Science.gov

Sample records for early operating experience

  1. Early tracking would improve the operative experience of general surgery residents.

    PubMed

    Stain, Steven C; Biester, Thomas W; Hanks, John B; Ashley, Stanley W; Valentine, R James; Bass, Barbara L; Buyske, Jo

    2010-09-01

    High surgical complexity and individual career goals has led most general surgery (GS) residents to pursue fellowship training, resulting in a shortage of surgeons who practice broad-based general surgery. We hypothesize that early tracking of residents would improve operative experience of residents planning to be general surgeons, and could foster greater interest and confidence in this career path. Surgical Operative Log data from GS and fellowship bound residents (FB) applying for the 2008 American Board of Surgery Qualifying Examination (QE) were used to construct a hypothetical training model with 6 months of early specialization (ESP) for FB residents in 4 specialties (cardiac, vascular, colorectal, pediatric); and presumed these cases would be available to GS residents within the same program. A total of 142 training programs had both FB residents (n = 237) and GS residents (n = 402), and represented 70% of all 2008 QE applicants. The mean numbers of operations by FB and GS residents were 1131 and 1091, respectively. There were a mean of 252 cases by FB residents in the chief year, theoretically making 126 cases available for each GS resident. In 9 defined categories, the hypothetical model would result in an increase in the 5-year operative experience of GS residents (mastectomy 6.5%; colectomy 22.8%; gastrectomy 23.4%; antireflux procedures 23.4%; pancreatic resection 37.4%; liver resection 29.3%; endocrine procedures 19.6%; trauma operations 13.3%; GI endoscopy 6.5%). The ESP model improves operative experience of GS residents, particularly for complex gastrointestinal procedures. The expansion of subspecialty ESP should be considered.

  2. Commissioning and Early Operation Experience of the NSLS-II Storage Ring RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Cupolo, J.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a 3 GeV electron X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The storage ring RF system, essential for replenishing energy loss per turn of the electrons, consists of digital low level RF controllers, 310 kW CW klystron transmitters, CESR-B type superconducting cavities, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system for beam current up to 200mA.

  3. How do early emotional experiences in the operating theatre influence medical student learning in this environment?

    PubMed

    Bowrey, David J; Kidd, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    The emotions experienced by medical students on first exposure to the operating theatre are unknown. It is also unclear what influence these emotions have on the learning process. To understand the emotions experienced by students when in the operating theatre for the first time and the impact of these emotions on learning. Nine 3rd-year medical students participated in semistructured interviews to explore these themes. A qualitative approach was used; interviews were transcribed and coded thematically. All participants reported initial negative emotions (apprehension, anxiety, fear, shame, overwhelmed), with excitement being reported by 3. Six participants considered that their anxiety was so overwhelming that it was detrimental to their learning. Participants described a period of familiarization to the environment, after which learning was facilitated. Early learning experiences centered around adjustment to the physical environment of the operating theatre. Factors driving initial negative feelings were loss of familiarity, organizational issues, concerns about violating protocol, and a fear of syncope. Participants considered that it took a median of 1 week (range = 1 day-3 weeks) or 5 visits to the operating theatre (range = 1-10) before feeling comfortable in the new setting. Emotions experienced on subsequent visits to the operating theatre were predominantly positive (enjoyment, happiness, confident, involved, pride). Two participants reported negative feelings related to social exclusion. Being included in the team was a powerful determinant of enjoyment. These findings indicate that for learning in the operating theatre to be effective, addressing the negative emotions of the students might be beneficial. This could be achieved by a formal orientation program for both learners and tutors in advance of attendance in the operating theatre. For learning to be optimized, students must feel a sense of inclusion in the theatre community of practice.

  4. Operative technique and early experience for robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RALNU) using da Vinci Xi.

    PubMed

    Darwiche, Fadi; Swain, Sanjaya; Kallingal, George; Punnen, Sanoj; Manoharan, Murugesan; Parekh, Dipen J; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RALNU) has been previously utilized for management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The da Vinci Xi surgical system was released in April of 2014. We describe our operative technique and early experience for RALNU using the da Vinci Xi system highlighting unique features of this surgical platform. A total of 10 patients with a diagnosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma underwent RALNU using the da Vinci Xi system between April and November of 2014. A novel, oblique "in line" robotic trocar configuration was utilized to access the upper abdomen (nephrectomy portion) and pelvis (bladder cuff excision) without undocking. The port hopping feature of da Vinci Xi was utilized to facilitate optimal, multi-quadrant visualization during RALNU. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was successfully completed without open conversion in all 10 patients. Mean operative time was 184 min (range 140-300 min), mean estimated blood loss was 121 cc (range 60-300 cc), and mean hospital stay was 2.4 days. Final pathology demonstrated high grade urothelial carcinoma in all patients. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. No intra-operative complications were encountered. One patient developed a pulmonary embolus after being discharged. No patients required a blood transfusion. Mean patient follow-up was 130 days (range 15-210 days). The use of da Vinci Xi with a novel, oblique "in line" port configuration and camera port hopping technique allows for an efficient and reproducible method for RALNU without the need for repositioning the patient or the robot during surgery.

  5. Helium experiments on Alcator C-Mod in support of ITER early operations

    DOE PAGES

    Kessel, C. E.; Wolfe, S. M.; Reinke, M. L.; ...

    2018-03-13

    Helium majority experiments on Alcator C-Mod were performed to compare with deuterium discharges, and inform ITER early operations. ELMy H-modes were produced with a special plasma shape at B T = 5.3 T, I P = 0.9 MA, at q 95 ~ 3.8. The He fraction ranged over, n He,L/n L = 0.2–0.4, with n D,L/n L = 0.15–0.26, compared to D plasmas with n D,L/n L = 0.85–0.97. The power to enter the H-mode in He was found to be greater than ~2 times that for D discharges, in the low density region <1.4 × 10 20/m 3. However, it appears to follow the D threshold for higher densities. The stored energies in the He discharges were about 80% of those in D, and about 40% higher net power was required to sustain them compared to D. Global particle confinement times for tungsten ofmore » $$\\tau _{{\\rm W}}^{{\\rm *}}$$ /τ E ~ 4 were obtained with ELMy H-modes in He, however accumulation occurred when the ELMs were irregular and infrequent. The electron temperatures and densities in the pedestal were similar between D and He discharges, and the ΔT e/T e and Δn e/n e values were similar or larger in He than D. The higher net power required to access the H-mode, and sustain it in flattop, for He discharges in C-Mod, imply some limitations for He operation in ITER.« less

  6. Helium experiments on Alcator C-Mod in support of ITER early operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, C. E.; Wolfe, S. M.; Reinke, M. L.; Hughes, J. W.; Lin, Y.; Wukitch, S. J.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Chilenski, M.; Diallo, A.; the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2018-05-01

    Helium majority experiments on Alcator C-Mod were performed to compare with deuterium discharges, and inform ITER early operations. ELMy H-modes were produced with a special plasma shape at B T  =  5.3 T, I P  =  0.9 MA, at q 95 ~ 3.8. The He fraction ranged over, n He,L/n L  =  0.2-0.4, with n D,L/n L  =  0.15-0.26, compared to D plasmas with n D,L/n L  =  0.85-0.97. The power to enter the H-mode in He was found to be greater than ~2 times that for D discharges, in the low density region  <1.4  ×  1020/m3. However, it appears to follow the D threshold for higher densities. The stored energies in the He discharges were about 80% of those in D, and about 40% higher net power was required to sustain them compared to D. Global particle confinement times for tungsten of τ W* /τ E ~ 4 were obtained with ELMy H-modes in He, however accumulation occurred when the ELMs were irregular and infrequent. The electron temperatures and densities in the pedestal were similar between D and He discharges, and the ΔT e/T e and Δn e/n e values were similar or larger in He than D. The higher net power required to access the H-mode, and sustain it in flattop, for He discharges in C-Mod, imply some limitations for He operation in ITER.

  7. Helium experiments on Alcator C-Mod in support of ITER early operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E.; Wolfe, S. M.; Reinke, M. L.

    Helium majority experiments on Alcator C-Mod were performed to compare with deuterium discharges, and inform ITER early operations. ELMy H-modes were produced with a special plasma shape at B T = 5.3 T, I P = 0.9 MA, at q 95 ~ 3.8. The He fraction ranged over, n He,L/n L = 0.2–0.4, with n D,L/n L = 0.15–0.26, compared to D plasmas with n D,L/n L = 0.85–0.97. The power to enter the H-mode in He was found to be greater than ~2 times that for D discharges, in the low density region <1.4 × 10 20/m 3. However, it appears to follow the D threshold for higher densities. The stored energies in the He discharges were about 80% of those in D, and about 40% higher net power was required to sustain them compared to D. Global particle confinement times for tungsten ofmore » $$\\tau _{{\\rm W}}^{{\\rm *}}$$ /τ E ~ 4 were obtained with ELMy H-modes in He, however accumulation occurred when the ELMs were irregular and infrequent. The electron temperatures and densities in the pedestal were similar between D and He discharges, and the ΔT e/T e and Δn e/n e values were similar or larger in He than D. The higher net power required to access the H-mode, and sustain it in flattop, for He discharges in C-Mod, imply some limitations for He operation in ITER.« less

  8. An active constraint environment for minimally invasive heart surgery: early experience of a cutting operation.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Joao; Bello, Fernando; Rodriguez Y Bena, Ferdinando; Davies, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Master/slave telemanipulator systems can be applied in minimally invasive heart surgery. However, due to the beating heart and difficulties of finding inner points inside the heart, a surgical task operation such as cutting can be very difficult. In order to avoid surgical error, the "active constraint" concept can be applied. This paper shows an example of an "active constraint" environment used for minimally invasive heart surgery. Experiments have been carried out for a 2-DOF master and the preliminary results validate the present approach.

  9. Lessons Learned During Implementation and Early Operations of the DS1 Beacon Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Wyatt, Jay; Hotz, Henry; Schlutsmeyer, Alan; Sue, Miles

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to mission operations will be flight validated on NASA's New Millennium Program Deep Space One (DS1) mission which launched in October 1998. The Beacon Monitor Operations Technology is aimed at decreasing the total volume of downlinked engineering telemetry by reducing the frequency of downlink and the volume of data received per pass. Cost savings are achieved by reducing the amount of routine telemetry processing and analysis performed by ground staff. The technology is required for upcoming NASA missions to Pluto, Europa, and possibly some other missions. With beacon monitoring, the spacecraft will assess its own health and will transmit one of four beacon messages each representing a unique frequency tone to inform the ground how urgent it is to track the spacecraft for telemetry. If all conditions are nominal, the tone provides periodic assurance to ground personnel that the mission is proceeding as planned without having to receive and analyze downlinked telemetry. If there is a problem, the tone will indicate that tracking is required and the resulting telemetry will contain a concise summary of what has occurred since the last telemetry pass. The primary components of the technology are a tone monitoring technology, AI-based software for onboard engineering data summarization, and a ground response system. In addition, there is a ground visualization system for telemetry summaries. This paper includes a description of the Beacon monitor concept, the trade-offs with adapting that concept as a technology experiment, the current state of the resulting implementation on DS1, and our lessons learned during the initial checkout phase of the mission. Applicability to future missions is also included.

