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Sample records for early onset obesity

  1. Breast Cancer and Early Onset Childhood Obesity: Cell Specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia and Adipocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    will be in black and white. 14. ABSTRACT Obesity has become a major health problem in children and adults and is associated with increased breast...tumorigenesis. Towards better understanding this relationship we have developed and characterized a new rat model of childhood onset Diet Induced Obesity ...new rat model of early onset Diet Induced Obesity (DIO). In this model rats are fed a Western Diet that is high in fat and higher in simple carbohydrate

  2. Large, rare chromosomal deletions associated with severe early-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Bochukova, Elena G; Huang, Ni; Keogh, Julia; Henning, Elana; Purmann, Carolin; Blaszczyk, Kasia; Saeed, Sadia; Hamilton-Shield, Julian; Clayton-Smith, Jill; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Hurles, Matthew E; Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2010-02-04

    Obesity is a highly heritable and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Here we investigated the contribution of copy number variation to obesity in 300 Caucasian patients with severe early-onset obesity, 143 of whom also had developmental delay. Large (>500 kilobases), rare (<1%) deletions were significantly enriched in patients compared to 7,366 controls (P < 0.001). We identified several rare copy number variants that were recurrent in patients but absent or at much lower prevalence in controls. We identified five patients with overlapping deletions on chromosome 16p11.2 that were found in 2 out of 7,366 controls (P < 5 x 10(-5)). In three patients the deletion co-segregated with severe obesity. Two patients harboured a larger de novo 16p11.2 deletion, extending through a 593-kilobase region previously associated with autism and mental retardation; both of these patients had mild developmental delay in addition to severe obesity. In an independent sample of 1,062 patients with severe obesity alone, the smaller 16p11.2 deletion was found in an additional two patients. All 16p11.2 deletions encompass several genes but include SH2B1, which is known to be involved in leptin and insulin signalling. Deletion carriers exhibited hyperphagia and severe insulin resistance disproportionate for the degree of obesity. We show that copy number variation contributes significantly to the genetic architecture of human obesity.

  3. Large, rare chromosomal deletions associated with severe early-onset obesity

    PubMed Central

    Bochukova, Elena G.; Huang, Ni; Keogh, Julia; Henning, Elana; Purmann, Carolin; Blaszczyk, Kasia; Saeed, Sadia; Hamilton-Shield, Julian; Clayton-Smith, Jill; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Hurles, Matthew E.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a highly heritable and genetically heterogeneous disorder1. Here we investigated the contribution of copy number variation to obesity in 300 Caucasian patients with severe early-onset obesity, 143 of whom also had developmental delay. Large (>500 kilobases), rare (<1%) deletions were significantly enriched in patients compared to 7,366 controls (P < 0.001). We identified several rare copy number variants that were recurrent in patients but absent or at much lower prevalence in controls. We identified five patients with overlapping deletions on chromosome 16p11.2 that were found in 2 out of 7,366 controls (P < 5 × 10−5). In three patients the deletion co-segregated with severe obesity. Two patients harboured a larger de novo 16p11.2 deletion, extending through a 593-kilobase region previously associated with autism2-4 and mental retardation5; both of these patients had mild developmental delay in addition to severe obesity. In an independent sample of 1,062 patients with severe obesity alone, the smaller 16p11.2 deletion was found in an additional two patients. All 16p11.2 deletions encompass several genes but include SH2B1, which is known to be involved in leptin and insulin signalling6. Deletion carriers exhibited hyperphagia and severe insulin resistance disproportionate for the degree of obesity. We show that copy number variation contributes significantly to the genetic architecture of human obesity. PMID:19966786

  4. Concordance of bioactive vs. total immunoreactive serum leptin levels in children with severe early onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanik, Juraj; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Landgraf, Kathrin; Scheuermann, Kathrin; Spielau, Ulrike; Gausche, Ruth; Gasperikova, Daniela; Kiess, Wieland; Körner, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Leptin secreted from adipose tissue signals peripheral energy status to the brain. Monogenic leptin deficiency results in severe early onset obesity with hyperphagia. Recently, a similar phenotype of inactivating leptin mutations but with preserved immunoreactivity and hence normal circulating immunoreactive leptin has been reported. We aimed to evaluate the proportion of bioactive leptin serum levels (compared to immunoreactive leptin) as a biomarker for the screening of leptin gene mutations causing monogenic obesity. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the immunoreactive and bioactive leptin levels associations with parameters of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in obese children and adolescents. We measured bioactive and immunoreactive leptin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in fasting serum samples of 70 children with severe (BMI SDS >3) non-syndromic obesity with onset <3 years of life from our Leipzig childhood obesity cohort (n = 1204). Sanger sequencing of the leptin gene was performed in probands with proportion of bioactive/immunoreactive leptin <90%. The mean levels of bioactive and immunoreactive leptin were almost identical (41.1±25.2 vs. 41.1±25.4ng/mL). In three probands with the lowest bioactive leptin proportion (<90%) we did not identify mutations in the leptin gene. Compared to immunoreactive leptin, bioactive leptin showed similar and slightly better statistical associations with indices of insulin resistance in correlation and multivariate analyses. In our sample selected for severe early onset childhood obesity, we did not identify leptin gene mutations leading to decreased proportion of bioactive leptin. Nevertheless, the bioactive leptin levels were stronger associated with selected insulin secretion/resistance indices than the immunoreactive leptin levels.

  5. Early onset of puberty in an obese boy with Klinefelter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byoung-Wook; Kwon, Seung-Eun; Kim, Soon-Ki; Lee, Taek; Han, Jee-Young

    2016-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common disease entities characterized by X-chromosomal aberration causing the primary hypogonadism in adult men. Patients with KS seem to be typically characterized by tall, slender bodies with delayed puberty and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. However, it has been known that they have a broad spectrum of phenotype ranging from almost normal external appearances to typical phenotype. Only 25% KS Patients are ever diagnosed because KS remains unrecognized. Also, boys with KS have an onset of pubertal development within the normal range, not delayed onset of puberty. Adolescents with KS are generally diagnosed as having the lack of pubertal progress. Early detection of KS can be difficult without awareness. We report an unusual case of early onset of puberty in obese boy with KS who presented with a unilateral non-hormone secreting testicular teratoma. PMID:27104178

  6. Early-life exposures predicting onset and resolution of childhood overweight or obesity.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jessica A; Long, Catherine; Clifford, Susan A; Muller, Joshua; Gillespie, Alanna N; Donath, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2017-10-01

    To determine which of multiple early-life exposures predict onset or resolution of overweight/obesity during a 9-year period. Design: longitudinal cohort from three harmonised community-based cohorts enriched for overweight and obesity. Early-life exposures: child-gestational age; delivery; birth weight; breast feeding; solids introduction; baseline body mass index (BMI); waist circumference; diet; activity; global, physical and psychosocial health. Mother-baseline BMI; education; age; neighbourhood disadvantage; concern for child's weight. Outcome: change in BMI category. Analyses: adjusted logistic regression. On average, the 363 children (57% retention) were 6 and 15 years old at baseline and follow-up. Children were classified as 'never' overweight/obese (38%), 'resolving' overweight/obese (15%), 'becoming' overweight/obese (8%) or 'always' overweight/obese (39%). Compared with 'never overweight/obese' children, odds of 'becoming overweight/obese' were greater with higher child (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.29) and maternal BMI (OR 1.18, CI 1.07 to 1.31), and lower with higher maternal education (OR 0.09, CI 0.02 to 0.34). Compared with 'always overweight/obese' children, odds of 'resolving overweight/obese' were lower with higher maternal BMI (OR 0.87, CI 0.78 to 0.97), and higher with better child physical health (OR 1.06, CI 1.02 to 1.10) and higher maternal age (OR 1.11, CI 1.01 to 1.22) and education (OR 4.07, CI 1.02 to 16.19). Readily available baseline information (child/maternal BMI, maternal age, education and child health) were the strongest predictors of both onset and resolution of overweight/obesity between the primary school and adolescent years. Perinatal, breastfeeding and lifestyle exposures were not strongly predictive. Results could stimulate development of algorithms identifying children most in need of targeted prevention or treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  7. Association of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 5' polymorphism with early-onset extreme obesity.

    PubMed

    Bell, Christopher G; Meyre, David; Samson, Chantal; Boyle, Cliona; Lecoeur, Cécile; Tauber, Maïte; Jouret, Béatrice; Jaquet, Delphine; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Charles, Marie Aline; Weill, Jacques; Gibson, Fernando; Mein, Charles A; Froguel, Philippe; Walley, Andrew J

    2005-10-01

    Murine models have been highly effective in identifying the monogenic forms of human obesity discovered to date. Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) has been shown to be significant in the downstream orexigenic activity of the leptin-melanocortin pathway by such models. In this study, the human MCHR1 gene was extensively characterized by sequencing 3.5 kb of coding, untranslated and intronic regions plus 1 kb of putative promoter region in 180 morbidly obese adults and 87 morbidly obese children, a total of >2.4 Mb of sequencing. Thirty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found, seven of which encode an amino acid change. One mutation, R248Q, appeared to cosegregate with the obesity trait in one pedigree but was also found to be a rare polymorphism in control samples. To investigate the possible polygenic role of MCHR1, the six common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) found in the sequenced regions were then screened in 557 morbidly obese adults, 552 obese children, and 1,195 nonobese nondiabetic control subjects. The plausible promoter SNP, rs133068, was found to be associated with protection against obesity in obese children only (allele frequency P = 0.006 and genotype frequency P = 0.004). Most significant results were found when using a dominant model (P = 0.001, odds ratio 0.695 [95% CI 0.560-0.863]). However, similar associations were found when both adults and children were analyzed together (P = 0.006, 0.783 [0.658-0.930]), suggesting that severe forms of obesity with early onset may be associated with SNPs in MCHR1.

  8. Neurocognitive findings in Prader-Willi syndrome and early-onset morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer; Kranzler, John; Liu, Yijun; Schmalfuss, Ilona; Theriaque, Douglas W; Shuster, Jonathan J; Hatfield, Ann; Mueller, O Thomas; Goldstone, Anthony P; Sahoo, Trilochan; Beaudet, Arthur L; Driscoll, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    To examine whether early-onset morbid obesity is associated with cognitive impairment, neuropathologic changes, and behavioral problems. This case-control study compared head MRI scans and cognitive, achievement, and behavioral evaluations of subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), early-onset morbid obesity (EMO), and normal-weight sibling control subjects from both groups. Head MRI was done on 17 PWS, 18 EMO, and 21 siblings, and cognitive, achievement, and behavioral evaluations were done on 19 PWS, 17 EMO, and 24 siblings. The mean General Intellectual Ability score of the EMO group was 77.4 +/- 17.8; PWS, 63.3 +/- 14.2; and control subjects, 106.4 +/- 13.0. Achievement scores for the three groups were EMO, 78.7 +/- 18.8; PWS, 71.2 +/- 17.0; and control subjects, 104.8 +/- 17.0. Significant negative behaviors and poor adaptive skills were found in the EMO group. White matter lesions were noted on brain MRI in 6 subjects with PWS and 5 with EMO. None of the normal-weight control subjects had these findings. Individuals with EMO have significantly lower cognitive function and more behavioral problems than control subjects with no history of childhood obesity. Both EMO and PWS subjects have white matter lesions on brain MRI that have not previously been described.

  9. Pituitary abnormalities in Prader-Willi syndrome and early onset morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Goldstone, Anthony P; Couch, Jessica A; Shuster, Jonathan; He, Guojun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Liu, Yijun; Schmalfuss, Ilona M

    2008-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a well-defined syndrome of childhood-obesity which can serve as a model for investigating early onset childhood obesity. Many of the clinical features of PWS (e.g., hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency) are hypothesized to be due to abnormalities of the hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland. Children who become severely obese very early in life (i.e., before age 4 years) may also have a genetic etiology of their obesity, perhaps with associated neuroendocrine and hypothalamo-pituitary defects, as infants and very young children have limited access to environmental factors that contribute to obesity. We hypothesized that morphologic abnormalities of the pituitary gland would be seen in both individuals with PWS and other subjects with early onset morbid obesity (EMO). This case-control study included individuals with PWS (n = 27, age 3 months to 39 years), patients with EMO of unknown etiology (n = 16, age 4-22 years; defined as body mass index greater than the 97th centile for age before age 4 years), and normal weight siblings (n = 25, age 7 months to 43 years) from both groups. Participants had 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the pituitary gland, a complete history and physical examination, and measurement of basal pituitary hormones. Subjects with PWS and EMO had a higher prevalence of pituitary morphological abnormalities than did control subjects (74% PWS, 69% EMO, 8% controls; P < 0.001). Anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies were universal in individuals with PWS (low IGF-1 in 100%, P < 0.001 PWS vs. controls; central hypothyroidism in 19%, P = 0.052, and hypoplastic genitalia or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in 100%, P < 0.001), and was often seen in individuals with EMO (6%, P = 0.89 vs. control, 31%, P = 0.002, and 25%, P = 0.018, respectively). The presence of a hypoplastic pituitary gland appeared to correlate with the presence of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies

  10. Mutation screen and association studies for the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene and early onset and adult obesity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The orexigenic effects of cannabinoids are limited by activation of the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The aim of this study was to analyse whether FAAH alleles are associated with early and late onset obesity. Methods We initially assessed association of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FAAH with early onset extreme obesity in up to 521 German obese children and both parents. SNPs with nominal p-values ≤ 0.1 were subsequently analysed in 235 independent German obesity families. SNPs associated with childhood obesity (p-values ≤ 0.05) were further analysed in 8,491 adult individuals of a population-based cohort (KORA) for association with adult obesity. One SNP was further analysed in 985 German obese adults and 588 normal and underweight controls. In parallel, we screened the FAAH coding region for novel sequence variants in 92 extremely obese children using single-stranded-conformation-polymorphism-analysis and denaturing HPLC and assessed the implication of the identified new variants for childhood obesity. Results The trio analysis revealed some evidence for an association of three SNPs in FAAH (rs324420 rs324419 and rs873978) with childhood obesity (two-sided p-values between 0.06 and 0.10). Although analyses of these variants in 235 independent obesity families did not result in statistically significant effects (two-sided p-values between 0.14 and 0.75), the combined analysis of all 603 obesity families supported the idea of an association of two SNPs in FAAH (rs324420 and rs2295632) with early onset extreme obesity (p-values between 0.02 and 0.03). No association was, however, found between these variants and adult obesity. The mutation screen revealed four novel variants, which were not associated with early onset obesity (p > 0.05). Conclusions As we observed some evidence for an association of the FAAH variants rs2295632 rs324420 with early onset but not adult obesity, we conclude that the

  11. Copy Number Variants Are Enriched in Individuals With Early-Onset Obesity and Highlight Novel Pathogenic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Maria; Viljakainen, Heli; Loid, Petra; Mustila, Taina; Pekkinen, Minna; Armenio, Miriam; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Mäkitie, Outi; Lindstrand, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Only a few genetic causes for childhood obesity have been identified to date. Copy number variants (CNVs) are known to contribute to obesity, both syndromic (15q11.2 deletions, Prader-Willi syndrome) and nonsyndromic (16p11.2 deletions) obesity. To study the contribution of CNVs to early-onset obesity and evaluate the expression of candidate genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue. A case-control study in a tertiary academic center. CNV analysis was performed on 90 subjects with early-onset obesity and 67 normal-weight controls. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from body mass index-discordant siblings was used for the gene expression analyses. We used custom high-density array comparative genomic hybridization with exon resolution in 1989 genes, including all known obesity loci. The expression of candidate genes was assessed using microarray analysis of messenger RNA from subcutaneous adipose tissue. We identified rare CNVs in 17 subjects (19%) with obesity and 2 controls (3%). In three cases (3%), the identified variant involved a known syndromic lesion (22q11.21 duplication, 1q21.1 deletion, and 16p11.2 deletion, respectively), although the others were not known. Seven CNVs in 10 families were inherited and segregated with obesity. Expression analysis of 37 candidate genes showed discordant expression for 10 genes (PCM1, EFEMP1, MAMLD1, ACP6, BAZ2B, SORBS1, KLF15, MACROD2, ATR, and MBD5). Rare CNVs contribute possibly pathogenic alleles to a substantial fraction of children with early-onset obesity. The involved genes might provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms and involved cellular pathways. These findings highlight the importance of CNV screening in children with early-onset obesity.

  12. Mutational analysis of the proopiomelanocortin gene in Caucasians with early onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Echwald, S M; Sørensen, T I; Andersen, T; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Clausen, J O; Pedersen, O

    1999-03-01

    Mutations in the human gene encoding the polyhormone peptide proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are associated with obesity in rare cases and the gene co-localizes with a reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for variations in circulating leptin levels and fat mass on human chromosome 2p21. In this study we have used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, to test whether variations in the human POMC gene are associated with human obesity. Primary mutational analysis was performed on the coding region of the POMC gene and 500 bp of the putative promoter region, by single strand conformational analysis and sequencing, in 56 subjects with juvenile onset obesity (body mass index (BMI) > or = 31 kg/m2 at the draft board examination). The prevalence of two polymorphisms were further studied in 156 obese and 205 control subjects, and in a population based cohort of 380 extensively characterized young healthy subjects. We have identified a total of six gene variants, five were silent nucleotide substitutions (No51(promoter) g-->c, No670(5'UTR)g-->a, No4512(codon6)c-->t Cys/Cys, No7726(codon116)c-->t Leu/Leu) of which one was prevalent (No8246(3'UTR)c-->t) and one variant changed an amino acid (No8086(codon236)g-->c Arg/Gln). The amino acid substitution was only seen in one subject. Comparing the prevalence of the frequent No8246 silent polymorphism, in an association study comprising 156 subjects with juvenile onset obesity and 205 randomly sampled control subjects (mean BMI 23.5+/-4.7 kg/m2), did not show any relationship to obesity. Also, comparing the prevalence of a known 9bp insertion/deletion variant in the coding region of the gene between obese and lean, showed no association to obesity. Furthermore, analyzing a population based cohort of 380 young healthy Caucasians for the prevalent 3'UTR polymorphism as well as the 9 bp insertion/deletion variant did not show any association to deviations in body fat contents or

  13. Early-onset obesity dysregulates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling and induces asthma-like disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Dinger, Katharina; Kasper, Philipp; Hucklenbruch-Rother, Eva; Vohlen, Christina; Jobst, Eva; Janoschek, Ruth; Bae-Gartz, Inga; van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, Silke; Plank, Christian; Dötsch, Jörg; Alejandre Alcázar, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-18

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but the molecular mechanisms linking both remain elusive. Since obesity leads to chronic low-grade inflammation and affects metabolic signaling we hypothesized that postnatal hyperalimentation (pHA) induced by maternal high-fat-diet during lactation leads to early-onset obesity and dysregulates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling, resulting in metabolic programming of asthma-like disease in adult mice. Offspring with pHA showed at postnatal day 21 (P21): (1) early-onset obesity, greater fat-mass, increased expression of IL-1β, IL-23, and Tnf-α, greater serum leptin and reduced glucose tolerance than Control (Ctrl); (2) less STAT3/AMPKα-activation, greater SOCS3 expression and reduced AKT/GSK3β-activation in the lung, indicative of leptin resistance and insulin signaling, respectively; (3) increased lung mRNA of IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A and Tnf-α. At P70 body weight, fat-mass, and cytokine mRNA expression were similar in the pHA and Ctrl, but serum leptin and IL-6 were greater, and insulin signaling and glucose tolerance impaired. Peribronchial elastic fiber content, bronchial smooth muscle layer, and deposition of connective tissue were not different after pHA. Despite unaltered bronchial structure mice after pHA exhibited significantly increased airway reactivity. Our study does not only demonstrate that early-onset obesity transiently activates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling and induces airway hyperreactivity in mice, but also provides new insights into metabolic programming of childhood obesity-related asthma.

  14. Early-onset obesity dysregulates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling and induces asthma-like disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinger, Katharina; Kasper, Philipp; Hucklenbruch-Rother, Eva; Vohlen, Christina; Jobst, Eva; Janoschek, Ruth; Bae-Gartz, Inga; van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, Silke; Plank, Christian; Dötsch, Jörg; Alejandre Alcázar, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but the molecular mechanisms linking both remain elusive. Since obesity leads to chronic low-grade inflammation and affects metabolic signaling we hypothesized that postnatal hyperalimentation (pHA) induced by maternal high-fat-diet during lactation leads to early-onset obesity and dysregulates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling, resulting in metabolic programming of asthma-like disease in adult mice. Offspring with pHA showed at postnatal day 21 (P21): (1) early-onset obesity, greater fat-mass, increased expression of IL-1β, IL-23, and Tnf-α, greater serum leptin and reduced glucose tolerance than Control (Ctrl); (2) less STAT3/AMPKα-activation, greater SOCS3 expression and reduced AKT/GSK3β-activation in the lung, indicative of leptin resistance and insulin signaling, respectively; (3) increased lung mRNA of IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A and Tnf-α. At P70 body weight, fat-mass, and cytokine mRNA expression were similar in the pHA and Ctrl, but serum leptin and IL-6 were greater, and insulin signaling and glucose tolerance impaired. Peribronchial elastic fiber content, bronchial smooth muscle layer, and deposition of connective tissue were not different after pHA. Despite unaltered bronchial structure mice after pHA exhibited significantly increased airway reactivity. Our study does not only demonstrate that early-onset obesity transiently activates pulmonary adipocytokine/insulin signaling and induces airway hyperreactivity in mice, but also provides new insights into metabolic programming of childhood obesity-related asthma. PMID:27087690

  15. Dietary regimens modify early onset of obesity in mice haploinsufficient for Rai1.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Joseph T; Hahn, Natalie C; Hahn, Natalie H; Mullegama, Sureni V; Elsea, Sarah H

    2014-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome is a complex genomic disorder in which a majority of individuals are obese by adolescence. While an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2 is the leading cause, mutation or deletion of the RAI1 gene alone results in most features of the disorder. Previous studies have shown that heterozygous knockout of Rai1 results in an obese phenotype in mice and that Smith-Magenis syndrome mouse models have a significantly reduced fecundity and an altered transmission pattern of the mutant Rai1 allele, complicating large, extended studies in these models. In this study, we show that breeding C57Bl/6J Rai1+/- mice with FVB/NJ to create F1 Rai1+/- offspring in a mixed genetic background ameliorates both fecundity and Rai1 allele transmission phenotypes. These findings suggest that the mixed background provides a more robust platform for breeding and larger phenotypic studies. We also characterized the effect of dietary intake on Rai1+/- mouse growth during adolescent and early adulthood developmental stages. Animals fed a high carbohydrate or a high fat diet gained weight at a significantly faster rate than their wild type littermates. Both high fat and high carbohydrate fed Rai1+/- mice also had an increase in body fat and altered fat distribution patterns. Interestingly, Rai1+/- mice fed different diets did not display altered fasting blood glucose levels. These results suggest that dietary regimens are extremely important for individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome and that food high in fat and carbohydrates may exacerbate obesity outcomes.

  16. Novel genes involved in severe early-onset obesity revealed by rare copy number and sequence variants

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Raquel; González, Juan R.; Argente, Jesús; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with high heritability (50–75%), which is probably higher in early-onset and severe cases. Although rare monogenic forms and several genes and regions of susceptibility, including copy number variants (CNVs), have been described, the genetic causes underlying the disease still remain largely unknown. We searched for rare CNVs (>100kb in size, altering genes and present in <1/2000 population controls) in 157 Spanish children with non-syndromic early-onset obesity (EOO: body mass index >3 standard deviations above the mean at <3 years of age) using SNP array molecular karyotypes. We then performed case control studies (480 EOO cases/480 non-obese controls) with the validated CNVs and rare sequence variants (RSVs) detected by targeted resequencing of selected CNV genes (n = 14), and also studied the inheritance patterns in available first-degree relatives. A higher burden of gain-type CNVs was detected in EOO cases versus controls (OR = 1.71, p-value = 0.0358). In addition to a gain of the NPY gene in a familial case with EOO and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, likely pathogenic CNVs included gains of glutamate receptors (GRIK1, GRM7) and the X-linked gastrin-peptide receptor (GRPR), all inherited from obese parents. Putatively functional RSVs absent in controls were also identified in EOO cases at NPY, GRIK1 and GRPR. A patient with a heterozygous deletion disrupting two contiguous and related genes, SLCO4C1 and SLCO6A1, also had a missense RSV at SLCO4C1 on the other allele, suggestive of a recessive model. The genes identified showed a clear enrichment of shared co-expression partners with known genes strongly related to obesity, reinforcing their role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Our data reveal a higher burden of rare CNVs and RSVs in several related genes in patients with EOO compared to controls, and implicate NPY, GRPR, two glutamate receptors and SLCO4C1 in highly penetrant forms of familial obesity

  17. Novel genes involved in severe early-onset obesity revealed by rare copy number and sequence variants.

    PubMed

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Bou de Pieri, Francesc; Flores, Raquel; González, Juan R; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Argente, Jesús; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with high heritability (50-75%), which is probably higher in early-onset and severe cases. Although rare monogenic forms and several genes and regions of susceptibility, including copy number variants (CNVs), have been described, the genetic causes underlying the disease still remain largely unknown. We searched for rare CNVs (>100kb in size, altering genes and present in <1/2000 population controls) in 157 Spanish children with non-syndromic early-onset obesity (EOO: body mass index >3 standard deviations above the mean at <3 years of age) using SNP array molecular karyotypes. We then performed case control studies (480 EOO cases/480 non-obese controls) with the validated CNVs and rare sequence variants (RSVs) detected by targeted resequencing of selected CNV genes (n = 14), and also studied the inheritance patterns in available first-degree relatives. A higher burden of gain-type CNVs was detected in EOO cases versus controls (OR = 1.71, p-value = 0.0358). In addition to a gain of the NPY gene in a familial case with EOO and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, likely pathogenic CNVs included gains of glutamate receptors (GRIK1, GRM7) and the X-linked gastrin-peptide receptor (GRPR), all inherited from obese parents. Putatively functional RSVs absent in controls were also identified in EOO cases at NPY, GRIK1 and GRPR. A patient with a heterozygous deletion disrupting two contiguous and related genes, SLCO4C1 and SLCO6A1, also had a missense RSV at SLCO4C1 on the other allele, suggestive of a recessive model. The genes identified showed a clear enrichment of shared co-expression partners with known genes strongly related to obesity, reinforcing their role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Our data reveal a higher burden of rare CNVs and RSVs in several related genes in patients with EOO compared to controls, and implicate NPY, GRPR, two glutamate receptors and SLCO4C1 in highly penetrant forms of familial obesity.

  18. Do rapid BMI growth in childhood and early-onset obesity offer cardiometabolic protection to obese adults in mid-life? Analysis of a longitudinal cohort study of Danish men.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laura D; Zimmermann, Esther; Weiss, Ram; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-04-15

    Some obese individuals have no cardiometabolic abnormalities; they are 'metabolically healthy, but obese' (MHO). Similarly, some non-obese individuals have cardiometabolic abnormalities, that is, 'metabolically at risk, normal weight' (MANW). Previous studies have suggested that early-onset obesity may be associated with MHO. We aimed to assess whether body mass index (BMI) in childhood and early-onset obesity are associated with MHO. General population longitudinal cohort study, Denmark. From 362 200 young men (mean age 20) examined for Danish national service between 1943 and 1977, all obese men (BMI ≥31 kg/m(2), N=1930) were identified along with a random 1% sample of the others (N=3601). Our analysis includes 2392 of these men attending a research clinic in mid-life (mean age 42). For 613 of these men, data on childhood BMI are available. We summarised childhood BMI growth (7-13 years) using a multilevel model. Early-onset obesity was defined as obesity at examination for national service. We defined metabolic health at the mid-life clinic as non-fasting serum cholesterol <6.6 mmol/L, non-fasting glucose <8.39 mmol/L and pulse pressure <48 mm Hg. Participants were categorised into four groups according to their obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and metabolic health in mid-life. 297 of 1097 (27.1%) of obese men were metabolically healthy; 826 of 1295 (63.8%) non-obese men had at least one metabolic abnormality. There was no evidence that rapid BMI growth in childhood or early-onset obesity was associated with either MHO or the MANW phenotype, for example, among obese men in mid-life, the OR for MHO comparing early-onset obesity with non-early-onset obesity was 0.97 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.10). We found no robust evidence that early-onset obesity or rapid BMI growth in childhood is protective for cardiometabolic health.

  19. Breast Cancer and Early Onset Childhood Obesity: Cell Specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia and Adipocytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    hormone leptin (ob/ob mice) or its receptor (db/db mice, Zucker rat). These leptin signaling impaired animals are resistant to oncogene and...chemically induced mammary tumors (3,4). However, human obesity is not generally caused by mutations in leptin or its receptor (5). As expression of leptin ...morbidity factors associated with human obesity in the three groups of rats, including Leptin , Free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG) and insulin

  20. Whole-exome sequencing identifies novel LEPR mutations in individuals with severe early onset obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard; Cheung, Yee Him; Shen, Yufeng; Lanzano, Patricia; Mirza, Nazrat M.; Ten, Svetlana; Maclaren, Noel K.; Motaghedi, Roja; Han, Joan C.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a major public health problem that increases risk for a broad spectrum of co-morbid conditions. Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to susceptibility to obesity, previous efforts to discover the relevant genes using positional cloning have failed to account for most of the apparent genetic risk variance. Design and Methods Deploying a strategy combining analysis of exome sequencing data in extremely obese members of four consanguineous families with segregation analysis, we screened for causal genetic variants. Filter-based analysis and homozygosity mapping were used to identify and prioritize putative functional variants. Results We identified two novel frameshift mutations in the Leptin Receptor (LEPR) in two of the families. Conclusions These results provide proof-of-principle that whole-exome sequencing of families segregating for extreme obesity can identify causal pathogenic mutations. The methods described here can be extended to additional families segregating for extreme obesity and should enable the identification of mutations in novel genes that predispose to obesity. PMID:23616257

  1. A novel MC4R deletion coexisting with FTO and MC1R gene variants, causes severe early onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Neocleous, Vassos; Shammas, Christos; Phelan, Marie M; Fanis, Pavlos; Pantelidou, Maria; Skordis, Nicos; Mantzoros, Christos; Phylactou, Leonidas A; Toumba, Meropi

    2016-07-01

    Heterozygous mutations on the melanocortin-4-receptor gene (MC4R) are the most frequent cause of monogenic obesity. We describe a novel MC4R deletion in a girl with severe early onset obesity, tall stature, pale skin and red hair. Clinical and hormonal parameters were evaluated in a girl born full-term by non-consanguineous parents. Her body mass index (BMI) at presentation (3 years) was 30 kg/m(2) (z-score: +4.5SDS). By the age of 5.2 years, she exhibited extreme linear growth acceleration and developed hyperinsulinemia. Direct sequencing of the MC4R, MC1Rand for the knownFTOsingle nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609was performed for the patient and her family. A novel heterozygous MC4R p.Met215del (c.643_645delATG) deletion was identified in the patient, her father and her brother, both of whom exhibited a milder phenotype. 3D structural dynamic simulation studies investigated the conformational changes induced by the p.Met215del. The patient and her mother were also found to be carriers of the obesity risk associated FTOrs9939609SNP. Finally, the identification of the known p.Arg160Trp MC1Rvariant in the patient accounts for the red hair and pale skin phenotypic features. The p.Met215del causes global conformational and functional changes as it is localized at the alpha-helical transmembrane regions and the membrane spanning regions of the beta-barrel. This novel mutation produces a severe overgrowth phenotype that is apparent as from infancy and is progressive in childhood. The additional negative effect of environmental and unhealthy lifestyle habits as well as a possible co-interaction of FTOrs9939609 SNP may worsen the phenotype.

  2. Insulin resistance in prepubertal obese children correlates with sex-dependent early onset metabolomic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, A; Martos-Moreno, G Á; García, A; Barrios, V; Rupérez, F J; Chowen, J A; Barbas, C; Argente, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is usually the first metabolic alteration diagnosed in obese children and the key risk factor for development of comorbidities. The factors determining whether or not IR develops as a result of excess body mass index (BMI) are still not completely understood. Objectives: This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the predisposition toward hyperinsulinemia-related complications in obese children by using a metabolomic strategy that allows a profound interpretation of metabolic profiles potentially affected by IR. Methods: Serum from 60 prepubertal obese children (30 girls/30 boys, 50% IR and 50% non-IR in each group, but with similar BMIs) were analyzed by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry following an untargeted metabolomics approach. Validation was then performed on a group of 100 additional children with the same characteristics. Results: When obese children with and without IR were compared, 47 metabolites out of 818 compounds (P<0.05) obtained after data pre-processing were found to be significantly different. Bile acids exhibit the greatest changes (that is, approximately a 90% increase in IR). The majority of metabolites differing between groups were lysophospholipids (15) and amino acids (17), indicating inflammation and central carbon metabolism as the most altered processes in impaired insulin signaling. Multivariate analysis (OPLS-DA models) showed subtle differences between groups that were magnified when females were analyzed alone. Conclusions: Inflammation and central carbon metabolism, together with the contribution of the gut microbiota, are the most altered processes in obese children with impaired insulin signaling in a sex-specific fashion despite their prepubertal status. PMID:27163744

  3. Low Copy Number of the AMY1 Locus Is Associated with Early-Onset Female Obesity in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Armenio, Miriam; Pekkinen, Minna; Pettersson, Maria; Valta, Helena; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Mäkitie, Outi; Lindstrand, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background The salivary α-amylase locus (AMY1) is located in a highly polymorphic multi allelic copy number variable chromosomal region. A recent report identified an association between AMY1 copy numbers and BMI in common obesity. The present study investigated the relationship between AMY1 copy number, BMI and serum amylase in childhood-onset obesity. Patients Sixty-one subjects with a history of childhood-onset obesity (mean age 19.1 years, 54% males) and 71 matched controls (19.8 yrs, 45% males) were included. All anthropometric measures were greater in the obese; their mean BMI was 40 kg/m2 (range 25-62 kg/m2) compared with 23 kg/m2 in the controls (15-32 kg/m2). Results Mean AMY1 copy numbers did not differ between the obese and control subjects, but gender differences were observed; obese men showed the highest and obese women the lowest number of AMY1 copies (p=0.045). Further, only in affected females, AMY1 copy number correlated significantly with whole body fat percent (r=-0.512, p=0.013) and BMI (r=-0.416, p=0.025). Finally, a clear linear association between AMY1 copy number and serum salivary amylase was observed in all subgroups but again differences existed between obese males and females. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that AMY1 copy number differences play a role in childhood-onset obesity but the effect differs between males and females. Further studies in larger cohorts are needed to confirm these observations. PMID:26132294

  4. Severe Early-Onset Obesity Due to Bioinactive Leptin Caused by a p.N103K Mutation in the Leptin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Funcke, Jan-Bernd; von Schnurbein, Julia; Denzer, Friederike; Lahr, Georgia; Mazen, Inas; El-Gammal, Mona; Denzer, Christian; Moss, Anja; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Gierschik, Peter; Mistry, Vanisha; Keogh, Julia M.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Moepps, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Context: Congenital leptin deficiency is a very rare cause of severe early-onset obesity. We recently characterized a mutation in the leptin gene (p.D100Y), which was associated with detectable leptin levels and bioinactivity of the hormone. Case Description: We now describe two siblings, a 9-year-old girl and a 6-year-old boy with severe early-onset obesity and hyperphagia, both homozygous for a c.309C>A substitution in the leptin gene leading to a p.N103K amino acid exchange in the protein and detectable circulating levels of leptin. In vitro experiments in a heterologous cell system demonstrated that the mutated protein was biologically inactive. Treatment with sc recombinant human leptin led to rapid improvement of eating behavior and weight loss. Conclusions: Sequencing of the leptin gene may need to be considered in hyperphagic, severely obese children with detectable levels of circulating leptin. PMID:26186301

  5. Rationale and design of the Early Sleeve gastrectomy In New Onset Diabetic Obese Patients (ESINODOP) trial.

    PubMed

    Trastulli, Stefano; Desiderio, Jacopo; Grandone, Ilenia; Fontana, Lucia; Paolini, Luisa; Altomare, Maria; D'Angelo, Paola; Palazzi, Mariangela; Cirocchi, Roberto; Leotta, Sergio; Fatati, Giuseppe; Parisi, Amilcare

    2017-03-01

    No randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have yet evaluated the bariatric surgery's efficacy and safety in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this multicenter RCT is to compare bariatric surgery, particularly laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), with conventional medical therapy (CMT) in obese patients (body mass index between 30 and 42 kg/m(2)) newly diagnosed with T2DM and without any diabetes-related complications at any stage. A total of 100 eligible patients will be randomized at a 1:1 ratio to undergo one of the two planned treatments and will be followed for at least 6 years after randomization. The main objective of the ESINODOP trial is to investigate the efficacy of LSG compared with CMT alone in inducing and maintaining a remission of T2DM (defined as HbA1c levels ≤6.0 %, without active pharmacologic therapy after 1 year). The remission of T2DM will also be evaluated with the criteria provided by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and the additional parameters such as adverse event rates, micro- and macrovascular complications, weight loss, gastrointestinal hormones, and quality of life will be compared. The study started on September 2015 and the planned recruitment period is 3 years. Patient recruitment and follow-up take place in the two diabetology and nutrition centers participating in the study, which are performed on a national basis. The ESINODOP trial is designed with the intent of comparing the efficacy of CMT alone to that of CMT in conjunction with LSG performed at the time of diabetes diagnosis in mildly obese diabetic patients. Currently, patients with these characteristics are not eligible for bariatric/metabolic surgery.

  6. Early onset of overweight and obesity among low-income 1- to 5-year olds in New York City.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, Matilde; Glassman, Melissa E; Chen, Shaofu; Findley, Sally E

    2008-07-01

    Early-childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, particularly among low-income, minority, urban children. Understanding the progression of obesity prevalence rates from infancy through early childhood can inform public health efforts to combat this epidemic and create developmentally appropriate strategies. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban 1- to 5-year olds and estimated risk by age and gender. We surveyed the medical records of a random sample of 1,713 children seen at a New York City primary-care network. Outcome measures were weight-for-length for <2-year olds and body mass index for 2- to 5-year olds. Overweight was defined as percentiles >or=85% to <95%, obesity >or=95%. Analysis utilized chi-square, logistic regression, and z tests. Between 1 and 5 years of age, overweight increased 3.7% to 20.8% and obesity 7.5% to 29.8% (p < 0.01). Risk increased with age: compared with 1-year olds, 5-year olds were 8.2 times as likely (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.5-12.21) to be overweight or obese. Boys were more likely to be obese than girls (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3; 95% CI = 1-1.64). Significant increases in overweight and obesity occurred between ages 1 and 3 years (overweight, 3.7% to 16%, p < 0.01; obesity, 7.5% to 30.2%, p < 0.01). Among urban children, more than half were overweight or obese by age 5. Overweight and obesity rates increased dramatically between the ages of 1 and 3 years. Interventions aimed at this age period may have the greatest impact at preventing childhood obesity.

  7. Homozygosity for a novel missense mutation in the leptin receptor gene (P316T) in two Egyptian cousins with severe early onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Mazen, I; El-Gammal, M; Abdel-Hamid, M; Farooqi, I S; Amr, K

    2011-04-01

    Congenital deficiency of the leptin receptor is a very rare cause of severe early-onset obesity. To date, only 9 families have been reported in the literature to have mutations in the leptin receptor gene. The clinical features include severe early onset obesity, severe hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and T cell and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction. Here we report two cousins with severe early onset obesity and recurrent respiratory tract infections. Their serum leptin levels were elevated but they were within the range predicted by the elevated fat mass in both cousins. Direct sequencing of the entire coding sequence of the leptin receptor gene revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 6, P316T. The mutation was found in the homozygous form in both cousins and in the heterozygote state in their parents. This mutation was not found in 200 chromosomes from 100 unrelated normal weight control subjects of Egyptian origin using PCR-RFLP analysis. In conclusion, finding this new mutation in the LEPR beside our previous mutation in the LEP gene implies that monogenic obesity syndromes may be common in the Egyptian population owing to the high rates of consanguineous marriages. Further screening of more families for mutations in LEP, LEPR, and MC4 might confirm this assumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early-onset obesity and food restriction alter hepatocyte metabolism in adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Nayra Thais D; Cruz, Gabriel Henrique P; Borrasca, Cristian L; Alves, Lucas de Paula S; de Godoy Gomes, Célia Regina; Ferreira de Godoi, Vilma Aparecida; Pedrosa, Maria Montserrat Diaz

    2017-05-13

    Caloric restriction (CR) is suggested for overweight control. Systemic and liver glucose metabolism in the reduced-litter (RL) rat model under 30% CR was investigated. Newborn litters were organised in control (G9); RL with free diet (G3L); and RL with CR (G3R). Assessments were made at the age of 90 d. Higher liver glycogen content and changes in systemic glucose handling were found in the RL groups. Hepatocyte glucose metabolism was similar in groups G9 and G3L, but basal glucose production and glycogenolysis were higher, while gluconeogenesis and basal glycolysis were lower in the G3R. Urea production was lower in the RL groups. The altered glucose handling of the RL adult rats was not reversed by moderate (30%) CR. Hepatocyte glucose and nitrogen metabolism were changed by both early overfeeding and current feeding conditions. RL and CR alter systemic and liver glucose metabolism.

  9. Rapid-onset obesity, hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, autonomic dysregulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maksoud, Ismaeil; Kassab, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare disorder that presents with rapidly evolving obesity with several endocrine disorders during early childhood. We present here a documented case of a 6-year-old Syrian girl with the characteristic symptoms of rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation, associated with an abdominal mass (mature ganglioneuroma).

  10. Rapid-onset obesity, hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, autonomic dysregulation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maksoud, Ismaeil; Kassab, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare disorder that presents with rapidly evolving obesity with several endocrine disorders during early childhood. We present here a documented case of a 6-year-old Syrian girl with the characteristic symptoms of rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation, associated with an abdominal mass (mature ganglioneuroma). PMID:26229761

  11. Abnormalities in chromosome 6q24 as a cause of early-onset, non-obese, non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus without history of neonatal diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, T; Matsubara, K; Sakakibara, A; Hashimoto, Y; Kawakita, R; Hosokawa, Y; Fujimaru, R; Murakami, A; Tamagawa, N; Hatake, K; Nagasaka, H; Suzuki, J; Urakami, T; Izawa, M; Kagami, M

    2015-07-01

    Abnormalities in the imprinted locus on chromosome 6q24 are the most common causes of transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (6q24-related transient neonatal diabetes). 6q24-Related transient neonatal diabetes is characterized by the patient being small-for-gestational age, diabetes mellitus at birth, spontaneous remission within the first few months and frequent recurrence of diabetes after childhood. However, it is not clear whether individuals with 6q24 abnormalities invariably develop transient neonatal diabetes. This study explored the possibility that 6q24 abnormalities might cause early-onset, non-autoimmune diabetes without transient neonatal diabetes. The 6q24 imprinted locus was screened for abnormalities in 113 Japanese patients with early-onset, non-obese, non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus who tested negative for mutations in the common maturation-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes and without a history of transient neonatal diabetes. Positive patients were further analysed by combined loss of heterozygosity / comparative genomic hybridization analysis and by microsatellite analysis. Detailed clinical data were collected through the medical records of the treating hospitals. Three patients with paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 6q24 were identified. None presented with hyperglycaemia in the neonatal period. Characteristically, these patients were born small-for-gestational age, representing 27.2% of the 11 patients whose birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) for gestational age was below -2.0. Abnormalities in the imprinted locus on chromosome 6q24 do not necessarily cause transient neonatal diabetes. Non-penetrant 6q24-related diabetes could be an underestimated cause of early-onset, non-autoimmune diabetes in patients who are not obese and born small-for-gestational age. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  12. Alanine aminotransferase elevation in obese infants and children: a marker of early onset non alcoholic Fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Guido; Hoffmann, Georg Friedrich; Grulich-Henn, Juergen; Teufel, Ulrike

    2014-04-01

    Elevated aminotransferases serve as surrogate markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a feature commonly associated with the metabolic syndrome. Studies on the prevalence of fatty liver disease in obese children comprise small patient samples or focus on those patients with liver enzyme elevation. We have prospectively analyzed liver enzymes in all overweight and obese children coming to our tertiary care centre. In a prospective study 224 healthy, overweight or obese children aged 1 - 12 years were examined. Body Mass Index-Standard Deviation Score, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase were measured. Elevated alanine aminotransferase was observed in 29% of children. 26 % of obese and 30 % of overweight children had liver enzyme elevations. Obese children had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase levels than overweight children (0.9 vs. 0.7 times the Upper Limit of Normal; P = 0.04). Elevation of liver enzymes appears in 29 % obese children in a tertiary care centre. Absolute alanine aminotransferase levels are significantly higher in obese than in overweight children. Even obese children with normal liver enzymes show signs of fatty liver disease as demonstrated by liver enzymes at the upper limit of normal.

  13. Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Obese Infants and Children: A Marker of Early Onset Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Guido; Hoffmann, Georg Friedrich; Grulich-Henn, Juergen; Teufel, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elevated aminotransferases serve as surrogate markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a feature commonly associated with the metabolic syndrome. Studies on the prevalence of fatty liver disease in obese children comprise small patient samples or focus on those patients with liver enzyme elevation. Objectives: We have prospectively analyzed liver enzymes in all overweight and obese children coming to our tertiary care centre. Patients and Methods: In a prospective study 224 healthy, overweight or obese children aged 1 - 12 years were examined. Body Mass Index-Standard Deviation Score, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase were measured. Results: Elevated alanine aminotransferase was observed in 29% of children. 26 % of obese and 30 % of overweight children had liver enzyme elevations. Obese children had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase levels than overweight children (0.9 vs. 0.7 times the Upper Limit of Normal; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Elevation of liver enzymes appears in 29 % obese children in a tertiary care centre. Absolute alanine aminotransferase levels are significantly higher in obese than in overweight children. Even obese children with normal liver enzymes show signs of fatty liver disease as demonstrated by liver enzymes at the upper limit of normal. PMID:24748893

  14. Evidence for Early Defects in Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Before the Onset of Glucose Dysregulation in Obese Youths

    PubMed Central

    Giannini, Cosimo; Weiss, Ram; Cali, Anna; Bonadonna, Riccardo; Santoro, Nicola; Pierpont, Bridget; Shaw, Melissa; Caprio, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine whether obese adolescents with high-“normal” 2-h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose levels display defects in insulin secretion and sensitivity associated with future development of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and insulin secretion by applying mathematical modeling during the hyperglycemic clamp in 60 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) obese adolescents, divided into three groups based on the 2-h glucose values (<100, 100–119, 120–139 mg/dL), and in 21 IGT obese adolescents. Glucose tolerance was reevaluated after 2 years. Insulin sensitivity decreased significantly across 2-h glucose NGT categories, while the highest NGT category and IGT group were similar. First-phase insulin secretion decreased across NGT categories, while no difference was found between the highest NGT group and IGT subjects. Second-phase secretion was similar across all NGT and IGT groups. The disposition index (CDI) decreased across NGT categories, while no difference was observed between the highest NGT and IGT subjects. Age and CDI were the best predictors of 2-h glucose after two years. Across rising categories of normal 2-h glucose levels, NGT obese adolescents exhibit significant impairment of β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity associated with the development of IGT. PMID:22315322

  15. [Early onset diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Busiah, K; Vaivre-Douret, L; Yachi, C; Cavé, H; Polak, M

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus is a rare condition (1/90,000 to 1/260,000 live births) defined as mild-to-severe hyperglycemia within the first year of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus requires lifelong therapy, whereas transient form resolves early in life but may relapse later on. Two main physiopathological mechanisms may explain this disease: β cell functional impairment or absence (pancreas agenesis or β cells destruction). The main genetic causes of β cells impairment are 6q24 abnormalities and mutations in ABCC8 or KCNJ11 potassium channel (KATP channel) genes. Compared to the KATP subtype, the 6q24 subtype had specific features: developmental defects involving the heart, kidneys, or urinary tract, intrauterine growth restriction, and early diagnosis. Remission of neonatal diabetes mellitus occurred in 51% of probands at a median age of 17 weeks. Recurrence was common at pubertal age, with no difference between the 6q24 and KATP-channel groups (82% vs 86%, p=0.36, respectively). Patients with mutations in ABCC8 or KCNJ11 genes had developmental delay with or without epilepsy but also developmental coordination disorder (particularly visual-spatial dyspraxia) or attention deficits in all of those who underwent in-depth neuropsychomotor investigations.

  16. Early rheumatoid disease. I. Onset.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, A; Crown, J M; Corbett, M

    1976-01-01

    We describe features with onset in 102 patients seen within the first year of rheumatoid disease. The male:female ratio was approximately 3:4, suggesting a near equal sex incidence at onset. The disease started more often in the colder months and was usually insodious, symmetrical, and involved the upper limbs. The patients were followed prospectively and outcome was assessed after a mean of 4.5 years. Older patients fared worse and there was a trend for a poorer prognosis to be indicated by an insidious onset and early progression to symmetrical involvement. PMID:970994

  17. Genetic Variance in the Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 (ATXN2) Gene in Children with Severe Early Onset Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Karla P.; Farooqi, Sadaf; Harrup, Kristopher; Frank, Johnathan; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Pulst, Stefan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Expansion of a CAG repeat in the coding region of exon 1 in the ATXN2 gene located in human chromosome 12q24.1 causes the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). In contrast to other polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders, the SCA2 repeat is not highly polymorphic in central European (CEU) controls with Q22 representing 90% of alleles, and Q23 contributing between 5–7% of alleles. Recently, the ATXN2 CAG repeat has been identified as a target of adaptive selection in the CEU population. Mouse lines deficient for atxn2 develop marked hyperphagia and obesity raising the possibility that loss-of-function mutations in the ATXN2 gene may be related to energy balance in humans. Some linkage studies of obesity related phenotypes such as antipsychotic induced weight gain have reported significant lod scores on chromosome 12q24. We tested the hypothesis that rare loss-of-function ATXN2 variants cause obesity analogous to rare mutations in the leptin, leptin receptor and MC4R genes. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the coding region of ATXN2 including intron-exon boundaries in 92 severely obese children with a body mass index (BMI) >3.2 standard deviations above age- and gender-adjusted means. We confirmed five previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and three new SNPs resulting in two synonymous substitutions and one intronic polymorphism. Alleles encoding >Q22 were overrepresented in our sample of obese children and contributed 15% of alleles in children identified by their parents as white. SNP rs695872 closely flanking the CAG repeat showed a greatly increased frequency of C/C homozygotes and G/C heterozygotes compared with reported frequencies in the CEU population. Conclusions/Significance Although we did not identify variants leading to novel amino acid substitutions, nonsense or frameshift mutations, this study warrants further examination of variation in the ATXN2 gene in obesity and related phenotypes in

  18. Effects of metformin in children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome and early-onset morbid obesity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Linville, Tiffany D; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is one of the most commonly recognized causes of early-onset childhood obesity. Individuals with PWS have significant hyperphagia and decreased recognition of satiety. The exact etiology of the hyperphagia remains unknown and, therefore, untreatable. We conducted a pilot, open-label study of response to metformin in 21 children with PWS and six with early morbid obesity (EMO). Participants had significant insulin resistance and glucose intolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and were started on metformin for these biochemical findings. We administered the Hyperphagia Questionnaire to parents of patients before and after starting metformin treatment. Both the PWS and EMO groups showed significant improvements in food-related distress, anxiety, and ability to be redirected away from food on the Hyperphagia Questionnaire. In the PWS group, improvements were predominantly seen in females. Within the PWS group, responders to metformin had higher 2-h glucose levels on OGTT (7.48 mmol/L vs. 4.235 mmol/L; p=0.003) and higher fasting insulin levels (116 pmol/L vs. 53.5 pmol/L; p=0.04). Additionally, parents of 5/13 individuals with PWS and 5/6 with EMO reported that their child was able to feel full while on metformin (for many this was the first time they had ever described a feeling of fullness). Metformin may improve sense of satiety and decrease anxiety about food in some individuals with PWS and EMO. Positive response to metformin may depend on the degree of hyperinsulinism and glucose intolerance. Nonetheless, the results of this pilot study bear further investigation.

  19. Early-onset severe obesity with ACTH deficiency and red hair in a boy: the POMC deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ozen, S; Aldemir, O

    2012-01-01

    The patient is a 2.8 years old male who is extremely obese and severe hyperphagic from birth. He had seizures attacks and apnea from the second week of his life. He has red hair and serum cortisol and ACTH levels are very low. We examined our patient as a hypocortisolism due to ACTH deficiency and central hypothyrodism. After the corticosteroid replacement therapy hair color changed to brown. We performed molecular genetic analysis at the Institue for Experimental Pediatric Endocrinology laboratory in Berlin, Germany by Krude H. and found compound heterozygous mutations. As a result the case is diagnosed as POMC deficiency.

  20. A novel missense mutation in the signal peptide of the human POMC gene: a possible additional link between early-onset type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Mencarelli, Monica; Zulian, Alessandra; Cancello, Raffaella; Alberti, Luisella; Gilardini, Luisa; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Invitti, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    Rare mutations in several genes have a critical role in the control of homeostatic mechanisms such as food-intake, energy balance and glucose metabolism. In this study, we performed a mutational screening in a 58-year-old woman presenting early-onset type 2 diabetes and central obesity. The entire coding regions of MC4R, MC3R, HNF1A, GCK and POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin) genes were analyzed by direct sequencing. A new missense mutation was identified within the POMC gene signal peptide sequence, resulting in a heterozygous substitution of an arginine for a glycine at codon 15 (p.A15G) that was excluded in 300 healthy normal weight controls. The mutation segregated in the family and was associated with overweight, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease in the carriers. Functional studies demonstrated that POMC protein was not detectable in β-TC3 cells transfected with A15G-POMC vector as well as in their culture media, despite POMC mRNA levels were comparable for amount and stability to those of wild-type-transfected cells. In silico RNA folding prediction indicated that the mutation gives rise to a different RNA secondary structure, suggesting that it might affect translation and protein synthesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report addressing the functional consequences of a mutation in the signal peptide of POMC. These findings further support the hypothesis that POMC-derived peptides might have a role in the control of peripheral glucose metabolism and suggest that disruption of central POMC secretion might represent an additional link between type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  1. Early determinants of obesity.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ken K

    2010-01-01

    High rates of overweight and obesity even in very young children argue the case for strategies to prevent overweight from very young ages. Historical studies, prospective birth cohorts, and more recently genetic studies all indicate that the rapid weight gain trajectory to later obesity starts in the first months of life, even from birth. Early puberty and age at menarche are consequences of rapid infant weight gain and childhood overweight, and in turn these adolescent traits are predictive for obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease events in later life. Understanding of the nutritional, parental and wider determinants of rapid infant weight gain are informing the development of obesity prevention strategies starting in early life. Such strategies could be further refined by future studies that address the specific regulation of infant adiposity, and also by studies that explore whether these life-course trajectories are modifiable during adolescence.

  2. Onset Age of Obesity and Variables of Personality and Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Carol

    Three hypotheses derived from Hilde Bruch's formulations regarding onset differences among the obese were tested. In Bruch's theory, adult-onset, or reactive, obesity is a result of psychological trauma; the individual uses eating as a defense against anxiety and depression. Child-onset, or developmental, obesity results from a mixture of…

  3. Onset Age of Obesity and Variables of Personality and Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Carol

    Three hypotheses derived from Hilde Bruch's formulations regarding onset differences among the obese were tested. In Bruch's theory, adult-onset, or reactive, obesity is a result of psychological trauma; the individual uses eating as a defense against anxiety and depression. Child-onset, or developmental, obesity results from a mixture of…

  4. Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Mario F

    2017-05-01

    Early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD), with onset in individuals younger than 65 years, although overshadowed by the more common late-onset AD (LOAD), differs significantly from LOAD. EOAD comprises approximately 5% of AD and is associated with delays in diagnosis, aggressive course, and age-related psychosocial needs. One source of confusion is that a substantial percentage of EOAD are phenotypic variants that differ from the usual memory-disordered presentation of typical AD. The management of EOAD is similar to that for LOAD, but special emphasis should be placed on targeting the specific cognitive areas involved and more age-appropriate psychosocial support and education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal obesity is associated with younger age at obesity onset in U.S. adolescent offspring followed into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Adair, Linda S; Suchindran, Chirayath M

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity is associated with younger age of offspring's obesity onset. We used prospective, nationally representative, longitudinal data collected across Waves I (1995; 12 to 20 years), II (1996; 13 to 20 years), and III (2001; 18 to 28 years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,654; 49% female). Interval regression analysis was used to assess the association between maternal obesity and age at offspring's obesity onset (International Obesity Task Force BMI >or=30 equivalent age- and sex-specific cut-off points for adolescents and BMI >or=30 for young adults) using self-reported heights and weights, adjusting for race/ethnicity, sex, parental education, and family income, accounting for complex sampling design. The net effect of having an obese mother varied by race/ethnicity and was associated with a significantly earlier age at obesity onset (p = 0.0001) for whites [beta= -8.1 year, 95% confidence interval (CI), -9.3; -6.9)], blacks (beta = -10.8 years, 95% CI, -12.4; -9.2), Hispanics (beta = -7.0 years, 95% CI, -9.2; -4.8), and Asians (beta = -8.6 years, 95% CI, -13.3; -3.9). Earlier obesity onset (<18 years) was associated with increased severity at young adulthood (mean BMI, 36.0 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2)) vs. onset after age 18 (mean BMI, 34.4 +/- 0.2 kg/m(2); p = 0.0001). There were no sex differences in the association of maternal obesity to age at obesity onset. Having an obese mother was associated with earlier age at obesity onset across all race/ethnic groups, particularly non-Hispanic blacks. Early obesity onset has important health consequences because of its association with more severe adult obesity.

