well-controlled longitudinal clinical studies are needed to further understand the contributions and the interrelationships among these factors and to develop interventions that are effective and durable. This paper summarizes work on mechanisms underlying the varied manifestations of childhood undernutrition and discusses current gaps in knowledge and challenges to our understanding of undernutrition and infection/immunity throughout the human life cycle, focusing on early childhood growth. It proposes a series of basic and clinical studies to address this global health challenge. PMID:25118072
Ahmed, Tahmeed; Auble, David; Berkley, James A; Black, Robert; Ahern, Philip P; Hossain, Muttaquina; Hsieh, Andrea; Ireen, Santhia; Arabi, Mandana; Gordon, Jeffrey I
The Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science and the World Health Organization (WHO) have worked together to formulate a research agenda for nutrition science. Undernutrition of children has profound effects on health, development, and achievement of full human capacity. Undernutrition is not simply caused by a lack of food, but results from a complex interplay of intra- and intergenerational factors. Representative preclinical models and comprehensive well-controlled longitudinal clinical studies are needed to further understand the contributions and the interrelationships among these factors and to develop interventions that are effective and durable. This paper summarizes work on mechanisms underlying the varied manifestations of childhood undernutrition and discusses current gaps in knowledge and challenges to our understanding of undernutrition and infection/immunity throughout the human life cycle, focusing on early childhood growth. It proposes a series of basic and clinical studies to address this global health challenge. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Planas, M; Peñalva, A; Burgos, R; Puiggrós, C; Pérez-Portabella, C; Espín, E; Armengol, M; Rosselló, J
Although parenteral nutrition is a vital method of delivery essential nutrients in patients with malnutrition associated to gastro-intestinal insufficiency, its inappropriate use can increase the risk of complications and incur unnecessary expenses. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of both, the presence of the Nutritional Support Unit and the implementing clinical practice guidelines on post-operative nutritional status, complications and length of stay among patients undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery. Prospective and observational study: Three period times were included-the year during the guidelines elaboration (A), and the first (B) and the second year (C) after their implementation. All patients submitted to elective colorectal cancer surgery at least 18 years of age were included (A: n=297; B: n=103, and C: n=149). WE ANALYSED: Nutritional status (NS) on admission to hospital and at discharge, use of post-operative parenteral nutrition (PPN), incidence of post-operative complications (PC), number of days of nil by mouth following surgery (NPO), and hospital length of stay (LOS). Although the prevalence of malnutrition on admission was low, an increment was observed during the hospitalisation time. However, only in the first period time, the increment was significantly different (A: from 8.4% to 19.5%, p<0.001; B: from 3.9% to 8.7%, and C: from 4.7% to 6.7%). Globally, the use of PPN decreased (A: 79.1%, B: 47.0%, and C: 12.8%; p<0.001). This behaviour was mainly observed in well-nourished patients (use of PPN in well nourished, A: 79.3%, B: 44.4%, and C: 11.3%; p<0.001). Significant differences were observed in the global incidence of PC (A: 27.9%, B: 28.2%, and C: 8.1%, p<0.001). Furthermore, PC was higher in well-nourished patients with PPN versus without PPN, with significant differences in B and C periods (A: 29.3% vs. 25.0%; B: 38.6% vs. 18.8%, p=0.004; C: 31.3% vs. 4.8%, p=0.003). The NPO was higher in patients without PPN in period A
Nava, Lorenzo T; Zambrano, Jenelle M; Arviso, Karen P; Brochetti, Denise; Becker, Kathleen L
The objective of this systematic review is to identify nutrition-based interventions that may be effective for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome in the Navajo. Metabolic syndrome, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affects almost half of the Navajo population. The diet of the Navajo, heavy in fat and refined carbohydrates, has been identified as an important contributing factor to the high rates of metabolic syndrome in this population. A search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify studies published before October, 2013, involving nutrition-based interventions in adult populations similar to the Navajo targeting at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Data on efficacy and participation were gathered and synthesised qualitatively. Out of 19 studies included in this systematic review, 11 interventions were identified to be effective at improving at least one measure of metabolic syndrome. Level of exposure to the intervention, frequency of intervention activities, family and social support, cultural adaptation and case management were identified as factors that may improve the efficacy of an intervention. Multiple nutrition-based interventions have been found to be effective in populations similar to the Navajo. Development of a strategy to address metabolic syndrome in the Navajo may involve aspects from multiple interventions to increase efficacy and maximise participation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Melendez-Araújo, Mariana Silva; de Matos Arruda, Sérgio Lincoln; de Oliveira Kelly, Emily; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi
Although the benefits of preoperative weight loss and adequacy of dietary patterns in bariatric surgery is well-recognized, the nutritional strategies in the preoperative period have been scarcely investigated. We aimed to evaluate the impact of intensive and standard nutritional interventions on body weight, energy intake, and eating quality. This is a retrospective study in which 32 patients undergoing intensive nutritional intervention, with low-calorie diet (10 kcal/kg) and biweekly visits, were pair-matched by age, sex, and body mass index with 32 patients under a standard nutritional intervention, based on a general dietary counseling. Twenty-four-hour food recall was used to assess energy intake and to derive healthy eating index (HEI). The follow-up preoperative period varied from 8 to 16 weeks. Weight loss was observed in 72% of the patients from the intensive intervention group and 75% of the patients from the standard intervention group. According to the mixed model analysis, time effect on weight loss in both groups was significant (P = 0.0002); however, no difference was found between the intervention groups (P = 0.71). The time effect was significant in both groups for energy intake reduction as well (P < 0.0001), but no difference was found between the intervention groups (P = 0.25). Improvement of eating quality was expressed by the nutrient score of the HEI that increased significantly overtime (P = 0.02), also without distinction between the groups (P = 0.61). Both intensive and standard nutritional interventions promoted weight loss, energy intake reduction, and improvement of eating quality in morbidly obese patients during preoperative period.
Seymour, Jennifer D; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Serdula, Mary; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Khan, Laura Kettel
Nutrition interventions targeted to individuals are unlikely to significantly shift US dietary patterns as a whole. Environmental and policy interventions are more promising for shifting these patterns. We review interventions that influenced the environment through food availability, access, pricing, or information at the point-of-purchase in worksites, universities, grocery stores, and restaurants. Thirty-eight nutrition environmental intervention studies in adult populations, published between 1970 and June 2003, were reviewed and evaluated on quality of intervention design, methods, and description (e.g., sample size, randomization). No policy interventions that met inclusion criteria were found. Many interventions were not thoroughly evaluated or lacked important evaluation information. Direct comparison of studies across settings was not possible, but available data suggest that worksite and university interventions have the most potential for success. Interventions in grocery stores appear to be the least effective. The dual concerns of health and taste of foods promoted were rarely considered. Sustainability of environmental change was never addressed. Interventions in "limited access" sites (i.e., where few other choices were available) had the greatest effect on food choices. Research is needed using consistent methods, better assessment tools, and longer durations; targeting diverse populations; and examining sustainability. Future interventions should influence access and availability, policies, and macroenvironments.
Omlin, Aurelius; Blum, David; Wierecky, Jan; Haile, Sarah R; Ottery, Faith D; Strasser, Florian
Involuntary weight loss (IWL) is frequent in advanced cancer patients causing compromised anticancer treatment outcomes and function. Cancer cachexia is influenced by nutrition impact symptoms (NIS). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency of NIS in advanced patients and to assess specific interventions guided by a 12-item NIS checklist. Consecutive patients from an outpatient nutrition-fatigue clinic completed the NIS checklist. The NIS checklist was developed based on literature review and multiprofessional clinical expert consensus. Chart review was performed to detect defined NIS typical interventions. Oncology outpatients not seen in the nutrition-fatigue clinic were matched for age, sex, and tumor to serve as controls. In 52 nutrition-fatigue clinic patients, a mixed cancer population [IWL in 2 months 5.96 % (mean)], the five most frequent NIS were taste and smell alterations 27 %, constipation 19 %, abdominal pain 14 %, dysphagia 12 %, and epigastric pain 10 %. A statistically significant difference for NIS typical interventions in patients with taste and smell alterations (p = 0.04), constipation (p = 0.01), pain (p = 0.0001), and fatigue (p = 0.0004) were found compared to the control population [mixed cancer, 3.53 % IWL in 2 months (mean)]. NIS are common in advanced cancer patients. The NIS checklist can guide therapeutic nutrition-targeted interventions. The awareness for NIS will likely evoke more research in assessment, impact, and treatment.
Menon, Purnima; McDonald, Christine M; Chakrabarti, Suman
India's national nutrition and health programmes are largely designed to provide evidence-based nutrition-specific interventions, but intervention coverage is low due to a combination of implementation challenges, capacity and financing gaps. Global cost estimates for nutrition are available but national and subnational costs are not. We estimated national and subnational costs of delivering recommended nutrition-specific interventions using the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) costing approach. We compared costs of delivering the SUN interventions at 100% scale with those of nationally recommended interventions. Target populations (TP) for interventions were estimated using national population and nutrition data. Unit costs (UC) were derived from programmatic data. The cost of delivering an intervention at 100% coverage was calculated as (UC*projected TP). Cost estimates varied; estimates for SUN interventions were lower than estimates for nationally recommended interventions because of differences in choice of intervention, target group or unit cost. US$5.9bn/year are required to deliver a set of nationally recommended nutrition interventions at scale in India, while US$4.2bn are required for the SUN interventions. Cash transfers (49%) and food supplements (40%) contribute most to costs of nationally recommended interventions, while food supplements to prevent and treat malnutrition contribute most to the SUN costs. We conclude that although such costing is useful to generate broad estimates, there is an urgent need for further costing studies on the true unit costs of the delivery of nutrition-specific interventions in different local contexts to be able to project accurate national and subnational budgets for nutrition in India. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Thomas, Mavuto; Gladstone, Melisa
Stunting and poor child development are major public health concerns in Malawi. Integrated nutrition and early child development (ECD) interventions have shown potential to reduce stunting, but it is not known how these integrated approaches can be implemented in Malawi. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the current jobs status of community health workers and their potential to implement integrated approaches. This was accomplished by a desk review of nutrition and ECD policy documents, as well as interviews with key informants, community health workers, and community members. We found that Malawi has comprehensive policies and well-outlined coordination structures for nutrition and ECD that advocate for integrated approaches. Strong multidisciplinary interaction exists at central levels but not at the community level. Integration of community health workers from different sectors is limited by workload, logistics, and a lack of synchronized work schedules. Favorable, sound policies and well-outlined coordination structures alone are not enough for the establishment of integrated nutrition and ECD activities. Balanced bureaucratic structures, improved task allocation, and synchronization of work schedules across all relevant sectors are needed for integrated intervention in Malawi. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Liberato, Selma C; Bailie, Ross; Brimblecombe, Julie
Point-of-sale is a potentially important opportunity to promote healthy eating through nutrition education and environment modification. The aim of this review was to describe and review the evidence of effectiveness of various types of interventions that have been used at point-of-sale to encourage purchase and/or eating of healthier food and to improve health outcomes, and the extent to which effectiveness was related to intensity, duration and intervention setting. Records from searches in databases were screened and assessed against inclusion criteria. Included studies had risk of bias assessed. Intervention effectiveness was assessed for two outcomes: i) purchase and/or intake of healthier food options and/or nutrient intake; and ii) mediating factors that might effect the primary outcome. The search identified 5635 references. Thirty-two papers met the inclusion criteria. Twelve studies had low risk of bias and were classified as strong, nine were moderate and 11 were weak. Six intervention types and a range of different outcome measures were described in these papers: i) nutrition education and promotion alone through supermarkets/stores; ii) nutrition education plus enhanced availability of healthy food; iii) monetary incentive alone; iv) nutrition education plus monetary incentives; v) nutrition intervention through vending machines; and vi) nutrition intervention through shopping online. The evidence of this review indicates that monetary incentives offered to customers for a short-term look promising in increasing purchase of healthier food options when the intervention is applied by itself in stores or supermarkets. There was a lack of good quality studies addressing all other types of relevant point-of-sale interventions examining change in purchase and/or intake of healthier food options. There were few studies that examined mediating factors that might mediate the effect on the primary outcomes of relevant interventions. A range of intervention types
Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma
Objectives The objective of this paper was to review various nutritional interventions targeted at under-five children in countries that had suffered from natural disasters and to analyse their effect on nutrition-related outcomes. Design Systematic review. Setting Countries that had suffered from natural disasters. Participants Children aged <5 years who were given any nutritional intervention to improve overall nutritional status after a natural disaster. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary nutrition-related outcomes were stunting, wasting and underweight. The secondary nutrition-related outcome was anaemia. Results Of the 1218 studies that the reviewers agreed on, five matched the inclusion criteria and were included in this narrative synthesis. Four studies were longitudinal and one was cross-sectional in design. Food supplementation was an integral part of nutritional interventions in all the included studies. The most consistent nutritional outcome in all five included studies was reduced prevalence of wasting, followed by reduced prevalence of underweight in four, stunting in three and anaemia in one of the five included studies. The largest reduction in the prevalence of wasting and underweight was reported by the study in Sri Lanka. Overall, the quality of evidence ranged from moderate to weak. Conclusions Integrated nutrition interventions using locally available health resources yielded the best results. However, sound evidence on the most effective interventions is still lacking. Intervention studies with comparison groups are necessary to obtain more robust evidence on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions. PMID:27650759
As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198
Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Abecia, Leticia; Newbold, Charles J.
The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonization that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk) to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations. PMID:26528276
Taylor, Pennie J; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Mummery, W Kerry; George, Emma S; Karunanithi, Mohanraj; Noakes, Manny J
Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1) published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2) male only studies (≥18 years) or 3) where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i) a significant change (p<0.05) over time in an objective measure of body weight, expressed in kilograms (kg) OR Body Mass Index (BMI) OR (ii) at least one significant change (p<0.05) in a dietary intake measure to qualify as effective. To identify emerging patterns within the research a descriptive process was used. Nine studies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg) and/or BMI (kg/m2) changes (p≤0.05). Four studies had effective interventions (p<0.05) targeting determinants of dietary intake and dietary behaviours and/or nutritional intake.Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self-monitoring and tailored feedback
Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.
Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…
Swanson, Daniel E W; Polackwich, A Scott; Helfand, Brian T; Masson, Puneet; Hwong, James; Dugi, Daniel D; Martinez Acevedo, Ann C; Hedges, Jason C; McVary, Kevin T
To report a series of penile fractures, describing preoperative evaluation, surgical repair, and long-term outcomes. Medical records from Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Oregon Health & Science University from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. Clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, time from injury, mechanism and site of injury, and presence of urethral injury were assessed. Outcomes including erectile dysfunction, penile curvature, and voiding symptoms were evaluated using International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function scores. Twenty-nine patients with 30 separate episodes of penile fractures presenting to the emergency room were identified. Mean patient age was 43 ± 9.6 years. The time from presentation to the initiation of surgery was 5.5 ± 4.4 hours. Mechanism of injury was intercourse in 26 of 30 fractures with the remaining attributed to masturbation or "rolling over." Immediate surgical repair was offered to all patients. Twenty-seven patients underwent surgery. Urethral injury was noted in 5 of the 27. The site of fracture was at the proximal shaft in 11, mid shaft in 12, and distal shaft in 4 patients. The mean follow-up period was 14.3 ± 15.8 weeks. Nine patients reported new mild erectile dysfunction or penile curvature. One patient reported new irritative voiding symptoms. The most common mechanism of penile fracture was from sexual intercourse, and frequent concomitant urethral injuries were observed. The frequency of concomitant urethral injury was higher than in previous studies. Although we observed high incidence of erectile dysfunction or penile curvature with early surgical repair, we retain it as the favored approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans
Differences in nutritional experiences during sensitive periods in early life, both before and after birth, can program a person's future development, metabolism, and health. A better scientific understanding of early nutrition programming holds enormous potential for implementing preventive strategies to enhance individuals' long-term health, well-being, and performance. This understanding could reduce costs of health care and social services and may enhance the wealth of societies. The Early Nutrition Programming Project (EARNEST) brought together a multidisciplinary team of international scientists and leaders in key areas of the early nutrition programming field from 40 major research centers across 16 European countries. The project had a total budget of 16.5 million Euros and was funded by the European Communities under the Sixth Framework Program for Research and Technical Development and coordinated by the Children's Hospital at Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. The integrated program of work combined experimental studies in humans, prospective observational studies, and mechanistic animal work, including physiologic studies, cell culture models, and molecular biology techniques. The project lasted from April 2005 to October 2010. After the end of the project, the Early Nutrition Academy (http://www.early-nutrition.org) continues to serve as a platform for the exchange of information, scientific collaboration, and training activities in the area of programming. This article highlights some of the scientific results, achievements, and efforts of EARNEST.
Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Anker, Stefan D; Horwich, Tamara B; Fonarow, Gregg C
Summary Five million individuals with chronic heart failure (CHF) in the United States have poor clinical outcomes including high death rates. Observational studies have indicated a reverse epidemiology of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in CHF; in contrast to trends seen in the general population, obesity and hypercholesterolemia are associated with improved survival. The temporal discordance between the overnutrition (long-term killer) and undernutrition (short-term killer) not only can explain some of the observed paradoxes but also may indicate a role for malnutrition, inflammation and oxidative stress that result in cachexia contributing to poor survival in CHF. Diminished appetite or anorexia may be both a cause and a consequence of this so-called malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia (MIC) or wasting syndrome in CHF. Neurohumoral activation, insulin resistance, cytokine activation and survival selection resultant genetic polymorphisms may also contribute to the prominent inflammatory and oxidative characteristics of this population. In CHF patients with wasting, nutritional strategies may be a promising therapeutic approach in CHF, especially if the provision of additional protein and energy also includes nutrients with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Regardless of the etiology of anorexia, appetite stimulating agents especially with anti-inflammatory properties such as megesterol acetate or pentoxyphylline may be appropriate adjuncts to dietary supplementation. Understanding the factors that modulate the MIC and wasting and their associations with clinical outcomes in CHF may lead to the development of nutritional strategies that alter the pathophysiology of CHF and improve outcomes PMID:18514634
Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, D D; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, S L; El ghormli, L; Staten, M A; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S
The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school
Background Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Methods/Design Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0–6–12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin. Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient’s nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters. Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention. The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet
Arija, Victoria; Martín, Núria; Canela, Teresa; Anguera, Carme; Castelao, Ana I; García-Barco, Montserrat; García-Campo, Antoni; González-Bravo, Ana I; Lucena, Carme; Martínez, Teresa; Fernández-Barrés, Silvia; Pedret, Roser; Badia, Waleska; Basora, Josep
Malnutrition in dependent patients has a high prevalence and can influence the prognosis associated with diverse pathologic processes, decrease quality of life, and increase morbidity-mortality and hospital admissions.The aim of the study is to assess the effect of an educational intervention for caregivers on the nutritional status of dependent patients at risk of malnutrition. Intervention study with control group, randomly allocated, of 200 patients of the Home Care Program carried out in 8 Primary Care Centers (Spain). These patients are dependent and at risk of malnutrition, older than 65, and have caregivers. The socioeconomic and educational characteristics of the patient and the caregiver are recorded. On a schedule of 0-6-12 months, patients are evaluated as follows: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), food intake, dentures, degree of dependency (Barthel test), cognitive state (Pfeiffer test), mood status (Yesavage test), and anthropometric and serum parameters of nutritional status: albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, lymphocyte count, iron, and ferritin.Prior to the intervention, the educational procedure and the design of educational material are standardized among nurses. The nurses conduct an initial session for caregivers and then monitor the education impact at home every month (4 visits) up to 6 months. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) methodology will be used. The investigators will study the effect of the intervention with caregivers on the patient's nutritional status using the MNA test, diet, anthropometry, and biochemical parameters.Bivariate normal test statistics and multivariate models will be created to adjust the effect of the intervention.The SPSS/PC program will be used for statistical analysis. The nutritional status of dependent patients has been little studied. This study allows us to know nutritional risk from different points of view: diet, anthropometry and biochemistry in dependent patients at
Gaspar, Maria Cristina A; Chiba, Sônia M; Gomes, Clóvis E T; Juliano, Yara; Novo, Neil F; Ancona-Lopez, Fabio
Few studies have verified longitudinally the evolution of the nutritional status of patients with cystic fibrosis. The objective of this study is to follow the evolution of the nutritional status, body composition and energy consumption, macronutrients and micronutrients ingested by children and adolescents by means of nutritional interventions at the Clinic of Cystic Fibrosis/Pediatric Pneumology of the Department of Pediatrics of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. 18 patients were involved in this study, thirteen males and five females with ages ranging from 0.3 to 18.4 years. We performed three evaluations: evaluation 1 (M1--prenutritional intervention), M2 after 6 months, and M3 after 12 months. In these three instances we verified: the z score for weight/age, weight/height and height/age and the calculation of a 3-day diet record. We verified the body composition (anthropometry) in M1 and M3. The nutritional interventions were hypercaloric, hyperproteic, with adequate amount of ingested macronutrients and micronutrients. We observed an increase in the z score for height/age (M1=-1.07; M2=-0.69; M3=-0.50) and fat-free mass after the nutritional interventions, without improvement in the z score for weight/height and fat mass. We verified an increase in the energy intake during M2 (139%) and M3 (132%) compared to M1 (106%). Remarkable increase in the intake of protein, calcium, iron and vitamin C by the patients was found. The occurrence of anemia was found in 44% (8/18) of the patients. The improvement of the z score in height/age and fat-free mass was probably due to the increase in energy consumption after the nutritional intervention. A significant improvement in the z score for weight/height and fat mass was not found, probably due to a gain in height and fat-free mass.