  10. Operational limits on WEST inertial divertor sector during the early phase experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaouss, M.; Corre, Y.; Languille, P.; Greuner, H.; Autissier, E.; Desgranges, C.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J. P.; Lipa, M.; Missirlian, M.; Pascal, J.-Y.; Pocheau, C.; Richou, M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2016-02-01

    The primary goal of the WEST project is to be a test bed to characterize the fatigue and lifetime of ITER-like W divertor components subjected to relevant thermal loads. During the first phase of exploitation (S2 2016), these components (W monoblock plasma facing unit—W-PFU) will be installed in conjunction with graphite components (G-PFU). Since the G-PFU will not be actively cooled, it is necessary to ensure the expected pulse duration allows the W-PFU to reach its steady state without overheating the G-PFU assembly structure or the embedded stainless-steel diagnostics. High heat flux tests were performed at the GLADIS facility to assess the thermal behavior of the G-PFU. Some operational limits based on plasma parameters were determined. It was found that it is possible to operate at an injected power such that the maximal incident heat flux on the lower divertor is 10 MW m-2 for the required pulse length.

  11. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  12. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  13. Early and mid-term outcome of the arterial switch operation in 114 consecutive patients : A single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Prandstetter, C; Hofer, A; Lechner, E; Mair, R; Sames-Dolzer, E; Tulzer, G

    2007-10-01

    The arterial switch operation (ASO) has become the treatment of choice in patients with simple or complex transposition of the great arteries (TGA). The purpose of this study was to assess early and mid-term outcome after ASO in a single centre. Between 1995 and December 2005, 114 consecutive patients underwent an ASO at our institution, performed by one single surgeon. Patients charts, surgical reports and echocardiograms were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were analyzed in 3 different groups: Group I consisted of 77 neonates with TGA and intact ventricular septum, group II of 13 patients with TGA and ventricular septal defect which had to be closed surgically and group III of 24 patients with various forms of TGA in a complex setting. The patient's median weight was 3.23 kg (1.65-8.30). Twenty-five neonates were born preterm, 18 were diagnosed prenatally. Median follow-up time was 20.7 months (0.3-128.6). The thirty day mortality was 1.75% (2/114), late mortality 0.88% (1/112) accounting for an overall mortality of 2.63%. There was only one early coronary event and so far no late events. Ten of 111 survivors required reoperation, all but 1 from group III. Prevalence of supravalvular pulmonary stenosis was 4.7%. Freedom from reoperation at 5 years of follow-up time was 87.5%. One patient required permanent pacing, no other late arrhythmias occurred. In our series the only risk factor for increased mortality and morbidity was a body weight of less than 2500 g at the time of operation. No better outcome could be demonstrated in the prenatally diagnosed patients. The ASO can be performed safely and with low mortality and morbidity even in patients with complex TGA. Follow-up of these patients is required to detect residual problems like supravalvular pulmonary stenosis, coronary problems, arrhythmias and aortic valve dysfunction.

  14. AWBATTM: Early Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Victoria B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Methods: Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBATTM-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBATTM-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Results: Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, σ =1.95, with a range of 8–15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, σ =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, σ =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, σ =2.48, with a range of 5–13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, σ =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, σ =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Discussion: Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control. PMID:20361005

  15. AWBAT: early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Victoria B

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBAT-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBAT-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, sigma =1.95, with a range of 8-15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, sigma =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, sigma =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, sigma =2.48, with a range of 5-13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, sigma =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, sigma =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control.

  16. The Early Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  17. White Cliffs: Operating Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneff, S.

    1984-01-01

    The fourteen dish white cliffs solar power station area is remote and subject to extreme environmental conditions, solution of the associated problems required careful and thoughtful attention and the application of resources. Notwithstanding the wide range and harshness of conditions, the difficulties caused by remoteness and the lack of a technological base and the need for relatively rapid demonstration of success, the project has had a very positive outcome. Qualitative and quantitative information and lessons are now available to enable considerable simplifications to be made for a new system, reducing both hardware and operation and maintenance costs. Experience and lessons are presented, particularly in relation to: system performance in various environmental conditions; design philosophies for collectors, the array, control systems, engine and plant; operation and maintenance strategies and cost reducing possibilities. Experience so far gives encouragement for the future of such paraboloidal dish systems in appropriate areas.

  18. Operative outcomes of robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery for benign thyroid disease: early experience in 50 patients.

    PubMed

    Axente, Dan Damian; Silaghi, Horatiu; Silaghi, Cristina Alina; Major, Zsigmond Zoltán; Micu, Carmen Maria; Constantea, Nicolae Augustin

    2013-08-01

    The main benefits of robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery are to overcome the technical limitations of other endoscopic procedures for this surgical pathology and to avoid any cervical skin incision. This article describes the first experience of a Romanian team with the endoscopic robot-assisted thyroid surgery. We used the da Vinci SI intuitive surgical system to carry out 50 thyroid operations: 33 unilateral total lobectomies with isthmectomy (TL), 8 unilateral total lobectomies, with contralateral subtotal lobectomy, and 9 total thyroidectomies. Preoperatively, the patients were diagnosed with nodular goiter in 42 cases, nodular autoimmune thyroiditis in 3 cases, Basedow disease in 2 cases, toxic thyroid adenoma in 2 cases, and diffuse goiter in 1 case. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, size and location of the nodules, surgery duration, postoperative complications, pain medication, histopathological findings and postoperative cosmetic results. All surgical procedures were carried out without major incidents. One case required conversion to open approach. The mean length of surgery was 159 ± 38.2 min and the average console time was 68 ± 39.9 min; postoperatively, we recorded one case of transient brachial plexus neurapraxia, one transient vocal cord paresis, one transient hypocalcemia, and four postoperative wound complications. The final histopathological examination revealed two cases of well-differentiated carcinoma. This paper reports the largest series to date in Southeast Europe about robot-assisted transaxillary thyroidectomy. On a group of selected Caucasian patients, postoperative results were similar to open cervicotomy in terms of postoperative complications. The major cosmetic advantage is the absence of scar in the anterior cervical region.

  19. Droplet Combustion Experiment Operates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 12, 1997, MET:11/07:00 (approximate). DCE used various fuels -- in drops ranging from 1 mm (0.04 inches) to 5 mm (0.2 inches) -- and mixtures of oxidizers and inert gases to learn more about the physics of combustion in the simplest burning configuration, a sphere. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The experiment elapsed time is shown at the bottom of the composite image. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (119KB JPEG, 658 x 982 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300171.html.

  20. BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-07

    ISS043E091755 (04/07/2015) --- Expedition 43 Commander Terry Virts is seen here working inside of the Columbus laboratory on the Blood Pressure Regulation (BP Reg) experiment. Astronauts returning from long-duration space flights risk experiencing dizziness or fainting when they stand immediately after returning to Earth. This has an important health risk as it reduces the potential for astronauts to safely escape from an emergency situation. BP Reg will help researchers develop appropriate countermeasures so that astronauts returning from long-duration space flights will have very low risk of experiencing dizziness or fainting when they return to Earth.

  1. BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-07

    ISS043E091740 (04/07/2015) --- Expedition 43 Commander Terry Virts is seen here working inside of the Columbus laboratory on the Blood Pressure Regulation (BP Reg) experiment. Astronauts returning from long-duration space flights risk experiencing dizziness or fainting when they stand immediately after returning to Earth. This has an important health risk as it reduces the potential for astronauts to safely escape from an emergency situation. BP Reg will help researchers develop appropriate countermeasures so that astronauts returning from long-duration space flights will have very low risk of experiencing dizziness or fainting when they return to Earth.

  2. Music Experiences in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andress, Barbara

    This book presents a program of music experiences for young children (3-5-year-olds) which focuses on an experiential discovery approach to music, rather than on imposing ideas and a repertoire on the child. Early sections of the book discuss the importance of the child-centered music program, its process and characteristics, and the role of the…

  3. ABCs of Early Mathematics Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensen, Laurie E.

    2005-01-01

    Children begin to develop mathematical thinking before they enter school. Art, baking, playing with blocks, counting numbers, games, puzzles, singing, playing with pretend money, water play all these early mathematical experiences help the children to learn in the elementary school years.

  4. Early European experience with the MammoSite radiation therapy system for partial breast brachytherapy following breast conservation operation in low-risk breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Niehoff, Peter; Ballardini, B; Polgár, C; Major, T; Hammer, J; Richetti, A; Kovács, G

    2006-06-01

    Preliminary results of ultrasound studies do exist in the literature on the successful use of the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System (RTS), a new device for delivering brachytherapy following breast-conserving surgery. In Europe, some groups started a prospective multicentre trial to investigate the use of the MammoSite RTS. In this early publication, we analysed the surgical procedure and placement of the MammoSite, treatment planning and radiation delivery complications, and early cosmesis, as well as the comfort of the patients. Between June 2002 and March 2005, a total of 54 low-risk breast cancer patients fulfilling the enrolment criteria were implanted intra- or postoperatively using the MammoSite applicator. After inflating the balloon in the excision cavity, the reference isodose was defined 1cm from the balloon's surface. Twenty-eight patients were treated with primary brachytherapy with a total dose of 34 Gy (2x3.4 Gy) and 16 patients had a boost with a mean dose of 13.3 Gy (range: 7.5-15 Gy; 2x2.5 Gy) combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Doses ranged between 46 and 50 Gy. We analysed the postimplant anatomic position of the applicator in relation to the skin and chest wall as well as the geometric form of the balloon via ultrasound, computed tomography and X-ray before, during and after the treatment. Forty-four out of 54 patients (81.5%) were eligible for MammoSite RTS brachytherapy. Ten patients were excluded from the trial due to the strict study criteria and received no brachytherapy. Balloon rupture occurred in two cases. We observed seroma in 16 patients (36%); furthermore, an abscess developed in two patients (4.5%) within 3 months of implantation. Postoperative air gaps and haematoma were successfully reduced by draining the operation cavity in one institution. At a mean follow-up of 14 months (range 3-31 months), the skin-related side effects observed were skin discoloration or inflammation in 36 patients (82%) and teleangiectasia in

  5. MIT January Operational Internship Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosanac, Natasha; DeVivero, Charlie; James, Jillian; Perez-Martinez, Carla; Pino, Wendy; Wang, Andrew; Willett, Ezekiel; Williams, Kwami

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the MIT January Operational Internship Experience (JOIE) program. The topics include: 1) Landing and Recovery; 2) Transportation; 3) Shuttle Processing; 4) Constellation Processing; 5) External Tank; 6) Launch Pad; 7) Ground Operations; 8) Hypergolic Propellants; 9) Environmental; 10) Logistics; 11) Six Sigma; 12) Systems Engineering; and 13) Human Factors.

