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Sample records for early onset preeclampsia

  1. High normal blood pressure in early pregnancy also contribute to early onset preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    He, Dian; Wu, Shaowen; Zhao, Haiping; Zheng, Zihe; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-11-27

    This study was to evaluate effects of high normal blood pressure (HNBP) in early pregnancy on total preeclampsia, early preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia. We conducted a multicenter, national representative retrospective cohort study. HNBP was defined as systolic blood pressure between 130 and 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure between 85 and 90 mmHg. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations of HNBP and the risks of above three types of preeclampsia. We included 58 054 women who were normotensive and nulliparous in early pregnancy. 4 809 (8.3%) fulfilled the definition of having HNBP, 16 682 (28.7%) were in normal blood pressure group, and 36 563 (63.0%) were in optimal blood pressure group. The incidence rates of total preeclampsia, early preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia were 2.1% (1 217), 0.8% (491), and 1.4% (814), respectively. Compared to having optimal blood pressure, women with HNBP had significantly higher odds of total preeclampsia (odds ratio (OR) = 4.028, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.377, 4.804), severe preeclampsia (OR = 3.542, 95% CI 2.851, 4.400), and early preeclampsia (OR = 8.163, 95% CI 6.219, 10.715). Our restricted cubic spline results supported the dose-response relationship between continuous blood pressure and the odds ratio of three types of preeclampsia. The fraction of early preeclampsia associated with prehypertension was 58.6%, which was higher than those of total preeclampsia (42.2%) or severe preeclampsia (40.5%). Women in early pregnancy with HNBP more likely develop total preeclampsia, early preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia, compared to those with optimal blood pressure. HNBP contribute more to early preeclampsia than severe preeclampsia. Our study provided robust epidemiological evidences for monitoring HNBP in early pregnancy to reduce the risks of preeclampsia.

  2. Associations of personal and family preeclampsia history with the risk of early-, intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Heather A; Tahir, Hassaan; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2013-12-01

    Preeclampsia encompasses multiple conditions of varying severity. We examined the recurrence and familial aggregation of preeclampsia by timing of onset, which is a marker for severity. We ascertained personal and family histories of preeclampsia for women who delivered live singletons in Denmark in 1978-2008 (almost 1.4 million pregnancies). Using log-linear binomial regression, we estimated risk ratios for the associations between personal and family histories of preeclampsia and the risk of early-onset (before 34 weeks of gestation, which is typically the most severe), intermediate-onset (at 34-36 weeks of gestation), and late-onset (after 36 weeks of gestation) preeclampsia. Previous early-, intermediate-, or late-onset preeclampsia increased the risk of recurrent preeclampsia with the same timing of onset 25.2 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 21.8, 29.1), 19.7 times (95% CI: 17.0, 22.8), and 10.3 times (95% CI: 9.85, 10.9), respectively, compared with having no such history. Preeclampsia in a woman's family was associated with a 24%-163% increase in preeclampsia risk, with the strongest associations for early- and intermediate-onset preeclampsia in female relatives. Preeclampsia in the man's family did not affect a woman's risk of early-onset preeclampsia and was only weakly associated with her risks of intermediate- and late-onset preeclampsia. Early-onset preeclampsia appears to have the largest genetic component, whereas environmental factors likely contribute most to late-onset preeclampsia. The role of paternal genes in the etiology of preeclampsia appears to be limited.

  3. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia, comparing early-onset and late-onset forms.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Skarp, Sini; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ryynänen, Markku; Järvenpää, Jouko

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia. Pathways related to immunity, complement and coagulation cascade were overrepresented in the hypergeometric test for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Ten genes (ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G, IL2RB, KRBOX1, LRRC15, METTL7B, MPP5, RFLNB and SLC20A) had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to early controls. There were 362 genes that had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to late-onset preeclampsia group including ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB. There are significant differences in placental gene expression between severe early- and late-onset preeclampsia when both are associated with intrauterine growth restriction. ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB might contribute to the development of early form of severe preeclampsia.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN EARLY AND LATE ONSET PRE-ECLAMPSIA AMONG GHANAIAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, P W; Adu-Bonsaffoh, K; Antwi-Boasiako, C; Antwi, D A; Gyan, B; Obed, S A

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem pregnancy-related disorder with multiple theories regarding its aetiology resulting in lack of reliable screening tests and well-established measures for primary prevention. However, oxidative stress is increasingly being implicated in the pathogenesi of pre-eclampsia although conflicting findings have been reported. To determine and compare the levels of oxidative stress in early and late onset pre-eclampsia by measuring urinary excretion of isoprostane and total antioxidant power (TAP) in a cohort of pre-eclamptic women at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana involving pre-eclamptic women between the ages 18 and 45 years who gave written informed consent. Urinary isoprostane levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit whereas the Total Anti-oxidant Power in urine samples was determined using Total Antioxidant Power Colorimetric Microplate Assay kit. The data obtained were analyzed using MEGASTAT statistical software package. We included 102 pre-eclamptic women comprising 68 (66.7%) and 34 (33.3%) with early-onset and late-onset pre-eclampsia respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the mean maternal age, haematological indices, serum ALT, AST, ALT, albumin, urea, creatinine uric acid and total protein at the time of diagnosis. The mean gestational age at diagnosis of early and late onset pre-eclampsia were 31.65 ± 0.41 and 38.03 ± 0.21 respectively (p ˂ 0.001). Also, there were statistically significant differences between the diastolic blood pressure (BP), systolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in the two categories. The mean urinary Isoprostane excretion was significantly higher in the early onset pre-eclamptic group (3.04 ± 0.34 ng/mg Cr) compared to that of the late onset pre-eclamptic group (2.36 ± 0.45 ng/mg Cr), (p=0.019). Urinary total

  5. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks gestation) with 14 matched normotensive controls, as well as 15 cases late-onset preeclampsia (>34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Outcomes of subsequent pregnancy after first pregnancy with early-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Bas B; Hoeks, Lette B; Bots, Michiel L; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to report outcome of subsequent pregnancy after early-onset preeclampsia in first pregnancy, and to evaluate potential risk factors for recurrence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Reproductive follow-up data were obtained for women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia, resulting in delivery before 34 weeks of gestation at the University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands, between July 1993 and September 2002. The relative contributions of demographic data, outcome variables of first pregnancy, and common thrombophilias to the recurrence risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancy, were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Subsequent pregnancy outcome data were available for 120 women. Overall, preeclampsia reoccurred in the second pregnancy in 30 women (25%). However, 6 women delivered before 34 weeks of gestation (5%), 20 women between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation (17%), and 94 women after 37 weeks of gestation (78%). Forty-one women (34%) had an uneventful pregnancy. Recurrence rates for preeclampsia or preterm delivery were not related to severity of first pregnancy complications, including delivery before 28 weeks of gestation, occurrence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome, small-for-gestational age infants, and to hereditary or acquired thrombophilias. Chronic hypertension was related to a higher recurrence risk of preeclampsia in the second pregnancy (hazard ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.4), and smoking was related to a higher recurrence risk of preterm birth (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.6). Outcomes of subsequent pregnancy after first pregnancy with early-onset preeclampsia is generally favorable.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia: reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; van Rijn, Bas B; Westerveld, H Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W; Fauser, Bart C J M; Goverde, Angelique J

    2010-01-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable metabolic constitution in women may present itself early in life as a reproductive complication, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and preeclampsia. We evaluated the cardiovascular risk of women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and women with PCOS and assessed their need for implementation of early risk factor-reduction strategies. We performed a standardized evaluation of 240 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 456 women diagnosed with PCOS for established major CVD risk factors. Metabolic syndrome characteristics were analyzed per body mass index category. Mean age was 30.6 and 29.0 years for women with preeclampsia and PCOS, respectively. High percentages of metabolic syndrome were found in both groups (preeclampsia group, 14.6%; and PCOS group, 18.4%), with an incidence of greater than 50% in both groups of women if body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m. Overall, more than 90% of the women qualified for either lifestyle or medical intervention according to the American Heart Association guideline for CVD prevention in women. Women with PCOS and early-onset preeclampsia already show an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile with high need for lifestyle or medical intervention at a young age. We therefore recommend an active role of the gynecologist in routine screening and follow-up of women with reproductive conditions linked to future cardiovascular risk.

  8. The common single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ji-Peng; Wang, Hong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Zhao, Han; You, Li; Shi, Dong-Hong; Sun, Xiu-Hua; Lv, Hong; Wang, Fei; Wen, Ze-Qing; Wang, Xie-Tong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs2681472, as a new hypertension susceptibility genetic variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and rs268172 in a Northern Han Chinese population. We genotyped 1218 unrelated Northern Han Chinese women, including 515 patients with preeclampsia and 703 healthy controls. No significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = .23). When patients were divided into early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia according to gestational age of disease onset, the allele frequencies significantly differed between controls and patients with early-onset preeclampsia (P = .02). Genotype frequencies also were significantly different between controls and patients early-onset preeclampsia when data were analyzed under additive (P = .03) and dominant (P = .009) models. We replicated this association in an independent Northern Han Chinese population and observed a significant difference in the allele frequencies between patients with early-onset preeclampsia and controls (P = .011). We report that rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Serum levels of GDF15 are reduced in preeclampsia and the reduction is more profound in late-onset than early-onset cases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Min; Hyett, Jonathan; da Silva Costa, Fabricio; Nie, Guiying

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy specific disorder affecting 3-5% of pregnancies worldwide. It is clinically divided into early-onset and late-onset subtypes. Placental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), a protein of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is highly expressed in the placenta. However, it is unclear whether the circulating levels of GDF15 are altered in preeclampsia at the time of or prior to disease presentation. Serum samples across three trimesters from 29 healthy pregnancies, third trimester sera from 34 women presenting with preeclampsia (early-onset n=16, late-onset n=18) and 66 gestation-age-matched controls, and sera at 11-13weeks of pregnancy from women who later did (n=36) or did not (n=33) develop late-onset preeclampsia, were examined for GDF15 by ELISA. Serum GDF15 levels increased significantly with gestation in normal pregnancy. Serum GDF15 was significantly reduced in the third trimester in women presenting with preeclampsia compared to their gestation-age-matched controls. This reduction was apparent in both early-onset and late-onset subtypes, but it was more profound in late-onset cases. At 11-13weeks of gestation, however, serum levels of GDF15 were similar between women who subsequently did and did not develop late-onset preeclampsia. Serum GDF15 increased with gestation age, reaching the highest level in the third trimester. Serum GDF15 was significantly reduced in the third trimester in women presenting with preeclampsia, especially in late-onset cases. However, serum GDF15 was not altered in the first trimester in women destined to develop late-onset preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vasoactive agents for the prediction of early- and late-onset preeclampsia in a high-risk cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for the prediction of early- and late-onset preeclampsia in a high-risk cohort. Methods We studied serial serum samples collected prospectively at 12 + 0 - 14 + 0, 18 + 0 - 20 + 0, and 26 + 0 - 28 + 0 weeks + days of gestation in 6 women who developed early-onset preeclampsia (before 34 weeks of gestation) and in 21 women who developed late-onset preeclampsia (after 34 weeks of gestation) with automated ElecSys 2010 immunoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Twenty-six high-risk women and 53 women without risk factors with normal pregnancies served as controls. Results Serum PlGF concentrations were lower at 18 + 0 to 20 + 0, and 26 + 0 to 28 + 0 weeks of gestation in women who developed early-onset preeclampsia compared to women who developed late-onset preeclampsia and to controls (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). At 18 + 0 to 20 + 0 weeks of gestation area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for serum PlGF was 99.8% (p = 0.0007, 95% CI 99.0-100.0). At 26 + 0 to 28 + 0 weeks of gestation serum sFlt-1/PlGF ratio explicitly detects those women who developed early-onset preeclampsia (AUC 100.0%, p = 0.0007, 95% CI 100–100). Amongst women with late-onset preeclampsia, those who developed severe form of the disease (N = 8) had significantly higher serum sFlt-1 concentrations at all three timepoints (p = 0.004, p = 0.006, and p = 0.003, respectively) compared to women with non-severe form (N = 13). Conclusions Low serum PlGF concentration predicts early-onset preeclampsia from the second trimester and elevated serum sFlt-1/PlGF ratio from 26 to 28 weeks of gestation. Elevated serum sFlt-1 concentration in the first trimester in women who later develop late-onset, severe preeclampsia may suggest different etiology compared to the late-onset

  11. PP087. Multicenter external validation and recalibration of a model for preconceptional prediction of recurrent early-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Kuijk, Sander; Delahaije, Denise; Dirksen, Carmen; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Spaanderman, Marc; Ganzevoort, W; Duvekot, Hans; Oudijk, M A; van Pampus, M G; Dadelszen, Peter von; Peeters, Louis L; Smiths, Luc

    2013-04-01

    In an earlier paper we reported on the development of a model aimed at the prediction of preeclampsia recurrence, based on variables obtained before the next pregnancy (fasting glucose, BMI, previous birth of a small-for-gestational-age infant, duration of the previous pregnancy, and the presence of hypertension). To externally validate and recalibrate the prediction model for the risk of recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia. We collected data about course and outcome of the next ongoing pregnancy in 229 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia. Recurrence was defined as preeclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks. We computed risk of recurrence and assessed model performance. In addition, we constructed a table comparing sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for different suggested risk-thresholds. Early-onset preeclampsia recurred in 6.6% of women. The model systematically underestimated recurrence risk. The model's discriminative ability was modest, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 58.9% (95% CI: 45.1 - 72.7). Using relevant risk-thresholds, the model created groups that were only moderately different in terms of their average risk of recurrent preeclampsia (Table 1). Compared to an AUC of 65% in the development cohort, the discriminate ability of the model was diminished. It had inadequate performance to classify women into clinically relevant risk groups. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Fetal Microsatellite in the Heme Oxygenase 1 Promoter Is Associated With Severe and Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Utge, Siddheshwar; Klemetti, Miira M; Paananen, Jussi; Pulkki, Kari; Romppanen, Jarkko; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Lakkisto, Päivi; Laivuori, Hannele

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a vascular pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. HO-1 (heme oxygenase 1, encoded by HMOX1 ) is a stress response enzyme crucial for endothelial and placental function. Long version of the guanine-thymine (GT n ) microsatellite in the HMOX1 promoter decreases HO-1 expression, and the long maternal repeat is associated with late-onset preeclampsia. Our aim was to study whether the length of fetal repeat is associated with mother's preeclampsia, whether the length of fetal and maternal repeats affect HO-1 levels in placenta and maternal serum, and whether HO-1 levels are altered in preeclampsia. We genotyped the repeat in the cord blood of 609 preeclamptic and 745 nonpreeclamptic neonates. HO-1 levels were measured in 36 placental samples, and in the first (222 cases/243 controls) and third (176 cases/53 controls) pregnancy trimester serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The long fetal GT n repeat was associated with preeclampsia and its severe and early-onset subtypes. Interaction analysis suggested the maternal and fetal effects to be independent. Placental or serum HO-1 levels were not altered in preeclamptics, possibly reflecting heterogeneity of preeclampsia. Carriers of the long fetal and maternal repeats had lower placental and serum HO-1 levels, respectively, providing functional evidence for the association. We conclude that the long fetal GT n repeat may increase mother's risk for especially severe and early-onset preeclampsia. The fetal and maternal risk alleles likely predispose to different disease subtypes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (P<0.05) and IL-8 (P<0.01) responses to T-cell activation. Hierarchical clustering revealed 2 distinct inflammatory clusters associated with previous preeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The definition of severe and early-onset preeclampsia. Statements from the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP).

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Andrea L; Brown, Mark A; Zeeman, Gerda G; Dekker, Gustaaf; Sibai, Baha M

    2013-01-01

    There is discrepancy in the literature on the definitions of severe and early-onset pre-eclampsia. We aimed to determine those definitions for clinical purposes and to introduce them in the classification of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for publication purposes. We circulated a questionnaire to the International Committee of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy focusing on the thresholds for defining severe preeclampsia and the gestation at which to define early-onset preeclampsia, and on the definition and inclusion of the HELLP syndrome or other clinical features in severe preeclampsia. The questions were closed, but all answers had space for more open detailed comments. There was a general agreement to define preeclampsia as severe if blood pressure was >160mmHg systolic or 110mmHg diastolic. There was scarce agreement on the amount of proteinuria to define severity. The HELLP syndrome was considered a feature to include in the severe classification. Most investigators considered early-onset preeclampsia as that occurring before 34weeks. A definition of pre-eclampsia is paramount for driving good clinical practice. Classifications on the other hand are useful to enable international comparisons of clinical data and outcomes. We used the results of this survey to update our previous classification for the purposes of providing clinical research definitions of severe and early onset pre-eclampsia that will hopefully be accepted in the international literature. Copyright © 2012 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification of Maternal Serum Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Shen, Yanting; Ge, Qinyu; He, Youji; Qiao, Dongyan; Ren, Mulan; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the increased serum cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) level of gravidas developed into early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE) subsequently in the early second trimesters is related to prenatal screening markers. Serum was collected from 1011 gravidas. The level of cffDNA and prenatal screening markers were analyzed in 20 cases with EOPE and 20 controls. All fetuses were male. The maternal serum cffDNA level was assessed by amplification of the Y chromosome specific gene. Correlations between the variables were examined. (Logged) cffDNA in EOPE (median, 3.08; interquartile range, 2.93–3.68) was higher than controls (median, 1.79; interquartile range, 1.46–2.53). The increased level of (logged) cffDNA was correlated significantly with the increased human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level (r = 0.628, p < 0.001). Significant reciprocal correlations between cffDNA and babies’ birth weight as well as gestation weeks at delivery were noted (r = −0.516, p = 0.001; r = −0.623, p < 0.001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of cffDNA to discriminate between the EOPE cases and the controls were 90% and 85%, respectively. CffDNA is a potential marker for EOPE, which had a significant reciprocal correlation with babies’ birth weight and gestation weeks at delivery. Moreover, it may help in indicating the underlying hypoxic condition in the placenta. PMID:23567271

  16. New Predictive Model at 11+0 to 13+6 Gestational Weeks for Early-Onset Preeclampsia With Fetal Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying; Chen, Xu; Cui, Hong-Yan; Li, Xing; Xu, Ya-Ling

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a predictive model for early-onset preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction (FGR) to be used at 11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks, by combining the maternal serum level of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PLGF), placental protein 13 (PP13), soluble endoglin (sEng), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and uterine artery Doppler. This was a retrospective cohort study of 4453 pregnant women. Uterine artery Doppler examination was conducted in the first trimester. Maternal serum PAPP-A, PLGF, PP13, and sEng were measured. Mean arterial pressure was obtained. Women were classified as with/without early-onset preeclampsia, and women with preeclampsia were classified as with/without FGR. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the value of the model. There were 30 and 32 pregnant women with early-onset preeclampsia with and without FGR. The diagnosis rate of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR was 67.4% using the predictive model when the false positive rate was set at 5% and 73.2% when the false positive rate was 10%. The predictive model (MAP, uterine artery Doppler measurements, and serum biomarkers) had some predictive value for the early diagnosis (11 +0 to 13 +6 gestational weeks) of early-onset preeclampsia with FGR.

  17. Gene expression profiling reveals different molecular patterns in G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways between early- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mengmeng; Niu, Jianmin; Zhang, Liang; Deng, Hua; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Weiping; Duan, Dongmei; Zhou, Yuheng; Xu, Huikun; Chen, Longding

    2016-04-01

    Early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia have been regarded as two different phenotypes with heterogeneous manifestations; To gain insights into the pathogenesis of the two traits, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in preeclamptic placentas. A whole genome-wide microarray was used to determine the gene expression profiles in placental tissues from patients with early-onset (n = 7; <34 weeks), and late-onset (n = 8; >36 weeks) preeclampsia and their controls who delivered preterm (n = 5; <34 weeks) or at term (n = 5; >36 weeks). Genes were termed differentially expressed if they showed a fold-change ≥ 2 and q-value < 0.05. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to verify the results. Western blotting was performed to verify the expressions of secreted genes at the protein level. Six hundred twenty-seven genes were differentially expressed in early-compared with late-onset preeclampsia (177 genes were up-regulated and 450 were down-regulated). Gene ontology analysis identified significant alterations in several biological processes; the top two were immune response and cell surface receptor linked signal transduction. Among the cell surface receptor linked signal transduction-related, differentially expressed genes, those involved in the G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway were significantly enriched. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway related genes, such as GPR124 and MRGPRF, were both found to be down-regulated in early-onset preeclampsia. The results were consistent with those of western blotting that the abundance of GPR124 was lower in early-onset compared with late-onset preeclampsia. The different gene expression profiles reflect the different levels of transcription regulation between the two conditions and supported the hypothesis that they are separate disease entities. Moreover, the G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway related genes may contribute to the mechanism underlying early

  18. Expression of MicroRNA-146a and MicroRNA-155 in Placental Villi in Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Nizyaeva, N V; Kulikova, G V; Nagovitsyna, M N; Kan, N E; Prozorovskaya, K N; Shchegolev, A I; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-07-01

    We studied the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 in placental villi from 18 women (26-39 weeks of gestation) of reproductive age with early- or late-onset preeclampsia. The reference group consisted of women with physiological pregnancy and full-term gestation and with preterm birth after caesarian section on gestation week 26-31. MicroRNA-146a and microRNA-155 were detected by in situ hybridization with digoxigenin on paraffin sections. It was found that the expression of microRNA-146a in both syncytiotrophoblast of the intermediate villi and syncytial knots was lower at late-onset preeclampsia than at physiologic pregnancy of full-term period (p=0.037 and p=0.001 respectively). The expression of microRNA-155 in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate placental villi in early-onset preeclampsia was higher than in group with preterm delivery (p=0.003). However, in syncytiotrophoblast of intermediate villi and in syncytial knots, the expression of microRNA-155 was lower at late-onset preeclampsia in comparison with full-term physiological pregnancy (p=0.005). In addition, the expression of microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 did not increase in the later terms in preeclampsia, while in the reference groups demonstrating gradual increase in the expression of these markers with increasing gestational age. Expression microRNA-146a and microRNA-155 little differed in early- and late-onset preeclampsia. These findings suggest that different variants of preeclampsia are probably characterized by common pathogenetic pathways. Damaged trophoblast cannot maintain of microRNAs synthesis at the required level, which determines the formation of a vicious circle in preeclampsia and further progression of the disease.

  19. Is Fetal Growth Restriction Associated with a More Severe Maternal Phenotype in the Setting of Early Onset Pre-Eclampsia? A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, Jane; Tong, Stephen; Palmer, Kirsten R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Both pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction are thought to result from abnormal placental implantation in early pregnancy. Consistent with this shared pathophysiology, it is not uncommon to see growth restriction further confound the course of pre-eclampsia and vice versa. It has been previously suggested that superimposed growth restriction is associated with a more severe pre-eclamptic phenotype, however this has not been a consistent finding. Therefore, we set out to determine whether the presence of fetal growth restriction among women with severe early-onset pre-eclampsia was associated with more severe maternal disease compared to those without a growth-restricted fetus. Methods and Findings We undertook a retrospective cohort study of women presenting to a tertiary hospital with severe early-onset pre-eclampsia (<34 weeks' gestation) between 2005–2009. We collected clinical data, including severity of pre-eclampsia, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Of 176 cases of severe pre-eclampsia, 39% (n = 68) were further complicated by fetal growth restriction. However, no significant difference was seen in relation to the severity of pre-eclampsia between those with or without a growth-restricted baby. The presence of concomitant growth restriction was however associated with a significantly increased risk of stillbirth (p = 0.003) and total perinatal mortality (p = 0.02). Conclusions The presence of fetal growth restriction among women with severe early-onset pre-eclampsia is not associated with increased severity of maternal disease. However the incidence of stillbirth and perinatal death is significantly increased in this sub-population. PMID:22046419

  20. Genome-wide hypermethylation coupled with promoter hypomethylation in the chorioamniotic membranes of early onset pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Travers; Song, Min-Ae; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Molnar, Janos; Berry, Marla; Towner, Dena; Garmire, Lana X.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is the leading cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Early onset pre-eclampsia (EOPE) is a disorder that has severe maternal and fetal outcomes, whilst its etiology is poorly understood. We hypothesize that epigenetics plays an important role to mediate the development of EOPE and conducted a case–control study to compare the genome-wide methylome difference between chorioamniotic membranes from 30 EOPE and 17 full-term pregnancies using the Infinium Human Methylation 450 BeadChip arrays. Bioinformatics analysis tested differential methylation (DM) at CpG site level, gene level, and pathway and network level. A striking genome-wide hypermethylation pattern coupled with hypomethylation in promoters was observed. Out of 385 184 CpG sites, 9995 showed DM (2.6%). Of those DM sites, 91.9% showed hypermethylation (9186 of 9995). Over 900 genes had DM associated with promoters. Promoter-based DM analysis revealed that genes in canonical cancer-related pathways such as Rac, Ras, PI3K/Akt, NFκB and ErBB4 were enriched, and represented biological functional alterations that involve cell cycle, apoptosis, cancer signaling and inflammation. A group of genes previously found to be up-regulated in pre-eclampsia, including GRB2, ATF3, NFKB2, as well as genes in proteasome subunits (PSMA1, PMSE1, PSMD1 and PMSD8), harbored hypomethylated promoters. Contrarily, a cluster of microRNAs, including mir-519a1, mir-301a, mir-487a, mir-185, mir-329, mir-194, mir-376a1, mir-486 and mir-744 were all hypermethylated in their promoters in the EOPE samples. These findings collectively reveal new avenues of research regarding the vast epigenetic modifications in EOPE. PMID:24944161

  1. Triggers for Preeclampsia Onset: a Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jane B; Schemann, Kathrin; Patterson, Jillian A; Morris, Jonathan; Herbert, Robert D; Roberts, Christine L

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for preeclampsia are well established, whereas, the triggers associated with timing of preeclampsia onset are not. The aim of this study was to establish whether recent infection or other triggers were associated with timing of preeclampsia onset. We used a case-crossover design with preeclampsia cases serving as their own controls. Women with singleton pregnancies of ≥20 weeks gestation presenting at three hospitals were eligible for inclusion. Exposures to potential triggers were identified via guided questionnaire. Infective episodes included symptoms lasting >24 h. Preeclampsia was defined as hypertension (BP ≥140 mmHg and/or ≥90 mmHg) and proteinuria (protein/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/mmol). Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the odds of exposure to potential triggers in the case windows (1-7 days preceding diagnosis of preeclampsia) and control windows (8-14 days prior to diagnosis); unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) are reported. Among 286 recruited women, 25 (8.7%) reported a new infection in the 7 days prior to preeclampsia onset and 21 (7.3%) in the 8-14 days prior. There was no significant association between onset of infection in the 7 days prior and preeclampsia diagnosis (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.65, 2.34). Consumption of caffeine (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33, 0.77), spicy food (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.81), and alcohol (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10, 0.71) were strongly inversely associated with preeclampsia onset. Recent infection does not appear to trigger preeclampsia. Decreased consumption of caffeine, spicy food, and alcohol may be prodromal markers. Such behaviours may be early markers of imminent preeclampsia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Serum podocalyxin is significantly increased in early-onset preeclampsia and may represent a novel marker of maternal endothelial cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Yao; Li, Ying; Zhao, Min; Nie, Guiying

    2017-11-01

    Podocalyxin is a glomerular podocyte protein and increased in urine of preeclampsia. However, podocalyxin is also expressed in endothelial cells of other organs. Here we investigated whether podocalyxin is detectable in pregnant serum and whether the levels are altered in preeclampsia. Podocalyxin was determined by ELISA in sera collected from normal pregnancy across gestation (n = 44) and from preeclamptic pregnancies at diagnosis (n = 34) with gestation-age-matched controls (n = 68). Immunohistochemistry examined podocalyxin in placentas and in 32 human tissues on a tissue array. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with interleukin (IL)-6 and podocalyxin was analysed by ELISA and western blotting. Podocalyxin was detected in serum of normal pregnancy, with levels increasing progressively with advancing gestation. Podocalyxin serum levels were significantly elevated in preeclampsia, especially the early-onset subtype. Within the placenta, blood vessels but not trophoblasts expressed podocalyxin, and preeclampsia didn't differ from controls. Endothelial cells in all 32 human organs examined, as well as HUVECs, expressed podocalyxin. Its levels increased in the conditioned media but decreased in the lysates when HUVECs were treated with IL-6. Podocalyxin likely derived from maternal endothelial cells is present in pregnant serum and significantly increased in early-onset preeclampsia. Podocalyxin release was stimulated by IL-6 in HUVECs.

  3. Maternal left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction and brain natriuretic peptide concentration in early- and late-onset pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Borges, V T M; Zanati, S G; Peraçoli, M T S; Poiati, J R; Romão-Veiga, M; Peraçoli, J C; Thilaganathan, B

    2018-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with maternal cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess and compare maternal left ventricular structure and diastolic function and levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in women with early-onset (< 34 weeks' gestation) vs those with late-onset (≥ 34 weeks' gestation) PE. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 30 women with early-onset PE, 32 with late-onset PE and 23 normotensive controls. Maternal cardiac structure and diastolic function were assessed by echocardiography and plasma levels of BNP were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Early- and late-onset PE were associated with increased left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness compared with normotensive controls. In women with early-onset PE, the prevalence of concentric hypertrophy (40%) and diastolic dysfunction (23%) was also significantly higher (both P < 0.05) compared with women with late-onset PE (16% for both). Maternal serum BNP levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in women with early-onset PE and correlated with relative wall thickness and left ventricular mass index. Early-onset PE is associated with more severe cardiac impairment than is late-onset PE, as evidenced by an increased prevalence of concentric hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and higher levels of BNP. These findings suggest that early-onset PE causes greater myocardial damage, increasing the risk of both peripartum and postpartum cardiovascular morbidity. Although these cardiovascular effects are easily identified by echocardiographic parameters and measuring BNP, further studies are needed to assess their clinical utility. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development and validation of Prediction models for Risks of complications in Early-onset Pre-eclampsia (PREP): a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thangaratinam, Shakila; Allotey, John; Marlin, Nadine; Mol, Ben W; Von Dadelszen, Peter; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Akkermans, Joost; Ahmed, Asif; Daniels, Jane; Deeks, Jon; Ismail, Khaled; Barnard, Ann Marie; Dodds, Julie; Kerry, Sally; Moons, Carl; Riley, Richard D; Khan, Khalid S

    2017-04-01

    The prognosis of early-onset pre-eclampsia (before 34 weeks' gestation) is variable. Accurate prediction of complications is required to plan appropriate management in high-risk women. To develop and validate prediction models for outcomes in early-onset pre-eclampsia. Prospective cohort for model development, with validation in two external data sets. Model development: 53 obstetric units in the UK. Model transportability: PIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk for mothers) and PETRA (Pre-Eclampsia TRial Amsterdam) studies. Pregnant women with early-onset pre-eclampsia. Nine hundred and forty-six women in the model development data set and 850 women (634 in PIERS, 216 in PETRA) in the transportability (external validation) data sets. The predictors were identified from systematic reviews of tests to predict complications in pre-eclampsia and were prioritised by Delphi survey. The primary outcome was the composite of adverse maternal outcomes established using Delphi surveys. The secondary outcome was the composite of fetal and neonatal complications. We developed two prediction models: a logistic regression model (PREP-L) to assess the overall risk of any maternal outcome until postnatal discharge and a survival analysis model (PREP-S) to obtain individual risk estimates at daily intervals from diagnosis until 34 weeks. Shrinkage was used to adjust for overoptimism of predictor effects. For internal validation (of the full models in the development data) and external validation (of the reduced models in the transportability data), we computed the ability of the models to discriminate between those with and without poor outcomes ( c -statistic), and the agreement between predicted and observed risk (calibration slope). The PREP-L model included maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, medical history, systolic blood pressure, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, platelet count, serum urea concentration, oxygen saturation, baseline treatment with

  5. Early Onset Pre-Eclampsia Is Associated with Altered DNA Methylation of Cortisol-Signalling and Steroidogenic Genes in the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Kirsten; Blair, John D.; McFadden, Deborah E.; von Dadelszen, Peter; Robinson, Wendy P.

    2013-01-01

    Placental cortisol is inactivated in normotensive pregnancies, but is frequently present in pre-eclampsia associated placentae. Since glucocorticoids are strongly associated with the programming of long-term health, we assessed DNA methylation of genes involved in cortisol signalling and bioavailability, and hormonal signalling in the placenta of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. Candidate genes/CpG sites were selected through analysis of Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data on control (n = 19) and early onset pre-eclampsia (EOPET; n = 19) placental samples. DNA methylation was further quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing in a larger cohort of control (n = 111) cases, in addition to EOPET (n = 19), late onset pre-eclampsia (LOPET; n = 18) and normotensive intrauterine growth restriction (nIUGR; n = 13) cases. DNA methylation (percentage points) was increased at CpG sites within genes encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1 exon 1D promoter; +8.46%; P<0.01) and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) binding protein (CRHBP intron 3; +9.14%; P<0.05), and decreased within CRH (5′ UTR; −4.30%; P = 0.11) in EOPET-associated placentae, but not in LOPET nor nIUGR cases, compared to controls. Differential DNA methylation was not observed among groups at the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD11B2) gene promoter. Significant hypomethylation was observed in pre-eclampsia but not nIUGR placentae for steroidogenic genes, including CYP11A1 (exon1; EOPET; −9.66%; P<0.00001, and LOPET; −5.77%; P<0.001), 3β-hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD3B1 exon 2; EOPET; −12.49%; P<0.00001, and LOPET; −6.88%; P<0.001), TEA domain family member 3 (TEAD3 intron 1; EOPET; −12.56%; P<0.00001) and CYP19 (placental-specific exon 1.1 promoter; EOPET; −10.62%, P<0.0001). These data represent dysregulation of the placental epigenome in pre-eclampsia related to genes involved in maintaining the

  6. Risk factors for and perinatal mortality of abruptio placentae in patients hospitalised for early onset severe pre-eclampsia - a case controlled study.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, H J; Hall, D R; Grové, D

    2000-07-01

    We set out to determine which patients admitted for expectant management of early onset severe pre-eclampsia develop abruptio placentae and to compare the perinatal mortality rate of patients who developed abruptio placentae with those who did not have this complication. This was a case controlled study, using gestational age at delivery to select a control group for 69 patients who developed abruptio placentae. The only significant difference on admission was the higher uric acid levels in patients who developed abruptio placentae. Mean admission to delivery intervals were 11.9 and 8.8 days for the control and abruption groups respectively (P = 0.0083). Fifty-eight per cent of the babies in the abruptio placentae group developed late decelerations, as determined by fetal heart rate monitoring compared with 32% in the control group. Lactate dehydrogenase levels before delivery were significantly higher in the abruption group, but it only became elevated shortly before delivery and in the minority of cases. There were two intrauterine and four neonatal deaths in the abruption group and two neonatal deaths in the control group. Late decelerations detected by frequent fetal heart rate monitoring in patients with early onset severe pre-eclampsia is the only early warning of abruptio placentae.

  7. Differences in clinical presentation and pregnancy outcomes in antepartum preeclampsia and new-onset postpartum preeclampsia: Are these the same disorder?

    PubMed

    Vilchez, Gustavo; Hoyos, Luis R; Leon-Peters, Jocelyn; Lagos, Moraima; Argoti, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    New-onset postpartum preeclampsia is a poorly defined condition that accounts for a significant percentage of eclampsia cases. It is unclear whether new-onset postpartum preeclampsia is a different disorder from or belongs to the same spectrum of classic antepartum preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical presentation and pregnancy outcomes of antepartum preeclampsia and new-onset postpartum preeclampsia. A retrospective study including 92 patients with antepartum preeclampsia and 92 patients with new-onset postpartum preeclampsia was performed. Clinical presentation and pregnancy outcomes were compared. Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables, and independent t -test and Mann-Whitney U -test for numerical variables. P -values of <0.05 were used to indicate statistical signifi cance. Patients with antepartum preeclampsia and new-onset postpartum preeclampsia differ significantly in profile, symptoms at presentation, laboratory markers and pregnancy outcomes. New-onset postpartum preeclampsia has a distinct patient profile and clinical presentation than antepartum preeclampsia, suggesting they may represent different disorders. Characterization of a patient profile with increased risk of developing this condition will help clinicians to identify patients at risk and provide early and targeted interventions to decrease the morbidity associated with this condition.

  8. [Effect of Low Molecular Weight Heparin Calcium Combined Compound Danshen Injection on Perinatal Outcomes of Nephrotic Syndrome Patients with Early Onset Severe Pre-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Tong, Chong-xin; Xing, Xiao-fen; Qiao, Shu-hua; Liu, Lin; Shan, Ling

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of low molecular weight heparin calcium (LMWHC) combined Compound Danshen Injection (DI) on nephrotic syndrome patients with early onset severe preeclampsia. Totally 80 nephrotic syndrome patients with early onset severe pre-eclampsia were randomly assigned to four groups voluntarily, i.e., Group A (22 cases, treated by magnesium sulfate), B (19 cases, treated by magnesium sulfate plus LMWHC), C (21 cases, magnesium sulfate plus DI), D (18 cases, magnesium sulfate plus LMWHC and DI). Umbilical arterial S/D ratios, amniotic fluid index (AFI), prolonged gestational age, placenta weight, neonatal weight, and Apgar score were compared among the four groups. Compared with before treatment in the same group, umbilical arterial S/D ratios decreased in the four groups (P <0. 05). AFI decreased in Group A, while it increased in Group B, C, and D (P<0. 05). Compared with Group A at the same time point, umbilical arterial S/D ratios decreased, and AFI increased in Group B, C, and D (P <0. 01 , P <0. 05). Prolonged gestational age and neonatal weight were increased in Group B, C, and D (P <0. 01, P <0. 05). Placenta weight were increased in Group B and D (P <0. 05). Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were improved in Group D (P <0. 05). Compared with Group B and C at the same time point, umbilical arterial S/D ratios decreased, and AFI increased in Group D (P<0. 05). Compared with Group B, prolonged gestational age and placenta weight were decreased in Group C, but prolonged gestational age and placenta weight were increased in Group D (P <0.05). Compared with Group C, prolonged gestational age, placenta weight, and neonatal weight were increased in Group D (P <0. 05). Treatment of nephrotic syndrome patients with early onset severe pre-eclampsia by LMWHC combined DI could prolong gestational ages, obviously improve prenatal outcomes, with better effect obtained than using any of them alone.

  9. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Abnormal Electron Transport and Excessive Oxidative Stress Cause Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Placental Tissues of Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongwei; Jin, Xiaohan; Cai, Wei; Zhou, Maobin; Shao, Ping; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Rong; Cao, Jin; Liu, Yan; Yu, Fang; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Shuang; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Ning; Chen, Xu; Li, Yuming

    2018-04-20

    Early-onset preeclampsia (EOS-PE) refers to preeclampsia that occurred before 34 gestation weeks. This study is conducted to explore the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of EOS-PE using proteomic strategy. To identify altering expressed mitochondrial proteins between severe EOS-PE and healthy pregnancies, enrichment of mitochondria coupled with iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic method is performed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot are performed to detect the alteration of changing expression proteins, and confirmed the accuracy of proteomic results. A total of 1372 proteins were quantified and 132 altering expressed proteins were screened, including 86 downregulated expression proteins and 46 upregulated expression proteins (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that differentially expressed proteins participated in numerous biological processes, including oxidation-reduction process, respiratory electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation. Especially, mitochondria-related molecules, PRDX2, PARK7, BNIP3, BCL2, PDHA1, SUCLG1, ACADM, and NDUFV1, are involved in energy-production process in the matrix and membrane of mitochondria. Results of the experiment show that abnormal electron transport, excessive oxidative stress, and mitochondrion disassembly might be the main cause of mitochondrial dysfunction, and is related to the pathogenesis of EOS-PE. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Early- and late-onset preeclampsia and the DNA methylation of circadian clock and clock-controlled genes in placental and newborn tissues.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, C B; Chaves, I; Herzog, E M; Willemsen, S P; van der Horst, G T J; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2017-01-01

    The placenta is important in providing a healthy environment for the fetus and plays a central role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Fetal and placental developments are influenced by epigenetic programming. There is some evidence that PE is controlled to an altered circadian homeostasis. In a nested case-control study embedded in the Rotterdam Periconceptional Cohort, we obtained placental tissue, umbilical cord leukocytes (UCL), and human umbilical venous endothelial cells of 13 early-onset PE, 16 late-onset PE and 83 controls comprising 36 uncomplicated and 47 complicated pregnancies, i.e. 27 fetal growth restricted and 20 spontaneous preterm birth. To investigate the associations between PE and the epigenetics of circadian clock and clock-controlled genes in placental and newborn tissues, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip and a candidate-gene approach using ANCOVA was applied on 939 CpGs of 39 circadian clock and clock-controlled genes. DNA methylation significantly differed in early-onset PE compared with spontaneous preterm birth at 6 CpGs in placental tissue (3.73 E-5 ≤ p ≤ 0.016) and at 21 CpGs in UCL (1.09 E-5 ≤ p ≤ 0.024). In early-onset PE compared with fetal growth restriction 2 CpGs in placental tissue (p < 0.05) and 8 CpGs in uncomplicated controls (4.78 E-5 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) were significantly different. Moreover, significantly different DNA methylation in early-onset PE compared with uncomplicated controls was shown at 6 CpGs in placental tissue (1.36 E-4 ≤ p ≤ 0.045) and 11 CpGs in uncomplicated controls (2.52 E-6 ≤ p ≤ 0.009). No significant associations were shown with late-onset PE between study groups or tissues. The most differentially methylated CpGs showed hypomethylation in placental tissue and hypermethylation in uncomplicated controls. In conclusion, DNA methylation of circadian clock and clock-controlled genes demonstrated most differences in UCL

  11. [EARLY DETECTION OF PREECLAMPSIA].

    PubMed

    Todorov, N

    2016-01-01

    The preeclampsia is one of the most serious complications in the second half of the pregnancy with a high risk of perinatal maternal and neonatal mortality. The study is aiming to determine which pregnant women have a higher risk of developing preeclampsia with a view to the subsequent antenatal care, on the base of the individual factors. From prospectively followed pacients is collected information by a questionnaire and sonographic examination at 11-13 weeks of gestation/w.g./ + 6 days, at the point of biochemical screening implementation. Selected is a group of women with one fetus pregnancy, non-smokers, without chromosomal and structural anomalies of the fetus, excluding those taking prophylactic low-dose of aspirin. The Doppler examination was transabdominaly performed on the ascending branch of the A. Uterina at the level of OICC.Pusatility and resistance index /Pi and Ri/ are bilaterally evaluated and converted to MoM for the relevant age of gestation. The information about the taken values of Pi, Ri, the presence of diastolic incisures and the development of preeclampsia /PE/ or pregnancy indused hypertension /PIH/ is analyzed at 205 pregnant women. Out of them high values of Pi have 9 pregnant women, who subsequently developed PE or PlH. The measurement of Pi at 12-13 weeks of gestation and presence of diastolic incisures have prognostic importance for the development of PE in the later period of pregnancy. The values of Ri, taken at 12-13 weeks of gestation have not essential importance in the forecast of preeclamsia development.

  12. Angiogenic Factor Profiles in Pregnant Women With a History of Early-Onset Severe Preeclampsia Receiving Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lecarpentier, Edouard; Gris, Jean Christophe; Cochery-Nouvellon, Eva; Mercier, Erick; Touboul, Cyril; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Haddad, Bassam

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate whether daily low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin prophylaxis during pregnancy alters profile of circulating angiogenic factors that have been linked with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. This is a planned ancillary study of the Heparin-Preeclampsia trial, a randomized trial in pregnant women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia (less than 34 weeks of gestation). In the parent study, all women were treated with aspirin and then randomized to receive LMW heparin or aspirin alone. In this study, we measured serum levels of circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, placental growth factor, and soluble endoglin by immunoassay) at the following gestational windows: 10-13 6/7 weeks, 14-17 6/7 weeks, 18-21 6/7 weeks, 22-25 6/7 weeks, 26-29 6/7 weeks, 30-33 6/7 weeks, and 34-37 6/7 weeks. Samples were available from 185 patients: LMW heparin+aspirin (n=92) and aspirin alone (n=93). The two groups had comparable baseline characteristics and had similar adverse composite outcomes (35/92 [38.0%] compared with 36/93 [38.7%]; P=.92). There were no significant differences in serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, placental growth factor, and soluble endoglin in the participants who received LMW heparin and aspirin compared with those who received aspirin alone regardless of gestational age period. Finally, women who developed an adverse composite outcome at less than 34 weeks of gestation demonstrated significant alterations in serum angiogenic profile as early as 10-13 6/7 weeks that was most dramatic 6-8 weeks preceding delivery. Prophylactic LMW heparin therapy when beginning from before 14 weeks of gestation with aspirin during pregnancy is not associated with an improved angiogenic profile. This may provide a molecular explanation for the lack of clinical benefit noted in recent trials. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00986765.

  13. Relationship between histopathological changes in post partum renal biopsies and renal function tests of African women with early onset pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Khedun, S M; Naicker, T; Moodley, J

    2000-05-01

    To improve the diagnostic accuracy of concurrent renal disease in hypertension of pregnancy, biopsy evaluation is essential. In addition, establishing underlying renal disease is important for prognosis on future pregnancies. We therefore designed a study to determine the diagnostic yield of postpartum renal biopsy and the nature and frequency of complications associated with this procedure. Also, to determine relationships, if any, between renal function tests and ultrastructural and histopathological findings. Fifty renal biopsies were performed in the immediate postpartum period in black African women with early onset pre-eclampsia. Each biopsy specimen was placed in a separate container and coded so that sampling was unknown to the electron microscopist. Each biopsy specimen was divided into three parts, and processed and stained for light, fluorescent and transmission electron microscopy using conventional techniques. Renal tissue biopsies were adequate for diagnostic purposes in all cases. There were no complications in any of the 50 patients studied. Ultrastructural examination confirmed the light microscopy findings. In addition the ultrastructural findings showed intramembranous deposits, foot process fusion and mesangial deposits. In 16 patients with normal renal function tests; the biopsies evaluation from these patients showed ultrastructural changes. In the remaining 34 patients with abnormal renal function tests of varying severity; biopsy evaluation from these patients showed both ultrastructural and histopathological changes. Renal biopsy procedure is safe, and ultrastructural and histological findings obtained from postpartum renal biopsies are more informative than the routine renal function tests.

  14. Evaluation of maternal serum hypoxia inducible factor-1α, progranulin and syndecan-1 levels in pregnancies with early- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Alici Davutoğlu, Ebru; Akkaya Firat, Asuman; Ozel, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Nevin; Uzun, Isil; Temel Yuksel, Ilkbal; Madazlı, Riza

    2018-08-01

    To determine the serum levels of HIF-1 α, progranulin, and syndecan-1 in preeclampsia (PE) and normal pregnancy, and to compare whether these markers demonstrate any difference between early-onset PE (EO-PE) and late-onset PE (LO-PE). This cross-sectional study was conducted on 27 women with EO-PE, 27 women with LO-PE, and 26 healthy normotensive pregnant controls matched for gestational age. Maternal levels of serum HIF-1 α, progranulin, and syndecan-1 were measured with the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the control and the PE groups in progranulin (p < .001) and syndecan-1 (p <.001) levels. There were no significant differences in the serum HIF-1 α levels between these groups (p= .069). When PE patients were evaluated by considering subgroups; statistical analysis revealed significant inter-group differences in all biomarkers. Serum progranulin levels were significantly higher in LO-PE compared with the other two groups (EO-PE versus LO-PE and LO-PE versus controls p = .000). Control group presented significantly higher syndecan-1 levels, than EO and LO-PE (p < .001). HIF-1 α levels positively correlated with progranulin levels (r = .439, p= .000). Serum progranulin may have potential to be used as a biomarker for the differentiation of EO-PE and LO-PE. The co-operative action between HIF-1 α and progranulin might play a key role in the pathogenesis of LO-PE. The predominant feature of LO-PE seems to be an inflammatory process, whereas in EO-PE placentation problem seems to be the main pathology.

  15. An analysis of the differences between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Guo, P L; Xue, Y; Gou, W L; Tong, M; Chen, Q

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is clinically divided into early onset and late onset preeclampsia based on the gestational age at delivery. Although the diagnostic criteria are the same in each subgroup of preeclampsia, it has been suggested that the maternal and perinatal mortalities of early onset and late onset preeclampsia are different. However, studies that compare clinical parameters or laboratory biomarkers between early onset and late onset preeclampsia are limited. Data on 177 women with early or late preeclampsia with severe hypertension were collected from a University Teaching Hospital from January 2010 to January 2011 and analysed. Data included all the clinical parameters and laboratory biomarkers of liver and renal function. 63 women and 114 women were diagnosed with early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension, respectively. There was no difference in the maternal age and the incidence of clinical symptoms including edema, vision disturbance, severe headache and stillbirth between two groups. There was a decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension but other markers of liver function were not altered. However, renal function including blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid were significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Umbilical artery systolic velocity/diastolic velocity ratio was significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Our data demonstrates that the laboratory biomarkers of renal function differ between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension. The severity of renal dysfunction correlated with the time of delivery in preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Late onset postpartum preeclampsia 3 months after delivery.

    PubMed

    Giwa, Al; Nguyen, Melissa

    2017-10-01

    Preeclampsia is defined by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) as "the occurrence of new onset hypertension plus new-onset proteinuria" [1]. Up-to-Date elaborates a little further on this by defining preeclampsia as "the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria, or hypertension and end-organ dysfunction with or without proteinuria, after 20 weeks of gestation in a previously normotensive woman. It may also develop postpartum. Severe hypertension or signs/symptoms of end-organ injury represent the severe end of the disease spectrum" [2] In 2013, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists removed proteinuria as a key component in the diagnosis of preeclampsia. They also removed massive proteinuria (previously, 5 g/24 hours) and fetal growth restriction as possible features of severe disease. They found that were was a poor correlation in many outcomes between massive proteinuria and fetal growth restriction when managed similarly, with or without preeclampsia as a diagnosis. Oliguria was also removed as a characteristic of severe disease. [3] There have been several cases reported in the literature as well as by Obstetricians citing the incidence of preeclampsia occurring upwards of 6 to even 12 weeks postpartum. We hope to demonstrate what we believe to be a case of postpartum preeclampsia at 89 days postpartum. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The prediction of late-onset preeclampsia: Results from a longitudinal proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Maymon, Eli; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Done, Bogdan; Pacora, Percy; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S; Tarca, Adi L

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset preeclampsia is the most prevalent phenotype of this syndrome; nevertheless, only a few biomarkers for its early diagnosis have been reported. We sought to correct this deficiency using a high through-put proteomic platform. A case-control longitudinal study was conducted, including 90 patients with normal pregnancies and 76 patients with late-onset preeclampsia (diagnosed at ≥34 weeks of gestation). Maternal plasma samples were collected throughout gestation (normal pregnancy: 2-6 samples per patient, median of 2; late-onset preeclampsia: 2-6, median of 5). The abundance of 1,125 proteins was measured using an aptamers-based proteomics technique. Protein abundance in normal pregnancies was modeled using linear mixed-effects models to estimate mean abundance as a function of gestational age. Data was then expressed as multiples of-the-mean (MoM) values in normal pregnancies. Multi-marker prediction models were built using data from one of five gestational age intervals (8-16, 16.1-22, 22.1-28, 28.1-32, 32.1-36 weeks of gestation). The predictive performance of the best combination of proteins was compared to placental growth factor (PIGF) using bootstrap. 1) At 8-16 weeks of gestation, the best prediction model included only one protein, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7), that had a sensitivity of 69% at a false positive rate (FPR) of 20% (AUC = 0.76); 2) at 16.1-22 weeks of gestation, MMP-7 was the single best predictor of late-onset preeclampsia with a sensitivity of 70% at a FPR of 20% (AUC = 0.82); 3) after 22 weeks of gestation, PlGF was the best predictor of late-onset preeclampsia, identifying 1/3 to 1/2 of the patients destined to develop this syndrome (FPR = 20%); 4) 36 proteins were associated with late-onset preeclampsia in at least one interval of gestation (after adjustment for covariates); 5) several biological processes, such as positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway, were perturbed; and 6

  18. The prediction of late-onset preeclampsia: Results from a longitudinal proteomics study

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Maymon, Eli; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Done, Bogdan; Pacora, Percy; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Late-onset preeclampsia is the most prevalent phenotype of this syndrome; nevertheless, only a few biomarkers for its early diagnosis have been reported. We sought to correct this deficiency using a high through-put proteomic platform. Methods A case-control longitudinal study was conducted, including 90 patients with normal pregnancies and 76 patients with late-onset preeclampsia (diagnosed at ≥34 weeks of gestation). Maternal plasma samples were collected throughout gestation (normal pregnancy: 2–6 samples per patient, median of 2; late-onset preeclampsia: 2–6, median of 5). The abundance of 1,125 proteins was measured using an aptamers-based proteomics technique. Protein abundance in normal pregnancies was modeled using linear mixed-effects models to estimate mean abundance as a function of gestational age. Data was then expressed as multiples of-the-mean (MoM) values in normal pregnancies. Multi-marker prediction models were built using data from one of five gestational age intervals (8–16, 16.1–22, 22.1–28, 28.1–32, 32.1–36 weeks of gestation). The predictive performance of the best combination of proteins was compared to placental growth factor (PIGF) using bootstrap. Results 1) At 8–16 weeks of gestation, the best prediction model included only one protein, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7), that had a sensitivity of 69% at a false positive rate (FPR) of 20% (AUC = 0.76); 2) at 16.1–22 weeks of gestation, MMP-7 was the single best predictor of late-onset preeclampsia with a sensitivity of 70% at a FPR of 20% (AUC = 0.82); 3) after 22 weeks of gestation, PlGF was the best predictor of late-onset preeclampsia, identifying 1/3 to 1/2 of the patients destined to develop this syndrome (FPR = 20%); 4) 36 proteins were associated with late-onset preeclampsia in at least one interval of gestation (after adjustment for covariates); 5) several biological processes, such as positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor

  19. First-trimester screening for early and late preeclampsia using maternal characteristics, biomarkers, and estimated placental volume.

    PubMed

    Sonek, Jiri; Krantz, David; Carmichael, Jon; Downing, Cathy; Jessup, Karen; Haidar, Ziad; Ho, Shannon; Hallahan, Terrence; Kliman, Harvey J; McKenna, David

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. First-trimester screening has been shown to be effective in selecting patients at an increased risk for preeclampsia in some studies. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of screening for preeclampsia in the first trimester based on maternal characteristics, medical history, biomarkers, and placental volume. This is a prospective observational nonintervention cohort study in an unselected US population. Patients who presented for an ultrasound examination between 11-13+6 weeks' gestation were included. The following parameters were assessed and were used to calculate the risk of preeclampsia: maternal characteristics (demographic, anthropometric, and medical history), maternal biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein), and estimated placental volume. After delivery, medical records were searched for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Detection rates for early-onset preeclampsia (<34 weeks' gestation) and later-onset preeclampsia (≥34 weeks' gestation) for 5% and 10% false-positive rates using various combinations of markers were calculated. We screened 1288 patients of whom 1068 (82.99%) were available for analysis. In all, 46 (4.3%) developed preeclampsia, with 13 (1.22%) having early-onset preeclampsia and 33 (3.09%) having late-onset preeclampsia. Using maternal characteristics, serum biomarkers, and uterine artery pulsatility index, the detection rate of early-onset preeclampsia for either 5% or 10% false-positive rate was 85%. With the same protocol, the detection rates for preeclampsia with delivery <37 weeks were 52% and 60% for 5% and 10% false-positive rates, respectively. Based on maternal characteristics, the detection rates for late-onset preeclampsia were 15% and 48% for 5% and 10%, while for preeclampsia at ≥37 weeks' gestation the detection rates were 24

  20. Risk factors for new-onset late postpartum preeclampsia in women without a history of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Catherine A; Pereira, Guilherme A; Warmsley, Amber; Cohen, Jennifer; Getrajdman, Chloe; Moshier, Erin; Paris, Julia; Bianco, Angela; Factor, Stephanie H; Stone, Joanne

    2014-04-01

    Risk factors for the development of new-onset late postpartum preeclampsia (LPP) in women without any history of preeclampsia are not known. Because identification of women who are at risk may lead to an earlier diagnosis of disease and improved maternal outcomes, this study identified risk factors (associated patient characteristics) for new-onset LPP. A case-control study of 34 women with new-onset LPP and 68 women without new-onset LPP after normal delivery, who were matched on date of delivery, was conducted at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY. Data were collected by chart review. Exact conditional logistic regression identified patient characteristics that were associated with new-onset LPP. New-onset LPP was associated with age ≥40 years (adjusted odds ratio, 24.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-infinity; P = .03), black race (adjusted odds ratio, 78.35; 95% CI, 7.25-infinity; P < .001), Latino ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio, 19.08; 95% CI, 2.73-infinity; P = .001), final pregnancy body mass index of ≥30 kg/m(2) (adjusted odds ratio, 13.38; 95% CI, 1.87-infinity; P = .01), and gestational diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio, 72.91; 95% CI, 5.52-infinity; P < .001). As predictive tests for new-onset LPP, the sensitivity and specificity of having ≥1 of these characteristics was 100% and 59%, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity of having ≥2 was 56% and 93%, respectively. Older age, black race, Latino ethnicity, obesity, and a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus all are associated positively with the development of new-onset LPP. Closer observation may be warranted in these populations. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Early warning signs of severe preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-mei; Yang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jia-lüe

    2009-05-01

    To identify the early warning signs of severe preeclampsia (SPE). A case-control (1:2) observational study was conducted. Forty-seven pregnant women with SPE, who attended the prenatal clinics of Peking University Third Hospital regularly from Jan. 2002 to Dec. 2007, were selected as the study group, including 12 early onset and 35 late onset ones. The control group consisted of 94 healthy singleton pregnant women at the same period. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. (1) The basal body mass index (BMI) showed no difference between the study and control group [(23.27 +/- 4.31) kg/m(2) vs (21.52 +/- 3.09) kg/m(2), P > 0.05]. (2) The net increase of BMI in the study group before the onset of SPE was higher than that in the control [(5.60 +/- 2.17) kg/m(2) vs (4.85 +/- 1.52) kg/m(2), P < 0.05] and the increase of BMI per week was also higher [(0.74 +/- 0.41) kg/(m(2).w)(-1) vs (0.23 +/- 0.18) kg/(m(2).w)(-1), P < 0.01]. The sensitivity and specificity of BMI increase per week in predicting SPE was 84% and 81% at a cut-off value of 0.39 kg/(m(2).w)(-1), respectively, and 79% and 91% at 0.41 kg/(m(2).w)(-1) correspondingly. (3) During the third trimester and before the onset of SPE, the weight gain per week in the study group was higher than that of the control [(0.93 +/- 0.70) kg vs (0.63 +/- 0.20) kg, P < 0.01]. Significant difference was also found in the net weight gain between the two groups (P < 0.01), but not in the percentage of women with excessive weight gain (> 0.50 kg/w) [60% (25/42) in the study group vs 63% (53/84) in the control group, P > 0.05]. (4) Higher percentage of women experienced pre-hypertension in the study group than in the controls [17% (8/47) vs 5% (5/94), P < 0.01]. (5) In the study group, 53% (25/47) of the women had edema before SPE onset, but the figure dropped to 18% (17/94) in the controls (P < 0.01). (6) Eight women in the study group and one in the control group suffered from hypoproteinemia before SPE onset with the average

  2. Angiogenic factors for prediction of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction onset in high-risk women: AngioPred study.

    PubMed

    Raia-Barjat, Tiphaine; Prieux, Carole; Gris, Jean-Christophe; Chapelle, Céline; Laporte, Silvy; Chauleur, Céline

    2017-09-22

    The study aimed to compare the level of two angiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) and soluble endoglin (sEng), for the prediction of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction in high-risk pregnant women. A prospective multicenter cohort study of 200 pregnant patients was conducted between June 2008 and October 2010. sFlt1 and sEng were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-five patients developed a placenta-mediated adverse pregnancy outcome. Plasma levels of sFlt1 and sEng were higher in patients who will experience a preeclampsia at 28, 32, and 36 weeks compared with patients with no complication. The same results were observed for intrauterine growth restriction. Plasma levels of sFlt1 and sEng were not significantly different for patients with preeclampsia compare to patients with intrauterine growth restriction. Patients with early pre-eclampsia (PE) had very high rates of angiogenic factors at 20, 24, and 28 weeks. Patients with late PE and early and late intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) had high rates at 32 and 36 weeks. In high-risk women, angiogenic factors are disturbed before the onset of preeclampsia and this is true for intrauterine growth restriction.