Zhao, Chunyan; Zhou, Ruihua; Tian, Yongzhi; Tang, Yongmei; Ning, Hongzhen; Liu, Haiyan
To study the effect of the nutritional education and dietary intervention on nutritional status and bone mineral density (BMD) of middle-aged and senile patients with osteoporosis. Ninty middle-aged and senile osteoporosis patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups (intervention and control group) with 45 cases each. The control group was received conventional therapy and the intervention group added with nutritional education and dietary intervention for six months on the basis of conventional therapy. The methods of education and intervention included seminars, brochures distribution, dietary survey and individual guidance. The nutritional status and BMD were analyzed at the beginning and the end of the intervention respectively. After the intervention, the ratios of subjects whose intake of grain, vegetables, fruits, eggs, milk and beans in line with recommended intake of the intervention group were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). After the intervention, frequencies of coarse grain, dairy, beans and seafood consumption of the intervention group were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). After the intervention, the daily intakes of protein, VA, VC, calcium, zinc, magnesium, dietary fiber of the intervention group were significantly superior to the control group (P < 0.05). BMDs of lumbar spine and femoral neck in the intervention group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The nutritional education and dietary intervention could promote middle-aged and senile patients' reasonable diet, improve their nutritional status, enhance bone mineral density and improve the effect of conventional therapy for osteoporosis.
Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene
A comprehensive search of the literature for studies examining physical activity or nutrition interventions in the workplace, published between 1999 and March 2009, was conducted. This search identified 29 relevant studies. Interventions were grouped according to the theoretical framework on which the interventions were based (e.g. education, cognitive-behavioural, motivation enhancement, social influence, exercise). Weighted Cohen's d effect sizes, percentage overlap statistics, confidence intervals and fail safe Ns were calculated. Most theoretical approaches were associated with small effects. However, large effects were found for some measures of interventions using motivation enhancement. Effect sizes were larger for studies focusing on one health behaviour and for randomized controlled trials. The workplace is a suitable environment for making modest changes in the physical activity, nutrition and health of employees. Further research is necessary to determine whether these changes can be maintained in the long term.
Wahl, Devin; Coogan, Sean CP; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; de Cabo, Rafael; Haran, James B; Raubenheimer, David; Cogger, Victoria C; Mattson, Mark P; Simpson, Stephen J; Le Couteur, David G
Evaluation of behavior and cognition in rodent models underpins mechanistic and interventional studies of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases, especially dementia. Commonly used tests include Morris water maze, Barnes maze, object recognition, fear conditioning, radial arm water maze, and Y maze. Each of these tests reflects some aspects of human memory including episodic memory, recognition memory, semantic memory, spatial memory, and emotional memory. Although most interventional studies in rodent models of dementia have focused on pharmacological agents, there are an increasing number of studies that have evaluated nutritional interventions including caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, and manipulation of macronutrients. Dietary interventions have been shown to influence various cognitive and behavioral tests in rodents indicating that nutrition can influence brain aging and possibly neurodegeneration. PMID:28932108
Oldroyd, J; Burns, C; Lucas, P; Haikerwal, A; Waters, E
To determine whether nutrition interventions widen dietary inequalities across socioeconomic status groups. Systematic review of interventions that aim to promote healthy eating. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched between 1990 and 2007. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials or concurrent controlled trials of interventions to promote healthy eating delivered at a group level to low socioeconomic status groups or studies where it was possible to disaggregate data by socioeconomic status. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Four were set in educational setting (three elementary schools, one vocational training). The first found greater increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in children from high-income families after 1 year (mean difference 2.4 portions per day, p<0.0001) than in children in low-income families (mean difference 1.3 portions per day, p<0.0003). The second did not report effect sizes but reported the nutrition intervention to be less effective in disadvantaged areas (p<0.01). The third found that 24-h fruit juice and vegetable consumption increased more in children born outside the Netherlands ("non-native") after a nutrition intervention (beta coefficient = 1.30, p<0.01) than in "native" children (beta coefficient = 0.24, p<0.05). The vocational training study found that the group with better educated participants achieved 34% of dietary goals compared with the group who had more non-US born and non-English speakers, which achieved 60% of dietary goals. Two studies were conducted in primary care settings. The first found that, as a result of the intervention, the difference in consumption of added fat between the intervention and the control group was -8.9 g/day for blacks and -12.0 g/day for whites (p<0.05). In the second study, there was greater attrition among the ethnic minority participants than among the white participants (p<0.04). Nutrition interventions have differential effects by socioeconomic status
Xie, Feng-Lan; Wang, Yong-Qian; Peng, Li-Fen; Lin, Fang-Yu; He, Yu-Long; Jiang, Zhuo-Qin
Surgery combined with chemotherapy is the standard treatment for gastric cancer (GC); however, chemotherapy-relative adverse effects are common and result in malnutrition and a poor prognosis. In addition, compliance to postoperative chemotherapy remains a problem. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the effect of educational and nutritional interventions on the nutritional status and compliance of GC patients undergoing postoperative chemotherapy. A total of 144 GC patients were randomized into an intervention group that received intensive individualized nutritional and educational interventions during the entire course of chemotherapy and control group that received basic nutrition care and health education during hospitalization. The nutritional status and compliance between the two groups were compared. The interventions significantly improved calorie and iron intake within 24 h after the first chemotherapy session, and improved patients' weight, hemoglobin, total serum protein, and albumin levels during the entire course of chemotherapy. The compliance rate with chemotherapy was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (73.61% vs. 55.56%, P = 0.024). A combination of nutritional and educational interventions provided beneficial effect on the nutrition status and compliance of gastric patients undergoing postoperative chemotherapy, which is worthy of clinical application.
Black, Maureen M
As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Sharma, Renee; Gaffey, Michelle F; Alderman, Harold; Bassani, Diego G; Bogard, Kimber; Darmstadt, Gary L; Das, Jai K; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph E; Hamadani, Jena D; Horton, Susan; Huicho, Luis; Hussein, Julia; Lye, Stephen; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Proulx, Kerrie; Marfo, Kofi; Mathews-Hanna, Vanessa; Mclean, Mireille S; Rahman, Atif; Silver, Karlee L; Singla, Daisy R; Webb, Patrick; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Existing health and nutrition services present potential platforms for scaling up delivery of early childhood development (ECD) interventions within sensitive windows across the life course, especially in the first 1000 days from conception to age 2 years. However, there is insufficient knowledge on how to optimize implementation for such strategies in an integrated manner. In light of this knowledge gap, we aimed to systematically identify a set of integrated implementation research priorities for health, nutrition and early child development within the 2015 to 2030 timeframe of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method, and consulted a diverse group of global health experts to develop and score 57 research questions against five criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, impact, and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question. The research priority scores ranged from 61.01 to 93.52, with a median of 82.87. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.90, with a median of 0.75. The top-ranked research question were: i) "How can interventions and packages to reduce neonatal mortality be expanded to include ECD and stimulation interventions?"; ii) "How does the integration of ECD and MNCAH&N interventions affect human resource requirements and capacity development in resource-poor settings?"; and iii) "How can integrated interventions be tailored to vulnerable refugee and migrant populations to protect against poor ECD and MNCAH&N outcomes?". Most highly-ranked research priorities varied across the life course and highlighted key aspects of scaling up coverage of integrated interventions in resource-limited settings, including: workforce and capacity development, cost-effectiveness and strategies to reduce financial barriers, and quality assessment of programs
Sharma, Renee; Gaffey, Michelle F; Alderman, Harold; Bassani, Diego G; Bogard, Kimber; Darmstadt, Gary L; Das, Jai K; de Graft–Johnson, Joseph E; Hamadani, Jena D; Horton, Susan; Huicho, Luis; Hussein, Julia; Lye, Stephen; Pérez–Escamilla, Rafael; Proulx, Kerrie; Marfo, Kofi; Mathews–Hanna, Vanessa; Mclean, Mireille S; Rahman, Atif; Silver, Karlee L; Singla, Daisy R; Webb, Patrick; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Background Existing health and nutrition services present potential platforms for scaling up delivery of early childhood development (ECD) interventions within sensitive windows across the life course, especially in the first 1000 days from conception to age 2 years. However, there is insufficient knowledge on how to optimize implementation for such strategies in an integrated manner. In light of this knowledge gap, we aimed to systematically identify a set of integrated implementation research priorities for health, nutrition and early child development within the 2015 to 2030 timeframe of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Methods We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative method, and consulted a diverse group of global health experts to develop and score 57 research questions against five criteria: answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, impact, and effect on equity. These questions were ranked using a research priority score, and the average expert agreement score was calculated for each question. Findings The research priority scores ranged from 61.01 to 93.52, with a median of 82.87. The average expert agreement scores ranged from 0.50 to 0.90, with a median of 0.75. The top–ranked research question were: i) “How can interventions and packages to reduce neonatal mortality be expanded to include ECD and stimulation interventions?”; ii) “How does the integration of ECD and MNCAH&N interventions affect human resource requirements and capacity development in resource–poor settings?”; and iii) “How can integrated interventions be tailored to vulnerable refugee and migrant populations to protect against poor ECD and MNCAH&N outcomes?”. Most highly–ranked research priorities varied across the life course and highlighted key aspects of scaling up coverage of integrated interventions in resource–limited settings, including: workforce and capacity development, cost–effectiveness and strategies to reduce financial
Golubović, Špela; Marković, Jasminka; Perović, Lidija
Early intervention implies a model of support focused on a child, family and a broader community from early childhood. The aim of this study was to analyze the elements of the successful early intervention in childhood, as well as to assess the role of a special educator and rehabilitator and level of their involvement in implementing the program on the territory of Novi Sad. The study sample included 100 parents of children with disabilities (aged 3-7), who completed the questionnaire designed for the purposes of this research, based on a similar questionnaire design. Speech delay is one of the most common reasons (over 50%) why parents seek professional help. By the end of the first year of life of their child, 43% of parents responded that they had noticed the first problems, that is, a problem was identified in 25% of children of this age group, and the same number was included in the treatment. About 55% of children were involved in organized treatment from 3 years of age onwards. Special educators and rehabilitators are usually involved in treatment when the team consists of three or more professionals. It is necessary to improve early intervention services, to educate staff, and provide conditions which would make it possible to overcome the existing disadvantages in treating children from an early age. In addition, the involvement of special education and rehabilitation professionals in treatment teams since children's early age is vital.
Lerch, C; Meissner, T
Nutritional rickets is a disease of growing children leading to bone deformities, bone pain, convulsions or delayed motor development. Today, high-incidence of nutritional rickets is mainly found in low-income countries. To assess the effects of various interventions on the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and reference lists of relevant articles. We contacted authors of studies or reviews to obtain further studies. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled clinical trials, controlled clinical trials or prospective cohort studies comparing any intervention for the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children with placebo or no intervention. Minimum duration of the intervention was three months for children under 12 months or six months for children over 12 months. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Authors of studies were contacted to obtain missing information. Four studies enrolled approximately 1700 participants. Trials lasted between nine months to two years. Three studies were randomised controlled trials, two of which showed a cluster randomised design; one trial probably was a controlled trial with researcher controlled group assignment. In children up to three years of age in Turkey, Vitamin D compared to no intervention showed a relative risk of 0.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0 to 0.71). Despite a marked non-compliance, a Chinese trial in children up to three years of age comparing a combined intervention of supplementation of vitamin D, calcium and nutritional counseling showed a relative risk of 0.76 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.95) compared to no intervention. In two studies conducted in older children in China and in France no rickets occurred in both the intervention and control group. There a only few studies on the prevention of nutritional rickets in term born children. Until
Bond, G R; Drake, R E; Luciano, A
Young adults with early psychosis want to pursue normal roles - education and employment. This paper summarises the empirical literature on the effectiveness of early intervention programmes for employment and education outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of employment/education outcomes for early intervention programmes, distinguishing three programme types: (1) those providing supported employment, (2) those providing unspecified vocational services and (3) those without vocational services. We summarised findings for 28 studies. Eleven studies evaluated early intervention programmes providing supported employment. In eight studies that reported employment outcomes separately from education outcomes, the employment rate during follow-up for supported employment patients was 49%, compared with 29% for patients receiving usual services. The two groups did not differ on enrolment in education. In four controlled studies, meta-analysis showed that the employment rate for supported employment participants was significantly higher than for control participants, odds ratio = 3.66 [1.93-6.93], p < 0.0001. Five studies (four descriptive and one quasi-experimental) of early intervention programmes evaluating unspecified vocational services were inconclusive. Twelve studies of early intervention programmes without vocational services were methodologically heterogeneous, using diverse methods for evaluating vocational/educational outcomes and precluding a satisfactory meta-analytic synthesis. Among studies with comparison groups, 7 of 11 (64%) reported significant vocational/education outcomes favouring early intervention over usual services. In early intervention programmes, supported employment moderately increases employment rates but not rates of enrolment in education. These improvements are in addition to the modest effects early programmes alone have on vocational/educational outcomes compared with usual services.
The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players.
Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael
This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.
Ramakrishnan, Usha; Grant, Frederick; Goldenberg, Tamar; Zongrone, Amanda; Martorell, Reynaldo
Current understanding of biologic processes indicates that women's nutritional status before and during early pregnancy may play an important role in determining early developmental processes and ensuring successful pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for the impact of maternal nutrition before and during early pregnancy (<12 weeks gestation) on maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes and included 45 articles (nine intervention trials and 32 observational studies) that were identified through PubMed and EMBASE database searches and examining review articles. Intervention trials and observational studies show that periconceptional (<12 weeks gestation) folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of neural tube defects. Observational studies suggest that preconceptional and periconceptional intake of vitamin and mineral supplements is associated with a reduced risk of delivering offspring who are low birthweight and/or small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm deliveries (PTD). Some studies report that indicators of maternal prepregnancy size, low stature, underweight and overweight are associated with increased risks of PTD and SGA. The available data indicate the importance of women's nutrition prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, but there is a need for well-designed prospective studies and controlled trials in developing country settings that examine relationships with low birthweight, SGA, PTD, stillbirth and maternal and neonatal mortality. The knowledge gaps that need to be addressed include the evaluation of periconceptional interventions such as food supplements, multivitamin-mineral supplements and/or specific micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, vitamin B-6 and B-12) as well as the relationship between measures of prepregnancy body size and composition and maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Scarpato, Elena; Staiano, Annamaria; Molteni, Massimo; Terrone, Gaetano; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Agostoni, Carlo
Cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with the presence of feeding disorders in almost 60% of the affected children with subsequent undernutrition reported in up to 46% of the subjects. Since undernutrition may have a detrimental impact on physical and cognitive development, the introduction of an adequate nutritional support should always be considered in children with neurological impairment. The aim of the present review is to provide a practical guide to the assessment of nutritional status in children with CP, in order to identify individuals at risk for malnutrition that need the introduction of an adequate and personalized nutritional support. This review summarizes the methods for the evaluation of oral-motor function, anthropometric parameters, body composition and energy balance in children with CP. Moreover, we reviewed the indications for the introduction of nutritional support, and the suggested modalities of intervention.
Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Abo Al Fotoh, Mohammad Nagib; Elibehidy, Rabab Mohamed; Ramadan, Shreen Magdy Ahmad; Mohammad, Ehab Mohammady
To evaluate the impact of nutritional knowledge following interventional educational sessions in chronic dialysis patients, we studied 40 children on chronic regular hemodialysis (HD) at the beginning and after six months of nutrition educational sessions using a predesigned questionnaire. We also measured the anthropometric parameters of nutrition to evaluate the impact of this education on the health of patients. We found a highly statistically significant increase in patients' scores and in adequate knowledge using the questionnaire after the educational sessions. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in body mass index and weight after educational sessions for six months. Moreover, there were no significant decreases in serum phosphorus, ferritin, iron and creatinine, in contrast with no significant increase in hemoglobin, serum calcium, blood urea nitrogen and serum albumin. We conclude that nutritional education is significantly effective with regard to the level of knowledge, but not with regard to the attitude and practice in children on chronic HD.
Santana Porbén, S
A design proposal for a HQCAS Hospital Quality Control and Assessment System of the nutritional and feeding care processes conducted in a hospital environment is presented in this article. The design proposal is accompanied of the results of inspections conducted by the hospital NST Nutritional Support Group between 2005-2010. The system design includes quality policies that should rule the useful and safe conduction of such processes, the recording and documentary foundations of the System, and the quality control and assessment exercises for the continuous verification of such established policies. The current state of the conduction of these processes was documented from secondary records opened by the NST after satisfying consultation requests from the medical care teams of the institution. Inspections conducted by the NST revealed that less than half of clinical charts contained information minimally enough for elaborating nutritional judgments, almost one-fifth of the assisted patients were on Nils Per Oris, for whom no nutritional support schemes were prescribed, and a low prescription and usage of artificial nutrition schemes. Corrective measures adopted by the NST served to significantly increase the rates of successful completion of inspected processes. Quality assurance of feeding and nutritional care processes is a practical as well as an intellectual activity subjected to constant remodeling, in order to always warrant the fulfillment of quality policies advanced by the NST, and thus, that the patient benefits from the prescribed nutritional intervention strategy.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the psychosocial changes reported by participants in a nutrition education intervention in the Lower Mississippi Delta. The psychosocial constructs such as decisional balance (DB), self-efficacy (SE), and social support (SS) are correlated with fruit and ve...
Heller, Tamar; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana
A scoping review of studies on physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Searches included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1986 through July 2006. The final number included 11 articles comprising 12 studies. Generally, this review indicated some…
The objective of our study was to determine the effectiveness of two nutrition interventions targeting women's social/civic organizations in the Lower Mississippi Delta. Diffusion of Innovation theory and the RE-AIM structured framework for program development and evaluation guided the 6-month MCHL ...
Eating disorders in young women are often associated with a number of comorbid conditions, including mood disorders and cognitive problems. Although group therapy is often used as part of overall treatment for eating disorders in many types of settings, specific nutritional interventions used in such settings have rarely been evaluated. In this…
Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...