  6. The Cooney Ridge Fire Experiment: An early operation to relate pre-, active, and post-fire field and remotely sensed measurements

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak; Patrick H. Freeborn; Sarah A. Lewis; Sharon M. Hood; Helen Y. Smith; Colin C. Hardy; Robert J. Kremens; Bret W. Butler; Casey Teske; Robert G. Tissell; Lloyd P. Queen; Bryce L. Nordgren; Benjamin C. Bright; Penelope Morgan; Philip J. Riggan; Lee Macholz; Leigh B. Lentile; James P. Riddering; Edward E. Mathews

    2018-01-01

    The Cooney Ridge Fire Experiment conducted by fire scientists in 2003 was a burnout operation supported by a fire suppression crew on the active Cooney Ridge wildfire incident. The fire experiment included measurements of pre-fire fuels, active fire behavior, and immediate post-fire effects. Heat flux measurements collected at multiple scales with multiple ground and...

  7. Catalog of Apollo experiment operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    This catalog reviews Apollo mission reports, preliminary science reports, technical crew debriefings, lunar surface operations plans, and various relevant lunar experiment documents, collecting engineering- and operation-specific information by experiment. It is organized by discrete experimental and equipment items emplaced or operated on the lunar surface or at zero gravity during the Apollo missions. It also attempts to summarize some of the general problems encountered on the surface and provides guidelines for the design of future lunar surface experiments with an eye toward operations. Many of the problems dealt with on the lunar surface originated from just a few novel conditions that manifested themselves in various nasty ways. Low gravity caused cables to stick up and get caught on feet, and also made it easy for instruments to tip over. Dust was a problem and caused abrasion, visibility, and thermal control difficulties. Operating in a pressure suit limited a person's activity, especially in the hands. I hope to capture with this document some of the lessons learned from the Apollo era to make the jobs of future astronauts, principle investigators, engineers, and operators of lunar experiments more productive.

  8. The SILEX experiment system operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demelenne, B.

    1994-01-01

    The European Space Agency is going to conduct an inter orbit link experiment which will connect a low Earth orbiting satellite and a Geostationary satellite via optical terminals. This experiment has been called SILEX (Semiconductor Inter satellite Link EXperiment). Two payloads will be built. One called PASTEL (PASsager de TELecommunication) will be embarked on the French Earth observation satellite SPOT4. The future European experimental data relay satellite ARTEMIS (Advanced Relay and TEchnology MISsion) will carry the OPALE terminal (Optical PAyload Experiment). The principal characteristic of the mission is a 50 Megabits flow of data transmitted via the optical satellite link. The relay satellite will route the data via its feeder link thus permitting a real time reception in the European region of images taken by the observation satellite. The PASTEL terminal has been designed to cover up to 9 communication sessions per day with an average of 5. The number of daily contact opportunities with the low earth orbiting satellite will be increased and the duration will be much longer than the traditional passes over a ground station. The terminals have an autonomy of 24 hours with respect to ground control. Each terminal will contain its own orbit model and that of its counter terminal for orbit prediction and for precise computation of pointing direction. Due to the very narrow field of view of the communication laser beam, the orbit propagation calculation needs to be done with a very high accuracy. The European Space Agency is responsible for the operation of both terminals. A PASTEL Mission Control System (PMCS) is being developed to control the PASTEL terminal on board SPOT4. The PMCS will interface with the SPOT4 Control Centre for the execution of the PASTEL operations. The PMCS will also interface with the ARTEMIS Mission Control System for the planning and the coordination of the operation. It is the first time that laser technology will be used to support

  9. Predictive Power of the NSQIP Risk Calculator for Early Post-Operative Outcomes After Whipple: Experience from a Regional Center in Northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Henry Y; Kohtakangas, Erica L; Asai, Kengo; Shum, Jeffrey B

    2017-05-02

    NSQIP Risk Calculator was developed to allow surgeons to inform their patients about their individual risks for surgery. Its ability to predict complication rates and length of stay (LOS) has made it an appealing tool for both patients and surgeons. However, the NSQIP Risk Calculator has been criticized for its generality and lack of detail towards surgical subspecialties, including the hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgery. We wish to determine whether the NSQIP Risk Calculator is predictive of post-operative complications and LOS with respect to Whipple's resections for our patient population. As well, we wish to identify strategies to optimize early surgical outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent elective Whipple's procedure for benign or malignant pancreatic head lesions at Health Sciences North (Sudbury, Ontario), a tertiary care center, from February 2014 to August 2016. Comparisons of LOS and post-operative complications between NSQIP-predicted and actual ones were carried out. NSQIP-predicted complications rates were obtained using the NSQIP Risk Calculator through pre-defined preoperative risk factors. Clinical outcomes examined, at 30 days post-operation, included pneumonia, cardiac events, surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), venous thromboembolism (VTE), renal failure, readmission, and reoperation for procedural complications. As well, mortality, disposition to nursing or rehabilitation facilities, and LOS were assessed. A total of 40 patients underwent Whipple's procedure at our center from February 2014 to August 2016. The average age was 68 (50-85), and there were 22 males and 18 females. The majority of patients had independent baseline functional status (39/40) with minimal pre-operative comorbidities. The overall post-operative morbidity was 47.5% (19/40). The rate of serious complication was 17.5% with four Clavien grade II, two grade III, and one grade

  10. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

  11. Enduring Influences of Early Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    Implications of three basic facts about very young infants are delineated in this summary. Normally, human infants are capable of a wide range of functions, such as "appetitive responses" (e.g., the rooting reflex) and defensive maneuvers. They experience pleasure and feel pain. Additionally, they undergo a transition from subcortical to…

  12. Impact of same day vs day before pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node biopsy for early breast cancer (local Australian experience).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang Yang; Maurel, Amelie; Hamza, Saud; Jackson, Lee; Al-Ogaili, Zeyad

    2018-06-01

    To assess the impact of delayed vs immediate pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy (LSG) for sentinel lymph node biopsy in a single Australian tertiary breast cancer centre. Retrospective cohort study analysing patients with breast cancer or DCIS who underwent lumpectomy or mastectomy with pre-operative LSG and intra-operative sentinel lymph node biopsy from January 2015 to June 2016. A total of 182 LSG were performed. Group A patients had day before pre-operative LSG mapping (n = 79) and Group B had LSG mapping on the day of surgery (n = 103). The overall LSG localisation rate was 97.3% and no statistical difference was detected between the two groups. The overall sentinel lymph node biopsies (SLN) were identified in 99.6% of patients. The number of nodes excised was slightly higher in Group A (1.90 vs 1.72); however, this was not statistically significant. In addition, the number of nodes on histopathology and the incidence of second echelon nodal detection were also similar between the two groups without statistical significance. In conclusion, the 2-day LSG protocol had no impact on overall SLNB and LSG detection rates although slightly higher second tier nodes but this did not translate to any difference between the number of harvest nodes between the two groups. The 2-day LSG allows for greater flexibility in theatre planning and more efficient use of theatre time. We recommend a dose of 40 Mbq of Tc99 m pertechnetate-labelled colloid be given day prior to surgery within a 24-hour timeframe. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  13. The utility of high-resolution intraoperative MRI in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas: early experience in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating suite

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Hasan A.; De Los Reyes, Kenneth; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Litvack, Zachary N.; Bi, Wenya Linda; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Dunn, Ian F.; Laws, Edward R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Endoscopic skull base surgery has become increasingly popular among the skull base surgery community, with improved illumination and angled visualization potentially improving tumor resection rates. Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is used to detect residual disease during the course of the resection. This study is an investigation of the utility of 3-T iMRI in combination with transnasal endoscopy with regard to gross-total resection (GTR) of pituitary macroadenomas. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic transsphenoidal operations performed in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite from November 2011 to December 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients harboring presumed pituitary macroadenomas with optic nerve or chiasmal compression and visual loss, operated on by a single surgeon. Results Of the 27 patients who underwent transsphenoidal resection in the AMIGO suite, 20 patients met the inclusion criteria. The endoscope alone, without the use of iMRI, would have correctly predicted 13 (65%) of 20 cases. Gross-total resection was achieved in 12 patients (60%) prior to MRI. Intraoperative MRI helped convert 1 STR and 4 NTRs to GTRs, increasing the number of GTRs from 12 (60%) to 16 (80%). Conclusions Despite advances in visualization provided by the endoscope, the incidence of residual disease can potentially place the patient at risk for additional surgery. The authors found that iMRI can be useful in detecting unexpected residual tumor. The cost-effectiveness of this tool is yet to be determined. PMID:26926058

  14. The utility of high-resolution intraoperative MRI in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas: early experience in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating suite.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; De Los Reyes, Kenneth; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Litvack, Zachary N; Bi, Wenya Linda; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Dunn, Ian F; Laws, Edward R

    2016-03-01

    Endoscopic skull base surgery has become increasingly popular among the skull base surgery community, with improved illumination and angled visualization potentially improving tumor resection rates. Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is used to detect residual disease during the course of the resection. This study is an investigation of the utility of 3-T iMRI in combination with transnasal endoscopy with regard to gross-total resection (GTR) of pituitary macroadenomas. The authors retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic transsphenoidal operations performed in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite from November 2011 to December 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients harboring presumed pituitary macroadenomas with optic nerve or chiasmal compression and visual loss, operated on by a single surgeon. Of the 27 patients who underwent transsphenoidal resection in the AMIGO suite, 20 patients met the inclusion criteria. The endoscope alone, without the use of iMRI, would have correctly predicted extent of resection in 13 (65%) of 20 cases. Gross-total resection was achieved in 12 patients (60%) prior to MRI. Intraoperative MRI helped convert 1 STR and 4 NTRs to GTRs, increasing the number of GTRs from 12 (60%) to 16 (80%). Despite advances in visualization provided by the endoscope, the incidence of residual disease can potentially place the patient at risk for additional surgery. The authors found that iMRI can be useful in detecting unexpected residual tumor. The cost-effectiveness of this tool is yet to be determined.