  3. Combined Screening for Early Detection of Pre-Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jin; Shim, Sung Shin; Cha, Dong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Although the precise pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia remains unknown, this condition continues to be a major cause of maternal and fetal mortality. Early prediction of pre-eclampsia would allow for timely initiation of preventive therapy. A combination of biophysical and biochemical markers are superior to other tests for early prediction of the development of pre-eclampsia. Apart from the use of parameters in first-trimester aneuploidy screening, cell-free fetal DNA quantification is emerging as a promising marker for prediction of pre-eclampsia. This article reviews the current research of the most important strategies for prediction of pre-eclampsia, including the use of maternal risk factors, mean maternal arterial pressure, ultrasound parameters, and biomarkers. PMID:26247944

  4. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; Litonjua, Augusto A; McElrath, Thomas F; O'Connor, George; Lee-Parritz, Aviva; Iverson, Ronald; Macones, George; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Hollis, Bruce W; Handy, Diane E; Sharma, Amitabh; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Qiu, Weilliang; Santolini, Marc; Liu, Shikang; Chhabra, Divya; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A; Loscalzo, Joseph; Weiss, Scott T

    2016-12-01

    Low vitamin D status in pregnancy was proposed as a risk factor of preeclampsia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation (4,400 vs. 400 IU/day), initiated early in pregnancy (10-18 weeks), on the development of preeclampsia. The effects of serum vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels on preeclampsia incidence at trial entry and in the third trimester (32-38 weeks) were studied. We also conducted a nested case-control study of 157 women to investigate peripheral blood vitamin D-associated gene expression profiles at 10 to 18 weeks in 47 participants who developed preeclampsia. Of 881 women randomized, outcome data were available for 816, with 67 (8.2%) developing preeclampsia. There was no significant difference between treatment (N = 408) or control (N = 408) groups in the incidence of preeclampsia (8.08% vs. 8.33%, respectively; relative risk: 0.97; 95% CI, 0.61-1.53). However, in a cohort analysis and after adjustment for confounders, a significant effect of sufficient vitamin D status (25OHD ≥30 ng/ml) was observed in both early and late pregnancy compared with insufficient levels (25OHD <30 ng/ml) (adjusted odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.10-0.96). Differential expression of 348 vitamin D-associated genes (158 upregulated) was found in peripheral blood of women who developed preeclampsia (FDR <0.05 in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial [VDAART]; P < 0.05 in a replication cohort). Functional enrichment and network analyses of this vitamin D-associated gene set suggests several highly functional modules related to systematic inflammatory and immune responses, including some nodes with a high degree of connectivity. Vitamin D supplementation initiated in weeks 10-18 of pregnancy did not reduce preeclampsia incidence in the intention-to-treat paradigm. However, vitamin D levels of 30 ng/ml or higher at trial entry and in late pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia. Differentially expressed vitamin D

  5. Association of first-trimester angiogenic factors with placental histological findings in late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Triunfo, Stefania; Crovetto, Francesca; Crispi, Fatima; Rodriguez-Sureda, Victor; Dominguez, Carmen; Nadal, Alfons; Peguero, Anna; Gratacos, Eduard; Figueras, Francesc

    2016-06-01

    To explore in women with late-onset preeclampsia (PE) the association between maternal levels of angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors in the first trimester of pregnancy and histological findings attributable to placental underperfusion (PUP). A nested case-control cohort study was conducted in 73 women with pregnancies complicated by late-onset PE (>34 weeks at delivery) matched with controls. First trimester uterine artery Doppler (UtA); maternal levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were retrieved. Placentas were histologically evaluated using a hierarchical and standardized classification system. One-way ANOVA with linear polynomial contrast or linear-by-linear association test was performed to test the hypothesis of a linear association across study groups (controls, PE without PUP and PE with PUP). In 54 (74%) placentas, 89 placental histological findings qualifying for PUP were found. Across study groups, significant values were observed in maternal levels of decreased PlGF (MoM values: 1.53, 1.41 and 1.37; p < 0.001), increased sFlt-1 (MoM values: 3.11, 3.11 and 3.22; p = 0.002), increased sFlt-1/PlGF ratio (MoM values: 2.3, 2.3 and 2.44; p < 0.001), abnormal UtA Doppler (MoM values: 1, 1.26 and 1.32; p < 0.001), and worse perinatal outcomes in terms of gestational age at delivery, cesarean section for not reassuring fetal status, birth weight and neonatal acidosis. In late-onset PE an imbalance of circulating angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors already present at 8-10 weeks of pregnancy was associated with histological findings reflecting placental insufficiency. An early first trimester screening by angiogenic factors might help to identify patients with placental involvement among late-onset PE cases. In late-onset preeclampsia, first-trimester uterine Doppler and circulating levels of angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors are associated with placental underperfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  6. A prospective cohort study on the clinical utility of second trimester mean arterial blood pressure in the prediction of late-onset preeclampsia among Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Udenze, I C; Arikawe, A P; Makwe, C C; Olowoselu, O F

    2017-06-01

    Early detection of preeclampsia will help reduce the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disorder. Late-onset preeclampsia was the predominant presentation in this cohort. The search for biomarkers for predicting preeclampsia is still ongoing. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), which has the advantage of presenting a single cutoff value compared with the use of systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements, merits evaluation. The study aims to evaluate the clinical utility of second trimester MABP in the prediction of preeclampsia. This was a prospective cohort study of 155 normotensive, nonproteinuric pregnant women without prior history of gestational hypertension. The women were booked patients attending the antenatal clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital and were all in their second trimesters of pregnancy. The outcome measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and MABP. The end point of the study was the development of preeclampsia. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made by the attending obstetrician. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistical software. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. One hundred and fifty-five pregnant women participated in the study. Eleven (7.1%) of the women developed preeclampsia after 34 weeks gestation and 144 (92.9%) had normal pregnancy. The mean gestational age at the time of assessment was 18.88 ± 3.15 weeks with a range of 14 weeks to 27 completed weeks. There was a statistically significant increase in the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and MABP values in the group of women who later developed preeclampsia, P = 0.005, 0.001, and <0.001, respectively. At a false-positive rate of 10%, MABP value of 88.33 mmHg predicted preeclampsia with a specificity of 90% and a sensitivity of 45.5%, P <0.05. The area under the receiver-operative characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.732 (95% confidence interval, 0.544-0.919, P = 0.011). The negative

  7. Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... preeclampsia makes a woman a higher risk for future problems such as: Heart disease Diabetes Kidney disease ... medical problems in pregnancy. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Insulin restores L-arginine transport requiring adenosine receptors activation in umbilical vein endothelium from late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Salsoso, R; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, E; Sáez, T; Bugueño, K; Ramírez, M A; Farías, M; Pardo, F; Leiva, A; Sanhueza, C; Mate, A; Vázquez, C; Sobrevia, L

    2015-03-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with impaired placental vasodilation and reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in the foetoplacental circulation. Adenosine and insulin stimulate vasodilation in endothelial cells, and this activity is mediated by adenosine receptor activation in uncomplicated pregnancies; however, this activity has yet to be examined in preeclampsia. Early onset preeclampsia is associated with severe placental vasculature alterations that lead to altered foetus growth and development, but whether late-onset preeclampsia (LOPE) alters foetoplacental vascular function is unknown. Vascular reactivity to insulin (0.1-1000 nmol/L, 5 min) and adenosine (1 mmol/L, 5 min) was measured in KCl-preconstricted human umbilical vein rings from normal and LOPE pregnancies using a wire myograph. The protein levels of human cationic amino acid transporter 1 (hCAT-1), adenosine receptor subtypes, total and Ser¹¹⁷⁷- or Thr⁴⁹⁵-phosphorylated eNOS were detected via Western blot, and L-arginine transport (0-1000 μmol/L L-arginine, 3 μCi/mL L-[³H]arginine, 20 s, 37 °C) was measured in the presence or absence of insulin and adenosine receptor agonists or antagonists in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from normal and LOPE pregnancies. LOPE increased the maximal L-arginine transport capacity and hCAT-1 and eNOS expression and activity compared with normal conditions. The A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects of LOPE. Insulin-mediated umbilical vein ring relaxation was lower in LOPE pregnancies than in normal pregnancies and was restored using the A(2A)AR antagonist. The reduced foetoplacental vascular response to insulin may result from A(2A)AR activation in LOPE pregnancies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2018 Preeclampsia Anne Marie Valente, MD; Katherine E. Economy, MD W omen are at risk for elevations ... 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003858 e344 Valente and Economy  Preeclampsia   e345 Downloaded from http: / / circ. ahajournals. org/ ...

  10. Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Bong; Wong, Amy P.; Kanasaki, Keizo; Xu, Yong; Shenoy, Vivek K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Whitesides, George M.; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-01-01

    Inadequate invasion of the uterus by cytotrophoblasts is speculated to result in pregnancy-induced disorders such as preeclampsia. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern appropriate invasion of cytotrophoblasts are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that under low-oxygen conditions (2.5% oxygen), 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), which is a metabolite of estradiol and is generated by catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), induces invasion of cytotrophoblasts into a naturally-derived, extracellular matrix. Neither low-oxygen conditions nor 2-ME alone induces the invasion of cytotrophoblasts in this system; however, low-oxygen conditions combined with 2-ME result in the appropriate invasion of cytotrophoblasts into the extracellular matrix. Cytotrophoblast invasion under these conditions is also associated with a decrease in the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2). Pregnant COMT-deficient mice with hypoxic placentas and preeclampsia-like features demonstrate an up-regulation of HIF-1α, TGF-β3, and TIMP-2 when compared with wild-type mice; normal levels are restored on administration of 2-ME, which also results in the resolution of preeclampsia-like features in these mice. Indeed, placentas from patients with preeclampsia reveal lower levels of COMT and higher levels of HIF-1α, TGF-β3, and TIMP-2 when compared with those from normal pregnant women. We demonstrate that low-oxygen conditions of the placenta are a critical co-stimulator along with 2-ME for the proper invasion of cytotrophoblasts to facilitate appropriate vascular development and oxygenation during pregnancy. PMID:20075204

  11. Pre-eclampsia and first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes: a Danish population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, V.; Laursen, T. M.; Johannsen, B. M. W.; Kushner, S. A.; Meltzer-Brody, S.; Munk-Olsen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that postpartum psychiatric episodes may share similar etiological mechanisms with immune-related disorders. Pre-eclampsia is one of the most prevalent immune-related disorders of pregnancy. Multiple clinical features are shared between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric disorders, most prominently a strong link to first pregnancies. Therefore, we aimed to study if pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. Method We conducted a cohort study using the Danish population registry, with a total of 400 717 primiparous women with a singleton delivery between 1995 and 2011. First-lifetime childbirth was the main exposure variable and the outcome of interest was first-onset postpartum psychiatric episodes. The main outcome measures were monthly incidence rate ratios (IRRs), with the period 11–12 months after birth as the reference category. Adjustments were made for age, calendar period, reproductive history, and perinatal maternal health including somatic and obstetric co-morbidity. Results Primiparous women were at particularly high risk of first-onset psychiatric episodes during the first month postpartum [IRR 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.53–3.40] and pre-eclampsia added to that risk (IRR 4.21, 95% CI 2.89–6.13). Having both pre-eclampsia and a somatic co-morbidity resulted in the highest risk of psychiatric episodes during the 3-month period after childbirth (IRR 4.81, 95% CI 2.72–8.50). Conclusions We confirmed an association between pre-eclampsia and postpartum psychiatric episodes. The possible explanations for this association, which are not mutually exclusive, include the psychological impact of a serious medical condition such as pre-eclampsia and the neurobiological impact of pre-eclampsia-related vascular pathology and inflammation. PMID:26243040

  12. Maternal endothelial damage as a disorder shared by early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Dołegowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Marczuk, Natalia; Loj, Beata; Torbè, Andrzej

    2017-10-26

    Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are separate disease entities that have frequently been reported as sharing the same pathogenesis. In both of them, angiogenesis disorders and generalized endothelial damage with an accompanying inflammation are the dominant symptoms. In this study, we attempted to prove that both these processes demonstrate the same profile in early PE, late PE and IUGR patients, while the only difference is in the degree of exacerbation of the lesions. In 167 patients divided into four groups, three of those with early PE, late PE and IUGR and one control group, fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), high sensitive c-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibronectin were determined. The behavior of these parameters in each of the groups was studied, and correlations between them were sought for. Higher concentrations of sFlt-1, hsCRP and fibronectin and a lower concentration of PlGF were found in the study groups compared to the control group. Significant correlations were observed between the factors concerned. The higher values of disordered angiogenesis markers, endothelial damage markers and inflammatory markers both in the PE and the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) groups suggest the existence of shared disorders in the development of these pathologies. The correlations between disordered angiogenesis markers and endothelial damage markers argue in favor of a mutual relationship between these two processes in the development of pathologies evolving as secondary to placental ischemia. The results obtained confirm that the lesion profiles are the same in both PE and IUGR patients, which can be utilized in developing common diagnostic criteria.

  13. Prediction of early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery*

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Augusto Henriques Fulgêncio; Evangelista, Aline Aarão; Martins, Raphaela Menin Franco; Leite, Henrique Vítor; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD), a biophysical marker for endothelial dysfunction. Materials and Methods A total of 91 patients, considered at high risk for development of preeclampsia were submitted to brachial artery FMD between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results Nineteen out of the selected patients developed preeclampsia, 8 in its early form and 11 in the late form. With a cut-off value of 6.5%, the FMD sensitivity for early preeclampsia prediction was 75.0%, with specificity of 73.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 32.4% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.9%. For the prediction of late preeclampsia, sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 73.2%, PPV = 34.4% and NPV = 96.2% were observed. And for the prediction of all associated forms of preeclampsia, sensitivity = 84.2%, specificity = 73.6%, PPV = 45.7% and NPV = 94.6% were observed. Conclusion FMD of the brachial artery is a test with good accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia, which may represent a positive impact on the follow-up of pregnant women at high risk for developing this syndrome. PMID:25741086

  14. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Kari A.; Anderson-Berry, Ann L.; Delair, Shirley F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR. Cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell surface antigens, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and CD64, are also being increasingly examined for use as nonspecific screening measures for neonatal sepsis. Viruses, in particular enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and herpes simplex virus (HSV), should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Empirical treatment should be based on local patterns of antimicrobial resistance but typically consists of the use of ampicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and cefotaxime if meningitis is suspected, until the etiologic agent has been identified. Current research is focused primarily on development of vaccines against GBS. PMID:24396135

  15. Increasing maternal percentage body fat in early second trimester: a risk factor for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxia; Qiu, Jie; Zhou, Min; Wang, Youjie; Du, Yukai

    2015-02-01

    To determine if maternal percentage body fat (PBF) or fat free mass (FFM) in the early second trimester of pregnancy influenced the development of preeclampsia. A matched nested case-control study was conducted from a cohort study of 1668 women at Gansu provincial maternal and child care hospital from July 2007 to August 2011 in China. Maternal PBF and FFM were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis during 12th-16th gestational week. The demographic characteristics were all chart abstracted. After childbirth, 70 cases of preeclampsia were matched by race/age with 140 uncomplicated pregnancies women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associated risk factors. Pre-pregnancy body mass index were higher in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with controls (p < 0.001). During 12th-16th gestational week, there were nearly 7-fold increase in the odds of preeclampsia (adjusted OR: 6.84, 95% CI: 4.15-41.60) among women with PBF ≥ 40% versus women with PBF < 40%. But FFM were not at further increased risk of the development of preeclampsia (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.6-3.6). Maternal PBF but not FFM is a predictor of preeclampsia in the early second trimester. Excessive adipose tissue possibly played an important role in developing of preeclampsia.

  16. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared to those with late-onset dysthymia, early-onset patients are more likely to harbor psychiatric comorbidity both on Axis I and II, exhibit less psychological resilience, and have more prominent family loadings for mood disorders. These findings suggest that this distinction is meaningful and that the early-onset subtype of dysthymia is more difficult to effectively treat. PMID:20049145

  17. Early- versus Late-Onset Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Marco A.; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ≤30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ≥60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients. PMID:24646463

  18. Vitamin D status in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Madonna; Dodds, Linda; Giguère, Yves; Forest, Jean-Claude; Armson, B. Anthony; Woolcott, Christy; Agellon, Sherry; Spencer, Anne; Weiler, Hope A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to examine the association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration in early pregnancy and the subsequent diagnosis of preeclampsia (PE). STUDY DESIGN This was a nested case-control study from 2 prospective Canadian cohorts conducted in Quebec City, Quebec, and Halifax, Nova Scotia, from 2002 through 2010. Participants were pregnant women (n=169 cases with PE and 1975 controls). Maternal serum was drawn <20 weeks of gestation, and 25(OH)D measurement was performed. Cases were ascertained from medical records. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Women who developed PE had a significantly lower 25(OH)D concentration at a mean gestational age of 14 weeks compared with women in the control group (mean ± SD 25[OH]D 47.2 ± 17.7 vs 52.3 ± 17.2 nmol/L, P < .0001). Women with 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L compared to those with at least 50 nmol/L had a greater risk of developing PE (adjusted odds ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.29–3.83) after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index, maternal age, smoking, parity, season and year of blood collection, gestational week at blood collection, and cohort site. Exploratory analysis with cubic splines demonstrated a dose-response relationship between maternal 25(OH)D and risk of PE, up to levels around 50 nmol/L, where the association appeared to plateau. CONCLUSION Maternal vitamin D deficiency early in pregnancy defined as 25(OH)D<30 nmol/L may be an independent risk factor for PE. The relevance of vitamin D supplementation for women of child-bearing age should be explored as a strategy for reducing PE and for promoting a healthier pregnancy. PMID:25446694

  19. Alternative complement pathway activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy as a predictor of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Anne M.; Murphy, James R.; Byers, Tim; Gibbs, Ronald S.; Neville, Margaret C.; Giclas, Patricia C.; Salmon, Jane E.; Holers, V. Michael

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease classically defined on the basis of hypertension and proteinuria. As shown in animal studies, complement activation is associated with inflammation in the placenta and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The association between complement activation in humans and adverse pregnancy outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether elevated levels of the activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy are predictive of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN This prospective study of 701 women was conducted in Denver, CO. A single plasma sample was obtained from each woman before 20 weeks’ gestation. The cohort was followed up throughout pregnancy for the development of preeclampsia. Analysis included multivariate logistic regression to adjust for established risk factors for preeclampsia. RESULTS Preeclampsia developed in 4.6% of the cohort. Women with elevated Bb (90th or greater percentile) were substantially more likely to develop preeclampsia than women who had levels less than the 90th percentile (unadjusted relative risk [RR], 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6 to 7, P = .0009). Other significant risk factors for preeclampsia included nulliparity (RR, 2.1, 95% CI, 1–4), a high body mass index (P = .006 for trend), and maternal medical (preexisting maternal hypertension, type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus) disease (RR, 4.4, 95% CI, 2–10). Significant risk factors among multiparous women included a history of hypertension in a previous pregnancy (RR, 5, 95% CI, 1.6 to 16) and a change of paternity (RR, 5.1, 95% CI, 1.6 to 15). Adjustment for risk factors did not attenuate the association between an elevated Bb and preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.8, 95% CI, 1.6 to 9, P = .002) in the cohort. After removing women with plasma obtained before 10 weeks, the adjusted OR of Bb in the top decile for preeclampsia was 6.1 (95% CI 2.2, 17, P = .0005). CONCLUSION The complement activation product Bb in

  20. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... called a syndrome. If glaucoma appears before the age of 5 without other associated abnormalities, it is called primary congenital glaucoma. Other individuals experience early onset of primary open-angle glaucoma, the most ...

  1. Associations between phenotypes of preeclampsia and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Berks, Durk; Duvekot, Johannes J; Basalan, Hillal; De Maat, Moniek P M; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Willy

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia complicates 2-8% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of preeclampsia with thrombophilia are conflicting. Clinical heterogeneity of the disease may be one of the explanations. The present study addresses the question whether different phenotypes of preeclampsia are associated with thrombophilia factors. Study design We planned a retrospective cohort study. From 1985 until 2010 women with preeclampsia were offered postpartum screening for the following thrombophilia factors: anti-phospholipid antibodies, APC-resistance, protein C deficiency and protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteineamia, factor V Leiden and Prothrombin gene mutation. Hospital records were used to obtain information on phenotypes of the preeclampsia and placental histology. We identified 844 women with singleton pregnancies who were screened for thrombophilia factors. HELLP complicated 49% of pregnancies; Fetal growth restriction complicated 61% of pregnancies. Early delivery (<34th week) occurred in 71% of pregnancies. Any thrombophilia factor was present in 29% of the women. Severe preeclampsia was associated with protein S deficiency (p=0.01). Fetal growth restriction was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p<0.01). Early onset preeclampsia was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p=0.01). Extensive placental infarction (>10%) was associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies (p<0.01). Low placental weight (<5th percentile) was associated with hyperhomocysteineamia (p=0.03). No other associations were observed. Early onset preeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction, are associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies. Other phenotypes of preeclampsia, especially HELLP syndrome, were not associated with thrombophilia. We advise only to test for anti-phospholipid antibodies after early onset preeclampsia, especially if complicated by fetal growth restriction. We suggest enough evidence is presented to justify no further studies are

  2. The association between maternal antioxidant levels in midpregnancy and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jacqueline M; Kramer, Michael S; Platt, Robert W; Basso, Olga; Evans, Rhobert W; Kahn, Susan R

    2015-11-01

    We sought to determine whether midpregnancy antioxidant levels are associated with preeclampsia, overall and by timing of onset. We carried out a case-control study, nested within a cohort of 5337 pregnant women in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Blood samples obtained at 24-26 weeks were assayed for nonenzymatic antioxidant levels among cases of preeclampsia (n = 111) and unaffected controls (n = 441). We excluded women diagnosed with gestational hypertension only. We used logistic regression with the z-score of each antioxidant level as the main predictor variable for preeclampsia risk. We further stratified early-onset (<34 weeks) and late-onset preeclampsia and carried out multinomial logistic regression. Finally, we assessed associations between antioxidant biomarkers and timing of onset (in weeks) by Cox regression, with appropriate selection weights. We summed levels of correlated biomarkers (r(2) > 0.3) and log-transformed positively skewed distributions. We adjusted for body mass index, nulliparity, preexisting diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and proxies for ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The odds ratios for α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol:cholesterol, lycopene, lutein, and carotenoids (sum of α-carotene, β-carotene, anhydrolutein, α-cryptoxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin) suggested an inverse association between antioxidant levels and overall preeclampsia risk; however, only lutein was significantly associated with overall preeclampsia in adjusted models (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.77) per SD. In multinomial logistic models, the relative risk ratio (RRR) estimates for the early-onset subgroup were farther from the null than those for the late-onset subgroup. The ratio of α-tocopherol to cholesterol and retinol were significantly associated with early- but not late-onset preeclampsia: RRRs (95% confidence intervals) for early-onset preeclampsia 0.67 (0.46-0.99) and 1.61 (1.12-2.33), respectively. Lutein was significantly associated

  3. Thrombophilic mutations and susceptibility to preeclampsia in Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Malek-Khosravi, Shohreh; Rahimi, Zohreh; Rahimi, Ziba; Jalilvand, Faranak; Parsian, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency and the possible association between thrombophilic mutations of factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin G20210A with preeclampsia among Kurdish population of Western Iran. We studied 198 women with preeclampsia including 128 women with mild and 70 women with severe forms and 101 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancy. Among cases there were 23 women with early onset preeclampsia and 175 cases with late-onset preeclampsia. The sample was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism using Mnl I and Hind III for FVL and prothrombin G20210A, respectively. The frequency of heterozygous FVL mutation was 7.6% among all preeclamptic women (8.6% in mild and 5.7% in severe preeclamptic women) and 7.9% in controls (P > 0.05). However, the prevalence of heterozygous FVL were 10.5 and 3.9% among severe preeclamptic women with early onset and late-onset preeclampsia, respectively (P > 0.05). The prevalence of prothrombin G20210A were 1.6, 2.9, and 3% among women with mild preeclamsia, severe preeclampsia and controls, respectively (P > 0.05). The level of serum triglycerides (TG) was significantly higher among women with preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnant women that was not associated with the two thrombophilic mutations. Our results indicate that neither FVL nor prothrombin G20210A could be a risk factor for preeclampsia in our population. However, high prevalence of FVL in preeclamptic women with early onset compared to those with late-onset preeclampsia may suggest a role for this mutation in predisposition to early onset preeclampsia that need to be confirmed with larger sample size.

  4. Dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of subsequent preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Coughlin, Kara B; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Sorensen, Tanya K; Williams, Michelle A

    2008-08-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence documents diverse health benefits, including reduced risks of hypertension, associated with diets high in fiber. Few studies, however, have investigated the extent to which dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy is associated with reductions in preeclampsia risk. We assessed the relationship between maternal dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia. We also evaluated cross-sectional associations of maternal early pregnancy plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations with fiber intake. The study population comprised 1,538 pregnant Washington State residents. A 121-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess maternal dietary intake, 3 months before and during early pregnancy; and generalized linear regression procedures were used to derive relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Dietary total fiber intake was associated with reduced preeclampsia risk. After adjusting for confounders, the RR of preeclampsia for women in the highest (> or =21.2 g/day) vs. the lowest quartile (<11.9 g/day) was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.11-0.75). We observed associations of similar magnitude when the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of water-soluble fiber (RR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.86) and insoluble fiber (RR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.14-0.87) were evaluated. Mean triglyceride concentrations were lower (-11.9 mg/dl, P = 0.02) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were higher (+2.63 mg/dl, P = 0.09) for women in the highest quartile vs. those in the lowest quartile. These findings of reduced preeclampsia risk with higher total fiber intake corroborate an earlier report; and expand the literature by providing evidence, which suggests that dietary fiber may attenuate pregnancy-associated dyslipidemia, an important clinical characteristic of preeclampsia.

  5. 3D power Doppler ultrasound in early diagnosis of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Neto, R Moreira; Ramos, J G L

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a known cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Thus, evaluation of the predicting value of comparing 3D power Doppler indices (3DPD) of uteroplacental circulation (UPC) in the first and second trimester in patients who developed preeclampsia (PE) and those who did not and testing the hypothesis that the parameters of vascularization and placenta flow intensity, as determined by three-dimensional ultrasound (3D), are different in normal pregnancies compared with preeclampsia, could be a suitable screening method. A prospective observational study using 3D power Doppler were performed to evaluate the placental perfusion in 96 pregnant women who came to do the ultrasound routine between 11 and 14 weeks. The placental vascular index (VI), flow index (FI), blood vessels and blood flow index (VFI) by three-dimensional Doppler histogram were calculated. All patients repeated the exam between 16 and 20 weeks. The outcome was scored as normal or preeclamptic. Placental vascular indices including VI, FI and VFI were significantly lower in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls in the study performed in the second trimester (p<0.001). There was not any statistical difference in the patients examined in the first trimester. Our findings suggest that 3D-power Doppler assessment of placental vascular indices in the second trimester has the potential to detect women at risk for subsequent development of PE. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognostic Value of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Measured in the First-Trimester on the Severity of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Po-Jen; Huang, Shang-Yu; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hwa; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Duan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have suggested that preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease may share common mechanisms. The purpose of this prospective nested case-controlled study was to characterize a variety of cardiovascular disease risk factors measured during the first trimester of pregnancy in predicting subsequent outcomes and the severity of preeclampsia. We ascertained the severity of preeclampsia at the onset of the disease, and the presence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We compared first trimester maternal serum cardiovascular disease risk factors in preeclampsia subjects versus normal pregnancies, early-onset versus late-onset preeclampsia, and preeclampsia with IUGR versus without IUGR. To identify the prognostic value of independent predictors on the severity of preeclampsia, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) using logistic regression analysis. There were 134 cases of preeclampsia and 150 uncomplicated pregnancies, and preeclampsia cases were classified as early-onset (53 cases) or late-onset (81 cases), or as with IUGR (44 cases) or without IUGR (90 cases). Among the cardiovascular disease risk factors, maternal serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and homocysteine were predictors of both early-onset preeclampsia and preeclampsia with IUGR. For the detection of early onset preeclampsia or preeclampsia with IUGR, the AUC for the combination model (0.943 and 0.952, respectively) was significantly higher than with serum hsCRP or serum homocysteine only. Patients with preeclampsia can be subdivided into different severities according to time of onset and fetal weight. Cardiovascular risk factors distinguish a subgroup of these patients. PMID:26844488

  7. Prognostic Value of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Measured in the First-Trimester on the Severity of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Jen; Huang, Shang-Yu; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hwa; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Duan, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease may share common mechanisms. The purpose of this prospective nested case-controlled study was to characterize a variety of cardiovascular disease risk factors measured during the first trimester of pregnancy in predicting subsequent outcomes and the severity of preeclampsia.We ascertained the severity of preeclampsia at the onset of the disease, and the presence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We compared first trimester maternal serum cardiovascular disease risk factors in preeclampsia subjects versus normal pregnancies, early-onset versus late-onset preeclampsia, and preeclampsia with IUGR versus without IUGR. To identify the prognostic value of independent predictors on the severity of preeclampsia, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) using logistic regression analysis.There were 134 cases of preeclampsia and 150 uncomplicated pregnancies, and preeclampsia cases were classified as early-onset (53 cases) or late-onset (81 cases), or as with IUGR (44 cases) or without IUGR (90 cases). Among the cardiovascular disease risk factors, maternal serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and homocysteine were predictors of both early-onset preeclampsia and preeclampsia with IUGR. For the detection of early onset preeclampsia or preeclampsia with IUGR, the AUC for the combination model (0.943 and 0.952, respectively) was significantly higher than with serum hsCRP or serum homocysteine only.Patients with preeclampsia can be subdivided into different severities according to time of onset and fetal weight. Cardiovascular risk factors distinguish a subgroup of these patients.

  8. Novel cardiovascular biomarkers in women with a history of early preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Drost, José T; Maas, Angela H E M; Holewijn, Suzanne; Joosten, Leo A B; van Eyck, Jim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; de Graaf, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia are at increased risk for future cardiovascular disease. Determination of cardiovascular biomarkers may be useful to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of cardiovascular disease development in these women. We performed an analysis in the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales study, a retrospective cohort consisting of 339 women with a history of early preeclampsia and 332 women after normotensive pregnancy. Women attended a follow-up visit ten years after the index pregnancy. A subset of 8 different cardiovascular biomarkers was investigated, reflecting inflammatory, metabolic, thrombotic and endothelial function markers. Associations between PE and these novel biomarkers were analyzed by linear regression analysis and adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Mean age of 671 women of the PREVFEM cohort was 39 years and women were on average 10 years post index pregnancy. Women post preeclampsia had significantly higher levels of SE-selectin (adjusted difference 4.55, 99%CI 0.37; 8.74) and PAPPA (adjusted difference 19.08; 99%CI 13.18; 24.99), whereas ApoB (adjusted difference -0.23 99%CI -0.32; -0.14) was inversely associated with preeclampsia, compared to women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. Adiponectin, leptin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and PAI-1 were not different between both groups. We demonstrated an independent association of preeclampsia with SE-selectin and PAPPA (markers of vascular dysfunction), which may contribute to future cardiovascular events in women post preeclampsia. However, ApoB (an apolipoprotein) was significantly lower and could point at a protective mechanism in our PE study women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental noise pollution and risk of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Duplaix, Mathilde; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Lo, Ernest; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2018-08-01

    Environmental noise exposure is associated with a greater risk of hypertension, but the link with preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between environmental noise pollution and risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy. We analyzed a population-based cohort comprising 269,263 deliveries on the island of Montreal, Canada between 2000 and 2013. We obtained total environmental noise pollution measurements (LA eq24 , L den , L night ) from land use regression models, and assigned noise levels to each woman based on the residential postal code. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of noise with preeclampsia in mixed logistic regression models with participants as a random effect, and adjusted for air pollution, neighbourhood walkability, maternal age, parity, multiple pregnancy, comorbidity, socioeconomic deprivation, and year of delivery. We assessed whether noise exposure was more strongly associated with severe or early onset preeclampsia than mild or late onset preeclampsia. Prevalence of preeclampsia was higher for women exposed to elevated environmental noise pollution levels (LA eq24h  ≥ 65 dB(A) = 37.9 per 1000 vs. <50 dB(A) = 27.9 per 1000). Compared with 50 dB(A), an LA eq24h of 65.0 dB(A) was not significantly associated the risk of preeclampsia (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99-1.20). Associations were however present with severe (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.54) and early onset (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.20-2.43) preeclampsia, with results consistent across all noise indicators. The associations were much weaker or absent for mild and late preeclampsia. Environmental noise pollution may be a novel risk factor for pregnancy-related hypertension, particularly more severe variants of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Common Profile of Disordered Angiogenic Factor Production and the Exacerbation of Inflammation in Early Preeclampsia, Late Preeclampsia, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Torbè, Andrzej; Bednarek-Jędrzejek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction are two separate disease entities that, according to numerous reports, share the same pathogenesis. In both, angiogenesis disorders and generalized inflammation are the dominant symptoms. In this study, we hypothesized that both diseases demonstrate the same profile in early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction patients, with the only difference being the degree of exacerbation of lesions. One hundred sixty-seven patients were enrolled in the study and divided into four groups: early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction groups, and one control group. Concentrations of the angiogenesis and inflammatory markers soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1, placental growth factor, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 were determined, and the behavior of these markers and correlations among them were studied. Higher concentrations of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6 and a lower concentration of placental growth factor were observed in the study groups compared with the control group. No differences in concentrations of the studied markers were found among the study groups but significant correlations were observed. The higher values for the angiogenesis and inflammatory markers both in preeclampsia patients and patients with intrauterine growth restriction of placental origin compared with the control group suggest the existence of the same underlying disorders in the development of these pathologies. The observed mutual correlations for disordered angiogenesis and inflammatory markers are suggestive of a mutual relationship between these processes in the development of pathologies evolving secondary to placental ischemia. The same lesion profile was observed for both preeclampsia and 'placental' intrauterine growth restriction patients, which could be used in developing

  11. THE LINK BETWEEN EARLY ONSET DRINKING AND EARLY ONSET ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING IN YOUNG MALES

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young drivers represent a disproportionate number of the individuals involved in alcohol-impaired driving. Although there is a known association between drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in young drivers, the link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving has not been explored. Objectives The present study aimed to assess this link along with potentially confounding factors. Methods The assessment used a proportional hazards model with data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, a population based sample of 625 males at ages of 16–19 years old. Results Controlling for the effects of potentially relevant confounds, the early onset of drinking was the most influential factor in predicting the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Race and the early onset of other forms of delinquency also played a significant role in the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Conclusion Preventing an early start of drinking among adolescents may be the most critical factor to address in preventing an early start of alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:24766089

  12. The link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving in young males.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F; Welte, John W

    2014-05-01

    Young drivers represent a disproportionate number of the individuals involved in alcohol-impaired driving. Although there is a known association between drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in young drivers, the link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving has not been explored. The present study aimed to assess this link along with potentially confounding factors. The assessment used a proportional hazards model with data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, a population-based sample of 625 males at aged 16-19. Controlling for the effects of potentially relevant confounds, the early onset of drinking was the most influential factor in predicting the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Race and the early onset of other forms of delinquency also played a significant role in the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Preventing an early start of drinking among adolescents may be the most critical factor to address in preventing an early start of alcohol-impaired driving.

  13. OS087. Maternal characteristics, mean arterial pressure and PLGF in early prediction of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kuc, S; Koster, M P; Franx, A; Schielen, P C; Visser, G H

    2012-07-01

    In a previous study, we described the predictive value of first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin (fb-hCG), Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and A Desintegrin And Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) for early onset preeclampsia (delivery <34 weeks) [1]. The objective of the current study was to obtain the predictive value of these serum makers, for both early onset PE (EOPE) and late onset PE (LOPE), combined with maternal characteristics and first-trimester maternal mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). This was a nested case-control study, using stored first-trimester maternal serum from 167 women who subsequently developed PE, and 500 uncomplicated singleton pregnancies which resulted in a live birth =>37 weeks. Maternal characteristics (i.e. medical records, parity, weight, length) MAP and pregnancy outcome (i.e. gestational age at delivery, birthweight, fetal sex) were collected for each individual and used to calculate prior risks for PE in a multiple logistic regression model. MAP values and marker levels of PAPP-A, fb-hCG, PlGF and ADAM12 were expressed as multiples of the gestation-specific normal median (MoMs). Subsequently, MoMs were log-transformed and compared between PE and controls using Student's t-tests. Posterior risks were calculated using different combinations of variables;(1) maternal characteristics, serum markers, and MAP separately (2) maternal characteristics combined with serum markers or MAP (3) maternal characteristics combined with serum markers and MAP. The model-predicted detection rates (DR) for fixed 10% false-positive rates were obtained for EOPE and LOPE with or without intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR,birth weight <10th centile). The maternal characteristics: maternal age, weight, length, smoking status and nulliparity were discriminative between PE and control groups and therefore incorporated in the multiple logistic regression model. MoM MAP was

  14. Relationship between maternal immunological response during pregnancy and onset of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Pellicer, Begoña; Perales-Marín, Alfredo; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Maternofetal immune tolerance is essential to maintain pregnancy. The maternal immunological tolerance to the semiallogeneic fetus becomes greater in egg donation pregnancies with unrelated donors as the complete fetal genome is allogeneic to the mother. Instead of being rejected, the allogeneic fetus is tolerated by the pregnant woman in egg donation pregnancies. It has been reported that maternal morbidity during egg donation pregnancies is higher as compared with spontaneous or in vitro fertilization pregnancies. Particularly, egg donation pregnancies are associated with a higher incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and placental pathology. Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by the development of both hypertension and proteinuria, remains the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this review is to characterize and relate the maternofetal immunological tolerance phenomenon during pregnancies with a semiallogenic fetus, which are the spontaneously conceived pregnancies and in vitro fertilization pregnancies, and those with an allogeneic fetus or egg donation pregnancies. Maternofetal immune tolerance in uncomplicated pregnancies and pathological pregnancies, such as those with preeclampsia, has also been assessed. Moreover, whether an inadequate maternal immunological response to the allogenic fetus could lead to a higher prevalence of preeclampsia in egg donation pregnancies has been addressed.

  15. Unusual early-onset Huntingtons disease.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Antonio P; Carod-Artal, Francisco J; Bomfim, Denise; Vázquez-Cabrera, Carolina; Dantas-Barbosa, Carmela

    2003-06-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by involuntary movements, cognitive decline, and behavioral disorders leading to functional disability. In contrast to patients with adult onset, in which chorea is the major motor abnormality, children often present with spasticity, rigidity, and significant intellectual decline associated with a more rapidly progressive course. An unusual early-onset Huntington's disease case of an 11-year-old boy with severe hypokinetic/rigid syndrome appearing at the age of 2.5 years is presented. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction study of the expanded IT-15 allele with a compatible size of 102 cytosine-adenosine-guanosine repeats L-Dopa mildly ameliorated rigidity, bradykinesia, and dystonia. We conclude that Huntington's disease should be included in the differential diagnoses of regressive syndromes of early childhood.

  16. Baseline placental growth factor levels for the prediction of benefit from early aspirin prophylaxis for preeclampsia prevention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Gaea S; Allshouse, Amanda A; Winn, Virginia D; Galan, Henry L; Heyborne, Kent D

    2015-10-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) levels early in pregnancy are lower in women who ultimately develop preeclampsia. Early initiation of low-dose aspirin reduces preeclampsia risk in some high risk women. We hypothesized that low PlGF levels may identify women at increased risk for preeclampsia who would benefit from aspirin. Secondary analysis of the MFMU High-Risk Aspirin study including singleton pregnancies randomized to aspirin 60mg/d (n=102) or placebo (n=72), with PlGF collected at 13w 0d-16w 6d. Within the placebo group, we estimated the probability of preeclampsia by PlGF level using logistic regression analysis, then determined a potential PlGF threshold for preeclampsia prediction using ROC analysis. We performed logistic regression modeling for potential confounders. ROC analysis indicated 87.71pg/ml as the threshold between high and low PlGF for preeclampsia-prediction. Within the placebo group high PlGF weakly predicted preeclampsia (AUC 0.653, sensitivity/specificity 63%/66%). We noted a 2.6-fold reduction in preeclampsia with aspirin in the high-PlGF group (12.15% aspirin vs 32.14% placebo, p=0.057), but no significant differences in preeclampsia in the low PlGF group (21.74% vs 15.91%, p=0.445). Unlike other studies, we found that high rather than low PlGF levels were associated with an increased preeclampsia risk. Low PlGF neither identified women at increased risk of preeclampsia nor women who benefitted from aspirin. Further research is needed to determine whether aspirin is beneficial in women with high PlGF, and whether the paradigm linking low PlGF and preeclampsia needs to be reevaluated. High-risk women with low baseline PlGF, a risk factor for preeclampsia, did not benefit from early initiation of low-dose aspirin. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased oxidative stress from early pregnancy in women who develop preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Vandita; Rani, Alka; Patil, Vidya; Pisal, Hemlata; Randhir, Karuna; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Gupte, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder, defined as new onset of maternal hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Our earlier study has shown increased maternal oxidative stress at delivery to be associated with poor birth outcome in PE. However, these results were observed when the pathology had progressed and may have been secondary to the effects of the disorder. To understand the role of antioxidant defense mechanisms in PE right from early pregnancy, in this prospective study, we measured malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations in maternal blood at 3 time-points of gestation [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2), at delivery (T3)] and in cord blood. Gene expression of SOD and GPx and protein levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme were also analyzed in the placenta. MDA levels were higher at T1 (p < 0.01) and T2 (p < 0.01) in women with PE as compared with control. GPx levels were higher at T3 (p < 0.05) while SOD levels were lower at T2 (p < 0.05), T3 (p < 0.01) and in cord (p < 0.01) in PE. GSH levels at T1 (p < 0.05) and expression of GPx in the placenta were lower in PE as compared with control. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that women who develop PE exhibit increased oxidative stress right from 16 to 20 weeks of gestation. This may alter placental development and lead to fetal programming of adult non-communicable disease in the offspring.

  18. PP172. Indian scenario of preeclampsia and its consequences and early prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, M C

    2012-07-01

    Preeclampsia remains one of the major obstetrical problems in less-developed countries. The causes of this condition are still unknown, we have designed a prevention protocol with new concept to describe the etiology and cause of preeclampsia. To study the effectiveness of the Jariwala's therapy and etiological causes of preeclapsia. we want to establish the new version of efficient prophylactic management to prevent the concequences of preeclampsia. We have selected 800 cases who have developed preeclampsia during any phase of pregnancy and tried to prevent the developing preeclampsia (predicted with roll over test, color doppler and weight gain and or edema) by Jariwala's protocol. our aim is to reduce the severity of disease process by early prediction and treatment. we have not included the cases who may have completely treated after the inclusion criteria to predict the preclampsia and treated. the inclusion criteris is strictly followed by a protocol designed. Jariwala's therapy is effective in mild to moderate cases of preeclampsia. Till date we have successfully treated 800 cases of mild to moderate preeclapsia with 98% neonates delivered with birth weight of 2kg and more, 92% neonates sent directly to home without any complication; and developed well at home. If we try to treat the blood pressure (during pregnancy) by anti hypertensive we have noticedà IUGR and rebound increase of blood pressure, means decrease maternal blood pressure à decrease placental supplyà deficient nutrientà rebound increase in toxin secretion (by fetus and placenta) à increase in blood pressure to supply more nutrient). So that it is my suggestion that the antihypertensive should be avoided if possible 2: increase permeability of placental membranes due to toxins secreted by fetus to supply more nutrient leads to increase permeability of placental membranes means increase protein loss from kidneys (due to toxins secreted from the fetus and placenta) increase third space

  19. Prepregnancy obesity and complement system activation in early pregnancy and the subsequent development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Anne M; Eckel, Robert H; Murphy, James R; Gibbs, Ronald S; West, Nancy A; Giclas, Patricia C; Salmon, Jane E; Holers, V Michael

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesized that women who are obese before they become pregnant and also have elevations of complement Bb and C3a in the top quartile in early pregnancy would have the highest risk of preeclampsia compared with a referent group of women who were not obese and had levels of complement less than the top quartile. This was a prospective study of 1013 women recruited at less than 20 weeks' gestation. An EDTA-plasma sample was obtained, and complement fragments were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The data were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Women who were obese with levels of Bb or C3a in the top quartile were 10.0 (95% confidence interval, 3.3-30) and 8.8 (95% confidence interval, 3-24) times, respectively, more likely to develop preeclampsia compared with the referent group. We demonstrate a combined impact of obesity and elevated complement on the development of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. Ambient Air Pollution and Preeclampsia: A Spatiotemporal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Francesc; Basagaña, Xavier; Beelen, Rob; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Schembari, Anna; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Available evidence concerning the association between air pollution and preeclampsia is limited, and specific associations with early- and late-onset preeclampsia have not been assessed. Objectives: We investigated the association, if any, between preeclampsia (all, early-, and late-onset) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine particles), ≤ 10 μm, and 2.5–10 μm, and PM2.5 light absorption (a proxy for elemental carbon) during the entire pregnancy and during the first, second, and third trimesters. Methods: This study was based on 8,398 pregnancies (including 103 cases of preeclampsia) among women residing in Barcelona, Spain (2000–2005). We applied a spatiotemporal exposure assessment framework using land use regression models to predict ambient pollutant levels during each week of pregnancy at the geocoded residence address of each woman at the time of birth. Logistic and conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted associations. Results: We found positive associations for most of our evaluated outcome–exposure pairs, with the strongest associations observed for preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia in relation to the third-trimester exposure to fine particulate pollutants, and for early-onset preeclampsia in relation to the first-trimester exposure to fine particulate pollutants. Among our investigated associations, those of first- and third-trimester exposures to PM2.5 and third-trimester exposure to PM2.5 absorbance and all preeclampsia, and third-trimester PM2.5 exposure and late-onset preeclampsia attained statistical significance. Conclusion: We observed increased risk of preeclampsia associated with exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Our findings, in combination with previous evidence suggesting distinct pathogenic mechanisms for early- and late-onset preeclampsia, support additional research on this

  1. Maternal bradycardia occurring prior to onset of HELLP syndrome in a woman with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Ami; Umazume, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Minakami, Hisanori

    2017-05-13

    A 36-year-old nulliparous woman developed pre-eclampsia at gestational week (GW) 28 -6/7 Cardiac status was checked regularly. Heart rate of 93 beats per minute (bpm) with left atrial diameter (LAD) of 35 mm, left ventricular hypertrophy and inferior vena cava diameter (IVCD) of 8 mm at GW 32 -0/7 decreased to 48 bpm with an expanded IVCD to 25 mm, dilated left atrium (LAD to 39 mm), increased pulmonary arterial pressure, increased systemic vascular resistance (approximate 3000  dyn s/cm 5 ) and biphasic intrarenal venous flow pattern 3.5 hours prior to childbirth at GW 32 -3/7 Epigastralgia, tachycardia (160 bpm) and marked hypertension (201/111 mm Hg) occurring 2 hours after echocardiography necessitated caesarean section, with subsequent development of HELLP syndrome. Acute fluid shift from the splanchnic vasculature to central vasculature may have occurred causing HELLP syndrome as a result from vasospasm associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. The cause of bradycardia prior to tachycardia remains unclear. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Possible Common Aetiology behind Maternal Preeclampsia and Congenital Heart Defects in the Child: a Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway Project Study.

    PubMed

    Brodwall, Kristoffer; Leirgul, Elisabeth; Greve, Gottfried; Vollset, Stein Emil; Holmstrøm, Henrik; Tell, Grethe S; Øyen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital heart defects (CHD) is mostly unknown, but maternal factors may modify the infant risk of CHD. We investigated the association between maternal preeclampsia and offspring risk of severe CHD in a nation-wide cohort study. Information on all births registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1994-2009, was completed with information on CHD diagnoses from national health registries and the Cardiovascular Diseases in Norway Project (CVDNOR). Among 914 703 singleton births without chromosomal abnormalities, 32 864 (3.6%) were born after a pregnancy with preeclampsia. The preeclampsia was diagnosed before the 34th week of pregnancy (early-onset preeclampsia) in 2618 (8.0% of preeclamptic pregnancies). CHDs were diagnosed in 10 691 infants; of these, 2473 had severe CHD. The risk of severe CHD was compared between births with and without maternal preeclampsia and estimated with binomial log-linear regression. When adjusting for year of birth, maternal age, parity, and pregestational diabetes, the risk ratio (RR) for severe CHD in offspring of mothers with any preeclampsia was 1.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.5], and in pregnancies with early-onset preeclampsia, the RR was 2.8 (95% CI 1.8, 4.4). The association between early-onset preeclampsia and specific types of severe CHD was stronger for atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD), with adjusted RR 13.5 (95% CI 6.8, 26.8). Early-onset preeclampsia was strongly associated with infant risk of severe CHD, specifically; the risk of AVSD was 15-fold higher if the mother was diagnosed with early-onset preeclampsia, suggesting common aetiological factors for early-onset preeclampsia and erroneous fetal heart development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  4. Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-11

    Alzheimer Disease, Early Onset; Alzheimer Disease; Alzheimer Disease, Late Onset; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Logopenic Progressive Aphasia; Primary Progressive Aphasia; Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; Executive Dysfunction; Corticobasal Degeneration; Ideomotor Apraxia

  5. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study.

    PubMed

    Villa, Pia M; Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0-13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7-11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1-60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1-60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0-36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1-79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0-52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1-3.6). Together with preeclampsia in an earlier

  6. Cluster analysis to estimate the risk of preeclampsia in the high-risk Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study

    PubMed Central

    Marttinen, Pekka; Gillberg, Jussi; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Majander, Kerttu; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Taipale, Pekka; Pesonen, Anukatriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Preeclampsia is divided into early-onset (delivery before 34 weeks of gestation) and late-onset (delivery at or after 34 weeks) subtypes, which may rise from different etiopathogenic backgrounds. Early-onset disease is associated with placental dysfunction. Late-onset disease develops predominantly due to metabolic disturbances, obesity, diabetes, lipid dysfunction, and inflammation, which affect endothelial function. Our aim was to use cluster analysis to investigate clinical factors predicting the onset and severity of preeclampsia in a cohort of women with known clinical risk factors. Methods We recruited 903 pregnant women with risk factors for preeclampsia at gestational weeks 12+0–13+6. Each individual outcome diagnosis was independently verified from medical records. We applied a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the study participants to clusters based on their particular risk factor combination. For each cluster, we computed the risk ratio of each disease outcome, relative to the risk in the general population. Results The risk of preeclampsia increased exponentially with respect to the number of risk factors. Our analysis revealed 25 number of clusters. Preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy (n = 138) increased the risk of preeclampsia 8.1 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.7–11.2) compared to a general population of pregnant women. Having a small for gestational age infant (n = 57) in a previous pregnancy increased the risk of early-onset preeclampsia 17.5 fold (95%CI 2.1–60.5). Cluster of those two risk factors together (n = 21) increased the risk of severe preeclampsia to 23.8-fold (95%CI 5.1–60.6), intermediate onset (delivery between 34+0–36+6 weeks of gestation) to 25.1-fold (95%CI 3.1–79.9) and preterm preeclampsia (delivery before 37+0 weeks of gestation) to 16.4-fold (95%CI 2.0–52.4). Body mass index over 30 kg/m2 (n = 228) as a sole risk factor increased the risk of preeclampsia to 2.1-fold (95%CI 1.1–3

  7. Childhood adversity, early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders, and adult-onset asthma.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kate M; Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Kovess, Viviane; Ono, Yutaka; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José

    2008-11-01

    To investigate a) whether childhood adversity predicts adult-onset asthma; b) whether early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders predict adult-onset asthma; and c) whether childhood adversity and early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders predict adult-onset asthma independently of each other. Previous research has suggested, but not established, that childhood adversity may predict adult-onset asthma and, moreover, that the association between mental disorders and asthma may be a function of shared risk factors, such as childhood adversity. Ten cross-sectional population surveys of household-residing adults (>18 years, n = 18,303) assessed mental disorders with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) as part of the World Mental Health surveys. Assessment of a range of childhood family adversities was included. Asthma was ascertained by self-report of lifetime diagnosis and age of diagnosis. Survival analyses calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of adult-onset (>age 20 years) asthma as a function of number and type of childhood adversities and early-onset (onset asthma with risk increasing with the number of adversities experienced (HRs = 1.49-1.71). Early-onset depressive and anxiety disorders also predicted adult-onset asthma (HRs = 1.67-2.11). Childhood adversities and early-onset depressive and anxiety disorders both predicted adult-onset asthma after mutual adjustment (HRs = 1.43-1.91). Childhood adversities and early-onset depressive/anxiety disorders independently predict adult-onset asthma, suggesting that the mental disorder-asthma relationship is not a function of a shared background of childhood adversity.

  8. Incidence of early-onset sepsis in infants born to women with clinical chorioamnionitis.

    PubMed

    Randis, Tara M; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Myatt, Leslie; Tita, Alan T N; Leveno, Kenneth J; Reddy, Uma M; Varner, Michael W; Thorp, John M; Mercer, Brian M; Dinsmoor, Mara J; Ramin, Susan M; Carpenter, Marshall W; Samuels, Philip; Sciscione, Anthony; Tolosa, Jorge E; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram

    2018-05-23

    To determine the frequency of sepsis and other adverse neonatal outcomes in women with a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. We performed a secondary analysis of a multi-center placebo-controlled trial of vitamins C/E to prevent preeclampsia in low risk nulliparous women. Clinical chorioamnionitis was defined as either the "clinical diagnosis" of chorioamnionitis or antibiotic administration during labor because of an elevated temperature or uterine tenderness in the absence of another cause. Early-onset neonatal sepsis was categorized as "suspected" or "confirmed" based on a clinical diagnosis with negative or positive blood, urine or cerebral spinal fluid cultures, respectively, within 72 h of birth. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Data from 9391 mother-infant pairs were analyzed. The frequency of chorioamnionitis was 10.3%. Overall, 6.6% of the neonates were diagnosed with confirmed (0.2%) or suspected (6.4%) early-onset sepsis. Only 0.7% of infants born in the setting of chorioamnionitis had culture-proven early-onset sepsis versus 0.1% if chorioamnionitis was not present. Clinical chorioamnionitis was associated with both suspected [OR 4.01 (3.16-5.08)] and confirmed [OR 4.93 (1.65-14.74)] early-onset neonatal sepsis, a need for resuscitation within the first 30 min after birth [OR 2.10 (1.70-2.61)], respiratory distress [OR 3.14 (2.16-4.56)], 1 min Apgar score of ≤3 [OR 2.69 (2.01-3.60)] and 4-7 [OR 1.71 (1.43-2.04)] and 5 min Apgar score of 4-7 [OR 1.67 (1.17-2.37)] (vs. 8-10). Clinical chorioamnionitis is common and is associated with neonatal morbidities. However, the vast majority of exposed infants (99.3%) do not have confirmed early-onset sepsis.

  9. [Early onset scoliosis. What are the options?].

    PubMed

    Farrington, D M; Tatay-Díaz, A

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of children with progressive early onset scoliosis has improved considerably due to recent advances in surgical and non-surgical techniques and the understanding of the importance of preserving the thoracic space. Improvements in existing techniques and development of new methods have considerably improved the management of this condition. Derotational casting can be considered in children with documented progression of a <60° curve without previous surgical treatment. Both single and dual growing rods are effective, but the latter seem to offer better results. Hybrid constructs may be a better option in children who require a low-profile proximal anchor. The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR(®)) appears to be beneficial for patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs, and thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome. Children with medical comorbidities who may not tolerate repeated lengthenings should be considered for Shilla or Luque Trolley technique. Growth modulation using shape memory alloy staples or other tethers seem promising for mild curves, although more research is required to define their precise indications. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific Intellectual Deficits in Children with Early Onset Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compares 27 children with early onset diabetes (EOD) with 24 children with late onset diabetes (LOD) and 30 sibling controls in performance on tests of intellectual functioning and school achievement. Results revealed that duration of illness, age of onset, and hypoglycemic convulsions significantly predicted spatial ability. (Author/RWB)

  11. Evidence for a genetic etiology of early-onset delinquency.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Iacono, W G; McGue, M

    2000-11-01

    Age at onset of antisocial behavior discriminates persistent and transitory offenders. The authors proposed that early-onset delinquency has an underlying genetic influence that manifests in problems related to inhibition, whereas late-onset delinquency is more environmentally mediated. To test these notions, they selected 36 early starters, 86 late starters, and 25 nondelinquent controls from a large sample of 11-year-old twins and compared them on several measures related to inhibition and a peer group measure. As expected, early starters had more psychological, behavioral, and emotional problems related to inhibition than late starters and controls. A longitudinal analysis indicated an increase an antisocial behavior among peers of late starters shortly before their delinquency onset. Family history data and a twin analysis provided evidence of greater genetic influence on early-onset than late-onset delinquency.

  12. Nearwork in early-onset myopia.

    PubMed

    Saw, Seang-Mei; Chua, Wei-Han; Hong, Ching-Ye; Wu, Hui-Min; Chan, Wai-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Stone, Richard A; Tan, Donald

    2002-02-01

    To determine the relationship of nearwork and myopia in young elementary school-age children in Singapore. A cross-sectional study of 1005 school children aged 7 to 9 years was conducted in two schools in Singapore. Cycloplegic autorefraction, keratometry, and biometry measurements were performed. In addition, the parents completed a detailed questionnaire on nearwork activity (books read per week, reading in hours per day and diopter hours [addition of three times reading, two times computer use, and two times video games use in hours per day]). Other risk factors, such as parental myopia, socioeconomic status, and light exposure history, were assessed. In addition to socioeconomic factors, several nearwork indices were associated with myopia in these young children. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio of higher myopia (at least -3.0 D) for children who read more than two books per week was 3.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-5.18). However, the odds ratios of higher myopia for children who read more than 2 hours per day or with more than 8 diopter hours (1.50; 95% CI, 0.87-2.55 and 1.04; 95% CI, 0.61-1.78, respectively) were not significant, after controlling for several factors. Children aged 7 to 9 years with a greater current reading exposure were more likely to be myopic. This association of reading and myopia in a young age cohort was greater than the strength of the reading association generally found in older myopic subjects. Whether these results identify an association of early-onset myopia with nearwork activity or other potentially confounding factors is discussed.

  13. Does physical activity in leisure time early in pregnancy reduce the incidence of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension?

    PubMed

    Vollebregt, Karlijn C; Wolf, Hans; Boer, Kees; van der Wal, Marcel F; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the association of physical activity in leisure time with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in nulliparous women. Population based prospective cohort study. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All pregnant women in Amsterdam between January 2003 and March 2004 who were nulliparous with a singleton pregnancy and who delivered after 24 weeks. At their first prenatal care visit, women were invited to fill out a questionnaire with sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. Physical activity in leisure time in the past week was measured using questions about walking, cycling, playing sports and other activities in leisure time. The amount of minutes and intensity of each activity was studied using four categories: no, low, moderate or high activity. By using multivariate logistic regression, we adjusted for sociodemographic and medical confounders. Incidence of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. Results. A total of 12,377 women were invited with a response rate of 67%; 3,679 nulliparous women were included. The incidence of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension was 3.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The amount of time or intensity of physical activity in leisure time was not associated with a difference in risk of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Physical activity in leisure time early in pregnancy does not reduce the incidence of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension in an unselected population of nulliparous women.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset primary dystonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as seizures or a loss of intellectual function (dementia). Early-onset primary dystonia does not affect a person's intelligence. On ... of torsinA. The altered protein's effect on the function of nerve cells in the brain ... with early-onset primary dystonia do not have a loss of nerve ...

  15. DNA Methylation as a Biomarker for Preeclampsia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Cindy M.; Ralph, Jody L.; Wright, Michelle L.

    Background: Preeclampsia contributes significantly to pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality as well as future risk of cardiovascular disease in mother and offspring, and preeclampsia in offspring. The lack of reliable methods for early detection limits the opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and timely treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore distinct DNA methylation patterns associated with preeclampsia in both maternal cells and fetal-derived tissue that represent potential biomarkers to predict future preeclampsia and inheritance in children. Method: A convenience sample of nulliparous women (N = 55) in the first trimester of pregnancy was recruited for this prospective study. Genome-widemore » DNA methylation was quantified in first-trimester maternal peripheral white blood cells and placental chorionic tissue from normotensive women and those with preeclampsia (n = 6/group). Results: Late-onset preeclampsia developed in 12.7% of women. Significant differences in DNA methylation were identified in 207 individual linked cytosine and guanine (CpG) sites in maternal white blood cells collected in the first trimester (132 sites with gain and 75 sites with loss of methylation), which were common to approximately 75% of the differentially methylated CpG sites identified in chorionic tissue of fetal origin. Conclusion: This study is the first to identify maternal epigenetic targets and common targets in fetal-derived tissue that represent putative biomarkers for early detection and heritable risk of preeclampsia. Findings may pave the way for diagnosis of preeclampsia prior to its clinical presentation and acute damaging effects, and the potential for prevention of the detrimental long-term sequelae.« less

  16. A narrative synthesis of factors that affect women speaking up about early warning signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia and responses of healthcare staff.

    PubMed

    Carter, Wendy; Bick, Debra; Mackintosh, Nicola; Sandall, Jane

    2017-02-13

    One of the challenges for treating pre-eclampsia and preventing further deterioration is determining how best to enable early detection. If women or their partners and families are able to raise early warnings about potential signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia in pregnancy, birth and in the postnatal period, women may be able to receive earlier intervention to prevent severe pre-eclampsia from developing. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of factors affecting the ability of women to recognise symptoms and signs of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and seek appropriate medical help and factors affecting health care professionals' responses to women and their families who 'speak up' about early warning signs and symptoms. A narrative synthesis was conducted of evidence relevant to address the research question. The following electronic data bases were searched for qualitative studies which met inclusion criteria from January 1980 to April 2016; Medline, CINAHL, HMIC, PsycINFO, Embase, BNI, ASSIA, Scopus, Maternity and Infant Care, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane, JBI and IBSS with the support of an Information Service Consultant. Following thematic analysis, three themes were identified; 1: Women's understanding and knowledge of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia; 2: Factors affecting help seeking behaviour from perspectives of women and their families'; 3: Factors affecting staff response. There was widespread lack of knowledge and understanding of signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia among women and their families, with some women not exhibiting signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia or unable to distinguish them from 'normal' pregnancy changes. Women and their families not only need to be made aware of signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia but also require information on the most effective ways to seek urgent medical assessment and care. Some women did not experience prodromal signs and symptoms, which raises concerns about how women and

  17. Adverse Housing Conditions and Early-Onset Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dylan B; Newsome, Jamie; Lynch, Kellie R

    2017-09-01

    Housing constitutes an important health resource for children. Research has revealed that, when housing conditions are unfavorable, they can interfere with child health, academic performance, and cognition. Little to no research, however, has considered whether adverse housing conditions and early-onset delinquency are significantly associated with one another. This study explores the associations between structural and non-structural housing conditions and delinquent involvement during childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) were employed in this study. Each adverse housing condition was significantly associated with early-onset delinquency. Even so, disarray and deterioration were only significantly linked to early delinquent involvement in the presence of health/safety hazards. The predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to housing risks in the presence of health/safety hazards was nearly three times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed only to disarray and/or deterioration, and nearly four times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to none of the adverse housing conditions. The findings suggest that minimizing housing-related health/safety hazards among at-risk subsets of the population may help to alleviate other important public health concerns-particularly early-onset delinquency. Addressing household health/safety hazards may represent a fruitful avenue for public health programs aimed at the prevention of early-onset delinquency. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  18. First trimester screening of circulating C19MC microRNAs and the evaluation of their potential to predict the onset of preeclampsia and IUGR.

    PubMed

    Hromadnikova, Ilona; Kotlabova, Katerina; Ivankova, Katarina; Krofta, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    A nested case control study of a longitudinal cohort comparing pregnant women enrolled at 10 to 13 gestational weeks was carried out to evaluate risk assessment for preeclampsia and IUGR based on circulating placental specific C19MC microRNAs in early pregnancy. The expression of placental specific C19MC microRNAs (miR-516b-5p, miR-517-5p, miR-518b, miR-520a-5p, miR-520h, and miR-525-5p) was determined in plasma samples from pregnancies that subsequently developed preeclampsia (n = 21), IUGR (n = 18), and 58 normal pregnancies using real-time PCR and comparative Ct method relative to synthetic Caenorhabditis elegans microRNA (cel-miR-39). Circulating C19MC microRNAs were up-regulated (miR-517-5p, p = 0.005; miR-518b, p = 0.013; miR-520h, p = 0.021) or showed a trend toward up-regulation in patients destined to develop preeclampsia (miR-520a-5p, p = 0.067; miR-525-5p, p = 0.073). MiR-517-5p had the best predictive performance for preeclampsia with a sensitivity of 42.9%, a specificity of 86.2%, a PPV of 52.9% and a NPV of 80.6%. The combination of all examined circulating C19MC microRNAs had no advantage over using only the miR-517-5p biomarker to predict the occurrence of preeclampsia (a sensitivity of 20.6%, a specificity of 90.8%, a PPV of 44.8%, and a NPV of 76.0%). Up-regulation of miR-517-5p, miR-518b and miR-520h was associated with a risk of later development of preeclampsia. First trimester screening of extracellular miR-517-5p identified a proportion of women with subsequent preeclampsia. No circulating C19MC microRNA biomarkers were identified that could predict later occurrence of IUGR.