Simpson, Cynthia G.; Swicegood, Philip R.; Gaus, Mark D.
With the recent rise of childhood obesity, teaching children with developmental disabilities about healthful lifestyle choices has important implications for special educators. Designing instructional interventions for children with developmental disabilities in the areas of nutrition and weight management poses challenges to educators, who must…
Bandayrel, Kristofer; Wong, Sharon
Objective: Nutrition interventions may play an important role in maintaining the health and quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. To the authors' knowledge, no systematic literature review has been conducted on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions in the community-dwelling older adult population. Design: Systematic literature…
Sharma, Yogesh; Thompson, Campbell; Miller, Michelle; Shahi, Rashmi; Hakendorf, Paul; Horwood, Chris; Kaambwa, Billingsley
Prevalence of malnutrition in older hospitalized patients is 30%. Malnutrition is associated with poor clinical outcomes in terms of high morbidity and mortality and is costly for hospitals. Extended nutrition interventions improve clinical outcomes but limited studies have investigated whether these interventions are cost-effective. In this randomized controlled trial, 148 malnourished general medical patients ≥60 years were recruited and randomized to receive either an extended nutritional intervention or usual care. Nutrition intervention was individualized and started with 24 h of admission and was continued for 3 months post-discharge with a monthly telephone call whereas control patients received usual care. Nutrition status was confirmed by Patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was measured using EuroQoL 5D (EQ-5D-5 L) questionnaire at admission and at 3-months follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted for the primary outcome (incremental costs per unit improvement in PG-SGA) while a cost-utility analysis (CUA) was undertaken for the secondary outcome (incremental costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained). Nutrition status and HRQoL improved in intervention patients. Mean per included patient Australian Medicare costs were lower in intervention group compared to control arm (by $907) but these differences were not statistically significant (95% CI: -$2956 to $4854). The main drivers of higher costs in the control group were higher inpatient ($13,882 versus $13,134) and drug ($838 versus $601) costs. After adjusting outcomes for baseline differences and repeated measures, the intervention was more effective than the control with patients in this arm reporting QALYs gained that were higher by 0.0050 QALYs gained per patient (95% CI: -0.0079 to 0.0199). The probability of the intervention being cost-effective at willingness to pay values as low as $1000 per unit
Penesová, A; Dean, Z; Kollár, B; Havranová, A; Imrich, R; Vlček, M; Rádiková, Ž
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In addition to the genetic, epigenetic and immunological components, various other factors e.g. unhealthy dietary habits play a role in the MS pathogenesis. Dietary intervention is a highly appealing approach, as it presents a simple and relatively low risk method to potentially improve outcomes in patients with brain disorders in order to achieve remission and improvement of clinical status, well-being and life expectancy of patients with MS. The importance of saturated fat intake restriction for the clinical status improvement of MS patients was pointed for the first time in 1950s. Recently, decreased risk of first clinical diagnosis of CNS demyelination associated with higher intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids particularly originating from fish was reported. Only few clinical trials have been performed to address the question of the role of dietary intervention, such is e.g. low saturated fat diet in MS treatment. This review summarizes current knowledge about the effect of different dietary approaches (diets low in saturated fat and dietary supplements such as fish oil, lipoic acid, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, seeds oils, high fiber diet, vitamin D, etc.) on neurological signs, patient's well-being, physical and inflammatory status. So far the results are not conclusive, therefore much more research is needed to confirm and to understand the effectiveness of these dietary interventions in the long term and well defined studies.
Belski, Regina; Donaldson, Alex; Staley, Kiera; Skiadopoulos, Anne; Randle, Erica; O'Halloran, Paul; Kappelides, Pam; Teakel, Steve; Stanley, Sonya; Nicholson, Matthew
This study evaluated the impact of a brief (20-min) nutrition education intervention embedded in an existing mandatory coach education course for coaches of junior (8-12 years old) Australian football teams. A total of 284 coaches (68% of 415 coaching course participants) completed a presession questionnaire, and 110 coaches (27% of coaching course participants) completed an identical postsession questionnaire. The responses to the pre- and postsession surveys were matched for 78 coaches. Coaches' ratings of their own understanding of the nutritional needs of young athletes (6.81, 8.95; p < .001), the importance of young athletes adhering to a healthy diet (9.09, 9.67; p = .001), their confidence in their own nutrition knowledge (7.24, 8.64; p < .001), and their confidence in advising young athletes on nutrition and hydration practices (6.85, 8.62; p < .001), all significantly improved following the education session. Nearly all coaches (>95%) provided a correct response to six of the 15 nutrition and hydration knowledge questions included in the presession questionnaire. Even with this high level of presession knowledge, there was a significant improvement in the coaches' nutrition and hydration knowledge after the education session across five of the 15 items, compared with before the education session. The results of this study suggest that a simple, short nutrition education intervention, embedded in an existing coach education course, can positively influence the nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy of community-level, volunteer coaches of junior sports participants.
Meyyazhagan, Swarnalatha; Palmer, Robert M
Early recognition of and intervention for nutritional disorders may help prevent functional disability and mortality in elderly patients. Prevention of nutritional disorders in older adults is often multidimensional and may require multidisciplinary collaboration. Proactive education of the older adult, early recognition of nutritional deficiencies, and rectification of the nutritional disorders are the keys to achieving ideal nutritional status in elders and enabling them to achieve successful aging.
Reynolds, Arthur J.
Although early intervention programs have enjoyed popular and legislative support, little hard data exist on the long-term consequences of these efforts. This study examined the long-term effects of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) program in Chicago. Begun in 1967, the program operates out of 24 centers, located in proximity to the elementary…
Haber, Julian S.
This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…
Snowling, Margaret J.
This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and…
Khetani, Mary Alunkal
Participation in the natural settings of home and community is one of four major goals for families receiving Part C early intervention services. While participation has been formally recognized as an important service-related outcome, there is a need to build knowledge about its key features to adequately apply the concept in practice. The need…
This paper reviews the American Association on Mental Retardation's (AAMR's) presentation of issues surrounding the field of early intervention. AAMR's publications are the primary sources of information in the paper. Specific sections address: (1) the impact of public laws on the rights of children and families to a free and appropriate public…
Evans, Joyce; Bricker, Donna
The fourth of seven modules for professionals working with young (birth to age 3) handicapped children provides information on equipment, materials, and activities in early intervention. Background information discusses ways to catalog materials and equipment and describes teaching approaches using toys and manipulatives. A variety of teaching…
Vander Schee, Brian A.
The number of studies conducted on college-student attrition is overwhelming. But few examine the impact of adding an early-intervention assessment tool to existing retention programs. Too often, colleges and universities conduct initiatives with similar purposes as disconnected efforts; retention programs in particular can benefit from a more…
King, Gillian; Strachan, Deborah; Tucker, Michelle; Duwyn, Betty; Desserud, Sharon; Shillington, Monique
This article reviews the literature on the transdisciplinary approach to early intervention services and identifies the essential elements of this approach. A practice model describing the implementation of the approach is then presented, based on the experiences of staff members in a home visiting program for infants that has been in existence…
Grotberg, Edith H.
Deprivation may take many forms: malnutrition, understimulation or overstimulation, limited language or social-emotional experiences, and others. The more extended the time of the deprivation, the greater the problem of amelioration. Research has shown that children who experienced deprivations do respond to early intervention and improve their…
Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara
Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)
Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula
This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…
Harbin, Gloria L.; Bruder, Mary Beth; Adams, Candace; Mazzarella, Cynthia; Whitbread, Kathy; Gabbard, Glenn; Staff, Ilene
Effective implementation of service coordination in early intervention, as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, remains a challenge for most states. The present study provides a better understanding of the various aspects of the policy infrastructure that undergird service coordination across the United States. Data from a…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko
This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…
Slaughter, Diana T.
The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…
Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.
Textbooks in developmental and abnormal psychology were examined for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence. The absence of citations to articles in refereed journals shows how research data of questionable validity can seep into the research literature without going through the journal review…
Glovinsky, Ira; Keller, Jackie
An early intervention project for preschool handicapped children is described. Specific program goals (including improved functioning in social, emotional, communication, and preacademic areas) are listed, and roles of the interdisciplinary staff members are considered. Among evaluation approaches discussed are psychological measures, family…
Sibieta, Luke; Kotecha, Mehul; Skipp, Amy
The Nuffield Early Language Intervention is designed to improve the spoken language ability of children during the transition from nursery to primary school. It is targeted at children with relatively poor spoken language skills. Three sessions per week are delivered to groups of two to four children starting in the final term of nursery and…
The purpose of this study was intended to investigate the current system of early intervention needs assessment in Taiwan in order to understand the problems encountered and provide the coping strategies for improving the system. Documentary analysis, phone interview and participant observation were employed in the study to collect the research…
Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret
The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…
Suchman, Nancy E.; DeCoste, Cindy L.
New developments in the treatment of mothers and infants affected by opioid addiction point to the promising effects of interventions that adopt a developmental perspective, occur concurrently with addiction treatment, and target the parent-infant relationship as early as possible. In this article, the authors provide general guidelines for…
Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley
Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…
Edwards, Nicole Megan; Gallagher, Peggy A.
In 1 state's Part C early intervention (EI) program, families are afforded a unique opportunity to connect with parent educators (PEs), parents of children who have received EI services, and who are trained to support EI families and staff with a range of tailored duties. In an effort to continually reflect and improve upon the role of PEs, the…
At age 3, children with hearing loss transition from Part C early intervention to Part B public school services. These children represent a heterogeneous population when considering factors such as communication approaches; speech, language, auditory and cognitive skills; social-emotional and motor development; parental involvement; hearing…
Hurry, Jane; Sylva, Kathy
This study explores the long-term effectiveness of two differing models of early intervention for children with reading difficulties: Reading Recovery and a specific phonological training. Approximately 400 children were pre-tested, 95 were assigned to Reading Recovery, 97 to Phonological Training and the remainder acted as controls. In the short…
Professional training in early childhood intervention (ECI), particularly additional certificates, degrees, or continuing education, is currently a major topic within European working groups. The complexity of ECI, including medical, pedagogical, psychological, and social involvement, the need for both family- and child-centered work, and the…
Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine
The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…
Olmsted, Murrey G.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Nelson, Robin E.; Robinson, Nyle D.; Simpson, Mary Ellen; Guillen, Chelsea
In this study, the authors use data from two states to compare how families participating in early intervention who completed a Spanish version of the Family Outcomes Survey (FOS) (n = 291) compared with Hispanic (n = 486) and non-Hispanic (n = 2,363) families who completed the English version. In general, most families reported positive outcomes,…
Brown, William; Horn, Eva M.; Heiser, JoAnn G.; Odom, Samuel L.
This paper describes a model demonstration project to provide inclusive early intervention services to young children with developmental delays and their families. It notes the importance of collaborative partnerships among the significant adults in a child's life as a basis for effective program implementation. The project has three major…
Kyarkanaye, Thilendree; Dada, Shakila; Samuels, Alecia E.
A central tenant of early childhood intervention (ECI) is collaboration between professionals and the caregivers of children receiving these services. There are limited studies on caregiver perceptions of collaboration in ECI teams particularly in resource-limited countries. Sixty-four caregivers participated in this study by completing a…
Scanlon, Donna M.; Anderson, Kimberly L.; Sweeney, Joan M.
This book presents a research-supported framework for early literacy instruction that aligns with multi-tiered response-to-intervention (RTI) models. The book focuses on giving teachers a better understanding of literacy development and how to effectively support children as they begin to read and write. The authors' interactive strategies…
Parada, Patricia M.
The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…
Early intervention (EI) services are mandated by Part C of The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The EI team, a multidisciplinary team overseen by individual states, is charged with providing family-centered services to support child development in the natural environment. This article examines the use of occupational…
The purpose of this article is to provide a framework that offers a way for early intervention (EI) service providers to better meet the needs of the culturally diverse children and families they serve. This framework was created to organize existing research and literature on cultural responsiveness in a way that fit the unique context of EI. The…
Hiebert, Elfrieda H., Ed.; Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.
Presenting descriptions of seven successful emergent literacy programs, this book demonstrates that early literacy intervention programs with a focus on accelerated learning and on authentic reading and writing tasks can prevent many first-grade children from failing to learn to read. Programs described in the book focus on story book reading and…
Coling, Marcia Cain
This book presents an amalgam of early intervention ideas from the fields of education, occupational therapy, and physical therapy for children with developmental delays. An introductory chapter describes the approach's three theoretical bases: neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT), sensory integration, and Piagetian theory. Chapter 1 considers…
Dolecek, T A; Stamler, J; Caggiula, A W; Tillotson, J L; Buzzard, I M
Various dietary assessment instruments were used in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT), either to assist with the special intervention program or to assess trial outcomes. For the latter purpose, the 24-h recall was the main method and was selected with the understanding that the single recall collected at baseline and at most annual visits--considered by itself--would be useful mainly for assessing groups rather than individuals. Major components of the data collection and analysis system developed for the 24-h recall included central training and certification of nutritionists, a central nutrient coding system, and a food grouping system to assist interventionists in using recall data for counseling. Several additional nutritional assessment methods were used for men in the special intervention group only to assist them in attaining the dietary goals. These goals consisted chiefly of reduced intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and a modest increase in intake of polyunsaturated fat; total fat intake was also decreased, primarily for control of energy intake. Short-term success at attainment of these nutritional goals was evaluated by means of 3-d food records collected before the intervention and after the initial 10-wk intensive intervention period. The MRFIT nutrient goals, which became more vigorous at certain points in the trial, were translated into food patterns. Adherence to these food patterns was also assessed by scoring of 3-d records and by subjective evaluation by nutritionists throughout the trial. Methods of collecting other trial data are also described in this chapter.
Geeganage, Chamila; Beavan, Jessica; Ellender, Sharon; Bath, Philip M W
; OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.46; P < 0.0001; I(2) = 0%) and behavioural interventions (t = 5; n = 423; OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.88; P = 0.01; I(2) = 22%). Route of feeding: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding did not differ for case fatality or the composite outcome of death or dependency, but PEG was associated with fewer treatment failures (t = 3; n = 72; OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.51; P = 0.007; I(2) = 0%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (t = 1; n = 321; OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.69; P = 0.007), and higher feed delivery (t = 1; n = 30; MD 22.00; 95% CI 16.15 to 27.85; P < 0.00001) and albumin concentration (t = 3; n = 63; MD 4.92 g/L; 95% CI 0.19 to 9.65; P = 0.04; I(2) = 58%). Although looped NGT versus conventional NGT feeding did not differ for end-of-trial case fatality or death or dependency, feed delivery was higher with looped NGT (t = 1; n = 104; MD 18.00%; 95% CI 6.66 to 29.34; P = 0.002). Timing of feeding: there was no difference for case fatality, or death or dependency, with early feeding as compared to late feeding. Fluid supplementation: there was no difference for case fatality, or death or dependency, with fluid supplementation. Nutritional supplementation: there was no difference for case fatality, or death or dependency, with nutritional supplementation. However, nutritional supplementation was associated with reduced pressure sores (t = 2; n = 4125; OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.96; P = 0.03; I(2) = 0%), and, by definition, increased energy intake (t = 3; n = 174; MD 430.18 kcal/day; 95% CI 141.61 to 718.75; P = 0.003; I(2) = 91%) and protein intake (t = 3; n = 174; MD 17.28 g/day; 95% CI 1.99 to 32.56; P = 0.03; I(2) = 92%). There remains insufficient data on the effect of swallowing therapy, feeding, and nutritional and fluid supplementation on functional outcome and death in dysphagic patients with acute or subacute stroke. Behavioural interventions and acupuncture reduced dysphagia, and pharyngeal electrical
Lennon, Joan M.
A review of literature was conducted in order to: (1) determine whether factors placing the young child at risk for school failure can be identified; (2) determine whether early family interventions and early childhood programs are effective; and (3) identify policy implications. Findings are summarized, and recommendations are offered. Research…
This technical assistance document provides guidelines for child assessment and eligibility determination for early intervention and early childhood special education programs in Oregon. An overview of the assessment process explains screening, eligibility evaluation, and assessment for the Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP). Legal requirements…
DeLorme, Autumn L; Gavenus, Erika R; Salmen, Charles R; Benard, Gor Ouma; Mattah, Brian; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Fiorella, Kathryn J
A growing body of research emphasizes the need to engage social networks in maternal and child nutrition interventions. However, an understanding of how interventions functionally engage not only mothers but fathers, grandparents, friends, and other social network members remains limited. This study uses an adaptation of a social-ecological model to analyze the multiple levels at which the Kanyakla Nutrition Program operates to change behavior. This study analyzes focus group data (four groups; n = 35, 7 men and 28 women) following the implementation of the Kanyakla Nutrition Program, a novel nutrition intervention engaging social networks to increase nutrition knowledge, shift perceptions, and promote positive practices for infant and young child feeding and community nutrition in general. Participant perspectives indicate that the Kanyakla Nutrition Program contributed to nutrition knowledge and confidence, changed perceptions, and supported infant and child feeding practices at the individual, interpersonal, and institutional levels. However, many respondents report challenges in transcending barriers at the broader community and systems levels of influence, where environmental and economic constraints continue to affect food access. Analysis of the Kanyakla Nutrition Program suggests that for interventions addressing household level determinants of nutrition, simultaneously engaging the household's network of interpersonal and community relationships can play a role in building momentum and consensus to address persistent structural barriers to improved nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie
Nourishing the young child can be a challenge. This stage of life is critical to the development of positive attitudes toward maintaining a healthy diet and learning to make reasonable food choices. Educators of young children are often the gatekeepers of child nutrition. This article reports on the current nutrient needs of young children,…
Narzisi, Antonio; García-Primo, Patricia; Kawa, Rafal
Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1) analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2) provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes. PMID:29194420
Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.
Because the development of healthy eating and physical activity habits during early childhood can prevent disease and support a lifetime of good health, nutrition services are a critical component of early childhood programs. This publication provides guidance to preschool programs to help them meet the Connecticut state goal of practicing…
Chanen, Andrew M; Berk, Michael; Thompson, Katherine
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid construct in young people (adolescents and young adults). Both borderline- and mood-related psychopathology become clinically apparent from puberty through to young adulthood, frequently co-occur, can reinforce one another, and can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This Gordian knot of overlapping clinical features, common risk factors, and precursors to both BPD and mood disorders complicates clinical assessment, prevention, and treatment. Regardless of whether an individual crosses an arbitrary diagnostic threshold, a considerable proportion of young people with borderline- and mood-related psychopathology will develop significant and persistent functional, vocational, and interpersonal impairment and disability during this critical risk and developmental period. There is a clear need for early intervention, but spurious diagnostic certainty risks stigma, misapplication of diagnostic labels, inappropriate treatment, and unfavorable outcomes. This article aims to integrate early intervention for BPD and mood disorders in the clinical context of developmental and phenomenological change and evolution. "Clinical staging," similar to disease staging in general medicine, is presented as a pragmatic, heuristic, and trans-diagnostic framework to guide prevention and intervention. It acknowledges that the early stages of these disorders cannot be disentangled sufficiently to allow for disorder-specific preventive measures and early interventions. Clinical staging defines an individual's location along the continuum of the evolving temporal course of a disorder. Such staging aids differentiation of early or milder clinical phenomena from those that accompany illness progression and chronicity, and suggests the application of appropriate and proportionate intervention strategies.