  6. A novel ADIPOQ mutation (p.M40K) impairs assembly of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and is associated with early-onset obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Ana Carolina; Sun, Kai; Martins, Clarissa Silva; Elias Junior, Jorge; Miranda, Wallace; Tao, Caroline; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina; Barbieri, Marco Antonio; Bettiol, Heloísa; de Castro, Margaret; Scherer, Philipp E; Antonini, Sonir R

    2014-04-01

    The phenotypic effects of ADIPOQ mutations early in life, prior to type 2 diabetes onset, have not been studied. The objective of the study was to characterize the impact of a novel ADIPOQ mutation in vitro and in vivo. The design of the study was ADIPOQ screening, adiponectin oligomerization, and cardiometabolic phenotype assessment. Fourteen hypoadiponectinemic (<3 μg/mL) and 686 normoadiponectinemic young adults (23-25 y) were prospectively followed up since birth. Human and recombinant murine mutant adiponectin oligomerization, the proband's ADIPOQ and ADIPOR1/R2 adipose tissue (AT) expression, and cardiometabolic profile were measured. The heterozygous ADIPOQ p.M40K mutation was identified in one hypoadiponectinemic male (2.4 μg/mL) and three other family members. Carriers presented a marked reduction of serum high-molecular weight to total adiponectin ratio when compared with controls (9.4% ± 1% vs 56.6% ± 13%; P < .05) and family noncarriers (9.4% ± 1% vs 42% ± 0.5%; P = .05). Both mRNA and protein levels of adiponectin were increased in the AT of the proband (2.3- and 1.6-fold, respectively). However, the high-molecular weight to total adiponectin ratio of adiponectin was decreased (3.3-fold). Moreover, the expressions of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 were significantly down-regulated in the AT of the proband (6- and 1.2-fold, respectively). The results were confirmed by in vitro studies on the recombinant murine homologous mutation (p.M43K). The proband's cardiometabolic phenotype progression was further characterized: born small for gestational age and adolescence-onset obesity; insulin resistance (homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance of 4.7), and dyslipidemia at 25 years; decreased high-molecular weight adiponectin (0.24 μg/mL = 10%), hypertension (180/120 mm Hg), steatosis (fat liver = 40% ± 6%), increased carotid intima-media thickness at 31 years, and type 2 diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin = 6.6%) at 34 years of age. Of note, all of the

  7. Rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Adel S; Al-Shamrani, Abdullah; Al-Shawwa, Baha A

    2016-11-01

    Rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disease, but could be fatal if not diagnosed early. It mimics many other diseases and it may take few years after the onset of rapid obesity to have the other clinical features. Therefore, any patient with rapid-onset obesity after the age of 2 years should have high index of suspicion and long term follow up. We report a case of ROHHAD in Saudi Arabia and we highlight the clinical features and the importance of early diagnosis and management.

  8. Rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harbi, Adel S.; Al-Shamrani, Abdullah; Al-Shawwa, Baha A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disease, but could be fatal if not diagnosed early. It mimics many other diseases and it may take few years after the onset of rapid obesity to have the other clinical features. Therefore, any patient with rapid-onset obesity after the age of 2 years should have high index of suspicion and long term follow up. We report a case of ROHHAD in Saudi Arabia and we highlight the clinical features and the importance of early diagnosis and management. PMID:27761566

  9. Two New Loci for Body-Weight Regulation Identified in a Joint Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Early-Onset Extreme Obesity in French and German Study Groups

    PubMed Central

    Scherag, André; Dina, Christian; Hinney, Anke; Vatin, Vincent; Scherag, Susann; Vogel, Carla I. G.; Müller, Timo D.; Grallert, Harald; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Balkau, Beverley; Heude, Barbara; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Levy-Marchal, Claire; Weill, Jacques; Delplanque, Jérôme; Körner, Antje; Kiess, Wieland; Kovacs, Peter; Rayner, Nigel W.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.; Schäfer, Helmut; Jarick, Ivonne; Boeing, Heiner; Fisher, Eva; Reinehr, Thomas; Heinrich, Joachim; Rzehak, Peter; Berdel, Dietrich; Borte, Michael; Biebermann, Heike; Krude, Heiko; Rosskopf, Dieter; Rimmbach, Christian; Rief, Winfried; Fromme, Tobias; Klingenspor, Martin; Schürmann, Annette; Schulz, Nadja; Nöthen, Markus M.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Boes, Tanja; Illig, Thomas; Froguel, Philippe; Hebebrand, Johannes; Meyre, David

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analyses of population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have recently led to the detection of new genetic loci for obesity. Here we aimed to discover additional obesity loci in extremely obese children and adolescents. We also investigated if these results generalize by estimating the effects of these obesity loci in adults and in population-based samples including both children and adults. We jointly analysed two GWAS of 2,258 individuals and followed-up the best, according to lowest p-values, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 21 genomic regions in 3,141 individuals. After this DISCOVERY step, we explored if the findings derived from the extremely obese children and adolescents (10 SNPs from 5 genomic regions) generalized to (i) the population level and (ii) to adults by genotyping another 31,182 individuals (GENERALIZATION step). Apart from previously identified FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18, we detected two new loci for obesity: one in SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 gene; p = 1.85×10−8 in the DISCOVERY step) and one between TNKS (tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase gene) and MSRA (methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene; p = 4.84×10−7), the latter finding being limited to children and adolescents as demonstrated in the GENERALIZATION step. The odds ratios for early-onset obesity were estimated at ∼1.10 per risk allele for both loci. Interestingly, the TNKS/MSRA locus has recently been found to be associated with adult waist circumference. In summary, we have completed a meta-analysis of two GWAS which both focus on extremely obese children and adolescents and replicated our findings in a large followed-up data set. We observed that genetic variants in or near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, and TNKS/MSRA were robustly associated with early-onset obesity. We conclude that the currently known major common variants related to obesity overlap to a substantial degree between

  10. Seven novel deleterious LEPR mutations found in early-onset obesity: a ΔExon6-8 shared by subjects from Reunion Island, France, suggests a founder effect.

    PubMed

    Huvenne, Hélène; Le Beyec, Johanne; Pépin, Dominique; Alili, Rohia; Kherchiche, Patricia Pigeon; Jeannic, Erwan; Frelut, Marie-Laure; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Nicolino, Marc; Viard, Amélie; Laville, Martine; Ledoux, Séverine; Tounian, Patrick; Poitou, Christine; Dubern, Béatrice; Clément, Karine

    2015-05-01

    Infrequent mutations have been reported in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene in humans with morbid obesity and endocrine disorders. However LEPR mutations are rarely examined in large populations from different ethnicities in a given country. We estimated the prevalence of LEPR mutations in French patients with severe obesity and evaluated mutated patients' phenotype. We sequenced the LEPR gene in 535 morbidly obese French participants. We conducted clinical investigations to determine whether individuals with a novel shared mutation display particular characteristics relative to obesity history, body composition, hormonal functions, and the outcome of bariatric surgery. We identified 12 patients with a novel LEPR mutation (p.C604G, p.L786P, p.H800_N831del, p.Y422H, p.T711NfsX18, p.535-1G>A, p.P166CfsX7). Six unrelated subjects were carriers of the p.P166CfsX7 mutation leading to deletion overlapping exons 6 to 8. All subjects originated from Reunion Island (France). Their clinical features (severe early-onset obesity, food impulsivity, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) did not differ from other new LEPR mutation carriers. Results concerning weight loss surgery were inconsistent in homozygous LEPR mutation carriers. Heterozygous LEPR mutation carriers exhibited variable severity of obesity and no endocrine abnormality. Among seven newly discovered LEPR mutations in this French obese population, we identified a LEPR frameshift mutation shared by six subjects from Reunion Island. This observation suggests a founder effect in this Indian Ocean island with high prevalence of obesity and supports a recommendation for systematic screening for this mutation in morbidly obese subjects in this population.

  11. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Kari A.; Anderson-Berry, Ann L.; Delair, Shirley F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR. Cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell surface antigens, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and CD64, are also being increasingly examined for use as nonspecific screening measures for neonatal sepsis. Viruses, in particular enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and herpes simplex virus (HSV), should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Empirical treatment should be based on local patterns of antimicrobial resistance but typically consists of the use of ampicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and cefotaxime if meningitis is suspected, until the etiologic agent has been identified. Current research is focused primarily on development of vaccines against GBS. PMID:24396135

  12. Predictors of Early Alcohol Drinking Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) has been implicated as a cause of adult alcohol disorder inviting interventions that target the causes of ADO. This study explores the precursors of early ADO using variables measured before drinking onset, reaching back to the mothers of the respondents. The sample consists of children of the women respondents…

  13. Predictors of Early Alcohol Drinking Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) has been implicated as a cause of adult alcohol disorder inviting interventions that target the causes of ADO. This study explores the precursors of early ADO using variables measured before drinking onset, reaching back to the mothers of the respondents. The sample consists of children of the women respondents…

  14. Cerebellar Pathology in Early Onset and Late Onset Essential Tremor.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Sheng-Han; Wang, Jie; Tate, William J; Pan, Ming-Kai; Kelly, Geoffrey C; Gutierrez, Jesus; Cortes, Etty P; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G; Louis, Elan D; Faust, Phyllis L

    2017-04-01

    Early onset and late onset essential tremor (ET) cases differ in several respects. Whether they differ with respect to cerebellar pathologic changes remains to be determined. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell (PC) counts, PC axonal torpedoes and associated axonal changes, heterotopic PCs, and hairy basket ratings) in 30 ET cases with age of tremor onset <50 years, 30 ET cases with age of tremor onset ≥50 years, and 30 controls (total n = 90). We also used two alternative age of onset cut-points (<40 vs. ≥40 years, and <60 vs. ≥60 years) to define early onset vs. late onset ET. We found that ET cases with tremor onset <50 years and tremor onset ≥50 years had similar PC counts (8.78 ± 1.70 vs. 8.86 ± 1.24, p = 0.839), PC axonal torpedo counts (17.87 ± 18.27 [median =13.00] vs. 12.90 ± 10.60 [median =9.0], p = 0.486) and associated axonal pathology (all p values >0.05), heterotopic PC counts (9.90 ± 11.55 [median =6.00] vs. 5.40 ± 5.10 [median =3.50], p = 0.092), and hairy basket ratings (1.95 ± 0.62 [median =2.00] vs. 2.05 ± 0.92 [median =2.00], p = 0.314). When using the age of onset cut-points of 40 or 60 years, results were similar. Early onset and late onset ET cases share similar cerebellar postmortem features. These data do not support the notion that these age-of-onset related forms of ET represent distinct clinical-pathological entities.

  15. Early- versus Late-Onset Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Marco A.; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ≤30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ≥60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients. PMID:24646463

  16. Early life origins of obesity.

    PubMed

    Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Rampono, Jonathan; Challis, John R G

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity has its origins in early life. Predisposition is based on interactions between the genome and environmental influences acting through epigenetic modifications. Individuals most at risk are those whose ancestral line has made a rapid transition from a traditional to a Westernized style of life. The process involves not only metabolism, but also behavior. As a result, those people who are most at risk of obesity may be those least likely to respond to educational programs based on lifestyle modification. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that underpin the early origins of obesity is vital if we are to make progress in addressing this major problem of modern life.

  17. Early onset (childhood) monogenic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) with onset in childhood are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission and, in selected cases, pathological findings. Especially relevant to pediatrics are the items "secondary" versus "primary" neuropathy, "syndromic versus nonsyndromic," and "period of life." Different combinations of these parameters frequently point toward specific monogenic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first concern in pediatrics. As a rule, metabolic diseases include additional, orienting symptoms or signs, and their biochemical diagnosis is based on logical algorithms. Primary, motor sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating autosomal dominant (AD) forms (CMT1). Other forms include demyelinating autosomal recessive (AR) forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Peripheral motor neuron disorders are dominated by AR SMN-linked spinal muscular atrophies. (Distal) hereditary motor neuropathies represent <10% of HN but exhibit large clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Sensory/dysautonomic HN involves five classic subtypes, each one related to specific genes. However, genetic heterogeneity is larger than initially suspected. Syndromic HN distinguish "purely neurological syndromes", which are multisystemic, such as spinocerebellar atrophies +, spastic paraplegias +, etc. Peripheral neuropathy is possibly the presenting feature, including in childhood. Autosomal recessive forms, on average, start more frequently in childhood. "Multiorgan syndromes", on the other hand, are more specific to Pediatrics. AR forms, which are clearly degenerative, prompt the investigation of a large set of pleiotropic genes. Other syndromes expressed in the perinatal period are mainly developmental disorders, and can sometimes be related to specific transcription factors. Systematic

  18. Early-onset Lafora body disease

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Julie; Girard, Jean-Marie; Lohi, Hannes; Chan, Elayne M.; Wang, Peixiang; Tiberia, Erica; Omer, Salah; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Bennett, Christopher; Chakrabarty, Aruna; Tyagi, Atul; Liu, Yan; Pencea, Nela; Zhao, XiaoChu; Scherer, Stephen W.; Ackerley, Cameron A.

    2012-01-01

    The most common progressive myoclonus epilepsies are the late infantile and late infantile-variant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (onset before the age of 6 years), Unverricht–Lundborg disease (onset after the age of 6 years) and Lafora disease. Lafora disease is a distinct disorder with uniform course: onset in teenage years, followed by progressively worsening myoclonus, seizures, visual hallucinations and cognitive decline, leading to a vegetative state in status myoclonicus and death within 10 years. Biopsy reveals Lafora bodies, which are pathognomonic and not seen with any other progressive myoclonus epilepsies. Lafora bodies are aggregates of polyglucosans, poorly constructed glycogen molecules with inordinately long strands that render them insoluble. Lafora disease is caused by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding the laforin phosphatase and the malin ubiquitin ligase, respectively, two cytoplasmically active enzymes that regulate glycogen construction, ensuring symmetric expansion into a spherical shape, essential to its solubility. In this work, we report a new progressive myoclonus epilepsy associated with Lafora bodies, early-onset Lafora body disease, map its locus to chromosome 4q21.21, identify its gene and mutation and characterize the relationship of its gene product with laforin and malin. Early-onset Lafora body disease presents early, at 5 years, with dysarthria, myoclonus and ataxia. The combination of early-onset and early dysarthria strongly suggests late infantile-variant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, not Lafora disease. Pathology reveals no ceroid lipofuscinosis, but Lafora bodies. The subsequent course is a typical progressive myoclonus epilepsy, though much more protracted than any infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, or Lafora disease, patients living into the fourth decade. The mutation, c.781T>C (Phe261Leu), is in a gene of unknown function, PRDM8. We show that the PRDM8 protein interacts with laforin and malin and

  19. Evidence for early defects in insulin sensitivity and secretion before the onset of glucose dysregulation in obese youths: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Cosimo; Weiss, Ram; Cali, Anna; Bonadonna, Riccardo; Santoro, Nicola; Pierpont, Bridget; Shaw, Melissa; Caprio, Sonia

    2012-03-01

    We sought to determine whether obese adolescents with high-"normal" 2-h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose levels display defects in insulin secretion and sensitivity associated with future development of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and insulin secretion by applying mathematical modeling during the hyperglycemic clamp in 60 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) obese adolescents, divided into three groups based on the 2-h glucose values (<100, 100-119, 120-139 mg/dL), and in 21 IGT obese adolescents. Glucose tolerance was reevaluated after 2 years. Insulin sensitivity decreased significantly across 2-h glucose NGT categories, while the highest NGT category and IGT group were similar. First-phase insulin secretion decreased across NGT categories, while no difference was found between the highest NGT group and IGT subjects. Second-phase secretion was similar across all NGT and IGT groups. The disposition index ((C)DI) decreased across NGT categories, while no difference was observed between the highest NGT and IGT subjects. Age and (C)DI were the best predictors of 2-h glucose after two years. Across rising categories of normal 2-h glucose levels, NGT obese adolescents exhibit significant impairment of β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity associated with the development of IGT.

  20. Obesity in pregnancy: altered onset and progression of labour.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Annick; Witters, Ingrid; Van den Bergh, Bea R H; Jans, Goele; Devlieger, Roland

    2013-12-01

    the incidence of obesity increases in all developed countries to frightful percentages, also in women of reproductive age. Maternal obesity is associated with important obstetrical complications; and this group also exhibits a higher incidence of prolonged pregnancies and labours. to review the literature on the pathophysiology of onset and progression of labour in obese woman and translate this knowledge into practical recommendations for clinical management. a literature review, in particular a critical summary of research, in order to determine associations, gaps or inconsistencies in this specific but limited body of research. the combination of a higher incidence of post-term childbirths and increased inadequate contraction pattern during the first stage of labour suggests an influence of obesity on myometrial activity. A pathophysiologic pathway for altered onset and progression of labour in obese pregnant women is proposed. analysis of the literature shows that obesity is associated with an increased duration of pregnancy and prolonged duration of first stage of labour. an adapted clinical approach is suggested in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unusual early-onset Huntingtons disease.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Antonio P; Carod-Artal, Francisco J; Bomfim, Denise; Vázquez-Cabrera, Carolina; Dantas-Barbosa, Carmela

    2003-06-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary movements, cognitive decline, and behavioral disorders leading to functional disability. In contrast to patients with adult onset, in which chorea is the major motor abnormality, children often present with spasticity, rigidity, and significant intellectual decline associated with a more rapidly progressive course. An unusual early-onset Huntington's disease case of an 11-year-old boy with severe hypokinetic/rigid syndrome appearing at the age of 2.5 years is presented. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction study of the expanded IT-15 allele with a compatible size of 102 cytosine-adenosine-guanosine repeats L-Dopa mildly ameliorated rigidity, bradykinesia, and dystonia. We conclude that Huntington's disease should be included in the differential diagnoses of regressive syndromes of early childhood.

  2. Risk assessment in neonatal early onset sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of neonatal early onset sepsis has declined with the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotic therapies, yet early onset sepsis remains a potentially fatal condition, particularly among very low birth-weight infants. Clinical signs of neonatal infection are nonspecific and may be absent in the immediate postnatal period. Maternal and infant clinical characteristics, as well as infant laboratory values, have been used to identify newborns at risk and to administer empiric antibiotic therapy to prevent progression to more severe illness. Such approaches result in the evaluation of approximately 15% of asymptomatic term and late preterm infants and of nearly all preterm infants. The development of multivariate predictive models may provide more accurate methods of identifying newborns at highest risk and allow for more limited newborn antibiotic exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Brain imaging in early onset anorexia].

    PubMed

    Bargiacchi, A

    2014-05-01

    Structural and functional brain alterations in the structures involved in taste processing, emotions regulation and the reward system have been described in anorexia nervosa. The neurodevelopmental origin of this disorder has been recently discussed. In this article, brain-imaging data in early onset anorexia nervosa will be recalled and the relationship between clinical symptoms, normal brain maturation and brain imaging data in adolescents and adults will be discussed.

  4. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p < .0001 controls vs. PWS and controls vs. EMO). As both conditions are characterized by early-onset obesity and slowed cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  5. Early Childhood Obesity is Associated with Compromised Cerebellar Development

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS — a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric MRI images. Individuals with PWS (n=16) and EMO (n=12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p=0.02 control vs. EMO; p=0.0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 ± 25; EMO 81 ± 19; and Controls 112 ± 13 (p<0.0001 controls vs. PWS and controls vs. EMO). As both conditions are characterized by early-onset obesity and slowed cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:19437203

  6. The development of youth-onset severe obesity in urban US girls.

    PubMed

    McTigue, Kathleen M; Stepp, Stephanie D; Moore, Charity G; Cohen, Elan D; Hipwell, Alison E; Loeber, Rolf; Kuller, Lewis H

    2015-12-01

    To understand the incidence and persistence of severe obesity (≥1.2× 95(th) BMI percentile-for-age) in girls across the transition to adolescence, and map developmental trajectories of adolescent severe obesity in a high-risk sample. We examined ten years of prospectively collected data from a population sample of urban girls (n=2,226; 53% African American, aged 7-10 in 2003-2004). We determined severe obesity prevalence and incidence by age. Logistic regression evaluated for secular trend in the association between age and severe obesity prevalence. Unconditional latent growth curve models (LGCMs) compared BMI development through the adolescence transition between girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI. Severe obesity prevalence was 8.3% at age 7-10 and 10.1% at age 16-19 (white: 5.9%; African American: 13.2%; p<0.001). Age-specific prevalence increased more rapidly among the latest-born, versus earliest-born, girls (p=0.034). Incidence was 1.3% to 2.4% annually. When we compared 12-15 year-old girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI, average body weight was already distinct 5 years earlier (16.5 kg versus 25.7 kg; p<0.001) and the BMI difference between groups increased annually. LCGMs between ages 7-10 and 11-14 indicated an increase of 3.32 kg/m(2) in the healthy-BMI group and 8.50 kg/m(2) in the severe obesity group, a 2.6-fold difference. Youth-onset severe obesity warrants particular concern in urban girls due to high prevalence and an increasing secular prevalence trend. Late childhood and early adolescence may represent a key developmental window for prevention and treatment, but is too late to prevent youth-onset severe obesity entirely.

  7. The development of youth-onset severe obesity in urban US girls

    PubMed Central

    McTigue, Kathleen M.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Moore, Charity G.; Cohen, Elan D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence and persistence of severe obesity (≥1.2× 95th BMI percentile-for-age) in girls across the transition to adolescence, and map developmental trajectories of adolescent severe obesity in a high-risk sample. Methods We examined ten years of prospectively collected data from a population sample of urban girls (n=2,226; 53% African American, aged 7–10 in 2003–2004). We determined severe obesity prevalence and incidence by age. Logistic regression evaluated for secular trend in the association between age and severe obesity prevalence. Unconditional latent growth curve models (LGCMs) compared BMI development through the adolescence transition between girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI. Results Severe obesity prevalence was 8.3% at age 7–10 and 10.1% at age 16–19 (white: 5.9%; African American: 13.2%; p<0.001). Age-specific prevalence increased more rapidly among the latest-born, versus earliest-born, girls (p=0.034). Incidence was 1.3% to 2.4% annually. When we compared 12–15 year-old girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI, average body weight was already distinct 5 years earlier (16.5 kg versus 25.7 kg; p<0.001) and the BMI difference between groups increased annually. LCGMs between ages 7–10 and 11–14 indicated an increase of 3.32 kg/m2 in the healthy-BMI group and 8.50 kg/m2 in the severe obesity group, a 2.6-fold difference. Conclusions Youth-onset severe obesity warrants particular concern in urban girls due to high prevalence and an increasing secular prevalence trend. Late childhood and early adolescence may represent a key developmental window for prevention and treatment, but is too late to prevent youth-onset severe obesity entirely. PMID:26509122

  8. Early onset preeclampsia in subsequent pregnancies correlates with early onset preeclampsia in first pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Chen, T T; Dong, X; Gou, W L; Lau, S; Stone, P; Chen, Q

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy and its occurrence in a first pregnancy is a major risk factor for recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. Whether the time of onset or the severity of preeclampsia in a first pregnancy is associated with the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia is not clear. We performed a retrospective study to analyse the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia and associations of the time of onset and the severity of preeclampsia between first preeclampsia and recurrent preeclampsia. Ninety-two women with previous preeclampsia who had a second pregnancy in a 4 year period were included. Data on the first and second pregnancies were obtained and included maternal age, maternal height and weight, gestation week at onset of preeclampsia and at delivery, blood pressure, proteinuria, interval between pregnancies and birth weights. Fifty-five women with previous preeclampsia developed recurrent preeclampsia (59.8%). The difference in the incidence of recurrent early and late onset preeclampsia was not significant different (65.3% versus 53.4%, p>0.05). The difference in the incidence of mild or severe disease in those who experienced recurrent preeclampsia was also not significant (59.6% versus 60%, p>0.05). The severity of preeclampsia in second pregnancy was not associated with the severity of preeclampsia in first pregnancy. However 93.7% women with previous early onset preeclampsia developed early onset preeclampsia in second pregnancy and 56.5% women with previous late onset preeclampsia developed early onset preeclampsia in second pregnancy. In addition, 76.2% women with previous mild preeclampsia developed severe preeclampsia in second pregnancy. The baby weight in recurrent preeclampsia was significantly decreased compared to that in first pregnancy with preeclampsia. Our data demonstrate that there was no association between the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia and the time of onset or severity of preeclampsia in first pregnancy

  9. Early onset torsion dystonia (Oppenheim's dystonia)

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Early onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is a rare movement disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive, sustained muscle contractions or postures involving one or more sites of the body. A US study estimated the prevalence at approximately 1 in 30,000. The estimated prevalence in the general population of Europe seems to be lower, ranging from 1 in 330,000 to 1 in 200,000, although precise numbers are currently not available. The estimated prevalence in the Ashkenazi Jewish population is approximately five to ten times higher, due to a founder mutation. Symptoms of EOTD typically develop first in an arm or leg in middle to late childhood and progress in approximately 30% of patients to other body regions (generalized dystonia) within about five years. Distribution and severity of symptoms vary widely between affected individuals. The majority of cases from various ethnic groups are caused by an autosomal dominantly inherited deletion of 3 bp (GAG) in the DYT1 gene on chromosome 9q34. This gene encodes a protein named torsinA, which is presumed to act as a chaperone protein associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. It may interact with the dopamine transporter and participate in intracellular trafficking, although its precise function within the cell remains to be determined. Molecular genetic diagnostic and genetic counseling is recommended for individuals with age of onset below 26 years, and may also be considered in those with onset after 26 years having a relative with typical early onset dystonia. Treatment options include botulinum toxin injections for focal symptoms, pharmacological therapy such as anticholinergics (most commonly trihexiphenydil) for generalized dystonia and surgical approaches such as deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus or intrathecal baclofen application in severe cases. All patients have normal cognitive function, and despite a high rate of generalization of dystonia, 75% of those patients

  10. Nonsurgical Management of Early-onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Thorsness, Robert J; Faust, John R; Behrend, Caleb J; Sanders, James O

    2015-09-01

    Early-onset scoliosis is potentially fatal if left untreated. Although surgical management with growing instrumentation may be necessary, this is not a panacea and is associated with high complication rates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that nonsurgical treatment can be an effective early management strategy in delaying or even precluding the need for surgery, especially surgery with growing instrumentation. The goal of both nonsurgical and surgical management is to control or correct the spinal curve to allow appropriate pulmonary development while delaying definitive fusion until an appropriate skeletal age. Although more commonly used to delay surgery, serial cast correction using the Cotrel and Morel elongation-derotation-flexion technique may result in complete correction in patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis and smaller curve magnitudes. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  11. Obstetric Outcome in Early and Late Onset Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Easmin, S; Chowdhury, T A; Islam, M R; Beg, A; Jahan, M K; Latif, T; Dhar, S; Alam, M N; Akhter, M

    2015-07-01

    Obstetric outcome in early onset and late onset GDM was compared in a prospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology in BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total 120 pregnant women were recruited purposively for the study in which 60 were early onset GDM and 60 were late onset GDM during study period of January 2008 to December 2009. Patients were followed up in different periods of gestation, during delivery and early postpartum period & findings were compared between two groups. BMI & family history of diabetes were significantly higher in early GDM group (p<0.05). Evidence of increased glycaemia was observed in early GDM group & difference of glycaemic status was statistically significant (p<0.05). Insulin was needed in 85% of early onset GDM and 55% in late onset GDM. There was also significant difference (p<0.05). In this study, 23.3% of early onset GDM group developed pre-eclampsia while in late onset GDM it was 10% and was statistically significant (p<0.05). Regarding intrapartum & postpartum complications - perineal tear, PPH wound infection, puerperal sepsis were more in early onset than late onset GDM group with no significant difference. Regarding foetal outcome, 8.3% early GDM group delivered asphyxiated baby in comparison to 3.3% in late GDM group. Twenty percent (20%) of early onset GDM group had to admit their babies in neonatal unit while in late onset group it was 5%. There was significant difference between two groups (p<0.05). Neonatal hypoglycaemia was also statistically significantly (p<0.05) higher in early GDM group. Neonatal hyper-bilirubinaemia, RDS, perinatal death was more in early onset GDM subjects. Early onset GDM subjects are high risk subgroup & have significant deleterious effect on maternal and perinatal outcome than late GDM groups.

  12. Obesity and Cytokines in Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sinicato, Nailú Angélica; Postal, Mariana; Peres, Fernando Augusto; Peliçari, Karina de Oliveira; Marini, Roberto; dos Santos, Allan de Oliveira; Ramos, Celso Dario; Appenzeller, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Background. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), atherosclerosis is attributed to traditional and lupus related risk factors, including metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity, and inflammation. Objective. To evaluate the association between obesity, measures of body fat content, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6 and -10 levels in childhood-onset SLE (cSLE). Methods. We screened consecutive cSLE patients followed up in the Pediatric Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas. cSLE patients were assessed for disease and damage. Obesity was definite as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine total fat mass, lean mass, and percent of body fat. Results. We included 52 cSLE patients and 52 controls. cSLE patients had higher serum TNF-α  (P = 0.004), IL-6 (P = 0.002), and IL-10 (P < 0.001) levels compared to controls. We observed higher serum TNF-α  (P = 0.036) levels in cSLE patients with obesity. An association between serum TNF-α levels and body fat percent (P = 0.046) and total fat mass on trunk region (P = 0.035) was observed. Conclusion. Serum TNF-α levels were associated with obesity and body fat content in cSLE. Our finding suggests that obesity may contribute to the increase of serum TNF-α levels in cSLE. PMID:24741576

  13. [Neurological soft signs in early onset schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Bourgou Gaha, S; Halayem Dhouib, S; Amado, I; Bouden, A

    2015-06-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle neurological abnormalities that cannot be linked to the achievement of a specific region of the central nervous system and which are not part of a particular neurological syndrome. These signs are observed in the case of diseases supporting the neurodevelopmental model such as schizophrenia in general and its early form defined notably by an age of onset of less than 18 years. Indeed, the NSS belong to a set of clinical, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical markers reflecting neurodevelopmental brain abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence, the scores, and the nature of neurological soft signs (NSS) in adolescent patients suffering from early onset schizophrenia diagnosis in comparison to healthy controls, and to explore the correlations between NSS and the demographic, clinical and therapeutic features of these patients. Twelve adolescents were recruited in the Child Psychiatry Department at the Razi Hospital (Tunisia), with the diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV supplemented by the Kiddie SAD PL. They were matched by age and educational level with twelve healthy controls without psychiatric family or personal history. The clinical status of the patients was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Neurological soft signs (NSS) were rated with the Neurological Soft Signs Examination (NSSE) by Krebs et al. (2000) for the two groups. This scale is composed of 23 items exploring motor coordination, motor integrative function, sensory integration, involuntary movements and quality of lateralization. The mean age of our population was 14.7 years. The average age of onset of the disease was 12.2 years. The sex-ratio was 1.4. Educational level was 7.4 years. The PANSS mean total score was 74.3. The mean daily dose, in chlorpromazine equivalents, was 523.9 mg/day. Four patients received a strict monotherapy of

  14. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  15. Maternal morbidity associated with early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lisonkova, Sarka; Sabr, Yasser; Mayer, Chantal; Young, Carmen; Skoll, Amanda; Joseph, K S

    2014-10-01

    To examine temporal trends in early-onset compared with late-onset preeclampsia and associated severe maternal morbidity. The study included all singleton deliveries in Washington State between 2000 and 2008 (N=670,120). Preeclampsia onset was determined using hospital records linked to birth certificates. Severe maternal morbidity was defined as any potentially life-threatening condition. Logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The preeclampsia rate was 3.0 per 100 singleton births, and increased slightly from 2.9 to 3.1 between 2000 and 2008. Rates of early-onset and late-onset disease were 0.3% and 2.7%, respectively. The temporal increase was significant only for early-onset disease (4.5%/year; 95% CI 2.3-5.8%) after adjustment for changes in maternal characteristics. Maternal death rates were higher among women with early-onset (42.1/100,000 deliveries) and late-onset preeclampsia (11.2/100,000) compared with women without preeclampsia (4.2/100,000). The rate of severe maternal morbidity (excluding obstetric trauma) was 12.2 per 100 deliveries in the early-onset group (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 3.2-4.3), 5.5 per 100 deliveries in the late-onset group (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.6-1.9), and approximately 3 per 100 in women without preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia conferred a substantially higher risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, central nervous system, renal, hepatic, and other morbidity. However, rates of obstetric trauma were significantly lower among women with preeclampsia. Women with early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia have significantly higher rates of specific maternal morbidity compared with women without early-onset and late-onset disease. : II.

  16. Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-11

    Alzheimer Disease, Early Onset; Alzheimer Disease; Alzheimer Disease, Late Onset; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Logopenic Progressive Aphasia; Primary Progressive Aphasia; Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; Executive Dysfunction; Corticobasal Degeneration; Ideomotor Apraxia

  17. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lingling; Liu, Jihong; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Junxiu; Bai, Yinglong; Jia, Lihong; Yao, Xingjia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls. Methods Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean) were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years) were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups. Results Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years) than normal girls (9.2 years) and lean girls (9.3 years). The prevalence (%) of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9–21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8–60.1). None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5%) and lean girls (8.1%). The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05). Conclusions Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls. PMID:26247479

  18. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lingling; Liu, Jihong; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Junxiu; Bai, Yinglong; Jia, Lihong; Yao, Xingjia

    2015-01-01

    To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls. Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean) were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years) were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups. Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years) than normal girls (9.2 years) and lean girls (9.3 years). The prevalence (%) of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1). None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5%) and lean girls (8.1%). The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05). Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  19. Genetic epidemiology of early onset breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Eccles, D; Marlow, A; Royle, G; Collins, A; Morton, N E

    1994-01-01

    Risks for breast cancer when there is a family history of the disease are usually calculated using data from segregation analyses which favour a single dominant gene with high penetrance. There are, however, at least three loci known to be associated with familial breast cancer (p53, BRCA1, and an as yet unpublished locus) and the frequencies and penetrances of these genes are not likely to be the same. We have attempted to address the problem of which genetic parameters should be used to calculate risks for different patterns of familial breast cancer. Data from 384 nuclear families ascertained through a proband selected for early onset breast cancer were subjected to complex segregation analysis, correcting for ascertainment bias resulting from selection for severe phenotype. Age of onset of breast cancer, incorporated as severity, provides additional information to the segregation model over and above that given by assigning liability classes on the basis of age at observation. The use of this additional parameter in the analysis is described. There is fair agreement between estimates from this sample and previous predictions from consecutive probands and consultands. The differences suggest more than one rare dominant gene for susceptibility to breast cancer, with different penetrances. Although refinements of segregation analysis will help to delineate these different genes, perfect resolution will require identification of the mutant alleles. Methods to estimate genetic parameters under genotype specific mortality need to be developed. Meanwhile, we suggest that high and low estimates of penetrance be used in risk estimation for genetic counselling, and as a guide to candidates for entry into clinical trials of screening and chemoprevention in breast cancer. PMID:7891376

  20. Blood-Based Biomarkers of Early-Onset Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0214 TITLE: Blood-based biomarkers of early-onset breast cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nasim Ahmadiyeh...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blood-based biomarkers of early-onset breast cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1...14. ABSTRACT Women with early-onset breast cancer are thought to have a higher contribution of inherited risk than those forming sporadic cancers at

  1. Early onset polycystic kidney disease: how early is early?

    PubMed

    Birewar, Sonali; Zawada, Edward T

    2003-11-01

    We report a case of a six-month-old infant with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. He was a full term baby with an uneventful pre and postnatal period. He was delivered by uncomplicated vaginal delivery without forceps or fetal distress. His father was recently diagnosed with adult onset autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (APKD) with creatinine clearance around 25%-30%. The parents requested renal ultrasound of the baby to screen for APKD. It revealed normal sized and normal shaped kidneys, but with multiple bilateral cysts in the renal cortices, each measuring about 5 mm-7 mm in diameter. Subsequent DNA analysis showed presence of PKD1 gene, present on chromosome 16. His renal function was within normal range. The baby needs to be regularly followed-up for the most common complications of APKD, including hypertension and renal insufficiency.

  2. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention.

    PubMed

    Bumaschny, Viviana F; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S J; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J

    2012-11-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity.

  3. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bumaschny, Viviana F.; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S.J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity. PMID:23093774

  4. Association of a history of childhood-onset obesity and dieting with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Cena, Hellas; Stanford, Fatima Cody; Ochner, Luana; Fonte, Maria Luisa; Biino, Ginevra; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Taveras, Elsie; Misra, Madhusmita

    2017-01-31

    This was a retrospective, observational chart review conducted on a convenience sample of 537 outpatients, aged 16-60 years, referred to an Italian Dietetic and Nutrition University Center. The study aimed to look at the association between a history of childhood obesity and dieting behaviors with development of eating disorders (EDs) at a later age. Subjects with a history of EDs (n = 118), assessed using both self-report and health records, were compared with those with no EDs (n = 419), who were attending the clinic mainly for primary prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association of childhood-onset obesity with development of an ED at a later age. Childhood-onset obesity, gender, maternal history of eating disorders, and dieting were associated with a positive history of EDs at a later age (p < .05). It is important to raise professional awareness of early symptoms of EDs in children with a history of obesity and treat them accordingly.

  5. Early markers of adult obesity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, T D; Farmer, A P; McCargar, L J

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this review was to evaluate factors in early childhood (≤5 years of age) that are the most significant predictors of the development of obesity in adulthood. Factors of interest included exposures/insults in the prenatal period, infancy and early childhood, as well as other socio-demographic variables such as socioeconomic status (SES) or birth place that could impact all three time periods. An extensive electronic and systematic search initially resulted in 8,880 citations, after duplicates were removed. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and following two screening processes, 135 studies were retained for detailed abstraction and analysis. A total of 42 variables were associated with obesity in adulthood; however, of these, only seven variables may be considered as potential early markers of obesity based on the reported associations. Possible early markers of obesity included maternal smoking and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Probable early markers of obesity included maternal body mass index, childhood growth patterns (early rapid growth and early adiposity rebound), childhood obesity and father's employment (a proxy measure for SES in many studies). Health promotion programmes/agencies should consider these factors as reasonable targets to reduce the risk of adult obesity. PMID:22171945

  6. Effect of obesity onset on pendular energy transduction at spontaneous walking speed: Prader-Willi versus nonsyndromal obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Malatesta, Davide; Vismara, Luca; Menegoni, Francesco; Grugni, Graziano; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    To compare the mechanical external work (Wext ) and pendular energy transduction (Rstep ) at spontaneous walking speed (Ss ) in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) versus subjects with nonsyndromal obesity (OB) to investigate whether the early onset of obesity allows PWS subjects to adopt energy conserving gait mechanics. Wext and Rstep were computed using kinematic data acquired by an optoelectronic system and compared in 15 PWS (BMI = 39.5 ± 1.8 kg m(-2) ; 26.7 ± 1.5 year) and 15 OB (BMI = 39.3 ± 1.0 kg m(-2) ; 28.7 ± 1.9 year) adults matched for gender, age and BMI and walking at Ss . Ss was significantly lower in PWS (0.98 ± 0.03 m s(-1) ) than in OB (1.20 ± 0.02 m s(-1) ; P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in Wext per kilogram between groups (PWS: 0.37 ± 0.04 J kg(-1) m(-1) ; OB: 0.40 ± 0.05 J kg(-1) m(-1) ; P = 0.66) and in Rstep (PWS: 69.9 ± 2.9%; OB: 67.7 ± 2.4%; P = 0.56). However, Rstep normalized to Froude number (Rstep /Fr) was significantly greater in PWS (6.0 ± 0.6) than in OB (3.8 ± 0.2; P = 0.001). Moreover, Rstep /Fr was inversely correlated with age of obesity onset (r = -0.49; P = 0.006) and positively correlated with obesity duration (r = 0.38; P = 0.036). Individuals with PWS seem to alter their gait to improve pendular energy transduction as a result of precocious and chronic adaptation to loading. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  7. [Early onset scoliosis. What are the options?].

    PubMed

    Farrington, D M; Tatay-Díaz, A

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of children with progressive early onset scoliosis has improved considerably due to recent advances in surgical and non-surgical techniques and the understanding of the importance of preserving the thoracic space. Improvements in existing techniques and development of new methods have considerably improved the management of this condition. Derotational casting can be considered in children with documented progression of a <60° curve without previous surgical treatment. Both single and dual growing rods are effective, but the latter seem to offer better results. Hybrid constructs may be a better option in children who require a low-profile proximal anchor. The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR(®)) appears to be beneficial for patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs, and thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome. Children with medical comorbidities who may not tolerate repeated lengthenings should be considered for Shilla or Luque Trolley technique. Growth modulation using shape memory alloy staples or other tethers seem promising for mild curves, although more research is required to define their precise indications.

  8. Early onset Alzheimer's disease and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Franco-Bocanegra, Diana; Toral Rios, Danira; Campos-Peña, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly adults. It is estimated that 10% of the world's population aged more than 60-65 years could currently be affected by AD, and that in the next 20 years, there could be more than 30 million people affected by this pathology. One of the great challenges in this regard is that AD is not just a scientific problem; it is associated with major psychosocial and ethical dilemmas and has a negative impact on national economies. The neurodegenerative process that occurs in AD involves a specific nervous cell dysfunction, which leads to neuronal death. Mutations in APP, PS1, and PS2 genes are causes for early onset AD. Several animal models have demonstrated that alterations in these proteins are able to induce oxidative damage, which in turn favors the development of AD. This paper provides a review of many, although not all, of the mutations present in patients with familial Alzheimer's disease and the association between some of these mutations with both oxidative damage and the development of the pathology.

  9. Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Meraz-Ríos, Marco Antonio; Franco-Bocanegra, Diana; Toral Rios, Danira; Campos-Peña, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly adults. It is estimated that 10% of the world's population aged more than 60–65 years could currently be affected by AD, and that in the next 20 years, there could be more than 30 million people affected by this pathology. One of the great challenges in this regard is that AD is not just a scientific problem; it is associated with major psychosocial and ethical dilemmas and has a negative impact on national economies. The neurodegenerative process that occurs in AD involves a specific nervous cell dysfunction, which leads to neuronal death. Mutations in APP, PS1, and PS2 genes are causes for early onset AD. Several animal models have demonstrated that alterations in these proteins are able to induce oxidative damage, which in turn favors the development of AD. This paper provides a review of many, although not all, of the mutations present in patients with familial Alzheimer's disease and the association between some of these mutations with both oxidative damage and the development of the pathology. PMID:24669286

  10. Specific Intellectual Deficits in Children with Early Onset Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compares 27 children with early onset diabetes (EOD) with 24 children with late onset diabetes (LOD) and 30 sibling controls in performance on tests of intellectual functioning and school achievement. Results revealed that duration of illness, age of onset, and hypoglycemic convulsions significantly predicted spatial ability. (Author/RWB)

  11. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-09-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Obesity, islet cell autoimmunity, and cardiovascular risk factors in youth at onset of type 1 autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cedillo, Maribel; Libman, Ingrid M; Arena, Vincent C; Zhou, Lei; Trucco, Massimo; Ize-Ludlow, Diego; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Becker, Dorothy J

    2015-01-01

    The current increase in childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and obesity has led to two conflicting hypotheses and conflicting reports regarding the effects of overweight on initiation and spreading of islet cell autoimmunity vs earlier clinical manifestation of preexisting autoimmune β-cell damage driven by excess weight. The objective of the study was to address the question of whether the degree of β-cell autoimmunity and age are related to overweight at diabetes onset in a large cohort of T1D youth. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of youth with autoimmune T1D consecutively recruited at diabetes onset. The study was conducted at a regional academic pediatric diabetes center. Two hundred sixty-three consecutive children younger than 19 years at onset of T1D participated in the study. Relationships between body mass index and central obesity (waist circumference and waist to height ratio) and antigen spreading (islet cell autoantibody number), age, and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors examined at onset and/or 3 months after the diagnosis were measured. There were no significant associations between number of autoantibodies with measures of adiposity. Age relationships revealed that a greater proportion of those with central obesity (21%) were in the youngest age group (0-4 y) compared with those without central obesity (6%) (P = .001). PATIENTS with central obesity had increased CVD risk factors and higher onset C-peptide levels (P < .05). No evidence was found to support the concept that obesity accelerates progression of autoantibody spreading once autoimmunity, marked by standard islet cell autoantibody assays, is present. Central obesity was present in almost one-third of the subjects and was associated with early CVD risk markers already at onset.

  13. A case of rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, autonomic dysregulation, and neural crest tumor: ROHHADNET syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abaci, Ayhan; Catli, Gonul; Bayram, Erhan; Koroglu, Tolga; Olgun, Hatice Nur; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Hiz, Ayse Semra; Cakmakci, Handan; Bober, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare disorder that mimics both common obesity and genetic obesity syndromes along with several endocrine disorders during early childhood. We aim to present the clinical features, laboratory and imaging results, and treatment outcomes of a patient with ROHHAD syndrome. In this case report, we describe a 26-month-old boy who was admitted to our emergency department with dyspnea and cyanosis and was suspected to have ROHHAD syndrome due to his rapid-onset obesity and alveolar hypoventilation. A thoracal and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging was performed to demonstrate a possible accompanying neural crest tumor and it provided a yet asymptomatic retroperitoneal ganglioneuroblastoma. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed as ROHHADNET syndrome. Because of the high prevalence of cardiorespiratory arrest and probability of accompanying tumors, early recognition of ROHHAD syndrome is important. To prevent presumptive mortality and morbidity, ROHHAD syndrome should be considered in all cases of rapid and early-onset obesity associated with hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine dysfunctions.

  14. Clinical characteristics of early- and late-onset gout

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingqing; Fang, Weigang; Zeng, Xuejun; Zhang, Yun; Ma, Ya; Sheng, Feng; Zhang, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A retrospective cross-sectional study using data from an outpatient clinic in China was conducted to investigate the clinical features of early-onset gout patients. All patients diagnosed with gout were asked about clinical characteristics of their gout and comorbid diseases. Patients presenting with acute flares were asked about common triggers before the flare. “Early-onset” gout was defined as onset of gout before 40 years and “late-onset” as onset ≥40 years. Major joint involvement, flare frequency before presentation, the cumulative number of involved joints, proportions of tophi complications at presentation, flare triggers, as well as any metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal comorbidities, were compared between the 2 groups. A total of 778 gout patients were enrolled in this study, including 449 (57.7%) in the early-onset group and 329 (42.3%) in the late-onset group. Compared with the late-onset gout patients, the early-onset gout patients had a higher proportion of ankle/mid-foot involvement (62.8% vs 48.2%, P < 0.001), more frequent flares before presentation (11.2 ± 1.17 vs 6.97 ± 1.03 times per year, P = 0.01), higher cumulative number of involved joints (5.2 ± 0.26 vs 3.8 ± 0.26, P < 0.001), and more likely to have alcohol consumption as a flare trigger (65.2% vs 53.9%, P = 0.03); whereas early-onset gout patients had fewer metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or renal complications. Early- and late-onset gout patients had different clinical features. Early-onset seems to be influenced more by lifestyle, while late-onset patients have more complications because of comorbidities. PMID:27893683

  15. Different risk factor profiles distinguish early-onset from late-onset BKV-replication.

    PubMed

    Schachtner, Thomas; Babel, Nina; Reinke, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Two of three reactivations of latent BKV-infection occur within the first 6 months after renal transplantation. However, a clear differentiation between early-onset and late-onset BKV-replication is lacking. Here, we studied all kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) at our single transplant center between 2004 and 2012. A total of 103 of 862 KTRs were diagnosed with BK viremia (11.9%), among which 24 KTRs (2.8%) showed progression to BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVN). Sixty-seven KTRs with early-onset BKV-replication (65%) and 36 KTRs with late-onset BKV-replication (35%) were identified. A control group of 598 KTRs without BKV-replication was used for comparison. Lymphocyte-depleting induction, CMV-reactivation, and acute rejection increased the risk of early-onset BKV-replication (P < 0.05). Presensitized KTRs undergoing renal retransplantation were those at increased risk of late-onset BKV-replication (P < 0.05). Among KTRs with BK viremia, higher doses of mycophenolate increased the risk of progression to BKVN (P = 0.004). KTRs with progression to BKVN showed inferior allograft function (P < 0.05). KTRs with late-onset BK viremia were more likely not to recover to baseline creatinine after BKV-replication (P = 0.018). Our data suggest different risk factors in the pathogenesis of early-onset and late-onset BKV-reactivation. While a more intensified immunosuppression is associated with early-onset BKV-replication, a chronic inflammatory state in presensitized KTRs may contribute to late-onset BKV-replication.

  16. The association of childhood adversities and early onset mental disorders with adult onset chronic physical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; Von Korff, Michael; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José; Tachimori, Hisateru; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Context The physical health consequences of childhood psychosocial adversities may be as substantial as the mental health consequences but whether this is the case remains unclear because much prior research has involved unrepresentative samples and a selective focus on particular adversities or physical outcomes. The association between early onset mental disorders and subsequent poor physical health in adulthood has not been investigated. Objective To investigate whether childhood adversities and early onset mental disorders are independently associated with increased risk of a range of adult onset chronic physical conditions in culturally diverse samples spanning the full adult age range. Design Cross-sectional community surveys of adults in ten countries. Setting General population. Participants Adults (>= 18 years; n = 18,303), with diagnostic assessment and determination of age of onset of DSM-IV mental disorders; assessment of childhood familial adversities; and age of diagnosis/onset of chronic physical conditions. Main Outcome Measures Risk (hazard ratios) of adult onset (> age 20) heart disease, asthma, diabetes, arthritis, chronic spinal pain, and chronic headache as a function of specific childhood adversities and early onset (< age 21) DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorders, with mutual adjustment. Results A history of three or more childhood adversities was independently associated with onset of all six physical conditions (hazard ratios from 1.44–2.19). Controlling for current mental disorder made little difference to these associations. Early onset mental disorders were independently associated with onset of five physical conditions (hazard ratios from 1.43–1.66). Conclusions These results are consistent with the hypothesis that childhood adversities and early onset mental disorders have independent, broad spectrum effects that increase risks of diverse chronic physical conditions in later life. They require confirmation in a prospective design

  17. Rapid-onset obesity, hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, autonomic dysregulation and neuroendocrine tumor syndrome with a homogenous enlargement of the pituitary gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aljabban, Lama; Kassab, Lina; Bakoura, Nour Alhuda; Alsalka, Mohammad Fayez; Maksoud, Ismaeil

    2016-11-22

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare pediatric disorder with a variable sequence of clinical presentations, undefined etiology, and high risk of mortality. Our patient presented an unusual course of the disease accompanied by a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland with an intact pituitary-endocrine axis which, to the best of our knowledge, represents a new finding in rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome. We present a documented case of a 4 years and 8-month-old Syrian Arabic girl with a distinctive course of signs and symptoms of rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome accompanied by mature ganglioneuroma in her chest, a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland, generalized cortical brain atrophy, and seizures. Three months after her first marked symptoms were noted she had a sudden progression of severe respiratory distress that ended with her death. The findings of this case could increase our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation, and place more emphases on pediatricians to consider rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome whenever early rapid onset of obesity, associated with any malfunction, is observed in children. This knowledge could be lifesaving for children with rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome.

  18. Impulsivity in Juvenile Delinquency: Differences among Early-Onset, Late-Onset, and Non-Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Hemingway, Francene; Bower, Julie; Ashman, Adrian; Houghton, Stephen; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The present research investigated differences in levels of impulsivity among early-onset, late-onset, and non-offending adolescents. 129 adolescents (114 males, 15 females), of whom 86 were institutionalised (M age = 15.52 years) and 43 were regular school students (M age = 15.40 years) participated. Each participant completed the Adapted…

  19. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  20. Impulsivity in Juvenile Delinquency: Differences among Early-Onset, Late-Onset, and Non-Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Hemingway, Francene; Bower, Julie; Ashman, Adrian; Houghton, Stephen; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The present research investigated differences in levels of impulsivity among early-onset, late-onset, and non-offending adolescents. 129 adolescents (114 males, 15 females), of whom 86 were institutionalised (M age = 15.52 years) and 43 were regular school students (M age = 15.40 years) participated. Each participant completed the Adapted…

  1. Severe early onset ethylmalonic encephalopathy with West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Papetti, Laura; Garone, Giacomo; Schettini, Livia; Giordano, Carla; Nicita, Francesco; Papoff, Paola; Zeviani, Massimo; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Spalice, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset encephalopathy, chronic diarrhoea, petechiae, orthostatic acrocyanosis and defective cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in muscle and brain. High levels of lactic, ethylmalonic and methylsuccinic acids are detected in body fluids. EE is caused by mutations in ETHE1 gene, a mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase. Neurologic signs and symptoms include progressively delayed development, hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal movements. We report on the clinical, electroencephalographic and MRI findings of a baby with a severe early onset encephalopathy associated with novel ETHE1 gene mutation. This is the first case described in literature with an early pure epileptic onset, presenting with West syndrome.

  2. Onset of obesity in children through the recall of parents: relationship to parental obesity and life events.

    PubMed

    Franzese, A; Valerio, G; Argenziano, A; Esposito-Del Puente, A; Iannucci, M P; Caputo, G; Alfonsi, L; Contaldo, F; Rubino, A

    1998-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease due to the influence of both genetic and environmental factors. Parents of 886 obese patients (427 boys and 459 girls, aged 1-18 years) were investigated by means of a questionnaire in order to study the factors associated with the onset of obesity in children and the relationship to genetic background. At presentation obese patients had a very high mean ideal body weight percent (IBW%) (154 +/- 19%, median 152%, range 120-246). A significantly higher mean IBW% was found in children of obese parents (one obese parent: 158 +/- 21%, median 156%, range 120-246; two obese parents 160 +/- 18%, median 158%, range 123-226) in comparison to children of normal weight parents (150 +/- 18%; median 147%, range 120-235; p = 0.0001 for children of one or two obese parents versus children of normal weight parents). Parents of 414 subjects (46.7%) (Group A) answered that obesity had always been present. The remaining 472 parents (53.3%) (Group B) stated that obesity had had a beginning at a mean age of 5.3 +/- 2.6 years (median 5.0 years, range 1.0-17.0). No difference was found in age at presentation, sex distribution, birth weight and number of obese parents between the two groups. Parents in Group B recalled an event associated with obesity onset in 197 cases (health event: 119 answers, psycho-social event: 78 answers). Genetic background did not influence this pattern of feedback. In conclusion, parents of obese subjects seek medical advice when obesity is severe. Pediatricians should exert strict surveillance on weight from a very young age. The recall in 22% patients of health or psychosocial events at the onset of obesity emphasizes that medical counselling is important when the occurrence of particular events in life may cause erroneous eating habits.

  3. Younger age at gout onset is related to obesity in a community-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    McAdams DeMarco, Mara A.; Maynard, Janet W.; Huizinga, Mary Margret; Baer, Alan N.; Köttgen, Anna; Gelber, Allan C.; Coresh, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with gout risk. It is unclear whether obesity is associated with a younger age of gout onset. We examined whether obesity is related to age at gout onset and quantified the risk of incident gout by obesity status in the Campaign Against Cancer and Heart Disease (CLUE II) study, a longitudinal community-based cohort. Methods CLUE II began in 1989 as a cohort study of residents living within or surrounding Washington County, Maryland. Follow-up questionnaires queried whether each participant had been diagnosed with gout by a healthcare professional. Among participants with gout, we assessed whether obesity was related to age at disease onset. We also ascertained the eighteen-year risk of incident gout according to obesity status (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) at baseline with cumulative incidence ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Poisson regression. Results Among the study population (n=15,533), 517 developed incident gout. The prevalence of obesity at baseline was 16.2%. The overall mean age at gout onset was 59.3 years. The onset of gout was 3.1 years (95% CI: 0.3, 5.8) earlier in those who were obese at baseline and 11.0 years earlier (95% CI: 5.8, 16.1) in participants who were obese at age 21, compared to their non-obese participants. The 18-year adjusted RR of gout in obese participants compared to non-obese participants was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.37). Conclusion Obesity is not only a risk factor for incident gout but was associated with an earlier age at gout onset. PMID:21485022

  4. Early-onset Coronary Artery Disease Clinical and Hereditary Aspects.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh

    2017-09-01

    A family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important risk factor for adverse coronary events, in particular if the disease has an early onset. The risk of CAD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors with a greater genetic contribution earlier in life. Through recent years the advances in genetic techniques has led to an increased understanding of the genetic background of CAD, which may potentially be translated into clinical use. The studies of this thesis aimed to investigate the burden of conventional risk factors and control in early-onset CAD (i.e. < 40 years), and to characterize and quantify subclinical atherosclerosis in their relatives. Furthermore, the aim was to explore the impact of common genetic risk variants on the age of onset, familial clustering and disease severity. In study I, 143 patients with early-onset CAD were recruited from the Western Denmark Heart Registry and risk factor control was evaluated. The study revealed that risk factors are common in early-onset CAD and that a large room for risk factor improvement remains. In study II, we used coronary computed tomography angiography to compare the coronary plaque burden and characteristics between 88 first-degree relatives of patients with early-onset CAD and 88 controls with no familial predisposition. Relatives had a significantly increased coronary plaque burden, which displayed characteristics associated with myocardial ischemia and adverse coronary events. In study III, 134 patients with early-onset CAD, a cohort of 446 late-onset CAD patients (onset > 55/65 years in males/females), and 89 healthy controls were genotyped for 45 common genetic risk variants and a genetic risk score was calculated as a measure of the polygenetic burden. Early-onset CAD patients had a modestly increased genetic burden compared with late-onset CAD patients and healthy controls; however, the burden did not associate with familial clustering of CAD. Additionally, familial clustering

  5. Operational Thought in Alzheimer's Disease Early Onset and SDAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Olga B.; Breslau, Lawrence D.