  19. Early biometric lag in the prediction of small for gestational age neonates and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Nadav; Pessel, Cara; Coletta, Jaclyn; Krieger, Abba M; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E

    2011-01-01

    An early fetal growth lag may be a marker of future complications. We sought to determine the utility of early biometric variables in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this retrospective cohort study, the crown-rump length at 11 to 14 weeks and the head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, humerus length, transverse cerebellar diameter, and estimated fetal weight at 18 to 24 weeks were converted to an estimated gestational age using published regression formulas. Sonographic fetal growth (difference between each biometric gestational age and the crown-rump length gestational age) minus expected fetal growth (number of days elapsed between the two scans) yielded the biometric growth lag. These lags were tested as predictors of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates (≤10th percentile) and preeclampsia. A total of 245 patients were included. Thirty-two (13.1%) delivered an SGA neonate, and 43 (17.6%) had the composite outcome. The head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and estimated fetal weight lags were identified as significant predictors of SGA neonates after adjusted analyses (P < .05). The addition of either the estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference lag to maternal characteristics alone significantly improved the performance of the predictive model, achieving areas under the curve of 0.72 and 0.74, respectively. No significant association was found between the biometric lag variables and the development of preeclampsia. Routinely available biometric data can be used to improve the prediction of adverse outcomes such as SGA. These biometric lags should be considered in efforts to develop screening algorithms for adverse outcomes.

  20. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  1. Operational Thought in Alzheimer's Disease Early Onset and SDAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Olga B.; Breslau, Lawrence D.

    For more than a decade it has been convention to assume that senile dementia Alzheimer's type (SDAT) and Alzheimer's disease early onset represent a unitary disease process with only an onset difference. This assumption has been neither confirmed nor disconfirmed. To address this issue, a study was conducted which analyzed the dissolution of…

  2. Lost human capital from early-onset chronic depression.

    PubMed

    Berndt, E R; Koran, L M; Finkelstein, S N; Gelenberg, A J; Kornstein, S G; Miller, I M; Thase, M E; Trapp, G A; Keller, M B

    2000-06-01

    Chronic depression starts at an early age for many individuals and could affect their accumulation of "human capital" (i.e., education, higher amounts of which can broaden occupational choice and increase earnings potential). The authors examined the impact, by gender, of early- (before age 22) versus late-onset major depressive disorder on educational attainment. They also determined whether the efficacy and sustainability of antidepressant treatments and psychosocial outcomes vary by age at onset and quantified the impact of early- versus late-onset, as well as never-occurring, major depressive disorder on expected lifetime earnings. The authors used logistic and multivariate regression methods to analyze data from a three-phase, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial that compared sertraline and imipramine treatment of 531 patients with chronic depression aged 30 years and older. These data were integrated with U.S. Census Bureau data on 1995 earnings by age, educational attainment, and gender. Early-onset major depressive disorder adversely affected the educational attainment of women but not of men. No significant difference in treatment responsiveness by age at onset was observed after 12 weeks of acute treatment or, for subjects rated as having responded, after 76 weeks of maintenance treatment. A randomly selected 21-year-old woman with early-onset major depressive disorder in 1995 could expect future annual earnings that were 12%-18% lower than those of a randomly selected 21-year-old woman whose onset of major depressive disorder occurred after age 21 or not at all. Early-onset major depressive disorder causes substantial human capital loss, particularly for women. Detection and effective treatment of early-onset major depressive disorder may have substantial economic benefits.

  3. Genetics of Severe Early Onset Epilepsies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-24

    Epilepsy; Epileptic Encephalopathy; Ohtahara Syndrome; Infantile Spasms; Dravet Syndrome; Malignant Migrating Partial Epilepsy of Infancy; Early Myoclonic Epileptic Encephalopathy; PCDH19-related Epilepsy and Related Conditions

  4. Early Onset Malignancies - Genomic Study of Cancer Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Onset Malignancies Initiative studies the genomic basis of six cancers that develop at an earlier age, occur in higher rates, and are typically more aggressive in certain minority populations.

  5. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson’s disease and juvenile Parkinson disease , Parkin has been shown to promote intracellular Abeta1–42 clearance [15... Parkinsonism . Conclusions Mutations were found in 6/50 families. The presence of an APOE-4 allele may account for disease status in one affected non...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0013 TITLE: Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  6. Blood-Based Biomarkers of Early-Onset Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    n=51). The women with early-onset breast cancer were disease and treatment free for at least 6 months at time of blood donation . Cases and controls...were age matched to age at blood donation . 2. KEYWORDS: biomarkers, early-onset breast cancer, expression profiling, risk-assessment, breast cancer...matched controls. This prospectively collected cohort consists of blood donated to blood banks ~15 years ago and subsequently linked to the California

  7. Obstetrical outcomes in patients with early onset gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Simi; Dolin, Cara; Jadhav, Ashwin; Chervenak, Judith; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan; Monteagudo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize patients with early onset gestational diabetes and compare outcomes to patients diagnosed with standard gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with gestational or pregestational diabetes. All patients received a glucose challenge test at their first prenatal visit to diagnose early onset gestational diabetes and were recommended to have postpartum glucose tolerance tests to detect undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. Outcomes were compared between patients with early onset gestational diabetes and both standard gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes with p < 0.05 was used for significance. Four hundred and twenty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Nine percent of the patients with early onset gestational diabetes were found to have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes based on postpartum testing and 91% to have resolution in the postpartum period. No patient with early onset gestational diabetes and resolution in the postpartum period had abnormal screening for renal or ophthalmologic disease, but 5% had abnormal fetal echocardiograms. These patients were more likely to require pharmacotherapy for glycemic control than patients with standard gestational diabetes and less likely than patients with pregestational diabetes (55% versus 39% versus 81%). Most patients diagnosed with early onset gestational diabetes do not have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes but do have unique characteristics and obstetrical outcomes.

  8. Early pregnancy waist-to-hip ratio and risk of preeclampsia: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Taebi, Mahboubeh; Sadat, Zohreh; Saberi, Farzaneh; Kalahroudi, Masoumeh Abedzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal death and morbidity. Body mass index (BMI) predicts an increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders and preeclampsia. However, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), as a central obesity index, has not been assessed in predicting this disorder in pregnancy. We assumed that WHR might be more sensitive in predicting the risk of preeclampsia, compared with BMI. The aim of this cohort study was to investigate the relationships of BMI and WHR with preeclampsia. This was a prospective cohort study of 1200 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. Anthropometric indices included WHR and BMI, which were measured at the first antenatal visit (⩽ 12 weeks of gestational age). The incidence of preeclampsia was assessed after 20 weeks of gestation. Maternal demographic data and obstetric outcomes were also recorded for each subject. All of the statistical tests were performed using SPSS software, version 16. The overall incidence of preeclampsia in the study population was 4.2%. The maternal WHR and BMI at the beginning of pregnancy were significantly associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively). WHR ⩾ 0.85 and BMI ⩾ 25 kg m(-2) in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy had relative risks of 2.317 (confidence interval (CI): 1.26-4.27) and 3.317 (CI: 1.6-6.86) for preeclampsia. BMI and WHR were anthropometric indicators that presented correlations with preeclampsia. Of these anthropometric indices, BMI had greater predictive value in preeclampsia.

  9. Disease evolution in late-onset and early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Aljohani, R; Gladman, D D; Su, J; Urowitz, M B

    2017-10-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare clinical features, disease activity, and outcome in late-onset versus early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) over 5 years of follow up Method Patients with SLE since 1970 were followed prospectively according to standard protocol and tracked on a computerized database. Patients entering the cohort within one year of diagnosis constitute the inception cohort. Patients with late-onset (age at diagnosis ≥50) disease were identified and matched 1:2 based on gender and first clinic visit (±5) years with patients with early-onset disease (age at diagnosis 18-40 years). Results A total of 86 patients with late-onset disease (84.9% female, 81.4% Caucasian, mean age at SLE diagnosis ± SD 58.05 ± 7.30) and 169 patients with early-onset disease (86.4% female, 71% Caucasian, mean age at SLE diagnosis ± SD 27.80 ± 5.90) were identified. At enrollment, late-onset SLE patients had a lower total number of American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, with less renal and neurologic manifestations. Mean SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scores were lower in late-onset SLE, especially renal features and anti-dsDNA positivity. Over 5 years, mean SLEDAI-2K scores decreased in both groups, while mean Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR Damage Index (SDI) scores increased more significantly in the late-onset group; they developed more cardiovascular, renal, and ocular damage, and had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Although the late-onset SLE group had a milder presentation and less active disease, with the evolution of disease, they developed more organ damage likely as a consequence of cardiovascular risk factors and aging.

  10. Preeclampsia is associated with increased maternal body weight in a northeastern Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a disease with great variability in incidence across the world. The mortality is higher in lower income countries, where it is the leading cause of maternal mortality. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk factors for preeclampsia in a low income population from an urban area of Brazil. Methods A prospective case control study of 242 women of which 30 developed preeclampsia, 4 had gestational hypertension, 2 had superimposed hypertension, 11 had spontaneous abortion, 13 were lost to follow up and 192 had normal pregnancy. This latter group was considered the normotensive controls. The rate of preeclampsia and the risk of cardiovascular disease, after onset of preeclampsia, were determined. Results Of the 218 women who completed the study, the frequency of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy was 16.5% (36 of 218) and of preeclampsia was 13.8% (30 of 218). Women with preeclampsia had a higher body mass index (BMI), mean of 25.3 ± 4.8 compared to 23.5 ± 3.7 for the normotensive controls, p = 0.02. The risk of preeclampsia increased with BMI [Odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02;1.24, p-value = 0.023)]. Women with preeclampsia developed chronic hypertension more often than normotensive controls (p = 0.043) and their systolic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was elevated (p = 0.034). Women with preeclampsia had higher BMI even 5 years post-pregnancy (p = 0.008). Conclusions Women who are overweight or older have an increased risk of preeclampsia. Previous history of preeclampsia increases the risk of early onset of chronic hypertension. Therefore, effective preventive measures are needed, particularly women at lower social economic stratum who have less access to proper medical care and adequate nutrition. PMID:23927768

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hod, Tammy; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2015-08-20

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk of gestation. It is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exciting discoveries in the last decade have contributed to a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease. Epidemiological, experimental, and therapeutic studies from several laboratories have provided compelling evidence that an antiangiogenic state owing to alterations in circulating angiogenic factors leads to preeclampsia. In this review, we highlight the role of key circulating antiangiogenic factors as pathogenic biomarkers and in the development of novel therapies for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Hod, Tammy; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Karumanchi, S. Ananth

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk of gestation. It is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exciting discoveries in the last decade have contributed to a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease. Epidemiological, experimental, and therapeutic studies from several laboratories have provided compelling evidence that an antiangiogenic state owing to alterations in circulating angiogenic factors leads to preeclampsia. In this review, we highlight the role of key circulating antiangiogenic factors as pathogenic biomarkers and in the development of novel therapies for preeclampsia. PMID:26292986

  13. Genetic Risk Score Analysis in Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Croarkin, Paul E.; Luby, Joan L.; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer R.; Veldic, Marin; Simonson, Matthew; Joshi, Paramjit T.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Walkup, John T.; Nassan, Malik M.; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B.; Casuto, Leah; McElroy, Susan L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Frye, Mark A.; Biernacka, Joanna M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective In this study, we performed a candidate genetic risk score (GRS) analysis of early-onset bipolar disorder. Method Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study enrollment and sample collection took place from 2003–2008. Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank samples were collected from 2009–2013. Genotyping and analyses for the present study took place from 2013–2014. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously reported in genome-wide association studies to be associated with bipolar disorder, were chosen for GRS analysis in early-onset bipolar disease. These SNPs map to 3 genes: CACNA1C (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit), ANK3 (ankyrin-3, node of Ranvier [ankyrin G]), and ODZ4 (teneurin transmembrane protein 4 [formerly “odz, odd Oz/ten-m homolog 4 {Drosophila}, ODZ4”]). The 8 candidate SNPs were genotyped in patients from the TEAM study (n=69), adult patients with bipolar disorder (n=732) including a subset with early-onset illness [n=192]), and healthy controls (n=776). GRS analyses were performed comparing early-onset cases with controls. In addition, associations of early-onset BD with individual SNPs and haplotypes were explored. Results GRS analysis revealed associations of the risk score with early-onset bipolar disorder (P=.01). Gene-level haplotype analysis comparing TEAM patients with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with a CACNA1C haplotype (global test, P=.01). At the level of individual SNPs, comparison of TEAM cases with healthy controls provided nominally significant evidence for association of SNP rs10848632 in CACNA1C with early-onset bipolar disorder (P=.017), which did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion These preliminary analyses suggest that previously identified bipolar disorder risk loci

  14. Genetic Risk Score Analysis in Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Croarkin, Paul E; Luby, Joan L; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer R; Veldic, Marin; Simonson, Matthew; Joshi, Paramjit T; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Walkup, John T; Nassan, Malik M; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Casuto, Leah; McElroy, Susan L; Jensen, Peter S; Frye, Mark A; Biernacka, Joanna M

    In this study, we performed a candidate genetic risk score (GRS) analysis of early-onset bipolar disorder (BD). Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study enrollment and sample collection took place from 2003 to 2008. Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank samples were collected from 2009 to 2013. Genotyping and analyses for the present study took place from 2013 to 2014. The diagnosis of BD was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously reported in genome-wide association studies to be associated with BD, were chosen for GRS analysis in early-onset bipolar disease. These SNPs map to 3 genes: CACNA1C (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit), ANK3 (ankyrin-3, node of Ranvier [ankyrin G]), and ODZ4 (teneurin transmembrane protein 4 [formerly "odz, odd Oz/10-m homolog 4 {Drosophila}, ODZ4"]). The 8 candidate SNPs were genotyped in patients from the TEAM study (n = 69); adult patients with BD (n = 732), including a subset with early-onset illness (n = 192); and healthy controls (n = 776). GRS analyses were performed to compare early-onset cases with controls. In addition, associations of early-onset BD with individual SNPs and haplotypes were explored. GRS analysis revealed associations of the risk score with early-onset BD (P = .01). Gene-level haplotype analysis comparing TEAM patients with controls suggested association of early-onset BD with a CACNA1C haplotype (global test, P = .01). At the level of individual SNPs, comparison of TEAM cases with healthy controls provided nominally significant evidence for association of SNP rs10848632 in CACNA1C with early-onset BD (P = .017), which did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons. These preliminary analyses suggest that previously identified BD risk loci, especially CACNA1C, have a role in early-onset BD, possibly with stronger effects than for late-onset BD.

  15. Hippocampal Morphology and Distinguishing Late-Onset From Early-Onset Elderly Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ballmaier, Martina; Narr, Katherine L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Thompson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Liberty; Haroon, Ebrahim; Pham, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas; Kumar, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite evidence for hippocampal abnormalities in elderly depression, it is unknown whether these changes are regionally specific. This study used three-dimensional mapping techniques to identify regional hippocampal abnormalities in early- and late-onset depression. Neuropsychological correlates of hippocampal morphology were also investigated. Method With high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, hippocampal morphology was compared among elderly patients with early- (N=24) and late-onset (N=22) depression and comparison subjects (N=34). Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual’s hippocampal surface model, between groups. Results Hippocampal volumes differed between depressed patients and comparison subjects but not between patients with early- and late-onset depression. However, statistical mapping results showed that regional surface contractions were significantly pronounced in late-compared to early-onset depression in the anterior of the subiculum and lateral posterior of the CA1 subfield in the left hemisphere. Significant shape differences were observed bilaterally in anterior CA1–CA3 subfields and the subiculum in patients in relation to comparison subjects. These results were similar when each disease group was separately compared to comparison subjects. Hippocampal surface contractions significantly correlated with memory measures among late- but not early-onset depressed patients or comparison subjects. Conclusions More pronounced regional volume deficits and their associations with memory in late-onset depression may suggest that these patients are more likely to develop cognitive impairment over time than individuals with early-onset depression. Mapping regional hippocampal abnormalities and their cognitive correlates may help guide research in defining risk profiles and treatment strategies. PMID:17986679

  16. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 and Lipids Prospectively Measured During Early to Mid-Pregnancy in Relation to Preeclampsia and Preterm Birth Risk.

    PubMed

    Mendola, Pauline; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Mills, James L; Zhang, Cuilin; Tsai, Michael Y; Liu, Aiyi; Yeung, Edwina H

    2017-06-01

    Maternal retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and lipids may relate to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk but longitudinal data are lacking. This study examines these biomarkers longitudinally during pregnancy in relation to preeclampsia and preterm birth risk. Maternal serum samples from the Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) trial were analyzed at baseline: average 15 gestational weeks; mid-pregnancy: average 27 weeks; and at >34 weeks. We measured RBP4, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preterm preeclampsia (n = 63), term preeclampsia (n = 104), and preterm delivery (n = 160) associated with RBP4 and lipids at baseline and mid-pregnancy compared with controls (n = 136). Longitudinal trajectories across pregnancy were assessed using mixed linear models with fixed effects. Adjusted models included clinical and demographic factors. RBP4 concentrations at baseline and mid-pregnancy were associated with a 4- to 8-fold increase in preterm preeclampsia risk but were not associated with term preeclampsia. RBP4 measured mid-pregnancy was also associated with preterm birth (OR = 6.67, 95% CI: 1.65, 26.84). Higher triglyceride concentrations in mid-pregnancy were associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for both preeclampsia and preterm birth. Longitudinal models demonstrate that both preterm preeclampsia and preterm birth cases had elevated RBP4 throughout gestation. Elevated RBP4 is detectable early in pregnancy and its strong relation with preterm preeclampsia merits further investigation and confirmation to evaluate its potential use as a predictor, particularly among high-risk women. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension Ltd 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employees(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Chorioamnionitis and Culture-Confirmed, Early-Onset Neonatal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nellie I.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Hale, Ellen; Van Meurs, Krisa; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Cantey, Joseph B.; Faix, Roger; Poindexter, Brenda; Goldberg, Ronald; Bizzarro, Matthew; Frantz, Ivan; Das, Abhik; Benitz, William E.; Shane, Andi L.; Higgins, Rosemary; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal disease recommend diagnostic evaluations and empirical antibiotic therapy for well-appearing, chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Some clinicians question these recommendations, citing the decline in early-onset group B streptococcal disease rates since widespread intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis implementation and potential antibiotic risks. We aimed to determine whether chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns with culture-confirmed, early-onset infections can be asymptomatic at birth. METHODS: Multicenter, prospective surveillance for early-onset neonatal infections was conducted during 2006–2009. Early-onset infection was defined as isolation of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid collected ≤72 hours after birth. Maternal chorioamnionitis was defined by clinical diagnosis in the medical record or by histologic diagnosis by placental pathology. Hospital records of newborns with early-onset infections born to mothers with chorioamnionitis were reviewed retrospectively to determine symptom onset. RESULTS: Early-onset infections were diagnosed in 389 of 396 586 live births, including 232 (60%) chorioamnionitis-exposed newborns. Records for 229 were reviewed; 29 (13%) had no documented symptoms within 6 hours of birth, including 21 (9%) who remained asymptomatic at 72 hours. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis exposure did not differ significantly between asymptomatic and symptomatic infants (76% vs 69%; P = .52). Assuming complete guideline implementation, we estimated that 60 to 1400 newborns would receive diagnostic evaluations and antibiotics for each infected asymptomatic newborn, depending on chorioamnionitis prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Some infants born to mothers with chorioamnionitis may have no signs of sepsis at birth despite having culture-confirmed infections. Implementation of current clinical guidelines may result in early diagnosis, but large numbers of uninfected

  18. Maternal serum fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and the development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Scifres, Christina M; Catov, Janet M; Simhan, Hyagriv

    2012-03-01

    Serum fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in nonpregnant individuals, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Preeclampsia shares many features with the metabolic syndrome, but the relationship between early pregnancy serum FABP4 levels and the development of preeclampsia is unknown. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that FABP4 is elevated in women who develop preeclampsia before the onset of disease. This was a nested case-control study within a larger prospective cohort of healthy women with singleton gestations. Cases included 22 women who developed preeclampsia, and a random sample of 72 unmatched controls delivered without preeclampsia was identified. Maternal serum FABP4 was measured at less than 13 wk gestation and 24-28 wk gestation, which was before the onset of preeclampsia in all patients. The main outcome measure was preeclampsia (new-onset gestational hypertension and proteinuria for the first time after 20 wk gestation). Maternal serum FABP4 concentrations were higher in women who ultimately developed preeclampsia both at 8-13 wk (20.4±12.3 vs. 10.1±4.7 ng/ml; P<0.01) and at 24-28 wk (20.7±11.7 vs. 9.9±4.5 ng/ml; P<0.01). After controlling for first trimester body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and nulliparity, FABP4 was associated with the development of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.3; P<0.01). Maternal serum FABP4 levels are elevated before the clinical onset of preeclampsia, and this increase occurs independently of maternal body mass index.

  19. [Use of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia : a monocentric retrospective analysis].

    PubMed

    Verbeurgt, L; Chantraine, F; De Marchin, J; Minon, J-M; Nisolle, M

    2017-09-01

    Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) is an anti-angiogenic factor released in higher amounts in preeclampsia and implicated in endothelial dysfunction. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is used in the prediction of preeclampsia. An sFlt-1/PlGF ratio inferior to 38 predicts the short-term absence of preeclampsia. A ratio ? 85 (early-onset PE) or ? 110 (late-onset of PE) could diagnose preeclampsia. In this study, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio has been measured in 183 patients. Sixty-seven preeclampsia have been diagnosed preeclamptic at delivery. The median sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was 100.3. The median ratio among women with preeclampsia (N=67) versus no preeclampsia (N=116) was 212.7 versus 35.4. In accordance with this analysis, an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ? 38 has a sensibility of 95,5 % and a specificity of 73.3 %. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 67.4 % and 96.6 %, respectively. These results suggest that sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is helpful in the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  20. Circulating Angiogenic Factors and the Risk of Preeclampsia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Campos-Galicia, Inova; Berumen-Lechuga, María Guadalupe; Molina-Pérez, Carlos José; García-Paleta, Yolanda; Isordia-Salas, Irma; Ramírez-Valenzuela, Karla Leticia

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether angiogenic factors are associated with risk of developing preeclampsia in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We performed a nested case-control study within a cohort of SLE women with singleton pregnancies. The study included 42 patients with SLE who eventually developed preeclampsia and 75 normal SLE pregnancies. Serum samples were collected at 4-week intervals (from weeks 12 to 36). Serum samples were analyzed for soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble endoglin (sEng). Women destined to develop preeclampsia had lower PlGF levels and higher sFlt-1 and sEng levels, and a higher sFlt-1/PlGF ratio than normal pregnancies. These changes became significant at 12 weeks in patients destined to develop either early onset (< 34 weeks, p ≤ 0.003) or late-onset preeclampsia (≥ 34 weeks, p ≤ 0.02). The risk to develop preeclampsia was higher among patients with PlGF concentration values in the lowest quartile or with sFlt-1 and sEng levels, and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio, in the highest quartile of the normal SLE pregnancies distribution. The OR were higher and appeared earlier in patients destined to develop early onset preeclampsia (OR ≥ 16.2, from Week 12 onward) than in patients who presented preeclampsia later (OR ≥ 8.9, from Week 24 onward). Changes in circulating concentrations of sFlt-1, PlGF, sEng, and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio precede the onset of preeclampsia in SLE pregnancies. The risk profile of circulating angiogenic factors for developing preeclampsia distinctly evolves depending on whether this condition is manifested earlier or later.

  1. IFPA Senior Award Lecture: making sense of pre-eclampsia - two placental causes of preeclampsia?

    PubMed

    Redman, C W; Sargent, I L; Staff, A C

    2014-02-01

    Incomplete spiral artery remodelling is the first of two stages of pre-eclampsia, typically of early onset. The second stage comprises dysregulated uteroplacental perfusion and placental oxidative stress. Oxidatively stressed syncytiotrophoblast (STB) over-secretes proteins that perturb maternal angiogenic balance and are considered to be pre-eclampsia biomarkers. We propose that, in addition and more fundamentally, these STB-derived proteins are biomarkers of a cellular (STB) stress response, which typically involves up-regulation of some proteins and down-regulation of others (positive and negative stress proteins respectively). Soluble vascular growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and reduced growth factor (PlGF) then exemplify positive and negative STB stress response proteins in the maternal circulation. Uncomplicated term pregnancy is associated with increasing sVEGFR-1 and decreasing PlGF, which can be interpreted as evidence of increasing STB stress. STB pathology, at or after term (for example focal STB necrosis) demonstrates this stress, with or without pre-eclampsia. We review the evidence that when placental growth reaches its limits at term, terminal villi become over-crowded with diminished intervillous pore size impeding intervillous perfusion with increasing intervillous hypoxia and STB stress. This type of STB stress has no antecedent pathology, so the fetuses are well-grown, as typifies late onset pre-eclampsia, and prediction is less effective than for the early onset syndrome because STB stress is a late event. In summary, abnormal placental perfusion and STB stress contribute to the pathogenesis of early and late onset pre-eclampsia. But the former has an extrinsic cause - poor placentation, whereas the latter has an intrinsic cause, 'microvillous overcrowding', as placental growth reaches its functional limits. This model explains important features of late pre-eclampsia and raises questions of how antecedent medical risk factors such as

  2. Analysis of cardiovascular oscillations: A new approach to the early prediction of pre-eclampsia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malberg, H.; Bauernschmitt, R.; Voss, A.; Walther, T.; Faber, R.; Stepan, H.; Wessel, N.

    2007-03-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious disorder with high morbidity and mortality occurring during pregnancy; 3%-5% of all pregnant women are affected. Early prediction is still insufficient in clinical practice. Although most pre-eclamptic patients show pathological uterine perfusion in the second trimester, this parameter has a positive predictive accuracy of only 30%, which makes it unsuitable for early, reliable prediction. The study is based on the hypothesis that alterations in cardiovascular regulatory behavior can be used to predict PE. Ninety-six pregnant women in whom Doppler investigation detected perfusion disorders of the uterine arteries were included in the study. Twenty-four of these pregnant women developed PE after the 30th week of gestation. During pregnancy, additional several noninvasive continuous blood pressure recordings were made over 30 min under resting conditions by means of a finger cuff. The time series extracted of systolic as well as diastolic beat-to-beat pressures and the heart rate were studied by variability and coupling analysis to find predictive factors preceding genesis of the disease. In the period between the 18th and 26th weeks of pregnancy, three special variability and baroreflex parameters were able to predict PE several weeks before clinical manifestation. Discriminant function analysis of these parameters was able to predict PE with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and a positive predictive value of 70%. The combined clinical assessment of uterine perfusion and cardiovascular variability demonstrates the best current prediction several weeks before clinical manifestation of PE.

  3. Early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tics.

    PubMed

    de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana B; Shavitt, Roseli G; Torres, Albina R; Ferrão, Ygor A; Fossaluza, Victor; Pereira, Carlos; Miguel, Eurípedes; do Rosario, Maria Conceicão

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is not a unitary entity, but rather a highly heterogeneous condition, with complex and variable clinical manifestations. The aims of this study were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics of OCD patients with early and late age of onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS); and to compare the same features in early onset OCD with and without tics. The independent impact of age at onset and presence of tics on comorbidity patterns was investigated. Three hundred and thirty consecutive outpatients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD were evaluated: 160 patients belonged to the "early onset" group (EOG): before 11 years of age, 75 patients had an "intermediate onset" (IOG), and 95 patients were from the "late onset" group (LOG): after 18 years of age. From the 160 EOG, 60 had comorbidity with tic disorders. The diagnostic instruments used were: the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), Yale Global Tics Severity Scale, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-patient edition. Statistical tests used were: Mann-Whitney, full Bayesian significance test, and logistic regression. The EOG had a predominance of males, higher frequency of family history of OCS, higher mean scores on the "aggression/violence" and "miscellaneous" dimensions, and higher mean global DY-BOCS scores. Patients with EOG without tic disorders presented higher mean global DY-BOCS scores and higher mean scores in the "contamination/cleaning" dimension. The current results disentangle some of the clinical overlap between early onset OCD with and without tics.

  4. Characterization of Early Partial Seizure Onset: Frequency, Complexity and Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Jouny, Christophe C.; Bergey, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A clear classification of partial seizures onset features is not yet established. Complexity and entropy have been very widely used to describe dynamical systems, but a systematic evaluation of these measures to characterize partial seizures has never been performed. Methods Eighteen different measures including power in frequency bands up to 300Hz, Gabor atom density (GAD), Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD), Lempel-Ziv complexity, Shannon entropy, sample entropy, and permutation entropy, were selected to test sensitivity to partial seizure onset. Intracranial recordings from forty-five patients with mesial temporal, neocortical temporal and neocortical extratemporal seizure foci were included (331 partial seizures). Results GAD, Lempel-Ziv complexity, HFD, high frequency activity, and sample entropy were the most reliable measures to assess early seizure onset. Conclusions Increases in complexity and occurrence of high-frequency components appear to be commonly associated with early stages of partial seizure evolution from all regions. The type of measure (frequency-based, complexity or entropy) does not predict the efficiency of the method to detect seizure onset. Significance Differences between measures such as GAD and HFD highlight the multimodal nature of partial seizure onsets. Improved methods for early seizure detection may be achieved from a better understanding of these underlying dynamics. PMID:21872526

  5. Vascular dysfunction in women with a history of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction: insights into future vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Yinon, Yoav; Kingdom, John C P; Odutayo, Ayodele; Moineddin, Rahim; Drewlo, Sascha; Lai, Vesta; Cherney, David Z I; Hladunewich, Michelle A

    2010-11-02

    Women with a history of placental disease are at increased risk for the future development of vascular disease. It is unknown whether preexisting endothelial dysfunction underlies both the predisposition to placental disease and the later development of vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess vascular function in postpartum women and to determine whether differences emerged depending on the presentation of placental disease. Women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia (n=15), late-onset preeclampsia (n=9), intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia (n=9), and prior normal pregnancy (n=16) were studied 6 to 24 months postpartum. Flow-mediated vasodilatation and flow-independent (glyceryl trinitrate-induced) vasodilatation were studied through the use of high-resolution vascular ultrasound examination of the brachial artery. Arterial stiffness was assessed by pulse-wave analysis (augmentation index). Laboratory assessment included circulating angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, placental growth factor, and soluble endoglin). Flow-mediated vasodilatation was significantly reduced in women with previous early-onset preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction compared with women with previous late-onset preeclampsia and control subjects (3.2±2.7% and 2.1±1.2% versus 7.9±3.8% and 9.1±3.5%, respectively; P<0.0001). Flow-independent vasodilatation was similar among all groups. Similarly, the radial augmentation index was significantly increased among women with previous early-onset preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, but not among late preeclamptic women and control subjects (P=0.0105). Circulating angiogenic factors were similar in all groups. Only women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia exhibit impaired vascular function, which might explain their predisposition to placental disease and their higher

  6. Early onset marfan syndrome: Atypical clinical presentation of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ozyurt, A; Baykan, A; Argun, M; Pamukcu, O; Halis, H; Korkut, S; Yuksel, Z; Gunes, T; Narin, N

    2015-01-01

    Early onset Marfan Syndrome (eoMFS) is a rare, severe form of Marfan Syndrome (MFS). The disease has a poor prognosis and most patients present with resistance to heart failure treatment during the newborn period. This report presents two cases of eoMFS with similar clinical features diagnosed in the newborn period and who died at an early age due to the complications related to the involvement of the cardiovascular system. PMID:26929908

  7. Different Alterations of Cerebral Regional Homogeneity in Early-Onset and Late-Onset Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ke; Fang, Weidong; Zhu, Yingcheng; Shuai, Guangying; Zou, Dezhi; Su, Meilan; Han, Yu; Cheng, Oumei

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Eighteen EOPD, 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects participated in the resting state fMRI scans.Age at onset of PD modulates the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity during resting state.Disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in PD patients with a younger age of onset. Objective: Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD) as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective of current paper is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD) and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age. Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; However, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. PMID:27462265

  8. [Early-onset and late-onset male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Shin, Takeshi; Kobori, Yoshitomo

    2016-07-01

    Hypogonadism is classified into two major clinical entities, namely early-onset hypogonadism and late-onset hypogonadism. The former is characterized by the malfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal(testicular)axis or by the primary hypofunction of testes(e.g. Klinefelter's syndrome). The latter is summarized as LOH syndrome which is attributed to the dropped level of bioavailable testosterone. In these diseases testosterone is the key molecule which may cause various symptoms relating not only to physical health but also to mental or psychologic health. In this review issues concerning bone health in these disease are described.

  9. First Trimester Maternal Serum PP13 in the Risk Assessment for Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Roberto; KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; THAN, Nandor Gabor; EREZ, Offer; GOTSCH, Francesca; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; EDWIN, Samuel; CHEFETZ, Ilana; GOMEZ, Ricardo; NIEN, Jyh Kae; SAMMAR, Marei; PINELES, Beth; HASSAN, Sonia S.; MEIRI, Hamutal; TAL, Yossi; KUHNREICH, Ido; PAPP, Zoltan; CUCKLE, Howard S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether first trimester maternal serum Placental Protein 13 (PP13) concentrations can be used in the risk assessment for preeclampsia. Study Design This case-control study included 50 patients with preeclampsia and 250 patients with normal pregnancies. Samples were collected between 8-13 weeks of gestation. Serum PP13 concentrations were measured by ELISA and expressed as medians and multiples of the median (MoM) for gestational age. Sensitivity and specificity were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results 1) Serum PP13 concentration in the first trimester was significantly lower in patients who developed preterm and early-onset preeclampsia than in those with normal pregnancies; and 2) At 80% specificity, a cutoff of 0.39 MoM had a sensitivity of 100% for early-onset preeclampsia and 85% for preterm preeclampsia. Conclusion Maternal serum first trimester PP13 appears to be a reasonable marker for risk assessment, but a weak marker for severe preeclampsia at term, and ineffective for identifying mild preeclampsia at term. PMID:18539259

  10. Early-Onset Psychosis in Youth with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, R. I.; Donnelly, T.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of psychotic disorders may be very difficult in youth with intellectual disabilities. The authors reviewed the assessment, treatment and follow-up of 21 youths with ID referred because of early onset of psychotic symptoms. Just over one half of the patients had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. One third…

  11. Neurocognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A.; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship…

  12. Early Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorder: Psychopharmacological, Psychological, and Educational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, David E.; Trotter, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Although published research continues to advocate medication as the first line of treatment for early onset bipolar spectrum disorder (EOBSD; N. Lofthouse & M.A. Fristad, 2004), preliminary research demonstrating the utility of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and psychoeducational therapies is promising. It appears as if future treatment of EOBSD…

  13. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  14. Early onset marijuana use is associated with learning inefficiencies.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Evins, A Eden; Gilman, Jodi M

    2016-05-01

    Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Forty-eight young adults, aged 18-25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched nonusing controls (CON) completed the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Marijuana users were stratified by age of initial use: early onset users (EMJ), who started using marijuana at or before age 16 (n = 27), and late onset marijuana user group (LMJ), who started using marijuana after age 16 (n = 21). Outcome variables included trial immediate recall, total learning, clustering strategies (semantic clustering, serial clustering, ratio of semantic to serial clustering, and total number of strategies used), delayed recall, and percent retention. Learning improved with repetition, with no group effect on the learning slope. EMJ learned fewer words overall than LMJ or CON. There was no difference between LMJ and CON in total number of words learned. Reduced overall learning mediated the effect on reduced delayed recall among EMJ, but not CON or LMJ. Learning improved with greater use of semantic versus serial encoding, but this did not vary between groups. EMJ was not related to delayed recall after adjusting for encoding. Young adults reporting early onset marijuana use had learning weaknesses, which accounted for the association between early onset marijuana use and delayed recall. No amnestic effect of marijuana use was observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Intraspinal anomalies in early-onset idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E A C; Oxenham, M; Lam, K S

    2017-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, lower incidences of intraspinal abnormalities in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis have been observed than in studies in other countries. We aimed to determine the rates of these abnormalities in United Kingdom patients diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis before the age of 11 years. This retrospective study of patients attending an urban scoliosis clinic identified 71 patients satisfying a criteria of: clinical diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis; age of onset ten years and 11 months or less; MRI screening for intraspinal abnormalities. United Kingdom census data combined with patient referral data was used to calculate incidence. Mean age at diagnosis was six years with 39 right-sided and 32 left-sided curves. Four patients (5.6%) were found to have intraspinal abnormalities on MRI. These consisted of: two combined Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformations with syrinx; one syrinx with a low lying conus; and one isolated syrinx. Overall annual incidence of early onset idiopathic scoliosis was one out of 182 000 (0.0006%). This study reports the lowest rates to date of intraspinal anomalies in patients with early onset idiopathic scoliosis, adding to knowledge regarding current incidences of these abnormalities as well as any geographical variation in the nature of the disease. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:829-33. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  16. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0013 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Margaret A. Pericak...relationship between SORL1, AD, and Parkinsonism . 16 Appendix V: ABCA7 Frameshift Deletion Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in African Americans...onset Alzheimer disease identified using whole-exome sequencing G. W. Beecham1, B. W. Kunkle1, B. Vardarajan2, P. L. Whitehead1, S . Rolati1, E. R

  17. Combination of serum angiopoietin-2 and uterine artery Doppler for prediction of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Puttapitakpong, Ploynin; Phupong, Vorapong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of the combination of serum angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) levels and uterine artery Doppler for the detection of preeclampsia in women at 16-18 weeks of gestation and to identify other pregnancy complications that could be predicted with these combined tests. Maternal serum Ang-2 levels were measured, and uterine artery Doppler was performed in 400 pregnant women. The main outcome was preeclampsia. The predictive values of this combination were calculated. Twenty-five women (6.3%) developed preeclampsia. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of uterine artery Doppler combined with serum Ang-2 levels for the prediction of preeclampsia were 24.0%, 94.4%, 22.2% and 94.9%, respectively. For the prediction of early-onset preeclampsia, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 57.1%, 94.1%, 14.8% and 99.2%, respectively. Patients with abnormal uterine artery Doppler and abnormal serum Ang-2 levels (above 19.5 ng ml(-1)) were at higher risk for preterm delivery (relative risk=2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.8). Our findings revealed that the combination of uterine artery Doppler and serum Ang-2 levels at 16-18 weeks of gestation can be used to predict early-onset preeclampsia but not overall preeclampsia. Thus, this combination may be a useful early second trimester screening test for the prediction of early-onset preeclampsia.

  18. Cell-free fetal DNA (SRY locus) concentration in maternal plasma is directly correlated to the time elapsed from the onset of preeclampsia to the collection of blood.

    PubMed

    Farina, Antonio; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Rizzo, Nicola; Concu, Manuela; Banzola, Irina; Carinci, Paolo; Simonazzi, Giuliana; Okai, Takashi

    2004-04-01

    To determine (1) if fetal DNA (fDNA) in the maternal circulation in women affected by preeclampsia correlates with the time elapsed from the onset of symptoms to the time of blood collection, and (2) if the inclusion of this variable improves the discrimination between affected and unaffected patients by using fDNA distributions. Plasma were collected from 34 women at 33.7 +/- 3.9 weeks' gestation, affected by preeclampsia, and bearing a single male fetus. fDNA was extracted from 1.5-mL plasma samples, and the SRY and beta-globin gene were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. MoMs (multiple of the control median) were calculated by using a log equation of 102 normal cases. Log MoMs were then plotted against the time elapsed from onset of symptoms to blood collection (expressed in days) by means of a log-linear regression. Adjusted MoMs were then calculated. ROC curves were used to test the discrimination obtained by using adjusted MoMs. The median MoMs of controls and preeclamptic patients were 1.00 +/- 1.53 and 2.62 +/- 2.70 respectively. By plotting log MoM fDNA against the time elapsed from onset of symptoms to blood collection, we found a significant positive correlation, (p-value < 0.001, R2 = 0.55, F = 38.97, from 1 to 50 days). The adjusted median fDNA MoM was 2.66 +/- 2.50. Areas under the curves, as estimated by ROC curves, were 76.7 for unadjusted and 85.5 for adjusted MoMs respectively (p-value = 0.02). The effect of a further covariate showed that (1) fDNA passage from trophoblasts to maternal circulation for unit of time is proportional to the duration of the damage and that (2) increased discrimination can be obtained in comparison to normal subjects. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Dudova, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) have been successfully used in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). This review summarizes the randomized, double-blind, controlled studies of AAPs in EOS, including clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. No significant differences in efficacy between AAPs were found, with the exception of clozapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine demonstrated superior efficacy in treatment-resistant patients with EOS, whereas ziprasidone failed to demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of EOS. Our review also focuses on the onset of action and weight gain associated with AAPs. The data on onset of action of AAPs in pediatric psychiatry are scanty and inconsistent. Olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain in patients with EOS, while ziprasidone and aripiprazole seem to cause the least. PMID:25897226

  20. Late onset dysthymic disorder and major depression differ from early onset dysthymic disorder and major depression in elderly outpatients.

    PubMed

    Devanand, D P; Adorno, Elizabeth; Cheng, Jocelyn; Burt, Tal; Pelton, G H Gregory H; Roose, S P Steven P; Sackeim, H A Harold A

    2004-03-01

    Age of onset may affect clinical features and prognosis in elderly patients with major depression (MDD), but there is a lack of such data in elderly patients with dysthymic disorder (DD) and systematic comparisons of late onset MDD and DD have not been conducted. In a Late Life Depression Clinic, patients > or = 60 years old who met DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for MDD or DD were studied. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and SCID-P were completed, family history was obtained, and medical illnesses were assessed. In the total sample (n=370; 211 MDD and 159 DD), compared to early onset patients, late onset (onset > or =60 years) patients had a higher rate of cardiovascular disease (chi(2)=4.12, df=1, P<0.05), lower rate of anxiety disorder (chi(2)=4.19, df=1, P<0.05), and a lower rate of family history of affective disorder (chi(2)=9.37, df=1, P<0.002). Late onset DD patients were more likely to have cardiovascular disease than early onset DD patients (chi(2)=5.63, df=1, P<0.02), but the rate of cardiovascular disease did not differ between late and early onset MDD patients (chi(2)=0.35, df=1, P<0.6). Late onset MDD patients were less likely to have a family history of affective disorder than early onset MDD patients (chi(2)=10.71, df=1, P<0.001). Prevalence of anxiety disorders did not differ between the early and late onset MDD patients (chi(2)=0.07, df=1, P<0.79), but was more common in the early onset DD compared to the late onset DD patients (17.98% versus 4.29%, chi(2)=6.98, df=1, P<0.01). Late onset DD did not differ from late onset MDD in the rates of cardiovascular disease, anxiety disorders, and family history of affective disorder. Excluding patients with double depression (n=32) did not alter the cardiovascular or family history findings, but the difference in anxiety disorders between early and late onset DD patients was no longer significant. Academic clinic sample results may not generalize to community populations. In the

  1. Early-onset dementias: diagnostic and etiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the body of literature about early-onset dementia (EOD) that led to recommendations from the Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia. A broader differential diagnosis is required for EOD compared with late-onset dementia. Delays in diagnosis are common, and the social impact of EOD requires special care teams. The etiologies underlying EOD syndromes should take into account family history and comorbid diseases, such as cerebrovascular risk factors, that may influence the clinical presentation and age at onset. For example, although many EODs are more likely to have Mendelian genetic and/or metabolic causes, the presence of comorbidities may drive the individual at risk for late-onset dementia to manifest the symptoms at an earlier age, which contributes further to the observed heterogeneity and may confound diagnostic investigation. A personalized medicine approach to diagnosis should therefore be considered depending on the age at onset, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. Genetic counseling and testing as well as specialized biochemical screening are often required, especially in those under the age of 40 and in those with a family history of autosomal dominant or recessive disease. Novel treatments in the drug development pipeline for EOD, such as genetic forms of Alzheimer's disease, should target the specific pathogenic cascade implicated by the mutation or biochemical defect. PMID:24565469

  2. Early intervention for late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Iwai, Masanori; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Hoshide, Ryuji; Harada, Nawomi; Yoshino, Makoto; Endo, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a family with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). Several family members had died from OTCD, and the c.221G>A, p.Lys221Lys mutation was detected at the 3' end of exon 6 of OTC in the X-chromosome of some members. We provided genetic counseling on pregnancy, delivery, and neonate management to a 4th-generation female carrier and decided on metabolic management of her child from birth. Two male patients were diagnosed with late-onset OTCD on the basis of blood amino acid and genetic analysis, and they received arginine supplementation from the asymptomatic, early neonatal period. These children grew and developed normally, without decompensation. Patients with late-onset OTCD can and should be diagnosed and treated in the early neonatal period, especially those from families already diagnosed with late-onset OTCD, and family members must be provided with genetic counseling. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  4. [Treatment of early onset scoliosis : How far can we go?].

    PubMed

    Studer, D; Hasler, C C; Schulze, A

    2015-11-01

    Recently, inconsistent definitions of early onset scoliosis (EOS) and a wide variety of treatment options have been observed. To clearly define the term EOS, to depict non-operative and operative treatment options, and to present the limitations of the boundaries of these techniques. Review of the literature, including conference presentations and expert opinions, in addition to personal experiences. Early onset scoliosis (EOS) refers to spine deformity that is present before 10 years of age, regardless of etiology. All existing operative treatment options share a high risk of complications. Therefore, non-operative treatment should act as a time-buying approach to postpone surgery. Awareness of treatment options and their specific indications, in addition to respecting each patient's individual needs and feasibilities, are crucial for the optimal outcome.

  5. Genetic Determinism of Primary Early-Onset Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Aury-Landas, Juliette; Marcelli, Christian; Leclercq, Sylvain; Boumédiene, Karim; Baugé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. A minority of cases correspond to familial presentation characterized by early-onset forms which are genetically heterogeneous. This review brings a new point of view on the molecular basis of OA by focusing on gene mutations causing early-onset OA (EO-OA). Recently, thanks to whole-exome sequencing, a gain-of-function mutation in the TNFRSF11B gene was identified in two distant family members with EO-OA, opening new therapeutic perspectives for OA. Indeed, unraveling the molecular basis of rare Mendelian OA forms will improve our understanding of molecular processes involved in OA pathogenesis and will contribute to better patient diagnosis, management, and therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    FTD), FTD with Parkinsonism , and early-onset Alzheimer Disease (EOAD)-like presentations. Using whole exome capture with subsequent sequencing, we...dementia. The MAPT R406W mutation is associated with EOAD-like symptoms and Parkinsonism without FTD, as well as distinct cognitive courses. KEY...OUTCOMES: Carney RM, Kohli MA, Kunkle BW, Naj AC, Gilbert JR, Züchner S, PERICAK-VANCE MA, Parkinsonism and distinct dementia patterns in a

  7. Early Onset Diabetes - Genetic And Hormonal Analysis In Pakistani Population.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Maryam; Kamran, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutation and hormonal imbalance is involved in the pathogenesis of early onset diabetes but data is lacking in Pakistani population. The study was planned to delineate the clinical presentation of early onset diabetes with possible hormonal and genetic etiological factors and aascertain the possible etiological role of insulin and glucagon in these patients either on oral hypoglycaemic or subcutaneous insulin therapy. Retrospective, analytical case control study with conventional sampling technique carried at Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM) affiliated with the department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi from Dec 2006 to July 2011. Study included the patients (20-35 years of age) with early onset diabetes on oral hypoglycemic (n=240), insulin therapy (n=280), and compared with non-diabetic healthy controls (n=150). A fragment surrounding tRNALeu (UUR) gene was amplified by AmpliTaq from mtDNA which was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Then it was subjected to restriction endonucleases, ApaI for A3242G mutation and HaeIII for G3316A mutation detection. Plasma glucose, glycosylated Hb, osmolality, insulin and glucagon levels along with ABGs analysis was also done. Non diabetic controls comprised of 51% males and 49% females, diabetics on oral hypoglycemic 60% males and 40 % females and on insulin therapy 54% males and 46% females. Insulin dependent diabetics had statistically significant hyperglucagonemia, acidemia and bicarbonate deficit. MtDNA A3242G and G3316A mutations were not detected. relative hyperglucagonemia and acidemia in Insulin dependent diabetics was a potent threat leading to DKA. The absence of two mtDNA mutations in ND1 gene rules out the possibility of involvement of these mutations in early onset diabetes in Pakistani population.

  8. Prediction of Preeclampsia in Early Pregnancy by Estimating the Spot Urinary Albumin/Creatinine Ratio.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nupur; Gupta, Taru; Asthana, Deepti

    2017-08-01

    To assess whether a spot urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) measured before 20 weeks of gestation can predict subsequent development of preeclampsia. The ACR was determined from midstream urine sample taken between 17 and 20 weeks of gestation. Urine albumin was measured by immunoturbidimetric method using commercially available kit (Beckman Coulter) through Beckman AU 480 fully automated biochemistry analyzer. Urine creatinine was measured by modified kinetic Jaffe reaction without deproteinization.[Formula: see text]Participants were then followed until delivery. Primary outcome measure was preeclampsia, secondary outcome measures were gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, IUGR, and normal range estimate of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was established. The median spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio measured between 17 and 20 weeks of gestation was 5.2 mg/g of creatinine (2.5-9.6). Women who subsequently developed preeclampsia had higher spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (median 30.795 [9.7-92.8]) in comparison with women who developed gestational hypertension (median 5.2 [0.7-7.2]) and unaffected women (median 5.2 [2.5-9.6]). The urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of the mother who developed IUGR was significantly higher. By ROC analysis, the optimum ACR to predict preeclampsia was 9.85 mg/g of creatinine. The relative risk of developing preeclampsia in women with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio more than 9.85 mg/g of creatinine was higher than in the women who had urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio less than 9.85 mg/g of creatinine. A spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of more than 9.8 mg/g of creatinine can predict the development of preeclampsia in later pregnancy with the sensitivity and specificity of 67 and 76%, respectively. However, additional studies and cost-benefit analysis are required to confirm these finding before recommending this test for screening purposes.

  9. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset.

    PubMed

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Onset Marijuana Use Is Associated with Learning Inefficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hoeppner, Susanne S.; Evins, A. Eden; Gilman, Jodi M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early-onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Method Forty-eight young adults, aged 18–25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched non-using controls (CON) completed the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Marijuana users were stratified by age of initial use: ‘early onset’ users (EMJ), who started using marijuana at or before age 16 (n = 27), and ‘late onset’ marijuana user group (LMJ), who started using marijuana after age 16 (n = 21). Outcome variables included trial immediate recall, total learning, clustering strategies (semantic clustering, serial clustering, ratio of semantic to serial clustering, and total number of strategies used), delayed recall, and percent retention. Results Learning improved with repetition, with no group effect on the learning slope. EMJ learned fewer words overall than LMJ or CON. There was no difference between LMJ and CON in total number of words learned. Reduced overall learning mediated the effect on reduced delayed recall among EMJ, but not CON or LMJ. Learning improved with greater use of semantic versus serial encoding, but this did not vary between groups. EMJ was not related to delayed recall after adjusting for encoding. Conclusions Young adults reporting early onset marijuana use had learning weaknesses, which accounted for the association between early onset marijuana use and delayed recall. No amnestic effect of marijuana use was observed. PMID:26986749

  11. Deferred and immediate imitation in regressive and early onset autism

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sally J.; Young, Gregory S.; Cook, Ian; Giolzetti, Angelo; Ozonoff, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Deferred imitation has long held a privileged position in early cognitive development, considered an early marker of representational thought with links to language development and symbolic processes. Children with autism have difficulties with several abilities generally thought to be related to deferred imitation: immediate imitation, language, and symbolic play. However, few studies have examined deferred imitation in early autism. The present study examined both deferred, spontaneous imitation and immediate, elicited imitation on a set of carefully matched tasks in 36 young children with autism: 16 with early onset autism, 20 with regressive autism and two contrast groups, younger typically developing children (n = 20) and age matched children with significant developmental delays (n = 21). Analyses of co-variance controlling for differences in verbal mental age revealed significant main effects for task, but no main effect of group and no interaction of task by group. Deferred imitation scores were lower than immediate imitation scores for all groups. Imitation performance was related to overall intellectual functioning for all groups, and there were moderate and significant relations between imitation in the immediate elicited condition and in the spontaneous deferred condition for all groups. Finally, there were no differences between onset subgroups in imitation scores, suggesting that the two share a similar phenotype involving both types of imitation. PMID:18221343

  12. Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala in Early Childhood Onset Depression

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Repovs, Grega; Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced cortico-limbic functional connectivity thought to indicate decreased top-down control of emotion. However, it is unclear whether such connectivity alterations are also present in early childhood onset MDD. Method Fifty-one children ages 7–11 years, prospectively studied since preschool age, completed resting state fMRI and were assigned to four groups: 1) C-MDD (N=13) personal history of early childhood onset MDD; 2) M-MDD (N=11) a maternal history of affective disorders; 3) CM-MDD (N=13) both maternal and early childhood onset MDD or 4) CON (N=14) without either a personal or maternal history. We used seed-based resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI) analysis in an independent sample of adults to identify networks showing both positive (e.g., limbic regions) and negative (e.g., dorsal frontal/parietal regions) connectivity with the amygdala. These regions were then used in ROI based analyses of our child sample. Results We found a significant interaction between maternal affective disorder history and the child's MDD history for both positive and negative rsfcMRI networks. Specifically, when copared to CON, we found reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the “Negative Network” in children with C-MDD, M-MDD and CM-MDD. Children with either C-MDD or a maternal history of MDD (but not CM-MDD) displayed reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the “Positive Network”. Conclusions Our finding of an attenuated relationship between the amygdala, a region affected in MDD and involved in emotion processing, and cognitive control regions is consistent with a hypothesis of altered regulation of emotional processing in C-MDD suggesting developmental continuity of this alteration into early childhood. PMID:21961777

  13. Childhood Risk Factors for Early-Onset Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is relatively little research on the childhood antecedent predictors of early-onset alcohol use. This study examined an array of psychosocial variables assessed at age 10 and reflecting Problem Behavior Theory as potential antecedent risk factors for the initiation of alcohol use at age 14 or younger. Method: A sample of 452 children (238 girls) ages 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random-digit dialing procedures. Children and parents were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the age-10 univariate and multivariate predictors of the initiation of alcohol use by age 14 or younger. Results: Twenty-five percent of the sample reported having more than a sip or a taste of alcohol in their life by age 14. Sex, race, and age cohort did not relate to early drinking status. Children with two parents were less likely to initiate drinking early. Early initiation of drinking related significantly to an array of antecedent risk factors (personality, social environment, and behavioral) assessed at age 10 that reflect psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. In the multivariate model, the variables most predictive of early-onset drinking were having a single parent, sipping or tasting alcohol by age 10, having parents who also started drinking at an early age, and parental drinking frequency. Conclusions: Initiation of alcohol use by age 14 reflects childhood psychosocial proneness to engage in problem behavior as measured by Problem Behavior Theory and having a family environment conducive to alcohol use. PMID:21906502

  14. Diagnosis of preeclampsia with soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1/placental growth factor ratio: an inter-assay comparison.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise Bjørkholt; Frederiksen-Møller, Britta; Work Havelund, Kathrine; Dechend, Ralf; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Jensen, Boye L; Nielsen, Jan; Lykkedegn, Sine; Barington, Torben; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2015-02-01

    The angiogenic factor ratio soluble Fms-kinase 1 (sFlt-1)/placental growth factor (PlGF) is a novel diagnostic tool for preeclampsia. We compared the efficacy of the KRYPTOR (BRAHMS) automated assays for sFlt-1 and PlGF with the Elecsys (Roche) assays in a routine clinical setting. Preeclamptic women (n = 39) were included shortly after the time of diagnosis. Normotensive control pregnancies were matched by gestational age (n = 76). The KRYPTOR assays performed comparably or superior to Elecsys (sFlt-1/PlGF area under the curve 0.746 versus 0.735; P = .09; for non-obese 0.820 versus 0.805, P = .047). For early-onset preeclampsia, KRYPTOR area under the curve increased to 0.929 with a 100% specificity for preeclampsia at cut-off 85 and an 88.9% sensitivity for preeclampsia at cut-off 33. For women with preeclampsia and preterm delivery or Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count (HELLP) syndrome, the KRYPTOR sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was manifold increased (P < .01). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio proved especially useful in early-onset preeclampsia, preeclampsia with preterm delivery or HELLP, and among non-obese women. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac diastolic function after recovery from pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Soma-Pillay, P; Louw, M C; Adeyemo, A O; Makin, J; Pattinson, R C

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with significant changes to the cardiovascular system during pregnancy. Eccentric and concentric remodelling of the left ventricle occurs, resulting in impaired contractility and diastolic dysfunction. It is unclear whether these structural and functional changes resolve completely after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine cardiac diastolic function at delivery and one year post-partum in women with severe pre-eclampsia, and to determine possible future cardiovascular risk. This was a descriptive study performed at Steve Biko Academic Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Ninety-six women with severe preeclampsia and 45 normotensive women with uncomplicated pregnancies were recruited during the delivery admission. Seventy-four (77.1%) women in the pre-eclamptic group were classified as a maternal near miss. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was performed at delivery and one year post-partum. At one year post-partum, women with pre-eclampsia had a higher diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.001) and body mass index (p = 0.02) than women in the normotensive control group. Women with early onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery prior to 34 weeks' gestation had an increased risk of diastolic dysfunction at one year post-partum (RR 3.41, 95% CI: 1.11-10.5, p = 0.04) and this was irrespective of whether the patient had chronic hypertension or not. Women who develop early-onset pre-eclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks are at a significant risk of developing cardiac diastolic dysfunction one year after delivery compared to normotensive women with a history of a low-risk pregnancy.

  16. Historical evolution of ideas on eclampsia/preeclampsia: A proposed optimistic view of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Dekker, Gustaaf; Chaouat, Gérard; Scioscia, Marco; Iacobelli, Silvia; Hulsey, Thomas C

    2017-09-01

    Eclampsia (together with epilepsy) being the first disease ever written down since the beginning of writings in mankind 5000 years ago, we will make a brief presentation of the different major steps in comprehension of Pre-eclampsia. 1) 1840. Rayer, description of proteinuria in eclampsia, 2) 1897 Vaquez, discovery of gestational hypertension in eclamptic women, 3) In the 1970's, description of the "double" trophoblastic invasion existing only in humans (Brosens & Pijnenborg,), 4) between the 1970's and the 1990's, description of preeclampsia being a couple disease. The "paternity problem" (and therefore irruption of immunology), 5) at the end of the 1980's, a major step forward: Preeclampsia being a global endothelial cell disease (glomeruloendotheliosis, hepatic or cerebral endotheliosis, HELLP, eclampsia), inflammation (J.Roberts.C Redman, R Taylor), 6) End of the 1990's: Consensus for a distinction between early onset preeclampsia EOP and late onset LOP (34 weeks gestation), EOP being rather a problem of implantation of the trophoblast (and the placenta), LOP being rather a pre-existing maternal problem (obesity, diabetes, coagulopathies etc…). LOP is predominant everywhere on this planet, but enormously predominant in developed countries: 90% of cases. This feature is very different in countries where women have their first child very young (88% of world births), where the fatal EOP (early onset) occurs in more than 30% of cases. 7) What could be the common factor which could explain the maternal global endotheliosis in EOP and LOP? Discussion about the inositol phospho glycans P type. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Preeclampsia Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... did not develop recurrent preeclampsia served as a control group. CRP levels were measured in the serum samples ... 20 years after pregnancy. Blood samples from a group of women who did not have preeclampsia served as the controls. Similar to the earlier findings that TSH was ...

  18. Risk of preeclampsia after gestational exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressants: A study from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lupattelli, Angela; Wood, Mollie; Lapane, Kate; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2017-10-01

    To describe the risk of early- and late-onset preeclampsia across pregnancies exposed to antidepressants and to evaluate the impact of timing and length of gestational exposure to antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), on preeclampsia. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort, a prospective population-based study, and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway provided information on antidepressant exposure, depression, and anxiety symptoms in pregnancy, preeclampsia diagnoses, and important covariates. Within a pregnancy cohort of depressed women, we compared the risk of late-onset preeclampsia between SSRI-exposed and nonmedicated pregnancies using marginal structural models (weighted) and modified Poisson regression models. Of the 5887 pregnancies included, 11.1% were exposed at any time before week 34 to SSRIs, 1.3% to serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, 0.4% to tricyclic antidepressants, and 0.5% to other antidepressants. The risks of early- and late-onset preeclampsia by exposure status in pregnancy were 0.3% and 3.6% (nonmedicated), 0.4% and 3.7% (SSRIs), 1.5% and 4.1% (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), and 7.1% and 10.0% (tricyclic antidepressants). Compared with nonmedicated pregnancies, SSRI-exposed in mid and late gestation had adjusted relative risks for late-onset mild preeclampsia of 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.53) and 1.56 (0.71-3.44) (weighted models), respectively. There was no association between SSRI exposure in pregnancy and severe late-onset preeclampsia. We have provided evidence that SSRI use in early and midpregnancy does not substantially increase the risk of late-onset preeclampsia. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparison of early versus late onset familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Yasar Bilge, Nazife Sule; Sari, Ismail; Solmaz, Dilek; Senel, Soner; Emmungil, Hakan; Kilic, Levent; Yilmaz Oner, Sibel; Yildiz, Fatih; Yilmaz, Sedat; Ersozlu Bozkirli, Duygu; Aydin Tufan, Muge; Yilmaz, Sema; Yazisiz, Veli; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Bes, Cemal; Yildirim Cetin, Gozde; Erten, Sukran; Gonullu, Emel; Sahin, Fezan; Akar, Servet; Aksu, Kenan; Kalyoncu, Umut; Direskeneli, Haner; Erken, Eren; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet; Cınar, Muhammed; Kasifoglu, Timucin

    2018-04-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common autoinflammatory disease. One of the common characteristics of this disease is its young age predominance. Nearly 90% of patients experience disease flares during early adult age periods. Currently there are limited data for the comparison of early versus late onset FMF and therefore the primary aim of this study was to investigate these two subsets with regard to their certain demographic, clinical and genetic differences. Early (≤ 20 years, Group 1) and late (> 20 years, Group 2) onset FMF patients were identified from the national FMF registry that involves 2246 patients from 15 adult rheumatology clinics located in different geographical areas of Turkey. Of the 2246 patients, 1633 (72.7%) were aged ≤ 20 years old (Group 1) and the remaining 613 were older than 20 years (Group 2). Delay in diagnosis was longer in Group 1 and fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, erysipelas-like erythema (ELE), arthritis, family history of FMF and amyloidosis were more common in Group 1. On the other hand, sex distribution, rates of amyloidosis, vasculitis and kidney failure were not different between the groups. Among patients with available genotypes, homozygous and heterozygous M694V mutations were significantly higher and heterozygous E148Q mutation was significantly lower in Group 1 compared to Group 2. Patients with FMF whose symptoms start before 20 years of age seem to have severe symptoms and M694V mutation may be responsible for the early expression of the disease. © 2018 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Premature adrenarche: novel lessons from early onset androgen excess.