Gersten, Russell; Jordan, Nancy C; Flojo, Jonathan R
This article highlights key findings from the small body of research on mathematics difficulties (MD) relevant to early identification and early intervention. The research demonstrates that (a) for many children, mathematics difficulties are not stable over time; (b) the presence of reading difficulties seems related to slower progress in many aspects of mathematics; (c) almost all students with MD demonstrate problems with accurate and automatic retrieval of basic arithmetic combinations, such as 6 + 3. The following measures appear to be valid and reliable indicators of potential MD in kindergartners: (a) magnitude comparison (i.e., knowing which digit in a pair is larger), (b) sophistication of counting strategies, (c) fluent identification of numbers, and (d) working memory (as evidenced by reverse digit span). These are discussed in terms of the components of number sense. Implications for early intervention strategies are explored.
McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A
This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A
Aims This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. Methods The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. Results After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Conclusions Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. PMID:24354855
Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L
. In the future, dietary modification/diversification, although long term, may be the preferred strategy because it is more sustainable, economically feasible, culturally acceptable, and equitable, and can be used to alleviate several micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously, without danger of inducing antagonistic micronutrient interactions. Appropriate dietary strategies include consumption of zinc-dense foods and those known to enhance zinc absorption, reducing the phytic acid content of plant based staples via enzymic hydrolysis induced by germination/fermentation or nonenzymic hydrolysis by soaking or thermal processing. All the strategies outlined above should be integrated with ongoing national food, nutrition and health education programmes, to enhance their effectiveness and sustainability, and implemented using nutrition education and social marketing techniques. Ultimately the success of any approach for combating zinc deficiency depends on strong advocacy, top level commitment, a stable infrastructure, long term financial support and the capacity to control quality and monitor and enforce compliance at the national or regional level. To be cost effective, costs for these strategies must be shared by industry, government, donors and consumers.
Kaltsa, Maria; Garoufi, Anastasia; Tsitsika, Artemis; Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Kossiva, Lydia
This study assessed the presence of specific antibodies for coeliac disease in outpatients suffering from eating disorders before and after nutritional intervention. We also evaluated whether those patients should undergo regular screening for coeliac disease. The sample consisted of 154 patients with a mean age of 16.7 years - ranging from one to 19 years of age - suffering from eating disorders. Serology screening for coeliac disease and total immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels was evaluated in the 154 children before the nutritional intervention and in 104 patients after the intervention. The patients consumed an adequate amount of gluten in both phases. Postintervention evaluation revealed that 92 patients (88.5%) achieved a normal body weight, while the remaining 12 (11.5%) became obese. Postprandial abdominal discomfort and pain were resolved. The serology tests were negative in all patients, before and after intervention. None displayed IgA deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first prospective study where patients underwent a screening serology for coeliac disease before and after nutritional intervention. No indication of the coexistence of eating disorders and coeliac disease was documented, and the patients in our study were unlikely to require regular screening for coeliac disease. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Arroyo-Sebastián, Antonio; Cheikh-Moussa, Kamila; Moya-Forcen, Pedro
Introducción: Preoperative nutritional status (NS) has consequences on postoperative (POSTOP) recovery. Our aim was to systematically review the nutritional interventions (NI) in Fast-Track protocols for colorectal cancer surgery and assess morbidity-mortality and patient´s recovery. Systematic review of scientific literature after consulting bibliographic databases: Medline, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Institute for Scientific Information, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. MeSH Descriptors: "Colorectal Surgery", "Fast-Track", "Perioperative Care", "Nutrition Therapy" and "Enhanced recovery programme". Filters: "Humans", Adult (19+ years) and "Clinical Trial". Variables POSTOP outcomes: bowel recovery (BR), hospital stay (HS), complications and death. Selected studies, 27, had good or excellent methodological quality. From 25 to 597 patients were included. Aged between 16-94 years, men were predominant in 66.6%. NS was evaluated in 13 studies; 7 by Body Mass Index while one by Subjective Global Assessment. One presented POSTOP data. Fast-Track groups had solids, liquids or supplements (SS) in prior 2-8 hours. SS were high in carbohydrates, immune-nutrients and non-residue. Free liquids, solids and SS intake was allowed in POSTOP. Half traditional groups fasted between 3-12 hours and resumed POSTOP food intake progressively. Fast-Track groups had early BR (p < 0.01). Traditional groups had more infections episodes, deaths and a longer HS. Great variability between NI but had a common item; early intake. Although was seen patient's recovery. Future studies with detailed NI characteristics are need. Nutritional status must be assessed for a higher acknowledgement of NI impact.
Langius, Jacqueline A E; Zandbergen, Myrna C; Eerenstein, Simone E J; van Tulder, Maurits W; Leemans, C René; Kramer, Mark H H; Weijs, Peter J M
We performed a systematic review to examine the effect of nutritional interventions on nutritional status, quality of life (QoL) and mortality in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) receiving radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Cinahl from inception through January 3rd, 2012 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from a broad range of nutritional interventions in patients with HNSCC during (chemo)radiotherapy. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Of 1141 titles identified, 12 study reports were finally included, describing 10 different studies with 11 interventions. Four out of 10 studies examined the effects of individualized dietary counseling, and showed significant benefits on nutritional status and QOL compared to no counseling or general nutritional advice by a nurse (p < 0.05). Three studies on oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were inconsistent about the effect on nutritional status compared with no supplementation. One study showed that nasogastric tube feeding had beneficial effects on nutritional status compared to ONS, but not in all patient groups (p < 0.04). One study showed benefits of percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG) feeding on nutritional status shortly after RT compared with nasogastric feeding (p = 0.001). Two studies showed that prophylactic PEG feeding was not superior over tube feeding if required. This review shows beneficial effects of individualized dietary counseling on nutritional status and QoL, compared to no counseling or standard nutritional advice. Effects of ONS and tube feeding were inconsistent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Hedström, Margareta; Ljungqvist, Olle; Cederholm, Tommy
Patients suffering from hip fracture are known to be at risk of catabolism and protein-energy malnutrition. In this review we discuss the pathogenesis of hip fracture-related catabolism per- and postoperatively. We also describe the consequences of malnutrition after a hip fracture and summarize studies that have evaluated the effect of nutritional or anabolic treatment of these patients. There has been relatively little published on the effects of nutritional and anabolic pharmacological interventions for improvement of nutritional status and on the role of nutritional status in clinical outcomes. Even so, there have been 19 randomized studies in this field. 12 studies evaluated nutritional supplementation or protein supplementation. 6 found improved clinical outcome with fewer complications, faster recovery and shorter length of hospital stay, whereas the others reported no difference in clinical outcome. For pharmacological interventions, the outcomes have been even less clear. Supplementation studies in general appear to be underpowered or suffer logistic problems. Studies of higher scientific quality are needed, and enteral feeding, anabolic treatment and multimodal approaches need to be evaluated in greater depth.
Nour, Monica; Yeung, Sin Hang; Partridge, Stephanie; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret
The increased popularity of social media and mobile gaming among young adults provides an opportunity for innovative nutrition programs. This review evaluated the efficacy of these strategies in interventions targeted at 18- to 35-year-olds. The protocol was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ten scientific databases, information technology conference proceedings, and gray literature were searched. Two reviewers conducted screening, data extraction, and quality assessments. Interventions were included if they used social media or electronic games. Comparisons were made pre- to post-intervention, or between intervention and control arms. Outcomes of interest included change in nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behavior, or weight and/or body composition. Eleven social media-based (randomized controlled trials [RCT] n=7) and six game-based [RCT n=1]) interventions were included. Overall quality of studies was low. Social media-based strategies included forum/blogs (n=5), Facebook (n=5), Twitter (n=1), YouTube (n=1), and chat rooms (n=1). Eight (RCT n=6) of 11 social media-based studies demonstrated improvements in outcomes. Findings suggested that social media may be more effective when combined with other strategies. Virtual reality games (n=3), web-based games (n=2), and a mobile application (n=1) were used in the gaming interventions. While a significant increase in knowledge was reported by three gaming studies (RCT=1), two used nonvalidated tools and longer-term measures of weight and behavioral outcomes were limited. The use of social media and gaming for nutrition promotion is in its infancy. Preliminary evidence suggests that these strategies have some utility for intervening with young adults. Further research using high-quality study designs is required, with measurement of outcomes over longer time periods. The systematic review protocol is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42015025427
Fernández Hernández, Ileana Sonia; Santana Porbén, Sergio
Every medical surgical action implies costs. Costs of medical provisions should be translated into tangible, and thus, measurable, benefits for the health status of the patient. Nutritional support therapies might increase the costs of medical provisions, but it is expected their implementation to result in lower morbidity and mortality rates as well as shortening of hospital stay, all of them leading to important savings. It is then required the assimilation of tools for costs analysis for a better management of nutritional support therapies. A proposal for the design of a hospital system (regarded anywhere in this text as SHACOST) for the analysis of the costs of interventions conducted in a patient in accordance with the guidelines included in the Metabolic, Nutrient and Food Intervention Program (referred everywhere for its Spanish acronym PRINUMA) is presented in this article. Hence, strategies are described to estimate the costs of a specified intervention. In addition, a primer on cost-effectiveness (ACE) and incremental cost-effectiveness (ACEI) analyses is shown relying on examples taken from the authors's experience in the provision of nutritional care to patients electively operated for a colorectal cancer. Finally, costs of surgical treatment of a mandibular tumor are described, followed by a discussion on how a better impact of the adopted surgical action could be achieved without considerable increases in total costs should a perioperatory nutritional support program be included. Implementation of SHACOST can provide the medical care teams with accounting tools required to assess the effectiveness of hospital nutritional support schemes, decide whether to acquire and introduce new technologies, and measure the impact of the performance of hospital forms for provision of nutritional care upon health management and perceived quality of life of the patient and their relatives. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights
Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.
Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133
Ajie, Whitney N; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M
The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate recent research regarding the use of computer-based nutrition education interventions targeting adolescent overweight and obesity. Online databases were systematically searched using key words, and bibliographies of related articles were manually searched. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied and included studies evaluated for their ability to achieve their objectives and for quality using the Nutrition Evidence Library appraisal guidelines for research design and implementation. Of the 15 studies included, 10 were randomized controlled trials. Two studies targeted weight loss, 2 targeted weight maintenance, and 11 targeted dietary improvement with or without physical activity. At least half of in-school (60%) and nonschool interventions (80%) exhibited significantly positive effects on nutrition- or obesity-related variables. Small changes in diet, physical activity, knowledge, and self-efficacy were shown; however, few results were sustained long term. Recommendations included application of health behavior theory and computer tailoring for feedback messages. Future research should include thorough description of intervention content (messages, theory, multimedia, etc.), application of rigorous methodology, as well as consideration of covariates such as parental involvement and gender. With further research and evidentiary support, this approach to obesity-related nutrition education has the potential to be successful. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pravosudov, Vladimir V; Lavenex, Pierre; Omanska, Alicja
Development rates vary among individuals, often as a result of direct competition for food. Survival of young might depend on their learning abilities, but it remains unclear whether learning abilities are affected by nutrition during development. The authors demonstrated that compared with controls, 1-year-old Western scrub jays (Aphelocoma californica) that experienced nutritional deficits during early posthatching development had smaller hippocampi with fewer neurons and performed worse in a cache recovery task and in a spatial version of an associative learning task. In contrast, performance of nutritionally deprived birds was similar to that of controls in 2 color versions of an associative learning task. These findings suggest that nutritional deficits during early development have long-term consequences for hippocampal structure and spatial memory, which, in turn, are likely to have a strong impact on animals' future fitness.
Ashman, Amy M; Brown, Leanne J; Collins, Clare E; Rollo, Megan E; Rae, Kym M
Indigenous people continue to experience health disparities relative to non-Indigenous populations. Interventions to improve nutrition during pregnancy in these groups may improve health outcomes for mothers and their infants. The effectiveness of existing nutrition intervention programs has not been reviewed previously. The objective was to identify interventions targeting improving nutrition-related outcomes for pregnant Indigenous women residing in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, and to identify positive factors contributing to successful programs. Thirteen electronic databases were searched up until October 2015. Key words identified studies intervening to improve nutrition-related outcomes for pregnant Indigenous women. Two reviewers assessed articles for inclusion and study quality and extracted data. Only studies published in English were included. Data were summarized narratively. Abstracts and titles were screened (n=2,566) and 315 full texts were reviewed for eligibility. This review included 27 articles from 20 intervention programs from Australia, Canada, and the United States. The most prevalent measurable outcomes were birth weight (n=9) and breastfeeding initiation/duration (n=11). Programs with statistically significant results for these outcomes employed the following nutrition activities: individual counseling/education (n=8); delivery by senior Indigenous woman (n=2), peer counselor (n=3), or other Indigenous health worker (n=4); community-wide interventions (n=2); media campaigns (n=2); delivery by non-Indigenous health professional (n=3); and home visits (n=3). Heterogeneity of included studies made it challenging to make firm recommendations regarding program success. Authors of included studies recommended community consultation be included when designing studies and working with communities at all stages of the research process. Individualized counseling/education can contribute to successful program
Storbeck, Claudine; Pittman, Paula
Since little information is available on the outcome of early hearing intervention programs in South Africa, this article examines data on infants and families registered with a family-centred, home-based intervention program (HI HOPES) over a 12-month period in order to track the effectiveness of the holistic unbiased support to families of infants and toddlers with a hearing-loss. The aim of HI HOPES, which is based on the SKI-HI model of early intervention in the USA, is to ensure that families are enabled to make informed choices for their unique infant. Data were gathered on 32 infants ages birth to three years and their families using both qualitative and quantitative measures which included analysis of demographic data, quarterly language assessments, and parent satisfaction surveys. The report on the pilot year of this early intervention program shows that, though the sample is small, there is significant improvement in infant receptive and expressive language for infants identified before seven months of age, as well as a high level of satisfaction from families who have received services.
Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel
Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Matthews, Anne; Dowswell, Therese; Haas, David M; Doyle, Mary; O’Mathúna, Dónal P
Background Nausea, retching and vomiting are very commonly experienced by women in early pregnancy. There are considerable physical and psychological effects on women who experience these symptoms. This is an update of a review of interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy previously published in 2003. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of all interventions for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy, up to 20 weeks’ gestation. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (28 May 2010). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials of any intervention for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy. We excluded trials of interventions for hyperemesis gravidarum which are covered by another review. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials and trials using a crossover design. Data collection and analysis Four review authors, in pairs, reviewed the eligibility of trials and independently evaluated the risk of bias and extracted the data for included trials. Main results Twenty-seven trials, with 4041 women, met the inclusion criteria. These trials covered many interventions, including acupressure, acustimulation, acupuncture, ginger, vitamin B6 and several antiemetic drugs. We identified no studies of dietary or other lifestyle interventions. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of P6 acupressure, auricular (ear) acupressure and acustimulation of the P6 point was limited. Acupuncture (P6 or traditional) showed no significant benefit to women in pregnancy. The use of ginger products may be helpful to women, but the evidence of effectiveness was limited and not consistent. There was only limited evidence from trials to support the use of pharmacological agents including vitamin B6, and anti-emetic drugs to relieve mild or moderate nausea and vomiting. There was little information on maternal and fetal adverse outcomes and on psychological, social or economic outcomes. We
Wicks, K M
This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.
Ronto, Rimante; Wu, Jason Hy; Singh, Gitanjali M
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have increased dramatically in developed and developing countries. Unhealthy diet is one of the major factors contributing to NCD development. Recent evidence has identified deterioration in aspects of dietary quality across many world regions, including low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Most burdens of disease attributable to poor diet can be prevented or delayed as they occur prematurely. Therefore, it is important to identify and target unhealthy dietary behaviours in order to have the greatest impact. National dietary-related programmes have traditionally focused on micronutrient deficiency and food security and failed to acknowledge unhealthy dietary intakes as a risk factor that contributes to the development of NCD. Inadequate intakes of healthy foods and nutrients and excess intakes of unhealthy ones are commonly observed across the world, and efforts to reduce the double burden of micronutrient deficiency and unhealthy diets should be a particular focus for LMIC. Interventions and policies targeting whole populations are likely to be the most effective and sustainable, and should be prioritized. Population-based approaches such as health information and communication campaigns, fiscal measures such as taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages, direct restrictions and mandates, reformulation and improving the nutrient profile of food products, and standards regulating marketing to children can have significant and large impacts to improve diets and reduce the incidence of NCD. There is a need for more countries to implement population-based effective approaches to improve current diets.
Hennig, Bernhard; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Jandacek, Ronald J.; Koo, Sung; McClain, Craig; Seifried, Harold; Silverstone, Allen; Watkins, Bruce; Suk, William A.
Background Nutrition and lifestyle are well-defined modulators of chronic diseases. Poor dietary habits (such as high intake of processed foods rich in fat and low intake of fruits and vegetables), as well as a sedentary lifestyle clearly contribute to today’s compromised quality of life in the United States. It is becoming increasingly clear that nutrition can modulate the toxicity of environmental pollutants. Objectives Our goal in this commentary is to discuss the recommendation that nutrition should be considered a necessary variable in the study of human disease associated with exposure to environmental pollutants. Discussion Certain diets can contribute to compromised health by being a source of exposure to environmental toxic pollutants. Many of these pollutants are fat soluble, and thus fatty foods often contain higher levels of persistent organics than does vegetable matter. Nutrition can dictate the lipid milieu, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status within cells. The modulation of these parameters by an individual’s nutritional status may have profound affects on biological processes, and in turn influence the effects of environmental pollutants to cause disease or dysfunction. For example, potential adverse health effects associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls may increase as a result of ingestion of certain dietary fats, whereas ingestion of fruits and vegetables, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients or bioactive compounds, may provide protection. Conclusions We recommend that future directions in environmental health research explore this nutritional paradigm that incorporates a consideration of the relationships between nutrition and lifestyle, exposure to environmental toxicants, and disease. Nutritional interventions may provide the most sensible means to develop primary prevention strategies of diseases associated with many environmental toxic insults. PMID:17450213
Brown, Mary V; Flint, Matthew; Fuqua, James
To determine the effects of a nutrition information intervention on the vending machine purchases on a college campus. Five high-use vending machines were selected for the intervention, which was conducted in the fall of 2011. Baseline sales data were collected in the 5 machines prior to the intervention. At the time of the intervention, color-coded stickers were placed near each item selection to identify less healthy (red), moderately healthy (yellow), and more healthy (green) snack items. Sales data were collected during the 2-week intervention. Purchases of red- and yellow-stickered foods were reduced in most of the machines; moreover, sales of the green-stickered items increased in all of the machines. The increased purchases of healthier snack options demonstrate encouraging patterns that support more nutritious and healthy alternatives in vending machines.
Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Carbonell, Jordi; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Sanmartí, Raimon; Balsa, Alejandro; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentín; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra-Cortés, José; Lisbona, Pilar; Alperi, Mercedes; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Carmona, Loreto
To compare the outcome of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a country where early clinics were established versus the outcome of patients in nonprotocolized clinics. We compared 2 multicenter cohorts: an RA cohort derived from an early arthritis registry set in 36 reference hospitals in which a specific intervention was established (Evaluation of a Model for Arthritis Care in Spain [SERAP]), and a historical control cohort of patients with early RA attending 34 rheumatology departments (Prognosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis [PROAR] cohort). Effectiveness was tested by comparing the change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the change in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the change in the Sharp/van der Heijde radiologic score using marginal structural models. A total of 161 early RA patients were recruited in the PROAR cohort and 447 in the SERAP cohort. Being a SERAP patient was inversely correlated with activity, resulting in a decrease of -0.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.39, -0.08) units in the population average of the DAS28 after adjustment was made. Moreover, intervention may be seen as a protective factor of radiologic damage, with a decrease of -0.05 (95% CI -0.09, -0.01) units in the logarithm of the total Sharp/van der Heijde score. On the other hand, a decrease in functional impairment was detected, but intervention was not statistically associated with HAQ changes. Preventing major radiographic progression in a 2-year term inside structured and organized special programs for the management of disease, such as early arthritis clinics, are effective compared to nonprotocolized referrals, treatment, and followup. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Higgins, A C; Moxley, J E; Pencharz, P B; Mikolainis, D; Dubois, S
A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program of individual nutritional assessment and rehabilitation on pregnancy outcome in a group of urban low-income women. Developed as an adjunct to routine prenatal care, the Higgins program utilizes an individualized approach to dietary treatment that combines an assessment of the risk profile for the presenting pregnancy with the application of specific nutritional rehabilitation allowances to compensate for the negative impact of diagnosed risks. This report presents results of analyses evaluating differences in birth outcomes between 552 sibling pairs; each mother had participated in the Higgins program during the pregnancy of the second-born, but not of the first-born, member of her pair. After adjustment for parity and sex, the intervention infants weighed an average of 107 gm more than their matched siblings at birth (p less than .01). The rate of low birth weight was 50% lower among the intervention infants than among their siblings (p less than .01); rates of intra-uterine growth retardation and perinatal mortality were also lower in the intervention group. The high risk of poor pregnancy outcome in this group of urban low-income women was reduced by the Higgins program.