    For more than a decade it has been convention to assume that senile dementia Alzheimer's type (SDAT) and Alzheimer's disease early onset represent a unitary disease process with only an onset difference. This assumption has been neither confirmed nor disconfirmed. To address this issue, a study was conducted which analyzed the dissolution of…

  6. Lost human capital from early-onset chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Berndt, E R; Koran, L M; Finkelstein, S N; Gelenberg, A J; Kornstein, S G; Miller, I M; Thase, M E; Trapp, G A; Keller, M B

    2000-06-01

    Chronic depression starts at an early age for many individuals and could affect their accumulation of "human capital" (i.e., education, higher amounts of which can broaden occupational choice and increase earnings potential). The authors examined the impact, by gender, of early- (before age 22) versus late-onset major depressive disorder on educational attainment. They also determined whether the efficacy and sustainability of antidepressant treatments and psychosocial outcomes vary by age at onset and quantified the impact of early- versus late-onset, as well as never-occurring, major depressive disorder on expected lifetime earnings. The authors used logistic and multivariate regression methods to analyze data from a three-phase, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial that compared sertraline and imipramine treatment of 531 patients with chronic depression aged 30 years and older. These data were integrated with U.S. Census Bureau data on 1995 earnings by age, educational attainment, and gender. Early-onset major depressive disorder adversely affected the educational attainment of women but not of men. No significant difference in treatment responsiveness by age at onset was observed after 12 weeks of acute treatment or, for subjects rated as having responded, after 76 weeks of maintenance treatment. A randomly selected 21-year-old woman with early-onset major depressive disorder in 1995 could expect future annual earnings that were 12%-18% lower than those of a randomly selected 21-year-old woman whose onset of major depressive disorder occurred after age 21 or not at all. Early-onset major depressive disorder causes substantial human capital loss, particularly for women. Detection and effective treatment of early-onset major depressive disorder may have substantial economic benefits.

  7. Genetics of Severe Early Onset Epilepsies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-24

    Epilepsy; Epileptic Encephalopathy; Ohtahara Syndrome; Infantile Spasms; Dravet Syndrome; Malignant Migrating Partial Epilepsy of Infancy; Early Myoclonic Epileptic Encephalopathy; PCDH19-related Epilepsy and Related Conditions

  8. Early Onset Malignancies - Genomic Study of Cancer Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Onset Malignancies Initiative studies the genomic basis of six cancers that develop at an earlier age, occur in higher rates, and are typically more aggressive in certain minority populations.

  9. Early Onset Hot Flashes May Signal Higher Heart Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164627.html Early Onset Hot Flashes May Signal Higher Heart Risks Study found ... 13, 2017 THURSDAY, April 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Hot flashes may be more than a troublesome nuisance ...

  10. DNAJC6 Mutations Associated With Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Olgiati, Simone; Quadri, Marialuisa; Fang, Mingyan; Rood, Janneke P M A; Saute, Jonas A; Chien, Hsin Fen; Bouwkamp, Christian G; Graafland, Josja; Minneboo, Michelle; Breedveld, Guido J; Zhang, Jianguo; Verheijen, Frans W; Boon, Agnita J W; Kievit, Anneke J A; Jardim, Laura Bannach; Mandemakers, Wim; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Rieder, Carlos R M; Leenders, Klaus L; Wang, Jun; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    DNAJC6 mutations were recently described in two families with autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (onset age < 11), prominent atypical signs, poor or absent response to levodopa, and rapid progression (wheelchair-bound within ∼10 years from onset). Here, for the first time, we report DNAJC6 mutations in early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). The DNAJC6 open reading frame was analyzed in 274 patients with early-onset sporadic or familial PD. Selected variants were followed up by cosegregation, homozygosity mapping, linkage analysis, whole-exome sequencing, and protein studies. We identified two families with different novel homozygous DNAJC6 mutations segregating with PD. In each family, the DNAJC6 mutation was flanked by long runs of homozygosity within highest linkage peaks. Exome sequencing did not detect additional pathogenic variants within the linkage regions. In both families, patients showed severely decreased steady-state levels of the auxilin protein in fibroblasts. We also identified a sporadic patient carrying two rare noncoding DNAJC6 variants possibly effecting RNA splicing. All these cases fulfilled the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of early-onset PD, had symptoms onset in the third-to-fifth decade, and slow disease progression. Response to dopaminergic therapies was prominent, but, in some patients, limited by psychiatric side effects. The phenotype overlaps that of other monogenic forms of early-onset PD. Our findings delineate a novel form of hereditary early-onset PD. Screening of DNAJC6 is warranted in all patients with early-onset PD compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance. Our data provide further evidence for the involvement of synaptic vesicles endocytosis and trafficking in PD pathogenesis. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  11. Prospective associations between problematic eating attitudes in midchildhood and the future onset of adolescent obesity and high blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Kramer, Michael S; Oken, Emily; Timpson, Nicholas J; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Davey Smith, George; Thompson, Jennifer; Martin, Richard M

    2017-02-01

    Clinically diagnosed eating disorders may have adverse cardiometabolic consequences, including overweight or obesity and high blood pressure. However, the link between problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence, which can lead to disordered eating behaviors, and future cardiometabolic health is, to our knowledge, unknown. We assessed whether variations in midchildhood eating attitudes influence the future development of overweight or obesity and high blood pressure. Of 17,046 children who participated in the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT), we included 13,557 participants (79.5% response rate) who completed the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) at age 11.5 y and in whom we measured adiposity and blood pressure at ages 6.5, 11.5, and 16 y. We assessed whether ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile (indicative of problematic eating attitudes) compared with scores <85th percentile at age 11.5 y were associated with new-onset overweight, obesity, high systolic blood pressure, or high diastolic blood pressure between midchildhood and early adolescence. After controlling for baseline sociodemographic confounders, we observed positive associations of problematic eating attitudes at age 11.5 y with new-onset obesity (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.58, 3.02), new-onset high systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.70), and new-onset high diastolic blood pressure (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.58) at age 16 y. After further controlling for body mass index at age 6.5 y, problematic eating attitudes remained positively associated with new-onset obesity (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.53); however, associations with new-onset high blood pressure were attenuated (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.45 and OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.39 for new-onset systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Problematic eating attitudes in midchildhood seem to be related to the development of obesity in adolescence, a relatively novel observation with potentially important

  12. Prospective associations between problematic eating attitudes in midchildhood and the future onset of adolescent obesity and high blood pressure123

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Kramer, Michael S; Oken, Emily; Timpson, Nicholas J; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Davey Smith, George; Thompson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background: Clinically diagnosed eating disorders may have adverse cardiometabolic consequences, including overweight or obesity and high blood pressure. However, the link between problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence, which can lead to disordered eating behaviors, and future cardiometabolic health is, to our knowledge, unknown. Objective: We assessed whether variations in midchildhood eating attitudes influence the future development of overweight or obesity and high blood pressure. Design: Of 17,046 children who participated in the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT), we included 13,557 participants (79.5% response rate) who completed the Children’s Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) at age 11.5 y and in whom we measured adiposity and blood pressure at ages 6.5, 11.5, and 16 y. We assessed whether ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile (indicative of problematic eating attitudes) compared with scores <85th percentile at age 11.5 y were associated with new-onset overweight, obesity, high systolic blood pressure, or high diastolic blood pressure between midchildhood and early adolescence. Results: After controlling for baseline sociodemographic confounders, we observed positive associations of problematic eating attitudes at age 11.5 y with new-onset obesity (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.58, 3.02), new-onset high systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.70), and new-onset high diastolic blood pressure (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.58) at age 16 y. After further controlling for body mass index at age 6.5 y, problematic eating attitudes remained positively associated with new-onset obesity (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.53); however, associations with new-onset high blood pressure were attenuated (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.45 and OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.39 for new-onset systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Conclusions: Problematic eating attitudes in midchildhood seem to be related to the development of obesity in adolescence, a

  13. Early-onset and delayed-onset poststroke dementia - revisiting the mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Bonnie Y K; Wong, Adrian; Ko, Ho; Markus, Hugh S; Wong, Lawrence K S

    2017-03-01

    Incident stroke has long been recognized to cause dementia shortly after the event. Patients who survive stroke without early-onset poststroke dementia (PSD) are at a high risk of developing dementia months to years after the initial stroke incident, which has generated enthusiasm for exploring treatments to prevent delayed-onset PSD in survivors of stroke. However, results from clinical trials completed in the past 10-15 years have been disappointing. In light of these results, the present Review revisits the mechanisms of both early-onset and delayed-onset PSD and proposes preventive strategies and directions for future clinical trials. Early-onset PSD results from a complex interplay between stroke lesion features and brain resilience, whereas delayed-onset PSD is associated mainly with the presence of severe sporadic small vessel disease (SVD), and to a lesser extent with Alzheimer disease pathology or recurrent stroke. As well as preventing stroke and delivering acute stroke treatments to reduce initial brain damage, measures to increase brain resilience could also reduce the risk of developing dementia if an incident stroke occurs. Future efforts to prevent delayed-onset PSD should focus on the study of sporadic SVD and on evaluating whether other strategies, in addition to conventional secondary stroke prevention, are effective in dementia prevention in this high-risk group.

  14. Early-onset colorectal cancer: a sporadic or inherited disease?

    PubMed

    Stigliano, Vittoria; Sanchez-Mete, Lupe; Martayan, Aline; Anti, Marcello

    2014-09-21

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed worldwide. Although epidemiology data show a marked variability around the world, its overall incidence rate shows a slow but steady decrease, mainly in developed countries. Conversely, early-onset colorectal cancer appears to display an opposite trend with an overall prevalence in United States and European Union ranging from 3.0% and 8.6%. Colorectal cancer has a substantial proportion of familial cases. In particular, early age at onset is especially suggestive of hereditary predisposition. The clinicopathological and molecular features of colorectal cancer cases show a marked heterogeneity not only between early- and late-onset cases but also within the early-onset group. Two distinct subtypes of early-onset colorectal cancers can be identified: a "sporadic" subtype, usually without family history, and an inherited subtype arising in the context of well defined hereditary syndromes. The pathogenesis of the early-onset disease is substantially well characterized in the inherited subtype, which is mainly associated to the Lynch syndrome and occasionally to other rare mendelian diseases, whereas in the "sporadic" subtype the origin of the disease may be attributed to the presence of various common/rare genetic variants, so far largely unidentified, displaying variable penetrance. These variants are thought to act cumulatively to increase the risk of colorectal cancer, and presumably to also anticipate its onset. Efforts are ongoing in the attempt to unravel the intricate genetic basis of this "sporadic" early-onset disease. A better knowledge of molecular entities and pathways may impact on family-tailored prevention and clinical management strategies.

  15. Adolescent-Onset Depression: Are Obesity and Inflammation Developmental Mechanisms or Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michelle L; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Mitchell, Sarah A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-12-01

    Depression often has its first onset during adolescence and is associated with obesity. Furthermore, inflammatory processes have been implicated in both depression and obesity, although research amongst adolescents is limited. This review explores associations between depression and obesity, depression and inflammation, and obesity and inflammation from a developmental perspective. The temporal relations between these factors are examined to explore whether obesity and elevated inflammation act as either risk factors for, or outcomes of, adolescent-onset depression. Sex differences in these processes are also summarized. We propose a model whereby increases in sex hormones during puberty increase risk for depression for females, which can lead to obesity, which in turn increases levels of inflammation. Importantly, this model suggests that inflammation and obesity are outcomes of adolescent depression, rather than initial contributing causes. Further research on biological and psychosocial effects of sex hormones is needed, as is longitudinal research with children and adolescents.

  16. Brain structure abnormalities in early-onset and adolescent-onset conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Graeme; Passamonti, Luca; Hurford, Georgina; Hagan, Cindy C; von dem Hagen, Elisabeth A H; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Goodyer, Ian M; Calder, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    The developmental taxonomic theory proposes that neurodevelopmental factors play a critical role in the etiology of early-onset conduct disorder, whereas adolescent-onset conduct disorder arises as a result of social mimicry of deviant peers. Recent studies have challenged this theory by demonstrating that adolescents with both early- and adolescent-onset forms of conduct disorder show impaired emotional learning and abnormal neural activation during facial expression processing. The present study extends this work by investigating brain structure in both subtypes of conduct disorder. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes in four regions of interest (amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortex) in male adolescents with early-onset (N=36) or adolescent-onset (N=27) conduct disorder and in healthy comparison subjects (N=27). Whole-brain structural analyses were also performed. The combined conduct disorder group displayed gray matter volume reductions in the bilateral amygdala, extending into the insula, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Separate comparisons between healthy subjects and each conduct disorder subgroup revealed lower amygdala volume in both subgroups and reduced right insula volume in the adolescent-onset subgroup. Regression analyses within the conduct disorder subjects alone demonstrated a negative correlation between conduct disorder symptoms and right insula volume. The results demonstrate that gray matter volume reductions in brain regions involved in processing socioemotional stimuli are associated with conduct disorder, regardless of age of onset. Brain structural abnormalities may contribute to the emergence of adolescent-onset as well as early-onset conduct disorder.

  17. Longitudinal Brain Changes in Early-Onset Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Celso; Moreno, Carmen; Martínez, Salvador; Parellada, Mara; Desco, Manuel; Moreno, Dolores; Fraguas, David; Gogtay, Nitin; James, Anthony; Rapoport, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Progressive losses of cortical gray matter volumes and increases in ventricular volumes have been reported in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) during adolescence. Longitudinal studies suggest that the rate of cortical loss seen in COS during adolescence plateaus during early adulthood. Patients with first-episode adolescent-onset schizophrenia show less marked progressive changes, although the number of studies in this population is small. Some studies show that, although less exaggerated, progressive changes are also present in nonschizophrenia early-onset psychosis. The greater loss of brain tissue seen in COS, even some years after the first episode, as compared to adolescent- or adult-onset schizophrenia may be due to variables such as sample bias (more severe, treatment refractory sample of childhood-onset patients studied), a process uniquely related to adolescent development in COS, differential brain effects of drug treatment in this population, clinical outcome, or interactions among these variables. Findings from both cross-sectional studies of first-episode patients and longitudinal studies in COS and adolescent onset support the concept of early-onset schizophrenia as a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder with both early and late developmental abnormalities. Future studies should look for correlates at a cellular level and for pathophysiological explanations of volume changes in these populations. The association of risk genes involved in circuitries associated with schizophrenia and their relationship to developmental trajectories is another promising area of future research. PMID:18234701

  18. Early- versus late-onset bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Benazzi, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features and the outcome between patients with early- and late-onset bipolar II disorder. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Outpatient private practice. PATIENTS: One hundred and seventy-nine consecutive outpatients with bipolar II disorder presenting for treatment of a major depressive episode. OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of illness, severity of depression, recurrences, psychosis, chronicity, atypical features and comorbidity. RESULTS: Patients with early-onset (before 20, 25 or 30 years of age) bipolar II disorder had a significantly longer duration of illness and more recurrences compared with patients with late-onset (after 20, 25 or 30 years of age) bipolar II disorder. All other variables were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Indicators of worse outcome (severity of depression, psychosis, chronicity, comorbidity) were not significantly different between patients with early- and late-onset bipolar II disorder. PMID:10721685

  19. Sex differences in metabolic and adipose tissue responses to juvenile-onset obesity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Bloor, Ian D; Sébert, Sylvain P; Saroha, Vivek; Gardner, David S; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Mahajan, Ravi P

    2013-10-01

    Sex is a major factor determining adipose tissue distribution and the subsequent adverse effects of obesity-related disease including type 2 diabetes. The role of gender on juvenile obesity and the accompanying metabolic and inflammatory responses is not well established. Using an ovine model of juvenile onset obesity induced by reduced physical activity, we examined the effect of gender on metabolic, circulatory, and related inflammatory and energy-sensing profiles of the major adipose tissue depots. Despite a similar increase in fat mass with obesity between genders, males demonstrated a higher storage capacity of lipids within perirenal-abdominal adipocytes and exhibited raised insulin. In contrast, obese females became hypercortisolemic, a response that was positively correlated with central fat mass. Analysis of gene expression in perirenal-abdominal adipose tissue demonstrated the stimulation of inflammatory markers in males, but not females, with obesity. Obese females displayed increased expression of genes involved in the glucocorticoid axis and energy sensing in perirenal-abdominal, but not omental, adipose tissue, indicating a depot-specific mechanism that may be protective from the adverse effects of metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. In conclusion, young males are at a greater risk than females to the onset of comorbidities associated with juvenile-onset obesity. These sex-specific differences in cortisol and adipose tissue could explain the earlier onset of the metabolic-related diseases in males compared with females after obesity.

  20. Chorioamnionitis and Culture-Confirmed, Early-Onset Neonatal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nellie I.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Hale, Ellen; Van Meurs, Krisa; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Cantey, Joseph B.; Faix, Roger; Poindexter, Brenda; Goldberg, Ronald; Bizzarro, Matthew; Frantz, Ivan; Das, Abhik; Benitz, William E.; Shane, Andi L.; Higgins, Rosemary; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease recommend diagnostic evaluations and empirical antibiotic therapy for well-appearing, chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Some clinicians question these recommendations, citing the decline in early-onset group B streptococcal disease rates since widespread intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis implementation and potential antibiotic risks. We aimed to determine whether chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns with culture-confirmed, early-onset infections can be asymptomatic at birth. METHODS: Multicenter, prospective surveillance for early-onset neonatal infections was conducted during 2006–2009. Early-onset infection was defined as isolation of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid collected ≤72 hours after birth. Maternal chorioamnionitis was defined by clinical diagnosis in the medical record or by histologic diagnosis by placental pathology. Hospital records of newborns with early-onset infections born to mothers with chorioamnionitis were reviewed retrospectively to determine symptom onset. RESULTS: Early-onset infections were diagnosed in 389 of 396 586 live births, including 232 (60%) chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Records for 229 were reviewed; 29 (13%) had no documented symptoms within 6 hours of birth, including 21 (9%) who remained asymptomatic at 72 hours. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis exposure did not differ significantly between asymptomatic and symptomatic infants (76% vs 69%; P = .52). Assuming complete guideline implementation, we estimated that 60 to 1400 newborns would receive diagnostic evaluations and antibiotics for each infected asymptomatic newborn, depending on chorioamnionitis prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Some infants born to mothers with chorioamnionitis may have no signs of sepsis at birth despite having culture-confirmed infections. Implementation of current clinical guidelines may result in early diagnosis, but large numbers of uninfected

  1. Chorioamnionitis and Culture-Confirmed, Early-Onset Neonatal Infections.

    PubMed

    Wortham, Jonathan M; Hansen, Nellie I; Schrag, Stephanie J; Hale, Ellen; Van Meurs, Krisa; Sánchez, Pablo J; Cantey, Joseph B; Faix, Roger; Poindexter, Brenda; Goldberg, Ronald; Bizzarro, Matthew; Frantz, Ivan; Das, Abhik; Benitz, William E; Shane, Andi L; Higgins, Rosemary; Stoll, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines for prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease recommend diagnostic evaluations and empirical antibiotic therapy for well-appearing, chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Some clinicians question these recommendations, citing the decline in early-onset group B streptococcal disease rates since widespread intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis implementation and potential antibiotic risks. We aimed to determine whether chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns with culture-confirmed, early-onset infections can be asymptomatic at birth. Multicenter, prospective surveillance for early-onset neonatal infections was conducted during 2006-2009. Early-onset infection was defined as isolation of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid collected ≤ 72 hours after birth. Maternal chorioamnionitis was defined by clinical diagnosis in the medical record or by histologic diagnosis by placental pathology. Hospital records of newborns with early-onset infections born to mothers with chorioamnionitis were reviewed retrospectively to determine symptom onset. Early-onset infections were diagnosed in 389 of 396,586 live births, including 232 (60%) chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Records for 229 were reviewed; 29 (13%) had no documented symptoms within 6 hours of birth, including 21 (9%) who remained asymptomatic at 72 hours. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis exposure did not differ significantly between asymptomatic and symptomatic infants (76% vs 69%; P = .52). Assuming complete guideline implementation, we estimated that 60 to 1400 newborns would receive diagnostic evaluations and antibiotics for each infected asymptomatic newborn, depending on chorioamnionitis prevalence. Some infants born to mothers with chorioamnionitis may have no signs of sepsis at birth despite having culture-confirmed infections. Implementation of current clinical guidelines may result in early diagnosis, but large numbers of uninfected asymptomatic infants would be treated. Copyright

  2. Early intervention for late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Iwai, Masanori; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Hoshide, Ryuji; Harada, Nawomi; Yoshino, Makoto; Endo, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a family with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). Several family members had died from OTCD, and the c.221G>A, p.Lys221Lys mutation was detected at the 3' end of exon 6 of OTC in the X-chromosome of some members. We provided genetic counseling on pregnancy, delivery, and neonate management to a 4th-generation female carrier and decided on metabolic management of her child from birth. Two male patients were diagnosed with late-onset OTCD on the basis of blood amino acid and genetic analysis, and they received arginine supplementation from the asymptomatic, early neonatal period. These children grew and developed normally, without decompensation. Patients with late-onset OTCD can and should be diagnosed and treated in the early neonatal period, especially those from families already diagnosed with late-onset OTCD, and family members must be provided with genetic counseling.

  3. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  4. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  5. Persistence of Juvenile-Onset Obesity over Eight Years: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of an assessment study of continuities in triceps skinfold thickness (TRSF) and Rohrer index (weight/height) in a biracial (black/white) cohort of 1,490 children and adolescents over an eight-year period. Reports that moderate, juvenile-onset obesity is malleable, but that the persistently obese youth is likely to become an obese…

  6. [Early assessment of overweight for preventing obesity].

    PubMed

    Négre, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    The overweight child should be detected as soon as possible to avoid the occurrence of a more severe obesity, source of early complications. Thus, it is essential to carefully follow the BMI curve in all children with particular attention to the age of the early adiposity rebound (between 1 and 5 years). Early rebound indicates predisposition, and represents a risk factor for later obesity. The announcement is not harmless and should avoid unnecessary judging or blaming the family outside rare situations of abuse. Overweight results from an energy imbalance favored by many risk factors often entangled. These predisposing factors are specific to the child (especially genetic and epigenetic origin) and environmental. Among these environmental factors, those occurring during pregnancy and the nutritional education (too permissive or too restrictive) represent targets for primary prevention.

  7. Obesity's Effects on the Onset of Functional Impairment among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study has two purposes. First, it determines if there is a relationship between body weight and the onset of functional impairment across time among this sample of older adults. More specifically, it examines if obese older adults are more likely to experience the onset of functional impairment. Second, it explores how health…

  8. Risk Factors for Early-Onset and Very-Early-Onset Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Robert R; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bamlet, William R; Petersen, Gloria M; Li, Donghui; Risch, Harvey; Yu, Herbert; Fontham, Elizabeth TH; Luckett, Brian; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Bracci, Paige; Gallinger, Steven; Neale, Rachel E; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While pancreatic cancer (PC) most often affects older adults, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of risk factors among PC patients under age 60. Methods We defined early onset PC (EOPC) and very early onset PC (VEOPC) as diagnosis of PC under ages 60 and 45, respectively. We pooled data from eight case-control studies, including 1,954 patients with EOPC and 3,278 age- and sex-matched controls. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations with EOPC and VEOPC. Results Family history of PC, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and pancreatitis were associated with EOPC. Alcohol use ≥26 g daily also was associated with increased risk for EOPC (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.21-1.84), and there appeared to be a dose-and age-dependent effect of alcohol on risk. The point estimate for risk for VEOPC was OR 2.18, (95% CI 1.17-4.09). Conclusion The established risk factors for PC, including smoking, diabetes, family history of PC, and obesity also apply to EOPC. Alcohol intake appeared to have an age-dependent effect; the strongest association was with VEOPC. PMID:26646264

  9. Risk Factors for Early-Onset and Very-Early-Onset Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) Analysis.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Robert R; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bamlet, William R; Petersen, Gloria M; Li, Donghui; Risch, Harvey A; Yu, Herbert; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Luckett, Brian; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Bueno de Mesquita, H Bas; Bracci, Paige; Gallinger, Steven; Neale, Rachel E; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2016-02-01

    While pancreatic cancer (PC) most often affects older adults, to date, there has been no comprehensive assessment of risk factors among PC patients younger than 60 years. We defined early-onset PC (EOPC) and very-early-onset PC (VEOPC) as diagnosis of PC in patients younger than 60 and 45 years, respectively. We pooled data from 8 case-control studies, including 1954 patients with EOPC and 3278 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations with EOPC and VEOPC. Family history of PC, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and pancreatitis were associated with EOPC. Alcohol use equal to or greater than 26 g daily also was associated with increased risk of EOPC (odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.84), and there appeared to be a dose- and age-dependent effect of alcohol on risk. The point estimate for risk of VEOPC was an odds ratio of 2.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-4.09). The established risk factors for PC, including smoking, diabetes, family history of PC, and obesity, also apply to EOPC. Alcohol intake appeared to have an age-dependent effect; the strongest association was with VEOPC.

  10. Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  11. Peripubertal-onset but not adult-onset obesity increases IGF-I and drives development of lean mass, which may lessen the metabolic impairment in adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D; Pozo-Salas, Ana I; Moreno-Herrera, Antonio; Castaño, Justo P; Kineman, Rhonda D; Luque, Raúl M

    2012-11-01

    It has been suggested that adult metabolic dysfunction may be more severe in individuals who become obese as children compared with those who become obese later in life. To determine whether adult metabolic function differs if diet-induced weight gain occurs during the peripubertal age vs. if excess weight gain occurs after puberty, male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a low-fat (LF; 10% kcal from fat) or high-fat (HF; 60% kcal from fat) diet starting during the peripubertal period (pHF; 4 wk of age) or as adults (aHF; 12 wk of age). Both pHF and aHF mice were hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic, and both showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance compared with their LF-fed controls. However, despite a longer time on diet, pHF mice were relatively more insulin sensitive than aHF mice, which was associated with higher lean mass and circulating IGF-I levels. In addition, HF feeding had an overall stimulatory effect on circulating corticosterone levels; however, this rise was associated only with elevated plasma ACTH in the aHF mice. Despite the belief that adult metabolic dysfunction may be more severe in individuals who become obese as children, data generated using a diet-induced obese mouse model suggest that adult metabolic dysfunction associated with peripubertal onset of obesity is not worse than that associated with adult-onset obesity.

  12. Early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tics.

    PubMed

    de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana B; Shavitt, Roseli G; Torres, Albina R; Ferrão, Ygor A; Fossaluza, Victor; Pereira, Carlos; Miguel, Eurípedes; do Rosario, Maria Conceicão

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is not a unitary entity, but rather a highly heterogeneous condition, with complex and variable clinical manifestations. The aims of this study were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics of OCD patients with early and late age of onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS); and to compare the same features in early onset OCD with and without tics. The independent impact of age at onset and presence of tics on comorbidity patterns was investigated. Three hundred and thirty consecutive outpatients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD were evaluated: 160 patients belonged to the "early onset" group (EOG): before 11 years of age, 75 patients had an "intermediate onset" (IOG), and 95 patients were from the "late onset" group (LOG): after 18 years of age. From the 160 EOG, 60 had comorbidity with tic disorders. The diagnostic instruments used were: the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), Yale Global Tics Severity Scale, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-patient edition. Statistical tests used were: Mann-Whitney, full Bayesian significance test, and logistic regression. The EOG had a predominance of males, higher frequency of family history of OCS, higher mean scores on the "aggression/violence" and "miscellaneous" dimensions, and higher mean global DY-BOCS scores. Patients with EOG without tic disorders presented higher mean global DY-BOCS scores and higher mean scores in the "contamination/cleaning" dimension. The current results disentangle some of the clinical overlap between early onset OCD with and without tics.

  13. Initiating Characteristics of Early-onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Xie, Li-Fang; Chen, Kang; Yang, Gang-Yi; Xing, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Jia-Jun; Hong, Tian-Pei; Shan, Zhong-Yan; Li, Hong-Mei; Chen, Bing; Tang, Xu-Lei; Qi, Ling; Yang, Jing; Fang, Yuan; Li, Ting; Wang, Shuang-Shuang; Liang, Xue; Yin, Ya-Qi; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2016-04-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has traditionally been considered to affect mainly the elderly; however, the age at diagnosis has gradually reduced in recent years. Although the incidence of young-onset T2DM is increasing, it is still not fully clear the onset characteristics and risk factors of early-onset T2DM. The aim of this study was to describe the initiating characteristics of early-onset T2DM in Chinese patients and evaluate the risk factors for diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional controlled study was performed using a questionnaire survey method in outpatients of multiple centers in China. A total of 1545 patients with T2DM with an age at onset of <40 years were included, and the control group consisted of subjects aged <40 years with normal blood glucose level. In patients with young-onset T2DM, the mean age and initial hemoglobin 1Ac at diagnosis were 32.96 ± 5.40 years and 9.59 ± 2.71%, respectively. Most of the patients were obese, followed irregular diet pattern and sedentary lifestyle, had life or work pressure, and had a family history of diabetes mellitus. Compared with subjects with normal blood glucose level, logistic regression analysis showed that waist-to-hip ratio (odds ratio [OR] 446.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42.37-4714.87), family history of diabetes mellitus (OR 23.46, CI 14.47-38.03), dyslipidemia (OR 2.65, CI 1.54-4.56), diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.02, CI 1.00-1.04), and body mass index (OR 0.95, CI 0.92-0.99) are independent factors for early-onset T2DM. We observed that abdominal obesity, family history of diabetes mellitus, and medical history of hypertension and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for early-onset T2DM. It is, therefore, necessary to apply early lifestyle intervention in young people with risk of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Initiating Characteristics of Early-onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; Xie, Li-Fang; Chen, Kang; Yang, Gang-Yi; Xing, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Jia-Jun; Hong, Tian-Pei; Shan, Zhong-Yan; Li, Hong-Mei; Chen, Bing; Tang, Xu-Lei; Qi, Ling; Yang, Jing; Fang, Yuan; Li, Ting; Wang, Shuang-Shuang; Liang, Xue; Yin, Ya-Qi; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has traditionally been considered to affect mainly the elderly; however, the age at diagnosis has gradually reduced in recent years. Although the incidence of young-onset T2DM is increasing, it is still not fully clear the onset characteristics and risk factors of early-onset T2DM. The aim of this study was to describe the initiating characteristics of early-onset T2DM in Chinese patients and evaluate the risk factors for diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional controlled study was performed using a questionnaire survey method in outpatients of multiple centers in China. A total of 1545 patients with T2DM with an age at onset of <40 years were included, and the control group consisted of subjects aged <40 years with normal blood glucose level. Results: In patients with young-onset T2DM, the mean age and initial hemoglobin 1Ac at diagnosis were 32.96 ± 5.40 years and 9.59 ± 2.71%, respectively. Most of the patients were obese, followed irregular diet pattern and sedentary lifestyle, had life or work pressure, and had a family history of diabetes mellitus. Compared with subjects with normal blood glucose level, logistic regression analysis showed that waist-to-hip ratio (odds ratio [OR] 446.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 42.37–4714.87), family history of diabetes mellitus (OR 23.46, CI 14.47–38.03), dyslipidemia (OR 2.65, CI 1.54–4.56), diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.02, CI 1.00–1.04), and body mass index (OR 0.95, CI 0.92–0.99) are independent factors for early-onset T2DM. Conclusions: We observed that abdominal obesity, family history of diabetes mellitus, and medical history of hypertension and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for early-onset T2DM. It is, therefore, necessary to apply early lifestyle intervention in young people with risk of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26996471

  15. Endocrine manifestations of the rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic, autonomic dysregulation, and neural tumor syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bougnères, Pierre; Pantalone, Letitia; Linglart, Agnès; Rothenbühler, Anya; Le Stunff, Catherine

    2008-10-01

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic, autonomic dysregulation, and neural tumor (ROHHADNET) is a newly described syndrome that can cause cardiorespiratory arrests and death. It mimics several endocrine disorders or genetic obesity syndromes during early childhood and is associated with various forms of hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine dysfunctions that have not yet been fully investigated. The current report aspires to facilitate the earlier recognition and appropriate treatment of the ROHHADNET syndrome when children present with various endocrine manifestations, such as early obesity, growth failure, pseudo-Cushing's syndrome, glucocorticoid insufficiency, congenital hypopituitarism, or adrenal tumors. A more widespread knowledge of the syndrome will help characterize its molecular origin. Endocrine studies were performed in six patients admitted for seemingly common early-onset obesity associated with growth failure in five of them. The six patients later showed distinctive features of the ROHHADNET syndrome. Abnormalities of the pituitary adrenal axis ranged from a true Cushing-like profile (one of six), to glucocorticoid deficiency with normal ACTH (two of six). Complete GH deficiency with low IGF-I was observed in four of six, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in four of six, hyperprolactinemia in six of six, and various degrees of TSH/T(4) abnormalities in five of five patients. All had increased natremia without diabetes insipidus. Five children had unilateral macroscopic adrenal ganglioneuroma. Two patients died at 8.5 and 12 yr of age. Various hypothalamic-pituitary endocrine dysfunctions are associated with ROHHADNET, carrying a risk of misdiagnosis until other elements of the syndrome make it more easily recognizable. Given its severity, ROHHADNET syndrome should be considered in all cases of isolated, rapid, and early obesity.

  16. Characterization of Early Partial Seizure Onset: Frequency, Complexity and Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A clear classification of partial seizures onset features is not yet established. Complexity and entropy have been very widely used to describe dynamical systems, but a systematic evaluation of these measures to characterize partial seizures has never been performed. Methods Eighteen different measures including power in frequency bands up to 300Hz, Gabor atom density (GAD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Lempel-Ziv complexity, Shannon entropy, sample entropy, and permutation entropy, were selected to test sensitivity to partial seizure onset. Intracranial recordings from forty-five patients with mesial temporal, neocortical temporal and neocortical extratemporal seizure foci were included (331 partial seizures). Results GAD, Lempel-Ziv complexity, HFD, high frequency activity, and sample entropy were the most reliable measures to assess early seizure onset. Conclusions Increases in complexity and occurrence of high-frequency components appear to be commonly associated with early stages of partial seizure evolution from all regions. The type of measure (frequency-based, complexity or entropy) does not predict the efficiency of the method to detect seizure onset. Significance Differences between measures such as GAD and HFD highlight the multimodal nature of partial seizure onsets. Improved methods for early seizure detection may be achieved from a better understanding of these underlying dynamics. PMID:21872526

  17. Characterization of early partial seizure onset: frequency, complexity and entropy.

    PubMed

    Jouny, Christophe C; Bergey, Gregory K

    2012-04-01

    A clear classification of partial seizures onset features is not yet established. Complexity and entropy have been very widely used to describe dynamical systems, but a systematic evaluation of these measures to characterize partial seizures has never been performed. Eighteen different measures including power in frequency bands up to 300 Hz, Gabor atom density (GAD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Lempel-Ziv complexity, Shannon entropy, sample entropy, and permutation entropy, were selected to test sensitivity to partial seizure onset. Intracranial recordings from 45 patients with mesial temporal, neocortical temporal and neocortical extratemporal seizure foci were included (331 partial seizures). GAD, Lempel-Ziv complexity, HFD, high frequency activity, and sample entropy were the most reliable measures to assess early seizure onset. Increases in complexity and occurrence of high-frequency components appear to be commonly associated with early stages of partial seizure evolution from all regions. The type of measure (frequency-based, complexity or entropy) does not predict the efficiency of the method to detect seizure onset. Differences between measures such as GAD and HFD highlight the multimodal nature of partial seizure onsets. Improved methods for early seizure detection may be achieved from a better understanding of these underlying dynamics. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Obesity associated metabolic impairment is evident at early ages: Spanish collaborative study].

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Bueno, Gloria; Bahillo, Pilar; Bernal, Susana; Feliu, Albert; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M; Palomo, Enrique; Ruiz, Rafael; Vela, Amaia

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to provide a description of the demographic, anthropometric characteristics and metabolic abnormalities in children with early-onset (< 10 years) and of very-early-onset obesity (< 5 years). We also evaluate the diagnostic ability using the definition of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to different criteria. It is a retrospective, case-control, cross-sectional, multicenter study. A total of 10 Pediatric Endocrinology Units in different Spanish hospitals were involved. A group of 469 children with early-onset obesity and another group of 30 children with very early-onset obesity were studied. The control group consisted of 224 healthy children younger than 10 years. Anthropometric and analytical determination of carbohydrates metabolism parameters and the lipid profile were performed. The presence of metabolic alterations associated with obesity in children and adolescents in Spain is remarkable, either on their own, or encompassed within the definition of MS. This prevalence increases substantially when considering the peripheral resistance to insulin action as a diagnostic criterion. It also shows how children who could not be diagnosed with MS according to the definition provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) due to age below 10 years, these alterations are already present in a remarkable percentage. In fact, metabolic abnormalities are already present in the very-early-onset obese children ( <5 years). In Spanish children there are metabolic alterations associated with obesity in the infant-juvenile stages alone or encompassed within the definition of MS,and are already present at earlier ages. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. TERT Core Promotor Mutations in Early-Onset Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giedl, Johannes; Rogler, Anja; Wild, Andreas; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Filbeck, Thomas; Burger, Maximilian; Rümmele, Petra; Hurst, Carolyn; Knowles, Margaret; Hartmann, Arndt; Zinnall, Ulrike; Stoehr, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Activating mutations in the core promoter of the TERT gene have been described in many different tumor entities. In vitro models showed a two- to fourfold increase in transcriptional activity of the TERT promoter through creation of a consensus binding motif for Ets/TCF transcription factors caused by these mutations. TERT core promoter mutations are the most common mutations in bladder cancer with a frequency between 55.6% and 82.8% described so far, and are independent of stage and grade. Since limited data on molecular alterations of early-onset bladder tumors exists, we assessed the frequency of TERT core promoter mutations in early-onset bladder cancer. Two cohorts of bladder tumors (early-onset patient group; n=144 (age of onset of disease ≤45 years); unselected, consecutive group; n=125) were examined for TERT core promoter mutations. After microdissection and extraction of DNA the corresponding hotspot regions in the TERT core promoter were examined by Sanger-sequencing or a SNaPshot approach. A significantly lower frequency of TERT core promoter mutations was found in tumors from the early-onset cohort compared to the consecutive cohort (57.6% vs. 84.8%, p<0.001). Among the early-onset cohort cases younger than the cohort's median age of 39 years at disease onset showed a significantly reduced number of TERT promoter mutations (31/67, 46,3%) than cases aged between 39 and 45 years (52/77, 67.5%; p=0.012). This association was not found in the consecutive cases. Mutation status was independent of tumor stage and grade. We conclude that in tumors from early-onset bladder cancer patients TERT core promoter mutations are not as frequent as in bladder tumors from consecutive cases, but seem to play an important role there as well. In patients below 39 years of age TERT core promoter mutations are a more infrequent event, suggesting different mechanisms of tumorigenesis in these young patients. PMID:27313781

  20. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.

  1. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828

  2. Early onset marfan syndrome: Atypical clinical presentation of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurt, A; Baykan, A; Argun, M; Pamukcu, O; Halis, H; Korkut, S; Yuksel, Z; Gunes, T; Narin, N

    2015-01-01

    Early onset Marfan Syndrome (eoMFS) is a rare, severe form of Marfan Syndrome (MFS). The disease has a poor prognosis and most patients present with resistance to heart failure treatment during the newborn period. This report presents two cases of eoMFS with similar clinical features diagnosed in the newborn period and who died at an early age due to the complications related to the involvement of the cardiovascular system. PMID:26929908

  3. EFEMP1 is not associated with sporadic early onset drusen.

    PubMed

    Sauer, C G; White, K; Kellner, U; Rudolph, G; Jurklies, B; Pauleikhoff, D; Weber, B H

    2001-03-01

    The early onset of multiple drusen in the posterior pole of the retina is characteristic of a group of macular dystrophies often referred to as dominant or radial drusen. At least two forms, Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy (DHRD) and Malattia Leventinese (MLVT), are associated with a single missense mutation (R345W) in the gene encoding the EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein-1 (EFEMP1) and are now thought to represent a single entity. Here, we present a further evaluation of the role of EFEMP1 in the pathogenesis of sporadic forms of early onset drusen. We analyzed all coding exons of the EFEMP1 gene by SSCP analysis in 14 unrelated individuals with early onset of multiple drusen and no apparent family history of the disease. In this patient group, we did not detect the R345W mutation or any other disease-associated mutation. Three different polymorphisms and two intragenic polymorphic repeats were present in similar frequencies in the patients and control individuals. We conclude that EFEMP1 is unlikely to be involved in the disease in this patient group. This suggests that mutations in a different as yet unknown gene or genes may lead to the early onset drusen phenotype.

  4. Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder: Psychopharmacological, Psychological, and Educational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, David E.; Trotter, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Although published research continues to advocate medication as the first line of treatment for early onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBSD; N. Lofthouse & M.A. Fristad, 2004), preliminary research demonstrating the utility of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies is promising. It appears as if future treatment of EOBSD…

  5. Neurocognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A.; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship…

  6. Neurocognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A.; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship…

  7. Early onset myotonic dystrophy in association with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Paramesh, K; Smith, B H; Kalyanaraman, K

    1975-01-01

    A patient with early onset of myotonic dystrophy, with associated neuropathy and epilepsy, is presented. It is postulated that his disorder was inherited through a recessive, pleomorphic gene. His differential diagnosis is discussed and the literature reviewed. The clinical variability of myotonic dystrophy is stressed and the diagnostic difficulties encountered in the younger age group. Images PMID:173806

  8. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  9. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Autosomal recessive causes likely in early-onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Thomas S; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Cutler, David J

    2012-01-01

    To determine the genetic contribution to non-autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) (onset age ≤60 years) cases and identify the likely mechanism of inheritance in those cases. A liability threshold model of disease was used to estimate heritability of EOAD and late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) using concordance for AD among parent-offspring pairs. The Uniform Data Set, whose participants were collected from 32 US Alzheimer's Disease Centers, maintained by the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. Individuals with probable AD and detailed parental history (n = 5370). The concordance among relatives and heritability of EOAD and late-onset AD. For late-onset AD (n = 4302), we found sex-specific parent-offspring concordance that ranged from approximately 10% to 30%, resulting in a heritability of 69.8% (95% confidence interval, 64.6%-75.0%), and equal heritability for both sexes regardless of parental sex. For EOAD (n = 702), we found that the parent-offspring concordance was 10% or less and concordance among siblings was 21.6%. Early-onset AD heritability was 92% to 100% for all likely values of EOAD prevalence. We confirm late-onset AD is a highly polygenic disease. By contrast, the data for EOAD suggest it is an almost entirely genetically based disease, and the patterns of observed concordance for parent-offspring pairs and among siblings lead us to reject the hypotheses that EOAD is a purely dominant, mitochondrial, X-linked, or polygenic disorder. The most likely explanation of the data is that approximately 90% of EOAD cases are due to autosomal recessive causes.

  11. Intraspinal anomalies in early-onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S

    2017-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  12. Neonatal Septicemia in Nepal: Early-Onset versus Late-Onset

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shamshul; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Gautam, Rajendra; Shrestha, Sony; Neopane, Puja; Chapagain, Moti Lal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Neonatal septicemia is defined as infection in the first 28 days of life. Early-onset neonatal septicemia and late-onset neonatal septicemia are defined as illnesses appearing from birth to three days and from four to twenty-eight days postnatally, respectively. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, blood samples from the suspected infants were collected and processed in the bacteriology laboratory. The growth was identified by standard microbiological protocol and the antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results. Among total suspected cases, the septicemia was confirmed in 116 (12.6%) neonates. Early-onset septicemia (EOS) was observed in 82 infants and late-onset septicemia (LOS) in 34 infants. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) (46.6%) was the predominant Gram-positive organism isolated from EOS as well as from LOS cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%). Acinetobacter species (9.5%) was the predominant Gram-negative organism followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.7%). Conclusions. The result of our study reveals that the CoNS, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common etiological agents of neonatal septicemia. In particular, since rate of CoNS causing sepsis is alarming, prompting concern to curb the excess burden of CoNS infection is necessary. PMID:26649057

  13. Amino acid variants in the human leptin receptor: lack of association to juvenile onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Echwald, S M; Sørensen, T D; Sørensen, T I; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Andersen, T; Chung, W K; Leibel, R L; Pedersen, O

    1997-04-07

    The recently described putative lipostat system mediated in part by leptin and its hypothalamic receptor provides logical candidate genes for the molecular basis of inherited obesity in humans on the basis of the occurrence of profound obesity observed in obese and diabetic mice, in which the genes for leptin or its receptor, respectively, are mutated. In this study we tested the hypothesis that juvenile onset obesity in humans may be caused by leptin resistance mediated through genetic variations in isoforms of the hypothalamic leptin receptor. One hundred and fifty-six obese Danish men with a history of juvenile onset obesity were selected at the draft board examination with a body mass index (BMI) > or = 31 kg/m2. From the same study population a control group of 205 control subjects (mean BMI = 21,5 kg/m2) were randomly selected. Single strand conformational polymorphism scanning of genomic DNA from 56 obese subjects revealed a total of four amino acid variants located in coding exons 2, (Lys109Arg), 4 (Lys204Arg and Gln223Arg), and 12 (Lys656Asn), respectively. The codons 109, 223, and 656 variants were common, but their prevalence was not significantly different between obese and lean carriers with regard to allele or carrier frequency (p > 0.1 in each case). The codon 204 mutation was only found in one obese subject. In conclusion, it is unlikely that mutations in the coding region of the long isoform of the leptin receptor are a common cause of juvenile onset obesity.

  14. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Dudova, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) have been successfully used in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). This review summarizes the randomized, double-blind, controlled studies of AAPs in EOS, including clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. No significant differences in efficacy between AAPs were found, with the exception of clozapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine demonstrated superior efficacy in treatment-resistant patients with EOS, whereas ziprasidone failed to demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of EOS. Our review also focuses on the onset of action and weight gain associated with AAPs. The data on onset of action of AAPs in pediatric psychiatry are scanty and inconsistent. Olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain in patients with EOS, while ziprasidone and aripiprazole seem to cause the least. PMID:25897226

  15. Antibiotics in early life and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura M.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota can influence host metabolism. When given early in life, agents that disrupt microbiota composition and consequently its metabolic activity, can influence body mass of the host by either promoting weight gain or stunting growth, which is consistent with effects of the microbiota on development. In this Perspective, we posit that microbiota disruptions in early-life can have long-lasting effects on body weight in adulthood. Furthermore, we examine the dichotomy between antibiotic-induced repressed or promoted growth and review the experimental and epidemiological evidence that supports these phenotypes. Considering the characteristics of the gut microbiota in early life as a distinct dimension of human growth and development, as well as comprehending its susceptibility to perturbation, will allow for increased understanding of human physiology and could lead to development of interventions to stem current epidemic diseases, such as obesity and types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25488483

  16. Antibiotics in early life and obesity.

    PubMed

    Cox, Laura M; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    The intestinal microbiota can influence host metabolism. When given early in life, agents that disrupt microbiota composition, and consequently the metabolic activity of the microbiota, can affect the body mass of the host by either promoting weight gain or stunting growth. These effects are consistent with the role of the microbiota during development. In this Perspective, we posit that microbiota disruptions in early life can have long-lasting effects on body weight in adulthood. Furthermore, we examine the dichotomy between antibiotic-induced repression and promotion of growth and review the experimental and epidemiological evidence that supports these phenotypes. Considering the characteristics of the gut microbiota in early life as a distinct dimension of human growth and development, as well as comprehending the susceptibility of the microbiota to perturbation, will allow for increased understanding of human physiology and could lead to development of interventions to stem current epidemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. [Metabolic side effects of risperidone in early onset schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Goeb, J-L; Marco, S; Duhamel, A; Kechid, G; Bordet, R; Thomas, P; Delion, P; Jardri, R

    2010-06-01

    Atypical antipsychotics have a favourable risk/benefit profile in early onset schizophrenia (EOS). However, despite increasing use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents, their endocrine and metabolic side-effects (weight gain, obesity, and related metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia) are of particular concern, especially within this paediatric population that appears to be at greater risk as compared with adults for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects. In addition to medication, many factors contribute to weigh gain in psychiatric patients, including sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. Excessive weigh gain has several deleterious effects in psychiatric patients, including stigmatization and further social withdrawal, and non compliance with medication. Furthermore, excessive corpulence may evolve to a metabolic syndrome with a high-risk state for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adult age. Because youths are still developing at the time of psychotropic drug exposure, in a context of physiological changes in hormonal and endocrines levels and body composition, most reference values need to be adjusted for gender, age and growth charts. Hence, sex- and age-adjusted BMI percentiles and BMI Z scores are crucial to assess weight gain in children and adolescents. Obesity thresholds have been proposed to define "at risk" categories of patients. In recently issued guidelines, thresholds for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in adults have been set at a 5% increase or one point increase in BMI unit. To date, no definition has reached a consensus in childhood and adolescence. However, some at risk states requiring action are proposed in literature: more than 5% increase in weight within a three-month period; more than half a point increase in BMI Z score; between 85th and 95th BMI percentile plus one adverse health consequence (i.e. hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, or

  18. Early and Phasic Cortical Metabolic Changes in Vestibular Neuritis Onset

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrini, Marco; Pagani, Marco; Napolitano, Bianca; Micarelli, Alessandro; Candidi, Matteo; Bruno, Ernesto; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Di Pietro, Barbara; Schillaci, Orazio

    2013-01-01

    Functional brain activation studies described the presence of separate cortical areas responsible for central processing of peripheral vestibular information and reported their activation and interactions with other sensory modalities and the changes of this network associated to strategic peripheral or central vestibular lesions. It is already known that cortical changes induced by acute unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) are various and undergo variations over time, revealing different cortical involved areas at the onset and recovery from symptoms. The present study aimed at reporting the earliest change in cortical metabolic activity during a paradigmatic form of UVF such as vestibular neuritis (VN), that is, a purely peripheral lesion of the vestibular system, that offers the opportunity to study the cortical response to altered vestibular processing. This research reports [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain scan data concerning the early cortical metabolic activity associated to symptoms onset in a group of eight patients suffering from VN. VN patients’ cortical metabolic activity during the first two days from symptoms onset was compared to that recorded one month later and to a control healthy group. Beside the known cortical response in the sensorimotor network associated to vestibular deafferentation, we show for the first time the involvement of Entorhinal (BAs 28, 34) and Temporal (BA 38) cortices in early phases of symptomatology onset. We interpret these findings as the cortical counterparts of the attempt to reorient oneself in space counteracting the vertigo symptom (Bas 28, 34) and of the emotional response to the new pathologic condition (BA 38) respectively. These interpretations were further supported by changes in patients’ subjective ratings in balance, anxiety, and depersonalization/derealization scores when tested at illness onset and one month later. The present findings contribute in expanding knowledge about

  19. Early and phasic cortical metabolic changes in vestibular neuritis onset.

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Marco; Pagani, Marco; Napolitano, Bianca; Micarelli, Alessandro; Candidi, Matteo; Bruno, Ernesto; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Di Pietro, Barbara; Schillaci, Orazio

    2013-01-01

    Functional brain activation studies described the presence of separate cortical areas responsible for central processing of peripheral vestibular information and reported their activation and interactions with other sensory modalities and the changes of this network associated to strategic peripheral or central vestibular lesions. It is already known that cortical changes induced by acute unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) are various and undergo variations over time, revealing different cortical involved areas at the onset and recovery from symptoms. The present study aimed at reporting the earliest change in cortical metabolic activity during a paradigmatic form of UVF such as vestibular neuritis (VN), that is, a purely peripheral lesion of the vestibular system, that offers the opportunity to study the cortical response to altered vestibular processing. This research reports [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain scan data concerning the early cortical metabolic activity associated to symptoms onset in a group of eight patients suffering from VN. VN patients' cortical metabolic activity during the first two days from symptoms onset was compared to that recorded one month later and to a control healthy group. Beside the known cortical response in the sensorimotor network associated to vestibular deafferentation, we show for the first time the involvement of Entorhinal (BAs 28, 34) and Temporal (BA 38) cortices in early phases of symptomatology onset. We interpret these findings as the cortical counterparts of the attempt to reorient oneself in space counteracting the vertigo symptom (Bas 28, 34) and of the emotional response to the new pathologic condition (BA 38) respectively. These interpretations were further supported by changes in patients' subjective ratings in balance, anxiety, and depersonalization/derealization scores when tested at illness onset and one month later. The present findings contribute in expanding knowledge about

  20. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation presenting in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ize-Ludlow, Diego; Gray, Juliette A; Sperling, Mark A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Milunsky, Jeff M; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Rand, Casey M; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2007-07-01

    The goal was to characterize the phenotype and potential candidate genes responsible for the syndrome of late-onset central hypoventilation with hypothalamic dysfunction. Individuals with late-onset central hypoventilation with hypothalamic dysfunction who were referred to Rush University Medical Center for clinical or genetic assessment in the past 3 years were identified, and medical charts were reviewed to determine shared characteristics of the affected subjects. Blood was collected for genetic testing of candidate genes (PHOX2B, TRKB, and BDNF) and for high-resolution conventional G-banding, subtelomeric fluorescent in situ hybridization, and comparative genomic hybridization analysis. A subset of these children were studied in the Pediatric Respiratory Physiology Laboratory at Rush University Medical Center. Twenty-three children with what we are now naming rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation were identified. Comprehensive medical charts and blood for genetic testing were available for 15 children; respiratory physiology studies were performed at Rush University Medical Center on 9 children. The most characteristic manifestations were the presentation of rapid-onset obesity in the first 10 years of life (median age at onset: 3 years), followed by hypothalamic dysfunction and then onset of symptoms of autonomic dysregulation (median age at onset: 3.6 years) with later onset of alveolar hypoventilation (median age at onset: 6.2 years). Testing of candidate genes (PHOX2B, TRKB, and BDNF) revealed no mutations or rare variants. High-resolution chromosome analysis, comparative genomic hybridization, and subtelomeric fluorescent in situ hybridization results were negative for the 2 patients selected for those analyses. We provide a comprehensive description of the clinical spectrum of rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation in terms of timing and

  1. Early-onset dementias: diagnostic and etiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the body of literature about early-onset dementia (EOD) that led to recommendations from the Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia. A broader differential diagnosis is required for EOD compared with late-onset dementia. Delays in diagnosis are common, and the social impact of EOD requires special care teams. The etiologies underlying EOD syndromes should take into account family history and comorbid diseases, such as cerebrovascular risk factors, that may influence the clinical presentation and age at onset. For example, although many EODs are more likely to have Mendelian genetic and/or metabolic causes, the presence of comorbidities may drive the individual at risk for late-onset dementia to manifest the symptoms at an earlier age, which contributes further to the observed heterogeneity and may confound diagnostic investigation. A personalized medicine approach to diagnosis should therefore be considered depending on the age at onset, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. Genetic counseling and testing as well as specialized biochemical screening are often required, especially in those under the age of 40 and in those with a family history of autosomal dominant or recessive disease. Novel treatments in the drug development pipeline for EOD, such as genetic forms of Alzheimer's disease, should target the specific pathogenic cascade implicated by the mutation or biochemical defect. PMID:24565469

  2. Risk Assessment in Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal early-onset sepsis has declined with the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotic therapies, yet early-onset sepsis remains a potentially fatal condition, particularly among very low-birth weight infants. Clinical signs of neonatal infection are non-specific and may be absent in the immediate postnatal period. Maternal and infant clinical characteristics, as well as infant laboratory values, have been used to identify newborns at risk, and to administer empiric antibiotic therapy to prevent progression to more severe illness. Such approaches result in the evaluation of approximately 15% of asymptomatic term and late preterm infants and of nearly all preterm infants. The development of multivariate predictive models may provide more accurate methods of identifying newborns at highest risk and allow for more limited newborn antibiotic exposures. PMID:23177799

  3. Genetic Determinism of Primary Early-Onset Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Aury-Landas, Juliette; Marcelli, Christian; Leclercq, Sylvain; Boumédiene, Karim; Baugé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. A minority of cases correspond to familial presentation characterized by early-onset forms which are genetically heterogeneous. This review brings a new point of view on the molecular basis of OA by focusing on gene mutations causing early-onset OA (EO-OA). Recently, thanks to whole-exome sequencing, a gain-of-function mutation in the TNFRSF11B gene was identified in two distant family members with EO-OA, opening new therapeutic perspectives for OA. Indeed, unraveling the molecular basis of rare Mendelian OA forms will improve our understanding of molecular processes involved in OA pathogenesis and will contribute to better patient diagnosis, management, and therapy.

  4. Inflammation profile of four early onset Crohn patients.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Girardelli, Martina; Bianco, Anna Monica; Martelossi, Stefano; Magnolato, Andrea; Tommasini, Alberto; Crovella, Sergio

    2012-02-10

    Crohn disease (CD) is a multifactorial disorder affecting mainly young adults. Sometimes, however, it can present in the first year of life (Early onset Crohn disease (EOCD)) showing an unpredictable course and can often be more severe than at older ages. Some cases have been associated to an underlying primary immunodeficiency such as IL10R deficiency. We studied the functional response to IL-10 and the genotype of IL-10 receptor in four patients with early onset crohn-like colitis. We found an IL10R variant, which may be associated with a decreased response to the cytokine in one patient. Further studies to determine its pathogenic effect should be performed. In addition IL-10 mediated inhibition of LPS-induced TNFα expression was measured in patient's monocytes.