    PubMed

    Idkowiak, Jan; Lavery, Gareth G; Dhir, Vivek; Barrett, Timothy G; Stewart, Paul M; Krone, Nils; Arlt, Wiebke

    2011-08-01

    Adrenarche reflects the maturation of the adrenal zona reticularis resulting in increased secretion of the adrenal androgen precursor DHEA and its sulphate ester DHEAS. Premature adrenarche (PA) is defined by increased levels of DHEA and DHEAS before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys and the concurrent presence of signs of androgen action including adult-type body odour, oily skin and hair and pubic hair growth. PA is distinct from precocious puberty, which manifests with the development of secondary sexual characteristics including testicular growth and breast development. Idiopathic PA (IPA) has long been considered an extreme of normal variation, but emerging evidence links IPA to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS) and thus ultimately cardiovascular morbidity. Areas of controversy include the question whether IPA in girls is associated with a higher rate of progression to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and whether low birth weight increases the risk of developing IPA. The recent discoveries of two novel monogenic causes of early onset androgen excess, apparent cortisone reductase deficiency and apparent DHEA sulphotransferase deficiency, support the notion that PA may represent a forerunner condition for PCOS. Future research including carefully designed longitudinal studies is required to address the apparent link between early onset androgen excess and the development of insulin resistance and the MS.

  1. Alertness and cognitive control: Testing the early onset hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Darryl W

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has revealed a peculiar interaction between alertness and cognitive control in selective-attention tasks: Congruency effects are larger on alert trials (on which an alerting cue is presented briefly in advance of the imperative stimulus) than on no-alert trials, despite shorter response times (RTs) on alert trials. One explanation for this finding is the early onset hypothesis, which is based on the assumptions that increased alertness shortens stimulus-encoding time and that cognitive control involves gradually focusing attention during a trial. The author tested the hypothesis in 3 experiments by manipulating alertness and stimulus quality (which were intended to shorten and lengthen stimulus-encoding time, respectively) in an arrow-based flanker task involving congruent and incongruent stimuli. Replicating past findings, the alerting manipulation led to shorter RTs but larger congruency effects on alert trials than on no-alert trials. The stimulus-quality manipulation led to longer RTs and larger congruency effects for degraded stimuli than for intact stimuli. These results provide mixed support for the early onset hypothesis, but the author discusses how data and theory might be reconciled if stimulus quality affects stimulus-encoding time and the rate of evidence accumulation in the decision process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Co-occurring problems of early onset persistent, childhood limited, and adolescent onset conduct problem youth.

    PubMed

    Barker, Edward D; Oliver, Bonamy R; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems differentially co-develop with the EOP, CL and AO trajectories across the childhood and adolescent years. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an epidemiological, longitudinal cohort of boys and girls, we estimated growth curves for parent-reported hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors conditional on trajectories of conduct problems (i.e., EOP, CL and AO) from ages 4 to 13 years. At ages 7-8 years, DSM-IV-based diagnoses of conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression were examined by conduct problems trajectory. Overall, the development of hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors mirrored the development of conduct problems, showing similar trajectories. Results indicated that the problems of EOP youth were persistent across domains, CL youth showed decreased behavior problems while increasing in prosocial behaviors, and AO youth increased in adjustment problems after 10 years of age. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Luca; Fairchild, Graeme; Goodyer, Ian M; Hurford, Georgina; Hagan, Cindy C; Rowe, James B; Calder, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by severe antisocial behavior that emerges in childhood (early-onset CD [EO-CD]) or adolescence (adolescence-onset CD [AO-CD]). Early-onset CD is proposed to have a neurodevelopmental basis, whereas AO-CD is thought to emerge owing to social mimicry of deviant peers. However, this developmental taxonomic theory is debated after reports of neuropsychological impairments in both CD subtypes. A critical, although unaddressed, issue is whether these subtypes present similar or distinct neurophysiological profiles. Hence, we investigated neurophysiological responses to emotional and neutral faces in regions associated with antisocial behavior (ie, the amygdala, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex) in individuals with EO-CD and AO-CD and in healthy control subjects. To investigate whether EO-CD and AO-CD subjects show neurophysiological abnormalities. Case-control study. Government research institute, university department. Seventy-five male adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 21 years, including 27 with EO-CD, 25 with AO-CD, and 23 healthy controls. Main Outcome Measure Neural activations measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants viewed angry, sad, and neutral faces. Comparing angry vs neutral faces, participants with both CD subtypes displayed reduced responses in regions associated with antisocial behavior compared with controls; differences between the CD subtypes were not significant. Comparing each expression with fixation baseline revealed an abnormal (increased) amygdala response to neutral but not angry faces in both groups of CD relative to controls. For sad vs neutral faces, reduced amygdala activation was observed in EO-CD relative to AO-CD and control participants. Comparing each expression with fixation revealed hypoactive amygdala responses to sadness in individuals with EO-CD relative to AO-CD participants and controls. These findings were not accounted for

  4. Theory of Mind differences in older patients with early-onset and late-onset paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smeets-Janssen, M M J; Meesters, P D; Comijs, H C; Eikelenboom, P; Smit, J H; de Haan, L; Beekman, A T F; Stek, M L

    2013-11-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is considered an essential element of social cognition. In younger schizophrenia patients, ToM impairments have extensively been demonstrated. It is not clear whether similar impairments can be found in older schizophrenia patients and if these impairments differ between older patients with early-onset and late-onset schizophrenia. Theory of Mind abilities were assessed using the Hinting Task in 15 older patients (age 60 years and older) with early-onset paranoid schizophrenia, 15 older patients with late-onset paranoid schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. ANCOVA was performed to test differences between groups. Analyses were adjusted for level of education. Effect sizes, partial eta squared (ε(2) ), were computed as an indication of the clinical relevance of the findings. Patients with early-onset schizophrenia scored significantly lower on the Hinting Task (mean 16.1; SD 4.3) compared with patients with late-onset schizophrenia (mean 18.6; SD 1.5) and with healthy controls (mean 19.0; SD 1.4). The effect size of this difference was large (ε(2)  = 0.2). These results suggest that ToM functioning may be a protective factor modulating the age at onset of psychosis. Further studies into the relationship between social cognition and onset age of psychosis are warranted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Comparing Characteristics of Early-Onset Injection Drug Users to Those With Late-Onset Injection in Kermanshah, Iran.

    PubMed

    Jorjoran Shushtari, Zahra; Noroozi, Alireza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Ahounbar, Elahe; Hajbi, Ahmad; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Farhadi, Mohammad Hossin; Farhoudian, Ali; Higgs, Peter; Shahboulagh, Farahnaz Mohammadi; Waye, Katherine; Noroozi, Mehdi

    2017-05-12

    Characteristics and behaviors of early-onset injection drug users are under studied topics in Iran. This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic characteristics as well as the drug using behaviors of early-onset and late-onset injection drug users in Kermanshah, West Iran. In this cross-sectional study using snowball and convenience sampling, we recruited 450 people during the Fall of 2014 from two drop in centers in Kermanshah, Iran. We collected data through face-to-face interviews. Early-onset injection is defined as whether the person reported their first injection at 22 years of age or younger. Subsequently, late-onset injection is defined as 23 years of age or older. We compared the characteristics of the two groups through both univariate and multiple logistic analyses. Overall, 54% (CI 95%: 44.3%, 62.2%) were early injectors. After controlling for low socioeconomic status, initiation of drug use at a young age, multiple drug use and methamphetamine use were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of early-onset injection. Additionally, early-onset injection was associated with recent syringe borrowing (OR = 2.6, p = 0.001), recent syringe lending (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01), recent cooker sharing (OR = 3.2, p = 0.01) and injecting two or more times a day (OR = 2.2, p = 0.04). Early-onset injectors were more likely to report a lower socioeconomic status, initiation of first drug use at a younger age, using methamphetamine alongside polydrug use, and engaging in higher risk taking behaviors like borrowing needles. With these associations, the study emphasizes the need for drug-prevention programs to focus on the transition to injection drug use at younger ages.

  6. Early Onset Recurrent Subtype of Adolescent Depression: Clinical and Psychosocial Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Herr, Nathaniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Evaluated trajectories of adolescent depression and their correlates in a longitudinal study of a community sample: early onset (by age 15) with major depression (MDE) recurrence between 15 and 20; early onset with no recurrence; later onset of major depression after age 15 with and without recurrence by 20; and never-depressed.…

  7. Early-onset schizophrenia: Symptoms and social class of origin.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Bernard J; Jones, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    The genesis of schizophrenia is multifactorial, including biological and environmental risk factors. We tested for an interactive effect between early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and social class of origins (socioeconomic status (SES)). Data were further analyzed for a possible connection to type of schizophrenic symptoms. Sampling/Methods: Data for the study are taken from the medical records of 642 patients from a large state hospital in the northeastern United States. Clinical assessments were divided into positive and negative symptomatology through application of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Detailed information about age of onset and SES of origin was obtained through Social Service Assessment interviews. We uncovered a significant impact of EOS among the poor that elevates risk for negative symptomatology. Poor SES alone does not increase the likelihood of EOS, but it magnifies the deleterious effect of EOS on negative symptoms. Future research on these variables may inform the relative contribution of each.

  8. Early and Real-Time Detection of Seasonal Influenza Onset

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Every year, influenza epidemics affect millions of people and place a strong burden on health care services. A timely knowledge of the onset of the epidemic could allow these services to prepare for the peak. We present a method that can reliably identify and signal the influenza outbreak. By combining official Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) incidence rates, searches for ILI-related terms on Google, and an on-call triage phone service, Saúde 24, we were able to identify the beginning of the flu season in 8 European countries, anticipating current official alerts by several weeks. This work shows that it is possible to detect and consistently anticipate the onset of the flu season, in real-time, regardless of the amplitude of the epidemic, with obvious advantages for health care authorities. We also show that the method is not limited to one country, specific region or language, and that it provides a simple and reliable signal that can be used in early detection of other seasonal diseases. PMID:28158192

  9. Early-Onset Vemurafenib-Induced DRESS Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Munch, Marion; Peuvrel, Lucie; Brocard, Anabelle; Saint Jean, Mélanie; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Quereux, Gaelle

    2016-01-01

    Vemurafenib is a BRAF inhibitor indicated in metastatic or unresectable melanoma in patients with BRAF mutations. Vemurafenib is frequently toxic, but the toxicity is often not serious. The third case of vemurafenib-induced drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is reported herein. The case is unusual in that the onset was early, with symptoms emerging as of day 8 of treatment. Treatment of DRESS syndrome is not currently based on precise recommendations, but systemic corticosteroid therapy is effective in serious cases. Severe toxidermias under vemurafenib are exceptional; immediate discontinuation of treatment upon diagnosis is imperative. Switching from vemurafenib to dabrafenib then seems to constitute an interesting therapeutic alternative, since its efficacy is the same but with fewer cutaneous adverse reactions. This case highlights the importance of awareness of the risk of DRESS syndrome associated with vemurafenib and monitoring for warning signs from treatment initiation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Escherichia coli early-onset sepsis: trends over two decades.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Palomar, Natalia; Balasch-Carulla, Milena; González-Di Lauro, Sabina; Céspedes, Maria Concepció; Andreu, Antònia; Frick, Marie Antoinette; Linde, Maria Ángeles; Soler-Palacin, Pere

    2017-09-01

    Escherichia coli early-onset sepsis (EOS) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, especially in preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. The aim of our study was to evaluate potential changes in the clinical and microbiological characteristics of E. coli EOS in our setting. Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological data from all neonates with proven E. coli EOS from January 1994 to December 2014 were retrospectively collected in a single tertiary care hospital in Barcelona (Spain). Seventy-eight E. coli EOS cases were analyzed. A slight increase in the incidence of E. coli EOS was observed during the study period. VLBW newborns remained the group with higher incidence (10.4 cases per 1000 live births) and mortality (35.3%). Systematic use of PCR increased E. coli EOS diagnosis, mainly in the term newborn group. There was an increase in resistant E. coli strains causing EOS, with especially high resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin (92.8 and 28.6%, respectively). Nonetheless, resistant strains were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes. There is an urgent need to reconsider the empirical therapy used in neonatal EOS, particularly in VLBW newborns. What is Known: • E. coli early-onset sepsis (EOS) and E. coli resistant strains have been described as overall stable but increasing in VLBW neonates (< 1.500 g) in previous studies. What is New: • Our study shows an increasing incidence of E. coli EOS in all age groups, overruling group B Streptoccocus for the last 10 years. E. coli resistant strains also increased equally in all age groups, with high resistance rates to our first line antibiotics (ampicillin and gentamicin). • Empiric antibiotic therapy of EOS, mainly in VLBW newborns, should be adapted to this new scenario.

  11. Early Identification of Autism: Early Characteristics, Onset of Symptoms, and Diagnostic Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.

    2009-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants who later go on to develop autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) may exhibit subtle disruptions in social interest and attention, communication, temperament, and head circumference growth that occur prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. These disruptions may reflect the early course of ASD development and may also…

  12. The interrelationship of complement-activation fragments and angiogenesis-related factors in early pregnancy and their association with pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, AM; Murphy, JR; Gibbs, RS; Levine, RJ; Giclas, PC; Salmon, JE; Holers, VM

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the interrelationships during early pregnancy of complement-activation fragments Bb, C3a and sC5b-9, and angiogenesis-related factors placental growth factor (PiGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEng), and their associations with pre-eclampsia. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denver complement study (June 2005–June 2008). Population A total of 668 pregnant women with singleton gestations, recruited between 10 and 15 weeks of gestation. Methods Using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis, concentrations of complement-activation fragments and angiogenesis-related factors were compared between 10 and 15 weeks of gestation in women who subsequently did or did not develop pre-eclampsia. Interrelationships between these variables were tested using the non-parametric Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Main outcome measure Pre-eclampsia. The association of complement-activation fragments and angiogenesis-related factors with obesity was also examined. Results The mean (±SD) levels of complement Bb in early pregnancy among women who did and did not develop pre-eclampsia were 0.84 (±0.26) µg/ml and 0.69 (±0.2) µg/ml, respectively (P = 0.001). Concentrations of PiGF were significantly (P = 0.01) lower (31 ± 12 pg/ml) in early pregnancy in the pre-eclamptic group of women, as compared with the normotensive group (39 ± 32 pg/ml). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of Bb and PiGF were 2.1 (CI = 1.4–3.1, P < 0.0003) and 0.2 (CI = 0.07–0.7, P = 0.01), respectively. There was no significant difference in the levels of C3a, sC5b-9, sFlt-1 and sEng in early pregnancy among women who developed pre-eclampsia, compared with women who remained normotensive during pregnancy. Higher levels of Bb (P = 0.0001) and C3a (P = 0.03), and lower levels of sFlt-1 (P = 0.0002) and sEng (P = 0.0001) were found among women with obesity, compared with non-obese controls. No meaningful relationships

  13. Epidemiology of preeclampsia: Impact of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jeyabalan, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that affects 2 to 8% of all pregnancies and remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diagnosis is based on new onset of hypertension and proteinuria. Multiple organ systems can be affected with severe disease. The wide range of risk factors reflects the heterogeneity of preeclampsia. Obesity, which is increasing at an alarming rate, is also a risk factor for preeclampsia as well as for later life cardiovascular disease. Exploring common features may provide insight into the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying preeclampsia among obese and overweight women. PMID:24147919

  14. Patients with late-adult-onset ulcerative colitis have better outcomes than those with early onset disease.

    PubMed

    Ha, Christina Y; Newberry, Rodney D; Stone, Christian D; Ciorba, Matthew A

    2010-08-01

    The influence of age on the presentation, clinical course, and therapeutic response of patients with adult-onset ulcerative colitis (UC) is understudied. Given potential age-related differences in risk factors and immune function, we sought to determine if disease behavior or clinical outcomes differed between patients diagnosed with UC in later versus earlier stages of adulthood. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 295 patients with UC seen at a tertiary care center from 2001 to 2008. Adult subjects newly diagnosed with UC between the ages of 18 and 30 years were defined as early onset, those newly diagnosed at age 50 or older were defined as late onset. The 2 groups were analyzed for differences in medication use and clinical end points, including disease extent, severity at the time of diagnosis, and steroid-free clinical remission at 1 year after disease onset. Disease extent and symptom severity were similar between groups at the time of diagnosis. One year after diagnosis, more patients in the late-onset group achieved steroid-free clinical remission (64% vs 49%; P = .01). Among those who required systemic steroid therapy, more late-onset patients achieved steroid-free remission by 1 year (50% vs 32%; P = .01). Former smoking status was a more common risk factor in the late-onset cohort (P < .001), whereas more early onset patients had a positive family history (P = .008). Patients with early and late-adult-onset UC have similar initial clinical presentations, but differ in disease risk factors. Late-onset patients have better responses to therapy 1 year after diagnosis. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in Reunion Island: a 13 years cohort-based study. Comparison with international data.

    PubMed

    Iacobelli, Silvia; Bonsante, Francesco; Robillard, Pierre-Yves

    2016-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of preterm birth in pre-eclamptic deliveries in Reunion Island, a tropical overseas French department (départements d'outre-mer, DOM) and to compare this prevalence with that of international literature. All singleton live-born deliveries referred to three maternity centers in Reunion Island over 13 years were eligible. Data for comparison were found through searches of MEDLINE, bibliographies of identified studies, proceedings of meetings on pre-eclampsia and contact with relevant researchers. Incidence of pre-eclampsia, proportion of preterm (<37(0/7) weeks gestation), late (34(0/7)-36(6/7) weeks) and early (<34(0/7) weeks) preterm birth in pre-eclamptic deliveries were analyzed. Pre-eclampsia occurred in 2.3% of 51 927 singleton live-born deliveries in Reunion Island. The prevalence of preterm birth among pre-eclamptic deliveries was 59.8% (28.6% late and 31.2% early preterm birth). Among identified reports, only one prospective study from Canada (1986-1995) described preterm and early preterm birth rates higher than Reunion Island. A cohort-based report from Guadeloupe, another tropical French DOM, showed a preterm birth prevalence of 60.9%, with 30.8% of early preterm birth. Predominance of early- or late-onset pre-eclampsia has huge geographical differences. Further investigations are required to address risk factors for preterm birth and early onset pre-eclampsia in French DOM.

  16. Genomic Analyses of Patients With Unexplained Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaochong; Gotway, Garrett; Rathjen, Karl; Johnston, Charles; Sparagana, Steven; Wise, Carol A

    2014-09-01

    To test for rare genetic mutations, a cohort of patients with unexplained early-onset scoliosis (EOS) was screened using high-density microarray genotyping. A cohort of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was similarly screened and the results were compared. Patients with scoliosis in infancy or early childhood (EOS) are at high risk for progressive deformity and associated problems including respiratory compromise. Early-onset scoliosis is frequently associated with genetic disorders but many patients present with nonspecific clinical features and without an associated diagnosis. The authors hypothesized that EOS in these patients may be caused by rare genetic mutations detectable by next-generation genomic methods. The researchers identified 24 patients with unexplained EOS from pediatric orthopedic clinics. They genotyped them, along with 39 connecting family members, using the Illumina OmniExpress-12, version 1.0 beadchip. Resulting genotypes were analyzed for chromosomal changes, specifically copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity. They screened 482 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and 744 healthy controls, who were similarly genotyped with the same beadchip, for chromosomal changes identified in the EOS cohort. Copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity analyses revealed a genetic diagnosis of chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome in 1 patient and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 in a second one. Prior genetic testing and clinical evaluations had been negative in both cases. A large novel chromosome 10 deletion was likely causal in a third EOS patient. These mutations identified in the EOS patients were absent in AIS patients and controls, and thus were not associated with AIS or found in asymptomatic individuals. These data underscore the usefulness of updated genetic evaluations including high-density microarray-based genotyping and other next-generation methods in patients with unexplained

  17. Disturbed Placental Imprinting in Preeclampsia Leads to Altered Expression of DLX5, a Human-Specific Early Trophoblast Marker

    PubMed Central

    Zadora, Julianna; Singh, Manvendra; Herse, Florian; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Yung, Hong Wa; Huppertz, Berthold; Cartwright, Judith E.; Whitley, Guy; Johnsen, Guro M.; Levi, Giovanni; Isbruch, Annette; Schulz, Herbert; Luft, Friedrich C.; Müller, Dominik N.; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in preeclampsia. Our study aims to investigate whether disturbed imprinting contributes to preeclampsia. Methods: We first aimed to confirm that preeclampsia is a disease of the placenta by generating and analyzing genome-wide molecular data on well-characterized patient material. We performed high-throughput transcriptome analyses of multiple placenta samples from healthy controls and patients with preeclampsia. Next, we identified differentially expressed genes in preeclamptic placentas and intersected them with the list of human imprinted genes. We used bioinformatics/statistical analyses to confirm association between imprinting and preeclampsia and to predict biological processes affected in preeclampsia. Validation included epigenetic and cellular assays. In terms of human specificity, we established an in vitro invasion-differentiation trophoblast model. Our comparative phylogenetic analysis involved single-cell transcriptome data of human, macaque, and mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. Results: We found disturbed placental imprinting in preeclampsia and revealed potential candidates, including GATA3 and DLX5, with poorly explored imprinted status and no prior association with preeclampsia. As a result of loss of imprinting, DLX5 was upregulated in 69% of preeclamptic placentas. Levels of DLX5 correlated with classic preeclampsia markers. DLX5 is expressed in human but not in murine trophoblast. The DLX5high phenotype resulted in reduced proliferation, increased metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress

  18. Disturbed Placental Imprinting in Preeclampsia Leads to Altered Expression of DLX5, a Human-Specific Early Trophoblast Marker.

    PubMed

    Zadora, Julianna; Singh, Manvendra; Herse, Florian; Przybyl, Lukasz; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Yung, Hong Wa; Huppertz, Berthold; Cartwright, Judith E; Whitley, Guy; Johnsen, Guro M; Levi, Giovanni; Isbruch, Annette; Schulz, Herbert; Luft, Friedrich C; Müller, Dominik N; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Hurst, Laurence D; Dechend, Ralf; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna

    2017-11-07

    Preeclampsia is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in preeclampsia. Our study aims to investigate whether disturbed imprinting contributes to preeclampsia. We first aimed to confirm that preeclampsia is a disease of the placenta by generating and analyzing genome-wide molecular data on well-characterized patient material. We performed high-throughput transcriptome analyses of multiple placenta samples from healthy controls and patients with preeclampsia. Next, we identified differentially expressed genes in preeclamptic placentas and intersected them with the list of human imprinted genes. We used bioinformatics/statistical analyses to confirm association between imprinting and preeclampsia and to predict biological processes affected in preeclampsia. Validation included epigenetic and cellular assays. In terms of human specificity, we established an in vitro invasion-differentiation trophoblast model. Our comparative phylogenetic analysis involved single-cell transcriptome data of human, macaque, and mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. We found disturbed placental imprinting in preeclampsia and revealed potential candidates, including GATA3 and DLX5 , with poorly explored imprinted status and no prior association with preeclampsia. As a result of loss of imprinting, DLX5 was upregulated in 69% of preeclamptic placentas. Levels of DLX5 correlated with classic preeclampsia markers. DLX5 is expressed in human but not in murine trophoblast. The DLX5 high phenotype resulted in reduced proliferation, increased metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-response activation in

  19. Early childhood predictors of early onset of smoking: a birth prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Mamun, Abdullah A; Williams, Gail M; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Najman, Jake M

    2013-10-01

    Early onset of smoking is associated with subsequent abuse of other substances and development of negative health outcomes. This study aimed to examine early life predictors of onset of smoking in an Australian young cohort. Data were from the Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), a population-based prospective birth cohort study (1981-2012). The present study is based on a cohort of 3714 young adults who self-reported smoking status and age of onset of smoking at the 21-year follow-up. Of these, data were available for 3039 on early childhood factors collected between the baseline and 14-year follow-up of the study. Of 3714 young adults, 49.6% (49.9% males and 49.3% females) reported having ever smoked cigarettes. For those who had ever smoked, mean and median ages at first smoke were 15.5 and 16.0years, respectively. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis mother's education, change in maternal marital status, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, maternal depression and child externalizing when the child was 5years statistically significantly predicted early onset of smoking. The data suggest that individuals exposed to personal and environmental risk factors during the early stage of childhood are at increased risk of initiation to cigarette smoking at an earlier age. Identification of the pathways of association between these early life factors and initiation to cigarette smoking may help reduce risk of tobacco smoking in adolescents and its adverse consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid onset of efficacy of rasagiline in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zambito Marsala, Sandro; Vitaliani, Roberta; Volpe, Daniele; Capozzoli, Francesca; Baroni, Luciana; Belgrado, Enrico; Borsato, Carlo; Gioulis, Manuela; Marchini, Corrado; Antonini, Angelo

    2013-11-01

    Rasagiline is a monoamine oxidase type-B inhibitor used as monotherapy or in addition to levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). This naturalistic single-blind study was aimed at evaluating the rapidity of onset effect of rasagiline on motor symptoms in a cohort of early relatively elderly PD patients. 102 outpatients (55 males, median age 71 years) have been selected: 26 were PD therapy-naive and 76 received rasagiline as add-on therapy. The third section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRSIII) and the Hoehn-Yahr (HY) scale were assessed at baseline and after 1 and 4 weeks thereafter. The mean UPDRS III total score (-6.7 at week 1 and -8.9 at week 4) and single items, as well as mean HY score (-0.40 at week 1 and -0.67 at week 4), significantly decreased from baseline (p < 0.001). Improvements were significant in both therapy-naive and add-on therapy patients: the mean decreases from baseline to week 4 in UPDRSIII and HY score were -8.8 and -0.46, and -9.0 and -0.74, respectively, in the two subgroups. The mean decrease from baseline in UPDRSIII and HY score did not significantly differ in patients aged > or ≤71 years. Rasagiline had a rapid therapeutic effect from the first week of therapy, which further improved at 4 weeks. The rapid onset of action and the absence of a dose titration are important issues in the management of the PD patient.

  1. Incidence of early-onset dementia in Mar del Plata.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Abraham, M; Scharovsky, D; Romano, L M; Ayala, M; Aleman, A; Sottano, E; Etchepareborda, I; Colla Machado, C; García, M I; Gonorazky, S E

    2015-03-01

    Early-onset dementia (EOD) is defined as dementia with onset before the age of 65 years. EOD is increasingly recognised as an important clinical and social problem with devastating consequences for patients and caregivers. Determine the annual crude incidence rate and the specific incidence rates by sex and age in patients with EOD, and the standardised rate using the last national census of the population of Argentina (NCPA), from 2010. Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina, attends a closed population and is the sole healthcare provider for 17 614 people. Using the database pertaining to the Geriatric Care department, we identified all patients diagnosed with EOD between 1 January, 2005 and 31 December, 2011. EOD was defined as dementia diagnosed in patients younger than 65. The study period yielded 14 patients diagnosed with EOD out of a total of 287 patients evaluated for memory concerns. The crude annual incidence of EOD was 11 per 100 000/year (CI 95%: 6.25-19.1): 17 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 7.2-33.1) in men and 8 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 3.4-17.2) in women. We observed a statistically significant increase when comparing incidence rates between patients aged 21 to <55 years and ≥ 55 to <65 years (3 vs 22 per 100 000, P=.0014). The rate adjusted by NCPA census data was 5.8 cases of EOD habitants/year. This study, conducted in a closed population, yielded an EOD incidence rate of 11 per 100 000 inhabitants/year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective epidemiological study in Argentina and in Latin America. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Gaze holding deficits discriminate early from late onset cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Weber, K P; Schuknecht, B; Straumann, D; Marti, S; Bertolini, G

    2015-08-01

    The vestibulo-cerebellum calibrates the output of the inherently leaky brainstem neural velocity-to-position integrator to provide stable gaze holding. In healthy humans small-amplitude centrifugal nystagmus is present at extreme gaze-angles, with a non-linear relationship between eye-drift velocity and eye eccentricity. In cerebellar degeneration this calibration is impaired, resulting in pathological gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN). For cerebellar dysfunction, increased eye drift may be present at any gaze angle (reflecting pure scaling of eye drift found in controls) or restricted to far-lateral gaze (reflecting changes in shape of the non-linear relationship) and resulting eyed-drift patterns could be related to specific disorders. We recorded horizontal eye positions in 21 patients with cerebellar neurodegeneration (gaze-angle = ±40°) and clinically confirmed GEN. Eye-drift velocity, linearity and symmetry of drift were determined. MR-images were assessed for cerebellar atrophy. In our patients, the relation between eye-drift velocity and gaze eccentricity was non-linear, yielding (compared to controls) significant GEN at gaze-eccentricities ≥20°. Pure scaling was most frequently observed (n = 10/18), followed by pure shape-changing (n = 4/18) and a mixed pattern (n = 4/18). Pure shape-changing patients were significantly (p = 0.001) younger at disease-onset compared to pure scaling patients. Atrophy centered around the superior/dorsal vermis, flocculus/paraflocculus and dentate nucleus and did not correlate with the specific drift behaviors observed. Eye drift in cerebellar degeneration varies in magnitude; however, it retains its non-linear properties. With different drift patterns being linked to age at disease-onset, we propose that the gaze-holding pattern (scaling vs. shape-changing) may discriminate early- from late-onset cerebellar degeneration. Whether this allows a distinction among specific cerebellar disorders remains to be determined.

  3. Maternal and fetal alternative complement pathway activation in early severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M Camille; Rumer, Kristen K; Kramer, Anita; Lynch, Anne M; Winn, Virginia D

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether alternative complement activation fragment Bb (Bb) levels are elevated in the maternal, fetal, and placental blood in cases of severe preeclampsia (PE) compared with normotensive controls. This was a cross-sectional study of women admitted at ≥24 weeks gestation with or without severe PE. Maternal plasma was collected at the time of enrollment. Umbilical venous cord and intervillous space blood were collected at delivery. Plasma Bb levels were assessed using ELISA. Bb levels were compared between cases and controls. Median Bb levels were higher in the maternal plasma of severe PE subjects (n = 24) than in controls (n = 20), 1.45 ± 1.03 versus 0.65 ± 0.23 μg/mL, P < 0.001. In umbilical venous plasma, Bb levels were higher in severe PE subjects (n = 15) compared with controls (n = 15), 2.48 ± 1.40 versus 1.01 ± 0.57 μg/mL, P = 0.01. Activation fragment Bb is increased in the maternal and umbilical venous blood of cases of severe PE when compared with normotensive controls. These data provide support for alternative complement pathway involvement in the pathogenesis of severe PE and demonstrate that alternative complement activation occurs not only in the maternal but also in the fetal compartment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Neurocognition in early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Giuliano, Anthony J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A; Findling, Robert L; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship of different variables of illness severity and adaptive behavior to neuropsychological functioning. Participants ranged in age from 8 to 19 years. Diagnostic status was confirmed via structured interview over multiple time points. Domains of neuropsychological functioning included fine-motor, attention, working memory, problem-solving efficiency, inhibitory control, and social cognition. Other variables included intelligence (IQ), academic achievement skills, adaptive behavior, and different measures of illness severity. The two groups did not differ on IQ or on any of the neuropsychological domains. The SZ group performed significantly lower in spelling. A high proportion of individuals in both groups reflected significant intellectual and academic achievement skill deficits. Significant correlations were found between the neurocognitive domains and both illness severity and adaptive behavior variables. There were few differences between the SZ and SA groups on IQ, achievement, or neuropsychological functioning; however, both groups showed significantly high rates of deficits in IQ and basic academic skills. Correlations of the neurocognitive functions with illness severity and adaptive behavior were small to moderate in magnitude. These findings continue to implicate the importance of neurocognitive functioning as a key area of vulnerability in the study of youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  5. Sex-specific cognitive abnormalities in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Moreno-Granados, Josefa; Salcedo-Marin, Maria D; Barrigon, Maria L; Blanco-Morales, Maria J; Igunza, Evelio; Cañabate, Anselmo; Garcia, Maria D; Guijarro, Teresa; Diaz-Atienza, Francisco; Ferrin, Maite

    2017-01-01

    Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls. We compared a group of 80 boys and girls with first-episode psychosis to a group of controls. We found interactions between group and sex in verbal working memory (p = 0.04) and auditory attention (p = 0.01). The female controls showed better working memory (p = 0.01) and auditory attention (p = 0.001) than males. However, we did not find any sex differences in working memory (p = 0.91) or auditory attention (p = 0.93) in the psychosis group. These results are consistent with the presence of sex-modulated cognitive profiles at first presentation of early-onset psychosis.

  6. Facial emotion identification in early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Barkl, Sophie J; Lah, Suncica; Starling, Jean; Hainsworth, Cassandra; Harris, Anthony W F; Williams, Leanne M

    2014-12-01

    Facial emotion identification (FEI) deficits are common in patients with chronic schizophrenia and are strongly related to impaired functioning. The objectives of this study were to determine whether FEI deficits are present and emotion specific in people experiencing early-onset psychosis (EOP), and related to current clinical symptoms and functioning. Patients with EOP (n=34, mean age=14.11, 53% female) and healthy controls (HC, n=42, mean age 13.80, 51% female) completed a task of FEI that measured accuracy, error pattern and response time. Relative to HC, patients with EOP (i) had lower accuracy for identifying facial expressions of emotions, especially fear, anger and disgust, (ii) were more likely to misattribute other emotional expressions as fear or disgust, and (iii) were slower at accurately identifying all facial expressions. FEI accuracy was not related to clinical symptoms or current functioning. Deficits in FEI (especially for fear, anger and disgust) are evident in EOP. Our findings suggest that while emotion identification deficits may reflect a trait susceptibility marker, functional deficits may represent a sequelae of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biallelic TBCD Mutations Cause Early-Onset Neurodegenerative Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Noriko; Fukai, Ryoko; Ohba, Chihiro; Chihara, Takahiro; Miura, Masayuki; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Imagawa, Eri; Shiina, Masaaki; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Okuno-Yuguchi, Jiu; Fueki, Noboru; Ogiso, Yoshifumi; Suzumura, Hiroshi; Watabe, Yoshiyuki; Imataka, George; Leong, Huey Yin; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Kramer, Uri; Miyatake, Satoko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo; Kaneko, Naofumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Tamura, Tomohiko; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-10-06

    We describe four families with affected siblings showing unique clinical features: early-onset (before 1 year of age) progressive diffuse brain atrophy with regression, postnatal microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, muscle weakness/atrophy, and respiratory failure. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified biallelic TBCD mutations in eight affected individuals from the four families. TBCD encodes TBCD (tubulin folding co-factor D), which is one of five tubulin-specific chaperones playing a pivotal role in microtubule assembly in all cells. A total of seven mutations were found: five missense mutations, one nonsense, and one splice site mutation resulting in a frameshift. In vitro cell experiments revealed the impaired binding between most mutant TBCD proteins and ARL2, TBCE, and β-tubulin. The in vivo experiments using olfactory projection neurons in Drosophila melanogaster indicated that the TBCD mutations caused loss of function. The wide range of clinical severity seen in this neurodegenerative encephalopathy may result from the residual function of mutant TBCD proteins. Furthermore, the autopsied brain from one deceased individual showed characteristic neurodegenerative findings: cactus and somatic sprout formations in the residual Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, which are also seen in some diseases associated with mitochondrial impairment. Defects of microtubule formation caused by TBCD mutations may underlie the pathomechanism of this neurodegenerative encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early-onset arthritis in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Marshall, Stephen W; Callahan, Leigh F; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players. Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players. Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4 to 1.9). In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.

  9. Early and Late Onset Side Effects of Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Borgia, Francesco; Giuffrida, Roberta; Caradonna, Emanuela; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cannavò, Serafinella P.

    2018-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy. In particular, pain is a clinically relevant short-term complication that also reduces long-term patient satisfaction. Rare complications are urticaria, contact dermatitis at the site of application of the photosensitizer, and erosive pustular dermatosis. Debated is the relationship between PDT and carcinogenesis: the eruptive appearance of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in previously treated areas has been correlated to a condition of local and/or systemic immunosuppression or to the selection of PDT-resistant SCC. Here we review the literature, with particular emphasis to the pathogenic hypotheses underlying these observations. PMID:29382133

  10. Psychosocial impact of early onset dementia among caregivers.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Nathália R S; Maffioletti, Virgínia L R; Santos, Raquel L; Baptista, Maria Alice Tourinho; Dourado, Marcia C N

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition of early onset dementia (EOD) as a significant clinical and social problem because of its effects on physical and mental health of people with dementia (PWD) and their caregivers. To analyze the psychosocial impact of EOD in family caregivers. The study design was qualitative. Nine EOD caregivers (7 women) were recruited at a service for Alzheimer's disease and assessed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze caregivers' reports. Five themes emerged from the narratives: psychological and emotional impact; physical impact; financial and professional impact; social impact and need for support services. The majority of the caregivers of people with EOD perceived their emotional wellbeing as poor or extremely poor. Carers reported poor physical health, which tends to be longer-lasting than mental health problems. Two caregivers had to retire after the disclosure of the dementia diagnosis, and seven reduced their work loads because they had to look after PWD. Preserving the abilities of PWD is essential to maintain their self-esteem, dignity and sense of utility. For the caregivers, interventions and stimulating activities make PWD feel worthwhile and contribute to improving life. The caregivers of people with EOD assume the role of caregiver prematurely and need to balance this activity with other responsibilities. There is a need for more studies of EOD in order to improve understanding of the impact of this disease and to enable development of adequate services for PWD and their caregivers.

  11. Molecular genetics of early-onset Alzheimer's disease revisited.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Rita; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2016-06-01

    As the discovery of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) genes, APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2, in families with autosomal dominant early-onset AD (EOAD), gene discovery in familial EOAD came more or less to a standstill. Only 5% of EOAD patients are carrying a pathogenic mutation in one of the AD genes or a apolipoprotein E (APOE) risk allele ε4, most of EOAD patients remain unexplained. Here, we aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of EOAD genetics and its role in ongoing approaches to understand the biology of AD and disease symptomatology as well as developing new therapeutics. Next, we explored the possible molecular mechanisms that might underlie the missing genetic etiology of EOAD and discussed how the use of massive parallel sequencing technologies triggered novel gene discoveries. To conclude, we commented on the relevance of reinvestigating EOAD patients as a means to explore potential new avenues for translational research and therapeutic discoveries. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Somatic mutations in early onset luminal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Lyra, Eduardo Carneiro; Hirata Katayama, Maria Lucia; Maistro, Simone; de Vasconcellos Valle, Pedro Wilson Mompean; de Lima Pereira, Gláucia Fernanda; Rodrigues, Lívia Munhoz; de Menezes Pacheco Serio, Pedro Adolpho; de Gouvêa, Ana Carolina Ribeiro Chaves; Geyer, Felipe Correa; Basso, Ricardo Alves; Pasini, Fátima Solange; del Pilar Esteves Diz, Maria; Brentani, Maria Mitzi; Guedes Sampaio Góes, João Carlos; Chammas, Roger; Boutros, Paul C.; Koike Folgueira, Maria Aparecida Azevedo

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer arising in very young patients may be biologically distinct; however, these tumors have been less well studied. We characterized a group of very young patients (≤ 35 years) for BRCA germline mutation and for somatic mutations in luminal (HER2 negative) breast cancer. Thirteen of 79 unselected very young patients were BRCA1/2 germline mutation carriers. Of the non-BRCA tumors, eight with luminal subtype (HER2 negative) were submitted for whole exome sequencing and integrated with 29 luminal samples from the COSMIC database or previous literature for analysis. We identified C to T single nucleotide variants (SNVs) as the most common base-change. A median of six candidate driver genes was mutated by SNVs in each sample and the most frequently mutated genes were PIK3CA, GATA3, TP53 and MAP2K4. Potential cancer drivers affected in the present non-BRCA tumors include GRHL2, PIK3AP1, CACNA1E, SEMA6D, SMURF2, RSBN1 and MTHFD2. Sixteen out of 37 luminal tumors (43%) harbored SNVs in DNA repair genes, such as ATR, BAP1, ERCC6, FANCD2, FANCL, MLH1, MUTYH, PALB2, POLD1, POLE, RAD9A, RAD51 and TP53, and 54% presented pathogenic mutations (frameshift or nonsense) in at least one gene involved in gene transcription. The differential biology of luminal early-age onset breast cancer needs a deeper genomic investigation. PMID:29854292

  13. Population-based trends in pregnancy hypertension and pre-eclampsia: an international comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jane B; Algert, Charles S; Antonsen, Sussie; Chalmers, James; Cnattingius, Sven; Gokhale, Manjusha; Kotelchuck, Milton; Melve, Kari K; Langridge, Amanda; Morris, Carole; Morris, Jonathan M; Nassar, Natasha; Norman, Jane E; Norrie, John; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Walker, Robin; Weir, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare international trends in pre-eclampsia rates and in overall pregnancy hypertension rates (including gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia). Design Population data (from birth and/or hospital records) on all women giving birth were available from Australia (two states), Canada (Alberta), Denmark, Norway, Scotland, Sweden and the USA (Massachusetts) for a minimum of 6 years from 1997 to 2007. All countries used the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, except Massachusetts which used the 9th revision. There were no major changes to the diagnostic criteria or methods of data collection in any country during the study period. Population characteristics as well as rates of pregnancy hypertension and pre-eclampsia were compared. Results Absolute rates varied across the populations as follows: pregnancy hypertension (3.6% to 9.1%), pre-eclampsia (1.4% to 4.0%) and early-onset pre-eclampsia (0.3% to 0.7%). Pregnancy hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia rates declined over time in most populations. This was unexpected given that factors associated with pregnancy hypertension such as pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal age are generally increasing. However, there was also a downward shift in gestational age with fewer pregnancies reaching 40 weeks. Conclusion The rate of pregnancy hypertension and pre-eclampsia decreased in northern Europe and Australia from 1997 to 2007, but increased in Massachusetts. The use of a different International Classification of Diseases coding version in Massachusetts may contribute to the difference in trend. Elective delivery prior to the due date is the most likely explanation for the decrease observed in Europe and Australia. Also, the use of interventions that reduce the risk of pregnancy hypertension and/or progression to pre-eclampsia (low-dose aspirin, calcium supplementation and early delivery for mild hypertension) may have contributed to the

  14. Changes of placental syndecan-1 expression in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Szilvia; Xu, Yi; Romero, Roberto; Fule, Tibor; Karaszi, Katalin; Bhatti, Gaurav; Varkonyi, Tibor; Varkonyi, Ildiko; Krenacs, Tibor; Dong, Zhong; Tarca, Adi L.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S.; Papp, Zoltan; Kovalszky, Ilona; Than, Nandor Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is characterized by maternal systemic anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory states. Syndecan-1 is a cell surface proteoglycan expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast, which plays an important role in angiogenesis and resolution of inflammation. Our aim was to examine placental syndecan-1 expression in preeclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome. Methods Placentas were obtained from women in the following groups: (1) late-onset preeclampsia (n=8); (2) early-onset preeclampsia without (n=7) and (3) with HELLP syndrome (n=8); (4) preterm controls (n=5); and (5) term controls (n=9). Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed from paraffin-embedded placentas. TMA slides were immunostained for syndecan-1 and evaluated using microscopy, virtual microscopy, and semi-automated image analysis. Maternal sera from patients with preeclampsia (n=49) and controls (n=32) were immunoassayed for syndecan-1. BeWo cells were treated with Forskolin or Latrunculin-B, or kept in ischemic conditions. SDC1 expression and syndecan-1 production were investigated with qRT-PCR, confocal microscopy, and immunoassays. Results Syndecan-1 was localized to the syncytiotrophoblast apical membrane in normal placentas. Syndecan-1 immunoscores were higher in late-onset preeclampsia (p=0.0001) and early-onset preeclampsia with or without HELLP syndrome (p=0.02 for both) than in controls. Maternal serum syndecan-1 concentration was lower in preeclampsia (median: 673ng/ml, interquartile range: 459-1161ng/ml) than in controls (1158ng/ml, 622-1480ng/ml). SDC1 expression and syndecan-1 immunostainings in BeWo cells and syndecan-1 concentrations in supernatants increased during cell differentiation. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with Latrunculin-B decreased syndecan-1 release, while ischemic conditions increased it. Conclusions Syncytiotrophoblastic syndecan-1 expression depends on the differentiation of villous trophoblasts, and trophoblastic syndecan-1 release is decreased in

  15. Preeclampsia and health risks later in life: an immunological link.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bin; Sharma, Surendra

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy represents a period of physiological stress, and although this stress is experienced for a very modest portion of life, it is now recognized as a window to women's future health, often by unmasking predispositions to conditions that only become symptomatic later in life. In normal pregnancy, the mother experiences mild metabolic syndrome-like condition through week 20 of gestation. A pronounced phenotype of metabolic syndrome may program pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious complication with a myriad of manifestations for mother and offspring. This pregnancy syndrome is a polygenic disease and has been now linked to higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several other disorders associated with vulnerable organs. Furthermore, the offspring born to preeclamptic mothers also exhibit an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mental disorders during adulthood. This suggests that preeclampsia not only exposes the mother and the fetus to complications during pregnancy but also programs chronic diseases in later life. The etiology of preeclampsia is thought to be primarily associated with poor placentation and entails excessive maternal inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. It is well established now that the maternal immune system and the placenta are involved in a highly choreographed cross-talk that underlies adequate spiral artery remodeling required for uteroplacental perfusion and free flow of nutrients to the fetus. Since normal pregnancy is associated with a sequence of events represented by temporal events of inflammation (implantation), anti-inflammation (gestation), and inflammation (parturition), it is quite possible that unscheduled alterations in these regulatory responses may lead to pathologic consequences. Although it is not clear whether immunological alterations occur early in pregnancy, it is proposed that dysregulated systemic and placental immunity contribute to impaired

  16. Association between decreased plasma levels of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G and severe pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    He, Yingdong; Chen, Shi; Huang, He; Chen, Qian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of different isoforms of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G) in maternal plasma during early and late pregnancy, and to investigate the expression of sHLA-G isoforms in women with early or late-onset severe preeclampsia. This prospective, nested, case-control study was performed in 24 early-onset severe preeclamptic, 34 late-onset severe preeclamptic, and 74 uncomplicated pregnant women. Plasma levels of sHLA-G1/5 were measured using ELISA. Plasma sHLA-G1 levels in women with late-onset severe preeclampsia were markedly lower compared with normal controls (median: 0 vs. 1.22 ng/mL) at the first trimester, and plasma sHLA-G1 levels in women with early-onset severe preeclampsia were markedly lower compared with normal controls at the second (median: 0 vs. 1.24 ng/mL) and third (median: 0 vs. 1.34 ng/mL) trimesters. There was no difference between the late-onset and early-onset groups at three trimesters. As for sHLA-G5, there was no difference in concentrations among the three groups at any time point. However, compared with controls, more women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia had undetectable sHLA-G5 levels in the first (71.4% and 76.2% vs. 14.1%), second (75.0% and 73.3% vs. 19.0%), and third (100.0% and 70.4% vs. 14.8%, respectively) trimester (all P<0.05). sHLA-G1 levels in the first (odds ratio [OR]=0.254, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.109-0.591, P=0.010), second (OR=0.315, 95% CI=0.158-0.627, P=0.001), and third (OR=0.170, 95% CI=0.054-0.533, P=0.002) trimester was a risk factor for severe preeclampsia. Severe preeclampsia was associated with low/undetectable maternal plasma levels of sHLA-G. Low sHLA-G1 levels might be a risk marker for severe preeclampsia.

  17. Correlates and prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with early- and late-onset type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, M; Liu, X; Cui, W; Rampersad, S; Li, F; Lin, Z; Yang, P; Li, H; Sheng, C; Cheng, X; Qu, S

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism between male patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset type 2 diabetes. A total of 122 male patients with early-onset T2DM (diagnosis age ≤40 years) and 100 male patients with late-onset T2DM (diagnosis age >40 years) were recruited from our in-patient department between 1 January 2013 and 28 December 2015. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone. The mean onset age was 29.86 ± 6.31 and 54.47 ± 9.97 years old in the early-onset group and late-onset group, respectively. Compared with late-onset T2DM, those with early-onset T2DM had a higher proportion of new-onset diabetes, were more likely to be obese, and had worse glycemic control, lipid control, and lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The prevalence of hypogonadism was much higher in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group (48.0% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.05). The rate of secondary hypogonadism in the early-onset group and late-onset group were 44.3% and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.05). Obesity, waist circumference, and SHBG were significantly associated with serum total testosterone level in all, early-onset, and late-onset T2DM. Both all and early-onset T2DM groups had positive correlations between total testosterone and fasting C-peptide, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Our results indicate that in a population of admission to a large urban hospital in China, the prevalence of hypogonadism was higher in the patients with early-onset T2DM than that of late-onset T2DM. This prevalence might be attributable to greater obesity, worse lipid control, and lower SHBG levels in those patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Superimposed Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Guedes-Martins, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Superimposed preeclampsia refers to women with chronic arterial hypertension (primary or secondary) who develop preeclampsia (PE). Because hypertension affects 5-15 % of pregnancies, it is itself a matter of concern. However, this concern should be permanent, given the increased risk of the hypertension worsening and, particularly, the appearance of superimposed PE. The search for factors that underlie or promote the development of this disorder has been the subject of intense research. However, despite the wealth of knowledge, the cause or causes remain to be determined.

  19. Evidence for apolipoprotein E {epsilon}4 association in early-onset Alzheimer`s patients with late-onset relatives

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Tur, J.; Delacourte, A.; Chartier-Harlin, M.C.

    1995-12-18

    Recently several reports have extended the apolipoprotein E (APOE) {epsilon}4 association found in late-onset Alzheimer`s disease (LOAD) patients to early-onset (EO) AD patients. We have studied this question in a large population of 119 EOAD patients (onset {<=}60 years) in which family history was carefully assessed and in 109 controls. We show that the APOE {epsilon}A allele frequency is increased only in the subset of patients who belong to families where LOAD secondary cases are present. Our sampling scheme permits us to demonstrate that, for an individual, bearing at least one {epsilon}4 allele increases both the risk of AD beforemore » age 60 and the probability of belonging to a family with late-onset affected subjects. Our results suggest that a subset of EOAD cases shares a common determinism with LOAD cases. 19 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  20. Complications of growth-sparing surgery in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Emans, John B

    2010-12-01

    Review of available literature, authors' opinion. To describe complications associated with growth-sparing surgical treatment of early onset scoliosis (EOS). EOS has many potential etiologies and is often associated with thoracic insufficiency syndrome. The growth of the spine, thorax, and lungs are interrelated, and severe EOS typically involves disturbance of the normal development of all 3. Severe EOS may be treated during growth with surgical techniques, intended to preserve growth while controlling deformity, the most common of which are spinal "growing rods" (GR) or "vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib" (VEPTR). Although presently popular, there is minimal long-term data on the outcome of growth-sparing surgical techniques on EOS. Review. Potential adverse outcomes of GR or VEPTR treatment of EOS include failure to prevent progressive deformity or thoracic insufficiency syndrome, an unacceptably short or stiff spine or deformed thorax, increased family burden of care, and potentially negative psychological consequences from repeated surgical interventions. Neither technique reliably controls all deformity over the entirety of growth period. Infections are common to both GR and VEPTR. Rod breakage and spontaneous premature spinal fusion beneath rods are troublesome complications in GR, whereas drift of rib attachments and chest wall scarring are anticipated complications in VEPTR treatment. Indications for GR and VEPTR overlap, but thoracogenic scoliosis and severe upper thoracic kyphosis are best treated by VEPTR and GR, respectively. Surgeons planning treatment of EOS should anticipate the many complications common to growth-sparing surgery, share their knowledge with families, and use complications as one factor in the complex decision as to when and whether to initiate the repetitive surgeries associated with GR or VEPTR in the treatment of severe EOS.

  1. Elevation of urinary adipsin in preeclampsia: correlation with urine protein concentration and the potential use for a rapid diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Rong; Gao, Linbo; Wang, Yanyun; Song, Changping; Gong, Yunhui; Jia, Jin; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Li; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Huaizhong

    2014-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia are essential for prevention of seizure development and fetus maturation. Although various methods have been developed for predicting or monitoring the onset of preeclampsia, a simple assay that can be used as a home or point of care test remains unavailable. We attempted to find a urinary protein that could be used as a biomarker for developing such a test. Urinary samples were collected from 124 preeclampsia and 135 healthy pregnant women for screening using a protein array technology and quantification by ELISA. A urinary protein, adipsin, was found significantly increased, and the adipsin creatinine ratio was closely correlated with the urinary 24-hour protein in patients with preeclampsia. When combined with the increased diastolic blood pressure (≥90 mm Hg), the sensitivity was 90.3% and the specificity reached 100.0% for preeclampsia diagnosis. We then developed a laminar flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis, and the sensitivity and specificity were 89.04% and 100%, respectively, when combined with increased diastolic blood pressure. Because of the easiness of sample collection, assay conduction, and result interpretation, this urine test can be potentially used as a home test for monitoring preeclampsia onset for high-risk pregnant women and as a rapid test for a preliminary diagnosis for emergency patients at hospitals. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Deficits in Facial Expression Recognition in Male Adolescents with Early-Onset or Adolescence-Onset Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Calder, Andrew J.; Stollery, Sarah J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We examined whether conduct disorder (CD) is associated with deficits in facial expression recognition and, if so, whether these deficits are specific to the early-onset form of CD, which emerges in childhood. The findings could potentially inform the developmental taxonomic theory of antisocial behaviour, which suggests that…

  3. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Rationale, Design, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E.; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early…

  4. Social Status of Adolescents with an Early Onset of Externalizing Behavior: The SNARE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Aart; Harakeh, Zeena; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). Building on Moffitt's dual-taxonomy model, it was hypothesized that early onset adolescents were more popular, but not necessarily more…

  5. Verbal and Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…

  6. Hypoxia-activated genes from early placenta are elevated in Preeclampsia, but not in Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, Daniel; Mondon, Françoise; Garcès-Duran, Alexandra; Mignot, Thérèse-Marie; Robert, Brigitte; Rebourcet, Régis; Jammes, Hélène; Chelbi, Sonia T; Quetin, Frédérique; Marceau, Geoffrey; Sapin, Vincent; Piumi, François; Danan, Jean-Louis; Rigourd, Virginie; Carbonne, Bruno; Ferré, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    Background As a first step to explore the possible relationships existing between the effects of low oxygen pressure in the first trimester placenta and placental pathologies developing from mid-gestation, two subtracted libraries totaling 2304 cDNA clones were constructed. For achieving this, two reciprocal suppressive/subtractive hybridization procedures (SSH) were applied to early (11 weeks) human placental villi after incubation either in normoxic or in hypoxic conditions. The clones from both libraries (1440 hypoxia-specific and 864 normoxia-specific) were spotted on nylon macroarrays. Complex cDNAs probes prepared from placental villi (either from early pregnancy, after hypoxic or normoxic culture conditions, or near term for controls or pathological placentas) were hybridized to the membranes. Results Three hundred and fifty nine clones presenting a hybridization signal above the background were sequenced and shown to correspond to 276 different genes. Nine of these genes are mitochondrial, while 267 are nuclear. Specific expression profiles characteristic of preeclampsia (PE) could be identified, as well as profiles specific of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). Focusing on the chromosomal distribution of the fraction of genes that responded in at least one hybridization experiment, we could observe a highly significant chromosomal clustering of 54 genes into 8 chromosomal regions, four of which containing imprinted genes. Comparative mapping data indicate that these imprinted clusters are maintained in synteny in mice, and apparently in cattle and pigs, suggesting that the maintenance of such syntenies is requested for achieving a normal placental physiology in eutherian mammals. Conclusion We could demonstrate that genes induced in PE were also genes highly expressed under hypoxic conditions (P = 5.10-5), which was not the case for isolated IUGR. Highly expressed placental genes may be in syntenies conserved interspecifically, suggesting that the

  7. Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review to Assess the Role of Soluble FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 and Placenta Growth Factor Ratio in Prediction of Preeclampsia: The SaPPPhirE Study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swati; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Redman, Christopher; Vatish, Manu

    2018-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Numerous candidate biomarkers have been proposed for diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia. Measurement of maternal circulating angiogenesis biomarker as the ratio of sFlt-1 (soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1; an antiangiogenic factor)/PlGF (placental growth factor; an angiogenic factor) reflects the antiangiogenic balance that characterizes incipient or overt preeclampsia. The ratio increases before the onset of the disease and thus may help in predicting preeclampsia. We conducted a meta-analysis to explore the predictive accuracy of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia. We included 15 studies with 534 cases with preeclampsia and 19 587 controls. The ratio has a pooled sensitivity of 80% (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.88), specificity of 92% (95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.96), positive likelihood ratio of 10.5 (95% confidence interval, 6.2-18.0), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.35) in predicting preeclampsia in both high- and low-risk patients. Most of the studies have not made a distinction between early- and late-onset disease, and therefore, the analysis for it could not be done. It can prove to be a valuable screening tool for preeclampsia and may also help in decision-making, treatment stratification, and better resource allocation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Impact of Road Traffic Pollution on Pre-eclampsia and Pregnancy-induced Hypertensive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Ketzel, Matthias; Grandström, Charlotta; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Road traffic is a major source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with hypertension in adults, but pregnant women have been less studied. Methods: We examined single and joint effects of ambient air pollution and road traffic noise on pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997–2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete covariate data and residential address history from conception until live born birth. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and noise from road traffic (Lden) were modeled at all addresses. Outcome and covariate data were derived from registries, hospital records, and questionnaires. Results: A 10-µg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure during first trimester was associated with increased risk of pre-eclampsia (n = 1,880, adjusted odds ratio = 1.07 [95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.14]) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (n = 2,430, adjusted odds ratio = 1.07 [1.01, 1.13]). A 10 dB higher road traffic noise was also associated with increased risk of pre-eclampsia (1.10 [1.02, 1.18]) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (1.08 [1.02, 1.15]). For both exposures, the associations were strongest for mild pre-eclampsia (n = 1,393) and early-onset pre-eclampsia (n = 671), whereas higher risk for severe pre-eclampsia (n = 487) was not evident. In mutually adjusted models, estimates for both exposures decreased and only the association between NO2 and mild pre-eclampsia remained. Conclusions: Road traffic may increase the risk of pre-eclampsia and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy through exposure to both ambient air pollution and noise, although associations with the two exposures were generally not found to be independent of one another. See video abstract, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B112. PMID:27648591

  9. Diagnosis and prognosis of early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Gu, Wei; Hou, Yanyan

    2017-11-07

    To explore the gestational age of early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis (ICP) of pregnancy, and to analyze the relationship between the clinical biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes in order to arrive at a reasonable diagnosis and administer appropriate treatment. This is a retrospective clinical study. We selected 47,260 pregnant women who received prenatal care and underwent childbirth at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University from January 2014 to December 2016 for participating in this study. Of these 47,260 women, 407 developed ICP. To calculate the gestational week cutoff between early- and late-onset ICP by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Youden's index. Two independent samples t tests and chi square test were used to compare the differences in biochemical indices and pregnancy outcomes between the two groups. We found that 34 weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. Early-onset ICP is characterized by early onset, long disease duration and a higher incidence of preterm labor, fetal distress, and fetal low birth weight compared to late-onset ICP. Thirty-four weeks is the most appropriate cutoff gestational age for the diagnosis of early-onset ICP. And to reduce the adverse pregnancy outcomes in cases of early-onset ICP, we suggest prolonging gestation up to 37 weeks as far as possible before selecting iatrogenic birth.

  10. Early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorders in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giuseppe; Albert, Umberto; Salvi, Virginio; Pessina, Enrico; Bogetto, Filippo

    2008-03-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often emerges in childhood or adolescence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adult patients with prepuberal onset differ from subjects with later onset in terms of personality disorder comorbidity. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders was used to assess 148 patients with a principal diagnosis of OCD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The following two subgroups of subjects were selected according to the age at onset of symptomatology: patients with an early-onset (< or =10 years), and patients with a later onset (> or =17 years). Of the 148 patients screened for the present study, 33 (22.3%) had an early onset and 1369 (46.6%) had a later onset. With regard to personality disorders, early-onset patients showed more OC personality disorders (OCPD) than later onset patients. Our finding suggests that OCD in childhood increases the risk for developing OCPD in adulthood, or that early-onset OCD and OCPD share a common pathogenesis.