Jacob, Raphaëlle; Lamarche, Benoît; Provencher, Véronique; Laramée, Catherine; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Drapeau, Vicky
Coaches are a major source of nutrition information and influence for young athletes. Yet, most coaches do not have training in nutrition to properly guide their athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at improving the accuracy of coaches' recommendations on sports nutrition. This was a quasi-experimental study with a comparison group and an intervention group. Measurements were made at baseline, post-intervention, and after a 2-month follow-up period. Coaches' recommendations on sports nutrition during the follow-up period were recorded in a diary. High school coaches from various sports (n=41) were randomly assigned to a comparison group or an intervention group. Both groups attended two 90-minute sessions of a theory-based intervention targeting determinants of coaches' intention to provide recommendations on sports nutrition. The intervention group further received an algorithm that summarizes sports nutrition guidelines to help promote decision making on sports nutrition recommendations. Nutrition knowledge and accuracy of coaches' recommendations on sports nutrition. χ(2) analyses and t-tests were used to compare baseline characteristics; mixed and general linear model analyses were used to assess the change in response to the intervention and differences in behaviors, respectively. Coaches in the intervention vs comparison group provided more nutrition recommendations during the 2-month post-intervention period (mean number of recommendations per coach 25.7±22.0 vs 9.4±6.5, respectively; P=0.004) and recommendations had a greater accuracy (mean number of accurate recommendations per coach 22.4±19.9 [87.1%] vs 4.3±3.2 [46.1%], respectively; P<0.001). Knowledge was significantly increased post-intervention in both groups, but was maintained only in the intervention group during the 2-month follow-up (Pgroup*time=0.04). A theory-based intervention combined with a decision-making algorithm maintained
Cole, Amanda; Vidgen, Helen; Cleland, Phoebe
The aim of this study was to explore the methods, processes and strategies used by early childhood education and care (ECEC) services when determining the nutritional adequacy of food provided to children in their care. Semi-structured interviews (n = 22) were conducted with directors, educators and cooks at long day care services (LDCS) (n = 12) regarding nutritional adequacy, the use of tools, guidelines and checklists, menu planning and identification and management of unhealthy foods. A qualitative thematic approach was used to identify anticipated and emergent themes. Case-by-case comparisons were then made, and tables and models were created to allow for comparative analysis. LDCS relied on personal knowledge, experience and 'common sense' when determining the nutritional adequacy of the food provided to children. LDCS demonstrated a lack of awareness and use of current regulatory requirements, nutrition guidelines and recommendations, although the services were confident in providing nutrition advice to parents/carers. LDCS staff use personal knowledge and experience over evidence-based nutrition guidelines and recommendations when determining if the food provided to children is nutritionally adequate. ECEC services are recognised as important settings for obesity prevention and the development of lifetime healthy eating habits. This study highlights the complexities and inconsistencies in providing food that is nutritious and appropriate to children in care while highlighting the need to improve the use and accessibility of nutrition guidelines. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Reisine, Susan; Douglass, Joanna; Aseltine, Robert; Shanley, Ellen; Thompson, Colleen; Thibodeau, Edward
The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a prenatal nutrition intervention to reduce sugar intake and mutans streptococci (mutans) among low-income women. Pregnant women were recruited from the obstetrics service at a community health center in Connecticut. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years of age; mutans levels >10, 000 colony forming units/ml as determined by Dentocult SM® kits (Orion Diagnostica Oy, Espoo, Finland); and >3 months pregnant. Women were randomized to receive education alone [education intervention (EI)] or education and a 1-hour nutrition group session at 9 months and 6 weeks postpartum [education and nutrition intervention (EIN)]. Mutans and questionnaire data were collected at baseline, 9 months, 6 weeks, and 3 months postpartum. One hundred twenty completed the baseline visit and 93 (77%) completed all four visits. Sugar intake was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and clinical information was abstracted from medical charts. Mean age was 26.3 years [standard deviation (SD)= 6], 73% were Hispanic, 29% had lived in the United States < 6 years; 48% completed high school; 27% were married; mean total sugar intake at baseline was 149g (SD = 85). Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mutans levels declined significantly in both groups, but that the EI group had significantly lower mutans levels at the final assessment compared with EIN. Sugar intake also declined significantly, but there were no significant differences between groups. The study demonstrated the following: a) the feasibility of conducting the intervention at community health center sites among low-income pregnant women; b) the effectiveness of education to reduce mutans/sugar intake; and c) the need to improve the nutrition intervention to obtain additional gains in mutans reduction. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Tumilowicz, Alison; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Pelto, Gretel H
'Implementation research in nutrition' is an emerging area of study aimed at building evidence-based knowledge and sound theory to design and implement programs that will effectively deliver nutrition interventions. This paper describes some of the basic features of ethnography and illustrates its applications in components of the implementation process. We review the central purpose of ethnography, which is to obtain the emic view--the insider's perspective--and how ethnography has historically interfaced with nutrition. We present examples of ethnographic studies in relation to an analytic framework of the implementation process, situating them with respect to landscape analysis, formative research, process evaluation and impact evaluation. These examples, conducted in various parts of the world by different investigators, demonstrate how ethnography provided important, often essential, insights that influenced programming decisions or explained programme outcomes. Key messages Designing, implementing and evaluating interventions requires knowledge about the populations and communities in which interventions are situated, including knowledge from the 'emic' (insider's) perspective. Obtaining emic perspectives and analysing them in relation to cultural, economic and structural features of social organisation in societies is a central purpose of ethnography. Ethnography is an essential aspect of implementation research in nutrition, as it provides important insights for making decisions about appropriate interventions and delivery platforms; determining how best to fit aspects of programme design and implementation into different environmental and cultural contexts; opening the 'black box' in interventions to understand how delivery and utilisation processes affect programme outcomes or impacts; and understanding how programme impacts were achieved, or not. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Miguel Montoya, Isabel; Ortí Lucas, Rafael; Ferrer Ferrándiz, Esperanza; Martín Baena, David; Montejano Lozoya, Raimunda
To compare the nutritional status of a population of hospitalized patients, divided into 2 different groups, both at admission and hospital discharge, and to assess the influence of nutritional alteration during the hospital stay. Quasi-experimental study comprising 2 groups of patients (N=581); an intervention group (n=303), in which nurses received specific training on managing care methodology, and a control group (n=278), in which nurses continued their usual dynamics. Each group was made up of 2 care units with patients from both surgical and medical specialties. patients admitted to the selected units with a minimum stay of 5 days. The sample selection was performed prospectively and consecutively after implementing the training. Of the 581 patients studied, 49.4% were women and 50.6% were men. Mean patient age was 68.29 (SD 16.23) years. In the intervention group, the odds ratio (OR) associated with good nutritional status was multiplied by 1.7 (OR=1.67) compared to the control group in the first evaluation and by 1.4 times (OR=1.43) at hospital discharge. The average stay in days was higher in the control group (13.71, SD 10.19) than in the intervention group (10.89, SD 7.49) (P<.001). The systematic methodology-based intervention in the chosen units was positive. Patients admitted to the intervention units had a lower nutritional alteration and a shorter hospital stay than those admitted to the control units. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Li, Rhea; Donnella, Hayley; Knouse, Phillip; Raber, Margaret; Crawford, Karla; Swartz, Maria C; Wu, Jimin; Liu, Diane; Chandra, Joya
Quality of life in survivors of pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) can be compromised by chronic diseases including increased risk of second cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Overweight or obesity further increases these risks. Steroids are a component of chemotherapy for ALL, and weight gain is a common side effect. To impact behaviors associated with weight gain, we conducted a randomized nutrition counseling intervention in ALL patients on treatment. ALL patients on a steroid-based treatment regimen at the MD Anderson Children's Cancer Hospital were recruited and randomized into control or intervention groups. The control group received standard care and nutrition education materials. The intervention group received monthly one-on-one nutrition counseling sessions, consisting of a baseline and 12 follow-up visits. Anthropometrics, dietary intake (3-day 24-hr dietary recalls) and oxidative stress measures were collected at baseline, 6 months, and postintervention. Dietary recall data were analyzed using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Twenty-two patients (median age 11.5 years), all in the maintenance phase of treatment, were recruited. The intervention group (n = 12) reported significantly lower calorie intake from baseline to 12-month follow-up and significant changes in glutamic acid and selenium intake (P < 0.05). Waist circumference was significantly associated with calorie, vitamin E, glutamic acid, and selenium intake. A year-long dietary intervention was effective at reducing caloric intake in pediatric ALL patients receiving steroid-based chemotherapy, indicating that this is a modality that can be built upon for obesity prevention and management. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Black, Maureen M; Dubowitz, Howard; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Starr, Raymond H
We sought to examine the impact of a randomized, controlled trial of home visiting among infants with failure to thrive on growth, academic/cognitive performance, and home/classroom behavior at age 8. Infants with failure to thrive (N = 130) or adequate growth (N = 119) were recruited from pediatric primary care clinics serving low-income, urban communities. Eligibility criteria included age <25 months, gestational age >36 weeks, birth weight >2500 g, and no significant medical conditions. Evaluation included anthropometries, Bayley scales, maternal anthropometries, demographics, negative affect, IQ, and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scale. Infants with failure to thrive were treated in an interdisciplinary growth and nutrition clinic and randomized into clinical-intervention-plus-home-intervention or clinical-care-only groups. The home-visiting curriculum promoted maternal sensitivity, parent-infant relationships, and child development. Follow-up visits were conducted by evaluators who were unaware of the children's growth or intervention history. At age 8, the evaluation included anthropometries, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III, and the Wide Range Achievement Test, Revised. Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and teachers completed the Teacher Report Form. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine differences in growth, cognitive/academic performance, and home/school behavior, adjusted by maternal education, public assistance, and, when appropriate, infant Bayley score, maternal BMI, height, negative affect, IQ, and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores. Retention was 74% to 78%. Children in the adequate-growth group were significantly taller, heavier, and had better arithmetic scores than the clinical-intervention-only group, with the clinical-intervention-plus-home-intervention group intermediate. There were no group differences in IQ, reading, or mother-reported behavior
Dabiri, Darya; Fontana, Margherita; Kapila, Yvonne; Eckert, George; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen
The objectives were to assess early childhood caries (ECC) in rural areas of El Salvador and to investigate the changes in caries and mouth pain in the presence of community-based interventions. This study was a retrospective analysis of de-identified and anonymous data obtained from baseline and four annual follow-up visits that focused on the preventive oral health intervention and nutrition in a convenience sample of children 0-6 years of age. The decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index for primary teeth was used as the survey tool. Caries was defined as a cavitated lesion. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of ECC in the sample in relation to age and dmft score. Linear mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalised linear mixed effects models were used to compare the pre-intervention and post-intervention outcomes. The prevalence of caries was 58%. Incorporation of a community oral health education and fluoride supplementation programme contributed to significant reductions in caries experience (from 74% to 61%) and mouth pain (from 58% to 39%), in children 3-6 years of age. ECC is a common public health problem in rural El Salvador. In an established community-based maternal-child health programme in El Salvador, there appears to be an association between the incorporation of preventive oral health intervention and improvement in children's oral health and quality of life over time. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.
Gelli, Aulo; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Headey, Derek; Hidrobo, Melissa; Huybregts, Lieven; Verhoef, Hans; Kenfack, Romain; Zongouri, Sita; Guedenet, Hannah
The SELEVER study is designed to evaluate the impact of an integrated agriculture-nutrition package of interventions (including poultry value chain development, women's empowerment activities, and a behavior change communications strategy to promote improved diets and feeding, care, and hygiene practices) on the diets, health, and nutritional status of women and children in Burkina Faso. This paper presents the rationale and study design. The impact evaluation involves a cluster randomized controlled trial design that will be implemented in 120 rural communities/villages within 60 communes supported by SELEVER in the Boucle de Mouhoun, Centre-Ouest, and Haut-Bassins regions of Burkina Faso. Communities will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms, including: (1) SELEVER intervention group; (2) SELEVER with an intensive WASH component; and (3) control group without intervention. Primary outcomes include the mean probability of adequacy of diets for women and children (aged 2-4 years at baseline), infant and young child feeding practices of caregivers of children aged 0-2 years, and household poultry production and sales. Intermediate outcomes along the agriculture and nutrition pathways will also be measured, including child nutrition status and development. The evaluation will follow a mixed-methods approach, including a panel of child-, household-, community-, and market-level surveys, and data collection points during post-harvest and lean seasons, as well as one year after implementation completion to examine sustainability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to rigorously examine from a food systems perspective, the simultaneous impact of scaling-up nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions through a livestock value-chain and community-intervention platform, across nutrition, health, and agriculture domains. The findings of this evaluation will provide evidence to support the design of market-based nutrition
Dudrick, Stanley J
This article recounts the conditions and status of surgical nutrition support in the 1960s and the antecedent basic and clinical investigational work leading to the development of a practical and efficacious method of adequate nourishment entirely by vein in Beagle puppies; describes the subsequent clinical application of the knowledge, techniques, and technology to the first successful long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support of critically ill pediatric and adult patients; and admonishes nutritionists of all backgrounds that some need for parenteral nutrition will likely always exist and that it is incumbent upon everyone to continue endeavors to advance the germinal methodology to perfection. The relevant indications, limitations, hindrances, motivational factors, and studies regarding the development of TPN are reviewed, and the fundamental investigational work culminating in the first successful growth and development of Beagle puppies and a human infant fed entirely by vein are described firsthand. The details of the orderly and logical scientific development of the principles and components of the techniques in animals, infants, and adults are related. Knowledge, techniques, and technologic constituents of the first successful long-term TPN system were developed in the basic biochemical and animal laboratories initially in 6 puppies and subsequently adapted clinically for the efficacious long-term i.v. support of 6 critically ill surgical adult patients and a newborn infant before its widespread clinical application. Long-term TPN was inaugurated successfully as a safe and effective i.v. feeding technique nearly 4 decades ago. However, basic and clinical investigations must continue to be encouraged, supported, and carried out in the quest to perfect the current rudimentary technology, methodology, and outcomes.
Waters, William F; Gallegos, Carlos Andres; Karp, Celia; Lutter, Chessa; Stewart, Christine; Iannotti, Lora
Food-based interventions can reduce the prevalence of undernutrition and improve household food security, but nutritious and accessible foods may be underutilized. In Ecuador, eggs are inexpensive and widely available, but while they are a valuable source of essential nutrients for infants and young children, medical advice and community-based information have limited their inclusion in infants' diets. A qualitative component was conducted to understand local perceptions, knowledge, and practices to complement a randomized control trial that studied the effect of introducing eggs on nutritional status and growth in infants from 6 to 9 months in rural communities in the highland province of Cotopaxi, Ecuador. The qualitative inquiry consisted of key informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), and structured observations in order to understand perceptions, knowledge, and practices related to household egg consumption and to the introduction of eggs in infants' diets. The two principal findings were that: (i) eggs are an available and culturally acceptable food source although they are not always a part of the diet; and (ii) perceptions and practices related to household consumption and the introduction of eggs into the diet of infants are shaped by local knowledge and practices, which are shaped by biomedical information and advice provided by public health professionals. Through an effective food-based intervention that includes qualitative research and a social marketing component, the behaviors of mothers and other caregivers can be modified, enabling children to realize the nutritional advantages of early introduction of eggs into their diet.
Salisbury, Christine L.; Cushing, Lisa S.
Despite calls for adoption and use of triadic early intervention practices, remarkably little research has prospectively compared this approach with traditional, provider-led service delivery. The aim of this study was to compare the actions of providers and caregivers within triadic and provider-led interactions with regard to the following: (1)…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2008
"Early Intervention in Reading"[R] is a program designed to provide extra instruction to groups of students at risk of failing to learn to read. The program uses picture books to stress instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, and contextual analysis, along with repeated reading and writing. In grades K, 1, and 2, the program is based on…
Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb
This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…
Bauer, Judith D; Capra, Sandra
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nutrition intervention on outcomes of dietary intake, body composition, nutritional status, functional capacity and quality of life in patients with cancer cachexia receiving chemotherapy. Patients received weekly counselling by a dietitian and were advised to consume a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement with eicosapentaenoic acid for 8 weeks. The medical oncologist determined the chemotherapy protocol. Eight patients enrolled and seven completed the study. There were significant improvements in total protein intake (median change 0.3 g/kg per day, range -0.1 to 0.8 g/kg per day), total energy intake (median change 36 kJ/kg per day, range -2 to 82 kJ/kg per day), total fibre intake (median change 6.3 g/day, range -3.4 to 20.1 g/day), nutritional status (patient-generated subjective global assessment score, median change 9, range -5 to 17), Karnofsky performance status (median change 10, range 0-30) and quality of life (median change 16.7, range 0-33.3). There were clinically significant improvements in weight (median change 2.3 kg; range -2.7 to 4.5 kg) and lean body mass (median change 4.4 kg, range -4.4 to 4.7 kg), although these were not statistically significant. Change in nutritional status was significantly associated with change in quality of life, change in Karnofsky performance status and change in lean body mass. Nutrition intervention together with chemotherapy improved outcomes in patients with pancreatic and non-small-cell lung cancer over 8 weeks. Supplement intake does not inhibit meal intake.
Botros, Diana; Somarriba, Gabriel; Neri, Daniela; Miller, Tracie L
Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments.