  15. Ross operation: 16-year experience.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Ronald C; Thompson, David M; Lane, Mary M; Elkins, C Craig; Peyton, Marvin D

    2008-09-01

    We performed a review of a consecutive series of 487 patients undergoing the Ross operation to identify surgical techniques and clinical parameters that affect outcome. We performed a prospective review of consecutive patients from August 1986 through June 2002 and follow-up through August 2004. Patient age was 2 days to 62 years (median, 24 years), and 197 patients were less than 18 years of age. The Ross operation was performed as a scalloped subcoronary implant in 26 patients, an inclusion cylinder in 54 patients, root replacement in 392 patients, and root-Konno procedure in 15 patients. Clinical follow-up in 96% and echocardiographic evaluation in 77% were performed within 2 years of closure. Actuarial survival was 82% +/- 6% at 16 years, and hospital mortality was 3.9%. Freedom from autograft failure (autograft reoperation and valve-related death) was 74% +/- 5%. Male sex and primary diagnosis of aortic insufficiency (no prior aortic stenosis) were significantly associated with autograft failure by means of multivariate analysis. Freedom from autograft valve replacement was 80% +/- 5%. Freedom from endocarditis was 95% +/- 2%. One late thromboembolic episode occurred. Freedom from allograft reoperation or reintervention was 82% +/- 4%. Freedom from all valve-related events was 63% +/- 6%. In children survival was 84% +/- 8%, and freedom from autograft valve failure was 83% +/- 6%. The Ross operation provides excellent survival in adults and children willing to accept a risk of reoperation. Male sex and a primary diagnosis of aortic insufficiency had a negative effect on late results.

  16. SMART-1 operations experience and lessons learnt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino, Octavio; Alonso, Maria; Gestal, Daniel; de Bruin, Jurriaan; Rathsman, Peter; Kugelberg, Joakim; Bodin, Per; Ricken, Sascha; Blake, Rick; Voss, Pablo Pardo; Stagnaro, Luca

    2007-06-01

    SMART-1 is the first of a series of ESA Small Missions for Advance Research and Technology where elements of the platform and the payload technology have been conceived as a demonstration for future cornerstone missions and an early opportunity for science. SMART-1 has also been an opportunity to experiment with new ways of conducting ground operations taking advantage of both increased satellite autonomy and ground automation tools. The paper will focus on three areas: The accumulated performance of the technology demonstration components since launch as the electrical propulsion engine, the triple-junction solar cells, the lithium-ion batteries, the 32 bit CPU ERC32 Single Chip, the CAN bus, the DTU Star Trackers and the complex on-board autonomy. The changes implemented on-board and on the ground during the lunar phase to increase the data return. The pros and contras in some of the choices made for SMART-1, the developments and solutions implemented to mitigate the problems, the tools developed to automate the operations and the distribution of data.

  17. Operational experience in underwater photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherdale, John D.; John Turner, D.

    Underwater photogrammetry has become established as a cost-effective technique for inspection and maintenance of platforms and pipelines for the offshore oil industry. A commercial service based in Scotland operates in the North Sea, USA, Brazil, West Africa and Australia. 70 mm cameras and flash units are built for the purpose and analytical plotters and computer graphics systems are used for photogrammetric measurement and analysis of damage, corrosion, weld failures and redesign of underwater structures. Users are seeking simple, low-cost systems for photogrammetric analysis which their engineers can use themselves.

  18. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    PubMed

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  19. Footprints of "experiment" in early Arabic optics.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Elaheh

    2009-01-01

    This study traces the early developments of the concept of experiment with a view of extending the subject in both content and approach. It extends the content of the subject slightly backward, prior to the methodological breakthroughs of the Optics of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen or Alhacen, d. ca. 1040), which are credited as a "significant landmark in the history of experimental science." And it extends the approach to the subject slightly forward, from the premise that early science was "largely carried out in books," to a close examination of the books through which the footprints of'experiment' may be traced. The point of departure is the Optics of Ahmad ibn 'Isă, a revealing text for the early developments of concepts such as 'demonstration' and 'experiment', and one through which some modern discussions are examined and extended with reference to this and other historical sources.

  20. Experiment module concepts study. Volume 2: Experiments and mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    The baseline experiment program is concerned with future space experiments and cover the scientific disciplines of astronomy, space physics, space biology, biomedicine and biotechnology, earth applications, materials science, and advanced technology. The experiments within each discipline are grouped into functional program elements according to experiments that support a particular area of research or investigation and experiments that impose similar or related demand on space station support systems. The experiment requirements on module subsystems, experiment operating modes and time profiles, and the role of the astronaut are discussed. Launch and rendezvous with the space station, disposal, and on-orbit operations are delineated. The operational interfaces between module and other system elements are presented and include space station and logistic system interfaces. Preliminary launch and on-orbit environmental criteria and requirements are discussed, and experiment equipment weights by functional program elements are tabulated.

  1. Microwave Anisotrophy Probe Launch and Early Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Starin, Scott R.; Ward, David K.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), was launched from the Kennedy Space Center at 19:46:46 UTC on June 30, 2001. The powered flight and separation from the Delta II appeared to go as designed, with the launch placing MAP well within sigma launch dispersion and with less than 7 Nms of tip-off momentum. Because of this relatively low momentum, MAP was able to acquire the sun within only 15 minutes with a battery state of charge of 94%. After MAP's successful launch, a six week period of in-orbit checkout and orbit maneuvers followed. The dual purpose of the in-orbit checkout period was to validate the correct performance of all of MAP's systems and, from the attitude control system (ACS) point of view, to calibrate the performance of the spacecraft ACS sensors and actuators to maximize system performance. In addition to the checkout activities performed by the MAP team, the other critical activity taking place during the first six weeks after launch were a series of orbit maneuvers necessary to get the spacecraft from its launch orbit out to its desired orbit about L2, the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. As MAP continues its standard operations, its ACS design is meeting all of its requirements to successfully complete the mission. This paper will describe the launch and early operations summarized above in greater detail, and show the performance of the attitude control and attitude determination system versus its requirements. Additionally, some of the unexpected events that occurred during this period will be discussed, including two events which dropped the spacecraft into its Safehold Mode and the presence of an "anomalous force" observed during each of the perigee orbit maneuvers that had the potential to cause these critical maneuvers to be prematurely aborted.

  2. Operating experience feedback report: New plants, Commercial power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dennig, R.L.; O'Reilly, P.D.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents a detailed review of the cause of unplanned events during the early months of licensed operation for plants licensed between March 1983 and April 1986. The major lessons and corrective actions that appear to have the greatest potential for improving the effectiveness of plant startups are provided for consideration through the operating experience feedback programs and activities of the industry and the NRC staff.

  3. Early treatment of penile fractures: our experience.

    PubMed

    García Gómez, Borja; Romero, Javier; Villacampa, Felipe; Tejido, Angel; Díaz, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    To report our experience in early surgery of penile fractures. We review retrospectively all the cases that underwent surgery at our center from 1989 to 2009, with a total of 24. The cause of the fracture was sexual intercourse in most cases, and in all of them, surgical management was performed according to clinical presentation and physical exploration. In only 7 cases an ultrasound was performed as a complementary test. Early surgery allows prompt resolution of the problem with excellent functional outcomes and little side effects. The prognosis after emergency surgery was excellent in this review.

  4. European dry cooling tower operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, J.G.; Simhan, K.

    1976-03-01

    Interviews were held with representatives of major plants and equipment manufacturers to obtain current information on operating experience with dry cooling towers in Europe. The report documents the objectives, background, and organizational details of the study, and presents an itemized account of contacts made to obtain information. Plant selection was based on a merit index involving thermal capacity and length of service. A questionnaire was used to organize operational data, when available, into nine major categories of experience. Information was also solicited concerning the use of codes and standards to ensure the achievement of cooling tower performance. Several plant operatorsmore » provided finned-tube samples for metallographic analysis. Additionally, information on both operating experience and developing technology was supplied by European technical societies and research establishments. Information obtained from these contacts provides an updated and representative sample of European experience with dry cooling towers, which supplements some of the detailed reviews already available in the literature. In addition, the study presents categorized operating experience with installations which have not been reviewed so extensively, but nevertheless, have significant operational histories when ranked by the merit index. The contacts and interviews reported in the survey occurred between late March and October 1975. The study was motivated by the expressed interest of U.S. utility industry representatives who expect European experience to provide a basis of confidence that dry cooling is a reliable technology, applicable when necessary, to U.S. operating requirements.« less

  5. MIT January Operational Internship Experience 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLatte, Danielle; Furhmann, Adam; Habib, Manal; Joujon-Roche, Cecily; Opara, Nnaemeka; Pasterski, Sabrina Gonzalez; Powell, Christina; Wimmer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the 2011 January Operational Internship experience (JOIE) program which allows students to study operational aspects of spaceflight, how design affects operations and systems engineering in practice for 3 weeks. Topics include: (1) Systems Engineering (2) NASA Organization (3) Workforce Core Values (4) Human Factors (5) Safety (6) Lean Engineering (7) NASA Now (8) Press, Media, and Outreach and (9) Future of Spaceflight.

  6. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA's Discovery Program, was inserted into orbit about the planet Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury in 2008-2009 marked the first spacecraft visits to the innermost planet since the Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975. The unprecedented orbital operations are yielding new insights into the nature and evolution of Mercury. The scientific questions that frame the MESSENGER mission led to the mission measurement objectives to be achieved by the seven payload instruments and the radio science experiment. Interweaving the full set of required orbital observations in a manner that maximizes the opportunity to satisfy all mission objectives and yet meet stringent spacecraft pointing and thermal constraints was a complex optimization problem that was solved with a software tool that simulates science observations and tracks progress toward meeting each objective. The final orbital observation plan, the outcome of that optimization process, meets all mission objectives. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring a global monochromatic image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution, a global color image mosaic at better than 90% coverage and at least 1 km average resolution, and global stereo imaging at better than 80% coverage and at least 250 m average resolution. Higher-resolution images are also being acquired of targeted areas. The elemental remote sensing instruments, including the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer and the X-Ray Spectrometer, are being operated nearly continuously and will establish the average surface abundances of most major elements. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer is acquiring a global map of spectral reflectance from 300 to 1450 nm wavelength at a range of incidence and emission

  7. MESSENGER at Mercury: Early Orbital Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Solomon, Sean C.; Bedini, Peter D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Blewett, David T.; Evans, Larry G.; Gold, Robert E.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larry R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 under NASA's Discovery Program, was inserted into orbit about the planet Mercury in March 2011. MESSENGER's three flybys of Mercury in 2008-2009 marked the first spacecraft visits to the innermost planet since the Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975. The unprecedented orbital operations are yielding new insights into the nature and evolution of Mercury. The scientific questions that frame the MESSENGER mission led to the mission measurement objectives to be achieved by the seven payload instruments and the radio science experiment. Interweaving the full set of required orbital observations in a manner that maximizes the opportunity to satisfy all mission objectives and yet meet stringent spacecraft pointing and thermal constraints was a complex optimization problem that was solved with a software tool that simulates science observations and tracks progress toward meeting each objective. The final orbital observation plan, the outcome of that optimization process, meets all mission objectives. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System is acquiring a global monochromatic image mosaic at better than 90%coverage and at least 250 m average resolution, a global color image mosaic at better than 90%coverage and at least 1 km average resolution, and global stereo imaging at better than 80%coverage and at least 250 m average resolution. Higher-resolution images are also being acquired of targeted areas. The elemental remote sensing instruments, including the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer and the X-Ray Spectrometer, are being operated nearly continuously and will establish the average surface abundances of most major elements. The Visible and Infrared Spectrograph channel of MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer is acquiring a global map of spectral reflectance from 300 to 1450 nm wavelength at a range of incidence and emission angles

  8. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  9. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Czarapata, P.; Geer, S.; Geesaman, D.