  11. Early onset prostate cancer has a significant genetic component.

    PubMed

    Lange, Ethan M; Salinas, Claudia A; Zuhlke, Kimberly A; Ray, Anna M; Wang, Yunfei; Lu, Yurong; Ho, Lindsey A; Luo, Jingchun; Cooney, Kathleen A

    2012-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) affects more than 190,000 men each year with ∼10% of men diagnosed at ≤55 years, that is, early onset (EO) PCa. Based on historical findings for other cancers, EO PCa likely reflects a stronger underlying genetic etiology. We evaluated the association between EO PCa and previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 754 Caucasian cases from the Michigan Prostate Cancer Genetics Project (mean 49.8 years at diagnosis), 2,713 Caucasian controls from Illumina's iControlDB database and 1,163 PCa cases diagnosed at >55 years from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility Study (CGEMS). Significant associations existed for 13 of 14 SNPs (rs9364554 on 6q25, rs10486567 on 7p15, rs6465657 on 7q21, rs6983267 on 8q24, rs1447295 on 8q24, rs1571801 on 9q33, rs10993994 on 10q11, rs4962416 on 10q26, rs7931342 on 11q13, rs4430796 on 17q12, rs1859962 on 17q24.3, rs2735839 on 19q13, and rs5945619 on Xp11.22, but not rs2660753 on 3p12). EO PCa cases had a significantly greater cumulative number of risk alleles (mean 12.4) than iControlDB controls (mean 11.2; P = 2.1 × 10(-33)) or CGEMS cases (mean 11.9; P = 1.7 × 10(-5)). Notably, EO PCa cases had a higher frequency of the risk allele than CGEMS cases at 11 of 13 associated SNPs, with significant differences for five SNPs. EO PCa cases diagnosed at <50 (mean 12.8) also had significantly more risk alleles than those diagnosed at 50-55 years (mean 12.1; P = 0.0003). These results demonstrate the potential for identifying PCa-associated genetic variants by focusing on the subgroup of men diagnosed with EO disease. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Early Onset Prostate Cancer Has A Significant Genetic Component

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Ethan M.; Salinas, Claudia A.; Zuhlke, Kimberly A.; Ray, Anna M.; Wang, Yunfei; Lu, Yurong; Ho, Lindsey A.; Luo, Jingchun; Cooney, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prostate cancer (PCa) affects more than 190,000 men each year with ~10% of men diagnosed at ≤ 55 years, i.e., early onset (EO) PCa. Based on historical findings for other cancers, EO PCa likely reflects a stronger underlying genetic etiology. METHODS We evaluated the association between EO PCa and previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 754 Caucasian cases from the Michigan Prostate Cancer Genetics Project (mean 49.8 years at diagnosis), 2,713 Caucasian controls from Illumina’s iControlDB database and 1,163 PCa cases diagnosed at >55 years from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility Study (CGEMS). RESULTS Significant associations existed for 13 of 14 SNPs (rs9364554 on 6q25, rs10486567 on 7p15, rs6465657 on 7q21, rs6983267 on 8q24, rs1447295 on 8q24, rs1571801 on 9q33, rs10993994 on 10q11, rs4962416 on 10q26, rs7931342 on 11q13, rs4430796 on 17q12, rs1859962 on 17q24.3, rs2735839 on 19q13, and rs5945619 on Xp11.22, but not rs2660753 on 3p12). EO PCa cases had a significantly greater cumulative number of risk alleles (mean 12.4) than iControlDB controls (mean 11.2; p=2.1×10−33) or CGEMS cases (mean 11.9; p=1.7 × 10−5). Notably, EO PCa cases had a higher frequency of the risk allele than CGEMS cases at 11 of13 associated SNPs, with significant differences for five SNPs. EO PCa cases diagnosed at <50 (mean 12.8) also had significantly more risk alleles than those diagnosed at 50–55 years (mean 12.1; p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate the potential for identifying PCa-associated genetic variants by focusing on the subgroup of men diagnosed with EO disease. PMID:21538423

  13. Early onset scoliosis with intraspinal anomalies: management with growing rod.

    PubMed

    Jayaswal, Arvind; Kandwal, Pankaj; Goswami, Ankur; Vijayaraghavan, G; Jariyal, Ashok; Upendra, B N; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of growing rod (GR) in the management of Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) with intraspinal anomalies. The effect of repeated distractions following GR, in the presence of intraspinal anomalies has not been studied. During 2007-2012, 46 patients underwent fusionless surgery. Out of these 46 patients, 13 patients had one or more intraspinal anomalies. 11 patients had undergone prior neurosurgical procedure while 2 (filum terminale lipoma and syringomyelia) did not. A total of 88 procedures were conducted during the treatment period; 13 index surgeries, 74 distractions of GR and 1 unplanned surgery. The age at surgery was 6.8 ± 2.5 years (3.5-12 years). 11 patients had congenital scoliosis and 2 had idiopathic scoliosis. A total of 19 (41.30 %) intraspinal anomalies [Tethered Cord Syndrome (TCS) 08, Split Cord Malformation (SCM) 08, Syringomyelia 01, Meningomyelocele 01, Filum terminale Lipoma 01] were seen. The average lengthening procedures per patient were 5.7 (4-9) with distraction interval of 6.7 (6-7.25) months. Pre-operative Cobb angle was 78.50 ± 18.1 (54-114°) and improved to 53.10 ± 16.70 (36-84°) at final follow-up. A total of 15 complications related to implant (9), wound (2), anesthesia (2) and neurological (2) occurred in 7 patients. Among the two neurological complications, one patient sustained fall in the post-op period and reported to the emergency department with paraplegia and broken proximal screw. While other patient experienced MEP changes during index procedure. None of the patients had any neurological complications during repeated lengthening procedures. The most common cord anomalies associated with EOS in our study are TCS and SCM. Although presence of previous intraspinal anomaly does not seem to increase the incidence of neurological deficit, use of neuromonitoring is advisable for all index procedure and selected distractions. Level 4 (case series).

  14. The Value of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio for Detecting Early-onset Neonatal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Can, Emrah; Hamilcikan, Şahin; Can, Ceren

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between neonate early-onset sepsis (EOS) and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) of term neonates. This prospective observational study was conducted with term neonates diagnosed with EOS compared with 44 healthy controls. Exclusion criteria were prematurity, postmaturity, small or large for gestational age according to week of pregnancy, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, congenital major anomalies, and cyanotic congenital heart disease. A total of 122 term neonates were included in the study. Of these, 78 were diagnosed with EOS and 44 were healthy controls. Tachycardia and apnea with bradycardia were the most common clinical signs of the onset of EOS in neonates in the EOS group. This group had significantly higher neutrophil counts, axillary temperatures, NLRs, PLRs, C-reactive proteins, and procalcitonin levels compared with the control group. There was a positive association between neutrophil counts, NLR, and PLR in the EOS group. An NLR of 6.76 was determined as the predictive cutoff value of neonate EOS (sensitivity 97.4%; specificity 100%; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.99; P=0.001). A PLR of 94.05 was determined as the predictive cutoff value of neonate EOS (sensitivity 97.4; specificity 100%; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.93; P=0.001). NLRs and PLRs were positively correlated with EOS in term neonates, and these ratios can be used as diagnostic adjunct tests for neonate EOS workups.

  15. Comparative gene expression profiling of placentas from patients with severe pre-eclampsia and unexplained fetal growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been well documented that pre-eclampsia and unexplained fetal growth restriction (FGR) have a common etiological background, but little is known about their linkage at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms underlying pre-eclampsia and unexplained FGR. Methods We analyzed differentially expressed genes in placental tissue from severe pre-eclamptic pregnancies (n = 8) and normotensive pregnancies with or (n = 8) without FGR (n = 8) using a microarray method. Results A subset of the FGR samples showed a high correlation coefficient overall in the microarray data from the pre-eclampsia samples. Many genes that are known to be up-regulated in pre-eclampsia are also up-regulated in FGR, including the anti-angiogenic factors, FLT1 and ENG, believed to be associated with the onset of maternal symptoms of pre-eclampsia. A total of 62 genes were found to be differentially expressed in both disorders. However, gene set enrichment analysis for these differentially expressed genes further revealed higher expression of TP53-downstream genes in pre-eclampsia compared with FGR. TP53-downstream apoptosis-related genes, such as BCL6 and BAX, were found to be significantly more up-regulated in pre-eclampsia than in FGR, although the caspases are expressed at equivalent levels. Conclusions Our current data indicate a common pathophysiology for FGR and pre-eclampsia, leading to an up-regulation of placental anti-angiogenic factors. However, our findings also suggest that it may possibly be the excretion of these factors into the maternal circulation through the TP53-mediated early-stage apoptosis of trophoblasts that leads to the maternal symptoms of pre-eclampsia. PMID:21810232

  16. Increased genetic vulnerability to smoking at CHRNA5 in early-onset smokers.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Sarah M; Short, Susan E; Saccone, Nancy L; Culverhouse, Robert; Chen, LiShiun; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Coon, Hilary; Han, Younghun; Stephens, Sarah H; Sun, Juzhong; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Geller, Frank; Gubjartsson, Daniel; Hansel, Nadia N; Jiang, Chenhui; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Liu, Zhen; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Rawal, Rajesh; Rosenberger, Albert; Scheet, Paul; Shaffer, John R; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R; Vink, Jacqueline M; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Wheeler, William; Xiao, Xiangjun; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H; Balmforth, Anthony J; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Beaty, Terri; Bennett, Siiri; Bergen, Andrew W; Boyd, Heather A; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle M; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hewitt, John K; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jensen, Majken K; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kittner, Steven J; Konte, Bettina; Korhonen, Tellervo; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M; Mathias, Rasika A; McNeil, Daniel W; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Muley, Thomas; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari; Pergadia, Michele; Polasek, Ozren; Ramos, Erin M; Ripatti, Samuli; Risch, Angela; Ruczinski, Ingo; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Styrkársdóttir, Unnur; Terracciano, Antonio; Uda, Manuela; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wu, Xifeng; Abecasis, Goncalo; Barnes, Kathleen; Bickeböller, Heike; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caporaso, Neil; Duan, Jubao; Edenberg, Howard J; Francks, Clyde; Gejman, Pablo V; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Kendler, Kenneth S; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F; Marazita, Mary L; Marchini, Jonathan; Melbye, Mads; Mitchell, Braxton D; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nöthen, Markus M; Penninx, Brenda W; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J; Sanders, Alan R; Schwartz, Ann G; Shete, Sanjay; Shi, Jianxin; Spitz, Margaret; Stefansson, Kari; Swan, Gary E; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Völzke, Henry; Wei, Qingyi; Wichmann, H-Erich; Amos, Christopher I; Breslau, Naomi; Cannon, Dale S; Ehringer, Marissa; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G; Stevens, Victoria L; Stitzel, Jerry A; Weiss, Robert B; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968. To determine whether the association between rs16969968 and smoking is modified by age at onset of regular smoking. Primary data. Available genetic studies containing measures of CPD and the genotype of rs16969968 or its proxy. Uniform statistical analysis scripts were run locally. Starting with 94,050 ever-smokers from 43 studies, we extracted the heavy smokers (CPD >20) and light smokers (CPD ≤10) with age-at-onset information, reducing the sample size to 33,348. Each study was stratified into early-onset smokers (age at onset ≤16 years) and late-onset smokers (age at onset >16 years), and a logistic regression of heavy vs light smoking with the rs16969968 genotype was computed for each stratum. Meta-analysis was performed within each age-at-onset stratum. Individuals with 1 risk allele at rs16969968 who were early-onset smokers were significantly more likely to be heavy smokers in adulthood (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.36-1.55; n = 13,843) than were carriers of the risk allele who were late-onset smokers (OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.21-1.33, n = 19,505) (P = .01). These results highlight an increased genetic vulnerability to smoking in early-onset smokers.

  17. Social Anxiety and Onset of Drinking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Cummins, Kevin M.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines several types of social anxiety that may be associated with the onset of alcohol use in middle school students, and whether the relationship differs by sex and grade. Students in the seventh and eighth grades (N = 2,621) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a measure of lifetime drinking via schoolwide…

  18. Differential Neurodevelopmental Trajectories in Patients With Early-Onset Bipolar and Schizophrenia Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders share not only clinical features but also some risk factors such as genetic markers and childhood adversity, while other risk factors such as urbanicity and obstetric complications seem to be specific to schizophrenia. An intriguing question is whether the well-established abnormal neurodevelopment present in many children and adolescents who eventually develop schizophrenia is also present in bipolar patients. The literature on adult bipolar patients is controversial. We report data on a subgroup of patients with pediatric-onset psychotic bipolar disorder who seem to share some developmental trajectories with patients with early-onset schizophrenia. These early-onset psychotic bipolar patients have low intelligence quotient, more neurological signs, reduced frontal gray matter at the time of their first psychotic episode, and greater brain changes than healthy controls in a pattern similar to early-onset schizophrenia cases. However, patients with early-onset schizophrenia seem to have more social impairment, developmental abnormalities (eg, language problems), and lower academic achievement in childhood than early-onset bipolar patients. We suggest that some of these abnormal developmental trajectories are more related to the phenotypic features (eg, early-onset psychotic symptoms) of these 2 syndromes than to categorically defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders. PMID:24371326

  19. Are early-onset cannabis smokers at an increased risk of depression spells?

    PubMed

    Fairman, Brian J; Anthony, James C

    2012-04-01

    A recent research focus is a set of hypothesized adult-onset mental health disturbances possibly due to early-onset cannabis use (EOCU, onset <18 years). We seek to estimate the suspected EOCU-associated excess odds of experiencing an incident depression spell during adulthood, with comparisons to never cannabis smokers and those with delayed cannabis onset (i.e., not starting to smoke cannabis until adulthood). The National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) assess non-institutionalized community-dwelling residents of the United States after probability sampling each year. In aggregate, the NSDUH analytical sample included 173,775 adult participants from survey years 2005-2009 (74-76% of designated respondents). Standardized computer-assisted interviews collected information on background determinants, age of first cannabis use, and depression spell onset. Logistic regression was used to estimate EOCU-depression spell associations in the form of odds ratios, with statistical adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, years of cannabis involvement, tobacco cigarette onset, and alcohol onset. About 1 in 10 experienced a depression spell during adulthood, and both early-onset and adult-onset cannabis smokers had a modest excess odds of a depression spell compared to never cannabis smokers, even with covariate adjustment (OR=1.7 and 1.8, respectively; both p<0.001). Estimates for early- and adult-onset cannabis smokers did not statistically differ from one another. Shared diathesis that might influence both EOCU and adult-onset depression spell is controlled no more than partially, as will be true until essentially all known early-life shared vulnerabilities are illuminated. Cannabis smoking initiated at any age signals a modest increased risk of a spell of depression in adulthood, even when adjusted for suspected confounding variables studied here. Delaying cannabis onset until adulthood does not appear to diminish the cannabis-associated risk. Copyright © 2011

  20. Are early-onset cannabis smokers at an increased risk of depression spells?

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Brian J.; Anthony, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent research focus is a set of hypothesized adult-onset mental health disturbances possibly due to early-onset cannabis use (EOCU, onset <18 years). We seek to estimate the suspected EOCU-associated excess odds of experiencing an incident depression spell during adulthood, with comparisons to never cannabis smokers and those with delayed cannabis onset (i.e., not starting to smoke cannabis until adulthood). Methods The National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) assess non-institutionalized community-dwelling residents of the United States after probability sampling each year. In aggregate, the NSDUH analytical sample included 173,775 adult participants from survey years 2005–2009 (74–76% of designated respondents). Standardized computer-assisted interviews collected information on background determinants, age of first cannabis use, and depression spell onset. Logistic regression was used to estimate EOCU-depression spell associations in the form of odds ratios, with statistical adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, years of cannabis involvement, tobacco cigarette onset, and alcohol onset. Results About 1 in 10 experienced a depression spell during adulthood, and both early-onset and adult-onset cannabis smokers had a modest excess odds of a depression spell compared to never cannabis smokers, even with covariate adjustment (OR = 1.7 & 1.8, respectively; both p<0.001). Estimates for early- and adult-onset cannabis smokers did not statistically differ from one another. Limitations Shared diathesis that might influence both EOCU and adult-onset depression spell is controlled no more than partially, as will be true until essentially all known early-life shared vulnerabilities are illuminated. Conclusion Cannabis smoking initiated at any age signals a modest increased risk of a spell of depression in adulthood, even when adjusted for suspected confounding variables studied here. Delaying cannabis onset until adulthood does not appear to

  1. Early-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Subgroup with a Specific Clinical and Familial Pattern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabane, Nadia; Delorme, Richard; Millet, Bruno; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Pauls, David

    2005-01-01

    Background: The familial nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been previously demonstrated. The identification of candidate symptoms such as age at onset may help to disentangle the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder. In this study, the specificity of early-onset OCD was investigated, focusing on the effect of gender,…

  2. Global and Temporal Cortical Folding in Patients with Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttila, Jani; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Burke, Lisa; Corrigall, Richard; Frangou, Sophia; Cachia, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the temporal lobes and alterations in cortical folding in adult on-set schizophrenia are studied using magnetic resonance T1 images of 51 patients. The study showed that patients with early on-set schizophrenia had lower global sulcal indices in both hemispheres and the left collateral sulcus has a lower sulcal index irrespective…

  3. Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia: Recent Trends, Challenges and Future Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nora S.; Gogtay, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Early onset schizophrenia (onset before adulthood) is a rare, severe, and chronic form of schizophrenia. The clinical presentation of schizophrenia at this unusually early age of onset has been associated with premorbid developmental abnormalities, poor response to neuroleptic treatment, greater admission rates, and poor prognosis. This is a brief, condensed review of current treatment strategies for the early onset population highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies for these generally treatment-refractory cases. Based on the current literature, second-generation antipsychotics remain the mainstay of treatment, although current medications provide suboptimal response at best. Based on the adult literature, combining antipsychotic treatment with psychotherapeutic intervention may be a more comprehensive treatment strategy. Indeed, early detection, identification of relevant biomarkers, coupled with advancing knowledge of the neurochemical and neuroanatomic pathways may help design informed and novel treatment strategies. PMID:22485097

  4. Mothers' experience of caring for a child with early onset scoliosis: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education

  5. Deferred and Immediate Imitation in Regressive and Early Onset Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sally J.; Young, Gregory S.; Cook, Ian; Giolzetti, Angelo; Ozonoff, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Deferred imitation has long held a privileged position in early cognitive development, considered an early marker of representational thought with links to language development and symbolic processes. Children with autism have difficulties with several abilities generally thought to be related to deferred imitation: immediate imitation, language,…

  6. [Metabolic side effects of risperidone in early onset schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Goeb, J-L; Marco, S; Duhamel, A; Kechid, G; Bordet, R; Thomas, P; Delion, P; Jardri, R

    2010-06-01

    Atypical antipsychotics have a favourable risk/benefit profile in early onset schizophrenia (EOS). However, despite increasing use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents, their endocrine and metabolic side-effects (weight gain, obesity, and related metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia) are of particular concern, especially within this paediatric population that appears to be at greater risk as compared with adults for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects. In addition to medication, many factors contribute to weigh gain in psychiatric patients, including sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. Excessive weigh gain has several deleterious effects in psychiatric patients, including stigmatization and further social withdrawal, and non compliance with medication. Furthermore, excessive corpulence may evolve to a metabolic syndrome with a high-risk state for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adult age. Because youths are still developing at the time of psychotropic drug exposure, in a context of physiological changes in hormonal and endocrines levels and body composition, most reference values need to be adjusted for gender, age and growth charts. Hence, sex- and age-adjusted BMI percentiles and BMI Z scores are crucial to assess weight gain in children and adolescents. Obesity thresholds have been proposed to define "at risk" categories of patients. In recently issued guidelines, thresholds for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in adults have been set at a 5% increase or one point increase in BMI unit. To date, no definition has reached a consensus in childhood and adolescence. However, some at risk states requiring action are proposed in literature: more than 5% increase in weight within a three-month period; more than half a point increase in BMI Z score; between 85th and 95th BMI percentile plus one adverse health consequence (i.e. hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, or

  7. Preeclampsia, of mice and women

    PubMed Central

    Davisson, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a devastating disorder of pregnancy that affects up to 8% of pregnant women in the United States. The diagnosis of PE is made by the presentation of new-onset hypertension, ≥140 mmHg systolic blood pressure (BP) or ≥90 mmHg diastolic BP, and either proteinuria or another accompanying sign/symptom, such as renal insufficiency, thrombocytopenia, hepatic dysfunction, pulmonary edema, or cerebral/visual. These signs can occur suddenly and without warning. PE that presents before 34 wk of gestation is considered early onset and carries a greater risk for perinatal morbidity/mortality than late-onset PE that occurs at or after 34 wk of gestation. At this time there is no cure for PE, and the only effective treatment is delivery of the baby and placenta. If allowed to progress to eclampsia (PE with neurologic involvement), seizures will occur and possibly death through stroke. PE also carries the risk of significant fetal and neonatal morbidity/mortality in addition to long-term health risks for mother and child. Despite significant research efforts to accurately predict, diagnose, and treat PE, a cure eludes us. Elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms that can cause PE will aid in our ability to accurately prevent, manage, and treat PE to avoid maternal and fetal losses. Intense research efforts are focused on PE, and the mouse has proven to be a useful animal model for investigating molecular mechanisms that may hold the key to unraveling the mysteries of PE in women. PMID:27260843

  8. Preeclampsia, of mice and women.

    PubMed

    Sones, Jenny L; Davisson, Robin L

    2016-08-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a devastating disorder of pregnancy that affects up to 8% of pregnant women in the United States. The diagnosis of PE is made by the presentation of new-onset hypertension, ≥140 mmHg systolic blood pressure (BP) or ≥90 mmHg diastolic BP, and either proteinuria or another accompanying sign/symptom, such as renal insufficiency, thrombocytopenia, hepatic dysfunction, pulmonary edema, or cerebral/visual. These signs can occur suddenly and without warning. PE that presents before 34 wk of gestation is considered early onset and carries a greater risk for perinatal morbidity/mortality than late-onset PE that occurs at or after 34 wk of gestation. At this time there is no cure for PE, and the only effective treatment is delivery of the baby and placenta. If allowed to progress to eclampsia (PE with neurologic involvement), seizures will occur and possibly death through stroke. PE also carries the risk of significant fetal and neonatal morbidity/mortality in addition to long-term health risks for mother and child. Despite significant research efforts to accurately predict, diagnose, and treat PE, a cure eludes us. Elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms that can cause PE will aid in our ability to accurately prevent, manage, and treat PE to avoid maternal and fetal losses. Intense research efforts are focused on PE, and the mouse has proven to be a useful animal model for investigating molecular mechanisms that may hold the key to unraveling the mysteries of PE in women. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Maternal serum bisphenol A levels and risk of pre-eclampsia: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yunzhen; Zhou, Qiongjie; Feng, Liping; Wu, Jiangnan; Xiong, Yu; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-12-01

    Although recent studies have indicated the potential adverse effects of maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on pregnancy such as increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, epidemiological evidence is limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between maternal BPA exposure and the risk of pre-eclampsia. We conducted a nested case-control study among 173 women (74 cases of pre-eclampsia and 99 controls). BPA concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the maternal serum samples collected during 16-20 gestational weeks. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the relationship between maternal serum BPA concentrations and the risk of pre-eclampsia. BPA was detectable (>0.1 µg/l) in 78.6% of the maternal serum samples at three levels: low (<2.24 µg/l), medium (2.24-4.44 µg/l), and high (>4.44 µg/l). BPA concentrations were significantly higher in the serum samples collected from the pre-eclampsia cases than those from controls (median: 3.40 vs. 1.50 µg/l, P < 0.01). With adjustment for maternal age, primiparous and BMI, the odds of developing pre-eclampsia were significantly elevated in subjects with high serum BPA levels compared with those with low levels (adjusted OR = 16.46, 95%CI = 5.42-49.85) regardless of subcategories of pre-eclampsia including severity and onset time. Among the pre-eclampsia subjects, the maternal serum concentration of BPA was not different between the early- and late-onset subjects (median: 3.09 vs. 3.50 µg/l, P = 0.57), but surprisingly higher in mild pre-eclampsia subjects compared with severe pre-eclampsia subjects (median: 5.20 vs. 1.80 µg/l, P < 0.01). These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to high level of BPA could be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  10. Maternal serum bisphenol A levels and risk of pre-eclampsia: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yunzhen; Zhou, Qiongjie; Feng, Liping; Wu, Jiangnan; Xiong, Yu; Li, Xiaotian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Although recent studies have indicated the potential adverse effects of maternal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on pregnancy such as increasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, epidemiological evidence is limited. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between maternal BPA exposure and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Methods We conducted a nested case–control study among 173 women (74 cases of pre-eclampsia and 99 controls). BPA concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the maternal serum samples collected during 16–20 gestational weeks. Multivariate logistic models were used to examine the relationship between maternal serum BPA concentrations and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Results BPA was detectable (>0.1 µg/l) in 78.6% of the maternal serum samples at three levels: low (<2.24 µg/l), medium (2.24-4.44 µg/l), and high (>4.44 µg/l). BPA concentrations were significantly higher in the serum samples collected from the pre-eclampsia cases than those from controls (median: 3.40 vs. 1.50 µg/l, P < 0.01). With adjustment for maternal age, primiparous and BMI, the odds of developing pre-eclampsia were significantly elevated in subjects with high serum BPA levels compared with those with low levels (adjusted OR = 16.46, 95%CI = 5.42–49.85) regardless of subcategories of pre-eclampsia including severity and onset time. Among the pre-eclampsia subjects, the maternal serum concentration of BPA was not different between the early- and late-onset subjects (median: 3.09 vs. 3.50 µg/l, P = 0.57), but surprisingly higher in mild pre-eclampsia subjects compared with severe pre-eclampsia subjects (median: 5.20 vs. 1.80 µg/l, P < 0.01). Conclusions These results demonstrated that maternal exposure to high level of BPA could be associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. PMID:29186464

  11. Isolated early onset anemia after rh isoimmunization: a unique presentation in 3 neonates.

    PubMed

    Louis, Deepak; Oberoi, Sapna; Sundaram, Venkataseshan; Trehan, Amita

    2010-08-01

    Rh isoimmunization manifesting as isolated early onset neonatal anemia has not been reported. We describe the presentation of 3 infants who manifested with isolated early severe anemia. All the infants presented early (3 to 7 d of age) with severe pallor. None had clinically significant jaundice. Evidence for hemolysis was present in all and their direct antiglobulin test was positive. To reduce the hemolysis, immunoglobulin was administered after which their hemoglobin improved. This report highlights the possibility of early onset anemia without significant jaundice as the sole manifestation of Rh isoimmunization and the possible beneficial role of immunoglobulin in them.

  12. The impact of early-onset cannabis use on functional brain correlates of working memory.

    PubMed

    Becker, Benjamin; Wagner, Daniel; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Spuentrup, Elmar; Daumann, Jörg

    2010-08-16

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug. Prevalence rates are particularly high among adolescents. Neuropsychological studies have identified cannabis-associated memory deficits, particularly linked to an early onset of use. However, it remains unclear, whether the age of onset accounts for altered cortical activation patterns usually observed in cannabis users. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine cortical activation during verbal working memory challenge in (1) early-onset (onset before the age of sixteen; n=26) and (2) late-onset cannabis users (age at onset at least sixteen; n=17). Early-onset users showed increased activation in the left superior parietal lobe. Correlational analyses confirmed the association between an earlier start of use and increased activity. Contrariwise neither cumulative dose, frequency nor time since last use was significantly associated with cortical activity. Our findings suggest that an early start of cannabis use is associated with increased cortical activation in adult cannabis users, possibly reflecting suboptimal cortical efficiency during cognitive challenge. The maturing brain might be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis use. However, due to a lack of a non-using control group we cannot exclude alternative interpretations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Compromised JMJD6 histone demethylase activity impacts on VHL gene repression in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Alahari, Sruthi; Post, Martin; Rolfo, Alessandro; Weksberg, Rosanna; Caniggia, Isabella

    2018-01-24

    The von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein is a key executor of the cellular hypoxic response that is compromised in preeclampsia, a serious disorder complicating 5-7% of pregnancies. To date, the mechanisms controlling VHL gene expression in the human placenta remain elusive. We examined VHL epigenetic regulation in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia, a pathology characterized by placental hypoxia. Placentae were obtained from early-onset (E-PE: n=56; <34 weeks of gestation) and late onset preeclampsia (L-PE: n=19; ≥ 34 weeks of gestation). Placentae from healthy normotensive age-matched preterm and term pregnancies (PTC: n=43; TC: n=23) were included as controls. We measured the activity of Jumonji domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6), a Fe2+ and oxygen-dependent histone demethylase, and examined its function in the epigenetic control of VHL. JMJD6 regulates VHL gene expression in the human placenta. VHL downregulation in preeclampsia is dependent on decreased JMJD6 demethylase activity due to hypoxia and reduced Fe2+ bioavailability. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed decreased association of JMJD6 and its histone targets with the VHL promoter. Findings in preeclampsia were corroborated in a murine model of pharmacological hypoxia using FG-4592. Placentae from FG-4592 treated mice exhibited reduced VHL levels, accompanied by placental morphological alterations and reduced pup weights. Notably, Fe2+ supplementation rescued JMJD6 histone demethylase activity in histone from E-PE and FG-4592-treated mice. Our study uncovers novel epigenetic regulation of VHL and its functional consequences for altered oxygen and iron homeostasis in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  14. The association between angiogenic markers and fetal sex: Implications for preeclampsia research.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L B; Jørgensen, J S; Herse, F; Andersen, M S; Christesen, H T; Dechend, R

    2016-09-01

    Current research suggests sexual dimorphism between the male and female fetoplacental units, but with unknown relevance for preeclampsia. We investigated the association between fetal sex and concentrations of the angiogenic markers soluble Fms-like kinase 1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in first and second-third trimester in women with/without preeclampsia, and the impact of fetal sex on the prognostic value of angiogenic markers for preeclampsia. Observational study in a prospective, population-based cohort of 2110 singleton pregnancies with 150 preeclampsia cases. Higher sFlt-1 concentrations were observed for women carrying female fetuses in first trimester (all, 1107.65 vs. 992.27pg/ml; preeclampsia cases, 1118.79 vs. 934.49pg/ml, p<0.05) and in second-third trimester (all, 1130.03 vs. 1043.15pg/ml; preeclampsia, 1480.30 vs. 1152.86pg/ml, p<0.05), with similar findings for the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio concentrations in first (29.67 vs. 27.39 p<0.05) and second-third trimester (3.56 vs. 3.22, p<0.05). In first trimester, log transformed concentrations of PlGF, sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF (all participants) and sFlt-1 (preeclampsia cases) associated with fetal sex in adjusted analyses (p<0.05). In second-third trimester, only log(sFlt-1) associated with fetal sex (all, p=0.028; preeclampsia, p=0.067) In receiver operating curve analysis, prediction of early-onset preeclampsia by sFlt-1/PlGF tended to be superior in pregnancies with female vs. male fetuses (p=0.06). Sexual dimorphism was observed for concentrations of angiogenic markers. Female fetal sex was associated to higher sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio concentrations in both healthy pregnancies and women developing preeclampsia. Fetal sex should be considered in research and clinical use of angiogenic markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Preeclampsia: A challenge also for cardiologists].

    PubMed

    Cournot, M; Lairez, O; Medzech, B

    2018-05-18

    Due to its short-term consequences on perinatal outcome, preeclampsia has been long regarded as an obstetrical disease, strictly confined to a management by OB/GYNs. It has been now widely accepted that preeclampsia is most a systemic inflammatory and systemic vascular disease during pregnancy and then a lifelong risk factor for subsequent cardiovascular event in women's life. The aim of this review is to propose an overview in the current state-of-art in definition, early identification and management of preeclampsia. We will also discuss the growing evidence that support that cardiologists must be fully involved in screening and prevention of preeclampsia during pregnancy and beyond in the subsequent medical follow-up of women who have experienced a preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A Brief Overview of Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Aziz Khan, Farah; Fareed Khan, Mohammad; Tabassum, Hajera

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It occurs in women with first or multiple pregnancies and is characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria. Improper placentation is mainly responsible for the disease. If PE remains untreated, it moves towards more serious condition known as eclampsia. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria, obesity, family history, nulliparity, multiple pregnancies and thrombotic vascular disease contribute as the risk factors for PE. PE triggered metabolic stress causes vascular injury, thus contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in future. This risk appears to be increased especially in women with a history of recurrent PE and eclampsia. Clinically increased serum levels of sFlt-1 and decreased placental growth factor (PIGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represent the severe condition of PE. The clinical findings of sever PE are assorted by the presence of systemic endothelial dysfunction, microangiopathy, the liver (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests and low platelet count, namely HELLP syndrome) and the kidney (proteinuria). The early detection of PE is one of the most important goals in obstetrics. PMID:24400024

  17. A brief overview of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Aziz Khan, Farah; Fareed Khan, Mohammad; Tabassum, Hajera

    2014-02-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It occurs in women with first or multiple pregnancies and is characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria. Improper placentation is mainly responsible for the disease. If PE remains untreated, it moves towards more serious condition known as eclampsia. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria, obesity, family history, nulliparity, multiple pregnancies and thrombotic vascular disease contribute as the risk factors for PE. PE triggered metabolic stress causes vascular injury, thus contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD) in future. This risk appears to be increased especially in women with a history of recurrent PE and eclampsia. Clinically increased serum levels of sFlt-1 and decreased placental growth factor (PIGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represent the severe condition of PE. The clinical findings of sever PE are assorted by the presence of systemic endothelial dysfunction, microangiopathy, the liver (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests and low platelet count, namely HELLP syndrome) and the kidney (proteinuria). The early detection of PE is one of the most important goals in obstetrics.

  18. Early Onset Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Among Chilean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Lorena Sonia; Blanco, Estela; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indicators have increased globally among the pediatric population. MetS indicators in the young elevate their risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders later in life. This study examined early onset obesity as a risk factor for MetS risk in adolescence. Methods A cohort of Chilean participants (N = 673) followed from infancy was assessed at age 5 years and in adolescence (mean age, 16.8 y). Adiposity was measured at both time points; blood pressure and fasting blood samples were assessed in adolescence only. Early onset obesity was defined as a World Health Organization z score of 2 standard deviations (SDs) or more for body mass index (BMI) at age 5 years. We used linear regression to examine the association between early onset obesity and adolescent MetS risk z score, adjusting for covariates. Results Eighteen percent of participants had early onset obesity, and 50% of these remained obese in adolescence. Mean MetS risk z score in adolescence was significantly higher among those with early onset obesity than among those without (1.0; SD, 0.8 vs 0.2; SD, 0.8 [P < .001]). In the multivariable model, early onset obesity independently contributed to a higher MetS risk score in adolescence (β = 0.27, P < .001), controlling for obesity status at adolescence and sex, and explained 39% of the variance in MetS risk. Conclusion Early onset obesity as young as age 5 years relates to higher MetS risk. PMID:29023232

  19. The clinical and histopathological characteristics of early-onset basal cell carcinoma in Asians.

    PubMed

    Yang, M Y; Kim, J M; Kim, G W; Mun, J H; Song, M; Ko, H C; Kim, B S; Kim, H S; Kim, M B

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is by far the most common cancer in white populations. In addition, recent reports have demonstrated an increasing incidence of BCC in Korea. We have observed a significant number of early-onset BCC cases in which the disease occurred in patients younger than 50 years. To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of early-onset BCC in an Asian population, specifically in Koreans. One hundred and five patients with early-onset BCC were enrolled from a total of 1047 BCC patients who underwent surgery between January 1997 and December 2014 (942 patients over the age of 50 years were designated as the control group). Early-onset BCC accounted for 10.03% of all 1047 cases and the incidence over time displayed an incremental trend. The early-onset group displayed similar results as the control group, with a predominance of female BCC patients and the majority of tumours displaying the following characteristics: small in size, occurring in sun-exposed areas and belonging to the noduloulcerative clinical subtype and nodular histopathological subtype. In comparison with a previous study in a Western population, the incidence of the disease in non-exposed areas of the body, as well as the proportion of tumours of the superficial histological subtype, were lower in Asian patients. Although the clinicopathological characteristics of BCC are well-known, these characteristics have not been determined for early-onset BCC in an Asian population. Therefore, this study is the first report on early-onset BCC in Asians, specifically in a Korean patient group. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: Onset, Developmental Course and Risk Factors during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Sylvana M.; Boivin, Michel; Liu, Xuecheng; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are among the top ten leading causes of disabilities. We know little, however, about the onset, developmental course and early risk factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms (DAS). Objective: Model the developmental trajectories of DAS during early childhood and to identify risk factors for atypically…

  1. Predictors of Early-Onset Permanent Hearing Loss in Malnourished Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of early-onset permanent hearing loss (EPHL) among undernourished infants in a low-income country where routine screening for developmental disabilities in early childhood is currently unattainable. All infants attending four community-based clinics for routine immunization who met the…

  2. Differentiating early-onset persistent versus childhood-limited conduct problem youth.

    PubMed

    Barker, Edward D; Maughan, Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Among young children who demonstrate high levels of conduct problems, less than 50% will continue to exhibit these problems into adolescence. Such developmental heterogeneity presents a serious challenge for intervention and diagnostic screening in early childhood. The purpose of the present study was to inform diagnostic screening and preventive intervention efforts by identifying youths whose conduct problems persist. The authors examined 1) the extent to which early-onset persistent versus childhood-limited trajectories can be identified from repeated assessments of childhood and early-adolescent conduct problems and 2) how prenatal and early postnatal risks differentiate these two groups. To identify heterogeneity in early-onset conduct problems, the authors used data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of children followed from the prenatal period to age 13. Predictive risk factors examined were prenatal and postnatal measures of maternal distress (anxiety, depression), emotional and practical support, and family and child characteristics (from birth to 4 years of age). Findings revealed a distinction between early-onset persistent versus childhood-limited conduct problems in youths. Robust predictors of the early-onset persistent trajectory were maternal anxiety during pregnancy (32 weeks gestation), partner cruelty to the mother (from age 0 to 4 years), harsh parenting, and higher levels of child undercontrolled temperament. Sex differences in these risks were not identified. Interventions aiming to reduce childhood conduct problems should address prenatal risks in mothers and early postnatal risks in both mothers and their young children.

  3. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  4. Common variants at five new loci associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Imielinski, Marcin; Baldassano, Robert N; Griffiths, Anne; Russell, Richard K; Annese, Vito; Dubinsky, Marla; Kugathasan, Subra; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Walters, Thomas D; Sleiman, Patrick; Kim, Cecilia E; Muise, Aleixo; Wang, Kai; Glessner, Joseph T; Saeed, Shehzad; Zhang, Haitao; Frackelton, Edward C; Hou, Cuiping; Flory, James H; Otieno, George; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Grundmeier, Robert; Castro, Massimo; Latiano, Anna; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Stempak, Joanne; Abrams, Debra J; Taylor, Kent; McGovern, Dermot; Silber, Gary; Wrobel, Iwona; Quiros, Antonio; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Hansoul, Sarah; Nicolae, Dan L; Cho, Judy H; Duerr, Richard H; Rioux, John D; Brant, Steven R; Silverberg, Mark S; Taylor, Kent D; Barmuda, M Michael; Bitton, Alain; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Datta, Lisa Wu; Green, Todd; Griffiths, Anne M; Kistner, Emily O; Murtha, Michael T; Regueiro, Miguel D; Rotter, Jerome I; Schumm, L Philip; Steinhart, A Hillary; Targan, Stephen R; Xavier, Ramnik J; Libioulle, Cécile; Sandor, Cynthia; Lathrop, Mark; Belaiche, Jacques; Dewit, Olivier; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Laukens, Debby; Mni, Myriam; Rutgeerts, Paul; Van Gossum, André; Zelenika, Diana; Franchimont, Denis; Hugot, J P; de Vos, Martine; Vermeire, Severine; Louis, Edouard; Cardon, Lon R; Anderson, Carl A; Drummond, Hazel; Nimmo, Elaine; Ahmad, Tariq; Prescott, Natalie J; Onnie, Clive M; Fisher, Sheila A; Marchini, Jonathan; Ghori, Jilur; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Gwillam, Rhian; Tremelling, Mark; Delukas, Panos; Mansfield, John; Jewell, Derek; Satsangi, Jack; Mathew, Christopher G; Parkes, Miles; Georges, Michel; Daly, Mark J; Heyman, Melvin B; Ferry, George D; Kirschner, Barbara; Lee, Jessica; Essers, Jonah; Grand, Richard; Stephens, Michael; Levine, Arie; Piccoli, David; Van Limbergen, John; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Monos, Dimitri S; Guthery, Stephen L; Denson, Lee; Wilson, David C; Grant, Straun F A; Daly, Mark; Silverberg, Mark S; Satsangi, Jack; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2009-12-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are common causes of morbidity in children and young adults in the western world. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study in early-onset IBD involving 3,426 affected individuals and 11,963 genetically matched controls recruited through international collaborations in Europe and North America, thereby extending the results from a previous study of 1,011 individuals with early-onset IBD. We have identified five new regions associated with early-onset IBD susceptibility, including 16p11 near the cytokine gene IL27 (rs8049439, P = 2.41 x 10(-9)), 22q12 (rs2412973, P = 1.55 x 10(-9)), 10q22 (rs1250550, P = 5.63 x 10(-9)), 2q37 (rs4676410, P = 3.64 x 10(-8)) and 19q13.11 (rs10500264, P = 4.26 x 10(-10)). Our scan also detected associations at 23 of 32 loci previously implicated in adult-onset Crohn's disease and at 8 of 17 loci implicated in adult-onset ulcerative colitis, highlighting the close pathogenetic relationship between early- and adult-onset IBD.

  5. Early onset type 2 diabetes: risk factors, clinical impact and management

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Iskandar

    2014-01-01

    Early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly prevalent with a significant impact on the individual, healthcare service delivery and planning. The individuals are likely to be obese, lead a sedentary lifestyle, have a strong family history of T2DM, be of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin and come from a less affluent socioeconomic group. They have a heightened risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications, often at an earlier stage and with greater frequency than seen in type 1 diabetes. As such, early and aggressive risk factor management is warranted. Early onset T2DM is complex and impacts on service delivery with a need for multidisciplinary care of complications and comorbidities’, in addition to adequate educational and psychological support. This review on the impact of early onset T2DM provides the latest insights into this emerging epidemic. PMID:25364491

  6. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Fröhlich, Ernst K F

    2015-11-27

    Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely.

  7. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  8. Early-onset absence epilepsy aggravated by valproic acid: a video-EEG report.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Vincenzo; Caraballo, Roberto Horacio; Romeo, Antonino; Striano, Pasquale

    2013-12-01

    Early-onset absence epilepsy refers to patients with absence seizures beginning before age 4 and comprises a heterogeneous group of epilepsies. Onset of absence seizures in the first year of life is very rare. We report a boy with absence seizures with onset at age 11 months, whose seizures increased in frequency after the introduction of valproic acid (VPA) treatment and substantially improved upon cessation of treatment. The mechanism of seizure worsening did not involve VPA toxicity, encephalopathy, Glut-1 deficiency or overdosage, and the reason for absence seizure aggravation remained unclear. The patient showed complete control of absence seizures with levetiracetam treatment and the course was benign, both in terms of seizure control and neuropsychological aspects. The similar overall electroclinical picture and outcome between children with early-onset absences and those with CAE support the view that these conditions are a continuum within the wide spectrum of IGE. [Published with video sequences].

  9. Brain Structure Changes Visualized in Early- and Late-Onset Blind Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Leporé, Natasha; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco; Chou, Yi-Yu; Fortin, Madeleine; Gougoux, Frédéric; Lee, Agatha D.; Brun, Caroline; Lassonde, Maryse; Madsen, Sarah K.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine 3D patterns of volume differences in the brain associated with blindness, in subjects grouped according to early and late onset. Using tensor-based morphometry, we map volume reductions and gains in 16 early-onset (EB) and 16 late-onset (LB) blind adults (onset <5 and >14 years old, respectively) relative to 16 matched sighted controls. Each subject’s structural MRI was fluidly registered to a common template. Anatomical differences between groups were mapped based on statistical analysis of the resulting deformation fields revealing profound deficits in primary and secondary visual cortices for both blind groups. Regions outside the occipital lobe showed significant hypertrophy, suggesting widespread compensatory adaptations. EBs but not LBs showed deficits in the splenium and hypertrophy in the isthmus. Gains in the isthmus and non-occipital white matter were more widespread in the EBs. These differences may reflect regional alterations in late neurodevelopmental processes, such as myelination, that continue into adulthood. PMID:19643183

  10. Early-onset Lyme carditis with concurrent disseminated erythema migrans.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kinjan P; Farjo, Peter D; Juskowich, Joy J; Hama Amin, Ali; Mills, James D

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is an infection that is estimated to affect over 300,000 people in the United States annually. Typically, it presents with erythema migrans (EM), an annular rash at the site of tick attachment, within 3 to 30 days of inoculation. Untreated patients may progress to early disseminated disease. A further complication, Lyme carditis is rare but may occur several weeks later. It commonly manifests as a variable atrioventricular (AV) conduction block, with a high-grade AV block occurring in only 1% of untreated patients. This case demonstrates an unusually early presentation of Lyme carditis with complete heart block. A 21-year-old male was transferred from an outside emergency department (ED) for possible pacemaker placement due to symptomatic third-degree AV block. Four days earlier the patient presented to the outside ED with fever, chills, and unrecognized EM on his right neck. He was discharged with antipyretics, but no antibiotic therapy. On the day of transfer, he returned with persistent fevers, EM now on his trunk and upper extremities, lightheadedness, and substernal chest pressure. An electrocardiogram revealed the third-degree AV block leading to transfer. Upon arrival, the patient was promptly diagnosed with Lyme carditis. Pacemaker implantation was deferred, and intravenous (IV) ceftriaxone was initiated. Within 48 hours his third-degree AV block improved to a first-degree block. By this time, his EM had also resolved. He was discharged with oral doxycycline and a 30-day event monitor, which ultimately showed persistent first-degree AV block. This case reinforces a unique presentation of Lyme carditis. Disseminated EM and Lyme carditis may present concurrently within 2 weeks of tick attachment. Early recognition and treatment is important for preventing progression to disseminated infection. Lyme-associated AV block will reverse within 48 to 72 hours of initiating IV antibiotic therapy and will not require pacemaker implantation. Lyme carditis

  11. Converging approaches to understanding early onset familial Alzheimer disease: A First Nation study

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Beattie, B Lynn; Dwosh, Emily; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In 2007, a novel pathogenic genetic mutation associated with early onset familial Alzheimer disease was identified in a large First Nation family living in communities across British Columbia, Canada. Building on a community-based participatory study with members of the Nation, we sought to explore the impact and interplay of medicalization with the Nation’s knowledge and approaches to wellness in relation to early onset familial Alzheimer disease. Methods: We performed a secondary content analysis of focus group discussions and interviews with 48 members of the Nation between 2012 and 2013. The analysis focused specifically on geneticization, medicalization, and traditional knowledge of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, as these themes were prominent in the primary analysis. Results: We found that while biomedical explanations of disease permeate the knowledge and understanding of early onset familial Alzheimer disease, traditional concepts about wellness are upheld simultaneously. Conclusion: The analysis brings the theoretical framework of “two-eyed seeing” to the case of early onset familial Alzheimer disease for which the contributions of different ways of knowing are embraced, and in which traditional and western ways complement each other on the path of maintaining wellness in the face of progressive neurologic disease. PMID:27092264

  12. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; Souza, Fábio Gomes de Matos e

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear. PMID:26097750

  13. Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    von Dadelszen, P; Dwinnell, S; Magee, L A; Carleton, B C; Gruslin, A; Lee, B; Lim, K I; Liston, R M; Miller, S P; Rurak, D; Sherlock, R L; Skoll, M A; Wareing, M M; Baker, P N

    2011-04-01

    Sildenafil citrate therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction. BJOG 2011;118:624-628. Currently, there is no effective therapy for severe early-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the myometrial arteries isolated from women with IUGR-complicated pregnancies. Women were offered Sildenafil (25 mg three times daily until delivery) if their pregnancy was complicated by early-onset IUGR [abdominal circumference (AC)< 5th percentile] and either the gestational age was <25(+0) weeks or an estimate of the fetal weight was <600 g (excluding known fetal anomaly/syndrome and/or planned termination). Sildenafil treatment was associated with increased fetal AC growth [odds ratio, 12.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3, 126; compared with institutional Sildenafil-naive early-onset IUGR controls]. Randomised controlled trial data are required to determine whether Sildenafil improves perinatal outcomes for early-onset IUGR-complicated pregnancies. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  14. Key goals and indicators for successful aging of adults with early-onset disability.

    PubMed

    LaPlante, Mitchell P

    2014-01-01

    Substantial improvements have occurred in the longevity of several groups of individuals with early-onset disabilities, with many now surviving to advanced ages. This paper estimates the population of adults aging with early-onset disabilities at 12-15 million persons. Key goals for the successful aging of adults with early-onset disabilities are discussed, emphasizing reduction in risks for aging-related chronic disease and secondary conditions, while promoting social participation and independence. However, indicators suggest that elevated risk factors for aging-related chronic diseases, including smoking, obesity, and inactivity, as well as barriers to prevention and the diminished social and economic situation of adults with disabilities are continuing impediments to successful aging that must be addressed. Increased provider awareness that people with early-onset disabilities are aging and can age successfully and the integration of disability and aging services systems are transformative steps that will help adults with early-onset disability to age more successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The onset of galactic winds in early-type galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christine

    1992-01-01

    We completed the spectral analysis of 31 early-type galaxies to investigate whether their x-ray emission was predominantly due to thermal bremsstrahlung from a hot gaseous corona or emission from discrete, galactic sources such as x-ray binaries. If a corona dominates the x-ray emission, its spectra is expected to be relatively cool (0.5 - 1 keV) compared to the harder emission associated with x-ray binaries in our galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds and M31. While it is generally accepted that the x-ray emission in luminous E and S0 galaxies arises from hot coronae, the status of hot gas in lower luminosity (and hence lower mass) galaxies is less clear. Calculations show that, for a given supernova rate, a critical galaxy luminosity (mass) exists below which the gas cannot be gravitationally confined and a galactic wind is predicted to be effective in expelling gas from the galaxy. Since significant mass (a dark halo) is required to hold a hot, gaseous corona around a galaxy, we expect that the faintest, smallest galaxies will not have a hot corona, but their x-ray emission will be dominated by galactic sources or by an active galactic nuclei. In the sample we tested which spanned the absolute magnitude range from -21.5 to -19.5, we found that except for two galaxies whose x-ray emission was dominated by an active nucleus, that the others were consistent with emission from hot gas. We also found that there is a correlation between gas temperature and galaxy magnitude (mass), such that the brighter, more luminous galaxies have hotter gas temperatures. Thus even at relatively faint magnitudes, the dominant emission from early-type galaxies appears to be hot gas. We also carried out an investigation of the x-ray surface brightness distribution of the x-ray emission for about 100 early type galaxies to determine whether the x-ray emission from galaxies are extended. Extended x-ray emission is expected if the emission is due to a hot gaseous corona. We determined the ratio

  16. Early onset primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Tarai, B; Kher, V; Kotru, P; Sabhikhi, A; Barman, P; Rattan, A

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in a post-renal transplant patient. A 65-year-old male renal transplant patient was admitted to the hospital with a low grade fever of 1 month, radiologically mimicking tuberculosis (TB). Broncho-alveolar fluid (BAL) shows capsulated yeast, and Cryptococcus neoformans was grown on culture supported by cytology and histopathological examination. Cryptococcal antigen was positive (32-fold) in serum and was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient was given amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine and clinical improvement was seen on a weekly follow up. The serum cryptococcal antigen test might contribute to the early detection and treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis. The results of antifungal susceptibility were aid in selecting the drug of choice for treatment.

  17. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2005-01-01

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol). 3βAdiol is estrogenic in ERα or ERβ positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1–/– mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3βAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3βAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERβ and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3βAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3βAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen. PMID:15710898

  18. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2005-02-22

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaAdiol). 3betaAdiol is estrogenic in ERalpha or ERbeta positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1(-/-) mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3betaAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3betaAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERbeta and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3betaAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3betaAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen.

  19. Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy: Differences in Clinical Characteristics between Patients with Early and Late Age of Onset.

    PubMed

    Silpa-Archa, Sukhum; Cao, Jennifer H; Boonsopon, Sutasinee; Lee, Joan; Preble, Janine M; Foster, C Stephen

    2017-10-01

    To describe differences in the clinical characteristics of birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC) patients diagnosed early and later in life. This is a retrospective cohort study. Age was primarily analyzed and 50 years of age at diagnosis was selected as a cut-off point. A total of 144 patients (288 eyes) were included; 68 with early-onset and 76 with late-onset BSRC. The younger group had a statistically significant higher rate of more severe iritis (p = 0.04); an average number of non-steroidal immunosuppressants and biologic agents (NSIB) (p = 0.04); and a prolonged time to initiation of NSIB (p = 0.01). There were only four patients (3%) who had >0.5+ cells in the anterior chamber. Patients with early-onset BSRC carried a higher risk for anterior segment inflammation, had a more prolonged delay to initiation of treatment with NSIB, and required a greater number of NSIBs to achieve remission.

  20. Cognitive Development in Infantile-Onset Pompe Disease Under Very Early Enzyme Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chuang, Ya-Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease die in early infancy before beginning enzyme replacement therapy, which has made it difficult to evaluate the impact of Pompe disease on cognitive development. Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease can survive with enzyme replacement therapy, and physicians can evaluate cognitive development in these patients. We established an effective newborn screening program with quick clinical diagnostic criteria. Cognitive and motor development were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. The patients who were treated very early demonstrate normal cognitive development with no significant change in cognition during this period (P = .18 > .05). The cognitive development was positively correlated with motor development (r = 0.533, P = .011). The results indicated that very early enzyme replacement therapy could protect cognitive development in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease up to 24 months of age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Early onset epilepsy is associated with increased mortality: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Nickels, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We examined mortality in early onset (age <12 months) epilepsy in a population-based group of children. Children with early onset epilepsy were significantly more likely to die (case fatality, CF 8/60 versus 8/407, p<0.001; mortality rate, MR 14.5/1000 versus 2/1000 person years; standardized mortality ratio, SMR 22.25 versus 5.67). Mortality was greater in children with malignant neonatal (age <1 month) epilepsy (CF 4/12 versus 12/450, p<0.001; MR 54/1000 person years versus 2.7/1000 person year; SMR 46.55 versus 7.22). Given that only 1/8 early onset epilepsy deaths was seizure-related, mortality appears to be more affected by underlying etiology. PMID:23582606

  2. Vasopressin: the missing link for preeclampsia?

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Jeremy A; Scroggins, Sabrina M; Santillan, Donna A; Devor, Eric J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Pierce, Gary L; Sigmund, Curt D; Santillan, Mark K; Grobe, Justin L

    2015-11-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, affecting 5-7% of all pregnancies and claiming the lives of 76,000 mothers and 500,000 children each year. Various lines of evidence support a "tissue rejection" type reaction toward the placenta as the primary initiating event in the development of preeclampsia, followed by a complex interplay among immune, vascular, renal, and angiogenic mechanisms that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia beginning around the end of the first trimester. Critically, it remains unclear what mechanism links the initiating event and these pathogenic mechanisms. We and others have now demonstrated an early and sustained increase in maternal plasma concentrations of copeptin, a protein by-product of arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesis and release, during preeclampsia. Furthermore, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy is sufficient to phenocopy essentially all maternal and fetal symptoms of preeclampsia in mice. As various groups have demonstrated interactions between AVP and immune, renal, and vascular systems in the nonpregnant state, elevations of this hormone are therefore positioned both in time (early pregnancy) and function to contribute to preeclampsia. We therefore posit that AVP represents a missing mechanistic link between initiating events and established midpregnancy dysfunctions that cause preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Relevance of the hygiene hypothesis to early vs. late onset allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Matheson, M C; Walters, E H; Simpson, J A; Wharton, C L; Ponsonby, A-L; Johns, D P; Jenkins, M A; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Abramson, M J; Dharmage, S C

    2009-03-01

    The hygiene hypothesis proposes that reduced exposure to infections in early life increases the risk of developing allergic conditions including allergic rhinitis. We examined the association between markers of the hygiene hypothesis and allergic rhinitis that developed before 7 years of age and allergic rhinitis that developed after 7 years of age. The Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) is a population-based cohort (n=8583) study of respiratory disease. Participants have been followed from 7 to 44 years of age. Information on potential risk factors, allergies and respiratory symptoms was collected longitudinally. Using multi-nomial logistic regression, exposure to siblings, infections, tonsillectomy and farm residence during childhood were examined as risk factors for allergic rhinitis that developed before or after 7 years of age. All analyses were adjusted for gender, maternal and paternal atopy, mother's age at participant's birth, paternal socio-economic status in 1968 and personal socio-economic status in 2004. Greater cumulative exposure to siblings before the age of 2 years was strongly inversely associated with early onset allergic rhinitis (<1 year sib exposure: OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.0; 1-3 years sib exposure: OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9; >3 years sib exposure: OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) less so with later onset allergic rhinitis. The risk of early onset allergic rhinitis decreased with increasing viral infections (OR=0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9) during childhood. Having a tonsillectomy before 7 years of age increased the risk of early onset allergic rhinitis (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.5). None of these factors was associated with later onset allergic rhinitis. Exposures relevant to the hygiene hypothesis were important predictors for the development of early onset but less so for later onset allergic rhinitis. The exact mechanisms by which siblings and infections protect against allergic rhinitis are unclear. The stronger findings for earlier onset allergic rhinitis

  4. [Mutations of amyloid precursor protein in early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Naruse, S; Tsuji, S; Miyatake, T

    1992-09-01

    Genetic linkage studies of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) have suggested that some form of early-onset FAD is linked to proximal long arm of chromosome 21. It has been also suggested that some form of late-onset FAD is linked to long arm of chromosome 19. Goate et al have identified a mis-sense mutation (Val to Ile) in exon 17 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene in 2 of 16 early-onset FAD families, and have shown that the FAD locus in an FAD family is tightly linked to the mis-sense mutation. To determine if the mis-sense mutation is observed in different ethnic origine, we have studied some early-onset FAD families. Two early-onset FAD families showed the existence of the mutation. As the mutation has been identified in different ethnic origine and the mutation has not been observed in normal individuals, it strengthen hypothesis that the mutation is pathogenic. Recently, Val to Phe and Val to Gly mutations have been also identified at the same codon (Codon 717) of the APP gene.

  5. Early onset dementia in New Zealand Pacific boxers: a case series.

    PubMed

    Payman, Vahid; Yates, Susan; Cullum, Sarah

    2018-05-04

    To describe the biopsychosocial characteristics of a series of Pacific men living in South Auckland with a history of boxing presenting with early onset dementia. We discuss the history of boxing in Pacific people and the possibility of increased risk of early onset dementia in New Zealand Pacific men compared to their European counterparts. We reviewed the files of Pacific men with a history of amateur or professional boxing who presented to our memory and older adult mental health services with early onset dementia over a 45-month period. We gathered relevant information to construct a biopsychosocial paradigm as possible explanation of this phenomenon. We identified a series of eight New Zealand Pacific men with early onset dementia and with a history of boxing. Alcohol was a contributing factor in seven of the eight cases, and vascular risk factors in five. Historical, cultural and socio-economic factors underpin the attraction of some Pacific men to boxing as a sport. Given that New Zealand Pacific peoples may have an earlier onset of dementia than their European counterparts, further research is required to establish whether boxing is a contributory factor. Sports physicians should advise young New Zealand Pacific boxers about the long-term risks associated with their sport.

  6. Loss of Nfkb1 leads to early onset aging.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Wahlstrom, Joshua S; Crawley, Clayton D; Cahill, Kirk E; Pytel, Peter; Liang, Hua; Kang, Shijun; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2014-11-01

    NF-κB is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-κB1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-κB signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-κB pathway and mammalian aging.

  7. Preeclampsia - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... preeclampsia is mild, you may be able to stay at home on bed rest. You will need to have ... and your baby if you develop preeclampsia: The mother can have kidney ... to detach from the uterus (abruption) and for stillbirth.

  8. Risk Factors for Early-Onset Peritonitis in Southern Chinese Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haishan; Huang, Rong; Yi, Chunyan; Wu, Juan; Guo, Qunying; Zhou, Qian; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Early peritonitis was confirmed to be associated with a higher risk of early technique failure. However, literature concerning peritonitis within the first 3 months of peritoneal dialysis (PD) initiation is scarce. The present study was to investigate risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, all incident PD patients from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013, were recruited and followed up until December 31, 2014. According to time-to-first episode of peritonitis, patients were divided into early-onset (≤ 3 months) peritonitis and late-onset (> 3 months) peritonitis. Baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, as well as episodes of peritonitis, were collected. Risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis were evaluated using logistic regression model. ♦ RESULTS: Of 1,690 patients on PD, 503 (29.8%) developed at least 1 episode of peritonitis and 118 (7.0%) patients presented the first episodes of peritonitis within the first 3 months. A multivariate logistic analysis showed that higher body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 - 1.15, p = 0.034), hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11 - 2.78, p = 0.017), and catheter exit-site infection (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.45 - 7.00, p < 0.001) were risk factors independently associated with early-onset peritonitis. Compared to those with late-onset, patients with early-onset peritonitis had a higher overall peritonitis rate (0.76 vs 0.38 per patient-year, p < 0.001) and worse technique survival (p < 0.001), while patient survival did not differ significantly between the 2 groups during the long-term follow-up (p > 0.05). ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI, hypoalbuminemia, and catheter exit-site infection were the risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome in Preeclampsia Women in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the metabolic syndrome in preeclampsia women. The study was performed on 50 women. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was 66%. Serum glucose, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly were increased and HDL- cholesterol level significantly was decreased in metabolic syndrome patients. These patients showed high prevalence of components of the syndrome. Our results show the importance of dyslipidemia in preeclampsia in overweight and obese women. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease are important problems for the health of women. It may be useful to give a treat to people with a high-normal blood pressure in early pregnancy. PMID:25553139

  10. Second trimester amniotic fluid uric acid, potassium, and cysteine to methionine ratio levels as possible signs of early preeclampsia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Fotiou, Maria; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Masoura, Sophia; Menexes, Georgios; Koulourida, Vasiliki; Biliaderis, Costas G; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P

    2016-12-01

    The precise etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) still remains enigmatic. In recent published work, there is a scientific trend aiming to unveil early biomarkers of PE based on amniotic fluid compositional changes before the development of clinical symptoms. We describe a case of an apparently clinically healthy woman, whose amniotic fluid, retrieved after amniocentesis at 22 2/7 gestational week, had elevated uric acid and potassium concentration, as well as cysteine to methionine ratio. At the time of amniocentesis, conventional clinical signs of PE were absent. The woman developed severe PE and intrauterine growth restriction, at the 28 0/7 week of gestation. Although the limitation of such studies lies in the fact that amniocentesis is an invasive procedure, and thus employed only under specific indications, our scientific observations might be useful for future research towards unraveling the causes of PE. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Risk of early-onset prostate cancer associated with occupation in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Barry, Kathryn Hughes; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Alavanja, Michael C R; Andreotti, Gabriella; Blair, Aaron; Hansen, Johnni; Kjærheim, Kristina; Koutros, Stella; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sparèn, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Berndt, Sonja I; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-12-01

    Early-onset prostate cancer is often more aggressive and may have a different aetiology than later-onset prostate cancer, but has been relatively little studied to date. We evaluated occupation in relation to early- and later-onset prostate cancer in a large pooled study. We used occupational information from census data in five Nordic countries from 1960 to 1990. We identified prostate cancer cases diagnosed from 1961 to 2005 by linkage of census information to national cancer registries and calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) separately for men aged 30-49 and those aged 50 or older. We also conducted separate analyses by period of follow-up, 1961-1985 and 1986-2005, corresponding to pre- and post-prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. For early-onset prostate cancer (n = 1521), we observed the highest SIRs for public safety workers (e.g. firefighters) (SIR = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-2.31) and military personnel (SIR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.85). These SIRs were significantly higher than the SIRs for later-onset disease (for public safety workers, SIR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.07-1.14 and for military personnel, SIR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13; p heterogeneity  = 0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Administrators and technical workers also demonstrated significantly increased risks for early-onset prostate cancer, but the SIRs did not differ from those of later-onset disease (p heterogeneity >0.05). While our early-onset finding for public safety workers was restricted to the post-PSA period, that for military personnel was restricted to the pre-PSA period. Our results suggest that occupational exposures, particularly for military personnel, may be associated with early-onset prostate cancer. Further evaluation is needed to explain these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of Neuropsychological Functioning Between Adults With Early- and Late-Onset DSM-5 ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare the visually dependent neuropsychological functioning among adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) ADHD who recalled symptom onset by and after age 7 and non-ADHD controls. We divided the participants, aged 17 to 40 years, into three groups-(a) ADHD, onset <7 years (early-onset, n = 142); (b) ADHD, onset between 7 and <12 years (late-onset, n = 41); (c) non-ADHD controls ( n = 148)-and compared their neuropsychological functioning, measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery. Both ADHD groups had deficits in attention and signal detectability, spatial working memory, and short-term spatial memory, but only the early-onset group showed deficits in alertness, set-shifting, and planning after controlling for age, sex, and psychiatric comorbidities. There was no statistical difference between the two ADHD groups in neuropsychological functioning. DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing adult ADHD are not too lax regarding neuropsychological functioning.