Uster, Alexandra; Ruefenacht, Ursula; Ruehlin, Maya; Pless, Miklos; Siano, Marco; Haefner, Mark; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter E
Weight loss is common in patients with malignant tumors and it can adversely affect quality of life and survival. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional intervention in cancer patients in an outpatient setting. Cancer outpatients (N = 58) who were classified as undernourished or at high risk for undernutrition by the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 tool were randomized into two groups. One group (n = 30) received standardized individual nutritional therapy, including counseling by a dietitian, food fortification, and oral nutritional supplements if required. The second group (n = 28) received standard care. The nutritional intervention lasted 3 mo. Dietary intake (3-d dietary record), nutritional status (body weight), physical functioning (performance status, hand-grip strength) and quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire version 3.0) were assessed at baseline and after 6 wk and 3 mo. An additional follow-up assessment was carried out 3 mo post-intervention. Nutritional intervention led to a significantly higher average energy and protein intake in the nutritional therapy group (+379 kcal; 95% confidence interval [CI], 117-642; P = 0.007, respectively; +10.4 g; 95% CI, 2.3-18.5; P = 0.016). However, the increased dietary intake was not associated with improvements in nutritional status, physical functioning, or quality of life. Individual nutritional counseling significantly and positively influenced energy and protein intake, but did not improve nutritional or physical outcome or quality of life. These results indicate that nutritional therapy alone is of limited efficacy in cancer patients whose nutritional status has already deteriorated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perry, Lin; Hamilton, Sharon; Williams, Jane; Jones, Susan
Stroke produces many effects that impact eating. Nutrition is fundamental for recovery and rehabilitation, but the nursing nutritional role and associated outcomes have not been delineated. (1) To identify nursing interventions intended to improve nutritional status and related outcomes of stroke survivors, and (2) To examine the outcomes of identified nursing interventions on nutrition-related outcomes, including dietary intake, functional status, complications, activities of daily living, mortality, and quality of life for stroke survivors. A modified version of Cochrane literature searching and review methods was used to identify studies that described and evaluated nursing nutritional interventions for adult stroke patients in hospital and community settings. A minimum of 10 years content of seven databases and nine journals was searched to March 2011. Findings were presented descriptively. In total 27 papers from 26 studies were included: 5 randomized controlled trials, 5 clinical trials, 6 quasi-experiments, 4 case studies, and 6 qualitative/observational studies. Stroke nursing nutritional care encompassed screening of nutritional status and swallowing function; assessment of nutritional characteristics and preferences; referral; mealtime organization, supervision and monitoring; mealtime assistance and feeding skills. Nurses individualized care, coordinated or managed meal delivery and enteral feeding systems, were responsible for the dining environment and conduct of mealtimes; they taught staff, patients, and carers. There was little indication of integrated or psychosocial nursing nutritional care, or concepts, theories or models of nursing nutritional care. Many interventions were described but not evaluated. Little high quality evidence was of available. This review indicated the parameters of nursing nutritional care, and provided a framework for future research. A functional, supportive, and educational nursing nutritional role was described but
Tang, Qing-Ya; Wen, Jie; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Ying; Cai, Wei
primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare digestive disease and few studies have focused on the therapeutic effect in PIL patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate nutrition-oriented intervention in children with PIL. four children with PIL were studied. Their medical records were reviewed. Anthropometric measurements and blood tests were performed during a 8-18 month follow-up. during hospitalization, the 4 patients were subjected to diet intervention. Parenteral nutrition (PN) support was also given to 3 of them. Clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters of the patients were significantly improved at discharge. After discharge, the patients continued diet control, 2 of whom received intermittent PN support. The mean follow-up duration of the 4 patients was 13 months (range, 8-18 months) and they all kept in a stable condition without symptoms relapse. Weight, height and body mass index for age were normal during the follow-up, while total protein, albumin and immunoglobulin concentrations were still slightly below normal level. nutrition therapy is effective as a valid and safe therapeutic management for PIL patients. No growth retardation was observed in the 4 children after the therapy, but they are still at risk of nutrient malabsorption. Therefore, they need long-term, regular monitoring and intensive nutritional care.
Volpe, S. L.; Hall, W. J.; Steckler, A.; Schneider, M.; Thompson, D.; Mobley, C.; Pham, T.; El ghormli, L.
The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the process evaluation findings concerning the extent to which the HEALTHY nutrition intervention was implemented during the HEALTHY trial. Overall, the observed fidelity of implementing nutrition strategies improved from baseline to the end of the study. By the last semester, all but two nutrition process evaluation goals were met. The most challenging goal to implement was serving high fiber foods, including grain-based foods and legumes. The easiest goals to implement were lowering the fat content of foods offered and offering healthier beverages. The most challenging barriers experienced by research dietitians and food service staff were costs, availability of foods and student acceptance. Forming strong relationships between the research dietitians and food service staff was identified as a key strategy to meet HEALTHY nutrition goals. PMID:24107856
Kicklighter, Jana R; Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Shipskie, Sherry M; Taube, Julie L; Berry, Rashelle C
This pilot study explored the impact of an educational program on nutrition and physical activity knowledge of urban African-American grandparents raising their grandchildren. The program was integrated into a community-based intervention, Project Healthy Grandparents, and was implemented during the first 15 minutes of 10 grandparent support groups and parenting classes. Subjects included 22 grandparents who attended at least six sessions and completed pre- and posttests of nutrition and physical activity knowledge. Participants' posttest scores were significantly higher than their pretest scores (P<0.05), indicating an increase in knowledge. Eighteen grandparents provided insights about diet and physical activity and barriers to lifestyle changes during an audiotaped focus group. Based on analysis of the focus group's discussion, three major influences on healthful eating and physical activity emerged, including financial considerations, presence of grandchildren in the home, and preference for traditional cultural foods. Themes from the focus group were consistent with responses on the nutrition and physical activity knowledge test. Satisfaction with the program was very high and no specific recommendations for improvements were made. Results can guide future nutrition interventions for this target group and potentially contribute to grandparents' improved health and ability to care for their grandchildren.
It is commonly accepted that nutrition is one of the possible environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but its role as complementary MS treatment is unclear and largely disregarded. At present, MS therapy is not associated to a particular diet, probably due to lack of information on the effects of nutrition on the disease. To overcome the distrust of the usefulness of dietary control in MS and to encourage nutritional interventions in the course of the disease, it is necessary to assess the nature and the role of bioactive dietary molecules and their targets, and establish how a dietary control can influence cell metabolism and improve the wellness of MS patients. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for a nutritional intervention in MS by evaluating at the molecular level the effects of dietary molecules on the inflammatory and autoimmune processes involved in the disease. Present data reveal that healthy dietary molecules have a pleiotropic role and are able to change cell metabolism from anabolism to catabolism and down-regulate inflammation by interacting with enzymes, nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors. The control of gut dysbiosis and the combination of hypo-caloric, low-fat diets with specific vitamins, oligoelements and dietary integrators, including fish oil and polyphenols, may slow-down the progression of the disease and ameliorate the wellness of MS patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Dhital, Rolina; Subhani, Huma
The objective of this paper was to review various nutritional interventions targeted at under-five children in countries that had suffered from natural disasters and to analyse their effect on nutrition-related outcomes. Systematic review. Countries that had suffered from natural disasters. Children aged <5 years who were given any nutritional intervention to improve overall nutritional status after a natural disaster. Primary nutrition-related outcomes were stunting, wasting and underweight. The secondary nutrition-related outcome was anaemia. Of the 1218 studies that the reviewers agreed on, five matched the inclusion criteria and were included in this narrative synthesis. Four studies were longitudinal and one was cross-sectional in design. Food supplementation was an integral part of nutritional interventions in all the included studies. The most consistent nutritional outcome in all five included studies was reduced prevalence of wasting, followed by reduced prevalence of underweight in four, stunting in three and anaemia in one of the five included studies. The largest reduction in the prevalence of wasting and underweight was reported by the study in Sri Lanka. Overall, the quality of evidence ranged from moderate to weak. Integrated nutrition interventions using locally available health resources yielded the best results. However, sound evidence on the most effective interventions is still lacking. Intervention studies with comparison groups are necessary to obtain more robust evidence on the effectiveness of nutrition interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Reinbott, Anika; Schelling, Anna; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Jeremias, Theresa; Russell, Iean; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael B; Jordan, Irmgard
Poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are major determinants of chronic malnutrition. The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of a nutrition education (NE) programme aimed at promoting improved IYCF behaviours in combination with an agriculture intervention on children's dietary diversity and nutritional status. From 2012 to 2014, a cluster randomised trial was rolled out in Cambodia in the context of an agriculture and nutrition project of the FAO of the UN. The cross-sectional baseline study was carried out in sixteen pre-selected communes in 2012. Restricted randomisation allotted the communes to either intervention (NE and agriculture intervention) or comparison arms (agriculture intervention only). The impact survey was conducted as a census in all FAO project villages in 2014. Caregivers of children aged 0-23 months were interviewed using standardised questions on socio-economic status and dietary diversity (24-h recall). Anthropometric measurements were taken. A difference-in-differences model was applied. The sample comprised 743 households with children ≥6 months of age at baseline and 921 at impact. After 1 year of NE, 69 % of the intervention households reported to have participated in the NE. Estimated mean child dietary diversity was significantly different at impact between comparison and intervention (3·6 and 3·9, respectively). In particular, the consumption of pro-vitamin A-rich foods and other fruits and vegetables increased. No treatment effects on height-for-age Z-scores could be shown. NE led to improvements in children's diets. For effects on growth, it is assumed that longer NE activities are required to achieve sustainable behaviour change of age-appropriate infant feeding.
Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H
Although specific interventions in early mathematics have been successful, few have been brought to scale successfully, especially across the challenging diversity of populations and contexts in the early childhood system in the United States. In this chapter, we analyze a theoretically based scale-up model for early mathematics that was designed to avoid the pollution and dilution that often plagues efforts to achieve broad success. We elaborate the theoretical framework by noting the junctures that are susceptible to dilution or pollution. Then we expatiate the model's guidelines to describe specifically how they were designed and implemented to mitigate pollution and dilution. Finally, we provide evidence regarding the success of these efforts. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...
Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Valencia Gómez, Katerine; Gallo Villegas, Jaime; Arenas Sosa, Mónica; Quintero Velásquez, Mario A
Evaluate the effect of an intervention with rumba dance and nutrition education on the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of people with metabolic syndrome in a rural area of Colombia. Controlled, randomized clinical trial that included 59 people between 30 and 60 years of age with metabolic syndrome. The intervention group (n = 30) participated in a 12-week exercise program of aerobic rumba (60 minutes, 3 days per week) and muscle-strengthening work (30 minutes, twice a week). Each week the group also received two hours of nutrition education. The control group (n = 29) continued with conventional care. An assessment was made of the effect on the cardiovascular risk factors (physiological, metabolic, anthropometric, and nutritional) in the intervention group. The intervention group showed a reduction in systolic blood pressure (-10.0 mmHg; CI95%: -14.3 to -5.6, P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-4.8 mmHg; CI95%: -8.4 to -1.1, P < 0.05) and overall cardiovascular risk at 10 years (-1.5%; CI95%: -2.7 to -0.3, P < 0.05). Furthermore, there was an increase in peak oxygen con-sumption (1.7 ml O2∙kg-1∙min-1; CI95%: 0.1 to 3.3, P < 0.05) and muscular strength (P < 0.001). Positive changes were also observed in body composition, caloric intake, and consumption of macro and micronutrients (P < 0.05). No differences were detected between metabolic variables in the two groups or in inflammatory markers (P < 0.05). An exercise program with rumba and muscular strengthening, combined with nutrition education, favorably modifies cardiovascular risk factors in people with metabolic syndrome.
Wang, Junli; Zhao, Jiamin; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Chong
Effects of early enteral nutrition (EEN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support on nutritional status and blood glucose in patients with gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus after radical gastrectomy were investigated. One hundred and twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer complicated with diabetes mellitus type 2 admitted to the First People's Hospital of Jinan (Jinan, China), from June 2012 to June 2016 were selected into the study. According to different nutrition support pathways, these patients were randomly divided into the EEN group and the TPN group. The improvement of nutritional indexes, postoperative complications, gastrointestinal function recovery and perioperative blood glucose fluctuation were compared between the two groups. On the 4th day after operation, the improvement levels of total bilirubin (TBL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (TP), prealbumin (PAB), hemoglobin (HGB) and weight (Wt) in the EEN group were significantly higher than those in the conventional group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups on the 8th day after operation (P>0.05). No patients had complications in the EEN group, while a total of 29 patients in the TPN group suffered adverse reactions, indicating that the incidence rate of complications in the EEN group was significantly lower than that in the TPN group (P<0.05). The postoperative evacuation time was earlier, hospitalization time was shorter and cost of postoperative hospitalization was less in the EEN group than those in the TPN group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The blood glucose fluctuation values at fasting and 2 h after a meal in the TPN group were higher than those in the EEN group within 8 days after operation, and the differences were statistically significant (χ 2 =13.219, P=0.002; χ 2 =20.527, P<0.001). EEN support provides nutrition for patients with gastric cancer complicated
Cox, S; Powell, C; Carter, B; Hurt, C; Mukherjee, Somnath; Crosby, Thomas David Lewis
Malnutrition is common in oesophageal cancer. We aimed to identify nutritional prognostic factors and survival outcomes associated with nutritional intervention in the SCOPE1 (Study of Chemoradiotherapy in OesoPhageal Cancer with or without Erbitux) trial. Two hundred and fifty eight patients were randomly allocated to definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) +/- cetuximab. Nutritional Risk Index (NRI) scores were calculated; NRI<100 identified patients at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional intervention included dietary advice, oral supplementation or major intervention (enteral feeding/tube placement). Univariable and multivariable analyses using Cox proportional hazard modelling were conducted. At baseline NRI<100 strongly predicted for reduced overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 12.45, 95% CI 5.24-29.57; P<0.001). Nutritional intervention improved survival if provided at baseline (dietary advice (HR 0.12, P=0.004), oral supplementation (HR 0.13, P<0.001) or major intervention (HR 0.13, P=0.003)), but not if provided later in the treatment course. Cetuximab patients receiving major nutritional intervention had worse outcomes compared with controls (13 vs 28 months, P=0.003). Pre-treatment assessment and correction of malnutrition may improve survival outcomes in oesophageal cancer patients treated with dCRT. Nutritional Risk Index is a simple and objective screening tool to identify patients at risk of malnutrition.
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård
This paper investigates whether and how worksite nutrition policies can improve employee productivity. The questions are pursued through a literature review, including a systematic search of literature--combined with literature identified from backward references--on randomized controlled or quasi-experimental worksite intervention trials and observational cross-sectional studies. Studies were selected on the basis of topic relevance, according to publication title and subsequently according to abstract content. A quality appraisal of the studies was based on study design and clarity in definition of interventions, as well as environmental and outcome variables. The search identified 2,358 publications, 30 of which were found suitable for the review. Several of the reviewed studies suggest that diet-related worksite interventions have positive impacts on employees' nutritional knowledge, food intake and health and on the firm's profitability, mainly in terms of reduced absenteeism and presenteeism. Well-targeted and efficiently implemented diet-related worksite health promotion interventions may improve labour productivity by 1%-2%. On larger worksites, such productivity gains are likely to more than offset the costs of implementing such interventions. These conclusions are subject to some uncertainty due to the relatively limited amount of literature in the field.
Madigan, S M; Fleming, P; Wright, M E; Stevenson, M; Macauley, D
Patients with enteral feeding tubes are increasingly managed in their home environment and these patients require support from a range of healthcare professionals. A cluster randomised trial of an educational intervention was undertaken among General Practitioners and nurses both in the community and in nursing home caring for patients recently discharged to primary care. This was a short, duration (<1 h), nutrition education programme delivered in the work place soon after the patient was discharged from hospital. The primary outcome was an improvement in knowledge immediately after the intervention and the secondary outcome was knowledge at 6 months. Those in the intervention group had improved knowledge, which was significantly greater than those in the control group (P < 0.001), although this knowledge was not sustained at 6 months. A short, work-based targeted nutrition education programme is effective for improving knowledge among general practitioners and nurses both in the community and in nursing homes. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Palu, Afa K.; West, Brett J.; Jensen, Jarakae
Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Unites States has reached unprecedented levels, and so has the need for effective exercise and nutritional programs for prevention of unhealthy weight gain or safe weight loss. Aims: The present study was conducted in overweight men and women to assess the impact of noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions on body composition. Materials and Methods: Twenty two participants (16 women and 6 men), ages 18-65, were enrolled in a 12-week, open-label trial of a weight-loss program involving noni-based dietary supplements, gender-specific daily calorie restriction, and exercise interventions. Weight, percent body fat, and body mass index were measured before and after the trial. Results: All participants experienced weight loss. The average decrease in fat mass was highly significant (P < 0.0001), as were decreases in percent body fat and body mass index. Individual weight and fat mass losses were 17.55 ± 9.73 and 21.78 ± 8.34 lbs., respectively, and individual percent body fat and body mass index decreases were 8.91 ± 3.58 % and 2.6 ± 1.32, respectively. Conclusion: The nutritional and exercise interventions significantly influenced body composition among participants. PMID:22363077
Palu, Afa K; West, Brett J; Jensen, Jarakae
The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Unites States has reached unprecedented levels, and so has the need for effective exercise and nutritional programs for prevention of unhealthy weight gain or safe weight loss. The present study was conducted in overweight men and women to assess the impact of noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions on body composition. Twenty two participants (16 women and 6 men), ages 18-65, were enrolled in a 12-week, open-label trial of a weight-loss program involving noni-based dietary supplements, gender-specific daily calorie restriction, and exercise interventions. Weight, percent body fat, and body mass index were measured before and after the trial. All participants experienced weight loss. The average decrease in fat mass was highly significant (P < 0.0001), as were decreases in percent body fat and body mass index. Individual weight and fat mass losses were 17.55 ± 9.73 and 21.78 ± 8.34 lbs., respectively, and individual percent body fat and body mass index decreases were 8.91 ± 3.58 % and 2.6 ± 1.32, respectively. The nutritional and exercise interventions significantly influenced body composition among participants.
Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Ghaffarpasand, Eiman; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah
Fast growing epidemic of chronic diseases causes many health challenges over the world. Regarding reported pros and cons, the aim of the current study is to review the effect of nutrition and physical educational intervention in decreasing cardiovascular risk factors. In this review study, searching has done through the English and Persian databases. Articles with other languages, lack of important information, and score 3 or less in the JADAD standard checklist were exluded from the study. In the primary search, 194 articles have been found.Through four stages of secondary search and further evaluation, 43 articles were selected. These articles were published between 1989 to 2013. According to these findings, the majority of articles showed a positive effect of nutrition and physical activity educational interventions on cardiovascular risk factors- blood cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as smoking cigarette in high risk patients. These results, suggest the necessity of continiuting nutrition and physical educational intervention for individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.
Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Tushemerirwe, Florence Basiimwa; Kajjura, Richard; Nabunya, Victoria; Naitala, Ronald Andrew; Namanda, Cissie
In Uganda, malnutrition level has persistently remained high among the under-fives and this has led NGOs like World Vision, Uganda into finding innovative ways for intervention. This paper presents an assessment of nutrition status and values of related indicators at onset of a community intervention program in four sub-counties of Mpigi district in Central Uganda. This was a cross-sectional study to provide baseline information for a nutrition intervention. The study units were index children aged 6-59 months from 818 households. Face to face interviews were conducted using semi-structured questionnaires. Values of key indicators were computed and compared between designated control and intervention areas. Stunting level was 32% while wasting was 3% and underweight at 10%. Most of the index children (78%) started breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Nearly a third of the households visited had a kitchen garden and this did not differ by intervention status. Like at regional level, nutrition status and feeding practices in the study area were poor. The values of these indicators did not significantly change by designated intervention status. Much effort was needed to realize a difference in nutrition and feeding practices in designated intervention areas.
de Haan, Jacco J; Thuijls, Geertje; Lubbers, Tim; Hadfoune, M'hamed; Reisinger, Kostan; Heineman, Erik; Greve, Jan-Willem M; Buurman, Wim A
Early gut wall integrity loss and local intestinal inflammation are associated with the development of inflammatory complications in surgical and trauma patients. Prevention of these intestinal events is a potential target for therapies aimed to control systemic inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated in a rodent shock model that lipid-rich enteral nutrition attenuated systemic inflammation and prevented organ damage through a cholecystokinin receptor-dependent vagal pathway. The influence of lipid-rich nutrition on very early intestinal compromise as seen after shock is investigated. Next, the involvement of cholecystokinin receptors on the nutritional modulation of immediate gut integrity loss and intestinal inflammation is studied. Randomized controlled in vivo study. University research unit. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Liquid lipid-rich nutrition or control low-lipid feeding was administered per gavage before hemorrhagic shock. Cholecystokinin receptor antagonists were used to investigate involvement of the vagal antiinflammatory pathway. Gut permeability to horseradish peroxidase increased as soon as 30 mins postshock and was prevented by lipid-rich nutrition compared with low-lipid (p<.01) and fasted controls (p<.001). Furthermore, lipid-rich nutrition reduced plasma levels of enterocyte damage marker ileal lipid binding protein at 60 mins (p<.05). Early gut barrier dysfunction correlated with rat mast cell protease plasma concentrations at 30 mins (rs=0.67; p<.001) and intestinal myeloperoxidase levels at 60 mins (rs=0.58; p<.05). Lipid-rich nutrition significantly reduced plasma rat mast cell protease (p<.01) and myeloperoxidase (p<.05) before systemic inflammation was detectable. Protective effects of lipid-rich nutrition were abrogated by cholecystokinin receptor antagonists (horseradish peroxidase; p<.05 and rat mast cell protease; p<.05). Lipid-rich enteral nutrition prevents early gut barrier loss, enterocyte damage, and local intestinal inflammation
Effectiveness of a normative nutrition intervention (diet, physical activity and breastfeeding) on maternal nutrition and offspring growth: the Chilean maternal and infant nutrition cohort study (CHiMINCs).