    2014-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and accelerator experiment operations for FY 2014. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2014 MINOS and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MiniBooNE experiment running in the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the SeaQuest experiment and Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120). Each section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was somewhat edited for inclusion in this summary.

  10. The Ross operation: a 12-year experience.

    PubMed

    Elkins, R C

    1999-09-01

    The Ross operation, originally introduced as a scalloped subcoronary implant with an 80% survival and 85% freedom from reoperation, has recently been modified to a root replacement which is now the most utilized implant technique. The mid and late results of this operative technique and comparison of intra-aortic implants and root replacement in a single institution are reported. The records of 328 patients who had a Ross operation at the University of Oklahoma (August 1986 to July 1998) were reviewed to assess operative technique and patient-related factors on survival, autograft valve function, homograft valve function, valve-related complications, and need for reoperation. Operative survival was 95.4% with an actuarial survival of 89% +/- 5% at 8 years. Freedom from replacement of the pulmonary autograft was 94% +/- 3% at 8 years, freedom from reoperation on the pulmonary homograft was 90% +/- 4% at 8 years, and freedom from autograft valve reoperation or dysfunction (3+ autograft valve insufficiency) was 83% +/- 6% at 9 years. The incidence of autograft valve reoperation and late autograft valve dysfunction was decreased by root replacement. Annulus reduction and fixation improved early results in patients with aortic insufficiency and annulus dilatation. Early results have been excellent, as the development of late autograft valve dysfunction or dilatation has been rare. The excellent hemodynamic results with a limited incidence of reoperation and replacement of the autograft valve justify its continued use.

  11. Starflo glaucoma implant: early experience in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    István, Cseke; Péter, Vámosi; Mária, Bausz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To present the early experience with the implantation technique, safety and efficiency of STARflo™ device for open angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods: referring intra- and postoperative clinical experience with a series of seven cases in three glaucoma centers in Hungary. Results: No intraoperative complications were observed. Postoperative inflammatory signs disappeared rapidly. The mean IOP reduction was from 27,6 ± 5,0 mmHg to 18,9±3,4 mmHg (32% reduction/ patient) at six months postoperatively. Conclusion: STARflo™ implant was safe and (except for one case with neovascular glaucoma) effective in our cases. The learning curve for experienced anterior segment surgeons was short. PMID:27220226

  12. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Czarapata, P.

    2015-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2015. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2015 NOvA, MINOS+ and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the activities in the SciBooNE Hall using the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the SeaQuest experiment and Meson Test Beam (MTest) activities in the 120 GeV external Switchyard beam (SY120).

  13. Accelerator/Experiment Operations - FY 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, A.; Convery, M.; Geer, S.

    2016-10-01

    This Technical Memorandum summarizes the Fermilab accelerator and experiment operations for FY 2016. It is one of a series of annual publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the FY 2016 NOvA, MINOS+ and MINERvA experiments using the Main Injector Neutrino Beam (NuMI), the MicroBooNE experiment and the activities in the SciBooNE Hall using the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB), and the SeaQuest experiment, LArIAT experiment and Meson Test Beam activities in the 120 GeV external switchyard beam (SY120). Each section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was then edited for inclusion inmore » this summary.« less

  14. Two functions of early language experience.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2009-05-01

    The unique human ability of linguistic communication, defined as the ability to produce a practically infinite number of meaningful messages using a finite number of lexical items, is determined by an array of "linguistic" genes, which are expressed in neurons forming domain-specific linguistic centers in the brain. In this review, I discuss the idea that infants' early language experience performs two complementary functions. In addition to allowing infants to assimilate the words and grammar rules of their mother language, early language experience initiates genetic programs underlying language production and comprehension. This hypothesis explains many puzzling characteristics of language acquisition, such as the existence of a critical period for acquiring the first language and the absence of a critical period for the acquisition of additional language(s), a similar timetable for language acquisition in children belonging to families of different social and cultural status, the strikingly similar timetables in the acquisition of oral and sign languages, and the surprisingly small correlation between individuals' final linguistic competence and the intensity of their training. Based on the studies of microcephalic individuals, I argue that genetic factors determine not only the number of neurons and organization of interneural connections within linguistic centers, but also the putative internal properties of neurons that are not limited to their electrophysiological and synaptic properties.

  15. Construction operations for an early lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    1988-01-01

    Six construction tasks identified as activities likely to be performed at an early lunar base are described: initializing the habitation module, preparing a landing site, transferring payload off the lander, smoothing roads, constructing the inflatable structure, and excavating for lunar oxygen production. Requirements for each task are given, and a point design capable of meeting the task requirements is described. EVA needs are listed for each task. The equipment used to perform these tasks is described. It is noted that all the tasks can be performed with three common vehicles (a rover, a truck, and an excavator) and some shared equipment.

  16. The Deep Impact Network Experiment Operations Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, J. Leigh; Clare, Loren; Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2009-01-01

    Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) promises solutions in solving space communications challenges arising from disconnections as orbiters lose line-of-sight with landers, long propagation delays over interplanetary links, and other phenomena. DTN has been identified as the basis for the future NASA space communications network backbone, and international standardization is progressing through both the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). JPL has developed an implementation of the DTN architecture, called the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION). ION is specifically implemented for space use, including design for use in a real-time operating system environment and high processing efficiency. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of ION, the first deep space flight demonstration of DTN is underway, using the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft. Called the Deep Impact Network (DINET), operations are planned for Fall 2008. An essential component of the DINET project is the Experiment Operations Center (EOC), which will generate and receive the test communications traffic as well as "out-of-DTN band" command and control of the DTN experiment, store DTN flight test information in a database, provide display systems for monitoring DTN operations status and statistics (e.g., bundle throughput), and support query and analyses of the data collected. This paper describes the DINET EOC and its value in the DTN flight experiment and potential for further DTN testing.

  17. GRAS NRT Precise Orbit Determination: Operational Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MartinezFadrique, Francisco M.; Mate, Alberto Agueda; Rodriquez-Portugal, Francisco Sancho

    2007-01-01

    EUMETSAT launched the meteorological satellite MetOp-A in October 2006; it is the first of the three satellites that constitute the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) space segment. This satellite carries a challenging and innovative instrument, the GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding (GRAS). The goal of the GRAS instrument is to support the production of atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity with high accuracy, in an operational context, based on the bending of the GPS signals traversing the atmosphere during the so-called occultation periods. One of the key aspects associated to the data processing of the GRAS instrument is the necessity to describe the satellite motion and GPS receiver clock behaviour with high accuracy and within very strict timeliness limitations. In addition to these severe requirements, the GRAS Product Processing Facility (PPF) must be integrated in the EPS core ground segment, which introduces additional complexity from the data integration and operational procedure points of view. This paper sets out the rationale for algorithm selection and the conclusions from operational experience. It describes in detail the rationale and conclusions derived from the selection and implementation of the algorithms leading to the final orbit determination requirements (0.1 mm/s in velocity and 1 ns in receiver clock error at 1 Hz). Then it describes the operational approach and extracts the ideas and conclusions derived from the operational experience.

  18. Operational experience of the OC-OTEC experiments at NELH

    SciTech Connect

    Link, H

    1989-02-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute, under funding and program direction from the US Department of Energy, has been operating a small-scale test apparatus to investigate key components of open- cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The apparatus started operations in October 1987 and continues to provide valuable information on heat-and mass-transfer processes in evaporators and condensers, gas sorption processes as seawater is depressurized and repressurized, and control and instrumentation characteristics of open-cycle systems. Although other test facilities have been used to study some of these interactions, this is the largest apparatus of its kind to use seawater since Georges Claude`smore » efforts in 1926. The information obtained from experiments conducted in this apparatus is being used to design a larger scale experiment in which a positive net power production is expected to be demonstrated for the first time with OC-OTEC. This paper describes the apparatus, the major tests conducted during its first 18 months of operation, and the experience gained in OC-OTEC system operation. 13 refs., 8 figs.« less

  19. Operational Experience from Solar Thermal Energy Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

  20. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating experience, operating cycles, and... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... position, the operating experience, operating cycles, and the line operating flight time for consolidation...

  1. Biological Perspectives on the Effects of Early Psychosocial Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Kenney, Justin W.

    2009-01-01

    There is much current interest in how adverse experiences early in life might affect certain elements of physiological, behavioral, and psychological functioning across the lifespan. Recent conceptual frameworks for studying the effects of early experience have involved constructs such as experience-expectant, experience-dependent, and…

  2. Experience from operating germanium detectors in GERDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palioselitis, Dimitrios; GERDA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, searching for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge, was completed in September 2013. The most competitive half-life lower limit for the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set (T-0ν1/2 > 2.1 · 1025 yr at 90% C.L.). GERDA operates bare Ge diodes immersed in liquid argon. During Phase I, mainly refurbished semi-coaxial high purity Ge detectors from previous experiments were used. The experience gained with handling and operating bare Ge diodes in liquid argon, as well as the stability and performance of the detectors during GERDA Phase I are presented. Thirty additional new enriched BEGe-type detectors were produced and will be used in Phase II. A subgroup of these detectors has already been used successfully in GERDA Phase I. The present paper gives an overview of the production chain of the new germanium detectors, the steps taken to minimise the exposure to cosmic radiation during manufacturing, and the first results of characterisation measurements in vacuum cryostats.