  13. Cognitive ability in young adulthood predicts risk of early-onset dementia in Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti, Jari; Henriksson, Markus; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G; Räikkönen, Katri

    2018-06-06

    To test if the Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test scores at 20.1 years predicted risk of organic dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD). Dementia was defined as inpatient or outpatient diagnosis of organic dementia or AD risk derived from Hospital Discharge or Causes of Death Registers in 2,785 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, divided based on age at first diagnosis into early onset (<65 years) or late onset (≥65 years). The Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test comprises verbal, arithmetic, and visuospatial subtests and a total score (scores transformed into a mean of 100 and SD of 15). We used Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for age at testing, childhood socioeconomic status, mother's age at delivery, parity, participant's birthweight, education, and stroke or coronary heart disease diagnosis. Lower cognitive ability total and verbal ability (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD disadvantage >1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.63) scores predicted higher early-onset any dementia risk across the statistical models; arithmetic and visuospatial ability scores were similarly associated with early-onset any dementia risk, but these associations weakened after covariate adjustments (HR per 1 SD disadvantage >1.57, 95% CI 0.96-2.57). All associations were rendered nonsignificant when we adjusted for participant's education. Cognitive ability did not predict late-onset dementia risk. These findings reinforce previous suggestions that lower cognitive ability in early life is a risk factor for early-onset dementia. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. [Clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Q H; Liang, J J; Chen, L X; Mo, Y Q; Wei, X N; Zheng, D H; Dai, L

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients. Methods: Consecutive inpatients with primary gout were recruited between 2013 and 2017. The patients with gout onset younger than 30 were defined as early-onset group while the others were enrolled as control group. Clinical characteristics and uric acid (UA) indicators were compared between two groups. Results: Among 202 recruited patients, the early-onset group included 36 patients (17.8%). Compared with control group, the early-onset group presented more patients with obesity [13 patients (36.1%) vs. 22 patients (13.3%), P< 0.05], significantly higher serum UA level [(634±124)μmol/L vs.(527±169)μmol/L] and glomerular load of UA[(7.2±2.8)mg·min(-1)·1.73m(-2) vs. (4.4±2.2)mg·min(-1)·1.73m(-2)] and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [(83±21)ml·min(-1)·1.73m(-2) vs. (67±21)ml·min(-1)·1.73m(-2)] (all P< 0.05), lower fractional excretion of UA [4.4% (3.4%,6.1%) vs. 7.2% (5.2%,9.6%), P< 0.05], whereas 24h urinary UA excretion was comparable [(2 788±882)μmol/1.73m(2) vs. (2 645±1 140)μmol/1.73m(2), P= 0.274]. Subgroup analysis of patients without chronic kidney disease showed significantly lower fractional excretion of UA in the early-onset group [4.5%(3.3%,6.1%) vs. 6.7% (5.1%,8.7%), P< 0.05]. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity ( OR= 3.25) and fractional excretion of UA less than 7% ( OR= 9.01, all P< 0.05) were risk factors of gout early onset. Conclusion: The gout patients with early-onset younger than 30 present high serum and glomerular load of uric acid which might be due to obesity and relative under-excretion of renal uric acid.

  15. Spot urine protein measurements in normotensive pregnancies, pregnancies with isolated proteinuria and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Kattah, Andrea; Milic, Natasa; White, Wendy; Garovic, Vesna

    2017-10-01

    We performed a prospective, longitudinal study of pregnant women presenting to their first obstetrics visits to characterize the changes in spot urine protein-to-creatinine (UPCR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR) in normotensive pregnancies, as well as identify clinical characteristics associated with isolated proteinuria and preeclampsia. We measured spot urinary albumin, protein, and creatinine at the first prenatal visit, end of the second trimester, and at delivery. In the normotensive pregnancies ( n = 142), we found that from the beginning of pregnancy to delivery, UACR increased by a median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 14.7 mg/g Cr (3.74-51.8) and UPCR by 60 mg/g Cr (30-130) ( P < 0.001 for both changes). Isolated proteinuria (defined as UPCR > 300 mg/g Cr in the absence of hypertension) was identified in 19/142 (13.4%) normotensive pregnancies. Increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from early pregnancy to delivery and increases in UACR from early to midpregnancy were associated with isolated proteinuria at delivery. Twelve women developed preeclampsia. Nulliparity, early, and midpregnancy diastolic blood pressures were strongly associated with the development of preeclampsia, but early changes in UACR were not. In conclusion, women who develop isolated proteinuria at delivery have a larger increase in blood pressure than women without proteinuria and have a "microalbuminuric" phase earlier in gestation, unlike women who develop preeclampsia. These findings suggest a different mechanism of urine protein excretion in women with isolated proteinuria as compared with women with preeclampsia, where proteinuria has a more abrupt onset. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with early-onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Nassan, Malik; Croarkin, Paul E; Luby, Joan L; Veldic, Marin; Joshi, Paramjit T; McElroy, Susan L; Post, Robert M; Walkup, John T; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer R; Wagner, Karen D; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Casuto, Leah; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schalling, Martin; Jensen, Peter S; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A

    2015-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) functional polymorphism has been implicated in early-onset bipolar disorder. However, results of studies are inconsistent. We aimed to further explore this association. DNA samples from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) and Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank were investigated for association of rs6265 with early-onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar cases were classified as early onset if the first manic or depressive episode occurred at age ≤19 years (versus adult-onset cases at age >19 years). After quality control, 69 TEAM early-onset bipolar disorder cases, 725 Mayo Clinic bipolar disorder cases (including 189 early-onset cases), and 764 controls were included in the analysis of association, assessed with logistic regression assuming log-additive allele effects. Comparison of TEAM cases with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with the rs6265 minor allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, p = 0.04]. Although comparison of early-onset adult bipolar disorder cases from the Mayo Clinic versus controls was not statistically significant, the OR estimate indicated the same direction of effect (OR = 1.21, p = 0.19). When the early-onset TEAM and Mayo Clinic early-onset adult groups were combined and compared with the control group, the association of the minor allele rs6265 was statistically significant (OR = 1.30, p = 0.04). These preliminary analyses of a relatively small sample with early-onset bipolar disorder are suggestive that functional variation in BDNF is implicated in bipolar disorder risk and may have a more significant role in early-onset expression of the disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A neonate with intestinal volvulus without malrotation exhibiting early jaundice with a suspected fetal onset.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kaori; Kinoshita, Mari; Kin, Takane; Arimitsu, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Ikeda, Kazushige; Tomita, Hiroshi; Fujino, Akihiro; Kuroda, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal volvulus without malrotation is a rare disease that causes volvulus of the small intestine despite normal intestinal rotation and fixation. We encountered a neonate with this disease who developed early jaundice and was suspected to have a fetal onset. This patient was characterized by early jaundice complicating intestinal volvulus without malrotation and is considered to have exhibited reduced fetal movement and early jaundice as a result of volvulus, necrosis, and hemorrhage of the small intestine in the fetal period. If abdominal distention accompanied by early jaundice is noted in a neonate, intestinal volvulus without malrotation and associated intraabdominal hemorrhage should be suspected and promptly treated.

  18. ABCC6 mutations and early onset stroke: Two cases of a typical Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum.

    PubMed

    Bertamino, Marta; Severino, Mariasavina; Grossi, Alice; Rusmini, Marta; Tortora, Domenico; Gandolfo, Carlo; Pederzoli, Silvia; Malattia, Clara; Picco, Paolo; Striano, Pasquale; Ceccherini, Isabella; Di Rocco, Maja

    2018-04-12

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by fragmented and mineralized elastic fibers in the mid-dermis of the skin, eye, digestive tract and cardiovascular system. Clinical presentation includes typical skin lesions, ocular angioid streaks, and multisystem vasculopathy. The age of onset varies considerably from infancy to old age, but the diagnosis is usually made in young adults due to frequent absence of pathognomonic skin and ocular manifestations in early childhood. We report two children with PXE presenting with isolated multisystem vasculopathy and early-onset stroke. In the first patient, diagnosis was delayed until typical dermatologic alterations appeared; in the second patient, next-generation sequencing (NGS) study led to early diagnosis and specific follow-up, underlying the crucial role in idiopathic pediatric stroke of early genetic testing using NGS-based panels. Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. First impression at stroke onset plays an important role in early hospital arrival.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Wada, Kuniyasu; Shibazaki, Kensaku; Inoue, Takeshi; Ueno, Yuji; Yamashita, Shinji; Kimura, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Treatment for acute ischemic stroke should be administered as soon as possible after symptom onset. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the patient's and bystander's first impression at stroke onset was associated with hospital arrival time. To investigate the factors influencing the prehospital delay, we prospectively interviewed consecutive stroke patients and bystanders about their first impression at the stroke onset and assessed the methods of transportation, and clinical characteristics. Early arrival was defined as a hospital arrival of within 2 h from stroke onset. One hundred thirty patients were enrolled: 82% were ischemic stroke and 18% were cerebral hemorrhage. The median interval between symptom onset and the hospital arrival was 7.5 h and 30% of patients presented within 2 h of stroke onset. First impression of stroke (odds ratios [OR] 4.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-13.5, p=0.006), presence of consciousness disturbance (OR 4.29, CI 1.39-13.3, p=0.011), arrival through other facilities (OR 0.25, CI 0.08-0.76, p=0.015), a history of diabetes (OR 0.23, CI 0.06-0.80, p=0.028) and nocturnal onset (OR 0.19, CI 0.04-0.88, p=0.042) independently contributed to the early arrival. The first impression of patients and bystanders at stroke onset is important in order to reach hospital earlier in Japan. Public educational systems such as those, which advertise stroke warning signs, are necessary.

  20. Obesity in young age is a risk factor for preeclampsia: a facility based case-control study, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Endeshaw, Mulualem; Abebe, Fantu; Worku, Solomon; Menber, Lalem; Assress, Muluken; Assefa, Muluken

    2016-08-19

    .40) respectively. However, obesity has no significant effect on early onset of preeclampsia (AOR = 1.98, 95 % CI: 0.79, 4.94). On the other hand, compliance to folate supplementation during pregnancy and fruit consumption were associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia. Obesity in young age was found to be a risk factor for preeclampsia while compliance to folate supplement and adequate fruit consumption were found to be protective against preeclampsia. Promoting healthy life style, including body weight control, consumption of fruits and vegetables, and folate supplementation should be promoted to reduce the risk of preeclampsia.

  1. Screening for Preeclampsia: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    PubMed

    Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phillips, William R; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-04-25

    Preeclampsia affects approximately 4% of pregnancies in the United States. It is the second leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide and may lead to serious maternal complications, including stroke, eclampsia, and organ failure. Adverse perinatal outcomes for the fetus and newborn include intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, and stillbirth. Many of the complications associated with preeclampsia lead to early induction of labor or cesarean delivery and subsequent preterm birth. Preeclampsia is more prevalent among African American women than among white women. Differences in prevalence may be, in part, due to African American women being disproportionally affected by risk factors for preeclampsia. African American women also have case fatality rates related to preeclampsia 3 times higher than rates among white women. Inequalities in access to adequate prenatal care may contribute to poor outcomes associated with preeclampsia in African American women. To update the 1996 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for preeclampsia. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy of screening and diagnostic tests for preeclampsia, the potential benefits and harms of screening for preeclampsia, the effectiveness of risk prediction tools, and the benefits and harms of treatment of screen-detected preeclampsia. Given the evidence that treatment can reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and the well-established accuracy of blood pressure measurements, the USPSTF found adequate evidence that screening for preeclampsia results in a substantial benefit for the mother and infant. In addition, there is adequate evidence to bound the harms of screening for and treatment of preeclampsia as no greater than small. Therefore, the USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that there is a substantial net benefit of screening for preeclampsia in pregnant women. The USPSTF recommends screening for preeclampsia in pregnant

  2. The cortical damage, early relapses, and onset of the progressive phase in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Scalfari, Antonio; Romualdi, Chiara; Nicholas, Richard S; Mattoscio, Miriam; Magliozzi, Roberta; Morra, Aldo; Monaco, Salvatore; Muraro, Paolo A; Calabrese, Massimiliano

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the relationship among cortical radiologic changes, the number of early relapses (ERs), and the long-term course of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cohort study, we assessed the number of cortical lesions (CLs) and white matter (WM) lesions and the cortical thickness (Cth) at clinical onset and after 7.9 mean years among 219 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS with 1 (Low-ER), 2 (Mid-ER), and ≥3 (High-ER) ERs during the first 2 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses investigated early factors influencing the risk of secondary progressive (SP) MS. Fifty-nine patients (27%) converted to SPMS in 6.1 mean years. A larger number of CLs at onset predicted a higher risk of SPMS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 4.79, and 12.3 for 2, 5, and 7 CLs, respectively, p < 0.001) and shorter latency to progression. The High-ER compared to the Low-ER and Mid-ER groups had a larger volume of WM lesions and CLs at onset, accrued more CLs, experienced more severe cortical atrophy over time, and entered the SP phase more rapidly. In the multivariate model, older age at onset (HR 1.97, p < 0.001), a larger baseline CL (HR 2.21, p = 0.005) and WM lesion (HR 1.32, p = 0.03) volume, early changes of global Cth (HR 1.36, p = 0.03), and ≥3 ERs (HR 6.08, p < 0.001) independently predicted a higher probability of SP. Extensive cortical damage at onset is associated with florid inflammatory clinical activity and predisposes to a rapid occurrence of the progressive phase. Age at onset, the number of early attacks, and the extent of baseline focal cortical damage can identify groups at high risk of progression who may benefit from more active therapy. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  4. Memory in Early Onset Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udal, Anne H.; Oygarden, Bjorg; Egeland, Jens; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groholt, Berit

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating between early-onset bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be difficult. Memory problems are commonly reported in BD, and forgetfulness is among the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. We compared children and adolescents with BD (n = 23), ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 26), BD + ADHD-C (n = 15),…

  5. Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; McClellan, Jon; Findling, Robert L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Anderson, Robert; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Williams, Emily; McNamara, Nora K.; Jackson, Joseph A.; Ritz, Louise; Hlastala, Stefanie A.; Pierson, Leslie; Varley, Jennifer A.; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Hamer, Robert M.; Noyes, Nancy; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Sikich, Linmarie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We examined baseline demographic and clinical profiles of youths enrolled from 2001 to 2006 in the publicly funded multicenter, randomized controlled trial Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Method: Youths (8-19 years) with schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder were recruited at four academic sites.…

  6. Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala in Early-Childhood-Onset Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luking, Katherine R.; Repovs, Grega; Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced cortico-limbic functional connectivity thought to indicate decreased top-down control of emotion. However, it is unclear whether such connectivity alterations are also present in early-childhood-onset MDD. Method: A total of 51 children 7 through 11 years of age who had…

  7. CDKL5 and ARX mutations in males with early-onset epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Marsh, Eric D; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Medne, Livija; Alkhateeb, Asem; Grix, Art; Wirrell, Elaine C; Powell, Berkley R; Nickels, Katherine C; Burton, Barbara; Paras, Andrea; Kim, Katherine; Chung, Wendy; Dobyns, William B; Das, Soma

    2013-05-01

    Mutations in CDKL5 and ARX are known causes of early-onset epilepsy and severe developmental delay in males and females. Although numerous males with ARX mutations associated with various phenotypes have been reported in the literature, the majority of CDKL5 mutations have been identified in females with a phenotype characterized by early-onset epilepsy, severe global developmental delay, absent speech, and stereotypic hand movements. To date, only 10 males with CDKL5 mutations have been reported. Our retrospective study reports on the clinical, neuroimaging, and molecular findings of 18 males with early-onset epilepsy caused by either CDKL5 or ARX mutations. These 18 patients include eight new males with CDKL5 mutations and 10 with ARX mutations identified through sequence analysis of 266 and 346 males, respectively, at our molecular diagnostic laboratory. Our large dataset therefore expands on the number of reported males with CDKL5 mutations and highlights that aberrations of CDKL5 and ARX combined are an important consideration in the genetic forms of early-onset epilepsy in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CDKL5 and ARX mutations in males with early-onset epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Marsh, Eric D.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M.; Medne, Livija; Grix, Art; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Powell, Berkley R.; Nickels, Katherine C.; Burton, Barbara; Paras, Andrea; Kim, Katherine; Chung, Wendy; Dobyns, William B.; Das, Soma

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in CDKL5 and ARX are known causes of early-onset epilepsy and severe developmental delay in males and females. While numerous males with ARX mutations associated with various phenotypes have been reported in the literature, the majority of CDKL5 mutations have been identified in females with a phenotype characterized by early-onset epilepsy, severe global developmental delay, absent speech, and stereotypic hand movements. To date, only ten males with CDKL5 mutations have been reported. Our retrospective study reports on the clinical, neuroimaging and molecular findings of 18 males with early-onset epilepsy caused by either CDKL5 or ARX mutations. The 18 patients include eight new males with CDKL5 mutations and ten with ARX mutations identified through sequence analysis of 266 and 346 males, respectively, at our molecular diagnostic laboratory. Our large data set therefore expands on the number of reported males with CDKL5 mutations and highlights that aberrations of CDKL5 and ARX combined are an important consideration in the genetic forms of early-onset epilepsy. PMID:23583054

  9. CDKL5 mutations in boys with severe encephalopathy and early-onset intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Elia, M; Falco, M; Ferri, R; Spalletta, A; Bottitta, M; Calabrese, G; Carotenuto, M; Musumeci, S A; Lo Giudice, M; Fichera, M

    2008-09-23

    To search for CDKL5 gene mutations in boys presenting with severe early-onset encephalopathy and intractable epilepsy, a clinical picture very similar to that already described in girls with CDKL5 mutations. Eight boys (age range 3-16 years, mean age 8.5 years, SD 4.38) with severe or profound mental retardation and early-onset intractable seizures were selected for CDKL5 gene mutation screening by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. We found three unrelated boys carrying three different missense mutations of the CDKL5 gene: c.872G>A (p.C291Y), c.863C>T (p.T288I), and c.533G>C (p.R178P). They presented early-onset, polymorphous, and drug-resistant seizures, mostly myoclonic and tonic or spasms. EEG showed epileptiform abnormalities which were multifocal during wakefulness, and pseudoperiodic bisynchronous during sleep. This study describes three boys carrying CDKL5 missense mutations and their detailed clinical and EEG data, and indicates that CDKL5 gene mutations may represent a cause of severe or profound mental retardation and early-onset intractable seizures, also in boys. Screening for CDKL5 mutations is strongly recommended in individuals with these clinical features.

  10. Maturation, Peer Context, and Indigenous Girls' Early-Onset Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Melissa L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a biosocial model of the impact of puberty on indigenous girls' early-onset substance use by considering the potential mediating role of peer context (i.e., mixed-sex peer groups and substance use prototypes) on the puberty and substance use relationship. Data include responses from 360 girls of a common indigenous cultural…

  11. Two-Year Diagnostic Stability in Early-Onset First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Baeza, Immaculada; de la Serna, Elena; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Dolores; Otero, Soraya; Arango, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Background: Only one study has used a prospective method to analyze the diagnostic stability of first psychotic episodes in children and adolescents. The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study (CAFEPS) is a 2-year, prospective longitudinal study of early-onset first episodes of psychosis (EO-FEP). Aim: To describe diagnostic stability…

  12. Neurocognitive Outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Jean A.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L.; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Method: Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated…

  13. Early-Onset Physical Frailty in Adults with Diabesity and Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Lori J; Bittel, Daniel C; Bittel, Adam J; Sinacore, David R

    2017-12-07

    Diabesity (obesity and diabetes mellitus) has been identified as a potential contributor to early-onset frailty. Impairments contributing to early onset of physical frailty in this population are not well understood, and there is little evidence of the impact of peripheral neuropathy on frailty. The purpose of this study was to determine impairments that contribute to early-onset physical frailty in individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy. We studied 105 participants, 82 with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy (57 years of age, body mass index [BMI] 31 kg/m 2 ); 13 with diabesity only (53 years of age, BMI 34 kg/m 2 ) and 10 obese controls (67 years of age, BMI 32 kg/m 2 ). Peripheral neuropathy was determined using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments; physical frailty was classified using the 9-item, modified Physical Performance Test; and knee extension and ankle plantarflexion peak torques were measured using isokinetic dynamometry. Participants with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy were 7.4 times more likely to be classified as physically frail. Impairments in lower-extremity function were associated with classification of frailty. Individuals with diabesity and peripheral neuropathy are particularly likely to be classified as frail. Earlier identification and interventions aimed at improving lower-extremity function may be important to mitigate the early-onset functional decline. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prognosis and response to laser treatment of early-onset hypertrophic port-wine stains (PWS).

    PubMed

    Passeron, Thierry; Salhi, Aicha; Mazer, Jean-Michel; Lavogiez, Céline; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Galliot, Chrystèle; Collet-Villette, Anne-Marie; Labreze, Christine; Boon, Laurence; Hardy, Jean-Philippe; Fayard, Virginie; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Toubel, Gérard; Georgescou, Gabriela; Gral, Nathalie; Maza, Aude; Lacour, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    There is limited information regarding early development of soft-tissue and/or bone hypertrophy with facial port-wine stains (PWS). We sought to characterize patients with hypertrophic PWS presenting during childhood. Patients with a facial PWS and underlying hypertrophy that developed before the age of 18 years were included in a multicenter retrospective study. Age at onset of the hypertrophy, its location, association with odontologic problems, presence of other associated complications, and response to laser treatment were recorded. A total of 98 patients were included. The mean age at onset of hypertrophy, retrieved for 77 of 98 patients, was 5.6 years. The hypertrophy was congenital in 26%. Odontologic problems were noted in 39.8% of cases. Other complications, including cataract, asymmetric development of the maxillary bone, and speech delay/disorders, were reported in 18.4%. In all, 67 patients received laser treatment. Only 3% achieved complete or nearly complete clearance of the PWS. As only cases of PWS with early-onset hypertrophy were included, we were unable to calculate the prevalence of this manifestation. PWS with early-onset hypertrophy are associated with a high rate of complications and a poor response to laser treatment. Periodic monitoring is recommended for early detection and treatment of complications. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2…

  16. Early Onset Ageing and Service Preparation in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Institutional Managers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this…

  17. Does theory of mind performance differ in children with early-onset and regressive autism?

    PubMed

    Matthews, Nicole L; Goldberg, Wendy A; Lukowski, Angela F; Osann, Kathryn; Abdullah, Maryam M; Ly, Agnes R; Thorsen, Kara; Spence, M Anne

    2012-01-01

    A deficit in theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to infer the mental states of others, has been implicated as one of the major characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, little attention has been devoted to possible differences in ToM ability within ASD. The current study examined ToM performance in children with early-onset autism and regressive autism in comparison to typically developing children. Results indicated that children in the regressive autism group performed significantly better than the early-onset autism group on the non-verbal appearance-reality task. Additionally, Fisher's exact tests indicated a pattern of lowest scores in the early-onset group and highest scores in the typically developing group, whereas the regressive autism group tended to score in between the early-onset and typically developing groups. The apparent heterogeneity in ToM performance within ASD could account for the lack of universality in ToM ability found in previous studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Development and initial validation of the Classification of Early-Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS).

    PubMed

    Williams, Brendan A; Matsumoto, Hiroko; McCalla, Daren J; Akbarnia, Behrooz A; Blakemore, Laurel C; Betz, Randal R; Flynn, John M; Johnston, Charles E; McCarthy, Richard E; Roye, David P; Skaggs, David L; Smith, John T; Snyder, Brian D; Sponseller, Paul D; Sturm, Peter F; Thompson, George H; Yazici, Muharrem; Vitale, Michael G

    2014-08-20

    Early-onset scoliosis is a heterogeneous condition, with highly variable manifestations and natural history. No standardized classification system exists to describe and group patients, to guide optimal care, or to prognosticate outcomes within this population. A classification system for early-onset scoliosis is thus a necessary prerequisite to the timely evolution of care of these patients. Fifteen experienced surgeons participated in a nominal group technique designed to achieve a consensus-based classification system for early-onset scoliosis. A comprehensive list of factors important in managing early-onset scoliosis was generated using a standardized literature review, semi-structured interviews, and open forum discussion. Three group meetings and two rounds of surveying guided the selection of classification components, subgroupings, and cut-points. Initial validation of the system was conducted using an interobserver reliability assessment based on the classification of a series of thirty cases. Nominal group technique was used to identify three core variables (major curve angle, etiology, and kyphosis) with high group content validity scores. Age and curve progression ranked slightly lower. Participants evaluated the cases of thirty patients with early-onset scoliosis for reliability testing. The mean kappa value for etiology (0.64) was substantial, while the mean kappa values for major curve angle (0.95) and kyphosis (0.93) indicated almost perfect agreement. The final classification consisted of a continuous age prefix, etiology (congenital or structural, neuromuscular, syndromic, and idiopathic), major curve angle (1, 2, 3, or 4), and kyphosis (-, N, or +) variables, and an optional progression modifier (P0, P1, or P2). Utilizing formal consensus-building methods in a large group of surgeons experienced in treating early-onset scoliosis, a novel classification system for early-onset scoliosis was developed with all core components demonstrating

  19. HtrA3 as an Early Marker for Preeclampsia: Specific Monoclonal Antibodies and Sensitive High-Throughput Assays for Serum Screening

    PubMed Central

    Dynon, Kemperly; Heng, Sophea; Puryer, Michelle; Li, Ying; Walton, Kelly; Endo, Yaeta; Nie, Guiying

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian HtrA3 (high temperature requirement A3) is a serine protease of the HtrA family. It has two isoforms [long (HtrA3-L) and short (HtrA3-S)] and is important for placental development and cancer progression. Recently, HtrA3 was identified as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of preeclampsia, a life-threatening pregnancy-specific disorder. Currently there are no high-throughput assays available to detect HtrA3 in human serum. In this study we generated and fully tested a panel of five HtrA3 mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Three mAbs recognised both HtrA3-L and HtrA3-S and the other two detected HtrA3-L only. All five mAbs were highly specific to HtrA3 and applicable in western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis of endogenous HtrA3 proteins in the mouse and human tissues. Amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assays-linked immunosorbent assays (AlphaLISAs), were developed to detect HtrA3 isoforms in picomolar levels in serum. The HtrA3 AlphaLISA detected significantly higher serum levels of HtrA3 in women at 13–14 weeks of gestation who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared to gestational-age matched controls. These HtrA3 mAbs are valuable for the development of immunoassays and characterisation of HtrA3 isoform-specific biology. The newly developed HtrA3 AlphaLISA assays are suitable for large scale screening of human serum. PMID:23049902

  20. Distinct breast cancer subtypes in women with early-onset disease across races

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mandeep; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Li-Ying; Song, Dong; Gong, Yun; Adams, Sylvia; Ross, Dara S; Wang, Jin-Hua; Grover, Shruti; Doval, Dinesh Chandra; Shao, Charles; He, Zi-Li; Chang, Victor; Chin, Warren W; Deng, Fang-Ming; Singh, Baljit; Zhang, David; Xu, Ru-Liang; Lee, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Racial disparities among breast cancer (BCa) patients are known but not well studied in early-onset BCa. We analyzed molecular subtypes in early-onset BCa across five major races. Methods: A total of 2120 cases were included from non-Hispanic White (NHW), African American (AA) and Hispanic, Chinese and Indian. Based on ER, PR and HER-2 status, BCa was classified into 4 intrinsic subtypes as Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2/neu overexpression and Triple negative BCa (TNBC) subtypes. Data was stratified according to race and age as younger/early-onset group (40-years and younger) and older group (50-years and older). Results: In early-onset BCa, incidence of TNBC was significantly higher (p = 0.0369) in Indian women followed by AA, Hispanic, NHW and Chinese women. Incidence of Her2 over-expression subtype also was highest in Indian women, followed by Hispanic, Chinese, AA and NHW women. In contrast, Luminal B subtype was most significantly higher in AA women (p = 0.0000) followed by NHW (p = 0.0002), Chinese (p = 0.0003), Hispanic (0.0128) and Indian (p = 0.0468) women. Luminal A subtype was most significantly reduced in Indian women (p = 0.0113) followed by Hispanic, AA, NHW and Chinese women. These results were based on statistical analysis with the mean of older group populations. Conclusions: These results show significant disparities in receptor subtypes across races. This study will contribute in developing optimal clinical trial protocols and personalized management strategies for early-onset BCa patients. PMID:25057437

  1. Treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS): rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Jon; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hlastala, Stefanie A; Williams, Emily; Ambler, Denisse; Hunt-Harrison, Tyehimba; Maloney, Ann E; Ritz, Louise; Anderson, Robert; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study is a publicly funded clinical trial designed to compare the therapeutic benefits, safety, and tolerability of risperidone, olanzapine, and molindone in youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The rationale, design, and methods of the Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study are described. Using a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group design at four sites, youths with EOSS (ages 8-19 years) were assigned to an 8-week acute trial of risperidone (0.5-6.0 mg/day), olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), or molindone (10-140 mg/day). Responders continued double-blind treatment for 44 weeks. The primary outcome measure was responder status at 8 weeks, defined by a 20% reduction in baseline Positive and Negative Symptom Scale scores plus ratings of significant improvement on the Clinical Global Impressions. Secondary outcome measures included assessments of psychopathology, functional impairment, quality of life, and medication safety. An intent-to-treat analytic plan was used. From February 2002 to May 2006, 476 youths were screened, 173 were further evaluated, and 119 were randomized. Several significant study modifications were required to address safety, the use of adjunctive medications, and the termination of the olanzapine treatment arm due to weight gain. The Treatment of Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Study will inform clinical practice regarding the use of antipsychotic medications for youths with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Important safety concerns emerged during the study, including higher than anticipated rates of suicidality and problems tapering thymoleptic agents before randomization.

  2. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to: Evaluate the evidence regarding parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Eating disorders are rare in children, but disordered eating is common. Understanding the phenomenology of disordered eating in childhood can aid prevention of full-blown eating disorders. The purpose of this review is to systematically extract and synthesize the evidence on parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies published from 1990 to 2013 addressing parental and child characteristics of disordered eating in children aged 6 to 12 years were eligible for inclusion. The search was restricted to studies with cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal designs, studies in English, and with abstracts available. Forty-four studies fit these criteria. Most studies were based on community samples with a cross-sectional design. The included studies varied considerably in size, instruments used to assess early-onset disordered eating, and parental and child characteristics investigated. Important determinants included the following: higher body weight, previously reported disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, parental disordered eating, and parental comments/concerns about child's weight and eating. The findings were inconsistent for sex, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-esteem/worth, and parental body weight. In conclusion, characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating have mainly been explored with a cross-sectional design. Full understanding of causal pathways will require good-quality longitudinal studies designed to address the influence of parental eating

  3. Study protocol: EXERcise and cognition in sedentary adults with early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON).

    PubMed

    Hooghiemstra, Astrid M; Eggermont, Laura H P; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bakker, Jet; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Koppe, Peter A; Scherder, Erik J A

    2012-08-16

    Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. The present study is registered within The Netherlands National Trial Register (ref: NTR2124).

  4. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. Discussion The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. Trial registration The present study is registered within The Netherlands

  5. Premorbid Risk Factors for Major Depressive Disorder: Are They Associated With Early Onset and Recurrent Course?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sylia; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Miller, Michael B.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Premorbid risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of an earlier onset and recurrent course were examined in two studies in a large, community-based sample of parents and offspring, prospectively assessed from late childhood into adulthood. In Study 1 (N = 2,764 offspring and their parents), parental psychiatric status, offspring personality at age 11, and age-11 offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted the subsequent development of MDD, as did poor quality parent-child relationships, poor academic functioning, early pubertal development, and childhood maltreatment by age 11. Parental MDD and adult antisocial behavior, offspring negative emotionality and disconstraint, externalizing symptoms, and childhood maltreatment predicted an earlier onset of MDD, after accounting for course; lower positive emotionality, trait anxiety, and childhood maltreatment predicted recurrent MDD, after accounting for age of onset. In Study 2 (N = 7,146), we examined molecular genetic risk for MDD by extending recent reports of associations with glutamatergic system genes. We failed to confirm associations with MDD using either individual SNP-based tests or gene-based analyses. Overall, results speak to the pervasiveness of risk for MDD, as well as specific risk for early-onset MDD; risk for recurrent MDD appears to be largely a function of its often earlier onset. PMID:25422974

  6. Characteristics of familial aggregation in early-onset Alzheimer`s disease: Evidence of subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, D.; Martinez, M.; Babron, M.C.

    1995-06-19

    Characteristics of familial aggregation of Alzheimer`s Disease were studied in 92 families ascertained through a clinically diagnosed proband with an onset below age 60 years. In each family data were systematically collected on the sibships of the proband, of his father, and of his mother. A total of 926 relatives were included and 81% of the living relatives (i.e., 251 individuals) were directly examined. The estimated cumulative risk among first degree relatives was equal to 35% by age 89 years (95% confidence interval 22 to 47%). This result does not support the hypothesis that an autosomal dominant gene, fully penetrantmore » by age 90 years, is segregating within all these pedigrees. Despite the fact that all probands were selected for an onset before age 60 years it was shown that two types of families could be delineated with respect to age at onset among affected relatives: all secondary cases with an onset below age 60 years were contributed by a particular group of families (type 1 families), whereas all secondary cases with an onset after age 60 years were contributed by another group of families (type 2 families). Although genetic interpretation of these findings is not straightforward, they support the hypothesis of etiologic heterogeneity in the determinism of early-onset Alzheimer`s disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  7. Early vs late age at onset frontotemporal dementia and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Won; Thibodeau, Marie-Pierre; Perry, David C; Hua, Alice; Sidhu, Manu; Sible, Isabel; Vargas, Jose Norberto S; Gaus, Stephanie E; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rankin, Katherine D; Boxer, Adam L; Kramer, Joel H; Rosen, Howard J; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Grinberg, Lea T; Huang, Eric J; DeArmond, Stephen J; Trojanowski, John Q; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W

    2018-03-20

    To examine clinicopathologic correlations in early vs late age at onset frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). All patients were clinically evaluated and prospectively diagnosed at the UCSF Memory and Aging Center. Two consecutive series were included: (1) patients with a clinically diagnosed FTD syndrome who underwent autopsy (cohort 1) and (2) patients with a primary pathologic diagnosis of FTLD, regardless of the clinical syndrome (cohort 2). These series were divided by age at symptom onset (cutoff 65 years). In cohort 1, 48 (25.3%) were 65 years or older at symptom onset. Pathologic causes of behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were similar in the early age at onset (EO) and late age at onset (LO) bvFTD groups. In corticobasal syndrome (CBS), however, the most common pathologic substrate differed according to age at onset: progressive supranuclear palsy (42.9%) in LO-CBS and Alzheimer disease (AD; 40.7%) in EO-CBS. In cohort 2, 57 (28.4%) were classified as LO-FTLD. Regarding FTLD major molecular classes, FTLD with transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa was most common in EO-FTLD (44.4%), whereas FTLD-tau (58.3%) was most common in LO-FTLD. Antemortem diagnosis of a non-FTD syndrome, usually AD-type dementia, was more frequent in LO-FTLD than EO-FTLD (19.3% vs 7.7%, p = 0.017). LO-FTLD was also associated with more prevalent comorbid pathologic changes. Of these, moderate to severe AD neuropathologic change and argyrophilic grain disease were overrepresented among patients who received an antemortem diagnosis of AD-type dementia. Patients with FTD and FTLD often develop symptoms after age 65, and age at onset represents an important consideration when making antemortem neuropathologic predictions. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Early- versus late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: investigating genetic and clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Hemmings, Sîan M J; Kinnear, Craig J; Lochner, Christine; Niehaus, Dana J H; Knowles, James A; Moolman-Smook, Johanna C; Corfield, Valerie A; Stein, Dan J

    2004-09-30

    There is increasing evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is mediated by genetic factors. Although the precise mechanism of inheritance is unclear, recent evidence has pointed towards the involvement of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the disorder's development. Furthermore, early-onset OCD appears to be a subtype that exhibits distinct clinical features and that is associated with greater familial loading. In the present investigation, South African OCD patients (n=252) were stratified according to age of onset and were clinically assessed. Additionally, selected variants in genes encoding serotonergic and dopaminergic components were investigated in a Caucasian OCD subset (n=180). This subgroup was further stratified to evaluate the role that these candidate genes may play in the genetically homogeneous Afrikaner subset (n=80). Analysis of the clinical data revealed an association between early age of onset and an increased frequency of tics, Tourette's disorder, and trichotillomania (TTM). The genetic studies yielded statistically significant results when the allelic distributions of genetic variants in the dopamine receptor type 4 gene (DRD4) were analysed in the Caucasian OCD cohort. These data support a role for the dopaminergic system, which may be relevant to the development of early-onset OCD.

  9. Exome Sequencing Frequently Reveals the Cause of Early-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vivante, Asaf; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    The primary causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children differ from those of adult onset CKD. In the United States the most common diagnostic groups of CKD that manifests before 25 years of age are: i) congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) (49.1%), ii) steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) (10.4%), iii) chronic glomerulonephritis (8.1%), and iv) renal cystic ciliopathies (5.3 %), encompassing >70% of CKD together. Recent findings suggest that early-onset CKD is caused by mutations in any one of over 200 different monogenic genes. High-throughput sequencing has very recently rendered identification of causative mutations in this high number of genes feasible. Molecular genetic diagnostics in early onset-CKD (before the age of 25 years) will, i) provide patients and families with a molecular genetic diagnosis, ii) generate new insights into diseases mechanisms, iii) allow etiology-based classification of patient cohorts for clinical studies and, iv) may have consequences for personalized treatment and prevention of CKD. In this review, we will discuss the implications of next-generation sequencing for clinical genetic diagnostics and discovery of novel genes in early-onset CKD. We also delineate the resulting opportunities for deciphering disease mechanisms and therapeutic implications. PMID:26750453

  10. Early onset of delinquency and the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving among young males.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F; Welte, John W

    2011-12-01

    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EARLY ONSET OF DELINQUENCY AND THE TRAJECTORY OF ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING AMONG YOUNG MALES*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed. PMID:21831528

  12. Pre-eclampsia part 2: prediction, prevention and management

    PubMed Central

    Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    An antiangiogenic state might constitute a terminal pathway for the multiple aetiologies of pre-eclampsia, especially those resulting from placental abnormalities. The levels of angiogenic and antiangiogenic proteins in maternal blood change prior to a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, correlate with disease severity and have prognostic value in identifying women who will develop maternal and/or perinatal complications. Potential interventions exist to ameliorate the imbalance of angiogenesis and, hence, might provide opportunities to improve maternal and/or perinatal outcomes in pre-eclampsia. Current strategies for managing pre-eclampsia consist of controlling hypertension, preventing seizures and timely delivery of the fetus. Prediction of pre-eclampsia in the first trimester is of great interest, as early administration of aspirin might reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, albeit modestly. Combinations of biomarkers typically predict pre-eclampsia better than single biomarkers; however, the encouraging initial results of biomarker studies require external validation in other populations before they can be used to facilitate intervention in patients identified as at increased risk. Angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors might also be useful in triage of symptomatic patients with suspected pre-eclampsia, differentiating pre-eclampsia from exacerbations of pre-existing medical conditions and performing risk assessment in asymptomatic women. This Review article discusses the performance of predictive and prognostic biomarkers for pre-eclampsia, current strategies for preventing and managing the condition and its long-term consequences. PMID:25003612

  13. Microvascular remodelling in preeclampsia: quantifying capillary rarefaction accurately and independently predicts preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Antonios, Tarek F T; Nama, Vivek; Wang, Duolao; Manyonda, Isaac T

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The incidence of preeclampsia seems to be rising because of increased prevalence of predisposing disorders, such as essential hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, and there is increasing evidence to suggest widespread microcirculatory abnormalities before the onset of preeclampsia. We hypothesized that quantifying capillary rarefaction could be helpful in the clinical prediction of preeclampsia. We measured skin capillary density according to a well-validated protocol at 5 consecutive predetermined visits in 322 consecutive white women, of whom 16 subjects developed preeclampsia. We found that structural capillary rarefaction at 20-24 weeks of gestation yielded a sensitivity of 0.87 with a specificity of 0.50 at the cutoff of 2 capillaries/field with the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic value of 0.70, whereas capillary rarefaction at 27-32 weeks of gestation yielded a sensitivity of 0.75 and a higher specificity of 0.77 at the cutoff of 8 capillaries/field with area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic value of 0.82. Combining capillary rarefaction with uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index increased the sensitivity and specificity of the prediction. Multivariable analysis shows that the odds of preeclampsia are increased in women with previous history of preeclampsia or chronic hypertension and in those with increased uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index, but the most powerful and independent predictor of preeclampsia was capillary rarefaction at 27-32 weeks. Quantifying structural rarefaction of skin capillaries in pregnancy is a potentially useful clinical marker for the prediction of preeclampsia.

  14. Expectant management of preterm preeclampsia in Indonesia and the role of steroids.

    PubMed

    Ernawati; Gumilar, Erry; Kuntoro; Soeroso, Joewono; Dekker, Gus

    2016-01-01

    To present the outcome of expectant management of preterm preeclampsia in Indonesia, and the effect of ongoing treatment with methylprednisolone (MP) on maternal and perinatal outcome. Prospective RCT on 48 patients with early-onset preeclampsia. Following the administration of dexamethasone for fetal lung maturation, patients were randomized to receive 25 mg MP group IV for the first week, decreasing to 12.5 mg during 2nd week and continued till birth, or matching IV placebo treatment (PL group). Prolongation of entry to delivery interval served as primary outcome measurement. The average time gained with expectant management was almost 14 days. However, there was no difference of mean time interval between entry to delivery between the PL (13.8 days) and MP (13.7 days) groups. Antenatal ongoing treatment with IV MP also did not improve maternal and/or perinatal outcome and might be associated with a higher risk for severe maternal infections--in particular tuberculosis. Expectant management of preterm preeclampsia is a realistic option in a major Indonesian perinatal referral center. Steroids (outside the use for fetal lung maturation) should not be used in the expectant management of preterm preeclampsia in Indonesia.

  15. Functional neuroanatomical associations of working memory in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kobylecki, Christopher; Haense, Cathleen; Harris, Jennifer M; Stopford, Cheryl L; Segobin, Shailendra H; Jones, Matthew; Richardson, Anna M T; Gerhard, Alexander; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Thompson, Jennifer C; Herholz, Karl; Snowden, Julie S

    2018-01-01

    To characterize metabolic correlates of working memory impairment in clinically defined subtypes of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Established models of working memory suggest a key role for frontal lobe function, yet the association in Alzheimer's disease between working memory impairment and visuospatial and language symptoms suggests that temporoparietal neocortical dysfunction may be responsible. Twenty-four patients with predominantly early-onset Alzheimer's disease were clinically classified into groups with predominantly amnestic, multidomain or visual deficits. Patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation focused on the domains of episodic and working memory, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data were analysed by using a region-of-interest approach. Patients with multidomain and visual presentations performed more poorly on tests of working memory compared with amnestic Alzheimer's disease. Working memory performance correlated with glucose metabolism in left-sided temporoparietal, but not frontal neocortex. Carriers of the apolipoprotein E4 gene showed poorer episodic memory and better working memory performance compared with noncarriers. Our findings support the hypothesis that working memory changes in early-onset Alzheimer's disease are related to temporoparietal rather than frontal hypometabolism and show dissociation from episodic memory performance. They further support the concept of subtypes of Alzheimer's disease with distinct cognitive profiles due to prominent neocortical dysfunction early in the disease course. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 with some atypical features.

    PubMed

    Dorobek, Małgorzata; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Lemmers, Richard J L F; Ryniewicz, Barbara; Kabzińska, Dagmara; Frants, Rune R; Gawel, Malgorzata; Walecki, Jerzy; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena

    2015-04-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy cases with facial weakness before the age of 5 and signs of shoulder weakness by the age of 10 are defined as early onset. Contraction of the D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4q35 is causally related to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1, and the residual size of the D4Z4 repeat shows a roughly inverse correlation with the severity of the disease. Contraction of the D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4q35 is believed to induce a local change in chromatin structure and consequent transcriptional deregulation of 4qter genes. We present early-onset cases in the Polish population that amounted to 21% of our total population with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. More than 27% of them presented with severe phenotypes (wheelchair dependency). The residual D4Z4 repeat sizes ranged from 1 to 4 units. In addition, even within early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 phenotypes, some cases had uncommon features (head drop, early disabling contractures, progressive ptosis, and respiratory insufficiency and cardiomyopathy). © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The Etiology and Clinical Course of Chronic Pancreatitis in Children With Early Onset of the Disease.

    PubMed

    Wejnarska, Karolina; Kolodziejczyk, Elwira; Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Dadalski, Maciej; Sobczynska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Kierkus, Jarosław; Bal, Jerzy; Rygiel, Agnieszka Magdalena; Oracz, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    The etiological factors of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in children differ from those in adults. To date, no study has assessed the clinical course of CP in young children. The aim of our study was to evaluate the etiology and the clinical presentation of the disease in children with disease onset before 5 years of age in comparison to later-onset of CP. A total of 276 children with CP, hospitalized from 1988 to 2015, were enrolled in the study. Data on presentation, diagnostic findings, and treatment were reviewed. Two hundred sixty patients were screened for the most frequent mutations in major pancreatitis-associated genes, such as cationic trypsinogen/serine protease gene (PRSS1), serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1 gene (SPINK1), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). The disease onset before the age of 5 years occurred in 51 patients (group 1), the later onset in 225 patients (group 2). We found no significant discrepancies in distribution of the etiological factors between groups. The youngest patients (group 1) had more pancreatitis episodes (median 5.0 vs 3.00; P < 0.05) and underwent surgeries more frequently (25.5% vs 8.9%; P < 0.05). It could be associated with significantly longer follow-up in early onset group (median 6 vs 4 years; P < 0.05). There were no differences in nutritional status or exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function. Early- and later-onset pancreatitis have similar etiological factors with predominance of gene mutations. The most frequent mutation found was p.Asn34Ser (N34S) in SPINK1 gene. The clinical presentation differed in number of pancreatitis episodes and frequency of surgeries.

  18. Mapping callosal morphology in early- and late-onset elderly depression: an index of distinct changes in cortical connectivity.

    PubMed

    Ballmaier, Martina; Kumar, Anand; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Narr, Katherine L; Luders, Eileen; Thompson, Paul M; Hojatkashani, Cornelius; Pham, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas; Toga, Arthur W

    2008-06-01

    There is some evidence of corpus callosum abnormalities in elderly depression, but it is not known whether these deficits are region-specific or differ based on age at onset of depression. Twenty-four patients with early-onset depression (mean age = 68.00, SD+/-5.83), 22 patients with late-onset depression (mean age = 74.50, SD+/-8.09) and 34 elderly control subjects (mean age = 72.38; SD+/-6.93) were studied. Using 3D MRI data, novel mesh-based geometrical modeling methods were applied to compare the midsagittal thickness of the corpus callosum at high spatial resolution between groups. Neuropsychological correlates of midsagittal callosal area differences were additionally investigated in a subsample of subjects. Depressed patients exhibited significant callosal thinning in the genu and splenium compared to controls. Significant callosal thinning was restricted to the genu in early-onset patients, but patients with late-onset depression exhibited significant callosal thinning in both the genu and splenium relative to controls. The splenium of the corpus callosum was also significantly thinner in subjects with late- vs early-onset depression. Genu and splenium midsagittal areas significantly correlated with memory and attention functioning among late-onset depressed patients, but not early-onset depressed patients or controls. Circumscribed structural alterations in callosal morphology may distinguish late- from early-onset depression in the elderly. These findings suggest distinct abnormalities of cortical connectivity in late- and early-onset elderly depression with possible influence on the course of illness. Patients with a late onset of depression may be at higher risk of illness progression and eventually dementia conversion than early-onset depression, with potentially important implications for research and therapy.

  19. Fathers' Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorder and Early Onset of Drug Use by Their Children.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kimberly L

    2017-05-01

    The unique influence of fathers' alcohol and cannabis use disorder on children's onset of use of these same substances has been rarely studied. A clear understanding of family history in this context is important for the development of family-based prevention initiatives aimed at delaying the onset of substance use among children. Prospective, longitudinal, and intergenerational data on 274 father-child dyads were used. Logistic regression models were estimated to assess the association between fathers' lifetime incidence of an alcohol and cannabis use disorder and children's onset of use of these same substances at or before age 15. The children of fathers who met the criteria for a lifetime cannabis use disorder were more likely to initiate use of alcohol (odds ratio = 6.71, 95% CI [1.92, 23.52]) and cannabis (odds ratio = 8.13, 95% CI [2.07, 31.95]) by age 15, when background covariates and presence of a lifetime alcohol use disorder were controlled for. No unique effect of fathers' alcohol use disorder on children's onset of alcohol and cannabis use was observed. Fathers' lifetime cannabis use disorder had a unique and robust association with children's uptake of alcohol and cannabis by age 15. Future research is needed to identify the mediating mechanisms that link fathers' disorder with children's early onset.

  20. [Analysis of gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Pan, G; Li, W H; Zhang, L M; Wu, B B; Wang, H J; Zhang, P; Zhou, S Z

    2017-11-02

    Objective: To summarize the gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason. Method: In this prospective study, data of patients with early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason were collected from neurological department of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between March 2016 and December 2016. Patients with known disorders such as infection, metabolic, structural, immunological problems and known genetic mutations were excluded. Patients with genetic disease that can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and phenotypic characteristics were also excluded. Genetic research methods included nervous system panel containing 1 427 epilepsy genes, whole exome sequencing (WES), analysis of copy number variation (CNV) and karyotype analysis of chromosome. The basic information, phenotypes, genetic results and the antiepileptic treatment of patients were analyzed. Result: Nine of the 17 cases with early onset epileptic spasm were boys and eight were girls. Patients' age at first seizure onset ranged from 1 day after birth to 8 months (median age of 3 months). The first hospital visit age ranged from 1 month to 2 years (median age of 4.5 months). The time of following-up ranged from 8 months to 3 years and 10 months. All the 17 patients had early onset epileptic spasm. Video electroencephalogram was used to monitor the spasm seizure. Five patients had Ohtahara syndrome, 10 had West syndrome, two had unclear classification. In 17 cases, 10 of them had detected pathogenic genes. Nine cases had point mutations, involving SCN2A, ARX, UNC80, KCNQ2, and GABRB3. Except one case of mutations in GABRB3 gene have been reported, all the other cases had new mutations. One patient had deletion mutation in CDKL5 gene. One CNV case had 6q 22.31 5.5MB repeats. Ten cases out of 17 were using 2-3 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the drugs had no effect. Seven cases used adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prednisone besides AEDs (a total course for 8 weeks

  1. Decision making and executive function in male adolescents with early-onset or adolescence-onset conduct disorder and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Graeme; van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Stollery, Sarah J; Aitken, Michael R F; Savage, Justin; Moore, Simon C; Goodyer, Ian M

    2009-07-15

    Although conduct disorder (CD) is associated with an increased susceptibility to substance use disorders, little is known about decision-making processes or reward mechanisms in CD. This study investigated decision making under varying motivational conditions in CD. Performances on the Risky Choice Task (RCT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were assessed in 156 adolescents (84 control subjects, 34 with adolescence-onset CD, and 38 with early-onset CD). The RCT was performed twice, once under normal motivational conditions and once under conditions of increased motivation and psychosocial stress. Increased motivation and stress led to more cautious decision making and changes in framing effects on the RCT in all groups, although such effects were least pronounced in the early-onset CD group. Participants from both CD subgroups selected the risky choice more frequently than control subjects. Under normal motivational conditions, early-onset CD participants chose the risky choice more frequently in trials occurring after small gains, relative to control subjects and adolescence-onset CD participants. Following adjustment for IQ differences, the groups did not differ significantly in terms of WCST performance. Differences in decision making between control subjects and individuals with CD suggest that the balance between sensitivity to reward and punishment is shifted in this disorder, particularly the early-onset form. Our data on modulation of decision making according to previous outcomes suggest altered reward mechanisms in early-onset CD. The WCST data suggest that impairments in global executive function do not underlie altered decision making in CD.

  2. Early onset of bilateral brachial plexopathy during mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Churn, M; Clough, V; Slater, A

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of brachial plexus neuropathy occurring in a 50-year-old man treated with standard mantle radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's disease. A dose of 35 Gy in 20 fractions was given to the mantle field, following by a boost to the right side of the neck (8 Gy in four fractions). The onset of symptoms was early in the course of treatment and a gradual and almost full recovery was observed over 3 years after completion ofradiotherapy. The diagnosis was supported by electromyography. The temporal relationship of the radiotherapy and the onset of the brachial plexus neuropathy suggests a cause and effect, but this association is rarely reported after mantle radiotherapy. We review the aetiology of this condition and postulate possible mechanisms in this patient.

  3. The reduction in circulating levels of melatonin may be associated with the development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zeng, K; Gao, Y; Wan, J; Tong, M; Lee, A C; Zhao, M; Chen, Q

    2016-11-01

    Placental dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, which is a pregnancy-specific disorder. It has been suggested that the incidence of preeclampsia has a seasonal variation. Melatonin, as a seasonal factor, has been suggested to be involved in a successful pregnancy. In this study, we investigated the association of circulating levels of melatonin with preeclampsia. Serum was collected from women with preeclampsia (n=113) and gestation-matched healthy pregnant women, and the levels of melatonin were measured. In addition, the expression of melatonin receptors was examined in preeclamptic placentae (n=27). The association of the incidence of preeclampsia and seasonal variation was also analysed from 1491 women with preeclampsia within 77 745 healthy pregnancies. The serum levels of melatonin were significantly reduced in women with preeclampsia at presentation and these reduced serum levels of melatonin were not associated with the severity or time onset of preeclampsia nor with seasonal variation. The expression of melatonin receptor, MT1 was reduced in preeclamptic placentae. The incidence of preeclampsia was did exhibit seasonal variation, but this was largely due to the increase in the incidence of mild or late-onset preeclampsia. Our results demonstrate that reduced melatonin levels are associated with the development of preeclampsia but that the circulating levels of melatonin do not appear to be subject to seasonal variation during pregnancy.

  4. Adenosine and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Salsoso, Rocío; Farías, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Chiarello, Delia I; Toledo, Fernando; Leiva, Andrea; Mate, Alfonso; Vázquez, Carmen M; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-06-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside with pleiotropic effects in different physiological processes including circulation, renal blood flow, immune function, or glucose homeostasis. Changes in adenosine membrane transporters, adenosine receptors, and corresponding intracellular signalling network associate with development of pathologies of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality affecting 3-5% of pregnancies. Since the proposed mechanisms of preeclampsia development include adenosine-dependent biological effects, adenosine membrane transporters and receptors, and the associated signalling mechanisms might play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia associates with increased adenosine concentration in the maternal blood and placental tissue, likely due to local hypoxia and ischemia (although not directly demonstrated), microthrombosis, increased catecholamine release, and platelet activation. In addition, abnormal expression and function of equilibrative nucleoside transporters is described in foetoplacental tissues from preeclampsia; however, the role of adenosine receptors in the aetiology of this disease is not well understood. Adenosine receptors activation may be related to abnormal trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis, and ischemia/reperfusion mechanisms in the placenta from preeclampsia. These mechanisms may explain only a low fraction of the associated abnormal transformation of spiral arteries in preeclampsia, triggering cellular stress and inflammatory mediators release from the placenta to the maternal circulation. Although increased adenosine concentration in preeclampsia may be a compensatory or adaptive mechanism favouring placental angiogenesis, a poor angiogenic state is found in preeclampsia. Thus, preeclampsia-associated complications might affect the cell response to adenosine due to altered expression and activity of adenosine receptors, membrane transporters

  5. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L M; Cartmel, B; Molinaro, A M; Leffell, D J; Bale, A E; Mayne, S T

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiological studies. To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Basal cell carcinoma cases (n = 380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n = 390) under 40 years of age were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage, during an in-person interview. Self-reported data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall [above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·69-1·73)] or in women only (OR 1·21, 95% CI 0·73-2·01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or spirits and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (P(interaction) = 0·003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping CIs. Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L.M.; Cartmel, B.; Molinaro, A.M.; Leffell, D.J.; Bale, A.E.; Mayne, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous epidemiologic studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) light, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiologic studies. Objective To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Methods BCC cases (n=380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=390) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage during an in-person interview. Self-report data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. Results There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall (above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.69-1.73) or in women only (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.73-2.01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or hard liquor and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (pinteraction=0.003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping confidence intervals. Conclusions Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. PMID:25059635

  7. Indoor tanning and risk of early-onset basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M.; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite a rise in incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) among young people and the ubiquity of indoor tanning in this population, few epidemiologic studies have investigated this exposure-disease relationship. Objective Evaluate the association between indoor tanning and early-onset BCC. Methods BCC cases (n=376) and controls with minor benign skin conditions (n=390) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on ever indoor tanning, age of initiation, frequency, duration, burns while tanning, and type of tanning device during an in-person interview. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multivariate logistic regression with never indoor tanners as the referent group. Results Ever indoor tanning was associated with a 69% increased risk of early-onset BCC (95% CI=1.15-2.48). This association was stronger among women (OR=2.14, 95% CI=1.31-3.47), for multiple BCCs (OR=2.16, 95% CI=1.26-3.70), and for BCCs on the trunk and extremities (OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.57-5.02). Risk increased dose-dependently with years used regular indoor tanning devices (p-trend=0.003), number of overall burns (p-trend=<0.001) and burns to biopsy site (p-trend=<0.001) from indoor tanning. Approximately one-quarter (27%) of early-onset BCCs (or 43% among women) could be prevented if individuals never tanned indoors. Limitations Potential recall bias of indoor tanning by cases and generalizability of the control population suggest replication in other studies is warranted. Conclusions Indoor tanning was a strong risk factor for early-onset BCC, particularly among women. Indoor tanning should continue to be targeted by both policy-based and behavioral interventions, as the impact on BCC-associated morbidity may be substantial. PMID:22153793

  8. Definition, clinical profile, microbiological spectrum, and prognostic factors of early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    López, Javier; Revilla, Ana; Vilacosta, Isidre; Villacorta, Eduardo; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Gómez, Itziar; Rollán, María Jesús; San Román, José Alberto

    2007-03-01

    There is no agreement in the best cutoff time to distinguish between early- and late- onset prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). Our objectives are to define early-onset PVE according to the microbiological spectrum and to analyse the profile and short-term prognosis of this entity. The microbiological profile of 172 non-drug users, who were patients with PVE, were compared according to the time elapsed from surgery among 640 endocarditis diagnosed between 1996 and 2004. There were no differences in the microbiological profile of patients with PVE occurred within 2 months of valve replacement and those accounting between 2 and 12 months. The proportion of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was higher during the first year post-intervention (37 vs. 18%, P = 0.005) and Streptococci viridans were more common after 1 year (18 vs. 1%, P = 0.001). The percentage of methicilin-resistant CNS strains was higher before 1 year (77 vs. 30%, P = 0.004). Early-onset PVE represented 38% of all episodes of PVE, CNS being the most frequent isolated microorganisms (37%), most of them methicilin resistant (77%). In-hospital mortality of patients who needed urgent surgery was 46% and elective surgery 25%. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 38% and no differences were seen between surgical and medical groups (32 vs. 45%, P = 0.30). Periannular complications were associated with higher in-hospital mortality (60 vs. 27%, P = 0.007). According to the microbiological profile, the most appropriate cutoff time to distinguish between early- and late-onset PVE was 1 year. Methicilin-resistant CNS are the most frequent pathogens and periannular complications, the only risk factor for in-hospital mortality.

  9. Does Diagnostic Classification of Early-Onset Psychosis Change over Follow-Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraguas, David; de Castro, Maria J.; Medina, Oscar; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the diagnostic stability and the functional outcome of patients with early-onset psychosis (EOP) over a 2-year follow-up period. Methods: A total of 24 patients (18 males (75%) and 6 females (25%), mean age [plus or minus] SD: 15.7 [plus or minus] 1.6 years) with a first episode of EOP formed the sample. Psychotic symptoms…

  10. Clinical and molecular characterization of KCNT1-related severe early-onset epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Umesh; Malhotra, Sony; Meyer, Esther; Trump, Natalie; Gazina, Elena V.; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ngoh, Adeline; Ackermann, Sally; Ambegaonkar, Gautam; Appleton, Richard; Desurkar, Archana; Eltze, Christin; Kneen, Rachel; Kumar, Ajith V.; Lascelles, Karine; Montgomery, Tara; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Samanta, Rajib; Scott, Richard H.; Tan, Jeen; Whitehouse, William; Poduri, Annapurna; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Chong, W.K. “Kling”; Cross, J. Helen; Topf, Maya; Petrou, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Objective To characterize the phenotypic spectrum, molecular genetic findings, and functional consequences of pathogenic variants in early-onset KCNT1 epilepsy. Methods We identified a cohort of 31 patients with epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and screened for variants in KCNT1 using direct Sanger sequencing, a multiple-gene next-generation sequencing panel, and whole-exome sequencing. Additional patients with non-EIMFS early-onset epilepsy in whom we identified KCNT1 variants on local diagnostic multiple gene panel testing were also included. When possible, we performed homology modeling to predict the putative effects of variants on protein structure and function. We undertook electrophysiologic assessment of mutant KCNT1 channels in a xenopus oocyte model system. Results We identified pathogenic variants in KCNT1 in 12 patients, 4 of which are novel. Most variants occurred de novo. Ten patients had a clinical diagnosis of EIMFS, and the other 2 presented with early-onset severe nocturnal frontal lobe seizures. Three patients had a trial of quinidine with good clinical response in 1 patient. Computational modeling analysis implicates abnormal pore function (F346L) and impaired tetramer formation (F502V) as putative disease mechanisms. All evaluated KCNT1 variants resulted in marked gain of function with significantly increased channel amplitude and variable blockade by quinidine. Conclusions Gain-of-function KCNT1 pathogenic variants cause a spectrum of severe focal epilepsies with onset in early infancy. Currently, genotype-phenotype correlations are unclear, although clinical outcome is poor for the majority of cases. Further elucidation of disease mechanisms may facilitate the development of targeted treatments, much needed for this pharmacoresistant genetic epilepsy. PMID:29196579

  11. Canadian patient played key role in uncovering secrets about early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lyttle, J

    1996-01-01

    Last June, the University of Toronto announced that Canadian scientists and a team of international researchers had discovered the gene responsible for most cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. One of the key players in that discovery had died just 3 months earlier. Frances Hodge, who participated in a battery of tests for the 20 years she lived with the disease, helped lead researchers to gene S182--and an ember of hope for future generations. Images p906-a PMID:8634971

  12. Clinical features of early onset, familial Alzheimer`s disease linked to chromosome 14

    SciTech Connect

    Mullan, M.; Bennett, C.; Figueredo, C.