  5. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Mayeux RP, Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium. Whole-exome sequencing of Hispanic early-onset Alzheimer disease families identifies rare variants...majority of genetic risk for this form of Alzheimer disease unexplained. We performed Whole-Exome Sequencing (WES) on 55 individuals in 19 Caribbean...EOAD and ~11% of EOAD overall, leaving the majority of genetic risk for the most severe form of Alzheimer disease unexplained. Methods We

  6. Haloperidol versus risperidone on rat "early onset" vacuous chewing.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Giorgio; Bartholini, Francesco; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Ruiu, Stefania; Casti, Paola; Congeddu, Elena; Tambaro, Simone; Pani, Luca

    2004-02-04

    Similarly to acute rat catalepsy, "early onset" vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by subchronic treatment with antipsychotic have recently been proposed as a model of human extrapyramidal symptoms. In the present study, the propensities of haloperidol and risperidone in inducing rat "early onset" VCMs were compared using doses of the two antipsychotics that acutely induce similar catalepsy. Comparable rat catalepsy states were observed when the effects produced by 0.1, 0.5, and 1mg/kg of haloperidol were compared with those induced by 1, 4, and 10mg/kg of risperidone, respectively. These doses of the two antipsychotics were then administered twice a day for 4 weeks and VCMs scored after 12h, 5 days, or 3 weeks of drug withdrawal. Among the haloperidol-treated groups, only those rats injected with 0.5 and 1mg/kg showed high levels of VCMs after 12h and 5 days of drug withdrawal when compared to vehicle-treated rats, while basal levels of VCMs were reached after 3 weeks from the last injection. High VCMs levels were observed in risperidone-treated rats only at the dose of 10mg/kg and after 12h of drug withdrawal, but not after 5 days or 3 weeks. The present results indicated that haloperidol possessed a much higher propensity to induce rat "early onset" VCMs than risperidone.

  7. Case of early childhood-onset narcolepsy with cataplexy: comparison with a monozygotic co-twin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromichi; Mori, Kenji; Mori, Tatsuo; Goji, Aya; Kagami, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    We describe here a rare case of early childhood-onset (5 years of age) narcolepsy. This case was interesting because of the ability to compare the patient's symptoms to the condition of her healthy monozygotic co-twin sister. The only environmental difference between the co-twins was head injury, which may be associated with the presence of narcolepsy. The co-twin was extroverted, sociable, reliable, and dexterous. In contrast, the patient could be described as introverted, gentle, honest and persevering, but was weak at conversation, assessment of a situation, memory, planning, activity (she was inactive), a sense of time, understanding of an analog clock, operating efficiency, and physical education (due to obesity). The sisters showed the same degree of appetite and dexterity with their fingers. Narcolepsy is often under-recognized or underdiagnosed, especially when the onset occurs in childhood. When we observe preschoolers with excessive daytime sleepiness, we should consider the possibility of narcolepsy with cataplexy.

  8. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Late-onset exercise in female rat offspring ameliorates the detrimental metabolic impact of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Hasnah; Caruso, Vanni; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-10-01

    Rising rates of maternal obesity/overweight bring the need for effective interventions in offspring. We observed beneficial effects of postweaning exercise, but the question of whether late-onset exercise might benefit offspring exposed to maternal obesity is unanswered. Thus we examined effects of voluntary exercise implemented in adulthood on adiposity, hormone profiles, and genes involved in regulating appetite and metabolism in female offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed either normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 5 weeks before mating and throughout gestation/lactation. At weaning, female littermates received either chow or HFD and, after 7 weeks, half were exercised (running wheels) for 5 weeks. Tissues were collected at 15 weeks. Maternal obesity was associated with increased hypothalamic inflammatory markers, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression in the arcuate nucleus. In the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Y1 receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor, and TNF-α mRNA were elevated. In the hippocampus, maternal obesity was associated with up-regulated fat mass and obesity-associated gene and TNF-α mRNA. We observed significant hypophagia across all exercise groups. In female offspring of lean dams, the reduction in food intake by exercise could be related to altered signaling at the PVN melanocortin 4 receptor whereas in offspring of obese dams, this may be related to up-regulated TNF-α. Late-onset exercise ameliorated the effects of maternal obesity and postweaning HFD in reducing body weight, adiposity, plasma leptin, insulin, triglycerides, and glucose intolerance, with greater beneficial effects in offspring of obese dams. Overall, hypothalamic inflammation was increased by maternal obesity or current HFD, and the effect of exercise was dependent on maternal diet. In conclusion, even after a significant sedentary period, many of the negative impacts of maternal obesity could be improved by

  10. Increased B-type natriuretic peptide levels in early-onset versus late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Gábor; Molvarec, Attila; Nagy, Bálint; Rigó, János

    2014-02-01

    We compared B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, clinical and laboratory findings in early-onset preeclampsia (EOP), late-onset preeclampsia (LOP) and healthy pregnant groups. We studied 40 healthy pregnant and 40 preeclamptic patients. Preeclamptics were divided in two groups, the EOP group (n=20) and LOP group (n=20), according to gestational age at the onset of disease. The distinction criterion for early- vs. late-onset was set as week 34 of gestation. The concentration of the BNP levels was measured by a sandwich fluorescence immunoassay. For statistical analysis of the clinical and laboratory findings non-parametric methods were applied. BNP levels were higher in EOP [61.35 (36.95-93.25) pg/mL] and LOP patients [32.4 (19.15-39.2) pg/mL] than in healthy pregnant women [10.05 (6.08-16.03) pg/mL] (both p<0.001). Furthermore, EOPs had significantly higher BNP levels as compared to LOP patients (p<0.001). A BNP cut-off <24.5 pg/mL had a negative-predictive value of 85.1% excluding preeclampsia. There was a significant inverse correlation between plasma BNP levels of EOP patients and sodium (p<0.05) and total protein concentrations (p<0.05). In the EOP group, a significant positive correlation was observed between plasma levels of BNP and hematocrit (p<0.05), serum potassium (p<0.05), urea (p<0.05) and 24-h proteinuria (p<0.05). BNP levels were significantly higher in EOP than in LOP patients. The cut-off value <24.5 pg/mL seems to be a powerful discriminative indicator excluding preeclampsia. The amount of proteinuria and total protein levels correlate with the elevation of the BNP levels. In EOP the extent of proteinuria is higher than in the LOP.

  11. Cyclophosphamide for rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paz-Priel, Ido; Cooke, David W; Chen, Allen R

    2011-02-01

    Patients with rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, autonomic dysregulation, and neural crest tumor syndrome have poor long-term outcomes. We report a patient who was treated successfully with high-dose cyclophosphamide immunoablation. This experience offers a novel therapeutic approach and an indirect insight into the underlying pathogenesis of this syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyclophosphamide for Rapid-Onset Obesity, Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Priel, Ido; Cooke, David W.; Chen, Allen R.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, autonomic dysregulation, and neural crest tumor syndrome have poor long-term outcomes. We report a patient who was treated successfully with high-dose cyclophosphamide immunoablation. This experience offers a novel therapeutic approach and an indirect insight into the underlying pathogenesis of this syndrome. PMID:20727534

  13. Early childhood obesity: a survey of knowledge and practices of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Gies, Inge; AlSaleem, Bader; Olang, Beheshteh; Karima, Berkouk; Samy, Gamal; Husain, Khaled; Elhalik, Mahmoud; Miqdady, Mohamad; Rawashdeh, Mohamad; Salah, Mohamed; Mouane, Nezha; Rohani, Pejman; Singhal, Atul; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2017-04-28

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health issues of the twenty-first century affecting even low- and middle-income countries. Overweight and obese children are more likely to stay obese into adulthood. Due to the paucity of data on local practices, our study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa region with respect to early-onset obesity. A specific questionnaire investigating the perception and knowledge on early-onset obesity was circulated to healthcare providers (general physicians, pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologist, neonatologists) practicing in 17 Middle East and North African countries. A total of 999/1051 completed forms (95% response) were evaluated. Of all respondents, 28.9% did not consistently use growth charts to monitor growth during every visit and only 25.2% and 46.6% of respondents were aware of the correct cut-off criterion for overweight and obesity, respectively. Of those surveyed, 22.3, 14.0, 36.1, 48.2, and 49.1% of respondents did not consider hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, fatty liver disease, and decreased life span, respectively, to be a long-term complication of early childhood obesity. Furthermore, only 0.7% of respondents correctly answered all survey questions pertaining to knowledge of early childhood overweight and obesity. The survey highlights the low use of growth charts in the evaluation of early childhood growth in Middle East and North Africa region, and demonstrated poor knowledge of healthcare providers on the short- and long-term complications of early-onset obesity. This suggests a need for both continued professional education and development, and implementation of guidelines for the prevention and management of early childhood overweight and obesity.

  14. Deferred and immediate imitation in regressive and early onset autism.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sally J; Young, Gregory S; Cook, Ian; Giolzetti, Angelo; Ozonoff, Sally

    2008-04-01

    Deferred imitation has long held a privileged position in early cognitive development, considered an early marker of representational thought with links to language development and symbolic processes. Children with autism have difficulties with several abilities generally thought to be related to deferred imitation: immediate imitation, language, and symbolic play. However, few studies have examined deferred imitation in early autism. The present study examined both deferred, spontaneous imitation and immediate, elicited imitation on a set of carefully matched tasks in 36 young children with autism: 16 with early onset autism, 20 with regressive autism and two contrast groups, younger typically developing children (n = 20) and age matched children with significant developmental delays (n = 21). Analyses of co-variance controlling for differences in verbal mental age revealed significant main effects for task, but no main effect of group and no interaction of task by group. Deferred imitation scores were lower than immediate imitation scores for all groups. Imitation performance was related to overall intellectual functioning for all groups, and there were moderate and significant relations between imitation in the immediate elicited condition and in the spontaneous deferred condition for all groups. Finally, there were no differences between onset subgroups in imitation scores, suggesting that the two share a similar phenotype involving both types of imitation.

  15. Susceptibility genetic variants associated with early-onset colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Giráldez, María Dolores; López-Dóriga, Adriana; Bujanda, Luis; Abulí, Anna; Bessa, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Muñoz, Jenifer; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Cosme, Angel; Enríquez-Navascués, José María; Moreno, Victor; Andreu, Montserrat; Castells, Antoni; Balaguer, Francesc; Castellví-Bel, Sergi

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Western countries. Hereditary forms only correspond to 5% of CRC burden. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified common low-penetrant CRC genetic susceptibility loci. Early-onset CRC (CRC<50 years old) is especially suggestive of hereditary predisposition although 85-90% of heritability still remains unidentified. CRC<50 patients (n = 191) were compared with a late-onset CRC group (CRC>65 years old) (n = 1264). CRC susceptibility variants at 8q23.3 (rs16892766), 8q24.21 (rs6983267), 10p14 (rs10795668), 11q23.1 (rs3802842), 15q13.3 (rs4779584), 18q21 (rs4939827), 14q22.2 (rs4444235), 16q22.1 (rs9929218), 19q13.1 (rs10411210) and 20p12.3 (rs961253) were genotyped in all DNA samples. A genotype-phenotype correlation with clinical and pathological characteristics in both groups was performed. Risk allele carriers for rs3802842 [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.05, P = 0.0096, dominant model) and rs4779584 (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.02-1.9, P = 0.0396, dominant model) were more frequent in the CRC<50 group, whereas homozygotes for rs10795668 risk allele were also more frequent in the early-onset CRC (P = 0.02, codominant model). Regarding early-onset cases, 14q22 (rs4444235), 11q23 (rs3802842) and 20p12 (rs961253) variants were more associated with family history of CRC or tumors of the Lynch syndrome spectrum excluding CRC. In our entire cohort, sum of risk alleles was significantly higher in patients with a CRC family history (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.85, P = 0.01). In conclusion, variants at 10p14 (rs10795668), 11q23.1 (rs3802842) and 15q13.3 (rs4779584) may have a predominant role in predisposition to early-onset CRC. Association of CRC susceptibility variants with some patient's familiar and personal features could be relevant for screening and surveillance strategies in this high-risk group and it should be explored in further studies.

  16. Age at Onset of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling in a Non-Treatment Sample: Early- versus Later-Onset

    PubMed Central

    Black, Donald W.; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Background Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Method Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33 years. Results Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80 years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50 years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Conclusions Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early- and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25956751

  17. Obesity and onset of depression among U.S. middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaoling; An, Ruopeng

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to examine the relationship between obesity and onset of depression among U.S. middle-aged and older adults. Data came from 1994 to 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Study sample consisted of 6514 community-dwelling adults born between 1931 and 1941 who were free of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in 1994. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height/weight. Body weight status was classified into normal weight (18.5kg/m(2)≤BMI<25kg/m(2)), overweight (25kg/m(2)≤BMI<30kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥30kg/m(2)). A score of ≥3 on the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to define clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Kaplan-Meier estimator and time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model were performed to examine the association between body weight status and onset of clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Unhealthy body weight was associated future onset of depression. Compared with their normal weight counterparts, overweight and obese participants were 13% (hazard ratio [HR]=1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.04-1.23) and 9% (HR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01-1.18) more likely to have onset of clinically relevant depressive symptoms during the 16years of follow-up, respectively. The relationship between obesity and depression onset appeared stronger among females and non-Hispanic whites than their male and racial/ethnic minority counterparts. Health care providers should be aware of the potential risk for depression among obese older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early-onset Hirayama disease in a female

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Matthias; Finsterer, Josef; Gizewski, Elke R; Löscher, Wolfgang N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Hirayama disease is a rare myelopathy, occurring predominantly in males with onset in the teens. Methods and results: Here, we report a young female patient who developed the first signs of Hirayama disease at 10.5 years of age. Prior to onset, she had experienced a growth spurt and grew about 8 cm. The disease progressed over 3 years and the typical clinical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging signs of Hirayama disease were found. After this period and achievement of her final height, no further progression was noticed. Conclusions: This case highlights that pediatric neurologists should be aware of Hirayama disease, which can also occur in girls in early adolescence. PMID:28228960

  19. Conversion (dissociative) symptoms as a presenting feature in early onset bipolar disorder: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Malay Kumar; Guha, Prathama; Sinha, Mausumi; Majumdar, Debabrata; Sengupta, Payel

    2009-01-01

    We present three cases of early onset bipolar disorder where dissociative (conversion) symptoms preceded the onset of mania. This case series underscores the significance of dissociative/conversion symptoms as an early atypical presentation in juvenile bipolar disorder. PMID:21687018

  20. Early Life Growth Predictors of Childhood Adiposity Trajectories and Future Risk for Obesity: Birth to Twenty Cohort.

    PubMed

    Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Lombard, Zané; Norris, Shane A

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence of variations in adiposity trajectories among individuals, but the influence of early life growth patterns on these trajectories is underresearched in low- and middle-income countries. Therefore, our aim was to examine the association between early life conditional weight gain and childhood adiposity trajectories. We previously identified distinct adiposity trajectories (four for girls and three for boys) in black South African children (boys = 877; girls = 947). The association between the trajectories and early life growth patterns, and future obesity risk was assessed by multivariate linear and multinomial logistic and logistic regressions. Conditional weight gain independent of height was computed for infancy (0-2 years) and early childhood (2-4 years). Conditional weight gain before 5 years of age was significantly associated with early onset of obesity or overweight (excess weight) BMI trajectories in both boys and girls. In girls, greater conditional weight gain in infancy was associated with increased relative risk of being in the early-onset obese to morbid obese trajectory, with relative risk ratios of 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.17-3.52) compared to belonging to a BMI trajectory in the normal range. Boys and girls in the early-onset obesity or overweight BMI trajectories were more likely to be overweight or obese in early adulthood. Excessive weight gain in infancy and early childhood, independent of linear growth, predicts childhood and adolescent BMI trajectories toward obesity. These results underscore the importance of early life factors in the development of obesity and other NCDs in later life.

  1. Socioeconomic status, infant feeding practices and early childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, B G; Forste, R

    2014-04-01

    Children from low socioeconomic households are at greater risk of obesity. As breastfeeding can protect against child obesity, disadvantaged infants are less likely to breastfeed relative to more advantaged children. Whether infant feeding patterns, as well as other maternal characteristics mediate the association between social class and obesity has not been established in available research. Examine the impact of infant feeding practices on child obesity and identify the mechanisms that link socioeconomic status (SES) with child obesity. Based on a nationally representative longitudinal survey (ECLS-B) of early childhood (n = 8030), we examine how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods and putting an infant to bed with a bottle mediate the relationship between social class and early childhood obesity relative to the mediating influence of other maternal characteristics (BMI, age at birth, smoking, depression and daycare use). Infants predominantly fed formula for the first 6 months were about 2.5 times more likely to be obese at 24 months of age relative to infants predominantly fed breast milk. The early introduction of solid foods (< 4 months) and putting the child to bed with a bottle also increased the likelihood of obesity. Unhealthy infant feeding practices were the primary mechanism mediating the relationship between SES and early childhood obesity. Results are consistent across measures of child obesity although the effect size of infant feeding practices varies. The encouragement and support of breastfeeding and other healthy feeding practices are especially important for low socioeconomic children who are at increased risk of early childhood obesity. Targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers for breastfeeding support and for infant-led feeding strategies may reduce the negative association between SES and child obesity. The implications are discussed in terms of policy and practice. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric

  2. Childhood risk factors for early-onset drinking.

    PubMed

    Donovan, John E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2011-09-01

    There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. This study examined an array of psychosocial variables assessed at age 10 and reflecting Problem Behavior Theory as potential antecedent risk factors for the initiation of alcohol use at age 14 or younger. A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures. Children and parents were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the age-10 univariate and multivariate predictors of the initiation of alcohol use by age 14 or younger. Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age 14. Sex, race, and age cohort did not relate to early drinking status. Children with two parents were less likely to initiate drinking early. Early initiation of drinking related significantly to an array of antecedent risk factors (personality, social environment, and behavioral) assessed at age 10 that reflect psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. In the multivariate model, the variables most predictive of early-onset drinking were having a single parent, sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10, having parents who also started drinking at an early age, and parental drinking frequency. Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use.

  3. Childhood Risk Factors for Early-Onset Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. This study examined an array of psychosocial variables assessed at age 10 and reflecting Problem Behavior Theory as potential antecedent risk factors for the initiation of alcohol use at age 14 or younger. Method: A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures. Children and parents were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the age-10 univariate and multivariate predictors of the initiation of alcohol use by age 14 or younger. Results: Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age 14. Sex, race, and age cohort did not relate to early drinking status. Children with two parents were less likely to initiate drinking early. Early initiation of drinking related significantly to an array of antecedent risk factors (personality, social environment, and behavioral) assessed at age 10 that reflect psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. In the multivariate model, the variables most predictive of early-onset drinking were having a single parent, sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10, having parents who also started drinking at an early age, and parental drinking frequency. Conclusions: Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use. PMID:21906502

  4. Successful Scene Encoding in Presymptomatic Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Yakeel T; Willment, Kim Celone; Castrillon, Gabriel; Muniz, Martha; Lopera, Francisco; Budson, Andrew; Stern, Chantal E

    2015-01-01

    Brain regions critical to episodic memory are altered during the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, reliable means of identifying cognitively-normal individuals at higher risk to develop AD have not been established. To examine whether functional MRI can detect early functional changes associated with scene encoding in a group of presymptomatic presenilin-1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers. Participants were 39 young, cognitively-normal individuals from an autosomal dominant early-onset AD kindred, located in Antioquia, Colombia. Participants performed a functional MRI scene encoding task and a post-scan subsequent memory test. PSEN1 mutation carriers exhibited hyperactivation within medial temporal lobe regions (hippocampus,parahippocampal formation) during successful scene encoding compared to age-matched non-carriers. Hyperactivation in medial temporal lobe regions during scene encoding is seen in individuals genetically-determined to develop AD years before their clinical onset. Our findings will guide future research with the ultimate goal of using functional neuroimaging in the early detection of preclinical AD.

  5. Early Onset of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressant Action

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Matthew J.; Freemantle, Nick; Geddes, John R.; Bhagwagar, Zubin

    2008-01-01

    Context: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often described as having a delayed onset of effect in the treatment of depression. However, some trials have reported clinical improvement as early as the first week of treatment. Objective: To test the alternative hypotheses of delayed vs early onset of antidepressant action with SSRIs in patients with unipolar depression. Data Sources: Trials identified by searching CENTRAL, The Cochrane Collaboration database of controlled trials (2005), and the reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials of SSRIs vs placebo for the treatment of unipolar depression in adults that reported outcomes for at least 2 time points in the first 4 weeks of treatment (50 trials from >500 citations identified). Trials were excluded if limited to participants older than 65 years or specific comorbidities. Data Extraction: Data were extracted on trial design, participant characteristics, and outcomes by a single reviewer. Data Synthesis: Pooled estimates of treatment effect on depressive symptom rating scales were calculated for weeks 1 through 6 of treatment. In the primary analysis, the pattern of response seen was tested against alternative models of onset of response. The primary analysis incorporated data from 28 randomized controlled trials (n=5872). A model of early treatment response best fit the experimental data. Treatment with SSRIs rather than placebo was associated with clinical improvement by the end of the first week of use. A secondary analysis indicated an increased chance of achieving a 50% reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores by 1 week (relative risk, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.25) with SSRI treatment compared with placebo. Conclusions: Treatment with SSRIs is associated with symptomatic improvement in depression by the end of the first week of use, and the improvement continues at a decreasing rate for at least 6

  6. Obesity Early in Adulthood Increases Risk but Does Not Affect Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Manal M.; Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Kaseb, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Phan, Alexandria T.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Hawk, Ernest; Morris, Jeff; Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Lee, Ju-Seog; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Bortus, Gehan; Torres, Harrys A.; Amos, Christopher I.; Wolff, Robert A.; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite the significant association between obesity and several cancers, it has been difficult to establish an association between obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC often have ascites, making it a challenge to accurately determine body mass index (BMI), and many factors contribute to the development of HCC. We performed a case–control study to investigate whether obesity early in adulthood affects risk, age of onset, or outcomes of patients with HCC. METHODS We interviewed 622 patients newly diagnosed with HCC from January 2004 through December 2013, along with 660 healthy controls (frequency-matched by age and sex) to determine weights, heights, and body sizes (self-reported) at various ages before HCC development or enrollment as controls. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent effects of early obesity on risk for HCC and patient outcomes, respectively. BMI was calculated, and patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were considered obese. RESULTS Obesity in early adulthood (age, mid-20s to mid-40s) is a significant risk factor for HCC. The estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 2.6 (1.4–4.4), 2.3 (1.2–4.4), and 3.6 (1.5–8.9) for the entire population, men, and women, respectively. Each unit increase in BMI at early adulthood was associated with a 3.89-month decrease in age at HCC diagnosis (P<.001). Moreover, there is a synergistic interaction between obesity and hepatitis virus infection. However, we found no effect of obesity on the overall survival of patients with HCC. CONCLUSION Early adulthood obesity is associated with increased risk of developing HCC at a young age in the absence of major HCC risk factors, with no effect on outcomes of patients with HCC. PMID:25836985

  7. Response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention by age of onset of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, S. E.; Lang, W.; Jakicic, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss, physical activity, fitness and diet changes in response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adults with self‐reported juvenile onset (n = 61) or adult onset (n = 116) obesity. Methods Participants (n = 177; 43.0 ± 8.6 years; body mass index [BMI] = 33.0 ± 3.4 kg m−2) engaged in an 18‐month standard behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were randomized into three different intervention groups as part of the larger parent trial. BMI, physical activity, fitness and diet were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Separate adjusted mixed models were constructed using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Results There was significant weight loss, increased physical activity, improved fitness and reduced caloric intake over time (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in these outcome variables by obesity onset group. However, there was a significant group by time interaction for fitness (p = 0.001), with the adult onset making significantly greater gains in fitness from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.001); however, this difference was no longer present at 12 or 18 months. Conclusions With the exception of fitness at 6 months, weight loss, physical activity and diet did not differ between juvenile onset and adult onset participants, suggesting that those with juvenile onset obesity are equally responsive to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adulthood. PMID:27708841

  8. Latin America: native populations affected by early onset periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Nowzari, Hessam; Botero, Javier Enrique

    2011-06-01

    Millions of individuals are affected by early onset periodontal disease in Latin America, a continent that includes more than 20 countries. The decision-makers claim that the disease is not commonly encountered. In 2009, 280,919 authorized immigrants were registered in the United States versus 5,460,000 unauthorized (2,600,000 in California). The objective of the present article is to raise awareness about the high prevalence of the disease among Latin Americans and the good prognosis of preventive measures associated with minimal financial cost.

  9. Early onset neonatal sepsis: diagnostic dilemmas and practical management.

    PubMed

    Bedford Russell, A R; Kumar, R

    2015-07-01

    Early onset neonatal sepsis is persistently associated with poor outcomes, and incites clinical practice based on the fear of missing a treatable infection in a timely fashion. Unnecessary exposure to antibiotics is also hazardous. Diagnostic dilemmas are discussed in this review, and suggestions offered for practical management while awaiting a more rapidly available 'gold standard' test; in an ideal world, this test would be 100% sensitive and 100% specific for the presence of organisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Foodborne Transmission of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Non-Human Primates Results in Preclinical Rapid-Onset Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Alexander; Yutzy, Barbara; Kruip, Carina; Ooms, Mark; Schloot, Nanette C.; Roden, Michael; Scott, Fraser W.; Loewer, Johannes; Holznagel, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity. PMID:25090610

  11. Foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to non-human primates results in preclinical rapid-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Strom, Alexander; Yutzy, Barbara; Kruip, Carina; Ooms, Mark; Schloot, Nanette C; Roden, Michael; Scott, Fraser W; Loewer, Johannes; Holznagel, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (β = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.

  12. Obesity and Sex Steroid Changes Across Puberty: Evidence for Marked Hyperandrogenemia in Pre- and Early Pubertal Obese Girls*

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Christopher R.; Blank, Susan K.; Prendergast, Kathleen A.; Chhabra, Sandhya; Eagleson, Christine A.; Helm, Kristin D.; Yoo, Richard; Chang, R. Jeffrey; Foster, Carol M.; Caprio, Sonia; Marshall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Context Peripubertal obesity is associated with abnormal sex steroid concentrations, but the timing of onset and degree of these abnormalities remain unclear. Objective To assess the degree of hyperandrogenemia across puberty in obese girls, and to assess overnight sex steroid changes in Tanner 1–3 girls. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting General Clinical Research Centers. Subjects Thirty normal weight (BMI-for-age < 85%) and 74 obese (BMI-for-age ≥ 95%) peripubertal girls. Intervention Blood samples (circa 0500–0700 h) while fasting. Samples from the preceding evening (circa 2300 h) were obtained in 23 Tanner 1–3 girls. Main outcome measures Hormone concentrations stratified by Tanner stage. Results Compared to normal weight girls, mean free testosterone (T) was elevated 2- to 9-fold across puberty in obese girls, while fasting insulin was 3-fold elevated in obese Tanner 1–3 girls (P < 0.05). Mean LH was lower in obese Tanner 1 and 2 girls (P < 0.05), but not in more mature girls. In a subgroup of normal weight Tanner 1–3 girls (n = 17), mean progesterone (P) and T increased overnight 2.3- and 2.4-fold, respectively (P ≤ 0.001). In obese Tanner 1–3 girls (n = 6), evening P and T were elevated, and both tended to increase overnight (mean 1.4- and 1.6-fold, respectively [P = 0.06]). Conclusions Peripubertal obesity is associated with hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia throughout puberty, being especially marked shortly before and during early puberty. Progesterone and testosterone concentrations in normal weight Tanner 1–3 girls increase overnight, with similar but less evident changes in obese girls. PMID:17118995

  13. Association of reticular pseudodrusen and early onset drusen.

    PubMed

    De Bats, Flore; Wolff, Benjamin; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine; Meunier, Isabelle; Denis, Philippe; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To report an association between reticular pseudodrusen, located above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Early Onset Drusen (EOD) as described using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. Eight patients (16 eyes) with EOD were examined. EOD were classified into three entities called Large Colloid Drusen (LCD), Malattia Leventinese (ML), and Cuticular Drusen (CD). Best-corrected visual acuity, fundus examination, color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and SD-OCT were performed in all study patients. Results. Four patients had LCD, 2 had ML, and 2 had CD. Reticular pseudodrusen were observed with SD-OCT in all study patients; all these patients had hyperreflective lesions above and below the RPE. Conclusion. Early Onset Drusen appear to be associated with reticular pseudodrusen. SD-OCT is helpful in distinguishing the location of the deposits that are above and below the RPE in EOD. Further studies are needed to understand the role of reticular pseudodrusen in the pathophysiology of EOD.

  14. Association of Reticular Pseudodrusen and Early Onset Drusen

    PubMed Central

    De Bats, Flore; Wolff, Benjamin; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine; Meunier, Isabelle; Denis, Philippe; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To report an association between reticular pseudodrusen, located above the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Early Onset Drusen (EOD) as described using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. Eight patients (16 eyes) with EOD were examined. EOD were classified into three entities called Large Colloid Drusen (LCD), Malattia Leventinese (ML), and Cuticular Drusen (CD). Best-corrected visual acuity, fundus examination, color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and SD-OCT were performed in all study patients. Results. Four patients had LCD, 2 had ML, and 2 had CD. Reticular pseudodrusen were observed with SD-OCT in all study patients; all these patients had hyperreflective lesions above and below the RPE. Conclusion. Early Onset Drusen appear to be associated with reticular pseudodrusen. SD-OCT is helpful in distinguishing the location of the deposits that are above and below the RPE in EOD. Further studies are needed to understand the role of reticular pseudodrusen in the pathophysiology of EOD. PMID:24563787

  15. Evaluating the Near-Term Infant for Early Onset Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jeanne A.; Durso, Mary Beth; Butchko, Allyson R.; Jones, Judith G.; Brozanski, Beverly S.

    2006-01-01

    Although the rate of early onset sepsis in the near-term neonate is low (one to eight of 1000 cases), the rate of mortality and morbidity is high. As a result, infants receive multiple, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, many for up to 7 days despite blood cultures showing no growth. Maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis and small blood volume collections from infants are cited as reasons for the lack of confidence in negative culture results. Incorporating an additional, more rapid test could facilitate a more timely diagnosis in these infants. To this end, a 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was compared to blood culturing for use as a tool in evaluating early onset sepsis. Of 1751 neonatal intensive care unit admissions that were screened, 1233 near-term infants met inclusion criteria. Compared to culture, PCR demonstrated excellent analytical specificity (1186 of 1216, 97.5%) and negative predictive value (1186 of 1196, 99.2%); however, PCR failed to detect a significant number of culture-proven cases. These findings underscore the cautionary stance that should be taken at this time when considering the use of a molecular amplification test for diagnosing neonatal sepsis. The experience gained from this study illustrates the need for changes in sample collection and preparation techniques so as to improve analytical sensitivity of the assay. PMID:16825509

  16. Epidemiology of early-onset Parkinson's disease in Finland.

    PubMed

    Ylikotila, Pauli; Tiirikka, Timo; Moilanen, Jukka S; Kääriäinen, Helena; Marttila, Reijo; Majamaa, Kari

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of genetic causes to Parkinson's disease (PD) is strongest in early-onset cases. We ascertained a nationwide cohort of patients in order to study the genetic epidemiology of early-onset PD (EOPD) in Finland. By means of a search in a national database we ascertained all patients with EOPD. These patients had become eligible for reimbursement of PD drugs between the years 1995-2006 and were <55 years of age at the time of PD diagnosis. A total of 441 patients consented and provided clinical and genealogical information. The incidence of EOPD increased 1.7-fold between the years 1995-2006, the mean annual incidence being 3.3/100,000. Fifty-two patients (11.8%) reported an affected first-degree relative. The birthplaces of patients with PD among first-degree relatives were clustered in certain regions in the southwestern and western coastal provinces of Finland and in the eastern province of Savo. Furthermore, the distance between the birthplaces of the patients' parents was smaller for patients, who had first-degree relatives with PD than for patients with no family history of PD. Our data suggest that the incidence of EOPD is increasing. The birthplaces of patients with PD among first-degree relatives were clustered in certain provinces of Finland suggesting that monogenic forms of PD or genetic susceptibility of PD are present in the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Premature adrenarche: novel lessons from early onset androgen excess.

    PubMed

    Idkowiak, Jan; Lavery, Gareth G; Dhir, Vivek; Barrett, Timothy G; Stewart, Paul M; Krone, Nils; Arlt, Wiebke

    2011-08-01

    Adrenarche reflects the maturation of the adrenal zona reticularis resulting in increased secretion of the adrenal androgen precursor DHEA and its sulphate ester DHEAS. Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined by increased levels of DHEA and DHEAS before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys and the concurrent presence of signs of androgen action including adult-type body odour, oily skin and hair and pubic hair growth. PA is distinct from precocious puberty, which manifests with the development of secondary sexual characteristics including testicular growth and breast development. Idiopathic PA (IPA) has long been considered an extreme of normal variation, but emerging evidence links IPA to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS) and thus ultimately cardiovascular morbidity. Areas of controversy include the question whether IPA in girls is associated with a higher rate of progression to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and whether low birth weight increases the risk of developing IPA. The recent discoveries of two novel monogenic causes of early onset androgen excess, apparent cortisone reductase deficiency and apparent DHEA sulphotransferase deficiency, support the notion that PA may represent a forerunner condition for PCOS. Future research including carefully designed longitudinal studies is required to address the apparent link between early onset androgen excess and the development of insulin resistance and the MS.

  18. TYROBP genetic variants in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pottier, Cyril; Ravenscroft, Thomas A; Brown, Patricia H; Finch, NiCole A; Baker, Matt; Parsons, Meeia; Asmann, Yan W; Ren, Yingxue; Christopher, Elizabeth; Levitch, Denise; van Blitterswijk, Marka; Cruchaga, Carlos; Campion, Dominique; Nicolas, Gaël; Richard, Anne-Claire; Guerreiro, Rita; Bras, Jose T; Zuchner, Stephan; Gonzalez, Michael A; Bu, Guojun; Younkin, Steven; Knopman, David S; Josephs, Keith A; Parisi, Joseph E; Petersen, Ronald C; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Boeve, Bradley F; Dickson, Dennis W; Rademakers, Rosa

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to identify new candidate genes potentially involved in early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). Exome sequencing was conducted on 45 EOAD patients with either a family history of Alzheimer's disease (AD, <65 years) or an extremely early age at the onset (≤55 years) followed by multiple variant filtering according to different modes of inheritance. We identified 29 candidate genes potentially involved in EOAD, of which the gene TYROBP, previously implicated in AD, was selected for genetic and functional follow-up. Using 3 patient cohorts, we observed rare coding TYROBP variants in 9 out of 1110 EOAD patients, whereas no such variants were detected in 1826 controls (p = 0.0001), suggesting that at least some rare TYROBP variants might contribute to EOAD risk. Overexpression of the p.D50_L51ins14 TYROBP mutant led to a profound reduction of TREM2 expression, a well-established risk factor for AD. This is the first study supporting a role for genetic variation in TYROBP in EOAD, with in vitro support for a functional effect of the p.D50_L51ins14 TYROBP mutation on TREM2 expression.

  19. A novel ALMS1 splice mutation in a non-obese juvenile-onset insulin-dependent syndromic diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Sanyoura, May; Woudstra, Cédric; Halaby, George; Baz, Patrick; Senée, Valérie; Guillausseau, Pierre-Jean; Zalloua, Pierre; Julier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-dependent juvenile-onset diabetes may occur in the context of rare syndromic presentations suggesting monogenic inheritance rather than common multifactorial autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Here, we report the case of a Lebanese patient diagnosed with juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes presenting ketoacidosis, early-onset retinopathy with optic atrophy, hearing loss, diabetes insipidus, epilepsy, and normal weight and stature, who later developed insulin resistance. Despite similarities with Wolfram syndrome, we excluded the WFS1 gene as responsible for this disease. Using combined linkage and candidate gene study, we selected ALMS1, responsible for Alström syndrome, as a candidate gene. We identified a novel splice mutation in intron 18 located 3 bp before the intron-exon junction (IVS18-3T>G), resulting in exon 19 skipping and consequent frameshift generating a truncated protein (V3958fs3964X). The clinical presentation of the patient significantly differed from typical Alström syndrome by the absence of truncal obesity and short stature, and by the presence of ketoacidotic insulin-dependent diabetes, optic atrophy and diabetes insipidus. Our observation broadens the clinical spectrum of Alström syndrome and suggests that ALMS1 mutations may be considered in patients who initially present with an acute onset of insulin-dependent diabetes.

  20. A novel ALMS1 splice mutation in a non-obese juvenile-onset insulin-dependent syndromic diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Sanyoura, May; Woudstra, Cédric; Halaby, George; Baz, Patrick; Senée, Valérie; Guillausseau, Pierre-Jean; Zalloua, Pierre; Julier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-dependent juvenile-onset diabetes may occur in the context of rare syndromic presentations suggesting monogenic inheritance rather than common multifactorial autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Here, we report the case of a Lebanese patient diagnosed with juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes presenting ketoacidosis, early-onset retinopathy with optic atrophy, hearing loss, diabetes insipidus, epilepsy, and normal weight and stature, who later developed insulin resistance. Despite similarities with Wolfram syndrome, we excluded the WFS1 gene as responsible for this disease. Using combined linkage and candidate gene study, we selected ALMS1, responsible for Alström syndrome, as a candidate gene. We identified a novel splice mutation in intron 18 located 3 bp before the intron–exon junction (IVS18-3T>G), resulting in exon 19 skipping and consequent frameshift generating a truncated protein (V3958fs3964X). The clinical presentation of the patient significantly differed from typical Alström syndrome by the absence of truncal obesity and short stature, and by the presence of ketoacidotic insulin-dependent diabetes, optic atrophy and diabetes insipidus. Our observation broadens the clinical spectrum of Alström syndrome and suggests that ALMS1 mutations may be considered in patients who initially present with an acute onset of insulin-dependent diabetes. PMID:23652376

  1. Glucose Metabolic Brain Networks in Early-Onset vs. Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jinyong; Yoo, Kwangsun; Kim, Eunjoo; Na, Duk L.; Jeong, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EAD) shows distinct features from late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LAD). To explore the characteristics of EAD, clinical, neuropsychological, and functional imaging studies have been conducted. However, differences between EAD and LAD are not clear, especially in terms of brain connectivity and networks. In this study, we investigated the differences in metabolic connectivity between EAD and LAD by adopting graph theory measures. Methods: We analyzed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) images to investigate the distinct features of metabolic connectivity between EAD and LAD. Using metabolic connectivity and graph theory analysis, metabolic network differences between LAD and EAD were explored. Results: Results showed the decreased connectivity centered in the cingulate gyri and occipital regions in EAD, whereas decreased connectivity in the occipital and temporal regions as well as increased connectivity in the supplementary motor area were observed in LAD when compared with age-matched control groups. Global efficiency and clustering coefficients were decreased in EAD but not in LAD. EAD showed progressive network deterioration as a function of disease severity and clinical dementia rating (CDR) scores, mainly in terms of connectivity between the cingulate gyri and occipital regions. Global efficiency and clustering coefficients were also decreased along with disease severity. Conclusion: These results indicate that EAD and LAD have distinguished features in terms of metabolic connectivity, with EAD demonstrating more extensive and progressive deterioration. PMID:27445800

  2. Urinary Netrin-1: A New Biomarker for the Early Diagnosis of Renal Damage in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Övünç Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Altun, Demet; Müftüoğlu, Tuba; Karademir, Ferhan; Süleymanoğlu, Selami

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Urinary netrin-1 is a new marker to demonstrate early tubular damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether urinary netrin-1 is increased in obese children. Methods: A total of 68 normoalbuminuric and normotensive obese patients and 65 controls were included in the study. Urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary phosphorus, sodium, potassium, creatinine, albumin, and netrin-1. Blood samples were collected for measurements of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels. Homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index was calculated. Results: Gender and age were similar between obese and control groups (12.01±3.03 vs. 11.7±3.2 years, p=0.568 and 33 vs. 35 girls, p=0.543, respectively). Obese patients had significantly higher netrin-1 excretion than the controls (841.68±673.17 vs. 228.94±137.25 pg/mg creatinine, p=0.000). Urinary netrin-1 level was significantly higher in obese subjects with insulin resistance compared to those without insulin resistance (1142±1181 vs. 604.9±589.91 pg/mg creatinine, p=0.001). Conclusion: In normotensive and normoalbuminuric obese children, urinary netrin-1 level can increase before onset of albuminuria. Urinary netrin-1 excretion appears to be affected predominantly by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Urinary netrin-1 may be a new biomarker for determining early tubular injury in obese children. PMID:27087488

  3. Assessing Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Social Consequences of Early-Onset Psychiatric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lê Cook, Benjamin; Carson, Nicholas; Alegria, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with early onset of psychiatric disorder have worse social outcomes than individuals with adult onset. It is unknown whether this association varies by racial/ethnic group. Identifying groups at risk for poor social outcomes is important for improving clinical and policy interventions. We compared unemployment, high school dropout, arrest, and welfare participation by race/ethnicity and time of onset using a nationally representative sample of Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Latinos with lifetime psychiatric disorder. Early onset was associated with worse social outcomes than adult onset. Significant Black-White and Latino-White differences in social outcomes were identified. The association between early onset and negative social outcomes was similar across Whites, Latinos, and Blacks. For Asians, the association between unemployment and early onset was opposite that of Whites. Increasing early detection and treatment of psychiatric illness should be prioritized. Further study will clarify the association between onset and social outcomes among sub-ethnic populations. PMID:20453376

  4. Theory of Mind differences in older patients with early-onset and late-onset paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smeets-Janssen, M M J; Meesters, P D; Comijs, H C; Eikelenboom, P; Smit, J H; de Haan, L; Beekman, A T F; Stek, M L

    2013-11-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is considered an essential element of social cognition. In younger schizophrenia patients, ToM impairments have extensively been demonstrated. It is not clear whether similar impairments can be found in older schizophrenia patients and if these impairments differ between older patients with early-onset and late-onset schizophrenia. Theory of Mind abilities were assessed using the Hinting Task in 15 older patients (age 60 years and older) with early-onset paranoid schizophrenia, 15 older patients with late-onset paranoid schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. ANCOVA was performed to test differences between groups. Analyses were adjusted for level of education. Effect sizes, partial eta squared (ε(2) ), were computed as an indication of the clinical relevance of the findings. Patients with early-onset schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the Hinting Task (mean 16.1; SD 4.3) compared with patients with late-onset schizophrenia (mean 18.6; SD 1.5) and with healthy controls (mean 19.0; SD 1.4). The effect size of this difference was large (ε(2)  = 0.2). These results suggest that ToM functioning may be a protective factor modulating the age at onset of psychosis. Further studies into the relationship between social cognition and onset age of psychosis are warranted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ecological influences of early childhood obesity: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Boonpleng, Wannaporn; Park, Chang Gi; Gallo, Agatha M; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to determine the contributing factors for early childhood overweight/obesity within the contexts of the child's home, school, and community, and to determine how much each of the ecological contexts contributes to childhood overweight/obesity. The framework was developed from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Data for 2,100 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, were used in a series of multilevel modeling analyses. There was significant variation in childhood overweight/obesity by school and community. The majority of variation in childhood overweight/obesity was explained by the child and family factors in addition to school and community factors. Explained variance of childhood overweight/obesity at the school level was 27% and at the community level, 2%. The variance composition at children's family level alone was 71%. Therefore, overweight/obesity prevention efforts should focus primarily on child, family, and school factors and then community factors, to be more effective.

  6. Early Onset Recurrent Subtype of Adolescent Depression: Clinical and Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed.…

  7. The onset of galactic winds in early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Tucker, W.; David, L. P.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers report on a program using Einstein x ray observations of the x ray spectra and surface brightness profiles (or extents) of a large sample of early-type (elliptical and SO) galaxies for which the goal is to determine the critical optical luminosity for which galactic winds are important. For galaxies in which the x ray emission is dominated by hydrostatic coronae, the x ray spectra will be relatively soft (characterized by a temperature of approx. 10 to the 7th power K), while for galaxies with a galactic wind, the emission will be dominated by the spectrally harder discrete sources (since the x ray emission from the wind is essentially negligible). In this new sample of 180 galaxies, there are 28 early type galaxies with sufficient counts to obtain a spectrum with the Einstein Image Proportional Counter (IPC). This sample more than doubles the total number of early-type galaxies in earlier compilations (Forman, Jones, and Tucker 1985; Canizares et al. 1987). The new spectral observations will help determine the critical optical luminosity for the onset of galactic winds which is important for understanding the chemical evolution of galaxies and of the intergalactic medium. The implications of galactic winds for the heavy element enrichment and energy content of the intracluster medium are discussed.

  8. Nonamnestic Presentations of Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.; Lee, Albert S.; Joshi, Aditi; Shapira, Jill S.

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) beginning before the age of 65 may differ from late-onset AD (LOAD) in clinical course and frequency of nonamnestic presentations. In a 10-year retrospective review, 125 patients with EOAD, diagnosed clinically and verified by functional neuroimaging, were compared with 56 patients with LOAD and further classified depending on predominant cognitive difficulty on presentation. Eighty (64%) of the patients with EOAD had a nonamnestic presentation, compared with only 7 (12.5%) of the patients with LOAD. Compared with LOAD, the patients with EOAD had a shorter duration with lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The neuroimaging reports among the patients with EOAD showed more hippocampal atrophy with an amnestic presentation, more left parietal changes with impaired language presentations, and more right parietal and occipital changes with impaired visuospatial presentations. These findings indicate that EOAD differs from LOAD in a more aggressive course and in having predominantly nonamnestic presentations that vary in neuropathological location. PMID:22871906

  9. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases. PMID:28158192

  10. Cognitive functions and psychopathological symptoms in early-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Banaschewski, T; Schulz, E; Martin, M; Remschmidt, H

    2000-03-01

    Type and extent of objectively tested cognitive impairments (attention, verbal fluency, nonverbal reasoning) and their association with self-ratings (Paranoia Depression Scale; Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire) and clinical assessments (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scales for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms and Negative Symptoms) of psychopathological symptoms were studied in a sample of 74 adolescents primarily suffering from chronic schizophrenia (DSM-III-R; mean duration of illness = 3.4 years), including 15 patients with a very early onset (< 14 years). Special consideration was given to the differentiation between positive and negative symptoms. In cross-sectional analyses, the schizophrenic adolescents were remarkably impaired in both cognitive functions (attention, reasoning) and psychopathological measures (BPRS, SANS, SAPS). However, factor analysis yielded orthogonal factors for cognitive and psychopathological parameters, and canonical correlation analyses did not find a significant correlation between these two areas. As the degree of objectively measured cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenic adolescents cannot be predicted by the severity of individual psychopathological symptoms, a multidimensional evaluation of the symptomatology seems to be appropriate. Moreover, premorbid disturbances (motor and/or language developmental disorders) and onset characteristics (age, pattern, subdiagnosis), and their relationship to cognitive impairments were investigated. Premorbid disturbances were confirmed as risk factors for the subsequent occurrence of cognitive impairments.

  11. Impact of early onset dementia on caregivers: a review.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Deliane; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Bakker, Christian; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Verhey, Frans R J

    2010-11-01

    When it comes to dementia, caregiving can have adverse effects on the psychological and physical health of the informal caregiver. As yet, little is known about the impact of caring for a young dementia patient. This review provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of early onset dementia (EOD) on informal caregivers and on children of EOD patients. The available literature comparing the impact on EOD and late onset dementia (LOD) caregivers will also be provided. PubMed, Psychinfo, and Cinahl were searched for articles that considered the psychological or psychosocial impact of EOD on informal caregivers and children. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed in order to make better judgments about the value of each article. Seventeen articles were included, of which the overall methodological quality was limited. The results showed that EOD caregivers experienced high levels of burden, stress, and depression. When compared with LOD caregivers, results were inconclusive. Furthermore, the caregivers of EOD patients experienced a variety of psychosocial problems, including relational problems, family conflict, problems with employment, financial difficulties, and problems concerning diagnosis. Whether there is a difference in impact between EOD and LOD on caregivers is still unclear. The studies conducted are methodologically too limited to answer this question. Nevertheless, it is clear that EOD caregivers do seem to experience high levels of psychological suffering and specific problems related to their phase in life. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset.

    PubMed

    Won, Miguel; Marques-Pita, Manuel; Louro, Carlota; Gonçalves-Sá, Joana

    2017-02-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases.

  13. Early-Onset Vemurafenib-Induced DRESS Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Munch, Marion; Peuvrel, Lucie; Brocard, Anabelle; Saint Jean, Mélanie; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Quereux, Gaelle

    2016-01-01

    Vemurafenib is a BRAF inhibitor indicated in metastatic or unresectable melanoma in patients with BRAF mutations. Vemurafenib is frequently toxic, but the toxicity is often not serious. The third case of vemurafenib-induced drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is reported herein. The case is unusual in that the onset was early, with symptoms emerging as of day 8 of treatment. Treatment of DRESS syndrome is not currently based on precise recommendations, but systemic corticosteroid therapy is effective in serious cases. Severe toxidermias under vemurafenib are exceptional; immediate discontinuation of treatment upon diagnosis is imperative. Switching from vemurafenib to dabrafenib then seems to constitute an interesting therapeutic alternative, since its efficacy is the same but with fewer cutaneous adverse reactions. This case highlights the importance of awareness of the risk of DRESS syndrome associated with vemurafenib and monitoring for warning signs from treatment initiation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Escherichia coli early-onset sepsis: trends over two decades.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Palomar, Natalia; Balasch-Carulla, Milena; González-Di Lauro, Sabina; Céspedes, Maria Concepció; Andreu, Antònia; Frick, Marie Antoinette; Linde, Maria Ángeles; Soler-Palacin, Pere

    2017-08-02

    Escherichia coli early-onset sepsis (EOS) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, especially in preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. The aim of our study was to evaluate potential changes in the clinical and microbiological characteristics of E. coli EOS in our setting. Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological data from all neonates with proven E. coli EOS from January 1994 to December 2014 were retrospectively collected in a single tertiary care hospital in Barcelona (Spain). Seventy-eight E. coli EOS cases were analyzed. A slight increase in the incidence of E. coli EOS was observed during the study period. VLBW newborns remained the group with higher incidence (10.4 cases per 1000 live births) and mortality (35.3%). Systematic use of PCR increased E. coli EOS diagnosis, mainly in the term newborn group. There was an increase in resistant E. coli strains causing EOS, with especially high resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin (92.8 and 28.6%, respectively). Nonetheless, resistant strains were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes. There is an urgent need to reconsider the empirical therapy used in neonatal EOS, particularly in VLBW newborns. What is Known: • E. coli early-onset sepsis (EOS) and E. coli resistant strains have been described as overall stable but increasing in VLBW neonates (< 1.500 g) in previous studies. What is New: • Our study shows an increasing incidence of E. coli EOS in all age groups, overruling group B Streptoccocus for the last 10 years. E. coli resistant strains also increased equally in all age groups, with high resistance rates to our first line antibiotics (ampicillin and gentamicin). • Empiric antibiotic therapy of EOS, mainly in VLBW newborns, should be adapted to this new scenario.

  15. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management123

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors’ nutritional intake as well as how survivors’ nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. PMID:26374183

  16. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in early-onset alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Hee; Jo, Seong Jin; Paik, Seung Hwan; Jeon, Hye Chan; Kim, Kyu Han; Eun, Hee Chul; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2012-07-01

    Alopecia totalis (AT) and alopecia universalis (AU), severe forms of alopecia areata (AA), show distinguishable clinical characteristics from those of patch AA. In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics of AT/AU according to the onset age. Based on the onset age around adolescence (< or ≥ 13 yr), 108 patients were classified in an early-onset group and the other 179 patients in a late-onset group. We found that more patients in the early-onset group had a family history of AA, nail dystrophy, and history of atopic dermatitis than those in the late-onset group. These clinical differences were more prominent in patients with AU than in those with AT. In addition, significantly more patients with concomitant medical disorders, especially allergic diseases were found in the early-onset group (45.8%) than in the late-onset group (31.2%). All treatment modalities failed to show any association with the present hair condition of patients. In the early-onset group, patients with AU or a family history of AA showed worse prognosis, whereas this trend was not observed in the late-onset group. Systemic evaluations might be needed in early-onset patients due to the higher incidence of comorbid diseases. It is suggested that patients with AU or family history of AA make worse progress in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group.

  17. Early Identification of Autism: Early Characteristics, Onset of Symptoms, and Diagnostic Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.

    2009-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants who later go on to develop autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit subtle disruptions in social interest and attention, communication, temperament, and head circumference growth that occur prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These disruptions may reflect the early course of ASD development and may also…

  18. Early Identification of Autism: Early Characteristics, Onset of Symptoms, and Diagnostic Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.

    2009-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants who later go on to develop autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit subtle disruptions in social interest and attention, communication, temperament, and head circumference growth that occur prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These disruptions may reflect the early course of ASD development and may also…

  19. Hyperghrelinemia in Prader-Willi Syndrome Begins in Early Infancy Long Before the Onset of Hyperphagia

    PubMed Central

    Kweh, Frederick A.; Miller, Jennifer L.; Sulsona, Carlos R; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark; Shuster, Jonathan J.; Goldstone, Anthony P.; Driscoll, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating total ghrelin levels are elevated in older children and adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, the presence or absence of hyperghrelinemia in young children with PWS remains controversial. We hypothesized that a more robust way to analyze appetite-regulating hormones in PWS would be by nutritional phases rather than age alone. Our objectives were to compare total serum ghrelin levels in children with PWS by nutritional phase as well as to compare total ghrelin levels in PWS (5 weeks to 21 years of age) to normal weight controls and individuals with early-onset morbid obesity (EMO) without PWS. Fasting serum total ghrelin levels were measured in 60 subjects with PWS, 39 subjects with EMO of unknown etiology, and in 95 normal non-obese sibling controls of PWS or EMO subjects (SibC) in this 12 year longitudinal study. Within PWS, total ghrelin levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in earlier nutritional phases: phase 1a (7,906 ± 5,887); 1b (5,057 ± 2,624); 2a (2,905 ± 1,521); 2b (2,615 ± 1,370) and 3 (2,423 ± 1,350). Young infants with PWS also had significantly (P=0.009) higher total ghrelin levels than did the sibling controls. Nutritional phase is an important independent prognostic factor of total ghrelin levels in individuals with PWS. Circulating ghrelin levels are elevated in young children with PWS long before the onset of hyperphagia, especially during the early phase of poor appetite and feeding. Therefore, it seems unlikely that high ghrelin levels are directly responsible for the switch to the hyperphagic nutritional phases in PWS. PMID:25355237

  20. Hyperghrelinemia in Prader-Willi syndrome begins in early infancy long before the onset of hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Kweh, Frederick A; Miller, Jennifer L; Sulsona, Carlos R; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark; Shuster, Jonathan J; Goldstone, Anthony P; Driscoll, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Circulating total ghrelin levels are elevated in older children and adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, the presence or absence of hyperghrelinemia in young children with PWS remains controversial. We hypothesized that a more robust way to analyze appetite-regulating hormones in PWS would be by nutritional phases rather than age alone. Our objectives were to compare total serum ghrelin levels in children with PWS by nutritional phase as well as to compare total ghrelin levels in PWS (5 weeks to 21 years of age) to normal weight controls and individuals with early-onset morbid obesity (EMO) without PWS. Fasting serum total ghrelin levels were measured in 60 subjects with PWS, 39 subjects with EMO of unknown etiology, and in 95 normal non-obese sibling controls of PWS or EMO subjects (SibC) in this 12 year longitudinal study. Within PWS, total ghrelin levels were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in earlier nutritional phases: phase 1a (7,906  ±  5,887); 1b (5,057 ± 2,624); 2a (2,905 ± 1,521); 2b (2,615 ± 1,370) and 3 (2,423 ± 1,350). Young infants with PWS also had significantly (P = 0.009) higher total ghrelin levels than did the sibling controls. Nutritional phase is an important independent prognostic factor of total ghrelin levels in individuals with PWS. Circulating ghrelin levels are elevated in young children with PWS long before the onset of hyperphagia, especially during the early phase of poor appetite and feeding. Therefore, it seems unlikely that high ghrelin levels are directly responsible for the switch to the hyperphagic nutritional phases in PWS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dynamics of obesity paradox after stroke, related to time from onset, age, and causes of death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Chul; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2012-08-28

    Paradoxical longevity in obese patients with established disease has been documented in various conditions. We aimed to find whether such a relationship exists in ischemic stroke patients, with stratified analyses according to time of death after stroke, age, and cause of death. The Korean Stroke Registry (KSR) is a nationwide, multicenter, prospective registry of acute stroke. For 7.5 years, data on 34,132 patients with acute ischemic stroke were collected through KSR, and their mortality information was ascertained through a governmental statistical office. We assessed relative hazard of mortality according to obesity status. Stroke survivors whose body mass index (BMI) values were lower than the chosen reference level of 20-23 had increased risks of long-term mortality (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.36 and 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.25-1.48 for BMI ≤18.5; HR of 1.14 and 95% CI of 1.03-1.26 for BMI 18.5-20), whereas obese stroke patients had decreased risks of mortality (HR of 0.83 and 95% CI of 0.74-0.92 for BMI 27.5-30; HR of 0.77 and 95% CI of 0.63-0.93 for BMI 30-32.5). Inverse association between obesity status and mortality was not evident until 90 days after stroke but became significant 1 year after onset of stroke. Such an association was more prominent in stroke patients who were less than 65 years old, but it remained constant in all age groups. The paradoxical relationship remained significant, regardless of causes of death. Our results documented obesity paradox in stroke survivors, regardless of age and causes of death, and it became evident a sufficient time after stroke onset.