  3. The General Surgery Chief Resident Operative Experience

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Frederick Thurston; Horvath, Karen D.; Goldin, Adam B.; Gow, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The chief resident (CR) year is a pivotal experience in surgical training. Changes in case volume and diversity may impact the educational quality of this important year. OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in operative experience for general surgery CRs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Review of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs from 1989–1990 through 2011–2012 divided into 5 periods. Graduates in period 3 were the last to train with unrestricted work hours; those in period 4 were part of a transition period and trained under both systems; and those in period 5 trained fully under the 80-hour work week. Diversity of cases was assessed based on Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education defined categories. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total cases and defined categories were evaluated for changes over time. RESULTS The average total CR case numbers have fallen (271 in period 1 vs 242 in period 5, P < .001). Total CR cases dropped to their lowest following implementation of the 80-hour work week (236 cases), but rebounded in period 5. The percentage of residents’ 5-year operative experience performed as CRs has decreased (30% in period 1 vs 25.6% in period 5, P < .001). Regarding case mix: thoracic, trauma, and vascular cases declined steadily, while alimentary and intra-abdominal operations increased. Recent graduates averaged 80 alimentary and 78 intra-abdominal procedures during their CR years. Compared with period 1, in which these 2 categories represented 47.1% of CR experience, in period 5, they represented 65.2% (P < .001). Endocrine experience has been relatively unchanged. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Total CR cases declined especially acutely following implementation of the 80-hour work week but have since rebounded. Chief resident cases contribute less to overall experience, although this proportion stabilized before the 80-hour work week. Case mix has narrowed, with significant increases in alimentary and

  4. Studying the Effects of Early Experiences on Women's Career Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykes, M. Brinton; Stewart, Abigail J.

    Virtually all psychological theories assume that early life experiences have an impact on later life choices. However, increasing doubts have been expressed about the universality and permanence of the relationship between women's work and family lives. To explore how early family experiences and early adult decisions affect women's later career…

  5. Correlates of Bulimia Nervosa: Early Family Mealtime Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Debra A. F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship of early mealtime experiences to later bulimia in 128 female college students. Found significant group differences among bulimics, nonbulimics, and repeat dieters on early meal experience questionnaire, with bulimic group reporting most negative and unusual experiences. Found significant differences among groups on depression…

  6. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  7. Concerns of Teacher Candidates in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the concerns of teacher candidates in an early field experience. Thirty-five teacher candidates completed the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC, Fuller & Borich, 2000) at the beginning, middle and end of their early field experiences. Results showed that teacher candidates ranked impact as the highest concern, self as…

  8. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  9. Medical supply on contingency military operations: experience from Operation GRITROCK.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J P; Reeves, P

    2015-01-01

    Medical supply during military operations has the ability to affect the efficacy of the operation being undertaken, either negatively or positively. An appropriately-managed maritime platform with a robust medical supply chain during transit and on arrival in theatre is the main aim. A secure supply chain will reduce any implications that logistics may have with regard to capability, and negate the effects of deficiencies of short shelf life items occurring over time and during use in high tempo operations.

  10. Synthetic Vision Systems - Operational Considerations Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents/accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  11. Synthetic vision systems: operational considerations simulation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents / accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  12. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A

    2016-05-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis.

  13. SIN accelerator, operational experience and improvement programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joho, W.; Olivo, M.; Stammbach, T.

    1977-06-01

    The SIN meson facility, in operation since 1974, consists of a 590 MeV ring cyclotron for protons and a 72 MeV injector cyclotron. The average beam current on target is presently about 50 ..mu..A, the peak being 112 ..mu..A. Extraction efficiency, once considered a severe handicap for cyclotrons, is now 99.6 to 99.9% for the ring cyclotron and about 90% for the injector. Many improvements in both accelerators allow single turn extraction in the ring cyclotron. The present current limit is given by the injector, while the ring itself could accept now a 600 ..mu..A beam, with 2 to 4more » mA as an ultimate limit. Some muon experiments require a pulsed beam with on-off times in the order of the lifetime of the muon. First trials with beam pulse frequencies of 200 and 400 kHz and a 50% duty cycle have been successful.« less

  14. The HEAO experience - design through operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The design process and performance of the NASA High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO-1, 2, and 3) are surveyed from the initiation of the program in 1968 through the end of HEAO-3 operation in May, 1981, with a focus on the attitude control and determination subsystem (ACDS). The science objectives, original and revised overall design concepts, final design for each spacecraft, and details of the ACDS designs are discussed, and the stages of the ACDS design process, including redefinition to achieve 50 percent cost reduction, detailed design of common and mission-unique hardware and software, unit qualification, subsystem integration, and observatory-level testing, are described. Overall and ACDS performance is evaluated for each mission and found to meet or exceed design requirements despite some difficulties arising from errors in startracker-ACDS-interface coordination and from gyroscope failures. These difficulties were resolved by using the flexibility of the software design. The implicationns of the HEAO experience for the design process of future spacecraft are suggested.

  15. The Legacy of Early Experiences in Development: Formalizing Alternative Models of How Early Experiences Are Carried Forward over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists have long debated the role of early experience in social and cognitive development. However, traditional approaches to studying this issue are not well positioned to address this debate. The authors present simulations that indicate that the associations between early experiences and later outcomes should approach different…

  16. Early Practicum Experiences: Preservice Early Childhood Students' Perceptions and Sense of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schagen Johnson, Amy; La Paro, Karen M.; Crosby, Danielle A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored early practicum experiences (those occurring before student teaching) in an early childhood birth to kindergarten teacher education program. Undergraduates enrolled in practicum courses completed questionnaires about their overall practicum experience including: socio-emotional components (their perceived fit with their…

  17. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androic, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Birchall, J.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cornejo, J. C.; Covrig, S.; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finn, J. M.; Forest, T.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hoskins, J. R.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J.; McHugh, M. J.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Myers, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roche, J.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Young, R. D.; Zhamkochyan, S.

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e{{p}} scattering to provide the first determination of the proton's weak charge Q_w^p. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e{{p}} to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(θw) at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world's highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment's data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  18. Early space experiments in materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the flight experiments conducted in conjunction with the United States Materials Processing in Space Program is presented. Also included are a brief description of the conditions prevailing in an orbiting spacecraft and the research implications provided by this unique environment. What was done and what was learned are summarized in order to serve as a background for future experiments. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of the physical sciences but no background in spaceflight experimentation or in the materials science per se.

  19. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  20. Early experience in microtia reconstruction: the first 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Walid

    2011-04-01

    Auricular reconstruction in Microtia is a challenging operation with a steep learning curve. In view its rarity attaining a high standard for new surgeons is extremely difficult. This study analyses the first 100 microtia cases looking at complications, technique, pattern of progress and aesthetic outcome. The author performed 100 autologous ear reconstructions for microtia over a period of 4 years utilizing the two stage technique popularised by Nagata and Firmin. In 11 cases a temroparietal fascial flap was utilised because of either a low hairline or scarring. Follow up ranged from 3 to 36 months. Data was collected prospectively. There were 7 cases of partial skin necrosis, 3 of which healed with conservative management. In early cases deficiencies were seen in the proportions of the reconstructed ear and the quality of definition. Better shape and definition were evident as more surgical experience was gained. This occurred as a result of increased appreciation of the ear proportions and improved framework carving. Although two stages were planned 21 cases required further procedures. The series demonstrates the early learning curve in microtia reconstruction and underlines the importance of appropriate training and case availability in achieving high quality results in autologous ear reconstruction. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities: The Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Moira, Ed.; And Others

    A collection of papers on the Australian experience with early intervention for children with disabilities gives regional overviews, describes specific intervention programs, and discusses a variety of issues. Overviews are given of early intervention in Australia in general, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western…

  2. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  3. Experiences from site-specific landslide early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, C.; Bazin, S.; Blikra, L. H.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2013-10-01

    Landslide early warning systems (EWSs) have to be implemented in areas with large risk for populations or infrastructures when classical structural remediation measures cannot be set up. This paper aims to gather experiences of existing landslide EWSs, with a special focus on practical requirements (e.g., alarm threshold values have to take into account the smallest detectable signal levels of deployed sensors before being established) and specific issues when dealing with system implementations. Within the framework of the SafeLand European project, a questionnaire was sent to about one-hundred institutions in charge of landslide management. Finally, we interpreted answers from experts belonging to 14 operational units related to 23 monitored landslides. Although no standard requirements exist for designing and operating EWSs, this review highlights some key elements, such as the importance of pre-investigation work, the redundancy and robustness of monitoring systems, the establishment of different scenarios adapted to gradual increasing of alert levels, and the necessity of confidence and trust between local populations and scientists. Moreover, it also confirms the need to improve our capabilities for failure forecasting, monitoring techniques and integration of water processes into landslide conceptual models.

  4. Early experiences with E-prescribing.

    PubMed

    Halamka, John

    2006-01-01

    Most physicians understand that e-prescribing will reduce medical errors and will be perceived by patients as making the prescription process easier. However, they are skeptical about a number of things. They worry whether their office processes will be improved or streamlined; e-prescribing will interface seamlessly with their existing practice management software; training and support will be available; e-prescribing data will be seamlessly transferable to an electronic health record when they implement a more advanced clinical record system for their practice; and if they will achieve a return on investment. Early adopting clinicians in Massachusetts can convince the majority of clinicians to adopt e-prescribing by sharing their motivations for adopting e-prescribing, the challenges that they needed to overcome, the hardware and software requirements, and integration into their office workflow. Finally, interaction with the physicians and practice managers in the audience makes the adoption of e-prescribing seem both reasonable and exciting. Resources such as vendor lists, questions to ask, and hardware and software requirements also need to be readily available and in a form that non-technical staff can read and understand. Physicians who know the "why" would also like to know

  5. Operational Art and the ADF Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    Operations Task Group TF(U) Task Force (Uruzgan) TNI Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian) translates into the National Army of Indonesia UNAMET...be examined using four research questions. First, what was the ADFs concept of operational art at the time of the case study? Second, what were the...art from the nineteenth century to its articulation as a written theory in AirLand Battle. Naveh identifies four key points in the development of

  6. Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The three-machine, 7.5 MW Goodnoe Hills located near Goldendale, Washington and is now in a research/experimental operations phase that offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid; and the environment. Following a brief description of the turbine and project history, this paper addresses major problem areas and research and development test results. Field operations, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed. Routine operation to date has produced over 13,379,000 KWh of electrical energy during 11,064 hr of rotation. Nonroutine operation includes suspended activities caused by a crack in the low speed shaft that necessitated a redesign and reinstallation of this assembly on all three turbines. With the world's largest cluster back in full operation, two of the turbines will be operated over the next years to determine their value as energy producer. The third unit will be used primarily for conducting research tests requiring configuration changes to better understand the wind turbine technology. Technical areas summarized pertain to system performance and enhancements. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects conclude the paper.