    1995-02-27

    Early onset familial Alzheimer`s disease (AD) has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Two genes are responsible for the majority of cases of this subtype of AD. Mutations in the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein ({beta}APP) gene on chromosome 21 have been shown to completely cosegregate with the disease. We and others have previously described the clinical features of families with {beta}APP mutations at the codon 717 locus in an attempt to define the phenotype associated with a valine to isoleucine (Val {r_arrow} Ile) or a valine to glycine (Val {r_arrow} Gly) change. More recently, a second locus for very early onsetmore » disease has been localized to chromosome 14. The results of linkage studies in some families suggesting linkage to both chromosomes have been explained by the suggestion of a second (centromeric) locus on chromosome 21. Here we report the clinical features and genetic analysis of a British pedigree (F74) with early onset AD in which neither the {beta}APP locus nor any other chromosome 21 locus segregates with the disease, but in which good evidence is seen for linkage on the long arm of chromosome 14. In particular we report marker data suggesting that the chromosome 14 disease locus is close to D14S43 and D14S77. Given the likelihood that F74 represents a chromosome 14 linked family, we describe the clinical features and make a limited clinical comparison with the {beta}APP717 Val {r_arrow} Ile and {beta}APP717 Val {r_arrow} Gly encoded families that have been previously described. We conclude that although several previously reported clinical features occur to excess in early onset familial AD, no single clinical feature demarcates either the chromosome 14 or {beta}APP codon 717 mutated families except mean age of onset. 52 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  13. Psychiatric comorbidities of adults with early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the psychiatric comorbidities in adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of recalled symptom onset before and after the age of 7 years and whether the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were associated with psychiatric comorbidities. In all, 214 adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 174 non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls (aged 17-40 years) received psychiatric interviews to confirm their previous and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder status and other psychiatric diagnoses. Demographics and risks of lifetime psychiatric disorders were compared among three groups: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset <7 years (early-onset); (2) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset between 7 and 12 years (late-onset) and (3) non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls. We also tested the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on the risk of later psychiatric comorbidities by Cox regression analyses. Regardless of the age of onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. There were similar comorbid patterns between early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, increased severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was associated with higher risks of oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dysthymia and sleep disorder but not major depression, which was associated with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Our findings suggest that elevating the threshold of age of onset to 12 years in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  14. High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation in early onset epileptic encephalopathy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Meiron, Oded; Gale, Rena; Namestnic, Julia; Bennet-Back, Odeya; David, Jonathan; Gebodh, Nigel; Adair, Devin; Esmaeilpour, Zeinab; Bikson, Marom

    2018-01-01

    Early onset epileptic encephalopathy is characterized by high daily seizure-frequency, multifocal epileptic discharges, severe psychomotor retardation, and death at infancy. Currently, there are no effective treatments to alleviate seizure frequency and high-voltage epileptic discharges in these catastrophic epilepsy cases. The current study examined the safety and feasibility of High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) in reducing epileptiform activity in a 30-month-old child suffering from early onset epileptic encephalopathy. HD-tDCS was administered over 10 intervention days spanning two weeks including pre- and post-intervention video-EEG monitoring. There were no serious adverse events or side effects related to the HD-tDCS intervention. Frequency of clinical seizures was not significantly reduced. However, interictal sharp wave amplitudes were significantly lower during the post-intervention period versus baseline. Vital signs and blood biochemistry remained stable throughout the entire study. These exploratory findings support the safety and feasibility of 4 × 1 HD-tDCS in early onset epileptic encephalopathy and provide the first evidence of HD-tDCS effects on paroxysmal EEG features in electroclinical cases under the age of 36 months. Extending HD-tDCS treatment may enhance electrographic findings and clinical effects.

  15. A girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with microdeletion involving CDKL5.

    PubMed

    Saitsu, Hirotomo; Osaka, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that aberrations of CDKL5 in female patients cause early-onset intractable seizures, severe developmental delay or regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. We report on a Japanese girl with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy, hypotonia, developmental regression, and Rett syndrome-like features. The patient showed generalized tonic seizures, and later, massive myoclonus induced by phone and light stimuli. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed no structural brain anomalies but cerebral atrophy. Electroencephalogram showed frontal dominant diffuse poly spikes and waves. Through copy number analysis by genomic microarray, we found a microdeletion at Xp22.13. A de novo 137-kb deletion, involving exons 5-21 of CDKL5, RS1, and part of PPEF1 gene, was confirmed by quantitative PCR and breakpoint specific PCR analyses. Our report suggests that the clinical features associated with CDKL5 deletions could be implicated in Japanese patients, and that genetic testing of CDKL5, including both sequencing and deletion analyses, should be considered in girls with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and RTT-like features. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In utero arsenic exposure induces early onset of atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; D’Souza, Stanley E.; Sen, Utpal; States, J. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated drinking water has been linked to higher rates of coronary disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Recent evidence suggests that early life exposures may play a significant role in the onset of chronic adult diseases. To investigate the potential for in utero exposure to accelerate the onset of cardiovascular disease we exposed pregnant ApoE-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice to arsenic in their drinking water and examined the aortic trees of their male offspring for evidence of early disease 10 and 16 weeks after birth. Mice were maintained on normal chow after weaning. ApoE−/− mice are a commonly used model for atherogenesis and spontaneously develop atherosclerotic disease. Mice exposed to arsenic in utero showed a >2-fold increase in lesion formation in the aortic roots as well as the aortic arch compared to control mice at both 10 and 16 weeks of age. The mice exposed to arsenic also had a 20 – 40% decrease in total triglycerides, but no change in total cholesterol, phospholipids and total abundance of VLDL or HDL particles. Subfractionation of VLDL particles showed a decrease in large VLDL particles. In addition, the arsenic exposed mice showed a vasorelaxation defect in response to acetylcholine suggesting disturbance of endothelial cell signalling. These results indicate that in utero arsenic exposure induces an early onset of atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice without a hyperlipidemic diet and support the hypothesis that in utero arsenic exposure may be atherogenic in humans. PMID:17317095

  17. Neurological soft signs in juvenile patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, María; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rapado, Marta; Leiva, Marta; Moreno, Carmen; Giráldez, Marisa; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2010-11-01

    The study of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with Asperger syndrome may help us to elucidate the neurological basis of this disorder and to clarify its relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of NSS in a sample of patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis and healthy controls. NSS were assessed by means of the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a sample of 29 patients with Asperger syndrome (mean age = 12.86 ± 2.58 years), 30 patients with first-episode early-onset psychoses (mean age 14.17 ± 1.02 years) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.33 ± 2.69 years). Significant group differences were found between Asperger syndrome patients and healthy controls both in all the Neurological Evaluation Scale subscales and in the Neurological Evaluation Scale total score. There were no significant differences between both groups of patients in any of the Neurological Evaluation Scale scores. NSS are more prevalent in Asperger syndrome than in healthy controls. The NSS profile was not disorder-specific in our samples of patients with Asperger syndrome and early-onset psychoses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Variants of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Susanne; van Dyck, Zoé; Dremmel, Daniela; Munsch, Simone; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the factor structure of the newly developed self-report screening questionnaire Eating Disturbances in Youth-Questionnaire (EDY-Q) as well as to report the distribution of variants of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances characteristic of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in a middle childhood population sample. Using the EDY-Q, a total of 1,444 children aged 8-13 years were screened in elementary schools in Switzerland via self-report. The factor analysis of the 12 items covering ARFID related symptoms was performed using a principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA showed a four factor solution, with clear allocation to the scales covering three variants of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances and weight problems. Inadequate overall food intake was reported by 19.3% of the children, a limited accepted amount of food by 26.1%, and food avoidance based on a specific underlying fear by 5.0%. The postulated factor structure of the EDY-Q was confirmed, further supporting the existence of distinct variants of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances. Avoidant/restrictive eating behavior seems to be a common experience in middle childhood, but results have to be confirmed using validated interviews. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Distinct 18F-AV-1451 tau PET retention patterns in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schöll, Michael; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Strandberg, Olof; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Jögi, Jonas; Ohlsson, Tomas; Smith, Ruben; Hansson, Oskar

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease can present with different clinical phenotypes. Individuals with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (>65 years) typically present with medial temporal lobe neurodegeneration and predominantly amnestic symptomatology, while patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (<65 years) exhibit greater neocortical involvement associated with a clinical presentation including dyspraxia, executive dysfunction, or visuospatial impairment. We recruited 20 patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, 21 with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, three with prodromal early-onset Alzheimer's disease and 13 with prodromal late-onset Alzheimer's disease, as well as 30 cognitively healthy elderly controls, that had undergone 18F-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography and structural magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease exhibit differential regional tau pathology and atrophy patterns. Strong associations of lower age at symptom onset with higher 18F-AV-1451 uptake were observed in several neocortical regions, while higher age did not yield positive associations in neither patient group. Comparing patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease with controls resulted in significantly higher 18F-AV-1451 retention throughout the neocortex, while comparing healthy controls with late-onset Alzheimer's disease patients yielded a distinct pattern of higher 18F-AV-1451 retention, predominantly confined to temporal lobe regions. When compared against each other, the early-onset Alzheimer's disease group exhibited greater uptake than the late-onset group in prefrontal and premotor, as well as in inferior parietal cortex. These preliminary findings indicate that age may constitute an important contributor to Alzheimer's disease heterogeneity highlighting the potential of tau positron emission tomography to capture phenotypic variation across patients with Alzheimer's disease. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford

  20. Early impact basins and the onset of plate tectonics. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental crustal dichotomy of the Earth (high and low density crust) was established nearly 4 billion years ago. Therefore, subductable crust was concentrated at the surface of the Earth very early in its history, making possible an early onset for plate tectonics. Simple thermal history calculations spanning 1 billion years show that the basin forming impact thins the lithosphere by at least 25%, and increases the sublithosphere thermal gradients by roughly 20%. The corresponding increase in convective heat transport, combined with the highly fractured nature of the thinned basin lithosphere, suggest that lithospheric breakup or rifting occurred shortly after the formation of the basins. Conditions appropriate for early rifting persisted from some 100,000,000 years following impact. We suggest a very early stage of high temperature, fast spreading "microplate" tectonics, originating before 3.5 billion years ago, and gradually stabilizing over the Archaean into more modern large plate or Wilson Cycle tectonics.

  1. [Study on the heterogeneity of edema in severe preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Shi, Junmei; Yang, Zi; Chen, Lei

    2014-05-06

    The aim of this study was to analysis the clinical edema forms and explore the heterogeneity of edema in severe preeclampsia (PE) . From February 2002 to February 2009, Peking University Third Hospital admitted with severe preeclampsia 228 cases who were enrolled in this study. The form is divided into no edema (A-type), pure interstitial edema (B-type), a simple cavity gap edema (C-type) and mixed interstitial edema that coexist with lacunar edema (D-type). Analysis and comparison of various types of edema in patients with different clinical manifestations of prenatal care models, laboratory parameters, the incidence of gestational age, complications and obstetric and perinatal outcomes, and analyze the relationship between different types of edema and albumins and the peak value of proteinuria. Edema was seen in 86% (197/228) of all of cases. Compared the cases who have regular prenatal care with those who have irregular care, differences were statistically significant in edema type composition ratio (P < 0.01) and the incidence of serious complications (P < 0.01), and serum albumin levels (P < 0.01), but not in the peak value of proteinuria (P > 0.05); Compared early-onset PE and late-onset PE patients, differences were statistically significant in edema type composition ratio (P < 0.01) and peak value of proteinuria (P < 0.01), but not in serum albumin levels and the incidence of serious complications (P > 0.05). Comparison between the various types of edema, differences were statistically significant in serum albumin levels and peak value of proteinuria and incidence of serious complications and the gestational week at PE onset and the incidence of treatment preterm labor (P < 0.05).Occurrence of placental abruption, heart failure and HELLP syndrome had statistical significance in different types of edema(P < 0.05). The varying degrees of interstitial edema were correlated with serum albumin levels (r = -0.19, P < 0.05) and serious complication occurrence (r

  2. Evaluation of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    We retrospectively assessed the medical records of pregnant women who delivered at Asahikawa Kosei Hospital during a period of 3 years between January 2009 and December 2011 and their neonates. Our prophylactic measures against group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection are based on the Japanese guidelines. More specifically, we performed screening by examining bacterial cultures of vaginal-perianal swabs from pregnant women between gestational weeks 33 and 37. Then, sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) was given at a dose of 1.5 g through a drip intravenous infusion at delivery if pregnant women were screened positive for GBS. For neonates born to GBS carrier women, bacterial cultures of pharyngeal swabs, vernix caseosa, stool, and gastric juice were performed at birth. There were 2,399 deliveries and 2,499 births at our hospital. In 169 of the deliveries (175 of the births), GBS was isolated from specimens obtained from gestational weeks 33-37. According to delivery mode, there were 42 cases of cesarean section (45 births) and 127 cases of vaginal delivery (130 births). The GBS-positive neonates accounted for 4.1 % of all deliveries in pregnant women who tested positive for GBS at gestational weeks 33-37. In neonates born by vaginal delivery, the GBS-positive rate was 5.5 %. Of the 2,499 neonates born at our hospital during a period of 3 years, early-onset GBS infection occurred in 1 neonate. The incidence of early-onset GBS infection was 0.40 per 1,000 live births. From 1997 to 2001 (routine GBS screening of mothers was not performed), there were 2,097 deliveries and 2,166 births. Early-onset GBS infection occurred in 1 neonate during this period; thus, the incidence of early-onset GBS infection was 0.46 per 1,000 live births. There were no significant differences in the two periods. The present prophylactic measures such as screening of maternal GBS carriers and intrapartum antibiotic administration are inadequate to decrease the occurrence of early-onset GBS

  3. Functional and Radiographic Outcomes Following Growth-Sparing Management of Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Charles E; Tran, Dong-Phuong; McClung, Anna

    2017-06-21

    In this study, we sought to evaluate radiographic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes of patients who have completed growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis. This prospective study involved patients with early-onset scoliosis who underwent growth-sparing treatment and either "final" fusion or observation for ≥2 years since the last lengthening procedure. Demographics, radiographic parameters, pulmonary function test (PFT) values, and scores of patient-reported assessments (Early-Onset Scoliosis Questionnaire [EOSQ] and Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-30) were obtained. At the most recent follow-up, patients performed 2 additional functional outcome tests: step-activity monitoring and a treadmill exercise-tolerance test. Twelve patients were evaluated as "graduates" of growth-sparing management of early-onset scoliosis (mean of 37 months since the most recent surgery). The major scoliosis curve measurement averaged 88° before treatment and 47° at the most recent follow-up. T1-S1 height increased from a mean of 22.3 cm to 34.7 cm and T1-T12 height, from 13.3 to 22.3 cm. At the most recent follow-up, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) as a percentage of the predicted volume were 52.1% and 55.3%, respectively, and were essentially unchanged from the earliest PFT that patients could perform (FEV1 = 53.8% of predicted and FVC = 53.5% of predicted). There was no difference between graduates and controls with respect to activity time or total steps in step-activity monitoring, and in the exercise-tolerance test, graduates walked at the same speed but at a higher heart rate and at a significantly higher (p <0.001) VO2 cost (rate of oxygen consumed per distance traveled). The EOSQ mean score was 102.2 of a possible 120 points, and the SRS mean score was 4.1 of a possible 5 points. A realistic long-term goal for the management of early-onset scoliosis appears to be spine elongation and maintenance of

  4. Mutations of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes in Thais with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Plengvidhya, Nattachet; Boonyasrisawat, Watip; Chongjaroen, Nalinee; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Sriussadaporn, Sutin; Vannaseang, Sathit; Banchuin, Napatawn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2009-06-01

    Six known genes responsible for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) were analysed to evaluate the prevalence of their mutations in Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one unrelated probands with early-onset type 2 diabetes, 21 of them fitted into classic MODY criteria, were analysed for nucleotide variations in promoters, exons, and exon-intron boundaries of six known MODY genes, including HNF-4alpha, GCK, HNF-1alpha, IPF-1, HNF-1beta, and NeuroD1/beta2, by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method followed by direct DNA sequencing. Missense mutations or mutations located in regulatory region, which were absent in 130 chromosomes of non-diabetic controls, were classified as potentially pathogenic mutations. We found that mutations of the six known MODY genes account for a small proportion of classic MODY (19%) and early-onset type 2 diabetes (10%) in Thais. Five of these mutations are novel including GCK R327H, HNF-1alpha P475L, HNF-1alphaG554fsX556, NeuroD1-1972 G > A and NeuroD1 A322N. Mutations of IPF-1 and HNF-1beta were not identified in the studied probands. Mutations of the six known MODY genes may not be a major cause of MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes in Thais. Therefore, unidentified genes await discovery in a majority of Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes.

  5. Stabilization in early adult-onset myopia with corneal refractive therapy.

    PubMed

    González-Méijome, José M; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Lopes-Ferreira, Daniela; Faria-Ribeiro, Miguel A; Peixoto-de-Matos, Sofia C; Queirós, António

    2016-02-01

    To describe the stabilization of early adult-onset myopia in three university students after initiating orthokeratology treatment with corneal refractive therapy contact lenses. Three Caucasian early adult-onset progressing myopic subjects (1 male, 2 females) were fitted with corneal refractive therapy lenses to correct myopia between -1.50 and -2.50 D of sphere using Paragon CRT (Paragon Vision Sciences, Mesa, AZ) lenses for overnight orthokeratology. The pre-treatment refractive history from 2005 as well as refraction and axial length after treatment onset are reported over a period of 3 years between December 2009 and January 2013 with an additional year of follow-up after treatment discontinuation (January-December 2013). The peripheral refractive patterns and topographic changes are also reported individually. Treatment was successful in all three subjects achieving uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better monocularly. During a period of 3 years of follow-up the subjects did not experience progression in their refractive error, nor in their axial length (measured during the last 2 years of treatment and 1 year after discontinuation). Furthermore, the subjects recovered to their baseline refraction and did not progressed further over the following year after lens wear discontinuation. We cannot attribute a causative effect to the orthokeratology treatment alone as underlying mechanism for myopia stabilization in this 3 patients. However, the present report points to the possibility of stabilization of early adult-onset myopia progression in young adults using corneal refractive therapy treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between polymorphisms in cancer-related genes and early onset of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Chen; Zhao, Yang; Zhai, Rihong; Liu, Geoffrey; Ter-Minassian, Monica; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Liu, Chen-Yu; Chen, Feng; Kulke, Matthew H; Heist, Rebecca S; Christiani, David C

    2011-04-01

    There is an increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) among younger people in the western populations. However, the association between genetic polymorphisms and the age of EA onset is unclear. In this study, 1330 functional/tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 354 cancer-related genes were genotyped in 335 white EA patients. Twenty important SNPs that have the highest importance scores and lowest classification error rate were identified by the random forest algorithm to be associated with early onset of EA (age ≤ 55 years). Subsequent logistic regression analysis indicated that 10 SNPs (rs2070744 of NOS3, rs720321 of BCL2, rs17757541 of BCL2, rs11775256 of TNFRSF10A, rs1035142 of CASP8, rs2236302 of MMP14, rs4740363 of ABL1, rs696217 of GHRL, rs2445762 of CYP19A1, and rs11941492 of VEGFR2/KDR) were significantly associated with early onset of EA (≤55 vs >55 years, all P < .05 after adjusting for co-variates and false discovery rate). Among them, five SNPs in the NOS3, BCL2, TNFRSF10A, and CASP8 genes were known to be involved in apoptosis processes. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, rs2070744 of NOS3, rs720321 of BCL2, and rs1035142 of CASP8 were also significantly associated with early onset of EA. Moreover, there was a higher risk of developing EA at a younger age when one had more risk genotypes. In conclusion, polymorphisms in cancer-related genes, especially those in the apoptotic pathway, play an important role in the development of younger-aged EA in a dose-response manner.

  7. The CDKL5 disorder is an independent clinical entity associated with early-onset encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fehr, Stephanie; Wilson, Meredith; Downs, Jenny; Williams, Simon; Murgia, Alessandra; Sartori, Stefano; Vecchi, Marilena; Ho, Gladys; Polli, Roberta; Psoni, Stavroula; Bao, Xinhua; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen; Christodoulou, John

    2013-03-01

    The clinical understanding of the CDKL5 disorder remains limited, with most information being derived from small patient groups seen at individual centres. This study uses a large international data collection to describe the clinical profile of the CDKL5 disorder and compare with Rett syndrome (RTT). Information on individuals with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) mutations (n=86) and females with MECP2 mutations (n=920) was sourced from the InterRett database. Available photographs of CDKL5 patients were examined for dysmorphic features. The proportion of CDKL5 patients meeting the recent Neul criteria for atypical RTT was determined. Logistic regression and time-to-event analyses were used to compare the occurrence of Rett-like features in those with MECP2 and CDKL5 mutations. Most individuals with CDKL5 mutations had severe developmental delay from birth, seizure onset before the age of 3 months and similar non-dysmorphic features. Less than one-quarter met the criteria for early-onset seizure variant RTT. Seizures and sleep disturbances were more common than in those with MECP2 mutations whereas features of regression and spinal curvature were less common. The CDKL5 disorder presents with a distinct clinical profile and a subtle facial, limb and hand phenotype that may assist in differentiation from other early-onset encephalopathies. Although mutations in the CDKL5 gene have been described in association with the early-onset variant of RTT, in our study the majority did not meet these criteria. Therefore, the CDKL5 disorder should be considered separate to RTT, rather than another variant.

  8. The CDKL5 disorder is an independent clinical entity associated with early-onset encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Stephanie; Wilson, Meredith; Downs, Jenny; Williams, Simon; Murgia, Alessandra; Sartori, Stefano; Vecchi, Marilena; Ho, Gladys; Polli, Roberta; Psoni, Stavroula; Bao, Xinhua; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen; Christodoulou, John

    2013-01-01

    The clinical understanding of the CDKL5 disorder remains limited, with most information being derived from small patient groups seen at individual centres. This study uses a large international data collection to describe the clinical profile of the CDKL5 disorder and compare with Rett syndrome (RTT). Information on individuals with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) mutations (n=86) and females with MECP2 mutations (n=920) was sourced from the InterRett database. Available photographs of CDKL5 patients were examined for dysmorphic features. The proportion of CDKL5 patients meeting the recent Neul criteria for atypical RTT was determined. Logistic regression and time-to-event analyses were used to compare the occurrence of Rett-like features in those with MECP2 and CDKL5 mutations. Most individuals with CDKL5 mutations had severe developmental delay from birth, seizure onset before the age of 3 months and similar non-dysmorphic features. Less than one-quarter met the criteria for early-onset seizure variant RTT. Seizures and sleep disturbances were more common than in those with MECP2 mutations whereas features of regression and spinal curvature were less common. The CDKL5 disorder presents with a distinct clinical profile and a subtle facial, limb and hand phenotype that may assist in differentiation from other early-onset encephalopathies. Although mutations in the CDKL5 gene have been described in association with the early-onset variant of RTT, in our study the majority did not meet these criteria. Therefore, the CDKL5 disorder should be considered separate to RTT, rather than another variant. PMID:22872100

  9. Effect of Placenta Previa on Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Hao; Lu, Yi; Dong, Yi-Nuo; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation between gestational hypertension-preeclampsia (GH-PE) and placenta previa (PP) is controversial. Specifically, it is unknown whether placenta previa has any effect on the various types of preeclampsia (PE), and the role PP with concurrent placenta accreta (PA) play in the occurrence of GH-PE are not well understood. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the effects of PP on GH, mild and severe preeclampsia (MPE and SPE), and early- and late-onset preeclampsia (EPE and LPE). Another aim of the study was to determine if concurrent PA impacts the relationship between PP and GH-PE. Methods A retrospective single-center study of 1,058 patients having singleton pregnancies with PP was performed, and 2,116 pregnant women were randomly included as controls. These cases were collected from a tertiary hospital and met the inclusion criteria for the study. Clinical information, including PP and the gestational age at the onset of GH-PE were collected. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted after the confounding variables were controlled to assess the effects of PP on different types of GH-PE. Results There were 155 patients with GH-PE in the two groups. The incidences of GH-PE in the PP group and the control group were 2.5% (26/1058) and 6.1% (129/2116), respectively (P = 0.000). Binary and multiple regression analyses were conducted after controlling for confounding variables. Compared to the control group, in the PP group, the risk of GH-PE was reduced significantly by 78% (AOR: 0.216; 95% CI: 0.135–0.345); the risks of GH and PE were reduced by 55% (AOR: 0.451; 95% CI: 0.233–0.873) and 86% (AOR: 0.141; 95% CI: 0.073–0.271), respectively; the risks of MPE and SPE were reduced by 73% (AOR: 0.269; 95% CI: 0.087–0828) and 88% (AOR: 0.123; 95% CI: 0.055–0.279), respectively; and the risks of EPE and LPE were reduced by 95% (AOR: 0.047; 95% CI: 0.012–0.190) and 67% (AOR: 0.330; 95% CI: 0.153–0

  10. [The relationship between accommodative accuracy at different near-work distances and early-onset myopia].

    PubMed

    Yu, Q W; Zhang, P; Zhou, S B; Hu, Y; Ji, M X; Luo, Y C; You, H L; Yao, Z X

    2016-07-01

    To observe the accommodative accuracy of children with early-onset myopia at different near-work distances, and discuss the relationship between accommodative accuracy and early-onset myopia. This was a case-control study. Thirty-seven emmetropic children, 41 early-onset myopic children without correction, and 39 early-onset myopic children with spectacles, aged 7 to 13 years, were included. Measures of refractive errors and accommodative accuracy at four near-work distances, including 50 cm, 40 cm, 30 cm, and 20 cm, were made using the binocular fusion cross cylinder (FCC) of an automatic phoropter. Most candidates showed accommodative lags, including the children with emmetropia. The ratio of lags in all candidates at different near-work distances was 75.21% (50 cm), 87.18% (40 cm), 92.31% (30 cm), and 98.29% (20 cm), respectively. All accommodative accuracies became worse, and the accommodative lag ratio and values of FCC increased, along with the shortening of the distance. The difference in accommodative accuracy among groups was statistically significant at 30 cm (χ(2)=7.852, P= 0.020) and 20 cm (χ(2)=6.480, P=0.039). The values of FCC among groups were significantly different at 30 cm (F=3.626, P=0.030) and 20 cm (F=3.703, P=0.028), but not at 50 cm and 40 cm (P>0.05). In addition, the FCC values of 30 cm and 20 cm had a statistically significant difference between myopic children without correction [(1.25±0.44) D and (1.76±0.43) D] and emmetropic children [(0.95±0.52) D and (1.41±0.58) D] (P=0.012, 0.008). The correlation between diopters of myopia and accommodative accuracy at different nearwork distances was not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, the correlation between diopters of myopia and the accommodative lag value (FCC) at 20 cm was statistically significant (r=0.246, P=0.028). The closer the near-work distance is, the worse the accommodative accuracy is. This is more significant in early-onset myopia, especially myopia without

  11. Problem drinking among Flemish students: beverage type, early drinking onset and negative personal & social consequences.

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido

    2018-02-12

    Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences

  12. Characteristics of the spouse caregiving experience: Comparison between early- and late-onset dementia.

    PubMed

    Wawrziczny, Emilie; Berna, Guillaume; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Pasquier, Florence; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-06-20

    To investigate the characteristics of the caregiving experience according to age at onset of dementia to adapt support programs. Fifty-seven spouse caregivers of persons with early-onset dementia (PEOD) and 93 spouse caregivers of persons with late-onset dementia (PLOD) participated. The characteristics of the caregiving experience were assessed using questionnaires. We compared the two groups according to age at onset of the disease using a multivariate test, Pillai's Trace test. The analysis showed that there were similarities and differences between the two groups of spouse caregivers. All spouse caregivers were confident in their caregiving role and fairly well prepared for future needs and reported mild depressive and anxious symptoms. However, they lacked informal support, had low confidence in requesting respite care and reported effects on their health. Compared to spouse caregivers of PLOD, spouse caregivers of PEOD had more severe perceptions of the cognitive disorders of persons with dementia (PWD) and had a better sense of preparedness and knowledge of services. Spouse caregivers of PLOD were more confident in their ability to control disturbing thoughts. The results suggest that programs should provide information on support networks to improve preparedness for spouse caregivers of PLOD as well as emphasizing positive coping strategies for caregivers of PEOD to maintain good-quality relationships with PWD, which influences the perception of the symptoms. For both groups, family relationships should be considered.

  13. Psychological differences between early- and late-onset psoriasis: a study of personality traits, anxiety and depression in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Remröd, C; Sjöström, K; Svensson, A

    2013-08-01

    Onset of psoriasis may occur at any age. Early negative experiences often influence personality development, and may lead to physical disease, anxiety and depression in adulthood. Knowledge about onset of psoriasis and psychopathology is limited. To examine whether patients with early-onset psoriasis differ psychologically from patients with late-onset psoriasis, regarding personality traits, anxiety and depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 101 consecutively recruited outpatients with psoriasis. A psychosocial interview was performed followed by self-assessment of validated questionnaires: Swedish Universities Scales of Personality (SSP), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Psoriasis severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with early-onset psoriasis (age < 20 years) were significantly more anxious and depressed than patients with late-onset psoriasis. In multiple linear regression models, younger age at onset of psoriasis was a significant determinant of higher scores of four personality traits: SSP-embitterment, -trait irritability, -mistrust and -verbal trait aggression. Our results indicate that early detection of psychological vulnerability when treating children and adolescents with psoriasis seems to be of great importance. Traits of psychological vulnerability and pessimistic personality traits were found to be significantly associated with the early onset of psoriasis, but not with disease duration in this study. These traits may be seen as a consequence of psoriasis, and/or as individual traits modulating and impairing clinical course and efforts to cope with psoriasis. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Long-term neurological outcome in children with early-onset epilepsy associated with tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cusmai, Raffaella; Moavero, Romina; Bombardieri, Roberta; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    In tuberous sclerosis complex, early seizure onset is associated with high risk of intractable epilepsy and cognitive/behavioral impairment. We retrospectively evaluated the long-term outcome of 44 infants presenting with seizures in the first 12 months who received vigabatrin, and were followed up for at least 3.5 years. At the final evaluation 55% of patients were still having seizures, 80% had intellectual disability, and 30% had autism. Sixty-five percent of children who had been treated earlier with vigabatrin after seizure onset achieved seizure freedom, compared with 24% of subjects who received vigabatrin treatment later (P<0.01). Intellectual disability was present in 61% of the children treated early (group A) and in 100% of the children treated later (group B). Nine percent of group A and 52% of group B had autism (P≈0.001). A shorter gap between seizure onset and start of treatment could reduce the risk of epileptic encephalopathy, minimizing the deleterious effect of seizures, but is not able to completely reverse the tuberous sclerosis complex-associated cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labe, Zachary; Ault, Toby; Zurita-Milla, Raul

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal transitions from winter to spring impact a wide variety of ecological and physical systems. While the effects of early springs across North America are widely documented, changes in their frequency and likelihood under the combined influences of climate change and natural variability are poorly understood. Extremely early springs, such as March 2012, can lead to severe economical losses and agricultural damage when these are followed by hard freeze events. Here we use the new Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble project and Extended Spring Indices to simulate historical and future spring onsets across the United States and in the particular the Great Lakes region. We found a marked increase in the frequency of March 2012-like springs by midcentury in addition to an overall trend towards earlier spring onsets, which nearly doubles that of observational records. However, changes in the date of last freeze do not occur at the same rate, therefore, causing a potential increase in the threat of plant tissue damage. Although large-scale climate modes, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, have previously dominated decadal to multidecadal spring onset trends, our results indicate a decreased role in natural climate variability and hence a greater forced response by the end of the century for modulating trends. Without a major reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, our study suggests that years like 2012 in the US could become normal by mid-century.

  16. Early-onset Major Depressive Disorder in men is associated with childlessness.

    PubMed

    Yates, William R; Meller, William H; Lund, Brian C; Thurber, Steve; Grambsch, Patricia L

    2010-07-01

    The self-reported number of children was compared for men and women from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcoholism and Related Conditions Survey (NESARC). Subjects with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder were compared to those without an axis I disorder. The effect of age, gender, marriage and diagnostic status on number of children was completed using multivariate analyses. Men with a history of major depressive disorder but not bipolar disorder reported higher rates of childlessness and lower mean number of children. This reduced number of children was related to an early age of onset of MDD. Thirty percent of men with an age of onset of MDD before 22 were childless compared to only 18.9% of men without an axis I disorder (Odds ratio=1.82, 95% CI=1.45-2.27). No effect of mood disorder on number of children was found in women with major depression or bipolar disorder. This study suggests that an early age of onset of major depressive disorder contributes to childlessness in men.

  17. Linkage of early-onset osteoarthritis and chondrocalcinosis to human chromosome 8q

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C.T.; Farrer, L.A.; Adair, R.

    Calcium pyrophosphate-deposition disease (CPDD), also called {open_quotes}chondrocalcinosis{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudogout{close_quotes}, is a disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium-containing crystals in joint tissue, which leads to arthritis-like symptoms. The presence of these crystals in joint tissue is a common finding in the elderly, and, in this population, there is a poor correlation with joint pain. In contrast, early-onset CPDD has been described in several large families in which the disease progresses to severe degenerative osteoarthritis (OA). In these families, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is observed, with an age at onset between the 2nd and 5th decades of life. Inmore » this report, we describe a large New England family with early-onset CPDD and severe degenerative OA. We found genetic linkage between the disease in this family and chromosome 8q, with a multipoint lod score of 4.06. These results suggest that a defective gene at this location causes the disease in this family. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  18. [Early detection on the onset of scarlet fever epidemics in Beijing, using the Cumulative Sum].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yang, Peng; Wu, Shuang-sheng; Wang, Xiao-li; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Quan-yi

    2013-05-01

    Based on data related to scarlet fever which was collected from the Disease Surveillance Information Reporting System in Beijing from 2005 to 2011, to explore the efficiency of Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) in detecting the onset of scarlet fever epidemics. Models as C1-MILD (C1), C2-MEDIUM (C2) and C3-ULTRA (C3) were used. Tools for evaluation as Youden's index and detection time were calculated to optimize the parameters and optimal model. Data on 2011 scarlet fever surveillance was used to verify the efficacy of these models. C1 (k = 0.5, H = 2σ), C2 (k = 0.7, H = 2σ), C3 (k = 1.1, H = 2σ) appeared to be the optimal parameters among these models. Youden's index of C1 was 83.0% and detection time being 0.64 weeks, Youden's index of C2 was 85.4% and detection time being 1.27 weeks, Youden's index of C1 was 85.1% and detection time being 1.36 weeks. Among the three early warning detection models, C1 had the highest efficacy. Three models all triggered the signals within 4 weeks after the onset of scarlet fever epidemics. The early warning detection model of CUSUM could be used to detect the onset of scarlet fever epidemics, with good efficacy.

  19. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease: nonamnestic subtypes and type 2 AD.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Mario F

    2012-11-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative dementia, are usually elderly; however, ∼4-5% develop early-onset AD (EOAD) with onset before age 65. Most EOAD is sporadic, but about 5% of patients with EOAD have an autosomal dominant mutation such as Presenilin 1, Presenilin 2, or alterations in the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene. Although most Alzheimer's research has concentrated on older, late-onset AD (LOAD), there is much recent interest and research in EOAD. These recent studies indicate that EOAD is a heterogeneous disorder with significant differences from LOAD. From 22-64% of EOAD patients have a predominant nonamnestic syndrome presenting with deficits in language, visuospatial abilities, praxis, or other non-memory cognition. These nonamnestic patients may differ in several ways from the usual memory or amnestic patients. Patients with nonamnestic EOAD compared to typical amnestic AD have a more aggressive course, lack the apolipoprotein Eɛ4 (APOE ɛ4) susceptibility gene for AD, and have a focus and early involvement of non-hippocampal areas of brain, particularly parietal neocortex. These differences in the EOAD subtypes indicate differences in the underlying amyloid cascade, the prevailing pathophysiological theory for the development of AD. Together the results of recent studies suggest that nonamnestic subtypes of EOAD constitute a Type 2 AD distinct from the usual, typical disorder. In sum, the study of EOAD can reveal much about the clinical heterogeneity, predisposing factors, and neurobiology of this disease. Copyright © 2012 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Allelic association at the D14S43 locus in early onset Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, A.; Tardieu, S.; Campion, D.

    1995-04-24

    The D14S43 marker is closely linked to the major gene for early onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer`s disease on chromosome 14. Allelic frequencies at the D14S43 locus were compared in 113 familial and isolated cases of early onset Alzheimer`s disease (<60 years of age at onset) (EOAD) and 109 unaffected individuals of the same geographic origin. Allele 7 was significantly (P = 0.033) more frequent in type 1 EOAD patients (13.2%), defined by the presence of at least another first degree relative with EOAD, than in controls (4.1%). Since an autosomal dominant gene is probably responsible for type 1 patients, allelicmore » association may reflect linkage disequilibrium at the D14S43 locus. This would mean that some patients share a common ancestral mutation. However, since multiple tests were carried out, this result must be interpreted with caution, and needs confirmation in an independent sample. 16 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence predicts onset of major depressive disorder through early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, Michael C; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Seeley, John R; Gau, Jeff M; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waxmonsky, James G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed in mid-adolescence and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) through early adulthood in a large school-based sample. A secondary aim was to examine whether this relationship was robust after accounting for comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial impairment. One thousand five hundred seven participants from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project completed rating scales in adolescence and structured diagnostic interviews up to four times from adolescence to age 30. Adolescents with a lifetime history of ADHD were at significantly higher risk of MDD through early adulthood relative to those with no history of ADHD. ADHD remained a significant predictor of MDD after controlling for gender, lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders in adolescence, social and academic impairment in adolescence, stress and coping in adolescence, and new onset of other psychiatric disorders through early adulthood (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.04, 3.06). Additional significant, robust predictors of MDD included female gender, a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, and poor coping skills in mid-adolescence, as well as the onset of anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance-use disorder after mid-adolescence. A history of ADHD in adolescence was associated with elevated risk of MDD through early adulthood and this relationship remained significant after controlling for psychosocial impairment in adolescence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms of risk and to inform depression prevention programs for adolescents with ADHD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pregnancy Complications: Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... have preeclampsia after you’ve given birth. It most often happens within 48 hours (2 days) of having a baby, but it can develop up to 6 weeks after a baby’s birth. It’s just as dangerous as preeclampsia during pregnancy and needs immediate treatment. ...

  3. Melancholia in later life: late and early onset differences in presentation, course, and dementia risk.

    PubMed

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Moxley, Jerad H; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Rushing, Nicole Collins; Sheffler, Julia; Selby, Edward A; Gotlib, Ian; Steffens, David C

    2014-09-01

    Depression is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. This risk may vary with age of onset and depression subtype. Late onset depression (LOD, 60 years and older) is associated with more cognitive decline, whereas early onset depression (EOD, before 60 years) is associated with more residual depressive symptoms. Potential differences may reflect divergent etiologies. These onset differences, however, have not been examined in the melancholic subtype of depression in older adults. Data were obtained from the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study. Participants (N = 284, 73% EOD-melancholic (EOD-M) and 27% LOD-melancholic (LOD-M)) were followed up over 3 years. Factor analyses examined differences in baseline depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear growth curve models examined changes in depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and cognition (mini mental state examination). An annual clinical review panel assigned diagnoses of dementia. The LOD-M participants had more vegetative symptoms at baseline. LOD-M exhibited greater cognitive decline but fewer residual depressive symptoms than EOD-M. Among participants who remained in the study for at least 1 year, in uncontrolled analyses, a greater percentage of LOD-M compared with EOD-M developed dementia (23.0% vs. 7.8%). Whereas in logistic analyses, controlling for baseline demographics, age at onset remained a predictor of dementia, the odds ratio suggested that the effect was relatively small. The EOD-M and LOD-M participants have a different presentation and course. LOD-M may represent a syndrome of neuropsychiatric deterioration with expression of both depressive symptoms and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Polygenic risk score in postmortem diagnosed sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Sultan; Patel, Tulsi; Barber, Imelda S; Guetta-Baranes, Tamar; Brookes, Keeley J; Chappell, Sally; Turton, James; Guerreiro, Rita; Bras, Jose; Hernandez, Dena; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Mann, David; Morgan, Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (sEOAD) exhibits the symptoms of late-onset Alzheimer's disease but lacks the familial aspect of the early-onset familial form. The genetics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) identifies APOEε4 to be the greatest risk factor; however, it is a complex disease involving both environmental risk factors and multiple genetic loci. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) accumulate the total risk of a phenotype in an individual based on variants present in their genome. We determined whether sEOAD cases had a higher PRS compared to controls. A cohort of sEOAD cases was genotyped on the NeuroX array, and PRSs were generated using PRSice. The target data set consisted of 408 sEOAD cases and 436 controls. The base data set was collated by the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project consortium, with association data from 17,008 late-onset Alzheimer's disease cases and 37,154 controls, which can be used for identifying sEOAD cases due to having shared phenotype. PRSs were generated using all common single nucleotide polymorphisms between the base and target data set, PRS were also generated using only single nucleotide polymorphisms within a 500 kb region surrounding the APOE gene. Sex and number of APOE ε2 or ε4 alleles were used as variables for logistic regression and combined with PRS. The results show that PRS is higher on average in sEOAD cases than controls, although there is still overlap among the whole cohort. Predictive ability of identifying cases and controls using PRSice was calculated with 72.9% accuracy, greater than the APOE locus alone (65.2%). Predictive ability was further improved with logistic regression, identifying cases and controls with 75.5% accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. MicroRNA-137 Affects Proliferation and Migration of Placenta Trophoblast Cells in Preeclampsia by Targeting ERRα.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tan-Min; Lu, Wei; Zhao, Long-Jun

    2016-06-06

    To investigate the effects of microRNA-137 (miRNA-137) in proliferation and migration of placenta trophoblast cells of preeclampsia and the targeting gene of miRNA-137. A total of 134 cases of puerperants were divided into normal pregnancy (n = 50), mild preeclampsia (n = 38), and severe preeclampsia groups (n = 46). MiRNA-137, estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), and wingless INT (WNT)11 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were measured in placental tissue and trophoblast cells after transfection, and ERRα protein in placental tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The target genes of miRNA-137, trophoblast cell proliferation, migration, and invasion abilities were detected. Both ERRα and WNT11 proteins in the trophoblast cells were measured after transfection. Relative expressions of miRNA-137 were higher, and positive expression rates and relative expression levels of ERRα protein were lower in mild and severe preeclampsia and early- and late-onset preeclampsia than in normal pregnancy group (all P < .05). MiRNA-137 in the placental tissues was negatively correlated with ERRα protein (P < .05). Luciferase reporter gene assay analysis showed that ERRα was a direct target gene of miRNA-137. Absorbance values, relative scratch-covered areas, cell membrane permeable rate, ERRα, and WNT11 mRNA and protein relative expressions were significantly lower, while cells at G1/G0 phase were higher in miRNA-137 mimic group than those in the blank, negative control, and miRNA-137 inhibitor group. MiRNA-137 significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of placenta trophoblast cells of preeclampsia by targeting ERRα, which might be a potential target for gene therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Internalizing and externalizing psychopathology as predictors of cannabis use disorder onset during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Richard F; Seeley, John R; Kosty, Derek B; Gau, Jeff M; Duncan, Susan C; Lynskey, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Risk-related liabilities associated with the development of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) during adolescence and early adulthood are thought to be established well before the emergence of the index episode. In this study, internalizing and externalizing psychopathology from earlier developmental periods were evaluated as risk factors for CUDs during adolescence and early adulthood. Participants (N = 816) completed 4 diagnostic assessments between the ages 16 and 30, during which current and past CUDs were assessed as well as a full range of psychiatric disorders associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology domains. In unadjusted and adjusted time-to-event analyses, externalizing but not internalizing psychopathology from proximal developmental periods predicted subsequent CUD onset. A large proportion of adolescent and early adult cases, however, did not manifest any externalizing or internalizing psychopathology during developmental periods before CUD onset. Findings are consistent with the emerging view that externalizing disorders from proximal developmental periods are robust risk factors for CUDs. Although the identification of externalizing liabilities may aid in the identification of individuals at risk for embarking on developmental pathways that culminate in CUDs, such liabilities are an incomplete indication of overall risk. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Early-onset restrictive eating disturbances in primary school boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Susanne; van Dyck, Zoé; Dremmel, Daniela; Munsch, Simone; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to determine the distribution of early-onset restrictive eating disturbances characteristic of the new DSM-5 diagnosis, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) in middle childhood, as well as to evaluate the screening instrument, Eating Disturbances in Youth-Questionnaire (EDY-Q). A total of 1,444 8- to 13-year-old children were screened in regular schools (3rd to 6th grade) in Switzerland using the self-report measure EDY-Q, consisting of 12 items based on the DSM-5 criteria for ARFID. 46 children (3.2%) reported features of ARFID in the self-rating. Group differences were found for body mass index, with underweight children reporting features of ARFID more often than normal and overweight children. The EDY-Q revealed good psychometric properties, including adequate discriminant and convergent validity. Early-onset restrictive eating disturbances are commonly reported in middle childhood. Because of possible negative short- and long-term impact, early detection is essential. Further studies with structured interviews and parent reports are needed to confirm this study's findings.

  8. Evidence for possible non-canonical pathway(s) driven early-onset colorectal cancer in India

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Ratheesh; Kotapalli, Viswakalyan; Adduri, Raju; Gowrishankar, Swarnalata; Bashyam, Leena; Chaudhary, Ajay; Vamsy, Mohana; Patnaik, Sujith; Srinivasulu, Mukta; Sastry, Regulagadda; Rao, Subramanyeshwar; Vasala, Anjayneyulu; Kalidindi, NarasimhaRaju; Pollack, Jonathan; Murthy, Sudha; Bashyam, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Two genetic instability pathways viz. chromosomal instability, driven primarily by APC mutation induced deregulated Wnt signaling, and microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation, together account for greater than 90% of late-onset colorectal cancer. Our understanding of early-onset sporadic CRC is however comparatively limited. In addition, most seminal studies have been performed in the western population and analyses of tumorigenesis pathway(s) causing CRC in developing nations have been rare. We performed a comparative analysis of early and late-onset CRC from India with respect to common genetic aberrations including Wnt, KRAS and p53 (constituting the classical CRC progression sequence) in addition to MSI. Our results revealed the absence of Wnt and MSI in a significant proportion of early-onset as against late-onset CRC in India. In addition, KRAS mutation frequency was significantly lower in early-onset CRC indicating that a significant proportion of CRC in India may follow tumorigenesis pathways distinct from the classical CRC progression sequence. Our study has therefore revealed the possible existence of non-canonical tumorigenesis pathways in early-onset CRC in India. PMID:23168910

  9. [Knowledge of Andalusian pediatricians and parents about early-onset tooth decay].

    PubMed

    González, E; Pérez-Hinojosa, S; Alarcón, J A; Peñalver, M A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the level of knowledge of pediatricians and parents from Andalucía (southern Spain) about early-onset tooth decay, and to assess if pediatricians provide information to parents about pediatric oral care and visits to the pediatric dentist. A random sample of 113 pediatricians and 112 parents with children under 3 years of age received an anonymous questionnaire comprising 14 items for pediatricians and 16 items for parents, grouped into five blocks: visits to the dentist, oral hygiene, caries, nutritional habits, and treatment of caries. The chi-squared test was used to assess differences between groups. Pediatricians showed deficiencies in their knowledge about visits to the dentist and treatment of caries, however their level of knowledge on oral hygiene, tooth decay and nutritional habits were adequate. Parents showed a low level of knowledge in all aspects of the study, mainly about the treatment of tooth decay. There were no significant differences between pediatricians and parents in the knowledge about visits to the dentist, however pediatricians had more knowledge than the parents about hygiene, tooth decay, nutritional habits and treatment (P<0.001). Most of the parents indicated that pediatricians did not provide them detailed information on oral care, and about the possibility of visiting a pediatric dentist. Andalusian pediatricians should improve their knowledge about early-onset tooth decay, and provide more information to parents about the oral care and the possibility of visiting a pediatric dentist. Parents have a very low level of knowledge about early-onset tooth decay, and particularly about treatment. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurocognitive outcomes in the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders study.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Jean A; Giuliano, Anthony J; Johnson, Jacqueline L; Yakutis, Lauren; Youngstrom, Eric A; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Findling, Robert L; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Hooper, Stephen R

    2012-05-01

    To assess neurocognitive outcomes following antipsychotic intervention in youth enrolled in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). Neurocognitive functioning of youth (ages 8 to 19 years) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder was evaluated in a four-site, randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing molindone, olanzapine, and risperidone. The primary outcomes were overall group change from baseline in neurocognitive composite and six domain scores after 8 weeks and continued treatment up to 52 weeks. Age and sex were included as covariates in all analyses. Of 116 TEOSS participants, 77 (66%) had post-baseline neurocognitive data. No significant differences emerged in the neurocognitive outcomes of the three medication groups. Therefore, the three treatment groups were combined into one group to assess overall neurocognitive outcomes. Significant modest improvements were observed in the composite score and in three of six domain scores in the acute phase, and in four of six domain scores in the combined acute and maintenance phases. Partial correlation analyses revealed very few relationships among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) baseline or change scores and neurocognition change scores. Antipsychotic intervention in youth with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOSS) led to modest improvement in measures of neurocognitive function. The changes in cognition were largely unrelated to baseline symptoms or symptom change. Small treatment effect sizes, easily accounted for by practice effects, highlight the critical need for the development of more efficacious interventions for the enduring neurocognitive deficits seen in EOSS. Clinical trial registry information-Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00053703. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published

  11. CDKL5 and ARX mutations are not responsible for early onset severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy.

    PubMed

    Nabbout, Rima; Depienne, Christel; Chipaux, Mathilde; Girard, Benoit; Souville, Isabelle; Trouillard, Oriane; Dulac, Olivier; Chelly, Jamel; Afenjar, Alexandra; Héron, Delphine; Leguern, Eric; Beldjord, Cherif; Bienvenu, Thierry; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia

    2009-11-01

    Severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) or Dravet syndrome (DS) is a distinctive epilepsy syndrome often associated with de novo mutations in the SCN1A gene. However, 25-30% patients with SMEI/DS are negative for SCN1A mutation screening, suggesting that other molecular mechanisms may account for these disorders. Given the overlapping and heterogeneous clinical features of CDKL5- and ARX-related epilepsies and SMEI/DS, we postulated that CDKL5 mutations in females and ARX mutations gene in males may be associated with early onset seizures forms of SMEI/DS. Twenty-eight patients with early onset SMEI/DS before 6 months negative for SCN1A mutational screening were selected and screened for mutations in the ARX gene in males (n=14) or the CDKL5 gene in females (n=14). No mutations in either gene were found except one intronic variation of uncertain pathogenicity in the CDKL5 gene. All patients started seizures at mean age of 3.48 months. Thirteen patients had familial history of epilepsy or febrile seizures. Patients evolved toward refractory epilepsy with generalized tonic clonic seizures (18/28) and myoclonia (23/28) and severe neurological impairment with autistic features (13/28), ataxia (14/28) and spasticity (5/28). No patient ever exhibited infantile spasms, dystonia, or Rett-like features. Our results illustrate that mutation screening of ARX and CDKL5 is not effective in patients selected on the basis of clinical signs associated to early onset SMEI/DS. In addition, they might reflect that other phenotypic features associated with CDKL5 mutations (Rett-like features, infantile spasm) or ARX mutations (dystonia, spasticity) are more distinctive. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensorineural hearing loss--a common finding in early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Garber, Israel; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Valdés, Samantha; Enríquez, Lorena; Lobato, Marlette; Osornio, Melannie; Escobedo, Ana Rosa; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Mehta, Roopa; Ramírez-Anguiano, Jacqueline; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and potential associations of hearing impairment in patients 30 to 50 years old with diabetes diagnosed before age 40 years-early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study cohorts consisted of 46 consecutive patients with early-onset T2DM and 47 age-matched control subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. All study subjects completed clinical, serologic, and auditory assessments. The patients with T2DM had a mean age of 42 ± 6 years and a mean disease duration of 11 ± 6 years. Microalbuminuria was present in 26.1%, proliferative retinopathy in 26.1%, and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in 23.9%. The prevalence of unilateral or bilateral hearing loss was significantly higher in the patients with T2DM than in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (21.7% versus 6.4%, respectively; P = .01). Most cases of hearing loss were mild and involved high or acute tones. After multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, there was a significant association between hearing loss and hemoglobin A1c (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.81; P = .035). In the patients with T2DM, the lengthening of the brainstem response was not significantly increased; however, the wave morphologic features were abnormal and the reproducibility was poor in both ears in 11 patients (24%). Patients with early-onset T2DM and poor glycemic control have an increased prevalence of subclinical hearing loss and impaired auditory brainstem responses. Hearing impairment may be an underrecognized complication of diabetes.

  13. The Burden of Invasive Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis in the United States, 2005–2008

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Emily J.; Pondo, Tracy; Lewis, Melissa M.; Martell-Cleary, Pat; Morin, Craig; Jewell, Brenda; Daily, Pam; Apostol, Mirasol; Petit, Sue; Farley, Monica; Lynfield, Ruth; Reingold, Art; Hansen, Nellie I.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Shane, Andi L.; Zell, Elizabeth; Schrag, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sepsis in the first 3 days of life is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among infants. Group B Streptococcus (GBS), historically the primary cause of early-onset sepsis, has declined through widespread use of intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. We estimated the national burden of invasive early-onset sepsis (EOS) cases and deaths in the era of GBS prevention. Methods Population-based surveillance for invasive EOS was conducted in 4 of CDC’s Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) sites from 2005–2008. We calculated incidence using state and national live birth files. Estimates of the national number of cases and deaths were calculated, standardizing by race and gestational age. Results ABCs identified 658 cases of EOS; 72 (10.9%) were fatal. Overall incidence remained stable during the three years (2005:0.77 cases/1,000 live births; 2008:0.76 cases/1,000 live births). GBS (~38%) was the most commonly reported pathogen followed by Escherichia coli (~24%). Black preterm infants had the highest incidence (5.14 cases/1,000 live births) and case fatality (24.4%). Non-black term infants had the lowest incidence (0.40 cases/1,000 live births) and case fatality (1.6%). The estimated national annual burden of EOS was approximately 3,320 cases (95% CI: 3,060–3,580) including 390 deaths (95% CI: 300–490). Among preterm infants, 1,570 cases (95% CI: 1,400–1,770; 47.3% of the overall) and 360 deaths (95% CI: 280–460; 92.3% of the overall) occurred annually. Conclusions The burden of invasive early-onset sepsis remains substantial in the era of GBS prevention and disproportionately affects preterm and black infants. Identification of strategies to prevent preterm births is needed to reduce the neonatal sepsis burden. PMID:21654548

  14. Internet-Delivered, Family-Based Treatment for Early-Onset OCD: A Preliminary Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Kerns, Caroline E.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Edson, Aubrey L.; Khanna, Muniya; Franklin, Martin E.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Freeman, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    Given the burdens of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), limitations in the broad availability and accessibility of evidence-based care for affected youth present serious public health concerns. The growing potential for technological innovations to transform care for the most traditionally remote and underserved families holds enormous promise. This article presents the rationale, key considerations, and a preliminary case series for a promising behavioral telehealth innovation in the evidence-based treatment of early-onset OCD. We developed an Internet-based format for the delivery of family-based treatment for early-onset OCD directly to families in their homes, regardless of their geographic proximity to a mental health facility. Videoteleconferencing (VTC) methods were used to deliver real-time cognitive-behavioral therapy centering on exposure and response prevention to affected families. Participants in the preliminary case series included 5 children between the ages of 4 and 8 (MAge = 6.5) who received the Internet-delivered treatment format. All youth completed a full treatment course, all showed OCD symptom improvements and global severity improvements from pre- to posttreatment, all showed at least partial diagnostic response, and 60% no longer met diagnostic criteria for OCD at posttreatment. No participants got worse, and all mothers characterized the quality of services received as “excellent.” The present work adds to a growing literature supporting the potential of VTC and related computer technology for meaningfully expanding the reach of supported treatments for OCD and lays the foundation for subsequent controlled evaluations to evaluate matters of efficacy and engagement relative to standard in-office evidence-based care. PMID:24295036

  15. An analysis on the roles of angiogenesis-related factors including serum vitamin D, soluble endoglin (sEng), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the diagnosis and severity of late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Cim, Numan; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Ege, Serhat; Yoruk, Ibrahim; Yaman, Gorkem; Yildizhan, Recep

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of proangiogenic factors including serum vitamin D and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti-angiogenic factors including soluble endoglin (sEng) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) in the diagnosis and severity of late-onset preeclampsia. The study was conducted at Yuzuncu Yil University Research and Education Hospital Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study included a patient group of 40 women with late-onset preeclampsia who were pregnant at ≥32 weeks of gestation according to the last menstrual period (LMP) or ultrasonographic fetal biometric measurement and a control group of 40 healthy pregnant women who presented to our clinic for routine pregnancy examination and were at the same age and gestational period with those in the patient group. The two groups were compared in terms of maternal age, gravida, parity, week of gestation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, total protein in spot urine sample, 24-h urine protein, white blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), platelet count, urea, creatinine, liver function tests (AST, ALT, LDH), vitamin D 3 , 25(OH) vitamin D 3 , 1,25(OH) vitamin D 3 , sEng, sFlt1, and VEGF levels, mode of delivery, the infant APGAR score at 1 and 5 min after delivery, and infant weight at delivery. The groups were similar in terms of age, gravida, parity, week of gestation, serum vitamin D 3 , 25(OH) vitamin D 3 , 1,25(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 and VEGF levels, and infant weight at delivery (p > 0.05). Systolic/diastolic blood pressure, total protein in spot urine sample, 24-h urine protein, WBC, Hgb, serum urea, creatine, AST, ALT, and LDH were significantly higher in the preeclamptic group compared to the healthy group (p < 0.05). However, thrombocyte level and the APGAR score at 1 and 5 min after delivery were significantly lower in the preeclamptic group compared to the healthy group (p < 0.05). No significant correlation was found between

  16. Association Between Early-Onset Parkinson Disease and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Nancy J.; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Chow, Eva W. C.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Lang, Anthony E.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Clinical case reports of parkinsonism co-occurring with hemizygous 22q11.2 deletions and the associated multisystem syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), suggest that 22q11.2 deletions may lead to increased risk of early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). The frequency of PD and its neuropathological presentation remain unknown in this common genetic condition. OBJECTIVE To evaluate a possible association between 22q11.2 deletions and PD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An observational study of the occurrence of PD in the world’s largest cohort of well-characterized adults with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS (n = 159 [6 with postmortem tissue]; age range, 18.1–68.6 years) was conducted in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Rare postmortem brain tissue from individuals with 22q11.2DS and a clinical history of PD was investigated for neurodegenerative changes and compared with that from individuals with no history of a movement disorder. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A clinical diagnosis of PD made by a neurologist and neuropathological features of PD. RESULTS Adults with 22q11.2DS had a significantly elevated occurrence of PD compared with standard population estimates (standardized morbidity ratio = 69.7; 95% CI, 19.0–178.5). All cases showed early onset and typical PD symptom pattern, treatment response, and course. All were negative for family history of PD and known pathogenic PD-related mutations. The common use of antipsychotics in patients with 22q11.2DS to manage associated psychiatric symptoms delayed diagnosis of PD by up to 10 years. Postmortem brain tissue revealed classic loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in all 3 postmortem 22q11.2DS-PD cases. Typical α-synuclein–positive Lewy bodies were present in the expected distribution in 2 cases but absent in another. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that 22q11.2 deletions represent a novel genetic risk factor for early-onset PD with variable neuropathological

  17. Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Characteristics and Outcomes in the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Ford, Julian D; Pearson, Geraldine S; Scranton, Victoria L; Dusad, Asha

    2017-12-01

    To assess patient characteristics and clinician-rated outcomes for children diagnosed with early-onset bipolar disorder in comparison to a depressive disorders cohort from a single clinic site. To assess predictors of bipolar treatment response. Medical records from 714 consecutive pediatric patients evaluated and treated at an academic tertiary child and adolescent psychiatry clinic between 2006 and 2012 were reviewed. Charts of bipolar children (n = 49) and children with depressive disorders (n = 58) meeting study inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared on variables assessing clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. Outcomes were assessed by using pre- and post-Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Severity and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores, and a CGI-Improvement score ≤2 at final visit determined responder status. Bipolar outcome predictors were assessed by using multiple linear regression. Clinic prevalence rates were 6.9% for early-onset bipolar disorder and 1.5% for very early-onset bipolar disorder. High rates of comorbid diagnoses, symptom severity, parental stress, and child high-risk behaviors were found in both groups. The bipolar cohort had higher rates of aggression and higher lifetime systems of care utilization. The final CGI and CGAS outcomes for unipolar depression patients differed statistically significantly from those for the bipolar cohort, reflecting better clinical status and more improvement at outcome for the depression patients. Both parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist total T-score at clinic admission and the number of lifetime systems-of-care for the child were significantly and inversely associated with improvement for the bipolar cohort. Early-onset bipolar disorder is a complex and heterogeneous psychiatric disorder. Evidence-based treatment should emphasize psychopharmacology with adjunctive family and individual psychotherapy. Strategies to improve engagement in treatment may be especially

  18. Genomewide significant linkage to recurrent, early-onset major depressive disorder on chromosome 15q.

    PubMed

    Holmans, Peter; Zubenko, George S; Crowe, Raymond R; DePaulo, J Raymond; Scheftner, William A; Weissman, Myrna M; Zubenko, Wendy N; Boutelle, Sandra; Murphy-Eberenz, Kathleen; MacKinnon, Dean; McInnis, Melvin G; Marta, Diana H; Adams, Philip; Knowles, James A; Gladis, Madeleine; Thomas, Jo; Chellis, Jennifer; Miller, Erin; Levinson, Douglas F

    2004-06-01

    A genome scan was performed on the first phase sample of the Genetics of Recurrent Early-Onset Depression (GenRED) project. The sample consisted of 297 informative families containing 415 independent affected sibling pairs (ASPs), or, counting all possible pairs, 685 informative affected relative pairs (555 ASPs and 130 other pair types). Affected cases had recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) with onset before age 31 years for probands or age 41 years for other affected relatives; the mean age at onset was 18.5 years, and the mean number of depressive episodes was 7.3. The Center for Inherited Disease Research genotyped 389 microsatellite markers (mean spacing of 9.3 cM). The primary linkage analysis considered allele sharing in all possible affected relative pairs with the use of the Z(lr) statistic computed by the ALLEGRO program. A secondary logistic regression analysis considered the effect of the sex of the pair as a covariate. Genomewide significant linkage was observed on chromosome 15q25.3-26.2 (Zlr=4.14, equivalent LOD = 3.73, empirical genomewide P=.023). The linkage was not sex specific. No other suggestive or significant results were observed in the primary analysis. The secondary analysis produced three regions of suggestive linkage, but these results should be interpreted cautiously because they depended primarily on the small subsample of 42 male-male pairs. Chromosome 15q25.3-26.2 deserves further study as a candidate region for susceptibility to MDD.