Garmendia, Maria Luisa; Corvalan, Camila; Araya, Marcela; Casanello, Paola; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Uauy, Ricardo
Maternal obesity before and during pregnancy predicts maternal and infant risks of obesity and its associated metabolic conditions. Dietary and physical activity recommendations during pregnancy as well as weight monitoring are currently available in the Chilean primary health care system. However some of these recommendations are not updated and most of them are poorly implemented. We seek to assess the effectiveness of an intervention that enhances the implementation of updated nutrition health care standards (diet, physical activity, and breastfeeding promotion) during pregnancy on maternal weight gain and infant growth. Cluster randomized controlled trial. The cluster units will be 12 primary health care centers from two counties (La Florida and Puente Alto) from the South-East Area of Santiago randomly allocated to: 1) enhanced nutrition health care standards (intervention group) or 2) routine care (control group). Women seeking prenatal care before 15 weeks of gestation, residing within a catchment area of selected health centers, and who express that they are not planning to change residence will be invited to participate in the study. Pregnant women classified as high risk according to the Chilean norms (i.e age <16 or >40 years, multiple gestation, pre-gestational medical conditions, previous pregnancy-related issues) and/or underweight will be excluded. Pregnant women who attend intervened health care centers starting at their first prenatal visit will receive advice regarding optimal weight gain during pregnancy and diet and physical activity counseling-support. Pregnant women who attend control health clinics will receive routine antenatal care according to national guidelines. We plan to recruit 200 women in each health center. Assuming a 20% loss to follow up, we expect to include 960 women per arm. 1) Achievement of adequate weight gain based on IOM 2009 recommendations and adequate glycaemic control at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy according to ADA 2011
Fulton, Alexandra M; Paynter, Jessica M; Trembath, David
Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the social, communication, and cognitive functioning, as well as level of ASD symptoms, in a cohort of children who presented for early intervention to inform understanding of gender differences in this population, as well as to inform understanding of the mechanisms by which gender bias may occur. Participants included 254 children (42 females) aged 29-74 months who completed measures of cognition, communication skills, adaptive behaviour, and ASD symptoms on entry to early intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, no significant gender differences were found both overall, and when split by functioning level. However, a similar ratio of males and females was found in both high- and low-functioning groups contrary to predictions. These results are consistent with some of the previous research that suggests gender differences may not be apparent in clinical samples at this young age. We highlight a need for further research that may use universal screening or longitudinal methods to understand the trajectory of development for females with ASD specifically. Such research could better inform timely and tailored intervention from the preschool years onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wray, J D
During the early part of the twentieth century, there were dramatic falls in the mortality rates in many cities in the West. The reasons for this improvement are of considerable relevance today because the conditions which prevailed at that time in cities such as New York are comparable to those prevailing in many slums of the Third World today. Some early studies linked the improvements in health, as measured by mortality rates, to a better level of nutrition. The importance of nutrition is now widely accepted and there are many studies which show the association between nutrient intake and both mortality and morbidity, and in particular between breast feeding and infant mortality rates. It is sometimes assumed that, because nutrition indicators for city populations have improved, there is no longer a major problem of malnutrition in urban areas. However, it is likely that the figures hide disparities through aggregation, and studies in slums rather than cities as a whole give a much less encouraging picture. Poverty is at the root of many of the nutritional and associated health problems, but the children who will be born over the coming decades cannot afford to wait for a new economic order to provide the solution. Through the promotion of breast feeding, education, growth monitoring and food supplementation, necessary help can be targeted at this vulnerable population.
D'Addesa, D; Martone, D; Sinesio, F; Marzi, V; Comendador, F J; Peparaio, M; Moneta, E; Cairella, G; Panetta, V; Sette, S
The purpose of the study was to test a nutrition education intervention to promote a higher consumption of vegetables, pulse and fruit among children. The study involved 274 children of primary school (third and fourth grade). The sample was divided in three groups: A (exposed to intervention without taste education activities), B (exposed to intervention with taste education activities), C (control group not exposed to any intervention). Before starting the intervention on pupils, all teachers were properly trained and parents participated to informative/formative meetings. The teachers were also provided with didactic units to implement on children. The efficacy of intervention was evaluated by measuring food target not eaten at school lunch, before and after the implementation of intervention; it showed less plate waste for vegetables (side dishes) for both groups A and B (53.2% vs 44%) and (23.3% vs 8.1%) respectively, while for fruit only group A reduced to half its reject. The differences were however not significant. No increasing consumption was observed for soups or pasta prepared with vegetables or legumes. According to these preliminary results, we observed for some vegetable food items a better dietary behaviour trend among children of both groups who received the intervention compared with controls.
Catlett, Camille, Comp.; Winton, Pamela J., Comp.
This resource guide is intended to identify both primary and supplementary resources for designing preservice and inservice training on early intervention programs for children with disabilities. The instructional materials are described and listed in three sections. The first section provides annotated descriptions of instructional materials in…
Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy
Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…
Jesson, Julie; Coulibaly, Aba; Sylla, Mariam; NʼDiaye, Clémentine; Dicko, Fatoumata; Masson, David; Leroy, Valériane
We assessed a nutritional support intervention in malnourished HIV-infected children in a HIV-care program of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré, Bamako, Mali. All HIV-infected children younger than 15 years were diagnosed for malnutrition between 07 and 12, 2014. Malnutrition was defined according to the WHO growth standards with Z-scores. Two types were studied: acute malnutrition (AM) and chronic malnutrition (CM). All participants were enrolled in a 6-month prospective interventional cohort, receiving Ready-To-Use Therapeutic Food, according to type of malnutrition. The nutritional intervention was offered until child growth reached -1.5 SD threshold. Six-month probability to catch up growth (>-2 SD) was assessed for AM using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox model. Among the 348 children screened, 198 (57%) were malnourished of whom 158 (80%) children were included: 97 (61%) for AM (35 with associated CM) and 61 (39%) with CM. Fifty-nine percent were boys, 97% were on antiretroviral therapy, median age was 9.5 years (Interquartile Range: 6.7-12.3). Among children with AM, 74% catch-up their growth at 6-month; probability to catch-up growth was greater for those without associated CM (adjusted Hazard Ratio = 1.97, CI 95%: 1.13 to 3.44). Anemia decreased significantly from 40% to 12% at the end of intervention (P < 0.001). This macronutrient intervention showed 6-month benefits for weight gain and reduced anemia among these children mainly on antiretroviral therapy for years and aged greater than 5 years at inclusion. Associated CM slows down AM recovery and needs longer support. Integration of nutritional screening and care in the pediatric HIV-care package is needed to optimize growth and prevent metabolic disorders.
Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Pelto, Gretel H.
Abstract ‘Implementation research in nutrition’ is an emerging area of study aimed at building evidence‐based knowledge and sound theory to design and implement programs that will effectively deliver nutrition interventions. This paper describes some of the basic features of ethnography and illustrates its applications in components of the implementation process. We review the central purpose of ethnography, which is to obtain the emic view – the insider's perspective – and how ethnography has historically interfaced with nutrition. We present examples of ethnographic studies in relation to an analytic framework of the implementation process, situating them with respect to landscape analysis, formative research, process evaluation and impact evaluation. These examples, conducted in various parts of the world by different investigators, demonstrate how ethnography provided important, often essential, insights that influenced programming decisions or explained programme outcomes. Key messages Designing, implementing and evaluating interventions requires knowledge about the populations and communities in which interventions are situated, including knowledge from the ‘emic’ (insider's) perspective.Obtaining emic perspectives and analysing them in relation to cultural, economic and structural features of social organisation in societies is a central purpose of ethnography.Ethnography is an essential aspect of implementation research in nutrition, as it provides important insights for making decisions about appropriate interventions and delivery platforms; determining how best to fit aspects of programme design and implementation into different environmental and cultural contexts; opening the ‘black box’ in interventions to understand how delivery and utilisation processes affect programme outcomes or impacts; and understanding how programme impacts were achieved, or not. PMID:26778802
Park, Joon Seong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Jae Keun
The benefits of early enteral feeding (EEN) have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal surgery. But, the impact of EEN has not been elucidated yet. We assessed the postoperative nutritional status of patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) according to the postoperative nutritional method and compared the clinical outcomes of two methods. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken following PD. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the EEN group received the postoperative enteral feed and the control group received the postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) management. Thirty-eight patients were included in our analyses. The first day of bowel movement and time to take a normal soft diet was significantly shorter in EEN group than in TPN group. Prealbumin and transferrin were significantly reduced on post-operative day (POD) 7 and were slowly recovered until POD 90 in the TPN group than in the EEN group. EEN group rapidly recovered weight after POD 21 whereas it was gradually decreased in TPN group until POD 90. EEN after PD is associated with preservation of weight compared with TPN and impact on recovery of digestive function after PD. PMID:22379336
Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam; Herzman-Harari, Sarit; Peles, Einat
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients are often under-nourished and overweight. The impact of a nutrition intervention program to improve knowledge about healthy food habits and losing weight was studied. Patients were screened for knowledge about nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Those with a low knowledge score or a BMI ≥26 (n=89) were randomly divided into either intervention (two lectures on healthy nutrition followed by weight monitoring over 6weeks), or controls (weighed at baseline, post-lectures and at study closure). The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), eating behavior rating, and nutrition knowledge questionnaires were used. Knowledge and food habit scores improved in the intervention group (28.4±4.3, 37.2±3.1, 32.5±3.9 pre-, post- and 6-weeks post-lectures, respectively), with no change in the controls (28.6±3.4, 28.2±4.9, 28.1±5.3, repeated measured p(time)=0.001, p(group)=0.001, p(interaction)=0.001); food habit (intervention: 35.0±7.0, 38.4±5.2, 37.5±5.3, controls: 34.0±6.9, 34.7±6.9, 34.6±7.4, p(time)=0.001, p(group)=0.04, p(interaction)=0.06). BMI scores however did not change and were similar in both groups (p=0.9). Of all patients, 10.1% met the criteria of food addiction according to the YFAS, 40.4% lost weight and 28% gained weight, with no group differences. There were more symptoms of food addiction among the patients who gained weight vs. those who lost weight (3.7±2.0 vs. 2.6±1.8, respectively, p=0.04). We concluded that although weight loss was not observed, intervention is recommended for improving knowledge about nutrition and for fostering healthy eating habits with the aim of reducing diet-related morbidity among all MMT patients. Longitudinal program combined with physical activity is needed to study if may lead to weight loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
King, Kristi McClary; Ling, Jiying
Improving children's nutrition and physical activity have become priorities in the United States. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a 3-year, school-based, health promotion intervention (i.e. nutrition and physical education, classroom physical activity, professional development and health promotion for teachers…
Strolla, Leslie O.; Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia M.
More effective nutrition education to reach low-income and ethnic minority populations is needed. As part of a project to develop a tailored nutrition education intervention to meet the needs of low-income Hispanics and non-Hispanics, complementary, mixed methods of formative research were used to determine specific characteristics of the target…
Scherr, Rachel E; Linnell, Jessica D; Smith, Martin H; Briggs, Marilyn; Bergman, Jacqueline; Brian, Kelley M; Dharmar, Madan; Feenstra, Gail; Hillhouse, Carol; Keen, Carl L; Nguyen, Lori M; Nicholson, Yvonne; Ontai, Lenna; Schaefer, Sara E; Spezzano, Theresa; Steinberg, Francene M; Sutter, Carolyn; Wright, Janel E; Young, Heather M; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
To provide a framework for implementation of multicomponent, school-based nutrition interventions. This article describes the research methods for the Shaping Healthy Choices Program, a model to improve nutrition and health-related knowledge and behaviors among school-aged children. Longitudinal, pretest/posttest, randomized, controlled intervention. Four elementary schools in California. Fourth-grade students at intervention (n = 252) and control (n = 238) schools and their parents and teachers. Power analyses demonstrate that a minimum of 159 students per group will be needed to achieve sufficient power. The sample size was determined using the variables of nutrition knowledge, vegetable preference score, and body mass index percentile. A multicomponent school-based nutrition education intervention over 1 academic year, followed by activities to support sustainability of the program. Dietary and nutrition knowledge and behavior, critical thinking skills, healthy food preferences and consumption, and physical activity will be measured using a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, a food frequency questionnaire, a vegetable preferences assessment tool, the Test of Basic Science Process Skills, digital photography of plate waste, PolarActive accelerometers, anthropometrics, a parent questionnaire, and the School and Community Actions for Nutrition survey. Evaluation will include quantitative and qualitative measures. Quantitative data will use paired t, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U tests and regression modeling using P = .05 to determine statistical significance. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williams, Pamela A.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Blitstein, Jonathan L.; Hersey, James C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Long, Valerie A.; Singh, Anita; Berman, Danielle
Background: Nutrition education in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) is designed to promote healthy eating behaviors in a low-income target population. Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of six SNAP-Ed interventions delivered in child care centers or elementary school settings in increasing participating…
Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Mikami, Masamitsu; Oda, Hirotsugu; Hata, Daisuke
This report describes a small-for-date extremely low birth weight infant who manifested bradycardic events, respiratory failure, and hemolytic jaundice during her first week of life. These complications were attributed to severe hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia. Inadequate supply and refeeding syndrome triggered by early aggressive parenteral nutrition were responsible for electrolyte abnormalities. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.
Moore, S E
Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a 'mismatch' between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in countries where an excess of infants are born with low birth weight and where there is a rapid transition to nutritional adequacy or excess in adulthood. Here, I will review data from work conducted in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomized controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and the 'experiment of nature' that seasonality in this region provides, we have investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs.
Šago, Daniela; Filipčić, Igor; Lovretić, Vanja; Mayer, Nina
In long-term outcome studies on individuals with first-episode psychosis, improved remission and recovery rates perhaps reflect the improved treatment in dedicated early intervention program. The first episode is a critical period in which individuals with psychosis, as well as members of their families, are confronted with the illness for the first time. Until nowadays, treatment of first psychotic episodes in Croatia has usually been provided in hospital setting. The day hospital provides comprehensive therapeutic approach that refers to early systematic application of all available and effective therapeutic methods in the initial phases of psychotic disorders, and aims to attain and maintain remission and recovery, as well as insight and adherence to treatment. The day hospital is a time-limited structured program that comprises diagnostic procedures, treatment and rehabilitation based on various group psychotherapy and socio-therapy approaches. It is cheaper than hospital treatment and preferred by patients and their families. The importance of involving family members along with patients in the therapeutic process is recognized. The aim of this paper is to present the first day hospital for early intervention and treatment of individuals with psychotic disorder, established within Psychiatric hospital "Sveti Ivan", Zagreb, Croatia.
Brener Dik, P H; Galletti, M F; Fernández Jonusas, S A; Alonso, G; Mariani, G L; Fustiñana, C A
To report the prevalence of hypophosphatemia during the first week of life in preterm infants receiving aggressive parenteral nutrition and to analyze population variables associated with severe hypophosphatemia. A retrospective cohort of 61 neonates below 1250 g birth weight consecutively born at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires exposed to high caloric and protein intake from the first day of birth. Primary outcome was hypophosphatemia (phosphate <4 mg dl(-1)). A one-sample mean comparison test was used to compare our sample with a hypothesized population mean. The prevalence of hypophosphatemia was 91% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82 to 97%). The mean phosphatemia value was 2.52 mg dl(-1) (95% CI 2.18 to 2.86), significantly different from the hypothesized population mean (P<0.001). Patients with severe hypophosphatemia (<2 mg dl(-1)) were smaller. They presented with sepsis more frequently and received more vasoactive drugs and mechanical ventilation. The prevalence of hypophosphatemia in this group of preterm infants is high. The potential association with adverse clinical outcomes deserves further research.
Fan, Mingchao; Wang, Qiaoling; Fang, Wei; Jiang, Yunxia; Li, Liandi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Zhihong
aspirated pneumonia (27.5% vs. 50.0%; χ 2 = 6.39, P<0.05), hypoproteinemia (17.5% vs. 55.0%; χ 2 = 18.26, P<0.01) and diarrhea (20.0% vs. 60.0%; χ 2 = 20.00, P<0.01). The EN+PN group also had significant less length of stay in NICU (t=2.51, 4.82; P<0.05, P<0.01), number of patients receiving assisted mechanical ventilation (χ 2 = 6.08, 12.88; P<0.05, P<0.01) and its durations (t=3.41, 9.08; P<0.05, P<0.01), and the death rate (χ 2 =7.50, 16.37; P<0.05, P<0.01) than those of EN or PN group. Conclusion Early EN+PN treatment could promote the recovery of the immune function, enhance nutritional status, decrease complications and improve the clinical outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh
The purpose of the study was to assess the determinants of nutrition behaviors and body mass index and determine the impact of a nutrition education intervention (NEI) among Mauritian housewives. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutrition Knowledge (NK), Nutrition Attitudes, Fruit and Vegetable Intake (FVI), body mass index (BMI). Two hundred Mauritian housewives were recruited. The NEI was in the form of a lecture and lasted for twenty minutes. Statistical tests performed revealed that the mean NK score at baseline was 65.8 ± 6.92 and a significant increase of +17.1 at post-test and +16.1 at follow-up was observed. Determinants of NK were age, presence of elderly people, and BMI. Mean nutrition attitude score at baseline was 2.37 ± 0.22 with significant increase of +0.2 (post-test) and +0.17 at follow-up. Age, level of education, presence of elders, and NK were linked to a positive attitude. FVI was predicted by age, income, presence of elders, NK, and nutrition attitudes. Baseline FVI was 4.77 ± 1.11 which increased significantly ( p < 0.001) to 4.98 ± 1.13 at post-test and 5.03 ± 1.20 at follow up. NEI had a positive impact suggesting the benefits of such intervention in the promotion of healthy nutrition behaviors.
Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.