  7. Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Operational early warning platform for extreme meteorological events Most natural disasters are related to extreme weather events (e.g. typhoons); weather conditions, however, are also highly relevant for humanitarian and disaster relief operations during and after other natural disaster like earthquakes. The internet service "Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung" (WF) provides various information on extreme weather events, especially when these events are associated with a high potential for large damage. The main focus of the platform is on Central Europe, but major events are also monitored worldwide on a daily routine. WF provides high-resolution forecast maps for many weather parameters which allow detailed and reliable predictions about weather conditions during the next days in the affected areas. The WF service became operational in February 2004 and is part of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) since 2007. At the end of 2011, CEDIM embarked a new type of interdisciplinary disaster research termed as forensic disaster analysis (FDA) in near real time. In case of an imminent extreme weather event WF plays an important role in CEDIM's FDA group. It provides early and precise information which are always available and updated several times during a day and gives advice and assists with articles and reports on extreme events.

  8. Early experiences of accredited clinical informatics fellowships.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Christopher A; Pageler, Natalie M; Palma, Jonathan P; Finnell, John T; Levy, Bruce P; Yackel, Thomas R; Mohan, Vishnu; Hersh, William R

    2016-07-01

    Since the launch of the clinical informatics subspecialty for physicians in 2013, over 1100 physicians have used the practice and education pathways to become board-certified in clinical informatics. Starting in 2018, only physicians who have completed a 2-year clinical informatics fellowship program accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education will be eligible to take the board exam. The purpose of this viewpoint piece is to describe the collective experience of the first four programs accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education and to share lessons learned in developing new fellowship programs in this novel medical subspecialty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  10. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  11. [Early operative treatment of pelvic fractures associated with urethral disruption].

    PubMed

    Jia, Jian; Guo, Lu-Zeng; Wu, Chang-Lin; Chen, Jia-Geng; Zhang, Tie-Liang; Pei, Fu-Xing

    2007-02-15

    To evaluate the early operative treatment and clinical results of pelvic fractures associated with urethra disruption. From January 1995 to January 2005, 25 patients suffered from pelvic fractures combined urethra disruption treated by operation were retrospectively analyzed. According to Tile's classification, 1 case was stable pelvic fracture, 17 rotational unstable fractures, and 7 rotational combined vertical unstable fractures. The complete urethra rupture were in 23 cases and incomplete in 2 cases. The operative methods included: (1) emergency open reduction and internal fixation of the pelvis combined primary urethra suturing in 2 cases, partial suturing after realignment in 4 cases, realignment in 2 cases, and urethrovaginal penetrating wound repairing in 1 case; (2) primary urethra realignment only and delayed (range, 7 to 21 days) pelvic internal fixation in 10 cases; (3) early cystostomy and delayed (range, 3 to 21 days) urethra realignment and pelvic internal fixation in 6 cases. The mean follow-up time of all patients was 34 months (range from 6 to 120 months). According to Majeed's evaluation, 17 cases of pelvic injury showed excellent results, 5 good, and 3 fare. After urinary catheter removed, the mean maximal urine flow rate of 19 (76%) patients was 18.6 ml/s and the mean scar length between both disrupted ends on the film of excretion urethrography was 0.51 cm. Five (20%) cases suffered in dysuria needed urethral dilatation or further surgery. One (4%) female could not control urination who need a second-look operation. The primary suprapubic soft tissue avulsion wound infection secondary to retropubic abscess was found in 1 case, posterior urethra-stenosis in 5 cases, sexual impotence in 3 cases, and incontinence in 1 case. The satisfactory reduction and effective fixation of the pelvic fractures is an anatomical basis for receiving "tension-free urethral anastomosis".

  12. Early Weightbearing Protocol in Operative Fixation of Acute Jones Fractures.

    PubMed

    Waverly, Brett J; Sorensen, Matthew D; Sorensen, Tyler K

    The treatment of Jones fractures has been controversial in terms of nonoperative versus operative management, given the high incidence of nonunion secondary to the delicate blood supply to the proximal fifth metatarsal. We report a retrospective review of a patient cohort treated with an early weightbearing protocol after operative intramedullary fixation in acute Jones fractures. Thirty-one consecutive patients with an acute Jones fracture underwent operative fixation with a single intramedullary solid screw. The postoperative protocol consisted of immediate weightbearing in a controlled ankle motion boot for 2 weeks with a gradual transition to regular shoes at 2 weeks postoperative. At 2 weeks, the patients were allowed to perform low-impact activities such as walking, swimming, biking, or elliptical training. Patients were allowed to return to all activities, as tolerated, regardless of radiographic healing, at 6 weeks postoperatively. Serial postoperative radiographs were taken at 2-week intervals to determine radiographic union. Our patient population consisted of 24 males (77.42%) and 7 females (22.58%), with a mean average age of 37.5 ± 12.59 years and mean average body mass index of 25.7 ± 2.32 kg/m 2 . Fracture union was observed in all 31 patients (100%) at a mean average of 5.7 ± 1.47 (range 4 to 10) weeks. Two (6.5%) patients required hardware removal, with one (3.2%) experiencing sural neuritis. This review of patients undergoing early weightbearing after operative fixation of an acute Jones fracture demonstrated a satisfactory incidence of union compared with traditional postoperative protocols at a mean follow-up duration of 18.58 ± 5.66 months. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HPG operating experience at CEM-UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, J. H.; Aanstoos, T. A.; Nalty, K.; Walls, W. A.

    1986-11-01

    Design and functional features are presented for three homopolar generators (HPG) used in experiments during the last decade at the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas. The first, a disk-type, 10 MJ HPG, was built in 1973 as a prototype power source for fusion experiments. A second, compact HPG was built in 1980 for opening switch experiments as part of railgun research. The third device is an iron-core, full-scale, high speed bearing and brush test facility for supplying an energy density of 60 MJ/cu m. Engineering data obtained during studies of armature reactions actively cooled brushes morganite-copper graphite rim brushes, and peak currents, are summarized.

  14. Cassidy conducts BASS Experiment Test Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-05

    ISS035-E-015081 (5 April 2013) --- Astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 35 flight engineer, conducts a session of the Burning and Suppression of Solids (BASS) experiment onboard the Earth-orbiting International Space Station. Following a series of preparations, Cassidy conducted a run of the experiment, which examined the burning and extinction characteristics of a wide variety of fuel samples in microgravity and will guide strategies for extinguishing fires in microgravity. BASS results contribute to the combustion computational models used in the design of fire detection and suppression systems in microgravity and on Earth.

  15. Garan conducts CsPINs Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-28

    ISS027-E-017843 (28 April 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 27 flight engineer, supports the Dynamism of Auxin Efflux Facilitators responsible for Gravity-regulated Growth and Development in Cucumber (CsPINs) experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. CsPINs studies the phenomenon of tropism, i.e., the growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus. Specifically focusing on gravity, the new JAXA life science experiment investigates how plants sense gravity as an environmental signal and use it for governing their morphology and growth orientation.

  16. Garan conducts CsPINs Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-28

    ISS027-E-017840 (28 April 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 27 flight engineer, supports the Dynamism of Auxin Efflux Facilitators responsible for Gravity-regulated Growth and Development in Cucumber (CsPINs) experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. CsPINs studies the phenomenon of tropism, i.e., the growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus. Specifically focusing on gravity, the new JAXA life science experiment investigates how plants sense gravity as an environmental signal and use it for governing their morphology and growth orientation.

  17. Garan conducts CsPINs Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-28

    ISS027-E-017839 (28 April 2011) --- NASA astronaut Ron Garan, Expedition 27 flight engineer, supports the Dynamism of Auxin Efflux Facilitators responsible for Gravity-regulated Growth and Development in Cucumber (CsPINs) experiment in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station. CsPINs studies the phenomenon of tropism, i.e., the growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus. Specifically focusing on gravity, the new JAXA life science experiment investigates how plants sense gravity as an environmental signal and use it for governing their morphology and growth orientation.

  18. Dynamic Data Driven Operator Error Early Warning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-13

    calibrations, participants started to do the experiment with a 3-minute baselining session. They were rested and listened to the music Bachs Harpsichord...conditions. Further, training data is not necessary to perform the PCA analysis presented here. The second method is the least squares complex...approach for operational modal analysis. In Proceedings of the 25th IMAC, Orlando (FL), USA, 2007. [4] Linda Chlan. Effectiveness of a music therapy

  19. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope's Operational Mission Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert K.; Scott, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    New Generation of Detector Arrays(100 to 10,000 Gain in Capability over Previous Infrared Space Missions). IRAC: 256 x 256 pixel arrays operating at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, 8.0 microns. MIPS: Photometer with 3 sets of arrays operating at 24 microns, 70 microns and 160 microns. 128 x 128; 32 x 32 and 2 x 20 arrays. Spectrometer with 50-100 micron capabilities. IRS: 4 Array (128x128 pixel) Spectrograph, 4 -40 microns. Warm Launch Architecture: All other Infrared Missions launched with both the telescope and scientific instrument payload within the cryostat or Dewar. Passive cooling used to cool outer shell to approx.40 K. Cryogenic Boil-off then cools telescope to required 5.5K. Earth Trailing Heliocentric Orbit: Increased observing efficiency, simplification of observation planning, removes earth as heat source.

  20. Hadfield during BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-17

    ISS035-E-022360 (17 April 2013) --- In support of the Blood Pressure Regulation Experiment (BP Reg), Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency is pictured after having set up the Human Research Facility (HRF) PFS (Pulmonary Function System) and the European Physiology Module (EPM) Cardiolab (CDL) Leg/Arm Cuff System (LACS) and conducting the first ever session of this experiment. The test, which will be repeated using other crew members as well, will help to identify the astronauts who could benefit from countermeasures before returning to Earth. Thus, this method has great potential for astronaut health monitoring during future long-term space flights and it also has important implications for testing of individuals on Earth, especially the elderly, who are at risk for fainting. The research will also allow demonstrating the feasibility of obtaining a set of indicators of overall cardiovascular regulation from the non-invasive measurement of continuous blood pressure.

  1. Hadfield during BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-17

    ISS035-E-022357 (17 April 2013) --- In support of the Blood Pressure Regulation Experiment (BP Reg), Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency is pictured after having set up the Human Research Facility (HRF) PFS (Pulmonary Function System) and the European Physiology Module (EPM) Cardiolab (CDL) Leg/Arm Cuff System (LACS) and conducting the first ever session of this experiment. The test, which will be repeated using other crew members as well, will help to identify the astronauts who could benefit from countermeasures before returning to Earth. Thus, this method has great potential for astronaut health monitoring during future long-term space flights and it also has important implications for testing of individuals on Earth, especially the elderly, who are at risk for fainting. The research will also allow demonstrating the feasibility of obtaining a set of indicators of overall cardiovascular regulation from the non-invasive measurement of continuous blood pressure.