  2. Early childhood predictors of early onset of smoking: a birth prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Mamun, Abdullah A; Williams, Gail M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Najman, Jake M

    2013-10-01

    Early onset of smoking is associated with subsequent abuse of other substances and development of negative health outcomes. This study aimed to examine early life predictors of onset of smoking in an Australian young cohort. Data were from the Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a population-based prospective birth cohort study (1981-2012). The present study is based on a cohort of 3714 young adults who self-reported smoking status and age of onset of smoking at the 21-year follow-up. Of these, data were available for 3039 on early childhood factors collected between the baseline and 14-year follow-up of the study. Of 3714 young adults, 49.6% (49.9% males and 49.3% females) reported having ever smoked cigarettes. For those who had ever smoked, mean and median ages at first smoke were 15.5 and 16.0years, respectively. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis mother's education, change in maternal marital status, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, maternal depression and child externalizing when the child was 5years statistically significantly predicted early onset of smoking. The data suggest that individuals exposed to personal and environmental risk factors during the early stage of childhood are at increased risk of initiation to cigarette smoking at an earlier age. Identification of the pathways of association between these early life factors and initiation to cigarette smoking may help reduce risk of tobacco smoking in adolescents and its adverse consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early adiposity rebound: review of papers linking this to subsequent obesity in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachael W; Grant, Andrea M; Goulding, Ailsa; Williams, Sheila M

    2005-11-01

    Improving our understanding of factors driving fat gain in young children should increase our ability to manage the rising problem of obesity. Accordingly, studies associating timing of adiposity rebound with later obesity are reviewed. Investigations in many countries have confirmed that early adiposity rebound increases risk of high blood pressure and obesity in young adults. The magnitude of the effect can be substantial (>3 body mass index units at 18-21 years) for those undergoing early (<5 years of age) compared with late (>7 years of age) rebound. Early rebound is also associated with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes in adulthood. Because adiposity rebound is determined using serial measurements of body mass index, the actual changes in body composition occurring during this time are obscured. Recent data show that changing body mass index during adiposity rebound is due to higher than average deposition of weight rather than slowing of the rate of height gain. Moreover, this increased weight gain occurs because of rapid deposition of fat rather than lean tissue, with early rebounders gaining fat mass at almost three times the rate of late rebounders. Future work is needed to identify reasons for early adiposity rebound. Because high physical activity and low inactivity are associated with lower body fat during the period of adiposity rebound, studies should be undertaken to see whether stepping up activity can slow fat gain, delay the onset of adiposity rebound and lower adult obesity.

  4. Early Family Environments of Obese and Non-Obese College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailey, B. Jo; Sison, Gustave F. P., Jr.

    Although case studies and anecdotal information have suggested that differences exist between the early family environments of obese and non-obese individuals, no experimental research exists. Undergraduates completed the Family Environment Scale (FES) and a questionnaire concerning past and present weight information. Subjects were classified as…

  5. Pregnancy and early onset pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Musiej-Nowakowska, E.; Ploski, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study interaction of early onset pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis (EOP-JCA) and pregnancy in the Polish population, in particular to confirm the ameliorating effect of pregnancy on disease activity reported by others and to analyse the factors that govern the occurrence of postpartum flare, with emphasis on the potential role of breast feeding.
METHODS—The reproductive outcome and disease status in 39 adult women with history of EOP- JCA was examined by means of a questionnaire and an interview. In all patients the disease onset occurred before the 6th birthday, 19 had persistent pauciarticular JCA (PeEOP-JCA) and 20 had extended pauciarticular JCA (ExEOP-JCA).
RESULTS—23 women had at least one successful pregnancy, seven had unsuccessful pregnancies but all of them had also one or more successful pregnancies. Among those who have never been pregnant (n=16) there was a higher frequency of eye disease and ExEOP-JCA compared with the rest of the group. In almost all cases pregnancy was associated with remission of disease activity, however a postpartum flare appeared after 22 pregnancies (52%). The flares were more frequent in women who had an active disease before pregnancy, had a flare after a previous pregnancy and/or were breast feeding.
CONCLUSIONS—In EOP-JCA patients pregnancy generally has a good outcome and induces amelioration of disease activity. After delivery, however, a flare of disease often appears, especially in women who were breast feeding, had a postparum flare previously or had an active disease before pregnancy. The pattern of interaction between disease and pregnancy found in EOP-JCA makes EOP-JCA similar in this respect to RA, but different from systemic lupus erythematosus and ankylosing spondylitis.

 PMID:10419865

  6. Incidence of early-onset dementia in Mar del Plata.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Abraham, M; Scharovsky, D; Romano, L M; Ayala, M; Aleman, A; Sottano, E; Etchepareborda, I; Colla Machado, C; García, M I; Gonorazky, S E

    2015-03-01

    Early-onset dementia (EOD) is defined as dementia with onset before the age of 65 years. EOD is increasingly recognised as an important clinical and social problem with devastating consequences for patients and caregivers. Determine the annual crude incidence rate and the specific incidence rates by sex and age in patients with EOD, and the standardised rate using the last national census of the population of Argentina (NCPA), from 2010. Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina, attends a closed population and is the sole healthcare provider for 17 614 people. Using the database pertaining to the Geriatric Care department, we identified all patients diagnosed with EOD between 1 January, 2005 and 31 December, 2011. EOD was defined as dementia diagnosed in patients younger than 65. The study period yielded 14 patients diagnosed with EOD out of a total of 287 patients evaluated for memory concerns. The crude annual incidence of EOD was 11 per 100 000/year (CI 95%: 6.25-19.1): 17 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 7.2-33.1) in men and 8 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 3.4-17.2) in women. We observed a statistically significant increase when comparing incidence rates between patients aged 21 to <55 years and ≥ 55 to <65 years (3 vs 22 per 100 000, P=.0014). The rate adjusted by NCPA census data was 5.8 cases of EOD habitants/year. This study, conducted in a closed population, yielded an EOD incidence rate of 11 per 100 000 inhabitants/year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective epidemiological study in Argentina and in Latin America. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Early onset of fesoterodine efficacy in subjects with overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Howard B; Morrow, Jon D; Gong, Jason; Tseng, Li-Jung; Schneider, Tim

    2011-02-01

    To assess the onset of efficacy of fesoterodine 4 mg once daily on overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms after 1 week of treatment. This was a prespecified analysis of data collected during the first week of a 12-week, open-label, single-arm, flexible-dose study of fesoterodine. Eligible subjects were adult men and women (aged ≥ 18 years) who reported urinary frequency (eight or more micturitions per 24 h) and urgency (three or more episodes per 24 h) in 5-day bladder diaries at baseline, and dissatisfaction with previous tolterodine or tolterodine extended-release treatment received within 2 years of screening. All subjects received fesoterodine 4 mg once daily during the first 4 weeks of treatment (with an optional dose increase to fesoterodine 8 mg after week 4). Early onset of efficacy of fesoterodine 4 mg was assessed based on changes from baseline to week 1 in variables recorded in 5-day bladder diaries, including total micturitions, urgency episodes, urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes and nocturnal micturitions. Urgency and severe urgency episodes were defined as those rated ≥ 3 and ≥ 4, respectively, on the five-point Urinary Sensation Scale (USS) (1 = no urgency, 5 = UUI); frequency-urgency sum (a combined measure of micturition frequency and urgency) was defined as the sum of all USS ratings. All bladder diary variables, including total and nocturnal micturitions, UUI episodes, urgency episodes, severe urgency episodes and frequency-urgency sum per 24 h, were significantly improved (all P < 0.0001) after 1 week of treatment with fesoterodine 4 mg compared to baseline. The diary-dry rate at week 1 (i.e. subjects with at least one UUI episode at baseline who subsequently reported no UUI episodes on week 1 diary) was 38%. In this open-label study of subjects with OAB who had been previously treated and dissatisfied with tolterodine, fesoterodine 4 mg showed a rapid onset of efficacy at 1 week. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010 BJU

  8. Pharmacotherapy of early-onset depression. Update and new directions.

    PubMed

    Martin, A; Kaufman, J; Charney, D

    2000-01-01

    Although an increased recognition of depressive disorders in youth represents a positive conceptual change over the past decades, there still is a very limited amount of research on useful treatment interventions. The paucity of data is particularly keen for the use of psychotropic drugs. For example, by applying the criteria suggested by the International Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project, there barely are enough first-grade ("Level A," meaning at least two RCTs) data supporting the short-term efficacy of antidepressants (the SSRIs) in the treatment of juvenile depression. And yet, limited data have not translated into limited use in routine clinical practice. In fact, the use of antidepressant medications has increased exponentially over the last decade, a change that is especially conspicuous for individuals less than 18 years of age. The perceived safety of the SSRIs and other novel antidepressants is partly at the root of their increased popularity. Data regarding their safety are likewise quite limited, however, and essentially are nonexistent for longer-term use. Based on the reviewed data, a medication algorithm for the treatment of early-onset depression can be suggested (Fig. 1). The algorithm underscores the need for adequate evaluation and diagnostic assessment, with particular attention to comorbid conditions (such as a bipolar diathesis) that may dictate alternative treatment strategies. In general, psychotherapy is the initial approach to juvenile MDD, with medication use reserved for more severe cases or those not responding to psychotherapy alone. Given that only two types of psychotherapy and two SSRIs have adequate controlled short-term efficacy data, all but the initial steps must be undertaken guided by clinical judgment and an individualized risk-benefit analysis. An algorithm such as this one, based on the very limited efficacy and safety data available, may be viewed as setting priorities for a comprehensive research agenda, more than

  9. Cognitive function and psychiatric symptoms in early- and late-onset frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Toyota, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Fukuhara, Ryuji; Hokoishi, Kazuhiko; Komori, Kenjiro; Tanimukai, Satoshi; Ikeda, Manabu

    2008-01-01

    Some recent studies mentioned that late-onset frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is more common than previously assumed. Although much research has been done in the field, there are no systematic studies which have compared clinical characteristics of early- and late-onset FTD. The aim of this study was to compare cognitive function and psychiatric symptoms in patients with early- and late-onset FTD. Study participants were consecutive outpatients. There were 35 FTD patients; their mean age at onset was 63.0 years. We studied sex, education, duration from onset to consultation, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) scores, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores at first consultation of early- and late-onset FTD patients. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, education, CDR scores, and duration from onset to consultation. There were significant differences in the total MMSE scores, 'three-word recall task', 'construction task', and RCPM scores; late-onset groups scored significantly lower than early-onset groups. There were significant differences in the apathy domain of NPI and total NPI scores; late-onset groups scored significantly higher than early-onset groups. Late-onset FTD patients may have memory and visuospatial deficits in addition to their behavioural changes, even if they are clinically diagnosed according to consensus diagnostic criteria. They also present more apathy, and they may have a different histolopathological background. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Early-onset status epilepticus in patients with acute encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Romain; Mariotte, Eric; Neuville, Mathilde; Minaud, Sébastien; Magalhaes, Eric; Ruckly, Stéphane; Cantier, Marie; Voiriot, Guillaume; Radjou, Aguila; Smonig, Roland; Soubirou, Jean-François; Mourvillier, Bruno; Bouadma, Lila; Wolff, Michel; Timsit, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Status epilepticus (SE) is a common complication of acute encephalitis, but its determinants and prognostic value in this setting are not known. Risk factors for early-onset SE (within 48 hours of intensive care unit [ICU] admission) in consecutive adult patients with all-cause encephalitis admitted to the medical ICU of a university hospital (1991–2013) were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. To examine the prognostic value of SE, patients were classified into 3 groups: no SE, nonrefractory SE (NRSE), and refractory SE (RSE). Poor neurologic outcome was defined by a modified Rankin score of 4 to 6. Among the 290 patients, 58 (20%, 95% CI: 15%–25%) developed early-onset SE, comprising 44 patients with NRSE and 14 patients with RSE. Coma (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5–6.3), cortical lesions on neuroimaging (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.8–7.8), and nonneurologic organ failure(s) (adjusted OR: 13.6, 95% CI: 4.9–37.7) were found to be independent risk factors for SE. By contrast, a bacterial etiology had a protective effect (adjusted OR: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1–0.7). Age, body temperature, and blood sodium levels were not independently associated with SE. Poor neurologic outcomes were observed at day 90 in respectively 23% (95% CI: 17%–28%), 23% (95% CI: 10%–35%), and 71% (95% CI: 48%–95%) of no SE, NRSE, and RSE patients (P < 0.01). After adjusting for confounders, RSE, but not NRSE, remained independently associated with 90-day mortality (adjusted OR: 6.0, 95% CI: 1.5–23.3). Coma, cortical involvement on neuroimaging, and nonneurologic organ failure(s) are independent risk factors for SE in patients with acute encephalitis. Conversely, a bacterial etiology is associated with a lower risk of SE. These findings may help identify patients who may benefit from prophylactic antiepileptic drugs. PMID:27472682

  11. Early-onset sensorineural hearing loss in Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Ibekwe, T S; Okokhere, P O; Asogun, D; Blackie, F F; Nwegbu, M M; Wahab, K W; Omilabu, S A; Akpede, G O

    2011-02-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease which affects one-fourth to two million people annually with the fatality rate of about 10,000. It is associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) usually at the convalescent stage. Recently, cases of SNHL at the acute phase have been reported. This study was done to further investigate the incidence and features of SNHL in acute phase of LF. It is a prospective case-control study of LF patients seen with acute SNHL conducted between July 2007 and April 2009 at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital Nigeria. The diagnosis of acute LF was based on the clinical features and detection of IgM antibodies and/or positive Lassa virus-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using primers S36+ and LVS 339 while SNHL was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with PTA and speech discrimination tests. Patients with other acute febrile illnesses were used as control. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 11 and Fisher's exact test while level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Out of the 37 confirmed cases of LF, 5 (13.5%) and none (0%) of the control developed early-onset SNHL (p = 0.03). Forty percent of the cases studied had negative IgM. The audiograms showed involvement at all frequency groups with pure tone average 65-85 dB and the speech discrimination 20-40%. The overall case fatality rate was 27.0%, and for early SNHL cases 60.0% (p > 0.05). The incidence of SNHL in LF infection is about 13.5% and could be a reflection of a worse disease process. There is possibility of direct viral invasion aside immunological reaction as a causative mechanism.

  12. Early onset of ghrelin production in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Fletcher, Terry P; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2009-02-27

    Ghrelin regulates appetite in mammals and can stimulate growth hormone (GH) release from the pituitary. In rats and humans, ghrelin cells appear in the stomach during late fetal life. Nevertheless, the role of ghrelin in early mammalian development is not well understood. Marsupials deliver highly altricial young that weigh less than 1g so they must feed and digest milk at a comparatively immature stage of development. Since they complete their growth and differentiation while in the pouch, they are accessible models in which to determine the time course of ghrelin production during development. We examined the distribution of gastric ghrelin cells, plasma ghrelin concentrations and pituitary expression of the ghrelin receptor (ghsr-1alpha) and GH in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. There were ghrelin immunopositive cells in the developing mesenchyme of the stomach from day 10 post partum (pp) to day 150pp. Subsequently ghrelin protein in the fore-stomach declined and was absent by day 250pp but remained in the gastric cells of the hind-stomach. Ghrelin was detected in the developing pancreas from day 10pp but was absent by day 150pp and in the adult. Pituitary ghsr-1alpha expression and plasma concentrations of ghrelin increased significantly up to day 70-120pp while GH expression was also elevated, declining with GH to reach adult levels by day 180pp. These results demonstrate an early onset of gastric ghrelin expression in the tammar in concert with a functional stomach at a relatively earlier stage than that of developmentally more mature eutherian young.

  13. Exploring the role of BCHE in the onset of Diabetes, Obesity and Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rao, Allam Appa; Jyothsna, Gundlapally; Shalini, Pulipati; Kumar, Amit; Bhattacharya, Anupam; Kashyap, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes, Obesity and Neurological disturbances, most often show co-occurrence. There has been an extensive research in this domain, but the exact mechanism underlying the co-occurrence of the three conditions is still an enigma. The current paper is an approach to establish the role of Butyryl cholinesterase (BCHE) in Diabetes, Obesity and Neurological disorders by performing a comparative analysis with Neuroligin (NLGN2) a protein belonging to the same family. BCHE has its role in glucose regulation, Lipid metabolism and nerve signaling. Emphasis is laid on BCHE's diverse functions whose impediment affects the above mentioned metabolic pathways. Insilco techniques were employed to analyze the sequence, structural and functional similarities of the two proteins. A point mutation is focused which is common to both BCHE and Neuroligin. The mutation occurs at the homologous position in both the proteins making them deficient. This affects the three metabolic pathways leading to the respective disorders. The work describes the pathway that describes the role of BCHE in the onset of obesity mediated diabetes. The pathway further explains the association between Diabetes, Obesity and neurological disturbances.

  14. Central obesity in the elderly is related to late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, José A; Cheng, Derek; Tang, Ming Xin; Schupf, Nicole; Mayeux, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The evidence relating obesity measured with body mass index (BMI) in the elderly to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is conflicting. Central obesity in middle age is related to a higher risk of LOAD, but data in the elderly are lacking. We explored whether measures of central obesity, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were better predictors of LOAD compared with BMI in the elderly. Participants were 1459 persons aged 65 years and older without dementia at baseline, with follow-up, and with anthropometric data from a longitudinal study of aging in New York City. Proportional hazards regression was used for multivariable analyses relating BMI, waist circumference, and WHR to LOAD. There were 145 cases of Alzheimer disease in 5734 person-years of follow-up. Only WHR was related to higher LOAD risk (hazard ratio of the fourth quartile compared with the first=2.5; 95% confidence interval=1.3, 4.7) after adjustment for age, sex, education, ethnic group, Apolipoprotein E-ε4, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and stroke. Our results support the notion that central obesity is related to a higher risk of LOAD.

  15. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  16. Molecular genetics of early-onset Alzheimer's disease revisited.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Rita; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2016-06-01

    As the discovery of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) genes, APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2, in families with autosomal dominant early-onset AD (EOAD), gene discovery in familial EOAD came more or less to a standstill. Only 5% of EOAD patients are carrying a pathogenic mutation in one of the AD genes or a apolipoprotein E (APOE) risk allele ε4, most of EOAD patients remain unexplained. Here, we aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of EOAD genetics and its role in ongoing approaches to understand the biology of AD and disease symptomatology as well as developing new therapeutics. Next, we explored the possible molecular mechanisms that might underlie the missing genetic etiology of EOAD and discussed how the use of massive parallel sequencing technologies triggered novel gene discoveries. To conclude, we commented on the relevance of reinvestigating EOAD patients as a means to explore potential new avenues for translational research and therapeutic discoveries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurocognition in early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Giuliano, Anthony J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A; Findling, Robert L; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship of different variables of illness severity and adaptive behavior to neuropsychological functioning. Participants ranged in age from 8 to 19 years. Diagnostic status was confirmed via structured interview over multiple time points. Domains of neuropsychological functioning included fine-motor, attention, working memory, problem-solving efficiency, inhibitory control, and social cognition. Other variables included intelligence (IQ), academic achievement skills, adaptive behavior, and different measures of illness severity. The two groups did not differ on IQ or on any of the neuropsychological domains. The SZ group performed significantly lower in spelling. A high proportion of individuals in both groups reflected significant intellectual and academic achievement skill deficits. Significant correlations were found between the neurocognitive domains and both illness severity and adaptive behavior variables. There were few differences between the SZ and SA groups on IQ, achievement, or neuropsychological functioning; however, both groups showed significantly high rates of deficits in IQ and basic academic skills. Correlations of the neurocognitive functions with illness severity and adaptive behavior were small to moderate in magnitude. These findings continue to implicate the importance of neurocognitive functioning as a key area of vulnerability in the study of youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  18. Unexplained early onset epileptic encephalopathy: Exome screening and phenotype expansion.

    PubMed

    Allen, Nicholas M; Conroy, Judith; Shahwan, Amre; Lynch, Bryan; Correa, Raony G; Pena, Sergio D J; McCreary, Dara; Magalhães, Tiago R; Ennis, Sean; Lynch, Sally A; King, Mary D

    2016-01-01

    Early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) represent a significant diagnostic challenge. Newer genomic approaches have begun to elucidate an increasing number of responsible single genes as well as emerging diagnostic strategies. In this single-center study, we aimed to investigate a cohort of children with unexplained EOEE. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES), targeting a list of 137 epilepsy-associated genes on 50 children with unexplained EOEE. We characterized all phenotypes in detail and classified children according to known electroclinical syndromes where possible. Infants with previous genetic diagnoses, causative brain malformations, or inborn errors of metabolism were excluded. We identified disease-causing variants in 11 children (22%) in the following genes: STXBP1 (n = 3), KCNB1 (n = 2), KCNT1, SCN1A, SCN2A, GRIN2A, DNM1, and KCNA2. We also identified two further variants (in GRIA3 and CPA6) in two children requiring further investigation. Eleven variants were de novo, and in one paternal testing was not possible. Phenotypes were broadened for some variants identified. This study demonstrates that WES is a clinically useful screening tool for previously investigated unexplained EOEE and allows for reanalysis of data as new genes are being discovered. Detailed phenotyping allows for expansion of specific gene disorders leading to epileptic encephalopathy and emerging sub-phenotypes. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. The Association Between Heroin Inhalation and Early Onset Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Walker, Paul P; Thwaite, Erica; Amin, Suzanne; Curtis, John M; Calverley, Peter M A

    2015-11-01

    Inhalation/smoking has become the most common method of recreational opiate consumption in the United Kingdom and other countries. Although some heroin smokers appear to develop COPD, little is known about the association. We present data from a cohort of 73 heroin smokers with clinician-diagnosed and spirometrically confirmed COPD, seen within our clinical service, where symptoms developed before the age of 40 years. The whole group mean age at diagnosis was 41 years, subjects had smoked heroin for 14 years, and mean FEV1 was 1.08 L (31.5% predicted), with mean FEV1/FVC of 0.4. No subject was found to have severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Forty-four subjects had either a high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan (32) or measurement of lung diffusion (12). Overall HRCT scan emphysema score averaged across the upper, middle, and lower part of the lung was 2.3 (5%-25% emphysema), with 47% subjects having an upper lobe emphysema score ≥ 3 (25%-50% emphysema). Median diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was 48% of predicted value. Recreational smoking of heroin appears to lead to early onset COPD with a predominant emphysema phenotype. This message is important to both clinicians and the public, and targeted screening and education of this high-risk population may be justified.

  20. Neuronal correlates of facial emotion discrimination in early onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Seiferth, Nina Y; Pauly, Katharina; Kellermann, Thilo; Shah, N Jon; Ott, Gudrun; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Kircher, Tilo; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2009-01-01

    Emotion discrimination deficits represent a well-established finding in schizophrenia. Although imaging studies addressed the cerebral dysfunctions underlying emotion perception in adult patients, the question of trait vs state characteristics is still unresolved. The investigation of juvenile patients offers the advantage of studying schizophrenia at an age where influences of illness course and long-term medication are minimized. This may enable a more detailed characterization of emotion discrimination impairments and their cerebral correlates with respect to their appearance and exact nature. A total of 12 juvenile patients with early onset schizophrenia and matched healthy juveniles participated in this study. fMRI data were acquired during an emotion discrimination task consisting of standardized photographs of faces displaying happy, sad, angry, fearful, or neutral facial expression. Similar to findings in adult patients, juvenile patients exhibited reduced performance specificity whereas sensitivity was unaffected. Independent of the valence, their processing of emotional faces was associated with hypoactivations in both fusiform gyri and in the left inferior occipital gyrus. In addition, hyperactivations in patients were found in the right cuneus common to happy, angry, and fearful faces. Further, most distinct changes were present in juvenile patients when processing sad faces. These results point to a dysfunction in cerebral circuits relevant for emotion processing already prominent in adolescent schizophrenia patients. Regions affected by a decrease in activation are related to visual and face processing, similar to deficits reported in adult patients. These changes are accompanied by hyperactivations in areas related to emotion regulation and attribution, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms.

  1. Psychosocial impact of early onset dementia among caregivers.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Nathália R S; Maffioletti, Virgínia L R; Santos, Raquel L; Baptista, Maria Alice Tourinho; Dourado, Marcia C N

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of early onset dementia (EOD) as a significant clinical and social problem because of its effects on physical and mental health of people with dementia (PWD) and their caregivers. To analyze the psychosocial impact of EOD in family caregivers. The study design was qualitative. Nine EOD caregivers (7 women) were recruited at a service for Alzheimer's disease and assessed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze caregivers' reports. Five themes emerged from the narratives: psychological and emotional impact; physical impact; financial and professional impact; social impact and need for support services. The majority of the caregivers of people with EOD perceived their emotional wellbeing as poor or extremely poor. Carers reported poor physical health, which tends to be longer-lasting than mental health problems. Two caregivers had to retire after the disclosure of the dementia diagnosis, and seven reduced their work loads because they had to look after PWD. Preserving the abilities of PWD is essential to maintain their self-esteem, dignity and sense of utility. For the caregivers, interventions and stimulating activities make PWD feel worthwhile and contribute to improving life. The caregivers of people with EOD assume the role of caregiver prematurely and need to balance this activity with other responsibilities. There is a need for more studies of EOD in order to improve understanding of the impact of this disease and to enable development of adequate services for PWD and their caregivers.

  2. Biallelic TBCD Mutations Cause Early-Onset Neurodegenerative Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Noriko; Fukai, Ryoko; Ohba, Chihiro; Chihara, Takahiro; Miura, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Imagawa, Eri; Shiina, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Okuno-Yuguchi, Jiu; Fueki, Noboru; Ogiso, Yoshifumi; Suzumura, Hiroshi; Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Imataka, George; Leong, Huey Yin; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Kramer, Uri; Miyatake, Satoko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo; Kaneko, Naofumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Tamura, Tomohiko; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-10-06

    We describe four families with affected siblings showing unique clinical features: early-onset (before 1 year of age) progressive diffuse brain atrophy with regression, postnatal microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, muscle weakness/atrophy, and respiratory failure. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified biallelic TBCD mutations in eight affected individuals from the four families. TBCD encodes TBCD (tubulin folding co-factor D), which is one of five tubulin-specific chaperones playing a pivotal role in microtubule assembly in all cells. A total of seven mutations were found: five missense mutations, one nonsense, and one splice site mutation resulting in a frameshift. In vitro cell experiments revealed the impaired binding between most mutant TBCD proteins and ARL2, TBCE, and β-tubulin. The in vivo experiments using olfactory projection neurons in Drosophila melanogaster indicated that the TBCD mutations caused loss of function. The wide range of clinical severity seen in this neurodegenerative encephalopathy may result from the residual function of mutant TBCD proteins. Furthermore, the autopsied brain from one deceased individual showed characteristic neurodegenerative findings: cactus and somatic sprout formations in the residual Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, which are also seen in some diseases associated with mitochondrial impairment. Defects of microtubule formation caused by TBCD mutations may underlie the pathomechanism of this neurodegenerative encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-onset arthritis in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Marshall, Stephen W; Callahan, Leigh F; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players. Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players. Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4 to 1.9). In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.

  4. Sex-specific cognitive abnormalities in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Moreno-Granados, Josefa; Salcedo-Marin, Maria D; Barrigon, Maria L; Blanco-Morales, Maria J; Igunza, Evelio; Cañabate, Anselmo; Garcia, Maria D; Guijarro, Teresa; Diaz-Atienza, Francisco; Ferrin, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls. We compared a group of 80 boys and girls with first-episode psychosis to a group of controls. We found interactions between group and sex in verbal working memory (p = 0.04) and auditory attention (p = 0.01). The female controls showed better working memory (p = 0.01) and auditory attention (p = 0.001) than males. However, we did not find any sex differences in working memory (p = 0.91) or auditory attention (p = 0.93) in the psychosis group. These results are consistent with the presence of sex-modulated cognitive profiles at first presentation of early-onset psychosis.

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk factors after early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, Jan H W; Hermes, Wietske; Breimer, Anath Y; van Rijn, Bas B; Koenen, Steven V; Mol, Ben W; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Koster, Maria P H

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investigated whether these differences in CVD risk factors are already present at postpartum cardiovascular screening. We evaluated postpartum differences in CVD risk factors in 3 subgroups of patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy. We compared the prevalence of common CVD risk factors postpartum among 448 women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 76 women with previous late-onset preeclampsia, and 224 women with previous pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia were compared with women with late-onset preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (5.29 versus 4.80 and 4.83 mmol/L), insulin (9.12 versus 6.31 and 6.7 uIU/L), triglycerides (1.32 versus 1.02 and 0.97 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (5.14 versus 4.73 and 4.73 mmol/L). Almost half of the early-onset preeclampsia women had developed hypertension, as opposed to 39% and 25% of women in the pregnancy-induced hypertension and late-onset preeclampsia groups, respectively. Our data show differences in the prevalence of common modifiable CVD risk factors postpartum and suggest that prevention strategies should be stratified according to severity and gestational age of onset for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

  6. Racial and ethnic differences in obesity and overweight as predictors of the onset of functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liang; Wu, Bei

    2014-01-01

    To examine racial and ethnic differences in the effects of body mass index (BMI) on the onset of functional impairment over 10 years of follow-up. Longitudinal analyses of a cohort from a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling American adults. Six waves (1996-2006) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Two groups of HRS participants aged 50 and older without functional impairment at baseline (1996): 5,884 with no mobility difficulty and 8,484 with no activity of daily living (ADL) difficulty. Mobility difficulty was a composite measure of difficulty walking several blocks, walking one block, climbing several flights of stairs, and climbing one flight of stairs. ADL difficulty was measured as difficulty in dressing, bathing or showering, eating, and getting in and out of bed without help. The association between baseline BMI and risk of developing functional impairment was estimated using generalized estimating equation models. Overweight and obesity were significant predictors of functional impairment. Overweight and obese Hispanics were 41% and 91% more likely, respectively, to develop ADL disability than whites in the same BMI categories. Overweight and severely obese blacks were also more likely than their white counterparts to develop ADL disability. Risk of developing ADL difficulty was higher for Hispanics than for blacks in the obese category. No significant differences in onset of mobility difficulty were found between racial or ethnic groups within any BMI category. Blacks and Hispanics were at higher risk than whites of ADL but not mobility impairment. In addition to weight control, prevention efforts should promote exercise to reduce functional impairment, especially for blacks and Hispanics, who are at higher risk. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Obesity and Overweight as Predictors of the Onset of Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liang; Wu, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine racial/ethnic differences in the effects of body mass index (BMI) on the onset of functional impairment over 10 years of follow-up. Design Longitudinal analyses of a cohort from a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling American adults. Setting Six waves (1996-2006) of US Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Participants Two groups of HRS participants aged ≥50 without functional impairment at baseline (1996): 5,884 with no mobility difficulty, and 8,484 with no Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) difficulty. Measurements Mobility difficulty was a composite measure of difficulty in walking several blocks, walking one block, climbing several flights of stairs, and climbing one floor of stairs. ADL difficulty was measured by difficulty in dressing, bathing or showing, eating, and getting in or out of bed without help. The association between the baseline BMI categories and risk to develop functional impairment was estimated using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models. Results Overweight and obesity were significant predictors for functional impairment. Compared to the Whites in the same overweight and obese categories, Hispanics were 41% and 91% more likely to develop ADL disability. Blacks in the overweight and severely obese categories were also more likely than their White counterparts to develop ADL disability. Risk of developing ADL difficulty was higher for Hispanics than for Blacks in the obese category. For onset of mobility difficulty, no significant differences were found across racial/ethnic groups within any BMI Category. Conclusion Blacks and Hispanics were at higher risk than Whites for ADL but not mobility impairment. In addition to weight control, prevention efforts should promote exercise to reduce functional impairment, especially for Blacks and Hispanics, who are at higher risk. PMID:24384026

  8. Cerebral Cell Renewal in Adult Mice Controls the Onset of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gouazé, Alexandra; Brenachot, Xavier; Rigault, Caroline; Krezymon, Alice; Rauch, Camille; Nédélec, Emmanuelle; Lemoine, Aleth; Gascuel, Jean; Bauer, Sylvian; Pénicaud, Luc; Benani, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in the control of the energy balance and also retains neurogenic potential into adulthood. Recent studies have reported the severe alteration of the cell turn-over in the hypothalamus of obese animals and it has been proposed that a neurogenic deficiency in the hypothalamus could be involved in the development of obesity. To explore this possibility, we examined hypothalamic cell renewal during the homeostatic response to dietary fat in mice, i.e., at the onset of diet-induced obesity. We found that switching to high-fat diet (HFD) accelerated cell renewal in the hypothalamus through a local, rapid and transient increase in cell proliferation, peaking three days after introducing the HFD. Blocking HFD-induced cell proliferation by central delivery of an antimitotic drug prevented the food intake normalization observed after HFD introduction and accelerated the onset of obesity. This result showed that HFD-induced dividing brain cells supported an adaptive anorectic function. In addition, we found that the percentage of newly generated neurons adopting a POMC-phenotype in the arcuate nucleus was increased by HFD. This observation suggested that the maturation of neurons in feeding circuits was nutritionally regulated to adjust future energy intake. Taken together, these results showed that adult cerebral cell renewal was remarkably responsive to nutritional conditions. This constituted a physiological trait required to prevent severe weight gain under HFD. Hence this report highlighted the amazing plasticity of feeding circuits and brought new insights into our understanding of the nutritional regulation of the energy balance. PMID:23967273

  9. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation: review and update.

    PubMed

    Patwari, Pallavi P; Wolfe, Lisa F

    2014-08-01

    The focus of this review is to compare and contrast two orphan disorders of late-onset hypoventilation. Specifically, rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) are distinct in presentation, pathophysiology, and etiology. While limited new information is available, appreciation and understanding of rare disorders can be attained through case reports. Recent literature in ROHHAD has included case reports with new findings that may provide insight into pathophysiology involving possible aberrant immune process and dysregulation at the level of the orexinergic system. The etiology of ROHHAD continues to be elusive. The hope is that, with growing recognition, discussion, and investigation into the overlap of ROHHAD with disorders outside congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, further advancement will be made.

  10. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases. PMID:27275827

  11. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, Marie Françoise; Akrout, Mouna; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-06-06

    There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI) trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life ("The first 1000 days"). Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  12. Evidence for apolipoprotein E {epsilon}4 association in early-onset Alzheimer`s patients with late-onset relatives

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Tur, J.; Delacourte, A.; Chartier-Harlin, M.C.

    1995-12-18

    Recently several reports have extended the apolipoprotein E (APOE) {epsilon}4 association found in late-onset Alzheimer`s disease (LOAD) patients to early-onset (EO) AD patients. We have studied this question in a large population of 119 EOAD patients (onset {<=}60 years) in which family history was carefully assessed and in 109 controls. We show that the APOE {epsilon}A allele frequency is increased only in the subset of patients who belong to families where LOAD secondary cases are present. Our sampling scheme permits us to demonstrate that, for an individual, bearing at least one {epsilon}4 allele increases both the risk of AD before age 60 and the probability of belonging to a family with late-onset affected subjects. Our results suggest that a subset of EOAD cases shares a common determinism with LOAD cases. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Distributional Cues and the Onset Bias in Early Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babineau, Mireille; Shi, Rushen

    2014-01-01

    In previous infant studies on statistics-based word segmentation, the unit of statistical computation was always aligned with the syllabic edge, which had a consonant onset. The current study addressed whether the learning system imposes a constraint that favors word forms beginning with a consonant onset over those beginning with an onsetless…

  14. Association of FTO polymorphisms with early age of obesity in obese Italian subjects.

    PubMed

    Sentinelli, Federica; Incani, Michela; Coccia, Federica; Capoccia, Danila; Cambuli, Valentina Maria; Romeo, Stefano; Cossu, Efisio; Cavallo, Maria Gisella; Leonetti, Frida; Baroni, Marco Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a major health problem worldwide. Genetic factors play a major role in obesity, and genomewide association studies have provided evidence that several common variants within the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are significantly associated with obesity. Very limited data is available on FTO in the Italian population. Aims of our study are to investigate: (1) the association of FTO gene SNPs rs9939609 and rs9930506 with body mass index (BMI) and obesity-related parameters in a large cohort (n = 752) of Italian obese subjects; (2) the association between the two FTO SNPs and age of onset of obesity. Our results demonstrate a strong association between FTO SNPs rs9939609 (P < 0.043) and rs9930506 (P < 0.029) with BMI in the Italian population. FTO rs9930506 was significantly associated with higher BMI in a G allele dose-dependent manner (BMI + 1.4 kg/m² per G allele). We also observed that the association with BMI of the two FTO variants varied with age, with the carriers of the risk alleles developing an increase in body weight earlier in life. In conclusion, our study further demonstrates a role of the genetic variability in FTO on BMI in a large Italian population.

  15. Maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development attenuates the renal innate inflammatory response in obese young adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Don; Gardner, David S; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2009-11-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for developing chronic kidney disease. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin (IL)-18, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are important components of the innate immune system mediating inflammatory renal damage. Early to midgestation maternal nutrient restriction appears to protect the kidney from the deleterious effects of early onset obesity, although the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the combined effects of gestational maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development and early onset obesity on the renal innate immune response in offspring. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to a normal (control, 100%) or nutrient-restricted (NR, 50%) diet from days 30 to 80 gestation and 100% thereafter. Offspring were killed humanely at 7 days or, following rearing in an obesogenic environment, at 1 yr of age, and renal tissues were collected. IL-18 and TLR4 expression were strongly correlated irrespective of intervention. Seven-day NR offspring had significantly lower relative renal mass and IL-18 mRNA expression. At 1 yr of age, obesity resulted in increased mRNA abundance of TLR4, IL-18, and UCP2, coupled with tubular atrophy and greater immunohistological staining of glomerular IL-6 and medullary tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. NR obese offspring had a marked reduction of TLR4 abundance and renal IL-6 staining. In conclusion, maternal nutrient restriction during early fetal kidney development attenuates the effects of early onset obesity-related nephropathy, in part, through the downregulation of the innate inflammatory response. A better understanding of maternal nutrition and the in utero nutritional environment may offer therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing the burden of later kidney disease.

  16. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 families in Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nuhu, Folorunsho Tajudeen; Eseigbe, Edwin Ehi; Issa, Baba Awoye; Gomina, Michael Omeiza

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are subpopulations for genetic studies. We present 2 families with heavy genetic loading who have adolescents with schizophrenia.

  17. Strong family history and early onset of schizophrenia: about 2 families in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nuhu, Folorunsho Tajudeen; Eseigbe, Edwin Ehi; Issa, Baba Awoye; Gomina, Michael Omeiza

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychotic disorder and high genetic loading is associated with early onset of the disease. The outcome of schizophrenia has also been linked with the age of onset as well as the presence of family history of the disease. Therefore families with patients with early onset Schizophrenia are subpopulations for genetic studies. We present 2 families with heavy genetic loading who have adolescents with schizophrenia. PMID:28154637

  18. Child and Adolescent (Early Onset) Schizophrenia: A Review in Light of DSM-III-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John S.

    1992-01-01

    This review of studies of early onset schizophrenia examines the nosological similarity between adult and early onset schizophrenia, differential diagnosis, treatment, and the extent to which children and adolescents diagnosed as having schizophrenia using adult criteria have the characteristic adult correlates. The paper discusses gender…

  19. Verbal and Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…

  20. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E.; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early…

  1. Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question…

  2. Verbal and Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…

  3. Child and Adolescent (Early Onset) Schizophrenia: A Review in Light of DSM-III-R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werry, John S.

    1992-01-01

    This review of studies of early onset schizophrenia examines the nosological similarity between adult and early onset schizophrenia, differential diagnosis, treatment, and the extent to which children and adolescents diagnosed as having schizophrenia using adult criteria have the characteristic adult correlates. The paper discusses gender…

  4. Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors as Predictors of Sexual Onset in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boislard, Marie-Aude P.; Dussault, Frédéric; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study had three goals: (a) assessing the predictive association of externalizing and internalizing behaviors during childhood with sexual onset during early adolescence; (b) examining the interactive link of externalizing and internalizing behaviors with early sexual onset; and (c) investigating the moderating effect of gender in this…

  5. Children with Very Early Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatani, Eriko; Krebs, Georgina; Micali, Nadia; Turner, Cynthia; Heyman, Isobel; Mataix-Cols, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is emerging evidence that early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may be a phenomenologically distinct subtype of the disorder. Previous research has shown that individuals who report an early onset display greater severity and persistence of symptoms, and they may be less responsive to treatment. To date, this question…

  6. Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors as Predictors of Sexual Onset in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boislard, Marie-Aude P.; Dussault, Frédéric; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study had three goals: (a) assessing the predictive association of externalizing and internalizing behaviors during childhood with sexual onset during early adolescence; (b) examining the interactive link of externalizing and internalizing behaviors with early sexual onset; and (c) investigating the moderating effect of gender in this…

  7. Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez-Pastrana, Maria C.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael A.; Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with early onset of sexual intercourse. Within an ecological system's conceptual framework, familial factors associated with early onset of sexual activity were identified in a sample of 425 adolescents from San Juan metro area schools. Measures included questions about sexual activity,…

  8. Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez-Pastrana, Maria C.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael A.; Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with early onset of sexual intercourse. Within an ecological system's conceptual framework, familial factors associated with early onset of sexual activity were identified in a sample of 425 adolescents from San Juan metro area schools. Measures included questions about sexual activity,…

  9. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E.; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early…

  10. Deficits in Facial Expression Recognition in Male Adolescents with Early-Onset or Adolescence-Onset Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Calder, Andrew J.; Stollery, Sarah J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined whether conduct disorder (CD) is associated with deficits in facial expression recognition and, if so, whether these deficits are specific to the early-onset form of CD, which emerges in childhood. The findings could potentially inform the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour, which suggests that…

  11. Deficits in Facial Expression Recognition in Male Adolescents with Early-Onset or Adolescence-Onset Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Calder, Andrew J.; Stollery, Sarah J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined whether conduct disorder (CD) is associated with deficits in facial expression recognition and, if so, whether these deficits are specific to the early-onset form of CD, which emerges in childhood. The findings could potentially inform the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour, which suggests that…

  12. Making a Difference in Early Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Dan

    2009-01-01

    News reports calling attention to the steady increase in the number of overweight adults have become an accepted part of our media landscape. Worse still, warnings continue that more and more young children, like the adults who care for them, are carrying too much weight. Unfortunately, this bad news about our growing obesity problem isn't just…

  13. Making a Difference in Early Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Dan

    2009-01-01

    News reports calling attention to the steady increase in the number of overweight adults have become an accepted part of our media landscape. Worse still, warnings continue that more and more young children, like the adults who care for them, are carrying too much weight. Unfortunately, this bad news about our growing obesity problem isn't just…

  14. Early onset recurrent subtype of adolescent depression: clinical and psychosocial correlates.

    PubMed

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R

    2008-04-01

    Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed. Eight-hundred sixteen youth were studied at age 15, and 699 were included at age 20, with diagnostic evaluations and assessments of functioning in major roles. Youth with early onset and recurrent MDE differed from both those with early onset but nonrecurrent MDE and those with later onset-no recurrence in terms of clinical features, adolescent social functioning, and later psychosocial adjustment. The early onset recurrent depressed youth had more severe, chronic, suicidal depressions, greater anxiety comorbidity, worse social functioning at 15, and poorer psychosocial, especially social, outcomes at 20. Youth with depression by 15 with recurrence by age 20 may represent a high-risk group, with likely life-course-persistent depression and maladjustment. Community youth whose early depression does not recur by age 20, or who have onset with no recurrence after age 15, may have more benign and possibly limited depressions. Later onset with recurrence is also a group at risk for dysfunctional outcomes, requiring further follow-up.

  15. Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    von Dadelszen, P; Dwinnell, S; Magee, L A; Carleton, B C; Gruslin, A; Lee, B; Lim, K I; Liston, R M; Miller, S P; Rurak, D; Sherlock, R L; Skoll, M A; Wareing, M M; Baker, P N

    2011-04-01

    Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction. BJOG 2011;118:624-628. Currently, there is no effective therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the myometrial arteries isolated from women with IUGR-complicated pregnancies. Women were offered Sildenafil (25 mg three times daily until delivery) if their pregnancy was complicated by early-onset IUGR [abdominal circumference (AC)< 5th percentile] and either the gestational age was <25(+0) weeks or an estimate of the fetal weight was <600 g (excluding known fetal anomaly/syndrome and/or planned termination). Sildenafil treatment was associated with increased fetal AC growth [odds ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3, 126; compared with institutional Sildenafil-naive early-onset IUGR controls]. Randomised controlled trial data are required to determine whether Sildenafil improves perinatal outcomes for early-onset IUGR-complicated pregnancies.

  16. Early- versus late-onset systemic sclerosis: differences in clinical presentation and outcome in 1037 patients.

    PubMed

    Alba, Marco A; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ≤ 30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ≥ 60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients.

  17. Early gestational age at preeclampsia onset is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis 12 years after delivery.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Martin; Kronborg, Camilla Skovhus; Carlsen, Rasmus Kirkeskov; Eldrup, Nikolaj; Knudsen, Ulla Breth

    2017-09-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. However, it is unclear whether early gestational age at preeclampsia onset is associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. This study aimed to test the association between gestational age at preeclampsia onset (including the early-onset/late-onset preeclampsia distinction) and subclinical atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in age-matched women 12 years after index pregnancy. Eligible participants were identified in two Danish registries. Main outcome measures were carotid plaque presence, carotid intima-media thickness, aortic pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index adjusted for heart rate. Twenty-four women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 24 with previous late-onset preeclampsia and 24 with previous normotensive pregnancies were included after matching on age (±2 years) and time since delivery (±1 year). In all outcome measures, the early-onset group had the highest percentage or mean value. In the adjusted analysis, the early-onset group significantly differed from the late-onset group in all outcome measures except aortic pulse wave velocity. The early-onset group also had significantly higher carotid intima-media thickness (average and left) compared with the normotensive group. Gestational age at preeclampsia onset as a continuous variable was significantly associated to both carotid plaque presence and carotid intima-media thickness (average and right). Gestational age at preeclampsia onset is negatively associated with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis 12 years after delivery. Potentially, gestational age at preeclampsia onset might be helpful in directing cardiovascular disease prevention after preeclampsia. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Early- and late-onset essential tremor patients represent clinically distinct subgroups.

    PubMed

    Hopfner, Franziska; Ahlf, Anjuli; Lorenz, Delia; Klebe, Stephan; Zeuner, Kirsten E; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Deuschl, Günther

    2016-10-01

    Essential tremor is a very common disease defined by sparse clinical criteria. It is unlikely that essential tremor is an etiologically homogeneous disease. Stratifying broadly defined diseases using clinical characteristics has often aided the etiopathological understanding. Most studies of essential tremor show 2 distinct age at onset peaks: early and late. This study investigates phenotypical differences between early- and late-onset essential tremor patients. We studied a sample of 1137 tremor patients. Of these patients, 978 suffered from definite or probable essential tremor. All of the patients underwent the same standardized examination encompassing, among other items, drawing of the Archimedes spiral and assessment of the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin scale. Two subgroups of early-onset (≤ 24 years of age, n = 317) and late-onset (≥ 46 years of age, n = 356) patients were selected based on the visual and mathematical analysis of the age-at-onset distribution. Tremor severity in both groups was comparable. Tremor progression measured as Archimedes spiral score and the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin subscales divided by the disease duration in 10-year bins was significantly faster in late-onset patients when compared with early-onset patients. Early-onset patients more frequently reported a positive family history and alcohol sensitivity of the tremor. The age-at-onset distribution suggests a distinction between early- and late-onset tremor. Early-onset and late-onset essential tremor differ in the progression rates and the frequencies of a positive family history and history of a positive effect of alcohol on tremor. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Association Analyses of Variants in the DIO2 Gene with Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Pima Indians

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Yunhua Li; Ortega, Emilio; Kobes, Sayuko; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The type 2 deiodinase gene (DIO2) encodes a deiodinase that converts the thyroid prohormone, thyroxine, to the biologically active triiodothyronine. Thyroid hormones regulate energy balance and may also influence glucose metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that variations in DIO2 could contribute to obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Pima Indians. Methods Sequencing of the DIO2 gene in DNA from 83 Pima Indians identified 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Several of these SNPs were in perfect genotypic concordance among the 83 samples that were sequenced, and all 12 could be divided into five linkage disequilibrium groups. One representative SNP from each group (Thr92Ala, rs225011, rs225015, rs6574549, and a rare 5′ flanking SNP) was selected for further genotyping for association analyses. In this study, the five selected variants in DIO2, as described above, were genotyped in three groups of Pima Indians: (i) a case (n=150)/control (n=150) group for early-onset T2DM (onset age <25 years); (ii) a case (n=362)/control (n=127) group for obesity; (iii) a large (n=1,311, cases n=810/controls n=501) family-based group, of which 256 nondiabetic subjects had undergone detailed metabolic phenotyping. Results The Thr92Ala variant common in Pima Indians, rs225011, and rs225015 were modestly associated with early-onset T2DM (p=0.01–0.04) in the case–control study, but were not associated with obesity in the obesity case–control study, nor associated with T2DM (at any age) or body–mass index (BMI; as a quantitative trait) in the family-based analysis. Thr92Ala, rs225011, rs225015, and rs6574549 were also nominally associated with hepatic glucose output (p=0.02). rs6574549 was associated with fasting insulin (p=0.02), insulin action (p=0.04), and energy expenditure (p=0.02). None of these nominal associations remained statistically significant after corrections for multiple testing. Conclusions We propose that variation in DIO2 may

  20. Working memory and FDG-PET dissociate early and late onset Alzheimer disease patients.

    PubMed

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Eustache, Francis; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Chételat, Gaël; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2005-05-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the influence of the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on 1) memory and cerebral glucose metabolism, 2) the relationships between cognitive performance and cerebral glucose metabolism. Brain metabolism was measured by 18FDG-PET in 12 early onset AD patients (age < 65 years) and 26 late onset ones (> 65), with comparable mean MMSE scores. Working memory, semantic memory and episodic memory were assessed. Cognitivo-metabolic correlations (CMC) and complementary interregional correlations were performed in order to identify specific neurocognitive processes within each group. Both AD groups performed poorly on all tasks, except digit span in the late onset group. The early onset group performed more poorly than the late onset one on both the digit span and Brown-Peterson Paradigm (BPP) tasks. Temporo-parietal hypometabolism was found in both groups, the left hemisphere being more affected than the right, especially in the early onset patients, who also showed specific left frontal hypometabolism. For the BPP task, the CMC principally involved left frontal areas in the early onset group, and the cerebellum in the late onset one. For the digit span task, they involved cerebellar and occipital regions in the latter. Regarding the digit span, the occipital and cerebellar involvement may have reflected an effective compensatory mechanism in the late onset patients, while high left supramarginal gyrus hypometabolism in the early onset patients may have explained their failure in this task. In the BPP task, the lower performance of the early onset group may have been due to a frontal lobe dysfunction, as suggested by 1) the hypometabolism of this region, 2) the CMC results, 3) the interregional correlations, which indicated greater disruption of the antero- posterior loop.

  1. Early onset scoliosis: the value of serial risser casts.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Sean R; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Thompson, George H

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS) is challenging. In many cases, bracing will not be effective and growing rod surgery may be inappropriate. Serial, Risser casts may be an effective intermediate method of treatment. We studied 20 consecutive patients with EOS who received serial Risser casts under general anesthesia between 1999 and 2011. Analyses included diagnosis, sex, age at initial cast application, major curve severity, initial curve correction, curve magnitude at the time of treatment change or latest follow-up for those still in casts, number of casts per patient, the type of subsequent treatment, and any complications. There were 8 patients with idiopathic scoliosis, 6 patients with neuromuscular scoliosis, 5 patients with syndromic scoliosis, and 1 patient with skeletal dysplasia. Fifteen patients were female and 5 were male. The mean age at first cast was 3.8±2.3 years (range, 1 to 8 y), and the mean major curve magnitude was 74±18 degrees (range, 40 to 118 degrees). After initial cast application, the major curve measured 46±14 degrees (range, 25 to 79 degrees). At treatment change or latest follow-up for those still in casts, the major curve measured 53±24 degrees (range, 13 to 112 degrees). The mean time in casts was 16.9±9.1 months (range, 4 to 35 mo). The mean number of casts per patient was 4.7±2.2 casts (range, 1 to 9 casts). At the time of this study, 7 patients had undergone growing rod surgery, 6 patients were still undergoing casting, 5 returned to bracing, and 2 have been lost to follow-up. Four patients had minor complications: 2 patients each with superficial skin irritation and cast intolerance. Serial Risser casting is a safe and effective intermediate treatment for EOS. It can stabilize relatively large curves in young children and allows the child to reach a more suitable age for other forms of treatment, such as growing rods. Level IV; case series.

  2. A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT) targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC) within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse). The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy eating, physical activity

  3. Origin of cardiovascular risk in overweight preschool children: a cohort study of cardiometabolic risk factors at the onset of obesity.

    PubMed

    Shashaj, Blegina; Bedogni, Giorgio; Graziani, Maria P; Tozzi, Alberto E; DiCorpo, Maria L; Morano, Donatella; Tacconi, Ludovica; Veronelli, Patrizio; Contoli, Benedetta; Manco, Melania

    2014-10-01

    To date, the relationship among adiposity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk factors at the onset of overweight or obesity has been unexplored. To assess whether insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities are detectable at the onset of obesity and to unravel the interplay among adiposity, insulin resistance, and other such abnormalities. The Origin of Cardiovascular Risk in Overweight Preschool Children cohort study aimed to evaluate at the onset of obesity in preschool children the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired carbohydrate metabolism, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Between July 1, 2011, and July 30, 2012, in the Rome municipality, 13 family pediatricians enrolled healthy children (age range, 2.0-5.8 years) in the study during their routine practice of growth monitoring. Clinical medical records of 5729 children were reviewed; 597 children manifested new-onset overweight or obesity as their body mass index changed from normal weight to overweight or obesity in the previous 12 months according to the International Obesity Task Force classification. Of them, 219 were studied. Patients with new-onset overweight or obesity underwent clinical laboratory testing, including oral glucose tolerance test, and ultrasonographic investigations of fatty liver and intimal medial thickness of the common carotid arteries, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and visceral adipose tissue. The homeostatic assessment model algorithm-insulin resistance was calculated. Among the entire population (n = 5729), overweight increased from 7.0% at 2.0 years to 16.9% at 5.8 years, with corresponding figures of 1.1% to 2.9% for obesity. In total, 597 overweight or obese children (10.4%) were identified, and 219 of them (36.7%) were studied. Among the latter, 86 patients (39.3%) had at least 1 metabolic abnormality. Hypertension was diagnosed in 29 patients (13.2%), dyslipidemia in 55 patients (25.1%), impaired fasting

  4. [EARLY MOTHER-CHILD BONDING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Vargas Martínez, Gabriela; Cruzat Mandich, Claudia; Díaz Castrillón, Fernanda; Moore Infante, Catalina; Ulloa Jiménez, Valentina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experience of a group of mothers with obese children, regarding how early bond affects the relationship that both have with food and this, in turn, impacts on childhood obesity. The present study has a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design. The sample consists of five chilean women between 22 and 39 years old, with obese children between 2 and 4 years old. In-depth interviews were carried out and open coding strategy was used as method of analysis. Results show a tendency of mothers to establish insecure attachment relations, difficulties of tuning and expression of affection, and a predominance of a permissive parenting style around food. This has important implications for prevention and treatment of obesity, focusing on the attachment bond between mother and child.

  5. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  6. Dissecting Allele Architecture of Early Onset IBD Using High-Density Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David J; Zwick, Michael E; Okou, David T; Prahalad, Sampath; Walters, Thomas; Guthery, Stephen L; Dubinsky, Marla; Baldassano, Robert; Crandall, Wallace V; Rosh, Joel; Markowitz, James; Stephens, Michael; Kellermayer, Richard; Pfefferkorn, Marian; Heyman, Melvin B; LeLeiko, Neal; Mack, David; Moulton, Dedrick; Kappelman, Michael D; Kumar, Archana; Prince, Jarod; Bose, Promita; Mondal, Kajari; Ramachandran, Dhanya; Bohnsack, John F; Griffiths, Anne M; Haberman, Yael; Essers, Jonah; Thompson, Susan D; Aronow, Bruce; Keljo, David J; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Denson, Lee A; Kugathasan, Subra

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are common, complex disorders in which genetic and environmental factors are believed to interact leading to chronic inflammatory responses against the gut microbiota. Earlier genetic studies performed in mostly adult population of European descent identified 163 loci affecting IBD risk, but most have relatively modest effect sizes, and altogether explain only ~20% of the genetic susceptibility. Pediatric onset represents about 25% of overall incident cases in IBD, characterized by distinct disease physiology, course and risks. The goal of this study is to compare the allelic architecture of early onset IBD with adult onset in population of European descent. We performed a fine mapping association study of early onset IBD using high-density Immunochip genotyping on 1008 pediatric-onset IBD cases (801 Crohn's disease; 121 ulcerative colitis and 86 IBD undetermined) and 1633 healthy controls. Of the 158 SNP genotypes obtained (out of the 163 identified in adult onset), this study replicated 4% (5 SNPs out of 136) of the SNPs identified in the Crohn's disease (CD) cases and 0.8% (1 SNP out of 128) in the ulcerative colitis (UC) cases. Replicated SNPs implicated the well known NOD2 and IL23R. The point estimate for the odds ratio (ORs) for NOD2 was above and outside the confidence intervals reported in adult onset. A polygenic liability score weakly predicted the age of onset for a larger collection of CD cases (p< 0.03, R2= 0.007), but not for the smaller number of UC cases. The allelic architecture of common susceptibility variants for early onset IBD is similar to that of adult onset. This immunochip genotyping study failed to identify additional common variants that may explain the distinct phenotype that characterize early onset IBD. A comprehensive dissection of genetic loci is necessary to further characterize the genetic architecture of early onset IBD.

  7. Maternal Obesity: Risks for Developmental Delays in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Duffany, Kathleen O'Connor; McVeigh, Katharine H; Kershaw, Trace S; Lipkind, Heather S; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-02-01

    To assess the risk for neurodevelopmental delays for children of mothers who were obese (≥200 pounds) prior to pregnancy, and to characterize delays associated with maternal obesity among children referred to and found eligible to receive Early Intervention Program services. We conducted a retrospective cohort study (N = 541,816) using a population-based New York City data warehouse with linked birth and Early Intervention data. Risks for children suspected of a delay and 'significantly delayed', with two moderate or one severe delay, were calculated. Among the group of children eligible by delay for Early Intervention, analyses assessed risk for being identified with a moderate-to-severe delay across each of five functional domains as well as risks for multiple delays. Children of mothers who were obese were more likely to be suspected of a delay (adjusted RR 1.19 [CI 1.15-1.22]) and borderline association for 'significantly delayed' (adjusted RR 1.01 [CI 1.00-1.02). Among children eligible by delay, children of mothers who were obese evidenced an increased risk for moderate-to-severe cognitive (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.02-1.07]) and physical (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.08]) delays and for global developmental delay (adjusted RR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.08]). Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developmental delay in offspring. Among children with moderate or severe delays, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of cognitive and physical delays as well as with increased risk for global developmental delay. While causation remains uncertain, this adds to the growing body of research reporting an association between maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental delays in offspring.