  19. Early- and late-onset Alzheimer disease: Are they the same entity?

    PubMed

    Tellechea, P; Pujol, N; Esteve-Belloch, P; Echeveste, B; García-Eulate, M R; Arbizu, J; Riverol, M

    2018-05-01

    Early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD), which presents in patients younger than 65 years, has frequently been described as having different features from those of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). This review analyses the most recent studies comparing the clinical presentation and neuropsychological, neuropathological, genetic, and neuroimaging findings of both types in order to determine whether EOAD and LOAD are different entities or distinct forms of the same entity. We observed consistent differences between clinical findings in EOAD and in LOAD. Fundamentally, the onset of EOAD is more likely to be marked by atypical symptoms, and cognitive assessments point to poorer executive and visuospatial functioning and praxis with less marked memory impairment. Alzheimer-type features will be more dense and widespread in neuropathology studies, with structural and functional neuroimaging showing greater and more diffuse atrophy extending to neocortical areas (especially the precuneus). In conclusion, available evidence suggests that EOAD and LOAD are 2 different forms of a single entity. LOAD is likely to be influenced by ageing-related processes. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Difference in imaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration between early and late-onset amnestic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Anne-Laure; Giusiano, Bernard; Joubert, Sven; Duprat, Lauréline; Didic, Mira; Gueriot, Claude; Koric, Lejla; Boucraut, José; Felician, Olivier; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Guedj, Eric; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    Neuroimaging biomarkers differ between patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Whether these changes reflect cognitive heterogeneity or differences in disease severity is still unknown. This study aimed at investigating changes in neuroimaging biomarkers, according to the age of onset of the disease, in mild amnestic Alzheimer's disease patients with positive amyloid biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid. Both patient groups were impaired on tasks assessing verbal and visual recognition memory. EOAD patients showed greater executive and linguistic deficits, while LOAD patients showed greater semantic memory impairment. In EOAD and LOAD, hypometabolism involved the bilateral temporoparietal junction and the posterior cingulate cortex. In EOAD, atrophy was widespread, including frontotemporoparietal areas, whereas it was limited to temporal regions in LOAD. Atrophic volumes were greater in EOAD than in LOAD. Hypometabolic volumes were similar in the 2 groups. Greater extent of atrophy in EOAD, despite similar extent of hypometabolism, could reflect different underlying pathophysiological processes, different glucose-based compensatory mechanisms or distinct level of premorbid atrophic lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Resolution of hypertension and proteinuria after preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Berks, Durk; Steegers, Eric A P; Molas, Marek; Visser, Willy

    2009-12-01

    To estimate the time required for hypertension and proteinuria to resolve after preeclampsia, and to estimate how this time to resolution correlates with the levels of blood pressure and proteinuria during preeclampsia and prolonging pregnancy after the development of preeclampsia. This is a historic prospective cohort study of 205 preeclamptic women who were admitted between 1990 and 1992 at the Erasmus MC Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Data were collected at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery. Hypertension was defined as a blood pressure 140/90 mm Hg or higher or use of antihypertensive drugs. Proteinuria was defined as 0.3 g/d or more. Resolution of hypertension and proteinuria were analyzed with the Turnbull extension to the Kaplan-Meier procedure. Correlations were calculated with an accelerated failure time model. At 3 months postpartum, 39% of women still had hypertension, which decreased to 18% at 2 years postpartum. Resolution time increased by 60% (P<.001) for every 10-mm Hg increase in maximal systolic blood pressure, 40% (P=.044) for every 10-mm Hg increase in maximal diastolic blood pressure, and 3.6% (P=.001) for every 1-day increase in the diagnosis-to-delivery interval. At 3 months postpartum, 14% still had proteinuria, which decreased to 2% at 2 years postpartum. Resolution time increased by 16% (P=.001) for every 1-g/d increase in maximal proteinuria. Gestational age at onset of preeclampsia was not correlated with resolution time of hypertension and proteinuria. The severity of preeclampsia and the time interval between diagnosis and delivery are associated with postpartum time to resolution of hypertension and proteinuria. After preeclampsia, it can take up to 2 years for hypertension and proteinuria to resolve. Therefore, the authors suggest that further invasive diagnostic tests for underlying renal disease may be postponed until 2 years postpartum. III.

  2. Speech acoustic markers of early stage and prodromal Huntington's disease: a marker of disease onset?

    PubMed

    Vogel, Adam P; Shirbin, Christopher; Churchyard, Andrew J; Stout, Julie C

    2012-12-01

    Speech disturbances (e.g., altered prosody) have been described in symptomatic Huntington's Disease (HD) individuals, however, the extent to which speech changes in gene positive pre-manifest (PreHD) individuals is largely unknown. The speech of individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene is a behavioural/motor/cognitive marker demonstrating some potential as an objective indicator of early HD onset and disease progression. Speech samples were acquired from 30 individuals carrying the mutant HTT gene (13 PreHD, 17 early stage HD) and 15 matched controls. Participants read a passage, produced a monologue and said the days of the week. Data were analysed acoustically for measures of timing, frequency and intensity. There was a clear effect of group across most acoustic measures, so that speech performance differed in-line with disease progression. Comparisons across groups revealed significant differences between the control and the early stage HD group on measures of timing (e.g., speech rate). Participants carrying the mutant HTT gene presented with slower rates of speech, took longer to say words and produced greater silences between and within words compared to healthy controls. Importantly, speech rate showed a significant correlation to burden of disease scores. The speech of early stage HD differed significantly from controls. The speech of PreHD, although not reaching significance, tended to lie between the performance of controls and early stage HD. This suggests that changes in speech production appear to be developing prior to diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Facial affect processing in social anxiety disorder with early onset: evidence of an intensity amplification bias.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Daniela; Schienle, Anne

    2018-06-01

    The present event-related potential (ERP) study investigated for the first time whether children with early-onset social anxiety disorder (SAD) process affective facial expressions of varying intensities differently than non-anxious controls. Participants were 15 SAD patients and 15 non-anxious controls (mean age of 9 years). They were presented with schematic faces displaying anger and happiness at four intensity levels (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%), as well as with neutral faces. ERPs in early and later time windows (P100, N170, late positivity [LP]), as well as affective ratings (valence and arousal) for the faces, were recorded. SAD patients rated the faces as generally more arousing, regardless of the type of emotion and intensity. Moreover, they displayed enhanced right-parietal LP (350-650 ms). Both arousal ratings and LP reflect stimulus intensity. Therefore, this study provides first evidence of an intensity amplification bias in pediatric SAD during facial affect processing.

  4. Early functional and morphological brain disturbances in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Starčević, Mirta; Predojević, Maja; Butorac, Dražan; Tumbri, Jasna; Konjevoda, Paško; Kadić, Aida Salihagić

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the brain disturbances develop in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) before blood flow redistribution towards the fetal brain (detected by Doppler measurements in the middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery). Further, to evaluate predictive values of Doppler arterial indices and umbilical cord blood gases and pH for early functional and/or morphological brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR. This cohort study included 60 singleton term pregnancies with placental insufficiency caused late-onset IUGR (IUGR occurring after 34 gestational weeks). Umbilical artery resistance index (URI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (CRI), and cerebroumbilical (C/U) ratio (CRI/URI) were monitored once weekly. Umbilical blood cord samples (arterial and venous) were collected for the analysis of pO2, pCO2 and pH. Morphological neurological outcome was evaluated by cranial ultrasound (cUS), whereas functional neurological outcome by Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term (ATNAT). 50 fetuses had C/U ratio>1, and 10 had C/U ratio≤1; among these 10 fetuses, 9 had abnormal neonatal cUS findings and all 10 had non-optimal ATNAT. However, the total number of abnormal neurological findings was much higher. 32 neonates had abnormal cUS (53.37%), and 42 (70.00%) had non-optimal ATNAT. Furthermore, Doppler indices had higher predictive validity for early brain disturbances than umbilical cord blood gases and pH. C/U ratio had the highest predictive validity with threshold for adverse neurological outcome at value 1.13 (ROC analysis), i.e., 1.18 (party machine learning algorithm). Adverse neurological outcome at average values of C/U ratios>1 confirmed that early functional and/or structural brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR develop even before activation of fetal cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, i.e., before Doppler signs of blood flow redistribution between the fetal brain and the placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  5. [Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: a new axis-III disorder in the differential diagnosis of childhood disintegrative disorder, early onset schizophrenia and late onset autism].

    PubMed

    Creten, C; van der Zwaan, S; Blankespoor, R J; Maatkamp, A; Klinkenberg, S; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, V H J M; Nicolai, J; Dhossche, D M; van Os, J; Schieveld, J N M

    2012-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), early onset schizophrenia (EOS), and late onset autism (LOA) often follow a similar course: initially, development is normal, then there is a sudden neuropsychiatric deterioration of social interaction and communication skills, which is combined with a decline in intelligence and reduction in daily activities. A 9-year-old boy was admitted to the paediatric ward with acute onset of secondary epileptic seizures. It was not long until the boy's symptoms resembled that of patients with cdd, eos and loa. Intensive tests led to the diagnosis of anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis should be regarded as a possible organic cause underlying the syndromal presentation of CDD, EOS and LOA.

  6. Gene expression profiling at birth characterizing the preterm infant with early onset infection.

    PubMed

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Windhorst, Anita; Klein, Manuel; Tchatalbachev, Svetlin; Windemuth-Kieselbach, Christine; Kreuder, Joachim; Heckmann, Matthias; Gkatzoflia, Anna; Ehrhardt, Harald; Mysliwietz, Josef; Maier, Michael; Izar, Benjamin; Billion, Andre; Gortner, Ludwig; Chakraborty, Trinad; Hossain, Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Early onset infection (EOI) in preterm infants <32 weeks gestational age (GA) is associated with a high mortality rate and the development of severe acute and long-term complications. The pathophysiology of EOI is not fully understood and clinical and laboratory signs of early onset infections in this patient cohort are often not conclusive. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify signatures characterizing preterm infants with EOI by using genome-wide gene expression (GWGE) analyses from umbilical arterial blood of preterm infants. This prospective cohort study was conducted in preterm infants <32 weeks GA. GWGE analyses using CodeLink human microarrays were performed from umbilical arterial blood of preterm infants with and without EOI. GWGE analyses revealed differential expression of 292 genes in preterm infants with EOI as compared to infants without EOI. Infants with EOI could be further differentiated into two subclasses and were distinguished by the magnitude of the expression of genes involved in both neutrophil and T cell activation. A hallmark activity for both subclasses of EOI was a common suppression of genes involved in natural killer (NK) cell function, which was independent from NK cell numbers. Significant results were recapitulated in an independent validation cohort. Gene expression profiling may enable early and more precise diagnosis of EOI in preterm infants. Gene expression (GE) profiling at birth characterizes preterm infants with EOI. GE analysis indicates dysregulation of NK cell activity. NK cell activity at birth may be a useful marker to improve early diagnosis of EOI.

  7. Impact of DNA testing for early-onset familial Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Steinbart, E J; Smith, C O; Poorkaj, P; Bird, T D

    2001-11-01

    DNA testing of persons at risk for hereditary, degenerative neurologic diseases is relatively new. Only anecdotal reports of such testing in familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) exist, and little is know about the personal and social impact of such testing. In a descriptive, observational study, individuals at 50% risk for autosomal dominant, early-onset FAD or frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 underwent DNA testing for the genetic mutations previously identified in affected family members. Individuals were followed up for (1/2) to 3 years and were interviewed regarding attitudes toward the testing process and the impact of the results. Twenty-one (8.4%) of 251 persons at risk for FAD or frontotemporal dementia requested genetic testing. The most common reasons for requesting testing were concern about early symptoms of dementia, financial or family planning, and relief from anxiety. Twelve individuals had positive DNA test results, and 6 of these had early symptoms of dementia; 8 had negative results; and 1 has not yet received results. Of 14 asymptomatic individuals completing testing, 13 believed the testing was beneficial. Two persons reported moderate anxiety and 1 reported moderate depression. As expected, persons with negative test results had happier experiences overall, but even they had to deal with ongoing anxiety and depression. Thus far, there have been no psychiatric hospitalizations, suicide attempts, or denials of insurance. Genetic testing in early-onset FAD and frontotemporal dementia can be completed successfully. Most individuals demonstrate effective coping skills and find the testing to be beneficial, but long-term effects remain unknown.

  8. IRAK-M Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Early-Onset Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Balaci, Lenuta ; Spada, Maria Cristina ; Olla, Nazario ; Sole, Gabriella ; Loddo, Laura ; Anedda, Francesca ; Naitza, Silvia ; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta ; Maschio, Andrea ; Altea, Daniele ; Uda, Manuela ; Pilia, Sabrina ; Sanna, Serena ; Masala, Marco ; Crisponi, Laura ; Fattori, Matilde ; Devoto, Marcella ; Doratiotto, Silvia ; Rassu, Stefania ; Mereu, Simonetta ; Giua, Enrico ; Cadeddu, Natalina Graziella ; Atzeni, Roberto ; Pelosi, Umberto ; Corrias, Adriano ; Perra, Roberto ; Torrazza, Pier Luigi ; Pirina, Pietro ; Ginesu, Francesco ; Marcias, Silvano ; Schintu, Maria Grazia ; Giacco, Gennaro Sergio Del ; Manconi, Paolo Emilio ; Malerba, Giovanni ; Bisognin, Andrea ; Trabetti, Elisabetta ; Boner, Attilio ; Pescollderungg, Lydia ; Pignatti, Pier Franco ; Schlessinger, David ; Cao, Antonio ; Pilia, Giuseppe 

    2007-01-01

    Asthma is a multifactorial disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In the past decade, several loci and >100 genes have been found to be associated with the disease in at least one population. Among these loci, region 12q13-24 has been implicated in asthma etiology in multiple populations, suggesting that it harbors one or more asthma susceptibility genes. We performed linkage and association analyses by transmission/disequilibrium test and case-control analysis in the candidate region 12q13-24, using the Sardinian founder population, in which limited heterogeneity of pathogenetic alleles for monogenic and complex disorders as well as of environmental conditions should facilitate the study of multifactorial traits. We analyzed our cohort, using a cutoff age of 13 years at asthma onset, and detected significant linkage to a portion of 12q13-24. We identified IRAK-M as the gene contributing to the linkage and showed that it is associated with early-onset persistent asthma. We defined protective and predisposing SNP haplotypes and replicated associations in an outbred Italian population. Sequence analysis in patients found mutations, including inactivating lesions, in the IRAK-M coding region. Immunohistochemistry of lung biopsies showed that IRAK-M is highly expressed in epithelial cells. We report that IRAK-M is involved in the pathogenesis of early-onset persistent asthma. IRAK-M, a negative regulator of the Toll-like receptor/IL-1R pathways, is a master regulator of NF-κB and inflammation. Our data suggest a mechanistic link between hyperactivation of the innate immune system and chronic airway inflammation and indicate IRAK-M as a potential target for therapeutic intervention against asthma. PMID:17503328

  9. Familial Pathways to Early-Onset Suicidal Behavior: Familial and Individual Antecedents of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Brent, David A.; Ziegler, Melissa; Iyengar, Satish; Kolko, David; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Burke, Ainsley; Zelazny, Jamie; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to identify clinical predictors of new-onset suicidal behavior in children of parents with a history of mood disorder and suicidal behavior. Method In a prospective study of offspring of parents with mood disorders, 365 offspring (average age, 20 years) of 203 parents were followed for up to 6 years. Offspring with incident suicide attempts or emergency referrals for suicidal ideation or behavior (“incident events”) were compared with offspring without such events on demographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine predictors of incident events and predictors of time to incident event. Results Offspring of probands who had made suicide attempts, compared with offspring of parents with mood disorders who had not made attempts, had a higher rate of incident suicide attempts (4.1% versus 0.6%, relative risk=6.5) as well as overall suicidal events (8.3% versus 1.9%, relative risk=4.4). Mood disorder and self-reported impulsive aggression in offspring and a history of sexual abuse and self-reported depression in parents predicted earlier time to, and greater hazard of, an incident suicidal event. Conclusions In offspring of parents with mood disorders, precursors of early-onset suicidal behavior include mood disorder and impulsive aggression as well as parental history of suicide attempt, sexual abuse, and self-reported depression. These results suggest that efforts to prevent the familial transmission of early-onset suicidal behavior by targeting these domains could reduce the morbidity of suicidal behavior in high-risk youths. PMID:17728421

  10. Impact of substance use on the onset and course of early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Verdoux, Hélène; Tournier, Marie; Cougnard, Audrey

    2005-11-01

    The strong comorbidity between psychosis and substance use is already identifiable in early psychosis, raising the question of the direction of the association between substance use and psychosis onset. It has long been considered that this association was explained by the self-medication hypothesis. This hypothesis has been recently challenged by several prospective studies carried out in population-based samples, showing a dose-response relationship between cannabis exposure and risk of psychosis. This association was independent from potential confounding factors such as exposure to other drugs and pre-existence of psychotic symptoms. As a large percentage of subjects from the general population is now exposed to this drug, even a small increase in the risk of adverse effects may have significant deleterious consequences for the health of the population. Hence, reducing exposure to cannabis may contribute to prevention of some incident cases of psychosis. Regarding prognosis, persistent substance misuse after the onset of psychosis has a deleterious impact on clinical outcome. Therapeutic programs for subjects with dual diagnosis should be implemented early in the course of psychosis to maximise their impact on the course of illness.

  11. Serial elongation-derotation-flexion casting for children with early-onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Canavese, Federico; Samba, Antoine; Dimeglio, Alain; Mansour, Mounira; Rousset, Marie

    2015-12-18

    Various early-onset spinal deformities, particularly infantile and juvenile scoliosis (JS), still pose challenges to pediatric orthopedic surgeons. The ideal treatment of these deformities has yet to emerge, as both clinicians and surgeons still face multiple challenges including preservation of thoracic motion, spine and cage, and protection of cardiac and lung growth and function. Elongation-derotation-flexion (EDF) casting is a technique that uses a custom-made thoracolumbar cast based on a three-dimensional correction concept. EDF can control progression of the deformity and - in some cases-coax the initially-curved spine to grow straighter by acting simultaneously in the frontal, sagittal and coronal planes. Here we provide a comprehensive review of how infantile and JS can affect normal spine and thorax and how serial EDF casting can be used to manage these spinal deformities. A fresh review of the literature helps fully understand the principles of the serial EDF casting technique and the effectiveness of conservative treatment in patients with early-onset spinal deformities, particularly infantile and juvenile scolisois.

  12. Serial elongation-derotation-flexion casting for children with early-onset scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Samba, Antoine; Dimeglio, Alain; Mansour, Mounira; Rousset, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Various early-onset spinal deformities, particularly infantile and juvenile scoliosis (JS), still pose challenges to pediatric orthopedic surgeons. The ideal treatment of these deformities has yet to emerge, as both clinicians and surgeons still face multiple challenges including preservation of thoracic motion, spine and cage, and protection of cardiac and lung growth and function. Elongation-derotation-flexion (EDF) casting is a technique that uses a custom-made thoracolumbar cast based on a three-dimensional correction concept. EDF can control progression of the deformity and - in some cases-coax the initially-curved spine to grow straighter by acting simultaneously in the frontal, sagittal and coronal planes. Here we provide a comprehensive review of how infantile and JS can affect normal spine and thorax and how serial EDF casting can be used to manage these spinal deformities. A fresh review of the literature helps fully understand the principles of the serial EDF casting technique and the effectiveness of conservative treatment in patients with early-onset spinal deformities, particularly infantile and juvenile scolisois. PMID:26716089

  13. Recessive Twinkle mutations in early onset encephalopathy with mtDNA depletion.

    PubMed

    Hakonen, Anna H; Isohanni, Pirjo; Paetau, Anders; Herva, Riitta; Suomalainen, Anu; Lönnqvist, Tuula

    2007-11-01

    Twinkle is a mitochondrial replicative helicase, the mutations of which have been associated with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), and recessively inherited infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA). We report here a new phenotype in two siblings with compound heterozygous Twinkle mutations (A318T and Y508C), characterized by severe early onset encephalopathy and signs of liver involvement. The clinical manifestations included hypotonia, athetosis, sensory neuropathy, ataxia, hearing deficit, ophthalmoplegia, intractable epilepsy and elevation of serum transaminases. The liver showed mtDNA depletion, whereas the muscle mtDNA was only slightly affected. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome has previously been associated with mutations of polymerase gamma, a replicative polymerase of mtDNA. We show here that recessive mutations of the close functional partner of the polymerase, the Twinkle helicase, can also manifest as early encephalopathy with liver involvement, a phenotype reminiscent of Alpers syndrome, and are a new genetic cause underlying tissue-specific mtDNA depletion.

  14. Germline Mutations of Inhibins in Early-Onset Ovarian Epithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tournier, Isabelle; Marlin, Régine; Walton, Kelly; Charbonnier, Françoise; Coutant, Sophie; Théry, Jean-Christophe; Charbonnier, Camille; Spurrell, Cailyn; Vezain, Myriam; Ippolito, Lorena; Bougeard, Gaëlle; Roman, Horace; Tinat, Julie; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caron, Olivier; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Vaur, Dominique; King, Mary-Claire; Harrison, Craig; Frebourg, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    To identify novel genetic bases of early-onset epithelial ovarian tumors, we used the trio exome sequencing strategy in a patient without familial history of cancer who presented metastatic serous ovarian adenocarcinomas at 21 years of age. We identified a single de novo mutation (c.1157A>G/p.Asn386Ser) within the INHBA gene encoding the βA-subunit of inhibins/activins, which play a key role in ovarian development. In vitro, this mutation alters the ratio of secreted activins and inhibins. In a second patient with early-onset serous borderline papillary cystadenoma, we identified an unreported germline mutation (c.179G>T/p.Arg60Leu) of the INHA gene encoding the α-subunit, the partner of the βA-subunit. This mutation also alters the secreted activin/inhibin ratio, by disrupting both inhibin A and inhibin B biosynthesis. In a cohort of 62 cases, we detected an additional unreported germline mutation of the INHBA gene (c.839G>A/p.Gly280Glu). Our results strongly suggest that inhibin mutations contribute to the genetic determinism of epithelial ovarian tumors. PMID:24302632

  15. Neurocognitive findings in Prader-Willi syndrome and early-onset morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer; Kranzler, John; Liu, Yijun; Schmalfuss, Ilona; Theriaque, Douglas W; Shuster, Jonathan J; Hatfield, Ann; Mueller, O Thomas; Goldstone, Anthony P; Sahoo, Trilochan; Beaudet, Arthur L; Driscoll, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    To examine whether early-onset morbid obesity is associated with cognitive impairment, neuropathologic changes, and behavioral problems. This case-control study compared head MRI scans and cognitive, achievement, and behavioral evaluations of subjects with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), early-onset morbid obesity (EMO), and normal-weight sibling control subjects from both groups. Head MRI was done on 17 PWS, 18 EMO, and 21 siblings, and cognitive, achievement, and behavioral evaluations were done on 19 PWS, 17 EMO, and 24 siblings. The mean General Intellectual Ability score of the EMO group was 77.4 +/- 17.8; PWS, 63.3 +/- 14.2; and control subjects, 106.4 +/- 13.0. Achievement scores for the three groups were EMO, 78.7 +/- 18.8; PWS, 71.2 +/- 17.0; and control subjects, 104.8 +/- 17.0. Significant negative behaviors and poor adaptive skills were found in the EMO group. White matter lesions were noted on brain MRI in 6 subjects with PWS and 5 with EMO. None of the normal-weight control subjects had these findings. Individuals with EMO have significantly lower cognitive function and more behavioral problems than control subjects with no history of childhood obesity. Both EMO and PWS subjects have white matter lesions on brain MRI that have not previously been described.

  16. Case report of an atypical early onset X-linked retinoschisis in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Murro, Vittoria; Caputo, Roberto; Bacci, Giacomo Maria; Sodi, Andrea; Mucciolo, Dario Pasquale; Bargiacchi, Sara; Giglio, Sabrina Rita; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2017-02-24

    X-linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) is one of the most common macular degenerations in young males, with a worldwide prevalence ranging from 1:5000 to 1:20000. Clinical diagnosis of XLRS can be challenging due to the highly variable phenotypic presentation and limited correlation has been identified between mutation type and disease severity or progression. We report the atypical early onset of XLRS in 3-month-old monozygotic twins. Fundus examination was characterized by severe bullous retinal schisis with pre-retinal and intraretinal haemorrhages. Molecular genetic analysis of the RS1 was performed and the c.288G > A (p. Trp96Ter) mutation was detected in both patients. Early onset XLRS is associated with a more progressive form of the disease, characterized by large bullous peripheral schisis involving the posterior pole, vascular abnormalities and haemorrhages. The availability of specific technology permitted detailed imaging of the clinical picture of unusual cases of XLRS. The possible relevance of modifying genes should be taken into consideration for the future development of XLRS gene therapy.

  17. Early-Onset Central Diabetes Insipidus due to Compound Heterozygosity for AVP Mutations.

    PubMed

    Bourdet, Karine; Vallette, Sophie; Deladoëy, Johnny; Van Vliet, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Genetic cases of isolated central diabetes insipidus are rare, are mostly due to dominant AVP mutations and have a delayed onset of symptoms. Only 3 consanguineous pedigrees with a recessive form have been published. A boy with a negative family history presented polyuria and failure to thrive in the first months of life and was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal posterior pituitary signal. A molecular genetic analysis of the AVP gene showed that he had inherited a previously reported mutation from his Lebanese father and a novel A>G transition in the splice acceptor site of intron 1 (IVS1-2A>G) from his French-Canadian mother. Replacement therapy resulted in the immediate disappearance of symptoms and in weight gain. The early polyuria in recessive central diabetes insipidus contrasts with the delayed presentation in patients with monoallelic AVP mutations. This diagnosis needs to be considered in infants with very early onset of polyuria-polydipsia and no brain malformation, even if there is no consanguinity and regardless of whether the posterior pituitary is visible or not on imaging. In addition to informing family counseling, making a molecular diagnosis eliminates the need for repeated imaging studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  19. Polygenic risk score of sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease reveals a shared architecture with the familial and early-onset forms.

    PubMed

    Cruchaga, Carlos; Del-Aguila, Jorge L; Saef, Benjamin; Black, Kathleen; Fernandez, Maria Victoria; Budde, John; Ibanez, Laura; Deming, Yuetiva; Kapoor, Manav; Tosto, Giuseppe; Mayeux, Richard P; Holtzman, David M; Fagan, Anne M; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J; Goate, Alison M; Harari, Oscar

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether the extent of overlap of the genetic architecture among the sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's Disease (sLOAD), familial late-onset AD (fLOAD), sporadic early-onset AD (sEOAD), and autosomal dominant early-onset AD (eADAD). Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were constructed using previously identified 21 genome-wide significant loci for LOAD risk. We found that there is an overlap in the genetic architecture among sEOAD, fLOAD, and sLOAD. The highest association of the PRS and risk (odds ratio [OR] = 2.27; P = 1.29 × 10 -7 ) was observed in sEOAD, followed by fLOAD (OR = 1.75; P = 1.12 × 10 -7 ) and sLOAD (OR = 1.40; P = 1.21 × 10 -3 ). The PRS was associated with cerebrospinal fluid ptau 181 -Aβ 42 on eADAD (P = 4.36 × 10 -2 ). Our analysis confirms that the genetic factors identified for LOAD modulate risk in sLOAD and fLOAD and also sEOAD cohorts. Specifically, our results suggest that the burden of these risk variants is associated with familial clustering and earlier onset of AD. Although these variants are not associated with risk in the eADAD, they may be modulating age at onset. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Child impulsiveness-inattention, early peer experiences, and the development of early onset conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James; Prichard, Joy; Schrepferman, Lynn; Patrick, M Renee; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2004-12-01

    The conjoint influence of child impulsiveness-inattention (I/I) and peer relationships on growth trajectories of conduct problems was assessed in a community sample of 267 boys and girls. I/I reliably predicted teacher- and parent-reported conduct problems at kindergarten entry and growth in those problems over the next 2 years for boys and girls. The relation of boys' I/I to conduct problems was mediated, in part, by peer rejection and involvement in coercive exchanges with peers. The relation of girls' I/I to conduct problems was less clearly mediated by peer processes, but peer difficulties had additive effects. The impact of peer relationships on trajectories of conduct problems was apparent to parents as well as to teachers. Although I/I increments risk for early and persisting conduct problems in concert with poor peer relationships, it does so in complex and gender-specific ways.

  1. Inflammatory Markers and Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathleen Darrah; Horowitz, June Andrews

    Preeclampsia (PE), a serious and variable pregnancy complication affecting 5%-10% of the obstetric population, has an undetermined etiology, yet inflammation is concomitant with its development, particularly in relation to endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the published evidence concerning an association between PE and inflammatory markers for their usefulness in the prediction or early identification of women with PE in antepartum clinical settings. In this systematic review, we used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health and MEDLINE/OVID were the electronic databases used for identifying published articles. We placed no time limit on the publication year. The search generated 798 articles. After removing duplicates, screening abstracts, and conducting full-text reviews, we retained 73 articles and examined 57 unique markers. This review shows that C-reactive protein and the cytokines, specifically the proinflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, garner the most support as potential inflammatory markers for clinical surveillance of PE, particularly during the second and third trimesters. Based on this review, we cannot recommend any single inflammatory marker for routine clinical use to predict/identify PE onset or progression. Research is recommended to examine a combination panel of these four inflammatory markers both with and without clinical risk factors toward the goal of translation to practice.

  2. Maternal serum theobromine and the development of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Cuilin; Levine, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    Preeclampsia, a disorder with prominent cardiovascular manifestations, is a cause of maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality. Chocolate contains compounds that may promote cardiovascular health. A recent study found chocolate consumption during pregnancy, and, particularly, increasing cord serum concentration of theobromine (the primary methylxanthine alkaloid in chocolate), to be associated with reduced occurrence of preeclampsia. We studied 2769 women who comprised the control group from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. These women were pregnant between 1959 and 1966, with liveborn infants of at least 28 weeks' gestation. Serum was drawn at <20 weeks and >26 weeks' gestation, and assayed for theobromine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Odds ratios (ORs) for preeclampsia were estimated using logistic regression, and adjusted for age, education, prepregnant weight, race, parity, smoking, and gestation at blood draw. Preeclampsia occurred in 68 (2.9%) of 2105 eligible women. Adjusted ORs for preeclampsia were near unity across most third-trimester theobromine concentrations. Adjusted ORs for preeclampsia according to theobromine concentration in serum at <20 weeks' gestation increased with increases in concentration, although estimates were imprecise. This study does not support the previous finding that chocolate consumption is associated with a reduced occurrence of preeclampsia. Unmeasured confounding or reverse causation may account for the positive association between early-pregnancy theobromine and preeclampsia.

  3. Comparison of Growing Rod Instrumentation Versus Serial Cast Treatment for Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Charles E; McClung, Anna M; Thompson, George H; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Sanders, James O

    2013-09-01

    A comparison of 2 methods of early-onset scoliosis treatment using radiographic measures and complication rates. To determine whether a delaying tactic (serial casting) has comparable efficacy to a surgical method (insertion of growing rod instrumentation [GRI]) in the initial phase of early-onset deformity management. Serial casts are used in experienced centers to delay operative management of curves of surgical magnitude (greater than 50°) in children up to age 6 years. A total of 27 casted patients from 3 institutions were matched with 27 patients from a multicenter database according to age (within 6 months of each other), curve magnitude (within 10° of each other), and diagnosis. Outcomes were compared according to major curve magnitude, spine length (T1-S1), duration and number of treatment encounters, and complications. There was no difference in age (5.5 years) or initial curve magnitude (65°) between groups, which reflects the accuracy of the matching process. Six pairs of patients had neuromuscular diagnoses, 11 had idiopathic deformities, and 10 had syndromic scoliosis. Growing rod instrumentation patients had smaller curves (45.9° vs. 64.9°; p = .002) at follow-up, but there was no difference in absolute spine length (GRI = 32.0 cm; cast = 30.6 cm; p = .26), even though GRI patients had been under treatment for a longer duration (4.5 vs. 2.4 years; p < .0001) and had undergone a mean of 5.5 lengthenings compared with 4.0 casts. Growing rod instrumentation patients had a 44% complication rate, compared with 1 cast complication. Of 27 casted patients, 15 eventually had operative treatment after a mean delay of 1.7 years after casting. Cast treatment is a valuable delaying tactic for younger children with early-onset scoliosis. Spine deformity is adequately controlled, spine length is not compromised, and surgical complications associated with early GRI treatment are avoided. Copyright © 2013 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Teunissen, Pim W; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G; Mol, Ben W; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2016-01-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Gynaecologists have an important role in the counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia. We aimed to assess the role of gynaecologists in informing women on interventions and risk factor follow-up after early and late preeclampsia. In 2011 and 2014, all gynaecologists in the Netherlands were invited for a questionnaire. Results were analysed and compared over time. In 2011, the questionnaire was answered by 244 and in 2014 by 167 gynaecologists. After early preeclampsia, in 2011, 53% advised yearly blood pressure measurements; this increased to 65% in 2014. Over the years there was an increase in respondents advising an increased physical activity of 35% in 2011 to 56% in 2014. After late preeclampsia, in 2011, 36% advised yearly blood pressure measurements; this increased to 46% in 2014. There was an increase in gynaecologists advising increased activity (32% in 2011 to 56% in 2014). In both early and late preeclampsia, smoking cessation and weigh loss were advised often (70-80%); glucose and lipid screening were advised rarely (6-20%). Although there is still a considerable scope for improvement, an increasing number of gynaecologists advise women after preeclampsia on preventive interventions to decrease risks of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Early-Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma and Indoor Tanning: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Zens, M. Scot; Li, Zhigang; Stukel, Therese A.; Perry, Ann E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Sayarath, Vicki; Stephenson, Rita S.; Barton, Dorothea; Nelson, Heather H.; Spencer, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Indoor tanning with UV radiation–emitting lamps is common among adolescents and young adults. Rising incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been reported for the United States and elsewhere, particularly among those diagnosed at younger ages. Recent epidemiologic studies have raised concerns that indoor tanning may be contributing to early occurrence of BCC, and younger people may be especially vulnerable to cancer risk associated with this exposure. Therefore, we sought to address these issues in a population-based case–control study from New Hampshire. METHODS: Data on indoor tanning were obtained on 657 cases of BCC and 452 controls ≤50 years of age. RESULTS: Early-onset BCC was related to indoor tanning, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.3–2.1). The strongest association was observed for first exposure as an adolescent or young adult, with a 10% increase in the OR with each age younger at first exposure (OR per year of age ≤23 = 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–1.2). Associations were present for each type of device examined (ie, sunlamps, tanning beds, and tanning booths). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest early exposure to indoor tanning increases the risk of early development of BCC. They also underscore the importance of counseling adolescents and young adults about the risks of indoor tanning and for discouraging parents from consenting minors to this practice. PMID:24958589

  6. Plant macrofossil evidence for an early onset of the Holocene summer thermal maximum in northernmost Europe

    PubMed Central

    Väliranta, M.; Salonen, J. S.; Heikkilä, M.; Amon, L.; Helmens, K.; Klimaschewski, A.; Kuhry, P.; Kultti, S.; Poska, A.; Shala, S.; Veski, S.; Birks, H. H.

    2015-01-01

    Holocene summer temperature reconstructions from northern Europe based on sedimentary pollen records suggest an onset of peak summer warmth around 9,000 years ago. However, pollen-based temperature reconstructions are largely driven by changes in the proportions of tree taxa, and thus the early-Holocene warming signal may be delayed due to the geographical disequilibrium between climate and tree populations. Here we show that quantitative summer-temperature estimates in northern Europe based on macrofossils of aquatic plants are in many cases ca. 2 °C warmer in the early Holocene (11,700–7,500 years ago) than reconstructions based on pollen data. When the lag in potential tree establishment becomes imperceptible in the mid-Holocene (7,500 years ago), the reconstructed temperatures converge at all study sites. We demonstrate that aquatic plant macrofossil records can provide additional and informative insights into early-Holocene temperature evolution in northernmost Europe and suggest further validation of early post-glacial climate development based on multi-proxy data syntheses. PMID:25858780

  7. Early-onset basal cell carcinoma and indoor tanning: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Karagas, Margaret R; Zens, M Scot; Li, Zhigang; Stukel, Therese A; Perry, Ann E; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Sayarath, Vicki; Stephenson, Rita S; Barton, Dorothea; Nelson, Heather H; Spencer, Steven K

    2014-07-01

    Indoor tanning with UV radiation-emitting lamps is common among adolescents and young adults. Rising incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been reported for the United States and elsewhere, particularly among those diagnosed at younger ages. Recent epidemiologic studies have raised concerns that indoor tanning may be contributing to early occurrence of BCC, and younger people may be especially vulnerable to cancer risk associated with this exposure. Therefore, we sought to address these issues in a population-based case-control study from New Hampshire. Data on indoor tanning were obtained on 657 cases of BCC and 452 controls ≤50 years of age. Early-onset BCC was related to indoor tanning, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.1). The strongest association was observed for first exposure as an adolescent or young adult, with a 10% increase in the OR with each age younger at first exposure (OR per year of age ≤23 = 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.2). Associations were present for each type of device examined (ie, sunlamps, tanning beds, and tanning booths). Our findings suggest early exposure to indoor tanning increases the risk of early development of BCC. They also underscore the importance of counseling adolescents and young adults about the risks of indoor tanning and for discouraging parents from consenting minors to this practice. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and multiple births resulting from the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Related ... cases of preeclampsia occur in women with no known history of the disorder in their families, and these ...

  9. Screening and Treatment for Early-Onset Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Immanuel, Jincy; Simmons, David

    2017-10-02

    We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the current evidence for screening and treatment for early-onset gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the women with early GDM in the first trimester do not have evidence of hyperglycemia at 24-28 weeks' gestation. A high proportion (15-70%) of women with GDM can be detected early in pregnancy depending on the setting, criteria used and screening strategy. However, there remains no good evidence for any of the diagnostic criteria for early-onset GDM. In a meta-analysis of 13 cohort studies, perinatal mortality (relative risk (RR) 3.58 [1.91, 6.71]), neonatal hypoglycemia (RR 1.61 [1.02, 2.55]), and insulin use (RR 1.71 [1.45, 2.03]) were greater among early-onset GDM women compared to late-onset GDM women, despite treatment. Considering the high likelihood of benefit from treatment, there is an urgent need for randomized controlled trials that investigate any benefits and possible harms of treatment of early-onset GDM.

  10. Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zahumensky, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia. We summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in uteroplacental, fetoplacental and fetal circulation in preeclampsia. The present review summarized the results of clinical research on the Doppler flowmetry in the screening of risk of preclampsia, in the diagnosis of preclampsia and in the fetal risk in preclampsia (Ref. 19). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  11. Lower Pre-Treatment T Cell Activation in Early- and Late-Onset Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Odin; Jennes, Wim; Massinga-Loembé, Marguerite; Ondoa, Pascale; Ceulemans, Ann; Vereecken, Chris; Worodria, William; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Kestens, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory complication in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The role of disturbed T cell reconstitution in TB-IRIS is not well understood. We investigated T cell activation and maturation profiles in patients who developed TB-IRIS at different intervals during ART. Methods Twenty-two HIV-TB patients who developed early-onset TB-IRIS and 10 who developed late-onset TB-IRIS were matched for age, sex and CD4 count to equal numbers of HIV-TB patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on fresh blood, drawn before and after ART initiation and during TB-IRIS events. T cell activation and maturation was measured on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using CD45RO, CD38, HLA-DR, CCR7 and CD27 antibodies. Results CD8+ T cell activation before ART was decreased in both early-onset (77% vs. 82%, p = 0.014) and late-onset (71% vs. 83%, p = 0.012) TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS controls. After ART initiation, the observed differences in T cell activation disappeared. During late-onset, but not early-onset TB-IRIS, we observed a skewing from memory to terminal effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations (p≤0.028). Conclusion Our data provide evidence of reduced CD8+ T cell activation before ART as a common predisposing factor of early- and late-onset TB-IRIS. The occurrence of TB-IRIS itself was not marked by an over-activated CD8+ T cell compartment. Late- but not early-onset TB-IRIS was characterized by a more terminally differentiated T cell phenotype. PMID:26208109

  12. Biomarker development for presymptomatic molecular diagnosis of preeclampsia: feasible, useful or even unnecessary?

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sinuhe; Lapaire, Olav; Than, Nandor Gabor

    2015-05-01

    The past decade saw the advent of a number of promising biomarkers to detect pregnancies at risk for preeclampsia (PE), the foremost being those associated with an imbalance of angiogenic factors. In late pregnancy, these are useful for the detection of imminent cases of PE, while earlier they were more predictive for early- than late-onset PE. This suggests that there may be fundamental differences between the underlying pathology of these two PE forms. Therefore, it is possible that such a biological premise may limit the development of biomarkers that will permit the efficacious detection of both early- and late-onset PE via an analysis of first-trimester maternal blood samples. Consequently, a significant increase in our understanding of the underlying pathology of PE, using a variety of approaches ranging from systems biology to animal models, will be necessary in order to overcome this obstacle.

  13. Alcohol use in motion pictures and its relation with early-onset teen drinking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gibson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of viewing depictions of alcohol in entertainment media on adolescent drinking behavior. Our aims were to assess drinking in a sample of popular contemporary movies and to examine the association of movie alcohol exposure with early-onset drinking in an adolescent sample. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional survey (N=4655) with longitudinal follow-up of never-drinkers (N=2406) involving adolescents ages 10-14 years and recruited from 15 New Hampshire and Vermont schools. Screen depictions of alcohol use were timed for each of 601 popular contemporary movies. Each adolescent was asked if he/she had seen a unique list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected from the larger pool. Movie alcohol use was summed for movies the adolescent had seen, adjusted to reflect exposure to the larger pool and modeled as a continuous variable. Ninety-two percent of the movies in the sample depicted drinking; median screen time for movie alcohol use was 2.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.9-5.0 minutes). Median exposure to movie alcohol use from the 601 movies was 8.6 hours (IQR: 4.6-13.5 hours). Overall 23.1% of the cross-sectional sample had tried alcohol, and 14.8% of initial nondrinkers had tried alcohol at the follow-up assessment. We found statistical evidence to support a curvilinear association between higher exposure to movie alcohol use and increased risk of prevalent and incident alcohol use, with a statistically significant linear and quadratic effect, and suggesting a higher dose-effect relationship at lower movie alcohol exposure levels compared to higher levels. The linear and the quadratic associations remained strong and significant in cross-sectional and prospective models after controlling for sociodemographics (grade in school, school, gender, parent education), personality characteristics of the adolescent (sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem), school performance, parenting style, and smoking experimentation

  14. CDKL5 mutations cause infantile spasms, early onset seizures, and severe mental retardation in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Archer, H L; Evans, J; Edwards, S; Colley, J; Newbury‐Ecob, R; O'Callaghan, F; Huyton, M; O'Regan, M; Tolmie, J; Sampson, J; Clarke, A; Osborne, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of mutations in CDKL5 in both male and female patients with infantile spasms or early onset epilepsy of unknown cause, and to consider whether the breadth of the reported phenotype would be extended by studying a different patient group. Methods Two groups of patients were investigated for CDKL5 mutations. Group 1 comprised 73 patients (57 female, 16 male) referred to Cardiff for CDKL5 analysis, of whom 49 (42 female, 7 male) had epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life. Group 2 comprised 26 patients (11 female, 15 male) with infantile spasms previously recruited to a clinical trial, the UK Infantile Spasms Study. Where a likely pathogenic mutation was identified, further clinical data were reviewed. Results Seven likely pathogenic mutations were found among female patients from group 1 with epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life, accounting for seven of the 42 in this group (17%). No mutations other than the already published mutation were found in female patients from group 2, or in any male patient from either study group. All patients with mutations had early signs of developmental delay and most had made little developmental progress. Further clinical information was available for six patients: autistic features and tactile hypersensitivity were common but only one had suggestive Rett‐like features. All had a severe epileptic seizure disorder, all but one of whom had myoclonic jerks. The EEG showed focal or generalised changes and in those with infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia. Slow frequencies were seen frequently with a frontal or fronto‐temporal predominance and high amplitudes. Conclusions The spectrum of the epileptic seizure disorder, and associated EEG changes, in those with CDKL5 mutations is broader than previously reported. CDKL5 mutations are a significant cause of infantile spasms and early epileptic seizures in female patients, and of a later intractable seizure disorder

  15. Comparison of clinical characteristics between familial and non-familial early onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aditi; Ringman, John M; Lee, Albert S; Juarez, Kevin O; Mendez, Mario F

    2012-10-01

    Although familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is an early onset AD (EAD), most patients with EAD do not have a familial disorder. Recent guidelines recommend testing for genes causing FAD only in those EAD patients with two first-degree relatives. However, some patients with FAD may lack a known family history or other indications for suspecting FAD but might nonetheless be carriers of FAD mutations. The study was aimed to identify clinical features that distinguish FAD from non-familial EAD (NF-EAD). A retrospective review of a university-based cohort of 32 FAD patients with PSEN1-related AD and 81 with NF-EAD was conducted. The PSEN1 patients, compared to the NF-EAD patients, had an earlier age of disease onset (41.8 ± 5.2 vs. 55.9 ± 4.8 years) and, at initial assessment, a longer disease duration (5.1 ± 3.4 vs. 3.3 ± 2.6 years) and lower MMSE scores (10.74 ± 8.0 vs. 20.95 ± 5.8). Patients with NF-EAD were more likely to present with non-memory deficits, particularly visuospatial symptoms, than were FAD patients. When age, disease duration, and MMSE scores were controlled in a logistical regression model, FAD patients were more likely to have significant headaches, myoclonus, gait abnormality, and pseudobulbar affect than those with NF-EAD. In addition to a much younger age of onset, FAD patients with PSEN1 mutations differed from those with NF-EAD by a history of headaches and pseudobulbar affect, as well as myoclonus and gait abnormality on examination. These may represent differences in pathophysiology between FAD and NF-EAD and in some contexts such findings should lead to genetic counseling and appropriate recommendations for genetic testing for FAD.

  16. Comparison of clinical characteristics between familial and non-familial early onset Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Ringman, John M.; Lee, Albert S.; Juarez, Kevin O.; Mendez, Mario F.

    2012-01-01

    Although familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) is an early onset AD (EAD), most patients with EAD do not have a familial disorder. Recent guidelines recommend testing for genes causing FAD only in those EAD patients with two first-degree relatives. However, some patients with FAD may lack a known family history or other indications for suspecting FAD but might nonetheless be carriers of FAD mutations. The study was aimed to identify clinical features that distinguish FAD from non-familial EAD (NF-EAD). A retrospective review of a university-based cohort of 32 FAD patients with PSEN1-related AD and 81 with NF-EAD was conducted. The PSEN1 patients, compared to the NF-EAD patients, had an earlier age of disease onset (41.8 ± 5.2 vs. 55.9 ± 4.8 years) and, at initial assessment, a longer disease duration (5.1 ± 3.4 vs. 3.3 ± 2.6 years) and lower MMSE scores (10.74 ± 8.0 vs. 20.95 ± 5.8). Patients with NF-EAD were more likely to present with non-memory deficits, particularly visuospatial symptoms, than were FAD patients. When age, disease duration, and MMSE scores were controlled in a logistical regression model, FAD patients were more likely to have significant headaches, myoclonus, gait abnormality, and pseudobulbar affect than those with NF-EAD. In addition to a much younger age of onset, FAD patients with PSEN1 mutations differed from those with NF-EAD by a history of headaches and pseudobulbar affect, as well as myoclonus and gait abnormality on examination. These may represent differences in pathophysiology between FAD and NF-EAD and in some contexts such findings should lead to genetic counseling and appropriate recommendations for genetic testing for FAD. PMID:22460587

  17. Elucidating Pathogenic Mechanisms of Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease in Down Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Asai, Masashi; Kawakubo, Takashi; Mori, Ryotaro; Iwata, Nobuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) patients demonstrate the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) characterized by the formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles by age 40-50 years. It has been considered for a number of years that 1.5-fold expression of the gene for the amyloid precursor protein (APP) located on chromosome 21 leading to overproduction of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) results in the early onset of AD in adults with DS. However, the mean age of onset of familial AD with the Swedish mutation on APP which has high affinity for β-secretase associated with a dramatic increase in Aβ production is about 55 years. This paradox indicates that there is a poor correlation between average ages of AD onset and the theoretical amount of Aβ production and that there are factors exacerbating AD on chromosome 21. We therefore focused on dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), since overexpressing transgenic mice show AD-like brain pathology. The overexpression of DYRK1A caused suppression of the activity of neprilysin (NEP), which is a major Aβ-degrading enzyme in the brain, and phosphorylation at the NEP cytoplasmic domain. NEP activity was markedly reduced in fibroblasts derived from DS patients compared with that in fibroblasts derived from healthy controls. This impaired activity of NEP was rescued by DYRK1A inhibition. These results show that DYRK1A overexpression causes suppression of NEP activity through its phosphorylation in DS patients. Our results suggest that DYRK1A inhibitors could be effective against AD not only in adults with DS but also in sporadic AD patients.

  18. Early-Onset Invasive Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Perinatal Acquisition Predicts Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    Barton, Michelle; Shen, Alex; O'Brien, Karel; Robinson, Joan L; Davies, H Dele; Simpson, Kim; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Langley, Joanne; Le Saux, Nicole; Sauve, Reginald; Synnes, Anne; Tan, Ben; de Repentigny, Louis; Rubin, Earl; Hui, Chuck; Kovacs, Lajos; Yau, Yvonne C W; Richardson, Susan E

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days). All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) cases with IC and controls from a multicenter study of neonatal candidiasis enrolled from 2001 to 2003 were included in this study. Factors associated with occurrence and outcome of EOD in ELBW infants were determined. Forty-five ELBW infants and their 84 matched controls were included. Fourteen (31%) ELBW infants had EOD. Birth weight <750 g, gestation <25 weeks, chorioamnionitis, and vaginal delivery were all strongly associated with EOD. Infection with Candida albicans, disseminated disease, pneumonia, and cardiovascular disease were significantly more common in EOD than in LOD. The EOD case fatality rate (71%) was higher than in LOD (32%) or controls (15%) (P = .0001). The rate of neurodevelopmental impairment and mortality combined was similar in EOD (86%) and LOD (72%), but higher than in controls (32%; P = .007). ELBW infants with EOD have a very poor prognosis compared to those with LOD. The role of perinatal transmission in EOD is supported by its association with chorioamnionitis, vaginal delivery, and pneumonia. Dissemination and cardiovascular involvement are common, and affected infants often die. Empiric treatment should be considered for ELBW infants delivered vaginally who have pneumonia and whose mothers have chorioamnionitis or an intrauterine foreign body. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Age at onset determines severity and choice of treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Disease activity, severity and comorbidity contribute to increased mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the impact of age at disease onset on prognostic risk factors and treatment in patients with early disease. Methods In this study, 950 RA patients were followed regularly from the time of inclusion (<12 months from symptom onset) for disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), tender and/or swollen joints, Visual Analogue Scale pain and global scores, and Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)) and function (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)). Disease severity, measured on the basis of radiographs of the hands and feet (erosions based on Larsen score), extraarticular disease, nodules, and comorbidities and treatment (disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), corticosteroids, biologics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) were recorded at the time of inclusion and at 5 years. Autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies and antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACPAs)) and genetic markers (human leucocyte antibody (HLA) shared epitope and protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22)) were analysed at the time of inclusion. Data were stratified as young-onset RA (YORA) and late-onset RA (LORA), which were defined as being below or above the median age at the time of onset of RA (58 years). Results LORA was associated with lower frequency of ACPA (P < 0.05) and carriage of PTPN22-T variant (P < 0.01), but with greater disease activity at the time of inclusion measured on the basis of ESR (P < 0.001), CRP (P < 0.01) and accumulated disease activity (area under the curve for DAS28 score) at 6 months (P < 0.01), 12 months (P < 0.01) and 24 months (P < 0.05), as well as a higher HAQ score (P < 0.01) compared with YORA patients. At baseline and 24 months, LORA was more often associated with erosions (P < 0.01 for both) and higher

  20. Exploring reasons for late identification of children with early-onset hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Dos Santos, Johnny Cesconetto; Grandpierre, Viviane; Whittingham, JoAnne

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have shown that early identification of childhood hearing loss leads to better language outcomes. However, delays in the confirmation of hearing loss persist even in the presence of well-established universal newborn hearing screening programs (UNHS). The objective of this population-based study was to document the proportion of children who experienced delayed confirmation of congenital and early onset hearing loss in a UNHS program in one region of Canada. The study also sought to determine the reasons for delayed confirmation of hearing loss in children. Population level data related to age of first assessment, age of identification and clinical characteristics were collected prospectively for all children identified through the UNHS program. We documented the number of children who experienced delay (defined as more than 3 months) from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of hearing loss. A detailed chart review was subsequently performed to examine the reasons for delay to confirmation. Of 418 children identified from 2003 to 2013, 182 (43.5%) presented with congenital or early onset hearing loss, of whom 30 (16.5%) experienced more than 3 months delay from initial audiologic assessment to confirmation of their hearing disorder. The median age of first assessment and confirmation of hearing loss for these 30 children was 3.7 months (IQR: 2.0, 7.6) and 13.8 months (IQR: 9.7, 26.1) respectively. Close examination of the factors related to delay to confirmation revealed that for the overwhelming majority of children, a constellation of factors contributed to late diagnosis. Several children (n = 22; 73.3%) presented with developmental/medical issues, 15 of whom also had middle ear dysfunction at assessment, and 9 of whom had documented family follow-up concerns. For the remaining eight children, additional reasons included ongoing middle ear dysfunction for five children, complicated by family follow-up concerns (n = 3) and mild

  1. Genetic Risk Score for Essential Hypertension and Risk of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caitlin J; Saftlas, Audrey F; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bjonnes, Andrew; Keating, Brendan; Saxena, Richa; Breheny, Patrick J; Dewan, Andrew T; Robinson, Jennifer G; Hoh, Josephine; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive complication of pregnancy characterized by novel onset of hypertension after 20 weeks gestation, accompanied by proteinuria. Epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic susceptibility exists for preeclampsia; however, whether preeclampsia is the result of underlying genetic risk for essential hypertension has yet to be investigated. Based on the hypertensive state that is characteristic of preeclampsia, we aimed to determine if established genetic risk scores (GRSs) for hypertension and blood pressure are associated with preeclampsia. Subjects consisted of 162 preeclamptic cases and 108 normotensive pregnant controls, all of Iowa residence. Subjects' DNA was extracted from buccal swab samples and genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Missing genotypes were imputed using MaCH and Minimac software. GRSs were calculated for hypertension, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using established genetic risk loci for each outcome. Regression analyses were performed to determine the association between GRS and risk of preeclampsia. These analyses were replicated in an independent US population of 516 cases and 1,097 controls of European ancestry. GRSs for hypertension, SBP, DBP, and MAP were not significantly associated with risk for preeclampsia (P > 0.189). The results of the replication analysis also yielded nonsignificant associations. GRSs for hypertension and blood pressure are not associated with preeclampsia, suggesting that an underlying predisposition to essential hypertension is not on the causal pathway of preeclampsia. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The role of monogenic disease in children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic intestinal microbes, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. Patients diagnosed with IBD occurring before the age of 5 are a unique population, known as very early onset (VEO)-IBD and can be phenotypically and genetically distinct from older-onset IBD. We aim to review the clinical presentation of children with VEO-IBD and recent discoveries that point to genomic drivers of disease that may impact our therapeutic decisions. VEO-IBD is increasing in incidence and is associated with more severe disease, aggressive progression and poor response to most conventional therapies. This article will review the advances in sequencing technology that have led to identification of novel gene variants associated with disease and potentially new targeted therapeutic options. Children with VEO-IBD may present with a different phenotype and more severe disease than older children and adults. Identification of the causal gene or pathways, these children may allow for true precision medicine with targeted therapy and improved disease course.

  3. Maintaining intestinal health: the genetics and immunology of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactoral disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic microbes in the intestine, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging population of patients with IBD occurring before the age of 5 represent a unique form of disease, termed Very Early Onset (VEO)-IBD, which is phenotypically- and genetically-distinct from older-onset IBD. VEO-IBD is associated with increased disease severity, aggressive progression and poor responsiveness to most conventional therapies. Further investigation into the causes and pathogenesis of VEO-IBD will help improve treatment strategies, and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that are essential to maintain intestinal health or provoke the development of targeted therapeutic strategies to limit intestinal disease. Here we discuss the phenotypic nature of VEO-IBD, the recent identification of novel gene variants associated with disease, and functional immunologic studies interrogating the contribution of specific genetic variants to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation.

  4. Caregiver burden and psychosocial services in patients with early and late onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Grønning, Helene; Kristiansen, Susanne; Dyre, Dorte; Rahmani, Abdul; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Høgh, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse caregiver burden and consumption of psychosocial services in a consecutive group of patients with early onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) compared with a matching group with late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). This was a case-control study with 42 patients who were matched according to disease severity at the time of diagnosis. Caregivers in both groups were interviewed using the Neuro Psychiatric Inventory (NPI), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Resource Utilization in Dementia scale. The quantitative outcomes were compared statistically. The EOAD group had a significantly higher ADL score than the LOAD group. There was a trend towards caregivers in the LOAD group spending more time helping the patients, and they needed more social services than the EOAD group. NPI scores were not significantly different, but a tendency towards a higher caregiver burden in the EOAD group was observed. The higher caregiver burden in patients with EOAD--despite a better ADL function than LOAD patients--suggests that the existing psychosocial services might be particularly insufficient for caregivers in EOAD. The study was funded by a three-month scholarship grant from the research fund at Roskilde Hospital. not relevant.

  5. Using bacterial biomarkers to identify early indicators of cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbation onset

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Geraint B; Hoffman, Lucas R; Johnson, Matt W; Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Schwarze, Jürgen; Carroll, Mary P; Bruce, Kenneth D

    2011-01-01

    Acute periods of pulmonary exacerbation are the single most important cause of morbidity in cystic fibrosis patients, and may be associated with a loss of lung function. Intervening prior to the onset of a substantially increased inflammatory response may limit the associated damage to the airways. While a number of biomarker assays based on inflammatory markers have been developed, providing useful and important measures of disease during these periods, such factors are typically only elevated once the process of exacerbation has been initiated. Identifying biomarkers that can predict the onset of pulmonary exacerbation at an early stage would provide an opportunity to intervene before the establishment of a substantial immune response, with major implications for the advancement of cystic fibrosis care. The precise triggers of pulmonary exacerbation remain to be determined; however, the majority of models relate to the activity of microbes present in the patient's lower airways of cystic fibrosis. Advances in diagnostic microbiology now allow for the examination of these complex systems at a level likely to identify factors on which biomarker assays can be based. In this article, we discuss key considerations in the design and testing of assays that could predict pulmonary exacerbations. PMID:21405970

  6. PREECLAMPSIA AND SMALL FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED CONCENTRATIONS OF A FACTOR INVOLVED IN ANGIOGENESIS: SOLUBLE TIE-2

    PubMed Central

    Gotsch, Francesca; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dombrowski, Michael; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Mittal, Pooja; Espinoza, Jimmy; Hassan, Sonia S

    2009-01-01

    .9–67.3); SGA: median 10.9 ng/ml (range 5.1–29.1); Normal pregnancy: median 16.0 ng/ml (range 5.0–71.6); p=0.048 and p<0.001, respectively]; 4) Patients with SGA neonates had a lower median plasma concentration of sTie-2 than that of those with preeclampsia [median 10.9 ng/ml (range 5.1–29.1) vs. median 14.9 ng/ml (range 4.9–67.3), respectively; p<0.001)]; and 5) Patients with early-onset preeclampsia (≤34 weeks) had lower concentrations of sTie-2 than women with late-onset preeclampsia (>34 weeks) [median of delta values: −0.13 ng/ml (range −0.47–0.58) vs. median of delta values: −0.09 ng/ml (range: −0.60–0.58), respectively; p=0.043]. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the maternal plasma sTie-2 concentration between women with severe and mild preeclampsia (p=0.6). CONCLUSION Patients with preeclampsia and those with SGA fetuses have lower median plasma concentrations of soluble Tie-2 than women with normal pregnancies. PMID:18570117

  7. Peer and Teacher Effects on the Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Brendgen, Mara; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the links between peer rejection and verbal abuse by a teacher during childhood with the early onset of sexual intercourse and the mediating role of delinquent behavior and low self-esteem in this context. Methods. We assessed 312 students (159 girls) in northwestern Quebec annually from kindergarten through seventh grade. Peer identifications were used to assess peer rejection and verbal abuse by teachers from kindergarten through fourth grade. In seventh grade, self-reports were used to assess delinquent behavior, self-esteem, and having sexual intercourse. Multiple sources were used to assess control variables. Results. Multiple imputation-based linear and logistic regressions showed that peer rejection was indirectly associated with a higher risk of early intercourse by its link with lower self-esteem, but only for girls. Verbal abuse by teachers during childhood was directly associated with a higher risk of early sexual intercourse and indirectly by its link with delinquent behavior. Conclusions. The results underline the importance of both peers and teachers in healthy sexual development among youths, especially for girls, and emphasize the need for targeted health and sexual education programs. PMID:17901435

  8. Early-onset behavioral and neurochemical deficits in the genetic mouse model of phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Elena; Oddi, Diego; Ventura, Rossella; Colamartino, Marco; Valzania, Alessandro; D’Amato, Francesca Romana; Bruinenberg, Vibeke; van der Zee, Eddy; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common human inborn errors of metabolism, caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, leading to high phenylalanine and low tyrosine levels in blood and brain causing profound cognitive disability, if untreated. Since 1960, population is screened for hyperphenylalaninemia shortly after birth and submitted to early treatment in order to prevent the major manifestations of the disease. However, the dietetic regimen (phenylalanine free diet) is difficult to maintain, and despite the recommendation to a strict and lifelong compliance, up to 60% of adolescents partially or totally abandons the treatment. The development and the study of new treatments continue to be sought, taking advantage of preclinical models, the most used of which is the PAHenu2 (BTBR ENU2), the genetic murine model of PKU. To date, adult behavioral and neurochemical alterations have been mainly investigated in ENU2 mice, whereas there are no clear indications about the onset of these deficiencies. Here we investigated and report, for the first time, a comprehensive behavioral and neurochemical assay of the developing ENU2 mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ENU2 mice are significantly smaller than WT until pnd 24, present a significant delay in the acquisition of tested developmental reflexes, impaired communicative, motor and social skills, and have early reduced biogenic amine levels in several brain areas. Our results extend the understanding of behavioral and cerebral abnormalities in PKU mice, providing instruments to an early preclinical evaluation of the effects of new treatments. PMID:28850618

  9. Early-Onset LMNA-Associated Muscular Dystrophy with Later Involvement of Contracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younggun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Young Chul

    2017-10-01

    The early diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy is important for preventing sudden arrest related to cardiac conduction block. However, diagnosing early-onset Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) with later involvement of contracture and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B is often delayed due to heterogeneous clinical presentations. We aimed to determine the clinical features that contribute to a delayed diagnosis. We reviewed four patients who were recently diagnosed with LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy by targeted exome sequencing and who were initially diagnosed with nonspecific or other types of muscular dystrophy. Certain clinical features such as delayed contracture involvement and calf hypertrophy were found to contribute to a delayed diagnosis. Muscle biopsies were not informative for the diagnosis in these patients. Genetic testing of single or multiple genes is useful for confirming a diagnosis of LMNA-associated muscular dystrophy. Even EDMD patien