The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…
Stark, Lori J; Opipari-Arrigan, Lisa; Filigno, Stephanie S; Simon, Stacey L; Leonard, Amanda; Mogayzel, Peter J; Rausch, Joseph; Zion, Cynthia; Powers, Scott W
Usability and pilot testing of a web intervention (BeInCharge.org [BIC]) of behavior plus nutrition intervention for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) ages 4-9 years. Think Aloud methodology was used with five mothers to assess usability and refine the intervention. A pilot trial was then conducted with 10 mothers of children with CF ages 4-9 years randomized to the web-based BIC or a Standard Care Control (STC). Change in weight gain for each group was compared in a pre-to-post design. Mothers rated the usability and clarity of BIC highly. The pilot trial showed children of mothers who received BIC had a significant change in weight pre-to-post-treatment (0.67 kg, p = .04). Change for the STC was not significant (0.41 kg, p = .10). A web-based behavior plus nutrition intervention appears promising in increasing weight gain in children with CF. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bujanda Sainz de Murieta, Elena; Beitia Berrotaran, Guadalupe; Zazpe, Itziar; Lasheras, Berta; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira
The adherence to a Mediterranean Dietary Pattern is associated with a morbi-mortality reduction, and with a better quality of life. To evaluate a nutritional intervention among independent elderly people enrolled in an educational program to increase the knowledge of the food and daily diets, promoting a healthy dietary pattern. Quasi-experimental design conducted in elderly participants who lived in foster home apartments owned by the City Council of Pamplona (n = 41). The intervention was based on six group sessions and an individual motivational session in a period of three months. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was evaluated through a 14-point scale previously validated. Eighty point five per cent of participants were women, with a median age of 79 years, the majority of them widowed (48.8%) and with primary education (58.5%). After the nutritional intervention the percentage of participants who consumed two or more servings of vegetables increased significantly versus the control group (p = 0.042). Similarly, in comparison with the control group, there was an increase in the percentage of participants who consumed three servings per week of legumes (p = 0.042), three or more servings per week of nuts (p = 0.003), and those who consumed preferably meat from chicken, turkey, or rabbit instead of veal, pork, hamburgers, or sausages (p = 0.011). An intervention based on individual and group sessions improved significantly several parameters of a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Baldwin, Christine; Kimber, Katherine L; Gibbs, Michelle; Weekes, Christine Elizabeth
Supportive interventions such as serving meals in a dining room environment or the use of assistants to feed patients are frequently recommended for the management of nutritionally vulnerable groups. Such interventions are included in many policy and guideline documents and have implications for staff time but may incur additional costs, yet there appears to be a lack of evidence for their efficacy. To assess the effects of supportive interventions for enhancing dietary intake in malnourished or nutritionally at-risk adults. We identified publications from comprehensive searches of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science databases, scrutiny of the reference lists of included trials and related systematic reviews and handsearching the abstracts of relevant meetings. The date of the last search for all databases was 31 March 2013. Additional searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP were undertaken to September 2016. The date of the last search for these databases was 14 September 2016. Randomised controlled trials of supportive interventions given with the aim of enhancing dietary intake in nutritionally vulnerable adults compared with usual care. Three review authors and for the final search, the editor, selected trials from titles and abstracts and independently assessed eligibility of selected trials. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias, as well as evaluating overall quality of the evidence utilising the GRADE instrument, and then agreed as they entered data into the review. The likelihood of clinical heterogeneity amongst trials was judged to be high as trials were in populations with widely different clinical backgrounds, conducted in different healthcare settings and despite some grouping of similar interventions, involved interventions that varied considerably. We were only able, therefore, to conduct meta-analyses for the outcome measures
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mondi, Christina F.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Hayakawa, Momo
We describe the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote the well-being of vulnerable children and families. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions beginning in the first few years of life. Relatively large effects of program participation have been documented for school readiness skills, parent involvement, K-12 achievement, reduced need for remedial education, educational attainment, and crime prevention. The three processes account for up to half of the program impact on well-being. They also help to explain the positive economic returns of many effective programs. The generalizability of these processes is supported by a sizable knowledge base, including a scale-up of the Child-Parent Centers in two states. PMID:28195326
Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F; Hayakawa, Momoko
This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions beginning by age 4. Relatively large effects of participation have been documented for school readiness skills at age 5, parent involvement, K-12 achievement, remedial education, educational attainment, and crime prevention. The three processes account for up to half of the program impacts on well-being. They also help to explain the positive economic returns of many effective programs. The generalizability of these processes is supported by a sizable knowledge base, including a scale up of the Child-Parent Centers. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Roseman, Mary G; Riddell, Martha C; Haynes, Jessica N
To review the literature, identifying proposed recommendations for school-based nutrition interventions, and evaluate kindergarten through 12th grade school-based nutrition interventions conducted from 2000-2008. Proposed recommendations from school-based intervention reviews were developed and used in conducting a content analysis of 26 interventions. Twenty-six school-based nutrition interventions in the United States first published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000-2008. VARIABLE MEASURED: Ten proposed recommendations based on prior analyses of school-based nutrition interventions: (1) behaviorally focused, (2) multicomponents, (3) healthful food/school environment, (4) family involvement, (5) self-assessments, (6) quantitative evaluation, (7) community involvement, (8) ethnic/heterogeneous groups, (9) multimedia technology, and (10) sequential and sufficient duration. Descriptive statistics. The most frequent recommendations used were: (1) behaviorally focused components (100%) and (2) quantitative evaluation of food behaviors (96%). Only 15% of the interventions included community involvement or ethnic/heterogeneous groups, whereas 31% included anthropometric measures. Five of the 10 proposed recommendations were included in over 50% of the interventions. Rising trend of overweight children warrants the need to synthesize findings from previous studies to inform research and program development and assist in identification of high-impact strategies and tactics. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Masset, Edoardo; Haddad, Lawrence; Cornelius, Alexander; Isaza-Castro, Jairo
To assess the effectiveness of agricultural interventions in improving the nutritional status of children in developing countries. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports (after 1990) in English identified by searching 10 databases (Agris, Econlit, Eldis, IBSS, IDEAS, IFPRI, Jolis, PubMed, Web of Science, and World Bank), websites, previous systematic reviews, and reference lists and by contacting experts. Included studies assessed effects of agricultural interventions aiming at improving the nutritional status of children (bio-fortification, home gardens, small scale fisheries and aquaculture, dairy development, and animal husbandry and poultry development). Only studies that used a valid counterfactual analysis were included. Before/after studies and participants/non-participants comparisons affected by selection bias were excluded. Data analysis Results were analysed for four intermediate outcomes (programme participation, income, dietary diversity, and micronutrient intake) and one final outcome (prevalence of under-nutrition). Analysis was by summary tables of mean effects and by meta-analysis (for vitamin A absorption). The review included 23 studies, mostly evaluating home garden interventions. The studies reviewed did not report participation rates or the characteristics of participants in programmes. The interventions had a positive effect on the production of the agricultural goods promoted, but not on households' total income. The interventions were successful in promoting the consumption of food rich in protein and micronutrients, but the effect on the overall diet of poor people remains unclear. No evidence was found of an effect on the absorption of iron, but some evidence exists of a positive effect on absorption of vitamin A. Very little evidence was found of a positive effect on the prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight among children aged under 5. The question posed by the review cannot be answered with any level of
Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung
The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…
... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.126 Early intervention services in natural...
... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Early intervention requirements for certain... SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (REGULATION X) Mortgage Servicing § 1024.39 Early intervention requirements for... of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 1024.39 Early intervention requirements for...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention services in natural environments. 303...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.126 Early intervention services in natural...
... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.126 Early intervention services in natural...
Erismann, Séverine; Diagbouga, Serge; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Gerold, Jana; Leuenberger, Andrea; Shrestha, Akina; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio
The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data. Mixed regression models were used to assess the impact of the interventions, controlling for baseline characteristics. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections decreased both in intervention and control schools, but the decrease was significantly higher in the intervention schools related to the control schools (odds ratio [OR] of the intervention effect = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.5). Indices of undernutrition did not decrease at end-line in intervention schools. Safe handwashing practices before eating and the use of latrines at schools were significantly higher in the intervention schools than in the control schools at end-line (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.4-34.4, and OR = 14.9, 95% CI = 1.4-153.9, respectively). Parameters of water quality remained unchanged. A combination of agricultural, nutritional, and WASH-related interventions embedded in the social-ecological systems and delivered through the school platform improved several child health outcomes, including intestinal parasitic infections and some WASH-related behaviors. Sustained interventions with stronger household and community-based components are, however, needed to improve school children's health in the long-term.
de Deus, Raquel Mendonça; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Jaime, Patrícia Constante; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an intervention implemented under the Programa Academia da Saúde (Health Gym Programme) of Belo Horizonte, MG on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants. Intervention study involving participants in the Health Gym Programme which encompasses group food and nutrition education activities over a period of 11 months combined with regular physical activity. Impact was assessed by comparing nutritional and anthropometric indicators in women participants who were divided into two groups according to their participation rate in the intervention. A total of 124 women were evaluated, results showed an increase in the number of daily meals (p<0.001) among all participants. Participants whose participation rate was less than 50% (n = 61) reduced their daily consumption of sugary soft drinks (p = 0.03), while those whose participation rate was 50% and over (n = 63) reduced daily per capita intake of oil (p = 0.01) and sugar (p = 0.002), increased their consumption of fruit (p = 0. 004), and milk and dairy products (p = 0.02), and also experienced weight loss (-1.3 ± 3.9kg; p = 0.02). The findings show the importance of combining nutritional interventions with physical activity to ensure positive impacts on the nutritional status and anthropometric profile of participants in the Health Gym Programme.
Panteliadis, Christos P; Hagel, Christian; Karch, Dieter; Heinemann, Karl
One of the oldest and probably well-known examples of cerebral palsy is the mummy of the Pharaoh Siptah about 1196–1190 B.C., and a letter from Hippocrates (460–390 B.C.). Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common congenital or acquired neurological impairments in paediatric patients, and refers to a group of children with motor disability and related functional defects. The visible core of CP is characterized by abnormal coordination of movements and/or muscle tone which manifest very early in the development. Resulting from pre- or perinatal brain damage CP is not a progressive condition per se. However, without systematic medical and physiotherapeutic support the dystonia leads to muscle contractions and to deterioration of the handicap. Here we review the three general spastic manifestations of CP hemiplegia, diplegia and tetraplegia, describe the diagnostic procedures and delineate a time schedule for an early intervention. PMID:26191093
Hughes, Roger; Margetts, Barrie
The present paper describes a model for public health nutrition practice designed to facilitate practice improvement and provide a step-wise approach to assist with workforce development. The bi-cycle model for public health nutrition practice has been developed based on existing cyclical models for intervention management but modified to integrate discrete capacity-building practices. Education and practice settings. This model will have applications for educators and practitioners. Modifications to existing models have been informed by the authors' observations and experiences as practitioners and educators, and reflect a conceptual framework with applications in workforce development and practice improvement. From a workforce development and educational perspective, the model is designed to reflect adult learning principles, exposing students to experiential, problem-solving and practical learning experiences that reflect the realities of work as a public health nutritionist. In doing so, it assists the development of competency beyond knowing to knowing how, showing how and doing. This progression of learning from knowledge to performance is critical to effective competency development for effective practice. Public health nutrition practice is dynamic and varied, and models need to be adaptable and applicable to practice context to have utility. The paper serves to stimulate debate in the public health nutrition community, to encourage critical feedback about the validity, applicability and utility of this model in different practice contexts.
Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony Jc; Darboe, Momodou K; Jobarteh, Modou Lamin; Jarjou, Landing M; Prentice, Andrew M
Recent observational research indicates that immune development may be programmed by nutritional exposures early in life. Such findings require replication from trials specifically designed to assess the impact of nutritional intervention during pregnancy on infant immune development. The current trial seeks to establish: (a) which combination of protein-energy (PE) and multiple-micronutrient (MMN) supplements would be most effective; and (b) the most critical periods for intervention in pregnancy and infancy, for optimal immune development in infancy. The ENID Trial is a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial randomized, partially blind trial to assess whether nutritional supplementation to pregnant women (from < 20 weeks gestation to term) and their infants (from 6 to 12 months of age) can enhance infant immune development. Eligible pregnant women from the West Kiang region of The Gambia (pregnancy dated by ultrasound examination) are randomized on entry to 4 intervention groups (Iron-folate (FeFol = standard care), multiple micronutrients (MMN), protein-energy (PE), PE + MMN). Women are visited at home weekly for supplement administration and morbidity assessment and seen at MRC Keneba at 20 and 30 weeks gestation for a detailed antenatal examination, including ultrasound. At delivery, cord blood and placental samples are collected, with detailed infant anthropometry collected within 72 hours. Infants are visited weekly thereafter for a morbidity questionnaire. From 6 to 12 months of age, infants are further randomized to a lipid-based nutritional supplement, with or without additional MMN. The primary outcome measures of this study are thymic development during infancy, and antibody response to vaccination. Measures of cellular markers of immunity will be made in a selected sub-cohort. Subsidiary studies to the main trial will additionally assess the impact of supplementation on infant growth and development to 24 months of age. The proposed trial is designed to test whether
Masters, William A; Webb, Patrick; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Deckelbaum, Richard J
Despite rhetoric arguing that enhanced agriculture leads to improved nutrition and health, there is scant empirical evidence about potential synergies across sectors or about the mix of actions that best supports all three sectors. The geographic scale and socioeconomic nature of these interventions require integration of previously separate research methods. This paper proposes a typology of interventions and a metric of integration among them to help researchers build on each other's results, facilitating integration in methods to inform the design of multisector interventions. The typology recognizes the importance of regional effect modifiers that are not themselves subject to randomized assignment, and trade-offs in how policies and programs are implemented, evaluated, and scaled. Using this typology could facilitate methodological pluralism, helping researchers in one field use knowledge generated elsewhere, each using the most appropriate method for their situation. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Moreno Villares, José Manuel
Development during fetal life and infancy is characterized by rapid growth as well as the maturation of organs and systems. Changes, both in quality and quality, in nutrients during these periods may permanently infl uence the way these organs mature and function. These effects are termed as “programming” and play an important role in the presence of non-transmissible diseases through the lifespan. Specially cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders and carbohydrate intolerance. Nutritional deficits during pregnancy, leading to intrauterine growth restriction, are associated to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, and coronary disease among the offspring. This infl uence does not stop with the delivery but early nutrition in infancy, type of lactation, and the way and time solid foods are introduced, does play a role in this programming. Nutritional and non-nutritional factors alter the expression of some genes, resulting in effective remodeling of tissue structure and functionality. These epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to further generations, adding evidence that hereditable epigenetic modifications play a critical role in nutritional programming. But, at the same time, it opens a window of opportunity to decrease the burden of non-transmissible disease by a clever advise on nutrition during pregnancy and across the first 2 years of life (the so-called 1000 days strategy).
Lesoway, Maryna P; Collin, Rachel; Abouheif, Ehab
Investigation of alternative phenotypes, different morphologies produced by a single genome, has contributed novel insights into development and evolution. Yet, the mechanisms underlying developmental switch points between alternative phenotypes remain poorly understood. The calyptraeid snails Crepidula navicella and Calyptraea lichen produce two phenotypes: viable and nutritive embryos, where nutritive embryos arrest their development after gastrulation and are ingested by their viable siblings as a form of intracapsular nutrition. Here, we investigate the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, ERK1/2) and apoptosis during early cleavage. MAPK and apoptosis, found in a previous transcriptomic study, are known to be involved in organization of other spiralian embryos and nutritive embryo development, respectively. In the model Crepidula fornicata, MAPK activation begins at the 16-cell stage. In contrast, we discovered in C. navicella and C. lichen that many embryos begin MAPK activation at the one-cell stage. A subset of embryos shows a similar pattern of MAPK activation to C. fornicata at later stages. In all stages where MAPK is detected, the activation pattern is highly variable, frequently occurring in all quadrants or in multiple tiers of cells. We also detected apoptosis in cleaving embryos, while C. fornicata and Crepidula lessoni, which do not produce nutritive embryos, show no signs of apoptosis during cleavage. Our results show that MAPK and apoptosis are expressed during early development in species with nutritive embryos, and raises the possibility that these processes may play a role and even interact with one another in producing the nutritive embryo phenotype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Birnbaum, Michael L; Garrett, Chantel; Baumel, Amit; Scovel, Maria; Rizvi, Asra F; Muscat, Whitney; Kane, John M
Identifying and engaging youth with early-stage psychotic disorders in order to facilitate timely treatment initiation remains a major public health challenge. Although advertisers routinely use the Internet to directly target consumers, limited efforts have focused on applying available technology to proactively encourage help-seeking in the mental health community. This study explores how one might take advantage of Google AdWords in order to reach prospective patients with early psychosis. A landing page was developed with the primary goal of encouraging help-seeking individuals in New York City to contact their local early psychosis intervention clinic. In order to provide the best opportunity to reach the intended audience, Google AdWords was utilized to link more than 2,000 selected search terms to strategically placed landing page advertisements. The campaign ran for 14 weeks between April 11 and July 18, 2016 and had a total budget of $1,427. The ads appeared 191,313 times and were clicked on 4,350 times, at a per-click cost of $.33. Many users took additional help-seeking steps, including obtaining psychosis-specific information/education (44%), completing a psychosis self-screener (15%), and contacting the local early treatment program (1%). Digital ads appear to be a reasonable and cost-effective method to reach individuals who are searching for behavioral health information online. More research is needed to better understand the many complex steps between online search inquiries and making first clinical contact.
Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Flores-Ayala, Rafael
Lack of monitoring capacity is a key barrier for nutrition interventions and limits programme management, decision making and programme effectiveness in many low-income and middle-income countries. A 2011 global assessment reported lack of monitoring capacity was the top barrier for home fortification interventions, such as micronutrient powders or lipid-based nutrient supplements. A Manual for Developing and Implementing Monitoring Systems for Home Fortification Interventions was recently disseminated. It is comprehensive and describes monitoring concepts and frameworks and includes monitoring tools and worksheets. The monitoring manual describes the steps of developing and implementing a monitoring system for home fortification interventions, including identifying and engaging stakeholders; developing a programme description including logic model and logical framework; refining the purpose of the monitoring system, identifying users and their monitoring needs; describing the design of the monitoring system; developing indicators; describing the core components of a comprehensive monitoring plan; and considering factors related to stage of programme development, sustainability and scale up. A fictional home fortification example is used throughout the monitoring manual to illustrate these steps. The monitoring manual is a useful tool to support the development and implementation of home fortification intervention monitoring systems. In the context of systematic capacity gaps to design, implement and monitor nutrition interventions in many low-income and middle-income countries, the dissemination of new tools, such as monitoring manuals may have limited impact without additional attention to strengthening other individual, organisational and systems levels capacities. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Huynh, D T T; Estorninos, E; Capeding, R Z; Oliver, J S; Low, Y L; Rosales, F J
The benefits of short-term oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) in undernourished children are well-established. The benefits of long-term ONS in promoting longitudinal growth and health in children who are at risk of undernutrition have not been reported previously. In this 48-week prospective, single-arm, multicentre trial, 200 Filipino children aged 3-4 years with weight-for-height percentiles from 5th to 25th (WHO Child Growth Standards) were enrolled. Parents received dietary counselling at baseline, and at weeks 4 and 8. Two servings of ONS (450 mL) were consumed daily, providing 450 kcal, 13.5 g protein and micronutrients. Weight, height, dietary intake using 24-h dietary recalls, and physical activity and appetite using the visual analogue scales were assessed at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48. The number of sick days for acute illnesses was collected over the study period. At baseline, mean age was 41.2 months with 50% being male. Weight-for-height percentiles showed the greatest increase in the first 4 weeks (12.1 and 12.8 percentiles, respectively, P < 0.0001) and remained significantly higher than baseline (P < 0.0001) but were relatively stable from week 4 onwards. Height-for-age percentiles increased steadily over time and became significantly higher than baseline from week 24 onwards (P < 0.0001). Appetite and physical activity scores at all post-baseline visits improved from baseline (P < 0.0001), and a reduction in the number of sick days from week 16 onwards was also observed (P < 0.0001). Higher parental education level, being male and higher baseline weight-for-height percentiles were significantly associated with higher ponderal and linear growth over time in repeated measures analysis of covariance. Intervention consisting of initial dietary counselling and continued ONS helped sustain normal growth after a catch-up growth in nutritionally at-risk children. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Koletzko, Berthold; Brands, Brigitte; Chourdakis, Michael; Cramer, Simone; Grote, Veit; Hellmuth, Christian; Kirchberg, Franca; Prell, Christine; Rzehak, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Weber, Martina
At The Power of Programming 2014 Conference, researchers from multiple disciplines presented and discussed the effects of early nutrition and other environmental cues during the first thousand days of life and beyond on the lifelong risk of noncommunicable diseases. This paper aims to summarize the concepts and some of the fi