  8. Family functioning and obesity risk behaviors: implications for early obesity intervention.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li Ming; Simpson, Judy M; Baur, Louise A; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M

    2011-06-01

    Family functioning is found to be associated with overweight and obesity in childhood, but its association with maternal obesity risk behaviors is not clear. This study aimed to investigate whether family functioning is associated with maternal obesity risk behaviors and to inform the development of early obesity interventions. A total of 408 first-time mothers at 24-34 weeks of pregnancy were included in the study. They participated in the Healthy Beginnings Trial (HBT) conducted in southwest Sydney, Australia in 2008. An analysis of cross-sectional baseline data was conducted using ordinal logistic regression modeling. Key measures were assessed using the McMaster Family Assessment Device, and self-reported obesity risk behaviors including excessive consumption of soft drinks, fast food, and excessive small screen time. The study found that 30% of the study population had a family functioning score ≥2, indicating unhealthy family functioning. About one-third (36%) of the mothers had more than one obesity risk behavior. Mothers with a family functioning score ≥2 were more likely to have more than one obesity risk behavior (47% vs. 32%, P < 0.05) than mothers with a lower score. The proportion of mothers with a family functioning score ≥2 increased from 22% to 29% to 39% as the number of maternal obesity risk behaviors increased from 0 to 1 to 2 or more, giving an adjusted proportional odds ratio (AOR) of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.0, P = 0.001). Family functioning is independently associated with the number of maternal obesity risk behaviors after allowing for the effects of maternal age and education. Overweight and obesity interventions should consider addressing family functioning.

  9. Comparison of temperament and character between early- and late-onset Korean male pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Suck Won; Grant, Jon E

    2009-12-01

    We investigated differences in temperament and character between early and late onset Korean pathological gamblers to identify whether the age of onset of pathological gambling (PG) could discriminate PG subtypes, like in alcoholism. Male subjects (N = 104) with DSM-IV PG were tested with Cloninger's temperament and character inventory (TCI). We divided patients into two groups: early onset (N = 34) with gambling problems before reaching 25 years old, and late onset (N = 70) with gambling after the age of 25. Early-onset patients showed a higher score in novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA), but lower scores of self-transcendence. There was no difference in reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, or cooperativeness between two groups. After adjusting for age differences by ANCOVA (using age as a covariate), the early onset group showed a significantly higher score in both HA (F₁,₁₀₁ = 4.932, P = 0.029) and NS (F₁,₁₀₁ = 3.948, P = 0.050) but not in any other TCI dimensions. Early- and late-onset Korean male pathological gamblers showed several distinct differences in temperament and character, indicating that age of onset may help discriminate PG subgroups.

  10. Social Anxiety and Onset of Drinking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Cummins, Kevin M.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines several types of social anxiety that may be associated with the onset of alcohol use in middle school students, and whether the relationship differs by sex and grade. Students in the seventh and eighth grades (N = 2,621) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a measure of lifetime drinking via schoolwide…

  11. Social Anxiety and Onset of Drinking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Cummins, Kevin M.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines several types of social anxiety that may be associated with the onset of alcohol use in middle school students, and whether the relationship differs by sex and grade. Students in the seventh and eighth grades (N = 2,621) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a measure of lifetime drinking via schoolwide…

  12. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    a potential modulator of Abeta toxicity), and NOTCH4 (a presenilin pathway gene). Exome chip results identified variants in MICA encoding the HLA-A...and 2+ Non-white Hispanic families, including the AD-relevant HLA-A (associated with earlier AD age-at-onset), CHST15 (a potential modulator or Abeta

  13. Posterior vertebral column resection in early onset spinal deformities.

    PubMed

    Jeszenszky, D; Haschtmann, D; Kleinstück, F S; Sutter, M; Eggspühler, A; Weiss, M; Fekete, T F

    2014-01-01

    Early onset spinal deformities (EOSD) can be life-threatening in very young children. In the growing spine, surgical intervention is often unavoidable and should be carried out as soon as possible. A deformed section of the spine not only affects the development of the remaining healthy spine, but also that of the chest wall (which influences pulmonary function), the extremities and body balance. Posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) represents an effective surgical solution to address such problems. However, reports in the literature concerning PVCR are mostly limited to its use in adolescents or adults. The purpose of this study was to illustrate our experience with PVCR in EOSD and to describe the surgical technique with respect to the unique anatomy of young children. Four children [mean age 3.7 (range 2.5-5.2) years] with severe spinal deformity underwent PVCR through a single approach. Multimodal intraoperative monitoring was used in all cases. Surgery included one stage posterior circumferential resection of one vertebral body along with the adjoining intervertebral discs and removal of all posterior elements. A transpedicular screw-rod system was used for correction and stabilisation. Fusion was strictly limited to the resection site, allowing for later conversion into a growing rod construct at the remaining spine, if necessary. Relevant data were extracted retrospectively from patient charts and long spine radiographs. The mean operation time was 500 (range 463-541) min, with an estimated blood loss of 762 (range 600-1,050) ml. Mean follow-up time was 6.3 (range 3.5-12.4) years. After PVCR, the mean Cobb angle for scoliosis was reduced from 69° (range 50-99°) to 29° (5-44°) and the sagittal curvature (kyphosis) from 126° (87-151°) to 61° (47-75°). The mean correction of scoliosis was 57 % (18-92°) and of kyphosis, 51 % (44-62°). There were no spinal cord-related complications. In three patients, spinal instrumentation for growth guidance

  14. Differential Neurodevelopmental Trajectories in Patients With Early-Onset Bipolar and Schizophrenia Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders share not only clinical features but also some risk factors such as genetic markers and childhood adversity, while other risk factors such as urbanicity and obstetric complications seem to be specific to schizophrenia. An intriguing question is whether the well-established abnormal neurodevelopment present in many children and adolescents who eventually develop schizophrenia is also present in bipolar patients. The literature on adult bipolar patients is controversial. We report data on a subgroup of patients with pediatric-onset psychotic bipolar disorder who seem to share some developmental trajectories with patients with early-onset schizophrenia. These early-onset psychotic bipolar patients have low intelligence quotient, more neurological signs, reduced frontal gray matter at the time of their first psychotic episode, and greater brain changes than healthy controls in a pattern similar to early-onset schizophrenia cases. However, patients with early-onset schizophrenia seem to have more social impairment, developmental abnormalities (eg, language problems), and lower academic achievement in childhood than early-onset bipolar patients. We suggest that some of these abnormal developmental trajectories are more related to the phenotypic features (eg, early-onset psychotic symptoms) of these 2 syndromes than to categorically defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders. PMID:24371326

  15. Adult-onset obesity is triggered by impaired mitochondrial gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Perks, Kara L.; Ferreira, Nicola; Richman, Tara R.; Ermer, Judith A.; Kuznetsova, Irina; Shearwood, Anne-Marie J.; Lee, Richard G.; Viola, Helena M.; Johnstone, Victoria P. A.; Matthews, Vance; Hool, Livia C.; Rackham, Oliver; Filipovska, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial gene expression is essential for energy production; however, an understanding of how it can influence physiology and metabolism is lacking. Several proteins from the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family are essential for the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression, but the functions of the remaining members of this family are poorly understood. We created knockout mice to investigate the role of the PPR domain 1 (PTCD1) protein and show that loss of PTCD1 is embryonic lethal, whereas haploinsufficient, heterozygous mice develop age-induced obesity. The molecular defects and metabolic consequences of mitochondrial protein haploinsufficiency in vivo have not been investigated previously. We show that PTCD1 haploinsufficiency results in increased RNA metabolism, in response to decreased protein synthesis and impaired RNA processing that affect the biogenesis of the respiratory chain, causing mild uncoupling and changes in mitochondrial morphology. We demonstrate that with age, these effects lead to adult-onset obesity that results in liver steatosis and cardiac hypertrophy in response to tissue-specific differential regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Our findings indicate that changes in mitochondrial gene expression have long-term consequences on energy metabolism, providing evidence that haploinsufficiency of PTCD1 can be a major predisposing factor for the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:28835921

  16. Adult-onset obesity is triggered by impaired mitochondrial gene expression.

    PubMed

    Perks, Kara L; Ferreira, Nicola; Richman, Tara R; Ermer, Judith A; Kuznetsova, Irina; Shearwood, Anne-Marie J; Lee, Richard G; Viola, Helena M; Johnstone, Victoria P A; Matthews, Vance; Hool, Livia C; Rackham, Oliver; Filipovska, Aleksandra

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondrial gene expression is essential for energy production; however, an understanding of how it can influence physiology and metabolism is lacking. Several proteins from the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family are essential for the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression, but the functions of the remaining members of this family are poorly understood. We created knockout mice to investigate the role of the PPR domain 1 (PTCD1) protein and show that loss of PTCD1 is embryonic lethal, whereas haploinsufficient, heterozygous mice develop age-induced obesity. The molecular defects and metabolic consequences of mitochondrial protein haploinsufficiency in vivo have not been investigated previously. We show that PTCD1 haploinsufficiency results in increased RNA metabolism, in response to decreased protein synthesis and impaired RNA processing that affect the biogenesis of the respiratory chain, causing mild uncoupling and changes in mitochondrial morphology. We demonstrate that with age, these effects lead to adult-onset obesity that results in liver steatosis and cardiac hypertrophy in response to tissue-specific differential regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Our findings indicate that changes in mitochondrial gene expression have long-term consequences on energy metabolism, providing evidence that haploinsufficiency of PTCD1 can be a major predisposing factor for the development of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Global and Temporal Cortical Folding in Patients with Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttila, Jani; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Burke, Lisa; Corrigall, Richard; Frangou, Sophia; Cachia, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the temporal lobes and alterations in cortical folding in adult on-set schizophrenia are studied using magnetic resonance T1 images of 51 patients. The study showed that patients with early on-set schizophrenia had lower global sulcal indices in both hemispheres and the left collateral sulcus has a lower sulcal index irrespective…

  18. Global and Temporal Cortical Folding in Patients with Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttila, Jani; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Burke, Lisa; Corrigall, Richard; Frangou, Sophia; Cachia, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the temporal lobes and alterations in cortical folding in adult on-set schizophrenia are studied using magnetic resonance T1 images of 51 patients. The study showed that patients with early on-set schizophrenia had lower global sulcal indices in both hemispheres and the left collateral sulcus has a lower sulcal index irrespective…

  19. Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

  20. White Matter Abnormalities in Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Henderson, Inika; Kester, Hana; Roofeh, David; Wu, Jinghui; Clarke, Tana; Thaden, Emily; Kane, John M.; Rhinewine, Joseph; Lencz, Todd; Diamond, Alan; Ardekani, Babak A.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate abnormalities in the structural integrity of brain white matter as suggested by diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (onset of psychosis by age 18). Method: Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers received diffusion tensor imaging and…

  1. What controls early or late onset of tropical North Atlantic hurricane season?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Heng; Li, Tim; Liu, Jia; Peng, Melinda

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of first hurricane in early summer signifies the onset of an active Atlantic hurricane season. The interannual variation of this hurricane onset date is examined for the period 1979-2013. It is found that the onset date has a marked interannual variation. The standard deviation of the interannual variation of the onset day is 17.5 days, with the climatological mean onset happening on July 23. A diagnosis of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis potential index (GPI) indicates that the major difference between an early and a late onset group lies in the maximum potential intensity (MPI). A further diagnosis of the MPI shows that it is primarily controlled by the local SST anomaly (SSTA). Besides the SSTA, vertical shear and mid-tropospheric relative humidity anomalies also contribute significantly to the GPI difference between the early and late onset groups. It is found that the anomalous warm (cold) SST over the tropical Atlantic, while uncorrelated with the Niño3 index, persists from the preceding winter to concurrent summer in the early (late) onset group. The net surface heat flux anomaly always tends to damp the SSTA, which suggests that ocean dynamics may play a role in maintaining the SSTA in the tropical Atlantic. The SSTA pattern with a maximum center in northeastern tropical Atlantic appears responsible for generating the observed wind and moisture anomalies over the main TC development region. A further study is needed to understand the initiation mechanism of the SSTA in the Atlantic.

  2. Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

  3. Clinical differences between early- and late-onset social anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se-Won; Ha, Juwon; Shin, Young-Chul; Shin, Dong-Won; Bae, Seung-Min; Oh, Kang-Seob

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical differences between early- and late-onset social anxiety disorder (SAD) in the Korean population. Three hundred and eighty-seven outpatients diagnosed with SAD participated in this study. Confirmation of SAD diagnosis was based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. All subjects completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and anxiety-trait-related scales such as the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Retrospective Self-Report of Inhibition, Trait Form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. The early-onset group (n = 209) consisted of subjects aged up to 18 years at the time of onset, whereas the late-onset group (n = 178) consisted of subjects older than 18 years at the time of onset. Early-onset SAD patients were more likely to have the generalized subtype and to visit clinics with chief complaints other than social anxiety symptoms. They exhibited more severe symptoms and higher behavioural inhibitions. After adjusting for age and symptom severity, behavioural inhibition was the only significant difference between the two groups. The degree of behavioural inhibitions was associated with earlier onset age. Symptom severity and behavioural inhibitions, especially in social/school situations, were clinical characteristics that differentiated between early- and late-onset SAD. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. White Matter Abnormalities in Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Henderson, Inika; Kester, Hana; Roofeh, David; Wu, Jinghui; Clarke, Tana; Thaden, Emily; Kane, John M.; Rhinewine, Joseph; Lencz, Todd; Diamond, Alan; Ardekani, Babak A.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate abnormalities in the structural integrity of brain white matter as suggested by diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (onset of psychosis by age 18). Method: Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers received diffusion tensor imaging and…

  5. Distributional cues and the onset bias in early word segmentation.

    PubMed

    Babineau, Mireille; Shi, Rushen

    2014-12-01

    In previous infant studies on statistics-based word segmentation, the unit of statistical computation was always aligned with the syllabic edge, which had a consonant onset. The current study addressed whether the learning system imposes a constraint that favors word forms beginning with a consonant onset over those beginning with an onsetless sub-syllable, by examining infants' segmentation of vowel-initial non-words in French liaison. French-learning 20- and 24-month-old infants (N = 64) were familiarized with sentences containing variable liaison consonants preceding the same vowel-initial non-word (e.g., /n/onche, /z/onche, /r/onche, /t/onche), such that the distributional cues supported the sub-syllabic target (e.g., onche). After familiarization, we tested sub-syllabic statistical segmentation by presenting the vowel-initial target (e.g., onche) versus another non-familiarized vowel-initial word (e.g., èque). Another group of infants was tested with a consonant-initial mis-segmentation of the target (e.g., zonche) versus another non-familiarized consonant-initial word (e.g., zèque). Results showed that 20-month-olds failed to segment the vowel-initial targets, but they mis-segmented the targets as consonant-initial, indicating that the onset bias dominated over sub-syllabic statistics for word segmentation at this age. Twenty-four-month-olds showed ambiguous interpretations (i.e., both vowel-initial segmentation and consonant-initial mis-segmentation), suggesting that the use of statistics to segment sub-syllabic words was emerging while the onset bias continued to have an impact.

  6. Anesthetic considerations for rapid-onset obesity, hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysfunction (ROHHAD) syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Chandrakantan, Arvind; Poulton, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Rapid-onset obesity, hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysfunction is an increasingly common diagnosis in patients who are being seen at tertiary care children's hospitals. We present two cases of anesthetics from the authors' own experience in addition to a comprehensive review of the disorder and anesthetic implications. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia: Recent Trends, Challenges and Future Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nora S.; Gogtay, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Early onset schizophrenia (onset before adulthood) is a rare, severe, and chronic form of schizophrenia. The clinical presentation of schizophrenia at this unusually early age of onset has been associated with premorbid developmental abnormalities, poor response to neuroleptic treatment, greater admission rates, and poor prognosis. This is a brief, condensed review of current treatment strategies for the early onset population highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies for these generally treatment-refractory cases. Based on the current literature, second-generation antipsychotics remain the mainstay of treatment, although current medications provide suboptimal response at best. Based on the adult literature, combining antipsychotic treatment with psychotherapeutic intervention may be a more comprehensive treatment strategy. Indeed, early detection, identification of relevant biomarkers, coupled with advancing knowledge of the neurochemical and neuroanatomic pathways may help design informed and novel treatment strategies. PMID:22485097

  8. Diet induced weight loss accelerates onset of negative alliesthesia in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Frankham, Patrick; Gosselin, Caroline; Cabanac, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Background The physiological and behavioral responses to hypocaloric diet are to increase energy intake to defend a steady body weight. We utilized the method of "negative alliesthesia" for measuring the hedonic reponse to sweet stimulus before (Initial session) and 3 months after entering a weight loss program. The negative alliesthesia test is known by physiologists but few clinical data exist. It is based on the observation that repeated pleasant gustatory stimuli turn into unpleasantness in the process of alliesthesia. At first visit participants repeatedly ingested sweet stimuli until they found them unpleasant and rated quantitatively on a linear analogue scale their hedonic experience. This procedure was repeated every 3 min until participants felt displeasure to end the session. The same protocol was followed after three months of following a weight loss diet. Dieting energy intake was from 1400 – 2000 kcal/d for 8 wk. Energy composition was 50% carb:25% prot: 25% lipid. After 8 wk caloric intake increased by 50 kcal/wk, to reach daily intake of 1800 – 2400 kcal/d. Energy composition was 50% carb:22% prot: 27% lipid. We report results on the effect of slow weight loss on negative alliesthesia in ten obese female participants enrolled in a commercial diet program based on Canada's Food Guide (Mincavi®). Results Results showed that diet lowered the mean BMI (Initial session 36.8 +/- 1.8 vs. 3 mo 34.9 +/- 1.8 kg/m2). At 3 mo the onset of negative alliesthesia, time to abandon experimental session, was shortened (Initial session 33 vs. 3 mo 24 min). The same trend was observed in the time to reach indifference (Initial session 21.9 +/- 3.8 vs. 3 mo 16.2 +/-2.4 min). There was no observed difference in maximum (Initial session +79.5 +/- 11.7; 3 mo +94.5 +/- 9.9 mm) and minimum (Initial session -90.0 +/- 14.4; 3 mo -106 +/- 11.1 mm) hedonic rating. Conclusion Earlier onset of negative alliesthesia, as seen in our participants, is not consistent with previous

  9. Substance abuse treatment patients with early onset cocaine use respond as well to contingency management interventions as those with later onset cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Lindsay M; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-08-01

    Early onset drug use is associated with increased risk of developing substance use disorders, but relatively little is known about the correlates of early drug use among adults receiving treatment. A retrospective analysis of a randomized study of contingency management treatment compared cocaine-dependent patients who reported initial cocaine use at age 14 or younger (n = 41) to those who began using after age 14 (n = 387). Patients with early onset cocaine use had more legal and psychiatric problems than those who initiated cocaine use later. Patients with early-onset cocaine use also dropped out of treatment sooner and achieved less sustained abstinence than those who began using at older ages, but the interaction between age of first use and treatment condition was not significant. Early-onset cocaine use is associated with persistent psychosocial problems and an overall poor response to treatment. However, contingency management is efficacious in improving outcomes in early onset cocaine users.

  10. Early adiposity rebound and the risk of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, R C; Pepe, M S; Wright, J A; Seidel, K D; Dietz, W H

    1998-03-01

    At 5 to 6 years of age, body fatness normally declines to a minimum, a point called adiposity rebound (AR), before increasing again into adulthood. We determined whether a younger age at AR was associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and whether this risk was independent of fatness at AR and parent obesity. A retrospective cohort study using lifelong height and weight measurements recorded in outpatient medical records. Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (GHC), a health maintenance organization based in Seattle, Washington. All 390 GHC members (and their parents) born at GHC between January 1, 1965, and January 1, 1971, who had at least one recorded adult height and weight measurement plus two visits with recorded height and weight measurements in each of three age intervals: 1.5 to 4, 4 to 8, and 8 to 16 years. We calculated the mean body mass index (BMI) of each subject during young adulthood (age 21 to 29 years) and the BMI of the parents when each subject was 1.5 years of age. Adult obesity was defined as a BMI >/=27.8 for males and >/=27. 3 for females. Curves were fit to each subject's BMI values between ages 1.5 and 16 years, and the age and BMI at AR were calculated from these curves. Subjects were divided into tertiles of age at AR (early, middle, and late), BMI at AR, and parent BMI (heavy, medium, and lean). The mean age at AR was 5.5 years, and 15% of the cohort was obese in young adulthood. Adult obesity rates were higher in those with early versus late AR (25% vs 5%), those who were heavy versus lean at AR (24% vs 4%), those with heavy versus lean mothers (25% vs 5%), and those with heavy versus lean fathers (21% vs 5%). After adjusting for parent BMI and BMI at AR, the odds ratio for adult obesity associated with early versus late AR was 6.0 (95% CI, 1.3-26.6). An early AR is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity independent of parent obesity and the BMI at AR. Future research should examine the biological and behavioral

  11. High Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor from Men With Early-Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    challenge, Dr. Tomlins has continued to develop state of the art technologies to use formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate cancer specimens...men with early-onset, metastatic prostate cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kathleen A. Cooney, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...High-Throughput Sequencing of Germline and Tumor From Men with Early-Onset Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0371 5c

  12. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome may have a hypothalamus-periaqueductal gray localization.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cristelle; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Das, Lena; Menon, Anuradha P; Vasanwala, Rashida; Lam, Joyce C M; Ng, Zhi Min; Ling, Simon Robert; Chan, Derrick W S; Choong, Chew Thye; Liew, Wendy K M; Thomas, Terrence

    2015-05-01

    Anatomical localization of the rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome has proved elusive. Most patients had neuroimaging after cardiorespiratory collapse, revealing a range of ischemic lesions. A 15-year-old obese boy with an acute febrile encephalopathy had hypoventilation, autonomic dysfunction, visual hallucinations, hyperekplexia, and disordered body temperature, and saltwater regulation. These features describe the ROHHAD syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis, elevated neopterins, and oligoclonal bands, and serology for systemic and antineuronal antibodies was negative. He improved after receiving intravenous steroids, immunoglobulins, and long-term mycophenolate. Screening for neural crest tumors was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain early in his illness showed focal inflammation in the periaqueductal gray matter and hypothalamus. This unique localization explains almost all symptoms of this rare autoimmune encephalitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Deferred and Immediate Imitation in Regressive and Early Onset Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sally J.; Young, Gregory S.; Cook, Ian; Giolzetti, Angelo; Ozonoff, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Deferred imitation has long held a privileged position in early cognitive development, considered an early marker of representational thought with links to language development and symbolic processes. Children with autism have difficulties with several abilities generally thought to be related to deferred imitation: immediate imitation, language,…

  14. Sarcopenic obesity and risk of new onset depressive symptoms in older adults: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Hamer, M; Batty, G D; Kivimaki, M

    2015-12-01

    We examined the role of sarcopenic obesity as a risk factor for new-onset depressive symptoms over 6-year follow-up in a large sample of older adults. The sample comprised 3862 community dwelling participants (1779 men, 2083 women; mean age 64.6±8.3 years) without depressive symptoms at baseline, recruited from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline and 4-year follow-up, handgrip strength (kg) of the dominant hand was assessed using a hand-held dynamometer, as a measure of sarcopenia. The outcome was new onset depressive symptoms at 6-year follow-up, defined as a score of ⩾4 on the 8-item Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Sarcopenic obesity was defined as obese individuals (body mass index ⩾30 kg m(-)(2)) in the lowest tertile of sex-specific grip strength (<35.3 kg men; <19.6 kg women). Using a multivariable logistic regression model, the risk of depressive symptoms was greatest in obese adults in the lowest tertile of handgrip strength (odds ratio (OR), 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10, 2.89) compared with non-obese individuals with high handgrip strength. Participants who were obese at baseline and had a decrease of more than 1 s.d. in grip strength over 4-year follow-up were at greatest risk of depressive symptoms (OR=1.97, 95% CI, 1.22, 3.17) compared with non-obese with stable grip strength. A reduction in grip strength was associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms in obese participants only, suggesting that sarcopenic obesity is a risk factor for depressive symptoms.

  15. Preliminary Findings Demonstrating Latent Effects of Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Onset on Cortical Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; DeWitt, Samuel J; Mishra, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Background As the most commonly used illicit substance during early adolescence, long-term or latent effects of early adolescent marijuana use across adolescent developmental processes remain to be determined. Methods We examined cortical thickness, gray/white matter border contrast (GWR) and local gyrification index (LGI) in 42 marijuana (MJ) users. Voxelwise regressions assessed early-onset (age <16) vs. late-onset (≥16 years-old) differences and relationships to continued use while controlling for current age and alcohol use. Results Although groups did not differ by onset status, groups diverged in their correlations between cannabis use and cortical architecture. Among early-onset users, continued years of MJ use and current MJ consumption were associated with thicker cortex, increased GWR and decreased LGI. Late-onset users exhibited the opposite pattern. This divergence was observed in all three morphological measures in the anterior dorsolateral frontal cortex (p<.05, FWE-corrected). Conclusions Divergent patterns between current MJ use and elements of cortical architecture were associated with early MJ use onset. Considering brain development in early adolescence, findings are consistent with disruptions in pruning. However, divergence with continued use for many years thereafter suggests altered trajectories of brain maturation during late adolescence and beyond. PMID:26507433

  16. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysregulation, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD syndrome): A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Micó, S; Marcos Oltra, A M; de Murcia Lemauviel, S; Ruiz Pruneda, R; Martínez Ferrández, C; Domingo Jiménez, R

    2016-06-20

    ROHHAD syndrome (rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysregulation, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation) is a rare and complex disease, presenting in previously healthy children at the age of 2-4 years. Up to 40% of cases are associated with neural crest tumours. We present the case of a 2-year-old girl with symptoms of rapidly progressing obesity, who a few months later developed hypothalamic dysfunction with severe electrolyte imbalance, behaviour disorder, hypoventilation, and severe autonomic dysregulation, among other symptoms. Although the pathophysiology of this syndrome remains unclear, an autoimmune hypothesis has been proposed for ROHHAD. Therefore, after obtaining a limited response to intravenous immunoglobulins, we decided to test the response to a high dose cyclophosphamide (low dose was not effective either). Unfortunately our patient experienced many severe complications (among them central pontine myelinolysis, from which the patient recovered, and failure to wean from the ventilator requiring tracheostomy and long term ventilation) that required a prolonged ICU stay. Although her behaviour improved, our patient unfortunately died suddenly at home at the age of 5 due to respiratory pathology. ROHHAD syndrome is a rare and little-known disease which requires a multidisciplinary approach because it involves complex symptoms and multiple organ system involvement. Alveolar hypoventilation should be identified early and appropriate treatment should be started promptly for the best possible outcome. Immunomodulatory treatment with immunoglobulins, cyclophosphamide, or rituximab has previously resulted in symptom improvement in some cases. Because of the low incidence of the syndrome, multi-centre studies must be carried out in order to gather more accurate information about ROHHAD pathophysiology and design an appropriate therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  17. Thin mother, obese child? A review of early risk factors for obesity in offspring.

    PubMed

    Tabibzadeh, Pantea; Mewes, Ricarda

    2016-09-01

    The huge percentages of persons with obesity in many countries constitute a public health crisis. The severe consequences of obesity for physical health and emotional wellbeing already emerge in childhood. Therefore, the acknowledgment of early risk factors is essential to provide recommendations for prevention strategies. This review outlines the current state of research concerning early risk factors for obesity, that is, factors that even contribute to later obesity of the offspring during gestation. In this regard, this review specifically addresses the link between restricted eating behavior of the mother and obesity in her offspring. We systematically searched for articles in PsychINFO, PsychINDEX, MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDPILOT, and Web of Science, and we identified additional studies in bibliographies. Although some risk factors (e.g., short period of breastfeeding, gestational diabetes, and high maternal BMI) have a vast evidence base, others (e.g., restricted eating behavior and second-hand smoking) are insufficiently studied. Physical activity and diet programs in pregnancy can reduce not only the occurrence of gestational diabetes, but also the risk of inappropriate weight gain. As smoking during pregnancy and inappropriate eating behavior are associated with lower education, psychoeducation, for instance in sex education classes, could be easily conceivable.

  18. A new definition of early age at onset in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Le Strat, Yann; Grant, Bridget F; Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2010-04-01

    The accurate cut-off of an early onset of alcohol dependence is unknown. The objectives of this analysis are (1) to confirm that ages at onset variability in alcohol dependence is best described as a two subgroups entity, (2) to define the most appropriate cut-off, and (3) to test the relevancy of such distinction. Data were drawn the Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). This study focused on the 4782 adults with lifetime alcohol dependence. The best-fit model distinguished two subgroups of age at onset of alcohol dependence, with a cut-off point at 22 years. Subjects with an earlier onset of alcohol dependence (< or = 22 years old) reported higher lifetime rates of specific phobia, antisocial behaviors and nearly all addictive disorders. The early onset of alcohol dependence is best defined as beginning before the age of 22 years. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new definition of early age at onset in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Le Strat, Yann; Grant, Bridget F.; Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Objective The accurate cut-off of an early onset of alcohol dependence is unknown. The objectives of this analysis are (1) to confirm that ages at onset variability in alcohol dependence is best described as a two sub-groups entity, (2) to define the most appropriate cut-off, and (3) to test the relevancy of such distinction. Method Data were drawn the Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). This study focused on the 4,782 adults with lifetime alcohol dependence. Results The best-fit model distinguished two subgroups of age at onset of alcohol dependence, with a cut-off point at 22 years. Subjects with an earlier onset of alcohol dependence (≤22 years old) reported higher lifetime rates of specific phobia, antisocial behaviors and nearly all addictive disorders. Conclusions The early onset of alcohol dependence is best defined as beginning before the age of 22 years. PMID:20018459

  20. 1:4 matched case-control study on influential factor of early onset neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Ye, G-Y

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria, funghi, viruses and protozoa can lead to neonatal sepsis. Neonatal sepsis is the leading cause of infectious disease onset and death in many neonates. To explore the major risk factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis and provide a scientific basis for strategies of early-onset neonatal sepsis prevention. A 1:4 matched case-control study was adopted and 147 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis were enrolled. Conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the univariate and multivariate data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Univariate analysis shows that the impact factors on the occurrence of early-onset neonatal sepsis include the following: Maternal age > 35, mother having fixed occupation, mother of urban residence, abnormal fetal position, fetal times, parity, caesarean section, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid volume abnormalities, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abnormalities, fetal distress, newborn gender, low birth weight infants, neonatal Apgar scoring at one and five minutes, neonatal jaundice, wet lung, anemia, IVH, and premature infant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternal age > 35 (OR = 4.835, OR 95% CI = 1.170-19.981), cesarean section (OR = 0.103, OR 95% CI = 0.041-0.258), premature rupture of membranes (OR = 0.207, OR 95% CI = 0.078-0.547), premature infants (OR = 0.059, OR 95% CI = 0.010-0.329) and newborn jaundice (OR = 0.092, OR 95% CI = 0.021-0.404) were the factors of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Early-onset neonatal sepsis could be affected by multi-factors, and targeted prevention may reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal sepsis rates.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset myopathy with fatal cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inherited muscle disease that affects the skeletal muscles , which are used for movement, and the heart (cardiac) muscle. This condition is characterized by skeletal muscle weakness that becomes apparent in early infancy. Affected ...

  2. Early dropout predictive factors in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Ilaria; Falchi, Anna Giulia; Muggia, Chiara; Grecchi, Ilaria; Montagna, Elisabetta; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-02-01

    Diet attrition and failure of long term treatment are very frequent in obese patients. This study aimed to identify pre-treatment variables determining dropout and to customise the characteristics of those most likely to abandon the program before treatment, thus making it possible to modify the therapy to increase compliance. A total of 146 outpatients were consecutively enrolled; 73 patients followed a prescriptive diet while 73 followed a novel brief group Cognitive Behavioural Treatment (CBT) in addition to prescriptive diet. The two interventions lasted for six months. Anthropometric, demographic, psychological parameters and feeding behaviour were assessed, the last two with the Italian instrument VCAO Ansisa; than, a semi-structured interview was performed on motivation to lose weight. To identify the baseline dropout risk factors among these parameters, univariate and multivariate logistic models were used. Comparison of the results in the two different treatments showed a higher attrition rate in CBT group, despite no statistically significant difference between the two treatment arms (P = 0.127). Dropout patients did not differ significantly from those who did not dropout with regards to sex, age, Body Mass Index (BMI), history of cycling, education, work and marriage. Regardless of weight loss, the most important factor that determines the dropout appears to be a high level of stress revealed by General Health Questionnaire-28 items (GHQ-28) score within VCAO test. The identification of hindering factors during the assessment is fundamental to reduce the dropout risk. For subjects at risk, it would be useful to dedicate a stress management program before beginning a dietary restriction.

  3. Reports of the childhood home environment in early-onset dysthymia and episodic major depression.

    PubMed

    Lizardi, H; Klein, D N; Ouimette, P C; Riso, L P; Anderson, R L; Donaldson, S K

    1995-02-01

    This study addressed 2 questions: (a) is early-onset dysthymia associated with reports of a disturbed childhood home environment; and (b) can adverse early experiences account, at least in part, for the differing clinical presentations of dysthymia and major depression? Participants included 97 outpatients with early-onset dysthymia, 45 outpatients with episodic major depression, and 45 normal controls. The early home environment was assessed blind to diagnosis using both interview and self-report measures. Early-onset dysthymia patients reported significantly more physical and sexual abuse and poorer relationships with both parents than normal controls. In addition, patients with dysthymia reported having received significantly poorer parenting than those with episodic major depression. The results could not be accounted for by mood state effects, comorbidity with borderline and antisocial personality disorder, or comorbid major depression.

  4. Does early school entry prevent obesity among adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Qi

    2011-06-01

    To examine the relationship between early school entry and body weight status among adolescent girls. Using nationally representative data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we exploited state-specific first-grade entrance policy as a quasi-experimental research design to examine the effect of early school entry on the body weight status of adolescent girls. Fixed-effects models were used to compare the body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, and likelihood of overweight and obesity between teenage girls born before school cut-off dates and those born after, while controlling for age, race/ethnicity, maternal education status, and maternal body weight status. Late starters had higher BMIs and a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and the results were found to be consistent across age groups. Among girls whose birthdays were within 1 month of the cut-off dates, the coefficient of late starting was significantly positive (β = .311; p = .02), indicating that it might be correlated with weight gain in adolescence. Early admission to a school environment might have a long-term protective effect in terms of adolescent girls' propensity to obesity. Future studies are needed to examine the effect of early school entry on the eating behavior and physical activities of adolescent girls. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesity and Hyperlipidemia are Risk Factors for Early Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A. Gordon; Singleton, J. Robinson

    2013-01-01

    The Utah Diabetic Neuropathy Study (UDNS) examined 218 type 2 diabetic subjects without neuropathy symptoms, or with symptoms of < 5 years, in order to evaluate risk factors for neuropathy development. Each subject completed symptom questionnaires, the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), nerve conduction studies (NCS), quantitative sensory testing (QST) for vibration and cold detection, quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART), and skin biopsy with measurement of intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). Those with abnormalities of ≥ 3 were classified as having probable, and those with 1–2 as possible neuropathy. The relationship between glycemic control, lipid parameters (high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels), blood pressure, and obesity, and neuropathy risk was examined. There was a significant relationship between the number of abnormalities among these features and neuropathy status (p<0.01). Hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and 3 or more abnormalities increased neuropathy risk (risk ratios 2.1 p<0.03, 2.9 p>0.02 and 3.0 p<0.004 respectively). Multivariate analysis found obesity and triglycerides were related to loss of small unmyelinated axons based on IENFD whereas elevated hemoglobin A1c was related to large myelinated fiber loss (motor conduction velocity). These findings indicate obesity and hypertriglyceridemia significantly increase risk for peripheral neuropathy, independent of glucose control. Obesity/hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia may have differential effects on small versus large fibers. PMID:23731827

  6. Obesity and hyperlipidemia are risk factors for early diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, A Gordon; Singleton, J Robinson

    2013-01-01

    The Utah Diabetic Neuropathy Study (UDNS) examined 218 type 2 diabetic subjects without neuropathy symptoms, or with symptoms of<5 years, in order to evaluate risk factors for neuropathy development. Each subject completed symptom questionnaires, the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), nerve conduction studies (NCS), quantitative sensory testing (QST) for vibration and cold detection, quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART), and skin biopsy with measurement of intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). Those with abnormalities of≥3 were classified as having probable, and those with 1-2 as possible neuropathy. The relationship between glycemic control, lipid parameters (high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels), blood pressure, and obesity, and neuropathy risk was examined. There was a significant relationship between the number of abnormalities among these features and neuropathy status (p<0.01). Hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and 3 or more abnormalities increased neuropathy risk (risk ratios 2.1 p<0.03, 2.9 p>0.02 and 3.0 p<0.004 respectively). Multivariate analysis found obesity and triglycerides were related to loss of small unmyelinated axons based on IENFD whereas elevated hemoglobin A1c was related to large myelinated fiber loss (motor conduction velocity). These findings indicate obesity and hypertriglyceridemia significantly increase risk for peripheral neuropathy, independent of glucose control. Obesity/hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia may have differential effects on small versus large fibers.

  7. Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities.

    PubMed

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Theise, Rachelle; Palamar, Joseph J; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Barajas, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J

    2014-01-01

    Given the disproportionately high rates of obesity-related morbidity among low-income, ethnic minority youth, obesity prevention in this population is critical. Prior efforts to curb childhood obesity have had limited public health impact. The present study evaluates an innovative approach to obesity prevention by promoting foundational parenting and child behavioral regulation. This pre-post intervention study evaluated an enhanced version of ParentCorps with 91 families of pre-Kindergarten students in low-income, urban communities. Assessments included tests of knowledge and parent report. Consistent with findings from two randomized controlled trials of ParentCorps, parent knowledge and use of foundational parenting practices increased and child behavior problems decreased. Child nutrition knowledge and physical activity increased and television watching decreased; for boys, sleep problems decreased. Comparable benefits occurred for children at high risk for obesity based on child dysregulation, child overweight, and parent overweight. Results support a "whole child," family-centered approach to health promotion in early childhood.

  8. Early-onset childhood vitiligo is associated with a more extensive and progressive course.

    PubMed

    Mu, Euphemia W; Cohen, Brandon E; Orlow, Seth J

    2015-09-01

    Vitiligo commonly presents in children, with half of all cases developing before 20 years of age. Although studies have characterized differences between pediatric and adult vitiligo, little is known about vitiligo presenting in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical features of early-onset (<3 years old) and later-onset (3-18 years old) childhood vitiligo. This retrospective case series examined patients given a diagnosis of vitiligo in a pediatric dermatology practice at an academic medical center from 1990 to 2014. Characteristics of the early- and later-onset groups were compared by χ(2) and t test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Of the 208 children in the study, 31 had early-onset and 177 had later-onset disease. Early-onset vitiligo was associated with higher percentages of body surface area involvement and increased rates of disease progression during an average 1.9 years of follow-up. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in repigmentation, vitiligo type, halo nevi, gender ratio, or personal and family history of autoimmune diseases. This was a retrospective, single-institution study. Patients given a diagnosis of vitiligo at younger ages tend to have more extensive and progressive disease. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early onset of neural synchronization in the contextual associations network

    PubMed Central

    Kveraga, Kestutis; Ghuman, Avniel Singh; Kassam, Karim S.; Aminoff, Elissa A.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Chaumon, Maximilien; Bar, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Objects are more easily recognized in their typical context. However, is contextual information activated early enough to facilitate the perception of individual objects, or is contextual facilitation caused by postperceptual mechanisms? To elucidate this issue, we first need to study the temporal dynamics and neural interactions associated with contextual processing. Studies have shown that the contextual network consists of the parahippocampal, retrosplenial, and medial prefrontal cortices. We used functional MRI, magnetoencephalography, and phase synchrony analyses to compare the neural response to stimuli with strong or weak contextual associations. The context network was activated in functional MRI and preferentially synchronized in magnetoencephalography (MEG) for stimuli with strong contextual associations. Phase synchrony increased early (150–250 ms) only when it involved the parahippocampal cortex, whereas retrosplenial–medial prefrontal cortices synchrony was enhanced later (300–400 ms). These results describe the neural dynamics of context processing and suggest that context is activated early during object perception. PMID:21300869

  10. Concomitant Presence of Carcinoma of Breast in a Patient with Early-Onset Cataract: First Case Report of a Potential Association

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Shahbaz Habib; Lodhi, Mehershree

    2017-01-01

    A recent nation-wide population based retrospective cohort study from Taiwan in 2014 suggested a propensity of developing breast cancer in young females with early-onset cataract. We report here a case of a young non-obese female who presented to us with a large lump in the right breast with skin nodules and bilateral painless progressive diminution of vision. Patient was diagnosed to be suffering from locally advanced carcinoma of right breast with axillary metastasis (Stage III B) and bilateral early-onset nuclear cataract. Patient was started on taxane and anthracycline based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and after three cycles of chemotherapy patient showed partial response (≈50% reduction of tumour mass). Patient underwent small incision cataract surgery in left eye after the first cycle of chemotherapy. However, the patient was lost before any operative intervention could be done as she died in a road traffic accident. Possible mechanism of development of breast cancer in patients with early-onset cataract is discussed. This is the first reported case of a patient of early–onset cataract developing breast cancer as well as the first reported case of concomitant presence of early-onset bilateral cataract with breast cancer. PMID:28658846

  11. Rapid Deterioration of Insulin Secretion in Obese Adolescents Preceding the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Deborah A.; Hornung, Lindsey N.; Herbers, Patricia M.; Prigeon, Ron; Woo, Jessica G.; D'Alessio, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify pathophysiologic changes that lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in adolescents. Study design Obese adolescents with NGT (n=41) were studied longitudinally over 4 years with serial measure of the acute insulin response to IV glucose (AIRg) as well as proinsulin (PI) concentrations. Insulin resistance was estimated with HOMA modeling, the disposition index (DI) computed as AIRg × 1/HOMA-IR, and IV glucose tolerance estimated as the glucose disappearance constant (kg). Results Four adolescents developed diabetes during the study (DM), and the rest of the cohort remained non-diabetic (NDM). Baseline PI exceeded the interquartile range of the NDM group in 3 of 4 subjects with DM and all had > 85% reduction from baseline AIRg, and DI, within 6 months of diagnosis. All the subjects with DM gained weight over the course of the study but these changes paralleled those for the NDM group. HOMA-IR increased substantially in 1 of the subjects with DM at the time of diagnosis, but was comparable with baseline in the other 3. The DI and kg of the subjects with DM was below the 10th percentile of the NDM group before and after diagnosis. Conclusion Conversion from NGT to T2DM in adolescents can occur rapidly, and T2DM onset is heralded by a substantial decline in AIRg and DI, as well as increased release of PI. These results support loss of beta-cell function as the proximate step in the development of T2DM in this age group. PMID:25557969

  12. Increased Genetic Vulnerability to Smoking at CHRNA5 in Early-Onset Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, Sarah M.; Short, Susan E.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Guđbjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Hum, Sc; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R.; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W.; Boyd, Heather A.; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M.; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Lic, Phil; Hewitt, John K.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J.; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E.; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Amos, Christopher I.; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S.; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. Objective To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Data Sources Primary data. Study Selection Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Data Extraction Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94 050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33 348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Data Synthesis Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR]=1.45; 95% CI, 1.36–1.55; n=13 843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21–1.33, n = 19 505) (P = .01). Conclusion These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers. PMID:22868939

  13. The impact of obesity on LADG for early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Min-Chan; Jung, Ghap-Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) has become a viable alternative treatment for patients suffering with early gastric cancer. Surgeons have long thought that obesity might increase the rate of intraoperative or postoperative complications. We set out to clarify the effect that obesity has on performing LADG for the treatment of early gastric cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 97 patients who had undergone LADG for early gastric cancer between May 1998 and March 2004. We measured the degree of obesity by using the body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)), and we compared the surgical outcomes between the normal BMI group (BMI < 23 kg/m(2)) and the high BMI group (BMI > or = 23 kg/m(2)). We further subdivided the patients into four groups: normal BMI males and normal BMI females, and high BMI males and high BMI females, and we analyzed them in terms of operation times, numbers of retrieved lymph nodes, and rates of postoperative complications. There were no significant differences between the normal and high BMI groups in terms of the patients' characteristics, surgical outcomes, postoperative courses, postoperative complications, and operation times. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of retrieved lymph nodes or in the rate of postoperative complications among the four groups (P = 0.5030 and P = 0.3489, respectively). However, there was a statistically significant difference in operation times among the four groups (P = 0.004). Specifically, the males in the high BMI group required a longer operation time than did the females with a normal BMI (P = 0.006) and the females with a high BMI (P = 0.019). For LADG in patients with early gastric cancer, obesity may affect the operation time, and men with high BMI require a longer operation time than do women with normal or high BMI.

  14. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: Onset, Developmental Course and Risk Factors during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Sylvana M.; Boivin, Michel; Liu, Xuecheng; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are among the top ten leading causes of disabilities. We know little, however, about the onset, developmental course and early risk factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms (DAS). Objective: Model the developmental trajectories of DAS during early childhood and to identify risk factors for atypically…

  15. Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

  16. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  17. Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

  18. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  19. Obesity-related abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K Hoa; Ande, Sudharsana R; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-29

    The incidence of adult-onset T1D in low-risk non-HLA type has increased several folds, whereas the contemporaneous incidence in high-risk HLA-type remains stable. Various factors behind this selective increase in T1D in young adults remain unclear. Obesity and its associated abnormalities appear to be an important determinant; however, the underlying mechanism involved is not understood. Recently, we have developed two novel transgenic obese mice models, Mito-Ob and m-Mito-Ob, by expressing a pleiotropic protein prohibitin (PHB) and a phospho mutant form of PHB (Y114F-PHB or m-PHB) from the aP2 gene promoter, respectively. Both mice models develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, independent of diet; but obesity associated chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance in a male sex-specific manner. Interestingly, on a high fat diet (HFD) only male m-Mito-Ob mice displayed marked mononuclear cell infiltration in pancreas and developed insulitis that mimic adult-onset T1D. Male Mito-Ob mice that share the metabolic phenotype of male m-Mito-Ob mice, and female m-Mito-Ob that harbor m-PHB similar to male m-Mito-Ob mice, did not develop insulitis. Thus, insulitis development in male m-Mito-Ob in response to HFD requires both, obesity-related abnormalities and m-PHB. Collectively, this data provides a proof-of-concept that obesity-associated abnormalities couple environmental triggers with genetic susceptibility in adult-onset T1D and reveals PHB as a potential susceptibility gene for T1D.

  20. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Fröhlich, Ernst K F

    2015-11-27

    Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely.

  1. Prevention of Early-onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marió, M. J. Soto; Valenzuela, I; Vásquez, A. E; Illanes, S. E

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of up to 50% of healthy adults and newborns; it is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Early detection can be used to establish the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to significantly reduce neonatal sepsis. This article reviews methods of detection and prevention of GBS infection in the neonate. PMID:24358406

  2. Early-Life Exposures and Early-Onset Uterine Leiomyomata in Black Women in the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Donna D.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Uterine leiomyomata (fibroids) are hormonally responsive tumors, but little is known about risk factors. Early-life exposures may influence uterine development and subsequent response to hormones in adulthood. An earlier analysis of non-Hispanic white women who participated in the Sister Study found associations between several early-life factors and early-onset fibroids. Objectives: We evaluated associations of early-life and childhood exposures with early-onset fibroids among black women and compared the results with those found among white women. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from 3,534 black women, 35–59 years of age, in the Sister Study (a nationwide cohort of women who had a sister diagnosed with breast cancer) who self-reported information on early-life and childhood exposures. Early-onset fibroids were assessed based on self-report of a physician diagnosis of fibroids by the age of 30 years (n = 561). We estimated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from log-binomial regression models. Results: Factors most strongly associated with early-onset fibroids were in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES; RR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.18), maternal prepregnancy diabetes or gestational diabetes (RR = 1.54; 95% CI: 0.95, 2.49), and monozygotic multiple birth (RR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.99). We also found positive associations with having been taller or thinner than peers at the age of 10 years and with early-life factors that included being the firstborn child of a teenage mother, maternal hypertensive disorder, preterm birth, and having been fed soy formula. Conclusions: With the exception of monozygotic multiple birth and maternal hypertensive disorder, early-life risk factors for early-onset fibroids for black women were similar to those found for white women. However, in contrast to whites, childhood height and weight, but not low socioeconomic status indicators, were associated with early-onset fibroids in blacks. The general consistency

  3. Impact of high-fat diet on the intestinal microbiota and small intestinal physiology before and after the onset of obesity.

    PubMed

    Araújo, João Ricardo; Tomas, Julie; Brenner, Christiane; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2017-10-01

    The modulation of the intestinal microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has a major impact on both immunological and metabolic functions of the host. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this contribution is to review the impact of HFD on microbiota profile and small intestinal physiology before and after the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications. Evidence from animal studies suggest that before the onset of obesity and its metabolic complications, HFD induces intestinal dysbiosis - encompassing changes in composition balance and massive redistribution with bacteria occupying intervillous spaces and crypts - associated with early physiopathological changes, predominantly in the ileum, such as low-grade inflammation, decreased antimicrobial peptides expression, impaired mucus production, secretion and layer's thickness, and decreased expression of tight junction proteins. With time, major inflammatory signals (e.g. toll-like receptor-4 dependent) become activated, thereby stimulating proinflammatory cytokines secretion in the small intestine. This inflammatory state might subsequently exacerbate disruption of the mucus layer barrier and increase epithelial permeability of the small intestine, thereby creating an environment that facilitates the passage of bacterial components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and flagellin) and metabolites from the intestinal lumen (e.g. secondary bile acids) to the circulation and peripheral tissues (i.e. leaky gut), eventually promoting the development of systemic inflammation, obesity, adiposity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance preceding hyperglycemia. Although the mechanisms are still not completely understood, prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists (such as rosiglitazone) and exercise have been shown to reverse HFD-induced intestinal phenotype and to attenuate the severity of obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Copyright © 2017

  4. Converging approaches to understanding early onset familial Alzheimer disease: A First Nation study

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Beattie, B Lynn; Dwosh, Emily; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In 2007, a novel pathogenic genetic mutation associated with early onset familial Alzheimer disease was identified in a large First Nation family living in communities across British Columbia, Canada. Building on a community-based participatory study with members of the Nation, we sought to explore the impact and interplay of medicalization with the Nation’s knowledge and approaches to wellness in relation to early onset familial Alzheimer disease. Methods: We performed a secondary content analysis of focus group discussions and interviews with 48 members of the Nation between 2012 and 2013. The analysis focused specifically on geneticization, medicalization, and traditional knowledge of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, as these themes were prominent in the primary analysis. Results: We found that while biomedical explanations of disease permeate the knowledge and understanding of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, traditional concepts about wellness are upheld simultaneously. Conclusion: The analysis brings the theoretical framework of “two-eyed seeing” to the case of early onset familial Alzheimer disease for which the contributions of different ways of knowing are embraced, and in which traditional and western ways complement each other on the path of maintaining wellness in the face of progressive neurologic disease. PMID:27092264

  5. Increased postnatal inflammation in mechanically ventilated preterm infants born to mothers with early-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Riikka; Andersson, Sture; Laivuori, Hannele; Kajantie, Eero; Siitonen, Sanna; Repo, Heikki; Nupponen, Irmeli

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia and preterm labor often underlie preterm birth, and are associated with maternal inflammation. In preterm infants, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and mechanical ventilation are associated with systemic inflammation. We aimed to study whether early-onset preeclampsia or preterm labor modulate the systemic inflammation affecting preterm infants with RDS. We recruited mechanically ventilated infants with gestational ages <32 weeks; 11 infants were born after early-onset preeclampsia and 25 after preterm labor. Blood was drawn during postnatal days 1-7, and the mean values of days 1-2, 3-4 and 5-6 were used. Phagocyte CD11b expression was analyzed with flow cytometry, and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations with immunoturbidimetry. As compared with infants born after preterm labor, infants born after early-onset preeclampsia had higher CD11b expression on days 1-6 on both neutrophils and monocytes. In addition, infants born after early-onset preeclampsia had higher CRP concentrations on days 2-6 (all p < 0.05). As compared with infants born after preterm labor to mothers without preeclampsia, infants born after early-onset preeclampsia presented with a stronger postnatal systemic inflammatory reaction. Antenatal exposure to preeclampsia may induce fetal leukocyte priming and regulation of inflammation, and thereby modify postnatal inflammatory reactions and morbidity. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; Souza, Fábio Gomes de Matos e

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear. PMID:26097750

  7. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; de Matos E Souza, Fábio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words "bipolar disorder," "suicide attempts," "cannabis," "marijuana," "early age at onset," and "early onset." Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6-42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5-60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15-42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  8. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  9. Body mass index, height and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanchang; Cartmel, Brenda; Choy, Courtney C; Molinaro, Annette M; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T; Ferrucci, Leah M

    2017-02-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy in the US. Body mass index (BMI) and height have been associated with a variety of cancer types, yet the evidence regarding BCC is limited. Therefore, we evaluated BMI and height in relation to early-onset BCC (under age 40) and explored the potential role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and estrogen-related exposures in the BMI-BCC relationship. BCC cases (n=377) were identified through a central dermatopathology facility in Connecticut. Control subjects (n=389) with benign skin conditions were randomly sampled from the same database and frequency matched to cases on age (median=36, interquartile range 33-39), gender, and biopsy site. Participants reported weight (usual adult and at age 18), adult height, sociodemographic, phenotypic, and medical characteristics, and prior UV exposures. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression models. Adult BMI was inversely associated with early-onset BCC (obese vs. normal OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.26-0.71). A similar inverse association was present for BMI at age 18 (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.34-0.85). Excluding UV exposures from the BMI models and including estrogen-related exposures among women only did not alter the association between BMI and BCC, indicating limited mediation or confounding. We did not observe an association between adult height and BCC (OR per cm=1.00, 95% CI=0.98-1.02). We found a significant inverse association between BMI and early-onset BCC, but no association between height and BCC. This association was not explained by UV exposures or estrogen-related exposures in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early-onset preeclampsia and the prevalence of postpartum metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stekkinger, Eva; Zandstra, Mirjam; Peeters, Louis L H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome postpartum in women with a history of pregnancy complicated by early-onset vascular disorders compared with women with late-onset disorders. In this retrospective cohort study 849 women with a history of pregnancy complicated by vascular disorders (preeclampsia; gestational hypertension; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome; eclampsia; placental abruption; fetal growth restriction; and stillbirth as a result of placental insufficiency) were divided into early-onset (delivery before 32 weeks of gestation, n=376) and late-onset (delivery at or beyond 32 weeks, n=473). By use of four internationally accepted criteria to diagnose metabolic syndrome, we compared its prevalence in both groups using odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for maternal age, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, birth weight centile, stillbirth, and interval between delivery and measurements. The metabolic syndrome was present in 15-25% of women after early-onset vascular-complicated pregnancy and in 10-14% of women after late-onset disease, depending on the criteria set used; adjusted OR 2.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-3.80) using World Health Organization criteria; adjusted OR 2.01 (95% CI 1.37-2.96) using International Diabetes Federation criteria; adjusted OR 2.16 (95% CI 1.31-3.55) using Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) criteria; and adjusted OR 2.02 (95% CI 1.28-3.17) using Third Adult Treatment Panel updated criteria. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome postpartum is twice as high in women with a history of early-onset (delivery before 32 weeks) compared to late-onset vascular-complicated pregnancy (delivery at or beyond 32 weeks). II.

  11. The onset of galactic winds in early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christine

    1992-01-01

    We completed the spectral analysis of 31 early-type galaxies to investigate whether their x-ray emission was predominantly due to thermal bremsstrahlung from a hot gaseous corona or emission from discrete, galactic sources such as x-ray binaries. If a corona dominates the x-ray emission, its spectra is expected to be relatively cool (0.5 - 1 keV) compared to the harder emission associated with x-ray binaries in our galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds and M31. While it is generally accepted that the x-ray emission in luminous E and S0 galaxies arises from hot coronae, the status of hot gas in lower luminosity (and hence lower mass) galaxies is less clear. Calculations show that, for a given supernova rate, a critical galaxy luminosity (mass) exists below which the gas cannot be gravitationally confined and a galactic wind is predicted to be effective in expelling gas from the galaxy. Since significant mass (a dark halo) is required to hold a hot, gaseous corona around a galaxy, we expect that the faintest, smallest galaxies will not have a hot corona, but their x-ray emission will be dominated by galactic sources or by an active galactic nuclei. In the sample we tested which spanned the absolute magnitude range from -21.5 to -19.5, we found that except for two galaxies whose x-ray emission was dominated by an active nucleus, that the others were consistent with emission from hot gas. We also found that there is a correlation between gas temperature and galaxy magnitude (mass), such that the brighter, more luminous galaxies have hotter gas temperatures. Thus even at relatively faint magnitudes, the dominant emission from early-type galaxies appears to be hot gas. We also carried out an investigation of the x-ray surface brightness distribution of the x-ray emission for about 100 early type galaxies to determine whether the x-ray emission from galaxies are extended. Extended x-ray emission is expected if the emission is due to a hot gaseous corona. We determined the ratio

  12. Childhood sleep problems, early onset of substance use and behavioral problems in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wong, Maria M; Brower, Kirk J; Zucker, Robert A

    2009-08-01

    Very few prospective studies examine the relationship between childhood sleep problems and subsequent substance use. In this study, we examined how sleep problems at ages 3-8 predicted onset of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence. We also investigated the relationships between childhood sleep problems and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. Study participants were 292 boys and 94 girls from a community sample of high risk families and controls in an ongoing longitudinal study. Controlling for parental alcoholism, sleep problems at ages 3-8 predicted onset of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among boys and onset of alcohol use among girls. Childhood sleep problems were related to maternal ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems during adolescence for both boys and girls. Adjusting for these problems did not weaken the effects of sleep problems on onset of substance use. This is to our knowledge the first study that prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between sleep problems and early onset of substance use. Childhood sleep problems predicted early onset of substance use for boys but not girls. If childhood sleep problems indeed increase the probability of substance use onset, greater attention by parents to sleep problems in children and adolescents would potentially have ameliorative long-term effects. Parents are encouraged to explore different ways to help their children sleep better, including obtaining information and suggestions from their primary care physicians.

  13. [SERUM LEVEL OF ENDOTHELIAL MONOCYTE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE-II IN CHILDHOOD-ONSET TYPE 1 DIABETIC PATIENTS AND OBESE ADOLESCENTS].

    PubMed

    Mogylnytska, L A

    2015-01-01

    The atherosclerotic process begins in adolescence, and its progression is determined by the same risk factors as in adults. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is a multifunctional cytokine with proinflammatory and antiangiogenetic activity that may play a pathogenic role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to determine the serum level of EMAP-II in childhood-onset type 1 diabetic patients and obese adolescents. We found increased of serum level of EMAP-II in childhood-onset type 1 diabetic patients and in patients with obesity that do not suffer from diabetes. Also, the level of EMAP-II correlated with the serum level of glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose, and key markers of lipid metabolism, body mass index. Increased serum level of EMAP-II may be one of the pathway of endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes.

  14. HIV-Negative Status Is Associated With Very Early Onset of Lactation Among Ghanaian Women

    PubMed Central

    Otoo, Gloria E.; Marquis, Grace S.; Sellen, Daniel W.; Chapman, Donna J.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This is a longitudinal cohort study investigating the association between maternal HIV status and the reported onset of lactation. The Research to Improve Infant Nutrition and Growth project recruited 442 mothers from 3 antenatal clinics in the eastern region of Ghana, based on positive, negative, and unknown HIV status. Onset of lactation was assessed by maternal perception and validated with 2 subsamples: measurement of infant breast milk intake (n = 40) and daily infant weight measurement for 2 weeks (n = 150). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of very early onset of lactation (onset of lactation < 6 hours). Predictors of very early onset of lactation include HIV-negative status (odds ratio = 2.68; P = .014), multiparity (odds ratio = 2.93; P = .009), vaginal delivery (odds ratio = 2.55; P = .035), and having a male child (odds ratio = 1.86; P = .032). The findings indicate an association between maternal HIV status and very early onset of lactation. PMID:19809094

  15. Early- and late-onset inherited erythromelalgia: genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Han, Chongyang; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Lin, Zhimiao; Li, Yan; Eastman, Emmanuella M; Tyrrell, Lynda; Cao, Xianwei; Yang, Yong; Waxman, Stephen G

    2009-07-01

    Inherited erythromelalgia (IEM), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe burning pain in response to mild warmth, has been shown to be caused by gain-of-function mutations of sodium channel Na(v)1.7 which is preferentially expressed within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic ganglion neurons. Almost all physiologically characterized cases of IEM have been associated with onset in early childhood. Here, we report the voltage-clamp and current-clamp analysis of a new Na(v)1.7 mutation, Q10R, in a patient with clinical onset of erythromelalgia in the second decade. We show that the mutation in this patient hyperpolarizes activation by only -5.3 mV, a smaller shift than seen with early-onset erythromelalgia mutations, but similar to that of I136V, another mutation that is linked to delayed-onset IEM. Using current-clamp, we show that the expression of Q10R induces hyperexcitability in DRG neurons, but produces an increase in excitability that is smaller than the change produced by I848T, an early-onset erythromelalgia mutation. Our analysis suggests a genotype-phenotype relationship at three levels (clinical, cellular and molecular/ion channel), with mutations that produce smaller effects on sodium channel activation being associated with a smaller degree of DRG neuron excitability and later onset of clinical signs.

  16. Association between rs9930506 polymorphism of the fat mass & obesity-associated (FTO) gene & onset of obesity in Polish adults.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, Malgorzata; Zakrzewska, Anna; Ruczko, Lech; Jabłonowska-Lietz, Beata; Nowicka, Grażyna

    2016-03-01

    The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is known to be associated with obesity. However, no data are available on the relation between FTO rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity in Polish population. The aim of this study was to evaluate an association between rs9930506 variants of the FTO gene and obesity in Polish adults. The study group consisted of 442 adults, aged 33.9 ±12.7 yr, with mean BMI 27.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2. The following variables were determined for each subject: fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Real-time PCR was used to detect the A/G alleles of the rs9939506 polymorphism in the FTO gene. An association between the rs9930506 polymorphism and obesity was determined using codominant, dominant, and recessive models. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to determine the risk of obesity associated with this polymorphism. It was observed that the presence of FTO rs9939506 G allele was associated with increased risk for obesity and this association was found significant in both recessive (OR = 1.72, P = 0.014) and co-dominant (OR = 1.36, P = 0.031) models of inheritance. The FTO rs9939506 GG homozygotes had a significantly higher BMI than those with other genotypes. This study shows that FTO rs9939506 GG genotype is related to higher BMI and is associated with obesity in Polish adults.

  17. Early stridor onset and stridor treatment predict survival in 136 patients with MSA.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Giulia; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Mastrolilli, Francesca; Righini, Matteo; Bacchi-Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Cecere, Annagrazia; Barletta, Giorgio; Guaraldi, Pietro; Provini, Federica; Cortelli, Pietro

    2016-09-27

    To evaluate the predictive value of stridor and its latency of onset and to investigate the role of stridor treatment in a cohort of patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) referred to a tertiary center. We retrospectively identified patients diagnosed with MSA referred to our department beginning in 1991 and evaluated at least yearly during the disease course. Stridor was defined as present when confirmed by a whole night video-polysomnography and as early if presenting within 3 years of disease onset. Survival data, from disease onset to time of death, were calculated with Kaplan-Meier curves. Predictors were identified in univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses. We included 136 patients with MSA; 113 were deceased at the time of study. Stridor was diagnosed in 42 patients, and 22 presented early stridor onset. Twelve of the 31 patients treated for stridor received tracheostomy, and 19 received continuous positive airway pressure. Overall survival did not differ between patients with and without stridor, while patients with early stridor onset had a worse prognosis than those developing this symptom later. In the stridor subgroup, early stridor onset was an unfavorable survival predictor. Stridor treatment was significantly associated with survival in our population. The Kaplan-Meier curve did not reveal significant differences in survival between the 2 treatments even though there was a trend toward longer disease duration in patients receiving tracheostomy. Our results demonstrated that early stridor onset is an independent predictor for shorter survival and that tracheostomy could control stridor, influencing disease duration. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Pantoea species causing early onset neonatal sepsis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shreekant; Beriha, Siba Shankar

    2015-09-04

    Pantoea agglomerans is a plant pathogen which very rarely causes an opportunistic infection. Human beings are usually infected by thorn prick injuries or by contaminated parenteral fluids. Pantoea agglomerans has been reported as a cause of neonatal sepsis very rarely and to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from India. A 4-day-old Asian baby boy from the rural area of Odisha, India, was admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit when he presented with fever, tachypnea and chest retraction. Pantoea species were isolated from his blood culture. He was treated successfully with meropenem administered intravenously and other supportive measures. Early detection and proper management may cause a favorable outcome.

  19. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2005-01-01

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol). 3βAdiol is estrogenic in ERα or ERβ positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1–/– mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3βAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3βAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERβ and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3βAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3βAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen. PMID:15710898

  20. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2005-02-22

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaAdiol). 3betaAdiol is estrogenic in ERalpha or ERbeta positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1(-/-) mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3betaAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3betaAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERbeta and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3betaAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3betaAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen.

  1. Differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between early- and late-onset alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Dom, G; Hulstijn, W; Sabbe, B

    2006-02-01

    The personality traits of impulsivity and sensation seeking have been proposed as important features of early-onset alcoholism. Early-onset (EOA, n=62) and late-onset (LOA, n=68 ) alcoholic inpatients were compared as to the severity of their substance use and related problems, and self-report scales measuring impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11), sensation seeking (Sensation Seeking Scale), and aggressiveness (Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory). The symptom severity of the EOAs' alcohol-use disorder and related problems was higher than that of the LOAs. Furthermore, the EOAs had higher levels of impulsivity, sensation seeking, and aggression relative to the LOAs. The differences in impulsivity remained after an analysis controlling for the effect of aggressiveness. Finally, cigarette smoking was positively correlated with impulsiveness across alcoholic subgroups. Active screening for impulsive traits in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing populations is recommended to improve treatment planning and prevent early drop-out.

  2. Cognitive Development in Infantile-Onset Pompe Disease Under Very Early Enzyme Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chuang, Ya-Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease die in early infancy before beginning enzyme replacement therapy, which has made it difficult to evaluate the impact of Pompe disease on cognitive development. Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease can survive with enzyme replacement therapy, and physicians can evaluate cognitive development in these patients. We established an effective newborn screening program with quick clinical diagnostic criteria. Cognitive and motor development were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. The patients who were treated very early demonstrate normal cognitive development with no significant change in cognition during this period (P = .18 > .05). The cognitive development was positively correlated with motor development (r = 0.533, P = .011). The results indicated that very early enzyme replacement therapy could protect cognitive development in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease up to 24 months of age.

  3. Heritability and risks associated with early onset hypertension: multigenerational, prospective analysis in the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Niiranen, Teemu J; McCabe, Elizabeth L; Larson, Martin G; Henglin, Mir; Lakdawala, Neal K; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Cheng, Susan

    2017-05-12

    Objective To determine the role of early onset versus late onset hypertension as a risk factor for hypertension in offspring and cardiovascular death.Design Multigenerational, prospective cohort study.Setting Framingham Heart Study.Participants Two generations of community dwelling participants with blood pressure measurements performed at serial examinations spanning six decades: 3614 first generation participants with mortality data and 1635 initially non-hypertensive second generation participants with data available on parental blood pressure.Main outcome measures The main outcome measures were relation of parental early onset hypertension (age <55 years) with incidence of hypertension in offspring, using regression analyses, and relation of age at hypertension onset with cause specific mortality using a case (cardiovascular death) versus control (non-cardiovascular death) design.Results In second generation participants, having one or both parents with late onset hypertension did not increase the risk of hypertension compared with having parents with no hypertension; by contrast, the hazard ratios of hypertension were 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.5) and 3.5 (1.9 to 6.1) in participants with one and both parents with early onset hypertension, respectively. In first generation decedents, 1151 cardiovascular deaths occurred (including 630 coronary deaths). The odds of cardiovascular death increased linearly with decreasing age of hypertension onset (P<0.001 for trend). Compared with non-hypertensive participants, hypertension onset at age <45 years conferred an odds ratios of 2.2 (1.8 to 2.7) for cardiovascular death and 2.3 (1.8 to 2.9) for coronary death, whereas hypertension onset at age ≥65 years conferred a lower magnitude odds ratios of 1.5 (1.2 to 1.9) for cardiovascular death and 1.4 (0.98 to 1.9) for coronary death (P≤0.002 for differences in odds ratios between hypertension onset at age <45 and age ≥65).Conclusions Early onset and

  4. Frequency of known mutations in early-onset Parkinson disease: implication for genetic counseling: the consortium on risk for early onset Parkinson disease study.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, Roy N; Caccappolo, Elise; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Tang, Ming Xin; Rosado, Llency; Ross, Barbara M; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Louis, Elan D; Comella, Cynthia; Colcher, Amy; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha A; Bressman, Susan B; Scott, William K; Tanner, Caroline; Mickel, Susan; Andrews, Howard; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph H; Pfeiffer, Ronald; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Bradley; Siderowf, Andrew; Ottman, Ruth; Marder, Karen; Clark, Lorraine N

    2010-09-01

    To assess the frequency and clinical characteristics of carriers of previously identified mutations in 6 genes associated with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD) and provide empirical data that can be used to inform genetic counseling. Cross-sectional observational study. Thirteen movement disorders centers. Nine hundred fifty-three individuals with early-onset PD defined as age at onset (AAO) younger than 51 years. Participants included 77 and 139 individuals of Hispanic and Jewish ancestry, respectively. Intervention Mutations in SNCA, PRKN, PINK1, DJ1, LRRK2, and GBA were assessed. A validated family history interview and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale were administered. Demographic and phenotypic characteristics were compared among groups defined by mutation status. Main Outcome Measure Mutation carrier frequency stratified by AAO and ethnic background. One hundred fifty-eight (16.6%) participants had mutations, including 64 (6.7%) PRKN, 35 (3.6%) LRRK2 G2019S, 64 (6.7%) GBA, and 1 (0.2%) DJ1. Mutation carriers were more frequent in those with an AAO of 30 years or younger compared with those with AAO between 31 and 50 years (40.6% vs 14.6%, P < .001), in individuals who reported Jewish ancestry (32.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), and in those reporting a first-degree family history of PD (23.9% vs 15.1%, P = .01). Hispanic individuals were more likely to be PRKN carriers than non-Hispanic individuals (15.6% vs 5.9%, P = .003). The GBA L444P mutation was associated with a higher mean Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale III score after adjustment for covariates. Individuals of Jewish or Hispanic ancestry with early-onset PD, those with AAO of 30 years or younger, and those with a history of PD in a first-degree relative may benefit from genetic counseling.

  5. Novel NFKB2 mutation in early-onset CVID.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Hanson, Steven; Gurugama, Padmalal; Jones, Alison; Clark, Barnaby; Ibrahim, Mohammad A A

    2014-08-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is heterogeneous, clinically, immunologically and genetically. The majority of genetic mechanisms leading to CVID remain elusive. We studied a Greek Cypriot family of non-consanguineous parents. Two children were diagnosed with CVID at an early age. Whole exome sequencing revealed 8bp deletion in the C-terminal part of NFKB2 gene associated with disease. The mutation leads to a frameshift (p.Asp865Valfs*17) altering 17 C-terminal amino acids from residue 865, and creating a premature stop-codon resulting in a truncated protein, 19 amino acids shorter than wild type (p100Δ19). We validated the results with Dye-termination sequencing and Western blot, and confirmed that the conserved residue at 866 is mutated from serine to arginine in p100Δ19, leaving the mutant protein unphosphorylated at this critical regulatory position. Consequently, NFKB2/p100 processing and nuclear translocation were abrogated. Using flow cytometry, we further demonstrated that there was a reduction in B cells (CD19+), switched memory B cells (CD27+IgD-) and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells (both CD4+CXCR5+ and CD4+CXCR5Hi) in a CVID patient with NFKB2/p100Δ19, compared to healthy controls. These data support the notion that the non-canonical NFκB pathway plays an important role in B cell differentiation and the development of Tfh cells, and may pave the way for better understanding of the pathology of CVID.

  6. Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Pytel, Peter; Liang, Hua; Kang, Shijun; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2014-11-01

    NF-κB is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-κB1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-κB signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-κB pathway and mammalian aging.

  7. Maternal infant feeding behaviors and disparities in early child obesity.

    PubMed

    Gross, Rachel S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Fierman, Arthur H; Hauser, Nicole R; Messito, Mary Jo

    2014-04-01

    Although disparities in child obesity exist during infancy, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Assessing dissimilarities in feeding practices, styles, and beliefs may provide a better understanding of these mechanisms. This study sought to identify modifiable maternal-infant feeding behaviors that may contribute to disparities in early child obesity. This study is a cross-sectional analysis comparing mothers with infants (2 weeks to 6 months old) in a low-risk group of high-income white mothers to a high-risk group of low-income Hispanic mothers. Regression analysis was used to explore relationships between each group and (1) infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding, giving juice, and adding cereal to bottles, (2) controlling feeding styles, (3) beliefs about infant hunger and satiety, and (4) infant weight status. The sample included 412 mothers (low-risk group, n = 208; high-risk group, n = 204). The high-risk group was less likely to exclusively breastfeed (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.83), more likely to introduce juice (AOR, 12.25; 95% CI, 3.44-43.62), and add cereal to the bottle (AOR, 10.61; 95% CI, 2.74-41.0). The high-risk group exhibited greater restrictive and pressuring feeding styles and was more likely to believe that mothers can recognize infant hunger and satiety and less likely to believe that infants know their own hunger and satiety. High-risk infants were more likely to have a weight-for-length percentile >85th percentile (AOR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.10-6.45). Differences in infant feeding behaviors may contribute to disparities in early child obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the effect of these differences on child obesity.

  8. Early-Life Toxic Insults and Onset of Sporadic Neurodegenerative Diseases-an Overview of Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, Anna Maria; Venerosi, Aldina; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis states that adverse fetal and early childhood exposures can predispose to obesity, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) in adult life. Early exposure to environmental chemicals interferes with developmental programming and induces subclinical alterations that may hesitate in pathophysiology and behavioral deficits at a later life stage. The mechanisms by which perinatal insults lead to altered programming and to disease later in life are still undefined. The long latency between exposure and onset of disease, the difficulty of reconstructing early exposures, and the wealth of factors which the individual is exposed to during the life course make extremely difficult to prove the developmental origin of NDDs in clinical and epidemiological studies. An overview of animal studies assessing the long-term effects of perinatal exposure to different chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) supports the link between exposure and hallmarks of neurodegeneration at the adult stage. Furthermore, models of maternal immune activation show that brain inflammation in early life may enhance adult vulnerability to environmental toxins, thus supporting the multiple hit hypothesis for NDDs' etiology. The study of prospective animal cohorts may help to unraveling the complex pathophysiology of sporadic NDDs. In vivo models could be a powerful tool to clarify the mechanisms through which different kinds of insults predispose to cell loss in the adult age, to establish a cause-effect relationship between "omic" signatures and disease/dysfunction later in life, and to identify peripheral biomarkers of exposure, effects, and susceptibility, for translation to prospective epidemiological studies.

  9. Studies of genetic variability of the uncoupling protein 1 gene in Caucasian subjects with juvenile-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Urhammer, S A; Fridberg, M; Sørensen, T I; Echwald, S M; Andersen, T; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Clausen, J O; Pedersen, O

    1997-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether genetic variants of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene are associated with juvenile-onset obesity or alterations in weight gain and insulin sensitivity in young healthy Caucasians. Single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis of the coding region of the UCP1 gene was performed in 56 subjects randomly selected at the draft board examination from a cohort of 156 males with juvenile-onset obesity. Association studies of amino acid variants were undertaken in the cohort of males with juvenile-onset obesity, a cohort of 205 randomly selected control males, and a subgroup of this cohort comprising 76 lean subjects. Genetic variants of the coding region as well as a previously described a-->g nucleotide polymorphism of the 5'-flanking region of the UCP1 gene were examined for associations with accelerated weight gain or reduced sensitivity to insulin in a cohort of 380 young healthy Caucasians. The mutational analysis revealed five nucleotide substitutions that changed the sequence of UCP1, Arg/Trp40, Ala/Thr64, Val/Met137, Met/Leu229, and Lys/Asn257 and two nucleotide substitutions in the nontranslated region of exon 1. Among subjects with juvenile-onset obesity, the allelic frequencies of Ala/Thr64 and Met/Leu229 were both 8.2% (95% confidence interval: 5.1-11.3%) vs. 8.8% (6.0-11.6%) and 8.1% (5.3-10.9%), respectively, in the cohort of randomly selected control subjects. Among lean control subjects, the allelic frequencies of the polymorphisms were 8.2% (3.7-12.7%) and 5.6% (1.9-9.3%), respectively. In the cohort of young healthy subjects, measurements of obesity and insulin sensitivity did not differ between carriers of the Ala/Thr64 and Met/Leu229 variants and wild-type carriers. The Val/Met137 and Lys/Asn257 mutations were each found in one subject with juvenile-onset obesity, and the Arg/Trp40 mutation was found in two obese subjects and in one control subject. The allelic frequency of the nucleotide

  10. Risk factors for early-onset and late-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in kidney recipients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Scott C; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Morton, Lindsay M; Engels, Eric A

    2011-02-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients have an elevated risk for some malignancies because of the requirement for immunosuppression [1]. In particular, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is common and comprises one end of a spectrum of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) ranging from benign hyperplasia to lymphoid malignancy [2]. PTLD risk is influenced by the type of organ transplanted, the age and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serostatus of the transplant recipient, and the intensity of immunosuppression [3-9]. PTLD incidence is high immediately after transplantation, decreases subsequently, and then rises again 4-5 years from transplantation [10,11]. This incidence pattern suggests the presence of separate early-onset and late-onset PTLD subtypes. Early-onset PTLDs tend to be EBV-positive and, when extranodal, are more likely than late-onset PTLDs to be localized to the transplanted organ [12,13]. Late-onset PTLD is less likely to be associated with EBV and, overall, is more likely than early-onset PTLD to be extranodal [13,14]. The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) includes data on a large number of solid-organ transplant recipients in the United States and information on malignancies diagnosed post-transplantation. We used these data to conduct a retrospective cohort study among kidney transplant recipients to examine differences in risk factors between early-onset PTLD and late-onset PTLD.

  11. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD): Response to ventilatory challenges.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael S; Patwari, Pallavi P; Kenny, Anna S; Brogadir, Cindy D; Stewart, Tracey M; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2015-12-01

    Hypoventilation is a defining feature of Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD), a rare respiratory and autonomic disorder. This chronic hypoventilation has been explained as the result of dysfunctional chemosensory control circuits, possibly affecting peripheral afferent input, central integration, or efferent motor control. However, chemosensory function has never been quantified in a cohort of ROHHAD patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the response to awake ventilatory challenge testing in children and adolescents with ROHHAD. The ventilatory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses in 25 distinct comprehensive physiological recordings from seven unique ROHHAD patients to three different gas mixtures were analyzed at breath-to-breath and beat-to-beat resolution as absolute measures, as change from baseline, or with derived metrics. Physiologic measures were recorded during a 3-min baseline period of room air, a 3-min gas exposure (of 100% O2; 95% O2, 5% CO2; or 14% O2, 7% CO2 balanced with N2), and a 3-min recovery period. An additional hypoxic challenge was conducted which consisted of either five or seven tidal breaths of 100% N2. While ROHHAD cases showed a diminished VT and inspiratory drive response to hypoxic hypercapnia and absent behavioral awareness of the physiologic compromise, most ventilatory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular measures were similar to those of previously published controls using an identical protocol, suggesting a mild chemosensory deficit. Nonetheless, the high mortality rate, comorbidity and physiological fragility of patients with ROHHAD demand continued clinical vigilance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The effect of early onset common mental disorders on educational attainment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Leach, Liana Sarma; Butterworth, Peter

    2012-08-30

    Early onset mental disorders may lead to the early termination of education and thereby have long term adverse social and economic consequences on outcomes such as employment and financial security. This issue is important to address as governments seek to develop new ways to minimise the impacts of mental health problems and maximise workforce participation. The current investigation examines the impact of early onset affective, anxiety and substance use disorders on the early termination of secondary school education in Australia. The analyses used data from those aged between 20 and 34 in the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB) (n=2055). The NSMHWB is a population based survey administered by the Australian Bureau of Statics and included a WMH-CIDI 3.0 assessment to determine whether respondents met diagnostic criteria for any lifetime affective, anxiety, and/or substance use disorder as well as age of onset information. The results show that early onset mental disorders are significantly associated with the termination of secondary education in Australia, particularly early onset substance use disorders such as alcohol, cannabis and stimulant use. These disorders were most likely to disrupt completion in the middle years of high school (year 10 completion), in comparison to the final year 12 milestone. Policies and interventions promoting prevention and early intervention and offering educational support for young people with psychiatric illness and substance use problems, should intervene prior to the middle years of high school to help prevent adverse social and economic consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Neuropsychological Functioning Between Adults With Early- and Late-Onset DSM-5 ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare the visually dependent neuropsychological functioning among adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) ADHD who recalled symptom onset by and after age 7 and non-ADHD controls. We divided the participants, aged 17 to 40 years, into three groups-(a) ADHD, onset <7 years (early-onset, n = 142); (b) ADHD, onset between 7 and <12 years (late-onset, n = 41); (c) non-ADHD controls ( n = 148)-and compared their neuropsychological functioning, measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery. Both ADHD groups had deficits in attention and signal detectability, spatial working memory, and short-term spatial memory, but only the early-onset group showed deficits in alertness, set-shifting, and planning after controlling for age, sex, and psychiatric comorbidities. There was no statistical difference between the two ADHD groups in neuropsychological functioning. DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing adult ADHD are not too lax regarding neuropsychological functioning.

  14. Delayed onset of lactogenesis among first-time mothers is related to maternal obesity and factors associated with ineffective breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Chantry, Caroline J; Peerson, Janet M; Cohen, Roberta J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2010-09-01

    Delayed onset of lactogenesis (OL) is most common in primiparas and increases the risk of excess neonatal weight loss, formula supplementation, and early weaning. We examined variables associated with delayed OL among first-time mothers who delivered at term and initiated breastfeeding (n = 431). We conducted in-person interviews during pregnancy and at days 0, 3, and 7 postpartum and extracted obstetric and newborn information from medical records. We defined OL as delayed if it occurred after 72 h and used chi-square analysis to examine its association with potential risk factors across 6 dimensions: 1) prenatal characteristics, 2) maternal anthropometric characteristics, 3) labor and delivery experience, 4) newborn characteristics, 5) maternal postpartum factors, and 6) infant feeding variables. We examined independent associations by using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Median OL was 68.9 h postpartum; 44% of mothers experienced delayed OL. We observed significant bivariate associations between delayed OL and variables in all 6 dimensions (P < 0.05). In a multivariate model adjusted for prenatal feeding intentions, independent risk factors for delayed OL were maternal age > or =30 y, body mass index in the overweight or obese range, birth weight >3600 g, absence of nipple discomfort between 0-3 d postpartum, and infant failing to "breastfeed well" > or =2 times in the first 24 h. Postpartum edema was significant in an alternate model excluding body mass index (P < 0.05). The risk factors for delayed OL are multidimensional. Public health and obstetric and maternity care interventions are needed to address what has become an alarmingly common problem among primiparas.

  15. Raynaud's syndrome: comparison of late and early onset forms using hand perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Csiki, Z; Galuska, L; Garai, I; Szabó, N; Varga, J; András, Cs; Zeher, M

    2006-09-01

    Primary Raynaud's disease is generally a disease of younger females; however, there are cases where symptoms present over the age of 40. These cases are described as late onset. In our current prospective study we compared the characteristics of early and late onset types of primary Raynaud's in 127 patients. In addition to the collection of medical records, we performed capillary-microscopy and hand perfusion scintigraphy using Tc-99 m DTPA to evaluate the microcirculation of each patient's fingers. Regarding the spectrum of the capillary-microscopic findings, we did not find any significant difference between the early and late onset forms. However, in hand perfusion examinations done using Tc-99 m DTPA, we measured a significantly lower finger/palm ratio (FPR) in the early onset group of patients. We also observed a correlation between the duration of the disease and the FPR, as well as between the age and FPR. Longer disease duration resulted in a significantly lower FPR. On the basis of our results, we believe that late onset Raynaud's should be treated as a separate entity. Due to its different characteristics found on examination and follow-up of our patients, functional hand perfusion examination should be recommended independently of the age-related characteristics of the disease.

  16. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with early-onset bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nassan, Malik; Croarkin, Paul E; Luby, Joan L; Veldic, Marin; Joshi, Paramjit T; McElroy, Susan L; Post, Robert M; Walkup, John T; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer; Wagner, Karen D; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Casuto, Leah; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schalling, Martin; Jensen, Peter S; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) functional polymorphism has been implicated in early-onset bipolar disorder. However, results of studies are inconsistent. We aimed to further explore this association. Methods DNA samples from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) and Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank were investigated for association of rs6265 with early-onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar cases were classified as early onset with the definition of first manic or depressive episode at age ≤ 19 years (versus adult-onset cases at age > 19 years). After quality control, 69 TEAM early-onset bipolar disorder cases, 725 Mayo Clinic bipolar disorder cases (including 189 early onset cases), and 764 controls were included in the analysis of association, assessed with logistic regression assuming log-additive allele effects. Results Comparison of TEAM cases with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with the rs6265 minor allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, p = 0.04]. Although comparison of early-onset adult bipolar disorder cases from Mayo Clinic versus controls was not statistically significant, the OR estimate indicated the same direction of effect (OR = 1.21, p = 0.19). When the early-onset TEAM and Mayo Clinic early-onset adult groups were combined and compared with the control group, the association of the minor allele rs6265 was statistically significant (OR = 1.30, p = 0.04). Conclusions These preliminary analyses of a relatively small sample with early-onset bipolar disorder are suggestive that functional variation in BDNF is implicated in bipolar disorder risk and may have a more significant role in early-onset expression of the disorder. PMID:26528762

  17. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with early-onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Nassan, Malik; Croarkin, Paul E; Luby, Joan L; Veldic, Marin; Joshi, Paramjit T; McElroy, Susan L; Post, Robert M; Walkup, John T; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer R; Wagner, Karen D; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Casuto, Leah; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schalling, Martin; Jensen, Peter S; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) functional polymorphism has been implicated in early-onset bipolar disorder. However, results of studies are inconsistent. We aimed to further explore this association. DNA samples from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) and Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank were investigated for association of rs6265 with early-onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar cases were classified as early onset if the first manic or depressive episode occurred at age ≤19 years (versus adult-onset cases at age >19 years). After quality control, 69 TEAM early-onset bipolar disorder cases, 725 Mayo Clinic bipolar disorder cases (including 189 early-onset cases), and 764 controls were included in the analysis of association, assessed with logistic regression assuming log-additive allele effects. Comparison of TEAM cases with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with the rs6265 minor allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, p = 0.04]. Although comparison of early-onset adult bipolar disorder cases from the Mayo Clinic versus controls was not statistically significant, the OR estimate indicated the same direction of effect (OR = 1.21, p = 0.19). When the early-onset TEAM and Mayo Clinic early-onset adult groups were combined and compared with the control group, the association of the minor allele rs6265 was statistically significant (OR = 1.30, p = 0.04). These preliminary analyses of a relatively small sample with early-onset bipolar disorder are suggestive that functional variation in BDNF is implicated in bipolar disorder risk and may have a more significant role in early-onset expression of the disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Clinical differences between early- and late-onset psoriasis in Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Suthipinittharm, Puan; Jiamton, Sukhum; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Silpa-Archa, Narumol; Tuchinda, Papapit; Sirikuddta, Wararat

    2015-03-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding clinical differences between early-onset psoriasis (EOP) and late-onset psoriasis (LOP) in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate clinical differences between EOP (onset at the age of <40 years) and LOP (onset at the age of ≥40 years) in Thai patients. From 2002 until 2008, staff and residents in the Department of Dermatology, Siriraj Hospital, were asked to complete a questionnaire detailing the age of onset, family history of psoriasis, comorbid diseases, clinical features, nail and joint involvement, and severity of psoriasis in all psoriasis patients. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-squared tests. A total of 1017 patients were enrolled. Of these, 663 (65.2%) patients had EOP and 354 (34.8%) had LOP. The mean ± standard deviation age of onset was 24.8 ± 8.7 years in the EOP group and 51.6 ± 9.6 years in the LOP group. The two most common comorbid diseases were hypertension and diabetes mellitus in both groups. Patients with EOP had a significantly higher likelihood of both a family history of disease and guttate psoriasis. Palmoplantar psoriasis was more commonly found in LOP patients. Nail and joint involvement and disease severity were not associated significantly with age of onset. The present study supports the hypothesis that there are clinical differences between EOP and LOP in Asian populations. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  19. Predictors of parkin mutations in early-onset Parkinson disease: the consortium on risk for early-onset Parkinson disease study.

    PubMed

    Marder, Karen S; Tang, Ming X; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Rosado, Llency; Louis, Elan D; Comella, Cynthia L; Colcher, Amy; Siderowf, Andrew D; Jennings, Danna; Nance, Martha A; Bressman, Susan; Scott, William K; Tanner, Caroline M; Mickel, Susan F; Andrews, Howard F; Waters, Cheryl; Fahn, Stanley; Ross, Barbara M; Cote, Lucien J; Frucht, Steven; Ford, Blair; Alcalay, Roy N; Rezak, Michael; Novak, Kevin; Friedman, Joseph H; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; Marsh, Laura; Hiner, Brad; Neils, Gregory D; Verbitsky, Miguel; Kisselev, Sergey; Caccappolo, Elise; Ottman, Ruth; Clark, Lorraine N

    2010-06-01

    Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic cause of early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). Results from a multicenter study of patients with PD systematically sampled by age at onset have not been reported to date. To determine risk factors associated with carrying parkin mutations. Cross-sectional observational study. Thirteen movement disorders centers. A total of 956 patients with early-onset PD, defined as age at onset younger than 51 years. Presence of heterozygous, homozygous, or compound heterozygous parkin mutations. Using a previously validated interview, 14.7% of patients reported a family history of PD in a first-degree relative. Sixty-four patients (6.7%) had parkin mutations (3.9% heterozygous, 0.6% homozygous, and 2.2% compound heterozygous). Copy number variation was present in 52.3% of mutation carriers (31.6% of heterozygous, 83.3% of homozygous, and 81.0% of compound heterozygous). Deletions in exons 3 and 4 and 255delA were common among Hispanics (specifically Puerto Ricans). Younger age at onset (<40 years) (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.8; P = .001), Hispanic race/ethnicity (OR compared with white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.7; P = .009), and family history of PD in a first-degree relative (OR compared with noncarriers, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.3; P = .002) were associated with carrying any parkin mutation (heterozygous, homozygous, or compound heterozygous). Hispanic race/ethnicity was associated with carrying a heterozygous mutation (OR compared with white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.2; P = .03) after adjustment for covariates. Age at onset, Hispanic race/ethnicity, and family history of PD are associated with carrying any parkin mutation (heterozygous, homozygous, or compound heterozygous) and heterozygous mutations alone. The increased odds of carrying a parkin mutation among Hispanics warrants further study.

  20. Early Microbe Contact and Obesity Risk: Evidence Of Causality?

    PubMed

    Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo; Rautava, Samuli

    2016-07-01

    The industrialized societies worldwide are in the middle of epidemics of diet-related chronic diseases, obesity being the common denominator. Lately, these conditions have been linked with a distinct microbiota composition in affected individuals different from that of healthy individuals. In particular, dysbiosis during critical stages of development induces lasting alterations in the immune and metabolic phenotype. The compositional development of the gut microbiota, again, is highly sensitive to environmental influences such as maternal health and nutrition, the mode of delivery, early feeding and antibiotic use. Shifts in the microbiota by high-energy diet increase energy extraction and storage, provoke a low-grade inflammatory response and impair gut barrier function, and, consequently, result in obesity and metabolic disease. A lower abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and lower overall richness of bacteria has been associated with increased metabolic disease risk in humans. Recent reports suggest that Akkermansia type bacteria or butyrate producing microbes may have anti-inflammatory potential and enhance intestinal barrier function, which may both alleviate obesity and related metabolic complications. Thus we are not directly what we eat or our mother eats, but what our microbiota eat and how the collective composition of the microbiome is modified by the diet. On this basis, altering the intestinal microecosystem may be taken as a key target to attain prophylactic or therapeutic effects in metabolic and inflammatory conditions. Tools for such modulation include specific probiotic bacteria and potentially also non-digestible carbohydrate components able to modify microbiota composition and activity.

  1. Managing early childhood obesity in the primary care setting: a behavior modification approach.

    PubMed

    Drohan, Samantha H

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to encourage primary care pediatric nurses to begin behavioral-based obesity treatment efforts as early as the preschool years. By examining the critical periods for obesity development and how the formation of food and activity behaviors interacts with those critical periods during the preschool years, the value of initiating early obesity treatment will be highlighted. Furthermore, the theory of behavior modification is presented and core principles are applied to early childhood weight management efforts.

  2. Allelic association at the D14S43 locus in early onset Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, A.; Tardieu, S.; Campion, D.; Martinez, M.

    1995-04-24

    The D14S43 marker is closely linked to the major gene for early onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer`s disease on chromosome 14. Allelic frequencies at the D14S43 locus were compared in 113 familial and isolated cases of early onset Alzheimer`s disease (<60 years of age at onset) (EOAD) and 109 unaffected individuals of the same geographic origin. Allele 7 was significantly (P = 0.033) more frequent in type 1 EOAD patients (13.2%), defined by the presence of at least another first degree relative with EOAD, than in controls (4.1%). Since an autosomal dominant gene is probably responsible for type 1 patients, allelic association may reflect linkage disequilibrium at the D14S43 locus. This would mean that some patients share a common ancestral mutation. However, since multiple tests were carried out, this result must be interpreted with caution, and needs confirmation in an independent sample. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Reconceptualizing Early- and Late-Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite their increasing numbers. In this paper we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods Qualitative data were collected from 29 older heroin users. Life course analysis focused on the users’ experiences across the life span. Results The findings suggest that those aging-into heroin use (late-onset) are disadvantaged compared to those who are maturing-in (early-onset) except in areas of health. Implications We propose that conceptualizing the use of heroin and other illicit drugs among older adults based on their life course trajectory will provide insights for social and health services, including drug treatment. PMID:18981280

  4. Differences in Comorbidity Profiles between Early-Onset and Late-Onset Alopecia Areata Patients: A Retrospective Study of 871 Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Noo Ri; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Yoon, Na Young; Lee, Sung-yul; Ahn, Seok-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is a common dermatologic condition with a broad spectrum of clinical features and age of onset, classically characterized by nonscarring patches of hair loss. In the past, early-onset (before adolescence) AA has been associated with various autoimmune diseases, especially atopic diseases and lupus erythematosus and demonstrates a worse prognosis compared with late onset AA. Objective To evaluate the differences in the comorbidity profile of AA with regard to age at onset. Methods We completed a retrospective study of 871 Korean AA patients seen at our department within the last 10 years. After these patients were subdivided according to onset before or after age 13 years, the two groups were compared on the basis of their comorbid disorders, family history of AA, and hematologic test results. Results Our results demonstrate that significantly more patients in the early-onset group had a personal history of atopic dermatitis or family history of AA. These findings are consistent with previous reports associating early-onset AA with autoimmune diseases and a family history of AA in different ethnic populations. Most of the serologic test values showed no significant differences between the groups and the results were considerably affected by age. Conclusion This study is significant because it is a large group study in Korean AA patients, and Korean AA patients with an onset age before adolescence show similar clinical manifestations to other ethnic populations. PMID:25473224

  5. Influence of light exposure during early life on the age of onset of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Andreassen, Ole A; Angelopoulos, Elias; Ardau, Raffaella; Baethge, Christopher; Bauer, Rita; Baune, Bernhard T; Bellivier, Frank; Belmaker, Robert H; Berk, Michael; Bjella, Thomas D; Bossini, Letizia; Bersudsky, Yuly; Wo Cheung, Eric Yat; Conell, Jörn; Del Zompo, Maria; Dodd, Seetal; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Frye, Mark A; Fountoulakis, Kostas N; Garneau-Fournier, Jade; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Gottlieb, John F; Harima, Hirohiko; Hassel, Stefanie; Henry, Chantal; Iacovides, Apostolos; Isometsä, Erkki T; Kapczinski, Flávio; Kliwicki, Sebastian; König, Barbara; Krogh, Rikke; Kunz, Mauricio; Lafer, Beny; Larsen, Erik R; Lewitzka, Ute; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; MacQueen, Glenda; Manchia, Mirko; Marsh, Wendy; Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; Melle, Ingrid; Monteith, Scott; Morken, Gunnar; Munoz, Rodrigo; Nery, Fabiano G; O'Donovan, Claire; Osher, Yamima; Pfennig, Andrea; Quiroz, Danilo; Ramesar, Raj; Rasgon, Natalie; Reif, Andreas; Ritter, Philipp; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Sagduyu, Kemal; Miranda-Scippa, Ângela; Severus, Emanuel; Simhandl, Christian; Stein, Dan J; Strejilevich, Sergio; Sulaiman, Ahmad Hatim; Suominen, Kirsi; Tagata, Hiromi; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Torrent, Carla; Vieta, Eduard; Viswanath, Biju; Wanchoo, Mihir J; Zetin, Mark; Whybrow, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Environmental conditions early in life may imprint the circadian system and influence response to environmental signals later in life. We previously determined that a large springtime increase in solar insolation at the onset location was associated with a younger age of onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. This study investigated whether the hours of daylight at the birth location affected this association. Data collected previously at 36 collection sites from 23 countries were available for 3896 patients with bipolar I disorder, born between latitudes of 1.4 N and 70.7 N, and 1.2 S and 41.3 S. Hours of daylight variables for the birth location were added to a base model to assess the relation between the age of onset and solar insolation. More hours of daylight at the birth location during early life was associated with an older age of onset, suggesting reduced vulnerability to the future circadian challenge of the springtime increase in solar insolation at the onset location. Addition of the minimum of the average monthly hours of daylight during the first 3 months of life improved the base model, with a significant positive relationship to age of onset. Coefficients for all other variables remained stable, significant and consistent with the base model. Light exposure during early life may have important consequences for those who are susceptible to bipolar disorder, especially at latitudes with little natural light in winter. This study indirectly supports the concept that early life exposure to light may affect the long term adaptability to respond to a circadian challenge later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; McClellan, Jon; Findling, Robert L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Anderson, Robert; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Williams, Emily; McNamara, Nora K.; Jackson, Joseph A.; Ritz, Louise; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Pierson, Leslie; Varley, Jennifer A.; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Hamer, Robert M.; Noyes, Nancy; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Sikich, Linmarie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We examined baseline demographic and clinical profiles of youths enrolled from 2001 to 2006 in the publicly funded multicenter, randomized controlled trial Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Method: Youths (8-19 years) with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder were recruited at four academic sites.…

  7. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  8. Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala in Early-Childhood-Onset Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luking, Katherine R.; Repovs, Grega; Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced cortico-limbic functional connectivity thought to indicate decreased top-down control of emotion. However, it is unclear whether such connectivity alterations are also present in early-childhood-onset MDD. Method: A total of 51 children 7 through 11 years of age who had…

  9. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2…

  10. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method: Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated…

  11. Assessing Age of Onset Effects in (Early) Child L2 Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the development of three different types of bilingual/second language children in their acquisition of gender-marking on adjectives in Dutch to investigate whether there is evidence for age-of-onset effects in early childhood as proposed by Meisel (2009). The three groups of children are: simultaneous bilingual children,…

  12. Assessing early-onset hallucinations in the touch-screen generation.

    PubMed

    Demeulemeester, Morgane; Kochman, Fréderic; Fligans, Benjamin; Tabet, Ahmed J; Thomas, Pierre; Jardri, Renaud

    2015-03-01

    The increasing development of apps for digital devices provides an opportunity for new instruments to assess hallucinations in young individuals. Here we present the Multisensory HAllucinations Scale for Children (MHASC), dedicated to assessing complex early-onset hallucinations. The MHASC will soon be translated into multilanguage versions with the support of the International Consortium of Hallucination Research.

  13. Management of Very Early-onset Fetal Growth Restriction: Results from 92 Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Hoellen, Friederike; Beckmann, Annika; Banz-Jansen, Constanze; Weichert, Jan; Rody, Achim; Bohlmann, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate management of early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to define outcome according to obstetric setting. During an 11-year period (2000-2011), data of patients presenting with IUGR and preterm delivery of less than 30 weeks of gestation at a tertiary perinatal center were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 92 pregnancies were investigated. Delivery was indicated for fetal reasons in 38 out of 92 patients. Sixteen children of our cohort died within one year post partum, out of which eight had suffered from severe early-onset IUGR causing iatrogenic preterm delivery. Concerning the fetal outcome, gestational age at delivery and antenatal exposure to corticosteroids were found to be crucial. In some cases, respiratory distress syndrome prophylaxis and a "wait and see" approach to management in favor of a prolongation of the pregnancy might be favorable. Randomized prospective trials in early-onset IUGR with threatened preterm deliveries are needed in order to define guidelines for an individually tailored management of early-onset preterm infants. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2…

  15. Early Onset Ageing and Service Preparation in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Institutional Managers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this…

  16. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  17. Early Onset Ageing and Service Preparation in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Institutional Managers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this…

  18. Early-Onset Alcohol Use among Native American Youth: Examining Female Caretaker Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Melissa L.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Johnson, Kurt D.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the influence of female caretaker substance use on early-onset youth drinking among Native American families in the Northern Midwest. Data include 603 Native American families, with reports from female caretakers and youths aged 10-13 years. Two potential caretaker influences are taken into account: adolescent modeling of…

  19. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; McClellan, Jon; Findling, Robert L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Anderson, Robert; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Williams, Emily; McNamara, Nora K.; Jackson, Joseph A.; Ritz, Louise; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Pierson, Leslie; Varley, Jennifer A.; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Hamer, Robert M.; Noyes, Nancy; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Sikich, Linmarie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We examined baseline demographic and clinical profiles of youths enrolled from 2001 to 2006 in the publicly funded multicenter, randomized controlled trial Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Method: Youths (8-19 years) with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder were recruited at four academic sites.…

  20. Assessing Age of Onset Effects in (Early) Child L2 Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the development of three different types of bilingual/second language children in their acquisition of gender-marking on adjectives in Dutch to investigate whether there is evidence for age-of-onset effects in early childhood as proposed by Meisel (2009). The three groups of children are: simultaneous bilingual children,…

  1. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method: Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated…

  2. Maturation, Peer Context, and Indigenous Girls' Early-Onset Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Melissa L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a biosocial model of the impact of puberty on indigenous girls' early-onset substance use by considering the potential mediating role of peer context (i.e., mixed-sex peer groups and substance use prototypes) on the puberty and substance use relationship. Data include responses from 360 girls of a common indigenous cultural…

  3. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  4. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  5. Psychosocial Interventions for Children with Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofthouse, Nicholas; Fristad, Mary A.

    2004-01-01

    Once considered virtually nonexistent, bipolar disorder in children has recently received a great deal of attention from mental health professionals and the general public. This paper provides a current review of literature pertaining to the psychosocial treatment of children with early-onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBPSD). Commencing with…

  6. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  7. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  8. The Effects of Childhood ADHD Symptoms on Early-Onset Substance Use: A Swedish Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented that children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of substance use problems. Few studies, however, have focused on early-onset substance use. This study therefore investigated how the two symptom dimensions of ADHD (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention) are…

  9. The Effects of Childhood ADHD Symptoms on Early-Onset Substance Use: A Swedish Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented that children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of substance use problems. Few studies, however, have focused on early-onset substance use. This study therefore investigated how the two symptom dimensions of ADHD (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention) are…

  10. Early onset vulvar Lichen Sclerosus in premenopausal women and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Günthert, Andreas R; Faber, Melanie; Knappe, Gabriele; Hellriegel, Simin; Emons, Günter

    2008-03-01

    For vulvar Lichen sclerosus (LS) immunological factors, genetic predisposition, and decreased 5 alpha-reductase activity have been discussed as aetiological factors. During the last decade an increase of LS in young women has been suspected. Aim of this study was to evaluate data of premenopausal women with early onset LS to find potential risk factors focussing on the use of oral contraceptives. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 40 premenopausal patients with early onset LS regarding use of oral contraceptives (OCPs), and first occurrence of LS. To compare these data in a case-control study we analyzed a matched control group of 110 healthy women. All our LS patients were using OCPs compared to 73 women (66.4%) in the control group. OCPs with anti-androgenic activity (chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, dienogest, and drospirenone) were used by 28 (70%) of the LS patients and by 35 (47.9%) of the 73 women using OCPs in the control group. Thus, the odds ratio for early onset LS for women using anti-androgenic OCPs was 2.53 (95% CI: 1.12-5.75). Our data suggest that disturbance of the androgen dependent growth of the vulvar skin by OCPs and especially by OCPs with anti-androgenic properties might trigger the early onset of LS in a subgroup of susceptible young women.

  11. Coexistence of early onset sarcoidosis and partial interferon-γ receptor 1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Çakan, Mustafa; Keskindemirci, Gonca; Aydoğmuş, Çiğdem; Akı, Hilal; Hatipoğlu, Nevin; Kıyak, Aysel; Aydoğan, Gönül; Aktay-Ayaz, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric sarcoidosis comprises a spectrum of childhood granulomatous inflammatory conditions. Pathological hallmark of the disease is granuloma formation that is seen in the affected tissues and almost any organ or system can be involved. There are two forms of pediatric sarcoidosis. One is seen in older children and the clinical picture is very similar to that of adult sarcoidosis and the other one is seen in early childhood. Sarcoidosis in early childhood can be divided as Blau syndrome (familial form) and early onset sarcoidosis (sporadic form). In both of the diseases there is a defect in the NOD2/CARD15 gene. The typical triad of early onset sarcoidosis is polyarthritis, dermatitis and uveitis. Interferon-γ receptor 1 deficiency is caused by defects in the IFNγR1 gene and non-tuberculosis mycobacterial pathogens are the leading causes of infections that start in early childhood. Herein we report a patient who presented with the symptoms of early onset sarcoidosis and also had partial interferon-γ receptor 1 deficiency that presented with BCG-osis. In addition to anti-mycobacterial treatment, methotrexate and prednisolone were used in therapy.

  12. Obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Swiss-Webster mice associated with late-onset hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Laura B; Rogers, Arlin B; Nambiar, Prashant R; Fox, James G

    2008-10-01

    Genetic mutations resulting in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are described for both inbred and outbred mice. However, no known mouse model completely recapitulates human T2D and its comorbidities. We identified a cohort of obese, male, outbred Swiss-Webster (SW) mice as polyuric, polydipsic, glucosuric, and hyperglycemic. Prevalence of glucosuria in the SW colony reached 60% (n=70) in males 8 weeks to 6 months of age. Despite severe obesity in some females, no females were diabetic. Pathologic findings in affected males included cachexia, dilated gastrointestinal tracts with poor muscular tone, pancreatic islet degeneration and atrophy with compensatory metaplasia and/or neogenesis, bacterial pyelonephritis, membranous glomerulopathy, and late-onset hepatic tumors with macrosteatosis, microsteatosis, and hydropic change in aged males. Serum insulin correlated with blood glucose in a nonlinear pattern, suggestive of islet exhaustion. Circulating leptin levels showed a weak inverse correlation with glucose. Diabetic males were bred with obese colony females to produce 20 male and 20 female offspring. Prevalence of diabetes in male offspring was 80% (16/20) with a median age of onset of 18 weeks. By contrast, no diabetic females were identified, despite being significantly more obese than males. Male predominance is likewise a feature of T2D in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of hepatocellular carcinoma and islet metaplasia and/or neogenesis in a spontaneous outbred mouse model of T2D. The SW availability and histopathologic features represent a promising new model for the study of T2D.

  13. Development and initial validation of the Classification of Early-Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS).

    PubMed

    Williams, Brendan A; Matsumoto, Hiroko; McCalla, Daren J; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Blakemore, Laurel C; Betz, Randal R; Flynn, John M; Johnston, Charles E; McCarthy, Richard E; Roye, David P; Skaggs, David L; Smith, John T; Snyder, Brian D; Sponseller, Paul D; Sturm, Peter F; Thompson, George H; Yazici, Muharrem; Vitale, Michael G

    2014-08-20

    Early-onset scoliosis is a heterogeneous condition, with highly variable manifestations and natural history. No standardized classification system exists to describe and group patients, to guide optimal care, or to prognosticate outcomes within this population. A classification system for early-onset scoliosis is thus a necessary prerequisite to the timely evolution of care of these patients. Fifteen experienced surgeons participated in a nominal group technique designed to achieve a consensus-based classification system for early-onset scoliosis. A comprehensive list of factors important in managing early-onset scoliosis was generated using a standardized literature review, semi-structured interviews, and open forum discussion. Three group meetings and two rounds of surveying guided the selection of classification components, subgroupings, and cut-points. Initial validation of the system was conducted using an interobserver reliability assessment based on the classification of a series of thirty cases. Nominal group technique was used to identify three core variables (major curve angle, etiology, and kyphosis) with high group content validity scores. Age and curve progression ranked slightly lower. Participants evaluated the cases of thirty patients with early-onset scoliosis for reliability testing. The mean kappa value for etiology (0.64) was substantial, while the mean kappa values for major curve angle (0.95) and kyphosis (0.93) indicated almost perfect agreement. The final classification consisted of a continuous age prefix, etiology (congenital or structural, neuromuscular, syndromic, and idiopathic), major curve angle (1, 2, 3, or 4), and kyphosis (-, N, or +) variables, and an optional progression modifier (P0, P1, or P2). Utilizing formal consensus-building methods in a large group of surgeons experienced in treating early-onset scoliosis, a novel classification system for early-onset scoliosis was developed with all core components demonstrating

  14. Collaborating for impact: a multilevel early childhood obesity prevention initiative.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tara; Hoffman, Jessica A; Ahl, Marilyn; Bhaumik, Urmi; Healey, Christine; Carter, Sonia; Dickerson, Deborah; Nethersole, Shari; Griffin, Daphne; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures, a multilevel initiative in Boston, Massachusetts, which brings major institutions' missions and resources together to address early childhood obesity prevention. Programming is designed to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children's home, school, and community environments by engaging parents and early childhood educators in the places where they live, learn, and play. This article describes how established interventions were implemented in a novel setting to engage the parents of children attending Head Start and staff, and presents pilot data from the first 2 years of the initiative. Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures is a feasible initiative, which has shown concrete, positive results that can be replicated.

  15. Study protocol: EXERcise and cognition in sedentary adults with early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON).

    PubMed

    Hooghiemstra, Astrid M; Eggermont, Laura H P; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bakker, Jet; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Koppe, Peter A; Scherder, Erik J A

    2012-08-16

    Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. The present study is registered within The Netherlands National Trial Register (ref: NTR2124).

  16. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. Discussion The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. Trial registration The present study is registered within The Netherlands

  17. Treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS): rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study are described. Using a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design at four sites, youths with EOSS (ages 8-19 years) were assigned to an 8-week acute trial of risperidone (0.5-6.0 mg/day), olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day). Responders continued double-blind treatment for 44 weeks. The primary outcome measure was responder status at 8 weeks, defined by a 20% reduction in baseline Positive and Negative Symptom Scale scores plus ratings of significant improvement on the Clinical Global Impressions. Secondary outcome measures included assessments of psychopathology, functional impairment, quality of life, and medication safety. An intent-to-treat analytic plan was used. From February 2002 to May 2006, 476 youths were screened, 173 were further evaluated, and 119 were randomized. Several significant study modifications were required to address safety, the use of adjunctive medications, and the termination of the olanzapine treatment arm due to weight gain. The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study will inform clinical practice regarding the use of antipsychotic medications for youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Important safety concerns emerged during the study, including higher than anticipated rates of suicidality and problems tapering thymoleptic agents before randomization.

  18. Early-onset neonatal group B streptococcus sepsis following national risk-based prevention guidelines.

    PubMed

    Darlow, Brian A; Voss, Lesley; Lennon, Diana R; Grimwood, Keith

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal infection with group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of infant mortality. Intrapartum antibiotics reduce early-onset GBS sepsis, but recommendations vary as to whether they should be offered following antenatal screening or based on risk factors alone. We aimed to determine the incidence of early-onset GBS sepsis in New Zealand five years after the publication of national risk-based GBS prevention guidelines. Prospective surveillance of early-onset GBS sepsis (defined as infection in the first 48 h of life) was undertaken between April 2009 and March 2011 through the auspices of the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit as part of a survey of infection presenting in the first week of life. There were 29 cases of confirmed early-onset GBS sepsis, including one case of meningitis, giving an incidence rate of 0.23 per 1000 (95% CI 0.16-0.33) live births. Three infants (10.3%) died. In 16 cases (55%), a maternal risk factor qualifying the mother for intrapartum antibiotics was present, but only five (31%) received this intervention. A retrospective review of the major hospital laboratory databases for this period identified two additional cases. A secondary sensitivity analysis taking account of these cases provided an estimated national incidence of 0.26 (95% CI 0.18-0.37) per 1000 live births. Ten years after a similar survey and five years after promoting a single, risk-based prevention protocol nationally, the incidence of early-onset GBS disease in New Zealand has more than halved, but opportunities remain to further reduce the rate. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Prelabor cesarean delivery and early-onset acute childhood leukemia risk.

    PubMed

    Thomopoulos, Thomas P; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Dessypris, Nick; Chrousos, George; Karalexi, Maria A; Karavasilis, Theodoros G; Baka, Margarita; Hatzipantelis, Emmanuel; Kourti, Maria; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Sidi, Vasiliki; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Moschovi, Maria; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2016-03-01

    The long-term impact of cesarean delivery (CD) on the health of the offspring is being explored methodically. We sought to investigate the effect of birth by (a) prelabor and (b) during-labor CD on the risk of early-onset (≤3 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), specifically of its prevailing precursor B (B-ALL) subtype. A total of 1099 incident cases of ALL (957 B-ALL), 131 of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and their 1 : 1 age-matched and sex-matched controls, derived from the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies (1996-2013), were analyzed using multivariate regression models. A null association was found between prelabor and/or during labor CD and either ALL (B-ALL) or AML in the 0-14 age range. By contrast, birth by CD increased significantly the risk of early-onset ALL [odds ratioCD (ORCD)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-2.24] mainly on account of prelabor CD (ORprelaborCD=1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43). The respective figures were even higher for the early-onset precursor B-ALL (ORCD=1.66, 95% CI: 1.15-2.40 and ORprelaborCD=1.79, 95% CI: 1.21-2.66), whereas no association emerged for early-onset AML. Prelabor CD, which deprives exposure of the fetus/infant to the presumably beneficial effect of stress hormones released in both vaginal labor and during labor CD, was associated exclusively with an increased risk of early-onset ALL, particularly the precursor B-ALL subtype. If confirmed, these adverse long-term outcomes of CD may point to re-evaluation of prelabor CD practices and prompt scientific discussion on the best ways to simulate the effects of vaginal delivery, such as a precesarean induction of labor.

  20. Early onset neonatal meningitis in Australia and New Zealand, 1992–2002

    PubMed Central

    May, M; Daley, A; Donath, S; Isaacs, D; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology of early onset neonatal bacterial meningitis (EONBM) in Australasia. Design: Prospective surveillance study, 1992–2002, in 20 neonatal units in Australia and New Zealand. EONBM was defined as meningitis occurring within 48 hours of delivery. Results: There were 852 babies with early onset sepsis, of whom 78 (9.2%) had EONBM. The incidence of early onset group B streptococcal meningitis fell significantly from a peak of 0.24/1000 live births in 1993 to 0.03/1000 in 2002 (p trend = 0.002). There was no significant change over time in the incidence of Escherichia coli meningitis. The rate of EONBM in very low birthweight babies was 1.09/1000 compared with the rate in all infants of 0.11/1000. The overall rate of EONBM was 0.41/1000 in 1992 and 0.06 in 2001, but this trend was not significant (p trend = 0.07). Case-fatality rates for EONBM did not change significantly with time. Birth weight <1500 g (odds ratio (OR) 7.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8 to 10.9)) and Gram negative bacillary meningitis (OR 3.3 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.9)) were significant risk factors for mortality. Sixty two percent of the 129 babies who died from early onset sepsis or suspected sepsis did not have a lumbar puncture performed. Conclusion: The incidence of early onset group B streptococcal meningitis has fallen, probably because of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, without a corresponding change in E coli meningitis. Gram negative bacillary meningitis still carries a worse prognosis than meningitis with a Gram positive organism. PMID:15878934

  1. Premorbid risk factors for major depressive disorder: are they associated with early onset and recurrent course?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sylia; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Premorbid risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of an earlier onset and recurrent course were examined in two studies in a large, community-based sample of parents and offspring, prospectively assessed from late childhood into adulthood. In Study 1 (N = 2,764 offspring and their parents), parental psychiatric status, offspring personality at age 11, and age 11 offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted the subsequent development of MDD, as did poor quality parent-child relationships, poor academic functioning, early pubertal development, and childhood maltreatment by age 11. Parental MDD and adult antisocial behavior, offspring negative emotionality and disconstraint, externalizing symptoms, and childhood maltreatment predicted an earlier onset of MDD, after accounting for course; lower positive emotionality, trait anxiety, and childhood maltreatment predicted recurrent MDD, after accounting for age of onset. In Study 2 (N = 7,146), we examined molecular genetic risk for MDD by extending recent reports of associations with glutamatergic system genes. We failed to confirm associations with MDD using either individual single nucleotide polymorphism based tests or gene-based analyses. Overall, results speak to the pervasiveness of risk for MDD, as well as specific risk for early onset MDD; risk for recurrent MDD appears to be largely a function of its often earlier onset.

  2. Could clinical profile influence CSF biomarkers in early-onset Alzheimer disease?

    PubMed

    Koric, Lejla; Felician, Olivier; Guedj, Eric; Hubert, Anne Michele; Mancini, Julien; Boucraut, Jose; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    In common forms of Alzheimer disease (AD), anterograde memory impairment is the first deficit to occur. However, the disease, especially in its presenile forms, may also manifest itself through initial deficits that are predominantly of a nonmemory type. These distinct clinical profiles, which reflect the distinct topography of the underlying pathologic processes, may also differ in terms of their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total tau, phosphorylated tau, and amyloid-beta 42 peptide in the CSF of "atypical" (nonmemory) early-onset AD patients. CSF biomarkers were evaluated in 22 atypical patients, and compared with those from a group of 13 "typical" patients, with a memory onset form of the disease. Our results show that independently of age, disease duration, education level, and clinical severity indices, patients with an atypical onset have significantly higher levels of total tau in the CSF (P=0.023). These findings indicate that an assessment of CSF biomarkers may be of particular use in the clinical diagnosis of "atypical-onset" forms of early-onset AD in which the initial symptoms involve language and visuospatial abilities rather than memory. In addition, they highlight the heterogeneity of pathologic processes in AD, suggesting more intense degeneration in the forms of the disease that primarily involve neocortical structures.

  3. Premorbid Risk Factors for Major Depressive Disorder: Are They Associated With Early Onset and Recurrent Course?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sylia; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Premorbid risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of an earlier onset and recurrent course were examined in two studies in a large, community-based sample of parents and offspring, prospectively assessed from late childhood into adulthood. In Study 1 (N = 2,764 offspring and their parents), parental psychiatric status, offspring personality at age 11, and age-11 offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted the subsequent development of MDD, as did poor quality parent-child relationships, poor academic functioning, early pubertal development, and childhood maltreatment by age 11. Parental MDD and adult antisocial behavior, offspring negative emotionality and disconstraint, externalizing symptoms, and childhood maltreatment predicted an earlier onset of MDD, after accounting for course; lower positive emotionality, trait anxiety, and childhood maltreatment predicted recurrent MDD, after accounting for age of onset. In Study 2 (N = 7,146), we examined molecular genetic risk for MDD by extending recent reports of associations with glutamatergic system genes. We failed to confirm associations with MDD using either individual SNP-based tests or gene-based analyses. Overall, results speak to the pervasiveness of risk for MDD, as well as specific risk for early-onset MDD; risk for recurrent MDD appears to be largely a function of its often earlier onset. PMID:25422974

  4. Two Novel De Novo GARS Mutations Cause Early-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Chu; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chang, Chia-Ching; Huang, Yen-Hua; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the GARS gene have been identified in a small number of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 2D or distal spinal muscular atrophy type V, for whom disease onset typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, initially manifesting as weakness and atrophy of the hand muscles. The role of GARS mutations in patients with inherited neuropathies in Taiwan remains elusive. Mutational analyses of the coding regions of GARS were performed using targeted sequencing of 54 patients with molecularly unassigned axonal CMT, who were selected from 340 unrelated CMT patients. Two heterozygous mutations in GARS, p.Asp146Tyr and p.Met238Arg, were identified; one in each patient. Both are novel de novo mutations. The p.Asp146Tyr mutation is associated with a severe infantile-onset neuropathy and the p.Met238Arg mutation results in childhood-onset disability. GARS mutations are an uncommon cause of CMT in Taiwan. The p.Asp146Tyr and p.Met238Arg mutations are associated with early-onset axonal CMT. These findings broaden the mutational spectrum of GARS and also highlight the importance of considering GARS mutations as a disease cause in patients with early-onset neuropathies.

  5. Blood Culture Proven Early Onset Sepsis and Late Onset Sepsis in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Min; Chang, Meayoung; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains one of the most important causes of death and co-morbidity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to determine the current incidences of early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS), the distribution of pathogens, and the impact of infection on co-morbidities in VLBW infants. We analyzed the data including sepsis episode from 2,386 VLBW infants enrolled in Korean Neonatal Network from January 2013 to June 2014. We defined EOS as a positive blood culture occurring between birth and 7 days of life and LOS after 7 days of life. Sepsis was found in 21.1% of VLBW infants. The risk of sepsis was inversely related to birth weight and gestational age. EOS was found in only 3.6% of VLBW infants, however the mortality rate was as high as 34.1%. EOS was associated with the increased odds for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. The vast majority of EOS was caused by Gram-positive organisms, particularly coagulase-negative staphylococci (30.6%). LOS developed in 19.4% of VLBW infants with a 16.1% mortality rate. Pathogens in LOS were dominated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (38.3%). Twenty-five percent and fifty percent of first LOS episode occurred after 12 days and 20 days from birth, respectively. Younger and smaller VLBW infants showed the earlier occurrence day for the 25% of first LOS episode. This study provides a recent nationwide epidemiology of sepsis in VLBW infants in Korea. Based on this study, successful strategies to reduce infections would improve survival and reduce morbidity.

  6. Characteristics of familial aggregation in early-onset Alzheimer`s disease: Evidence of subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, D.; Martinez, M.; Babron, M.C.

    1995-06-19

    Characteristics of familial aggregation of Alzheimer`s Disease were studied in 92 families ascertained through a clinically diagnosed proband with an onset below age 60 years. In each family data were systematically collected on the sibships of the proband, of his father, and of his mother. A total of 926 relatives were included and 81% of the living relatives (i.e., 251 individuals) were directly examined. The estimated cumulative risk among first degree relatives was equal to 35% by age 89 years (95% confidence interval 22 to 47%). This result does not support the hypothesis that an autosomal dominant gene, fully penetrant by age 90 years, is segregating within all these pedigrees. Despite the fact that all probands were selected for an onset before age 60 years it was shown that two types of families could be delineated with respect to age at onset among affected relatives: all secondary cases with an onset below age 60 years were contributed by a particular group of families (type 1 families), whereas all secondary cases with an onset after age 60 years were contributed by another group of families (type 2 families). Although genetic interpretation of these findings is not straightforward, they support the hypothesis of etiologic heterogeneity in the determinism of early-onset Alzheimer`s disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection and early onset myocardial infarction: case-control and sibling pairs study

    PubMed Central

    Danesh, John; Youngman, Linda; Clark, Sarah; Parish, Sarah; Peto, Richard; Collins, Rory

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between coronary heart disease and chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Design Case-control study of myocardial infarction at young ages and study of sibling pairs with one member affected and the other not. Setting United Kingdom. Participants 1122 survivors of suspected acute myocardial infarction at ages 30-49 (mean age 44 years) and 1122 age and sex matched controls with no history of coronary heart disease; 510 age and sex matched pairs of siblings (mean age 59 years) in which one sibling had survived myocardial infarction and one had no history of coronary heart disease. Main outcome measures Serological evidence of chronic infection with H pylori. Results 472 (42%) of the 1122 cases with early onset myocardial infarction were seropositive for H pylori antibodies compared with 272 (24%) of the 1122 age and sex matched controls, giving an odds ratio of 2.28 (99% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.90). This odds ratio fell to 1.87 (1.42 to 2.47; P<0.0001) after smoking and indicators of socioeconomic status were adjusted for and to 1.75 (1.29 to 2.36) after additional adjustment for blood lipid concentrations and obesity. Only 158 of the 510 pairs of siblings were discordant for H pylori status; among these, 91 cases and 67 controls were seropositive (odds ratio 1.33 (0.86 to 2.05)). No strong correlations were observed between H pylori seropositivity and measurements of other risk factors for coronary heart disease (plasma lipids, fibrinogen, C reactive protein, albumin, etc). Conclusion In the context of results from other relevant studies, these two studies suggest a moderate association between coronary heart disease and H pylori seropositivity that cannot be fully accounted for by other risk factors. But even if this association is causal and largely reversible by eradication of chronic infection, very large randomised trials would be needed to show this. Key messagesMost previous studies of associations between chronic H

  8. Retinol Binding Protein 4 – A Novel Association with Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Vaisbuch, Edi; Romero, Roberto; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Erez, Offer; Kim, Sun Kwon; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Gotsch, Francesca; Than, Nandor Gabor; Dong, Zhong; Pacora, Percy; Lamont, Ronald; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Objective Dysregulation of maternal circulating adipokines has been implicated in several “great obstetrical syndromes” including preeclampsia (PE), small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonate and fetal death (FD). It has been suggested that adipokines provide a molecular link between metabolic derangements and inflammatory response in complicated pregnancies. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine, plays a role in obesity-related disorders, as well as in the regulation of the immune response. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are changes in maternal plasma concentrations of RBP4 in patients with PE and in those with an SGA neonate or FD. Study design This cross-sectional study included patients in the following groups: 1) normal pregnancy (n=134); 2) PE (n=104); 3) SGA neonate (n=28); and 4) FD (n=37). Maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results 1) The median maternal plasma RBP4 concentration was higher among patients with PE than in those with a normal pregnancy (p=0.03); 2) The median maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations of patients with preterm PE (<37 weeks) was higher than that of those with term PE (p=0.017) and than that of those with a normal pregnancy (p=0.002); 3) The median maternal plasma RBP4 concentration did not differ significantly between patients with a normal pregnancy and those with an SGA neonate or with an FD; 4) Among normal pregnant women, the maternal plasma RBP4 concentrations did not correlate with pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational age at blood sampling and neonatal birthweight. Conclusions 1) Preeclampsia, but not pregnancy with an SGA neonate or an FD, is associated with a higher median maternal plasma concentration of RBP4 than normal pregnancy; 2) Preterm PE, and specifically early-onset PE, is associated with higher median RBP4 concentrations in maternal plasma compared to term PE. These findings suggest a role for

  9. Complement Split Products in Amniotic Fluid in Pregnancies Subsequently Developing Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Banadakoppa, Manu; Vidaeff, Alex C.; Yallampalli, Uma; Ramin, Susan M.; Belfort, Michael A.; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the second-trimester amniotic fluid concentrations of complement split products in pregnancies subsequently affected by early-onset preeclampsia. Study Design. Cohort of 731 women with singleton pregnancies undergoing second-trimester genetic amniocentesis followed up to delivery and analyzed as a nested case-control study. Cases of preeclampsia developing before 34 weeks' gestation (n = 15) were compared with 47 uncomplicated term controls. Amniotic fluid collected at amniocentesis was tested for complement split products Bb, C4a, C3a, and C5a. Results. Women who developed early-onset preeclampsia as compared with the term pregnant controls had significantly higher (P = 0.04) median amniotic fluid C3a levels (318.7 ng/mL versus 254.5 ng/mL). Median amniotic fluid Bb levels were also significantly higher (P = 0.03) in preeclamptic women than in normal pregnant women (1127 ng/mL versus 749 ng/mL). Median levels of C4a and C5a were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion. Our data suggest that complement activation in early pregnancy is associated with early-onset preeclampsia. We believe this to be the first prospective study to link complement activation in amniotic fluid in early pregnancy and later development of preeclampsia. Our findings provide evidence that immune dysregulation may precede the clinical manifestations of preeclampsia and that the alternative complement pathway is principally involved. PMID:26556948

  10. Exome Sequencing Frequently Reveals the Cause of Early-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vivante, Asaf; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    The primary causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children differ from those of adult onset CKD. In the United States the most common diagnostic groups of CKD that manifests before 25 years of age are: i) congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) (49.1%), ii) steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) (10.4%), iii) chronic glomerulonephritis (8.1%), and iv) renal cystic ciliopathies (5.3 %), encompassing >70% of CKD together. Recent findings suggest that early-onset CKD is caused by mutations in any one of over 200 different monogenic genes. High-throughput sequencing has very recently rendered identification of causative mutations in this high number of genes feasible. Molecular genetic diagnostics in early onset-CKD (before the age of 25 years) will, i) provide patients and families with a molecular genetic diagnosis, ii) generate new insights into diseases mechanisms, iii) allow etiology-based classification of patient cohorts for clinical studies and, iv) may have consequences for personalized treatment and prevention of CKD. In this review, we will discuss the implications of next-generation sequencing for clinical genetic diagnostics and discovery of novel genes in early-onset CKD. We also delineate the resulting opportunities for deciphering disease mechanisms and therapeutic implications. PMID:26750453

  11. Early onset type 2 diabetes in Jamaica and in Mexico. Opportunities derived from an interethnic study.

    PubMed

    Irving, Rachael; Tusié-Luna, Ma Teresa; Mills, James; Wright-Pascoe, Rosemarie; McLaughlin, Wayne; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2011-01-01

    Populations with Amerindian or African heritages are the one with the highest prevalence of diabetes worldwide. A large percentage of these individuals survived famine. However, the survival effect has become detrimental to their descendents living in an environment of caloric surplus. In countries, like Mexico and Jamaica, in which diabetes is highly prevalent, the onset of the disease happens at earlier ages. Our objective is to summarize diabetes data from Mexico and Jamaica and to discuss the opportunities that can result from an interethnic study. On one hand, the prevalence of diabetes in Jamaica is 17.9% in the 15+ age group. Jamaican researchers have built a cohort of families with early onset type 2 diabetes. In this population, this form of the disease is unrelated to MODY genes. On the other hand, the prevalence of diabetes in adult Mexicans is 14.4%. The group in which the greater percentual changes have occurred is the adults who are below the age of 40. More than two thirds of the early onset cases studied have a body mass index that is >25 kg/m2 and the clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome. A minority of them has mutations in the MODY genes. The joint study of Mexican and Jamaican cohorts of early onset type 2 diabetes cases will be useful to identify new genetic and environmental players in the pathogenesis of this entity.

  12. DRD3 variation associates with early-onset heroin dependence, but not specific personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shin-Chang; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Huang, Chang-Chih; Chang, Hsin-An; Yen, Che-Hung; Ho, Pei-Shen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Chou, Han-Wei; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-06-03

    Dopamine D3 receptor-mediated pathways are involved in the mechanism of addiction, and genetic factors play a role in the vulnerability to heroin dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether the corresponding gene, DRD3, is associated with the development of heroin dependence and specific personality traits in HD patients. Eight polymorphisms in DRD3 were analyzed in 1067 unrelated Han Chinese subjects (566 heroin dependence patients and 501 controls). All participants were screened using the same assessment tool and all patients met the criteria for heroin dependence. A Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire was used to assess personality traits in 276 heroin dependence patients. In addition, heroin dependence patients were divided into 4 clinical subgroups based on age-of-onset and family history of substance abuse, to reduce the clinical heterogeneity. The rs6280 and rs9825563 variants showed association with the development of early-onset heroin dependence. The GTA haplotype frequency in the block (rs324029, rs6280, rs9825563) was significantly associated with early-onset heroin dependence (p=0.003). However, these significant associations were weaker after Bonferroni's correction. In addition, these DRD3 polymorphisms did not influence novelty seeking and harm avoidance scores in HD patients. DRD3 is possibly a genetic factor in the development of early-onset heroin dependence, but is not associated with specific personality traits in these patients among the Han Chinese population.

  13. EARLY ONSET OF DELINQUENCY AND THE TRAJECTORY OF ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING AMONG YOUNG MALES*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed. PMID:21831528

  14. Adult-onset deficiency of acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 protects mice from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance[S

    PubMed Central

    Banh, Taylor; Nelson, David W.; Gao, Yu; Huang, Ting-Ni; Yen, Mei-I; Yen, Chi-Liang E.

    2015-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) 2 catalyzes triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, required in intestinal fat absorption. We previously demonstrated that mice without a functional MGAT2-coding gene (Mogat2−/−) exhibit increased energy expenditure and resistance to obesity induced by excess calories. One critical question raised is whether lacking MGAT2 during early development is required for the metabolic phenotypes in adult mice. In this study, we found that Mogat2−/− pups grew slower than wild-type littermates during the suckling period. To determine whether inactivating MGAT2 in adult mice is sufficient to confer resistance to diet-induced obesity, we generated mice with an inducible Mogat2-inactivating mutation. Mice with adult-onset MGAT2 deficiency (Mogat2AKO) exhibited a transient decrease in food intake like Mogat2−/− mice when fed a high-fat diet and a moderate increase in energy expenditure after acclimatization. They gained less weight than littermate controls, but the difference was smaller than that between wild-type and Mogat2−/− mice. The moderate reduction in weight gain was associated with reduced hepatic TAG and improved glucose tolerance. Similar protective effects were also observed in mice that had gained weight on a high-fat diet before inactivating MGAT2. These findings suggest that adult-onset MGAT2 deficiency mitigates metabolic disorders induced by high-fat feeding and that MGAT2 modulates early postnatal nutrition and may program metabolism later in life. PMID:25535286

  15. Adult-onset deficiency of acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 protects mice from diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Banh, Taylor; Nelson, David W; Gao, Yu; Huang, Ting-Ni; Yen, Mei-I; Yen, Chi-Liang E

    2015-02-01

    Acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) 2 catalyzes triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, required in intestinal fat absorption. We previously demonstrated that mice without a functional MGAT2-coding gene (Mogat2(-/-)) exhibit increased energy expenditure and resistance to obesity induced by excess calories. One critical question raised is whether lacking MGAT2 during early development is required for the metabolic phenotypes in adult mice. In this study, we found that Mogat2(-/-) pups grew slower than wild-type littermates during the suckling period. To determine whether inactivating MGAT2 in adult mice is sufficient to confer resistance to diet-induced obesity, we generated mice with an inducible Mogat2-inactivating mutation. Mice with adult-onset MGAT2 deficiency (Mogat2(AKO)) exhibited a transient decrease in food intake like Mogat2(-/-) mice when fed a high-fat diet and a moderate increase in energy expenditure after acclimatization. They gained less weight than littermate controls, but the difference was smaller than that between wild-type and Mogat2(-/-) mice. The moderate reduction in weight gain was associated with reduced hepatic TAG and improved glucose tolerance. Similar protective effects were also observed in mice that had gained weight on a high-fat diet before inactivating MGAT2. These findings suggest that adult-onset MGAT2 deficiency mitigates metabolic disorders induced by high-fat feeding and that MGAT2 modulates early postnatal nutrition and may program metabolism later in life. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Clinical features of early onset, familial Alzheimer`s disease linked to chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Mullan, M.; Bennett, C.; Figueredo, C.; Crawford, F.

    1995-02-27

    Early onset familial Alzheimer`s disease (AD) has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Two genes are responsible for the majority of cases of this subtype of AD. Mutations in the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein ({beta}APP) gene on chromosome 21 have been shown to completely cosegregate with the disease. We and others have previously described the clinical features of families with {beta}APP mutations at the codon 717 locus in an attempt to define the phenotype associated with a valine to isoleucine (Val {r_arrow} Ile) or a valine to glycine (Val {r_arrow} Gly) change. More recently, a second locus for very early onset disease has been localized to chromosome 14. The results of linkage studies in some families suggesting linkage to both chromosomes have been explained by the suggestion of a second (centromeric) locus on chromosome 21. Here we report the clinical features and genetic analysis of a British pedigree (F74) with early onset AD in which neither the {beta}APP locus nor any other chromosome 21 locus segregates with the disease, but in which good evidence is seen for linkage on the long arm of chromosome 14. In particular we report marker data suggesting that the chromosome 14 disease locus is close to D14S43 and D14S77. Given the likelihood that F74 represents a chromosome 14 linked family, we describe the clinical features and make a limited clinical comparison with the {beta}APP717 Val {r_arrow} Ile and {beta}APP717 Val {r_arrow} Gly encoded families that have been previously described. We conclude that although several previously reported clinical features occur to excess in early onset familial AD, no single clinical feature demarcates either the chromosome 14 or {beta}APP codon 717 mutated families except mean age of onset. 52 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Anxiety disorders are associated with early onset of heroin use and rapid transition to dependence in methadone maintained patients.

    PubMed

    Karsinti, Emily; Fortias, Maeva; Dupuy, Gaël; Ksouda, Kamilia; Laqueille, Xavier; Simonpoli, Anne-Marie; Touzeau, Didier; Avril, Elisabeth; Orizet, Cyrille; Belforte, Beatriz; Coeuru, Philippe; Polomeni, Pierre; Icick, Romain; Jarroir, Marine; Bloch, Vanessa; Scott, Jan; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Vorspan, Florence

    2016-11-30

    Early onset of heroin use is a severity marker of heroin use disorder. We studied the interaction between early onset and rapid transition to heroin dependence recorded with retrospective interviews in 213 patients with severe heroin dependence and history of methadone maintenance treatment. General linear models were used to identify independent factors associated with early onset, factors associated with rapid transition to dependence, and a multivariate model was used to study the interaction of those two dimensions. Lifetime history of anxiety disorders and age at onset of cannabis use are shared common risk factors and are associated with the interaction.

  18. Predictors of onset of psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease: Who gets it early?

    PubMed

    Lenka, Abhishek; George, Lija; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Hegde, Shantala; Reddy, Venkateswara; Kamble, Nitish; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-09-14

    Psychosis is one of the common non-motor symptoms of PD, which substantially worsens the quality of life. Hence, it is important to identify factors that are associated with early onset of psychosis in PD. In order to identify those factors, the current study aims to compare various demographic and clinical features of PD patients with early and late onset psychosis. In this prospective case-control study, 51 consecutive patients with PD having psychosis (PDP) were recruited. Median of the latency of onset of psychotic symptoms from the onset of motor symptoms was calculated (5.5 years) and after doing a median split, the cohort of PDP was divided into early onset PDP (EOP, n = 25) and late onset PDP (LOP, n = 26). Both the groups were compared for several demographic and clinical characteristics. Compared to those with LOP, patients with EOP had poor scores on frontal assessment battery (13.8 ± 2.0 vs 15.3 ± 1.8, p = 0.007), more frequently had Rapid Eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) (80% vs 46.2%, p = 0.02), Postural Instability with Gait Difficulty (PIGD) phenotype (72% vs 26.9%, p = 0.002), and excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale: 8.04 ± 3.7 vs 3.9 ± 3.1). Patients with LOP were older (63.4 ± 7.0 years vs 56.5 ± 8.1 years, p = 0.002) and had higher Levodopa equivalent dose/day (LEDD: 819.1 ± 365.8 vs 608.5 ± 356.3, p = 0.04) compared to those with EOP. Presence of RBD, excessive daytime sleepiness, frontal lobe dysfunction, and PIGD phenotype of PD may be associated with early onset of psychosis in PD. Higher LEDD may not trigger early occurrence of psychosis in PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Clinical outcome and placental characteristics of monochorionic diamniotic twin pairs with early- and late-onset discordant growth.

    PubMed

    Lewi, Liesbeth; Gucciardo, Leonardo; Huber, Agnes; Jani, Jacques; Van Mieghem, Tim; Doné, Elisa; Cannie, Mieke; Gratacós, Eduardo; Diemert, Anke; Hecher, Kurt; Lewi, Paul; Deprest, Jan

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and placental characteristics of monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies with early-onset discordant growth diagnosed at 20 weeks, late-onset discordant growth diagnosed at 26 weeks or later, and concordant growth. We studied a prospective cohort that underwent an ultrasound scan in the first trimester, at 16, 20, and 26 weeks. We excluded pregnancies complicated by twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, miscarriage, fetal death less than 16 weeks, or severe congenital anomalies. Placental sharing and angioarchitecture were assessed by injection of each cord vessel with dyed barium sulphate. The 2 territories were delineated on an X-ray angiogram. The diameter of each intertwin anastomosis was measured on a digital photograph. We included 178 twin pairs. Early onset discordant growth, late-onset discordant growth, and concordant growth occurred in 15, 13, and 150 pregnancies, respectively. Twin pairs with early-onset discordant growth had lower survival rates and were delivered at an earlier gestational age than pairs with late-onset discordant and concordant growth. The degree of birthweight discordance was similar in early- and late-onset discordant growth. Severe intertwin hemoglobin differences at the time of birth occurred in 0%, 38%, and 3% of pairs with early-onset discordant growth, late-onset discordant growth, and concordant growth, respectively. The placentas of pairs with early-onset discordant growth were more unequally shared and had larger arterioarterial anastomoses and a larger total anastomotic diameter as compared with placentas of pairs with late onset-discordant or concordant growth. Unequal placental sharing appears to be involved in the etiology of early-onset discordant growth, whereas a late intertwin transfusion imbalance may be involved in some cases with late-onset discordant growth.

  20. Clinical characteristics of early- and late-onset gout: A cross-sectional observational study from a Chinese gout clinic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingqing; Fang, Weigang; Zeng, Xuejun; Zhang, Yun; Ma, Ya; Sheng, Feng; Zhang, Xinlei

    2016-11-01

    A retrospective cross-sectional study using data from an outpatient clinic in China was conducted to investigate the clinical features of early-onset gout patients.All patients diagnosed with gout were asked about clinical characteristics of their gout and comorbid diseases. Patients presenting with acute flares were asked about common triggers before the flare. "Early-onset" gout was defined as onset of gout before 40 years and "late-onset" as onset ≥40 years. Major joint involvement, flare frequency before presentation, the cumulative number of involved joints, proportions of tophi complications at presentation, flare triggers, as well as any metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal comorbidities, were compared between the 2 groups.A total of 778 gout patients were enrolled in this study, including 449 (57.7%) in the early-onset group and 329 (42.3%) in the late-onset group. Compared with the late-onset gout patients, the early-onset gout patients had a higher proportion of ankle/mid-foot involvement (62.8% vs 48.2%, P < 0.001), more frequent flares before presentation (11.2 ± 1.17 vs 6.97 ± 1.03 times per year, P = 0.01), higher cumulative number of involved joints (5.2 ± 0.26 vs 3.8 ± 0.26, P < 0.001), and more likely to have alcohol consumption as a flare trigger (65.2% vs 53.9%, P = 0.03); whereas early-onset gout patients had fewer metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or renal complications.Early- and late-onset gout patients had different clinical features. Early-onset seems to be influenced more by lifestyle, while late-onset patients have more complications because of comorbidities.

  1. Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Marc; Everard, Amandine; Gómez-Valadés, Alicia G; Matamoros, Sébastien; Ramírez, Sara; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Gomis, Ramon; Claret, Marc; Cani, Patrice D

    2015-11-13

    Recent evidence indicates that the gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Indeed, diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been associated to substantial changes in gut microbiota composition in rodent models. In the context of obesity, enhanced adiposity is accompanied by low-grade inflammation of this tissue but the exact link with gut microbial community remains unknown. In this report, we studied the consequences of high-fat diet (HFD) administration on metabolic parameters and gut microbiota composition over different periods of time. We found that Akkermansia muciniphila abundance was strongly and negatively affected by age and HFD feeding and to a lower extend Bilophila wadsworthia was the only taxa following an opposite trend. Different approaches, including multifactorial analysis, showed that these changes in Akkermansia muciniphila were robustly correlated with the expression of lipid metabolism and inflammation markers in adipose tissue, as well as several circulating parameters (i.e., glucose, insulin, triglycerides, leptin) from DIO mice. Thus, our data shows the existence of a link between gut Akkermansia muciniphila abundance and adipose tissue homeostasis on the onset of obesity, thus reinforcing the beneficial role of this bacterium on metabolism.

  2. Epileptic and nonepileptic features in patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy and STXBP1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Milh, Mathieu; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Chouchane, Mondher; Kaminska, Anna; Laroche, Cécile; Barthez, Marie Anne; Gitiaux, Cyril; Bartoli, Céline; Borges-Correia, Ana; Cacciagli, Pierre; Mignon-Ravix, Cécile; Cuberos, Hélène; Chabrol, Brigitte; Villard, Laurent

    2011-10-01

    STXBP1 (MUNC18-1) mutations have been associated with various types of epilepsies, mostly beginning early in life. To refine the phenotype associated with STXBP1 aberrations in early onset epileptic syndromes, we studied this gene in a cohort of patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy. STXBP1 was screened in a multicenter cohort of 52 patients with early onset epilepsy (first seizure observed before the age of 3 months), no cortical malformation on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and negative metabolic screening. Three groups of patients could be distinguished in this cohort: (1) Ohtahara syndromes (n = 38); (2) early myoclonic encephalopathies (n = 7); and (3) early onset epileptic encephalopathies that did not match any familiar syndrome (n = 7). None of the patients displayed any cortical malformation on brain MRI and all were screened through multiple video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings for a time period spanning from birth to their sixth postnatal month. Subsequently, patients had standard EEG or video-EEG recordings. We found five novel STXBP1 mutations in patients for whom video-EEG recordings could be sampled from the beginning of the disease. All patients with a mutation displayed Ohtahara syndrome, since most early seizures could be classified as epileptic spasms and since the silent EEG periods were on average shorter than bursts. However, each patient in addition displayed a particular clinical and EEG feature: In two patients, early seizures were clonic, with very early EEG studies exhibiting relatively low amplitude bursts of activity before progressing into a typical suppression-burst pattern, whereas the three other patients displayed epileptic spasms associated with typical suppression-burst patterns starting from the early recordings. Epilepsy dramatically improved after 6 months and finally disappeared before the end of the first year of life for four patients; the remaining one patient had few seizures until 18

  3. Onset to First Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Network Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Light, John M.; Greenan, Charlotte C.; Rusby, Julie C.; Nies, Kimberley M.; Snijders, Tom A.B.

    2013-01-01

    A novel version of Snijders’s stochastic actor-based modeling (SABM) framework is applied to model the diffusion of first alcohol use through middle school-wide longitudinal networks of early adolescents, aged approximately 11–14 years. Models couple a standard SABM for friendship network evolution with a proportional hazard model for first alcohol use. Meta-analysis of individual models for 12 schools found significant effects for friendship selection based on the same alcohol use status, and for an increased rate of onset to first use based on exposure to already-onset peers. Onset rate was greater at higher grades and among participants who spent more unsupervised time with friends. Neither selection nor exposure effects interacted with grade, adult supervision, or gender. PMID:24039379

  4. Onset and early use of gestural communication in nonhuman great apes.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christel; Call, Josep; Liebal, Katja

    2012-02-01

    The early gesturing of six bonobos, eight chimpanzees, three gorillas, and eight orangutans was systematically documented using focal animal sampling. Apes' were observed during their first 20 months of life in an effort to investigate: (i) the onset of gesturing; (ii) the order in which signals of different sensory modalities appear; (iii) the extent to which infants make use of these modalities in their early signaling; and (iv) the behavioral contexts where signals are employed. Orangutans differed in important gestural characteristics to African ape species. Most notably, they showed the latest gestural onset and were more likely to use their early signals in food-related interactions. Tactile and visual signals appeared similarly early across all four species. In African apes, however, visual signaling gained prominence over time while tactile signaling decreased. These findings suggest that motor ability, which encourages independence from caregivers, is an important antecedent, among others, in gestural onset and development, a finding which warrants further investigation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 with some atypical features.

    PubMed

    Dorobek, Małgorzata; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Lemmers, Richard J L F; Ryniewicz, Barbara; Kabzińska, Dagmara; Frants, Rune R; Gawel, Malgorzata; Walecki, Jerzy; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena

    2015-04-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy cases with facial weakness before the age of 5 and signs of shoulder weakness by the age of 10 are defined as early onset. Contraction of the D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4q35 is causally related to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1, and the residual size of the D4Z4 repeat shows a roughly inverse correlation with the severity of the disease. Contraction of the D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4q35 is believed to induce a local change in chromatin structure and consequent transcriptional deregulation of 4qter genes. We present early-onset cases in the Polish population that amounted to 21% of our total population with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. More than 27% of them presented with severe phenotypes (wheelchair dependency). The residual D4Z4 repeat sizes ranged from 1 to 4 units. In addition, even within early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 phenotypes, some cases had uncommon features (head drop, early disabling contractures, progressive ptosis, and respiratory insufficiency and cardiomyopathy).

  6. Modified areal cartography in auditory cortex following early- and late-onset deafness.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carmen; Chabot, Nicole; Kok, Melanie A; Lomber, Stephen G

    2014-07-01

    Cross-modal plasticity following peripheral sensory loss enables deprived cortex to provide enhanced abilities in remaining sensory systems. These functional adaptations have been demonstrated in cat auditory cortex following early-onset deafness in electrophysiological and psychophysical studies. However, little information is available concerning any accompanying structural compensations. To examine the influence of sound experience on areal cartography, auditory cytoarchitecture was examined in hearing cats, early-deaf cats, and cats with late-onset deafness. Cats were deafened shortly after hearing onset or in adulthood. Cerebral cytoarchitecture was revealed immunohistochemically using SMI-32, a monoclonal antibody used to distinguish auditory areas in many species. Auditory areas were delineated in coronal sections and their volumes measured. Staining profiles observed in hearing cats were conserved in early- and late-deaf cats. In all deaf cats, dorsal auditory areas were the most mutable. Early-deaf cats showed further modifications, with significant expansions in second auditory cortex and ventral auditory field. Borders between dorsal auditory areas and adjacent visual and somatosensory areas were shifted ventrally, suggesting expanded visual and somatosensory cortical representation. Overall, this study shows the influence of acoustic experience in cortical development, and suggests that the age of auditory deprivation may significantly affect auditory areal cartography. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Functional neuroanatomical associations of working memory in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kobylecki, Christopher; Haense, Cathleen; Harris, Jennifer M; Stopford, Cheryl L; Segobin, Shailendra H; Jones, Matthew; Richardson, Anna M T; Gerhard, Alexander; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Thompson, Jennifer C; Herholz, Karl; Snowden, Julie S

    2017-03-16

    To characterize metabolic correlates of working memory impairment in clinically defined subtypes of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Established models of working memory suggest a key role for frontal lobe function, yet the association in Alzheimer's disease between working memory impairment and visuospatial and language symptoms suggests that temporoparietal neocortical dysfunction may be responsible. Twenty-four patients with predominantly early-onset Alzheimer's disease were clinically classified into groups with predominantly amnestic, multidomain or visual deficits. Patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation focused on the domains of episodic and working memory, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data were analysed by using a region-of-interest approach. Patients with multidomain and visual presentations performed more poorly on tests of working memory compared with amnestic Alzheimer's disease. Working memory performance correlated with glucose metabolism in left-sided temporoparietal, but not frontal neocortex. Carriers of the apolipoprotein E4 gene showed poorer episodic memory and better working memory performance compared with noncarriers. Our findings support the hypothesis that working memory changes in early-onset Alzheimer's disease are related to temporoparietal rather than frontal hypometabolism and show dissociation from episodic memory performance. They further support the concept of subtypes of Alzheimer's disease with distinct cognitive profiles due to prominent neocortical dysfunction early in the disease course. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. An analysis of expectant management in women with early-onset preeclampsia in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Shen, F; Gao, Y F; Zhao, M

    2015-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both women and fetus. Although women with early severe preeclampsia are generally considered to require expedious delivery, expectant management may benefit for pregnancy prolongation. We performed a retrospective analysis of expectant management in early-onset preeclampsia, with or without fetal grow restriction (FGR) over a 6-year period, to investigate whether these women benefit from expectant management. Data including clinical parameters and liver and renal function from 186 nulliparous women with early-onset preeclampsia were analysed. In women with early-onset preeclampsia, 76.8% were delivered after 48 h and the median pregnancy prolongation was 8 days, whereas 23.2% were delivered within 48 h. There was no difference in maternal parameters, liver or renal functions between women in these two groups, regardless of the severity of preeclampsia. However, the stillbirth number was higher in preeclamptic women delivered after 48 h compared with those delivered within 48 h. Our study demonstrates that the decision for immediate delivery or expectant management was not associated with clinical parameter or laboratory biomarker of liver and renal function. However, the risk of stillbirth should still be taken into consideration when making the decision for immediate delivery or expectant management in the clinic.

  9. Early onset otitis media: risk factors and effects on the outcome of chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Lasisi, Akeem O; Olayemi, Oladapo; Irabor, Achiaka E

    2008-07-01

    The onset of early otitis media (EOM), in the first few months of life has been reported to predict later chronic otitis media (CSOM), although the prevalence rates are increasing little is known about specific risk factors. In this survey we examined the hypothesis that higher risk factors is associated with the development of OM within 1 year compared to later onset and early onset otitis media (OM) has potential for negative outcome of CSOM. This is a survey of the age at onset of otorrhoea and associated risk factors in children with CSOM, in five sites spread in two sub-urban cities in two states in Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered on the informants followed by examination of the children. EOM was seen in 136/189 (70%) with CSOM, the age range was 1-150 months, mean of 59.25 (SD = 44.55). Of the 85 CSOM subjects with hearing loss, EOM accounted for 49 (57.7%) while 36 (42.4%) was later onset, On multivariate analysis (OR = 0.276, CI = 0.133-0.572, P = 0.001) revealing EOM was significant in the development of hearing loss however there was no correlation with the frequency of attack of otorrhoea (OR = 1.025, CI = 0.88-1.19, P = 0.75). Low socioeconomic status seen in 110/136 EOM (P = 0.000), allergy (P = 0.030) and number of people >10 in household (OR = 4.13, CI = 1.81-9.39, P = 0.001) constituted the significant risk for EOM compared to later onset. Bottlefeeding, adenoiditis/adenoid hypertrophy, indoor cooking and upper respiratory infection were not found to have statistical significance in early onset OM compared to later onset OM. This study found correlation between EOM and hearing loss and identified allergy, low social status and chronic exposure to overcrowding through increased number of children in the household significant risk factors for future research focus. This may help in controlling the prevalence of hearing loss accompanying CSOM.

  10. Genetic risk factors for myocardial infarction more clearly manifest for early age of first onset.

    PubMed

    Titov, Boris V; Osmak, German J; Matveeva, Natalia A; Kukava, Nino G; Shakhnovich, Roman M; Favorov, Alexander V; Ruda, Mikhail Ya; Favorova, Olga O

    2017-07-06

    Epidemiological genetics established that heritability in determining the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is substantially greater when MI occurs early in life. However, the genetic architecture of early-onset and late-onset MI was not compared. We analyzed genotype frequencies of SNPs in/near 20 genes whose protein products are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in two groups of Russian patients with MI: the first group included patients with age of first MI onset <60 years (N = 230) and the second group with onset ≥60 years (N = 174). The control group of corresponding ethnicity consisted of 193 unrelated volunteers without cardiovascular diseases (93 individuals were over 60 years). We found that in the group of patients with age of onset <60 years, SNPs FGB rs1800788*T, TGFB1 rs1982073*T/T, ENOS rs2070744*C and CRP rs1130864*T/T were associated with risk of MI, whereas in patients with age of onset ≥60 years, only TGFB1 rs1982073*T/T was associated with risk of MI. Using APSampler software, we found composite markers associated with MI only in patients with early onset: FGB rs1800788*T + TGFB1 rs1982073*T; FGB rs1800788*T + LPL rs328*C + IL4 rs2243250*C; FGB rs1800788*T + ENOS rs2070744*C (Fisher p values of 1.4 × 10(-6) to 2.2 × 10(-5); the permutation p values of 1.1 × 10(-5) to 3.0 × 10(-4); ORs = 2.67-2.54). Alleles included in the combinations were associated with MI less significantly and with lower ORs than the combinations themselves. The result showed a substantially greater contribution of the genetic component in the development of MI if it occurs early in life, and demonstrated the usefulness of genetic testing for young people.

  11. Matters of Size: Obesity as a Diversity Issue in the Field of Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    1999-01-01

    Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…

  12. Type II diabetes of early onset: a distinct clinical and genetic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, S; Spivey, R S; Holman, R R; Nugent, Z; Clark, A; Turner, R C

    1987-01-01

    The inheritance of non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes was studied by a continuous infusion of glucose test in all available first degree relatives of 48 diabetic probands of various ages and with differing severity of disease. In an initial study of 38 type II diabetic subjects and their first degree relatives six islet cell antibody negative patients with early onset disease (aged 25-40 at diagnosis) were found to have a particularly high familial prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance. Nine of 10 parents available for study either had type II diabetes or were glucose intolerant. A high prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance was also found in their siblings (11/16;69%). In a second study of the families of a further 10 young diabetic probands (presenting age 25-40) whose islet cell antibody state was unknown a similar high prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance was found among parents of the five islet cell antibody negative probands (8/9; 89%) but not among parents of the five islet cell antibody positive probands (3/8;38%). Islet cell antibody negative diabetics with early onset type II disease may have inherited a diabetogenic gene or genes from both parents. They commonly need insulin to maintain adequate glycaemic control and may develop severe diabetic complications. Early onset type II diabetes may represent a syndrome in which characteristic pedigrees, clinical severity, and absence of islet autoimmunity make it distinct from either type I diabetes, maturity onset diabetes of the young, or late onset type II diabetes. PMID:3107658

  13. Prediction of early-onset deviant peer group affiliation: a 12-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lacourse, Eric; Nagin, Daniel S; Vitaro, Frank; Côté, Sylvana; Arseneault, Louise; Tremblay, Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Deviant peer group involvement is strongly related to onset, aggravation, and persistence of conduct problems during adolescence. To identify early childhood behavioral profiles that predict early-onset deviant peer group involvement. A 12-year longitudinal study of behavioral development. Fifty-three inner-city elementary schools in a large Canadian city. A total of 1037 boys in kindergarten from low socioeconomic neighborhoods. Annual self-reported deviant peer group involvement from 11 to 17 years of age. Kindergarten boys were at highest risk of following an early adolescence trajectory of deviant peer group affiliation if they were hyperactive, fearless, and low on prosocial behaviors but much less at risk if they scored high on only 2 of these dimensions. Family adversity had no main effect but substantially increased the risk of following an early adolescence trajectory of deviant peer group affiliation for boys with a profile of hyperactivity, fearlessness, and low prosocial behaviors. Kindergarten boys from low socioeconomic areas who are hyperactive, fearless, infrequently prosocial, and raised in adverse family environments are at much heightened risk of engaging in deviant peer groups early in their development. Boys at high risk can be identified as early as kindergarten and should be targeted for preventive intervention.

  14. Anaesthetists' experiences with the early labour epidural recommendation for obese parturients: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Eley, V A; Callaway, L K; van Zundert, A A J; Lipman, J; Gallois, C

    2016-09-01

    Caring for obese pregnant women presents challenges for all medical professionals. Despite a lack of supporting evidence, expert opinion and international guidelines suggest early labour epidural insertion for obese women. Anecdotally this is not supported by all anaesthetists. This qualitative study explored the experiences of anaesthetists regarding early epidural analgesia in obese parturients, to answer the research question: Are anaesthetists consistent in how they apply early epidural analgesia in obese parturients? Personal in-depth interviews with 42 specialist anaesthetists working in south-east Queensland, Australia, were completed between February and April, 2015. Leximancer™ text analysis software applied a validated algorithm to the data to identify themes and concepts. The major themes were explored by the first author to answer the research question. Three major themes were identified: the demands associated with caring for obese women; concern regarding the anaesthetic technique used in obese women; and the importance of communication with obstetric staff. Disagreement regarding interpretation and application of early epidural analgesia was identified within this group of anaesthetists. These anaesthetists were inconsistent in how they interpreted and applied early epidural analgesia for obese parturients, with some questioning the validity of the practice. The combination of uncertainty, urgency and technical difficulty presented by obese parturients provoked anxiety in these clinicians, particularly the anticipation of unplanned general anaesthesia. Consistent anaesthetic practice could improve the implementation of early epidural analgesia in obese parturients.

  15. Fathers' Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorder and Early Onset of Drug Use by Their Children.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kimberly L

    2017-05-01

    The unique influence of fathers' alcohol and cannabis use disorder on children's onset of use of these same substances has been rarely studied. A clear understanding of family history in this context is important for the development of family-based prevention initiatives aimed at delaying the onset of substance use among children. Prospective, longitudinal, and intergenerational data on 274 father-child dyads were used. Logistic regression models were estimated to assess the association between fathers' lifetime incidence of an alcohol and cannabis use disorder and children's onset of use of these same substances at or before age 15. The children of fathers who met the criteria for a lifetime cannabis use disorder were more likely to initiate use of alcohol (odds ratio = 6.71, 95% CI [1.92, 23.52]) and cannabis (odds ratio = 8.13, 95% CI [2.07, 31.95]) by age 15, when background covariates and presence of a lifetime alcohol use disorder were controlled for. No unique effect of fathers' alcohol use disorder on children's onset of alcohol and cannabis use was observed. Fathers' lifetime cannabis use disorder had a unique and robust association with children's uptake of alcohol and cannabis by age 15. Future research is needed to identify the mediating mechanisms that link fathers' disorder with children's early onset.

  16. Early postnatal caloric restriction protects adult male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring from obesity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Stout, David; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Postnatal ad libitum caloric intake superimposed on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adult-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that this paradigm of prenatal nutrient deprivation-induced programming can be reversed with the introduction of early postnatal calorie restriction. Ten-month-old male rats exposed to either prenatal nutrient restriction with ad libitum postnatal intake (IUGR), pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (IPGR), or postnatal nutrient restriction limited to the suckling phase (50% from postnatal [PN]1 to PN21) (PNGR) were compared with age-matched controls (CON). Visceral adiposity, metabolic profile, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were examined. The 10-month-old male IUGR group had a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral fat (P < 0.0002) while remaining euglycemic, insulin sensitive, inactive, and exhibiting metabolic inflexibility (Vo(2)) versus CON. The IPGR group remained lean, euglycemic, insulin sensitive, and active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. The PNGR group was insulin sensitive, similar to IPGR, but less active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. We conclude that IUGR resulted in obesity without insulin resistance and energy metabolic perturbations prior to development of glucose intolerance and T2DM. Postnatal nutrient restriction superimposed on IUGR was protective, restoring metabolic normalcy to a lean and active phenotype.

  17. Cognitive efficacy of quetiapine and olanzapine in early-onset first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Robles, Olalla; Zabala, Arantzazu; Bombín, Igor; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Ruiz-Sancho, Ana; Arango, Celso

    2011-03-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare changes in cognition in early-onset psychosis after 6-months treatment with quetiapine or olanzapine. This is a randomized, single-blind, 6-month study in 50 adolescents with a diagnosis of early-onset psychosis. Patients were randomized to quetiapine (n = 24) or olanzapine (n =26). A thorough neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline and after 6-month treatment. Out of the total sample included in the study, 32 patients completed at least 6-months treatment with the assigned medication (quetiapine, n =16; olanzapine, n = 16). No changes were observed in cognitive performance after 6-month treatment with quetiapine or olanzapine. Although some trends toward cognitive improvement were observed for the olanzapine group after 6-month treatment, neither group showed statistically significant gains. Furthermore, there was no evidence of any differential efficacy of olanzapine or quetiapine on cognitive improvement in this sample of adolescents with psychosis.

  18. Early onset pneumonia following pulmonary contusion: the case of Stonewall Jackson.

    PubMed

    Lively, Mathew W

    2012-03-01

    Confederate Lieutenant General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson was wounded by his own men at the Battle of Chancellorsville during the American Civil War. While being removed from the field, Jackson fell from the litter and struck the right side of his chest on a large stone or stump. Four days following the amputation of his left arm, Jackson developed pneumonia in his right lung. His treating physicians believed the infection developed secondary to a pulmonary contusion that occurred when he fell from the litter. Pulmonary contusions are an independent risk factor in the development of post-traumatic pneumonia and an infection that occurs within 72 to 96 hours of injury is termed an early onset pneumonia. The nature and timing of Stonewall Jackson's illness following his wounding is consistent with the modem diagnosis of early onset pneumonia following chest trauma.

  19. Human and mouse TPIT gene mutations cause early onset pituitary ACTH deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pulichino, Anne-Marie; Vallette-Kasic, Sophie; Couture, Catherine; Gauthier, Yves; Brue, Thierry; David, Michel; Malpuech, Georges; Deal, Cheri; Van Vliet, Guy; De Vroede, Monique; Riepe, Felix G.; Partsch, Carl-Joachim; Sippell, Wolfgang G.; Berberoglu, Merih; Atasay, Begüm; Drouin, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Tpit is a highly cell-restricted transcription factor that is required for expression of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene and for terminal differentiation of the pituitary corticotroph lineage. Its exclusive expression in pituitary POMC-expressing cells has suggested that its mutation may cause isolated deficiency of pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). We now show that Tpit-deficient mice constitute a model of isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD) that is very similar to human IAD patients carrying TPIT gene mutations. Through genetic analysis of a panel of IAD patients, we show that TPIT gene mutations are associated at high frequency with early onset IAD, but not with juvenile forms of this deficiency. We identified seven different TPIT mutations, including nonsense, missense, point deletion, and a genomic deletion. This work defines congenital early onset IAD as a relatively homogeneous clinical entity caused by recessive transmission of loss-of-function mutations in the TPIT gene. PMID:12651888

  20. Cortisol and ACTH levels in drug-naive adolescents with first-episode early onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Şeref; Gençoğlan, Salih; Yüksel, Tuğba; Aktaş, Hüseyin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone in adolescents with first-episode early onset schizophrenia. A total of 23 adolescent patients, who did not receive prior therapy and who were diagnosed with psychosis according to DSM-IV, were included. Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale were conducted with the participants. No significant differences were found between the patients and the control subjects in serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels (P > .05). Our study's findings do not support the hypothesis of increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in first-episode early onset schizophrenia.

  1. Human and mouse TPIT gene mutations cause early onset pituitary ACTH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pulichino, Anne-Marie; Vallette-Kasic, Sophie; Couture, Catherine; Gauthier, Yves; Brue, Thierry; David, Michel; Malpuech, Georges; Deal, Cheri; Van Vliet, Guy; De Vroede, Monique; Riepe, Felix G; Partsch, Carl-Joachim; Sippell, Wolfgang G; Berberoglu, Merih; Atasay, Begüm; Drouin, Jacques

    2003-03-15

    Tpit is a highly cell-restricted transcription factor that is required for expression of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene and for terminal differentiation of the pituitary corticotroph lineage. Its exclusive expression in pituitary POMC-expressing cells has suggested that its mutation may cause isolated deficiency of pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). We now show that Tpit-deficient mice constitute a model of isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD) that is very similar to human IAD patients carrying TPIT gene mutations. Through genetic analysis of a panel of IAD patients, we show that TPIT gene mutations are associated at high frequency with early onset IAD, but not with juvenile forms of this deficiency. We identified seven different TPIT mutations, including nonsense, missense, point deletion, and a genomic deletion. This work defines congenital early onset IAD as a relatively homogeneous clinical entity caused by recessive transmission of loss-of-function mutations in the TPIT gene.

  2. A novel early onset phenotype in a zebrafish model of merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sarah J.; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Gupta, Vandana A.; Dowling, James J.

    2017-01-01

    Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) is a severe neuromuscular disorder with onset in infancy that is associated with severe morbidities (particularly wheelchair dependence) and early mortality. It is caused by recessive mutations in the LAMA2 gene that encodes a subunit of the extracellular matrix protein laminin 211. At present, there are no treatments for this disabling disease. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system for the identification of novel therapies. However, drug discovery in the zebrafish is largely dependent on the identification of phenotypes suitable for chemical screening. Our goal in this study was to elucidate novel, early onset abnormalities in the candyfloss (caf) zebrafish, a model of MDC1A. We uncovered and characterize abnormalities in spontaneous coiling, the earliest motor movement in the zebrafish, as a fully penetrant change specific to caf mutants that is ideal for future drug testing. PMID:28241031

  3. Mutation analysis of sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease using the NeuroX array.

    PubMed

    Barber, Imelda S; Braae, Anne; Clement, Naomi; Patel, Tulsi; Guetta-Baranes, Tamar; Brookes, Keeley; Medway, Christopher; Chappell, Sally; Guerreiro, Rita; Bras, Jose; Hernandez, Dena; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Mann, David M; Morgan, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    We have screened sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (sEOAD, n = 408) samples using the NeuroX array for known causative and predicted pathogenic variants in 16 genes linked to familial forms of neurodegeneration. We found 2 sEOAD individuals harboring a known causative variant in PARK2 known to cause early-onset Parkinson's disease; p.T240M (n = 1) and p.Q34fs delAG (n = 1). In addition, we identified 3 sEOAD individuals harboring a predicted pathogenic variant in MAPT (p.A469T), which has previously been associated with AD. It is currently unknown if these variants affect susceptibility to sEOAD, further studies would be needed to establish this. This work highlights the need to screen sEOAD individuals for variants that are more classically attributed to other forms of neurodegeneration.

  4. A common genetic background could explain early-onset Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Anna Monica; Zanin, Valentina; Girardelli, Martina; Magnolato, Andrea; Martelossi, Stefano; Martellossi, Stefano; Tommasini, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Crovella, Sergio

    2012-04-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease, in which environmental, microbial and genetic factors play important roles. CD is characterized by a chronic granulomatous inflammation by necrotic scarring with aspects of full-thickness wall. In spite of affecting mainly young adults, sometimes, CD can be present in the first year of life (early onset Crohn disease, EOCD) showing an unpredictable course and being often more severe than at older ages. In this paper we propose the hypothesis that EOCD patients should be analyzed using a Mendelian approach with family studies aimed to identify new loci directly involved in the early onset Crohn's disease. So we will leave the classic association study approach used until now for the identification of genes responsible for susceptibility to CD and propose linkage family analysis as alternative and powerful tool for the identification of new genetic variants associated with familiar cases of EOCD.

  5. CYP450 polymorphisms as risk factors for early-onset lung cancer: gender-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Maria N; Kropp, Silke; Sauter, Wiebke; Beckmann, Lars; Rosenberger, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Jäger, Birgit; Mittelstrass, Kirstin; Dienemann, Hendrik; Bartsch, Helmut; Bickeböller, Heike; Chang-Claude, Jenny C; Risch, Angela; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2009-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, involved in metabolism of tobacco carcinogens, are also involved in estrogen metabolism and many are regulated by estrogens. These genes may thus be of relevance to gender-specific differences in lung cancer risk, particularly in early-onset lung cancer, where a high proportion of women is observed. We conducted a case-control study to investigate genetic polymorphisms in cytochromes that might modify the risk of developing early-onset lung cancer. In total, 638 Caucasian patients under the age of 51 with primary lung cancer and 1300 cancer-free control individuals, matched by age and sex, were included in this analysis. Thirteen polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2A13, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes were analyzed. No significant association was found for any of the analyzed polymorphisms and lung cancer risk overall. However, among women, a significantly increased risk of early-onset lung cancer was observed for carriers of the minor allele of CYP1B1 SNP rs1056836 [odds ratio (OR) 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.94; P < 0.001]. Also, a non-significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed in the group of women carriers of the minor allele of CYP2A13 SNP rs1709084 (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.70; P = 0.05). The effect of these two polymorphisms was shown to be modified by smoking. Haplotype analysis was performed for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13. No differences between cases and controls were observed for both genes (P = 0.63 and P = 0.42 for CYP1B1 and CYP2A13, respectively). Our results suggest that the CYP1B1 and the CYP2A13 genotypes may contribute to individual susceptibility to early-onset lung cancer in women.

  6. Impact of lifestyle and psychological stress on the development of early onset breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Huang, Jialing; Wu, Huina; Fu, Cuixia; Li, Yun; Qiu, Jiajia

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate risk factors for early onset breast cancer that are related to lifestyle and psychological stress. A comparative case-control study was performed among patients from the Department of Breast Surgery in Shanghai Cancer Center of Fudan University. The information regarding risk factors associated with the development of early onset