  2. Hadfield during BP Reg Experiment Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-17

    ISS035-E-022356 (17 April 2013) --- In support of the Blood Pressure Regulation Experiment (BP Reg), Expedition 35 Commander Chris Hadfield of the Canadian Space Agency is pictured after having set up the Human Research Facility (HRF) PFS (Pulmonary Function System) and the European Physiology Module (EPM) Cardiolab (CDL) Leg/Arm Cuff System (LACS) and conducting the first ever session of this experiment. The test, which will be repeated using other crew members as well, will help to identify the astronauts who could benefit from countermeasures before returning to Earth. Thus, this method has great potential for astronaut health monitoring during future long-term space flights and it also has important implications for testing of individuals on Earth, especially the elderly, who are at risk for fainting. The research will also allow demonstrating the feasibility of obtaining a set of indicators of overall cardiovascular regulation from the non-invasive measurement of continuous blood pressure.

  3. Carpool incentives: evaluation of operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1976-03-01

    The report reviews both the published and unpublished literature with respect to various incentives that could increase carpooling and to determine, where possible, the effects of these incentives on carpooling. The coverage included theoretical and analytical work, as well as empirical observations of programs in operation both in this country and abroad. The primary focus is on the identification of actual examples of possible carpooling incentives, their description and implementation characteristics, applicability, institutional/legal barriers, public acceptability, and their effects on travel behavior and energy use. The relevant literature, applications, and existing data sources were canvassed and used to evaluate bothmore » the technical potential and the feasibility of implementation of the various policies selected for study.« less

  4. Operating experiences with electrolytes containing lithium fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Günther

    1971-12-01

    Additions of lithium salts to the cryolite bath of horizontal stud Soederberg cells have been tested for the last 10 years, at first with some pilot cells and then with full potlines of 35 and 40 kamp cells. Under special conditions, economic benefits result. Voltage, power, anode paste, and fluorine electrolyte consumptions are lower; current efficiency is increased. On the other hand, more attention is necessary in pot operations because the alumina solubility is reduced. The addition of a readily soluble alumina is advantageous. The LiF-content in the electrolyte seems to be limited according to type of pot to 2 to 5 pct. Type and method of adding the lithium salts affect the consumption of lithium salts. The influence of supplementary additions, as CaF2, KF, MgF2, and NaCl, will be discussed.

  5. Flight experiments to improve terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmirs, S.; Morello, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description is given of the objectives and activities of the terminal configured vehicle (TCV) program and of some of the airborne facilities. A short analysis of some particular problems in CTOL operations in the terminal area is also presented to show how the program's technical objectives are related to the defined problems. The test aircraft was flown both manually and automatically with manual monitoring over paths including 130 deg intercepts and 2.0 km and 0.8 km finals. Some statistical data are presented from these and other flight profiles designed to address specific terminal area problems. An overview is presented of research studies receiving emphasis in the next biennium and their application to the terminal area. A description of work undertaken to study the addition of adjacent traffic information to present map displays is also given.

  6. Flight experiments to improve terminal area operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmirs, S.; Morello, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description is given of the objectives and activities of the terminal configured vehicle (TCV) program and of some of the airborne facilities. A short analysis of some particular problems of CTOL operations in the terminal area is also presented to show how the program's technical objectives are related to the defined problems. The test aircraft was flown both manually and automatically with manual monitoring over paths including 130 deg intercepts and 2.0 km (1.1. n. mi.) and 0.8 km (0.44 n. mi.) finals. Some statistical data are presented from these and other flight profiles designed to address specific terminal in the next biennium and their application to the terminal area. A description of work being undertaken to study the addition of adjacent traffic information to present map displays is also given.

  7. Operating Experience Review of the INL HTE Gas Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; K. G. DeWall

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored at hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. Some simple statistics are given for the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  8. Cultural sensitivity or professional acculturation in early clinical experience?

    PubMed

    Whitford, David L; Hubail, Amal Redha

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the early clinical experience of medical students following the adaptation of an Early Patient Contact curriculum from a European culture in Ireland to an Arab culture in Bahrain. Medical students in Bahrain took part in an Early Patient Contact module modelled on a similar module from a partner medical school in Ireland. We used a qualitative approach employing thematic analysis of 54 student reflective logbooks. Particular attention was placed on reflections of cultural influences of experience in the course. Medical students undergoing this module received reported documented benefits of early clinical experience. However, students in Bahrain were exposed to cultural norms of the local Arab society including gender values, visiting the homes of strangers, language barriers and generous hospitality that led to additional challenges and learning for the medical students in acculturating to norms of the medical profession. Modules intended for curriculum adaptation between two cultures would be best served by a group of "core" learning outcomes with "secondary" outcomes culturally appropriate to each site. Within the context of the Arab culture, early clinical experience has the added benefit of allowing students to learn about both local and professional cultural norms, thereby facilitating integration of these two cultures.

  9. MATD Operational Phase: Experiences and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messidoro, P.; Bader, M.; Brunner, O.; Cerrato, A.; Sembenini, G.

    2004-08-01

    The Model And Test Effectiveness Database (MATD) initiative is ending the first year of its operational phase. MATD represents a common repository of project data, Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV) data, on ground and flight anomalies data, of recent space projects, and offers, with the application of specific methodologies, the possibility to analyze the collected data in order to improve the test philosophies and the related standards. Basically the following type of results can be derived from the database: - Statistics on ground failures and flight anomalies - Feed-back from the flight anomalies to the Test Philosophies - Test Effectiveness evaluation at system and lower levels - Estimate of the index of effectiveness of a specific Model and Test Philosophy in comparison with the applicable standards - Simulation of different Test philosophies and related balancing of Risk/cost/schedule on the basis of MATD data The paper after a short presentation of the status of the MATD initiative, summarises the most recent lessons learned which are resulting from the data analysis and highlights how MATD is being utilized for the actual risk/cost/schedule/Test effectiveness evaluations of the past programmes so as for the prediction of the new space projects.

  10. Assessment of early post-operative pain following septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Szychta, P; Antoszewski, B

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate pain incidence and intensity in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty, and to assess analgesic treatment effectiveness, in the first 7 days after surgery. Prospective outcomes analysis using visual analogue scale assessment of pain intensity in the first 7 post-operative days. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, 29 women and 28 men, aged 18 to 51 years. All were treated for post-traumatic deformity of the external nose and/or nasal septum, with either septorhinoplasty or septoplasty. In the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, patients' mean visual analogue scale pain score exceeded the range denoting 'analgesic success', and showed considerable exacerbation in the evening. Patients' pain decreased to a mean score of 15.4 one hour after administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (metamizole). Analgesia is recommended for all patients in the first 3 days after septorhinoplasty, especially in the early evening.

  11. Precedents of perceived social support: personality and early life experiences.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Kijima, N; Watanabe, K; Takezaki, Y; Tanaka, E

    1999-12-01

    In order to examine the effects of personality and early life experiences on perceived social support, a total of 97 young Japanese women were investigated. Current interpersonal relationships were measured by an interview modified from Henderson et al.'s Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI). Personality was measured by Cloninger et al.'s Temperament and Character Inventory. Early life experiences at home and outside of home were also identified in the interview. The number of sources of perceived support was correlated with self-directness, while satisfaction with perceived support was correlated with novelty seeking and with low harm avoidance. No early life experiences--early loss of a parent, perceived parenting, childhood abuse experiences, experiences of being bullied and/or other life events--showed significant correlations with the number or satisfaction of supportive people. The quantity and quality of perception of social support differ in their link to personality, and perceived social support may, to some extent, be explainable in terms of personality.

  12. Operating experience with existing light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.Q.

    It is instructive to consider what an explosive growth there has been in the development of light sources using synchrotron radiation. This is well illustrated by the list of facilities given in Table I. In many cases, synchrotron light facilities have been obtained by tacking on parasitic beam lines to rings that were built for high energy physics. Of the twenty-three facilities in this table, however, eleven were built explicitely for this synchrotron radiation. Another seven have by now been converted for use as dedicated facilities leaving only five that share time with high energy physics. These five parasitically operatedmore » facilities are still among our best sources of hard x-rays, however, and their importance to the fields of science where these x-rays are needed must be emphasized. While the number of facilities in this table is impressive, it is even more impressive to add up the total number of user beam lines. Most of these rings are absolutely surrounded by beam lines and finding real estate on the experimental floor of one of these facilities for adding a new experiment looks about as practical as adding a farm in the middle of Manhattan. Nonetheless, the managers of these rings seem to have an attitude of ''always room for one more'' and new experimental beam lines do appear. This situation is necessary because the demand for beam time has exploded at an even faster rate than the development of the facilities. The field is not only growing, it can be expected to continue to grow for some time. Some of the explicit plans for future development will be discussed in the companion paper by Lee Teng.« less

  13. [Operating Room Nurses' Experiences of Securing for Patient Safety].

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang Ok; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Myoung Sook

    2015-10-01

    This study was done to evaluate the experience of securing patient safety in hospital operating rooms. Experiential data were collected from 15 operating room nurses through in-depth interviews. The main question was "Could you describe your experience with patient safety in the operating room?". Qualitative data from the field and transcribed notes were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The core category of experience with patient safety in the operating room was 'trying to maintain principles of patient safety during high-risk surgical procedures'. The participants used two interactional strategies: 'attempt continuous improvement', 'immersion in operation with sharing issues of patient safety'. The results indicate that the important factors for ensuring the safety of patients in the operating room are manpower, education, and a system for patient safety. Successful and safe surgery requires communication, teamwork and recognition of the importance of patient safety by the surgical team.

  14. TSTA Piping and Flame Arrestor Operating Experience Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; Willms, R. Scott

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility dedicated to tritium handling technology and experiment research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The facility operated from 1984 to 2001, running a prototype fusion fuel processing loop with ~100 grams of tritium as well as small experiments. There have been several operating experience reports written on this facility’s operation and maintenance experience. This paper describes analysis of two additional components from TSTA, small diameter gas piping that handled small amounts of tritium in a nitrogen carrier gas, and the flame arrestor used in this piping system. The operating experiences andmore » the component failure rates for these components are discussed in this paper. Comparison data from other applications are also presented.« less

  15. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  16. New Directions in the Study of Early Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertenthal, Bennett I; Campos, Joseph J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews Greenough, Black, and Wallace's (1987) conceptual framework for understanding the effects of early experience and sensitive periods on development, and illustrates the applicability of their model with recent data on the consequences for animals and human infants of the acquistion of self-produced locomotion. (BN)

  17. Aesthetic Experience and Early Language and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper explores the connections between theory and research in language development and aesthetic education and their implications for early childhood classroom practice. The present paper posits that arts experiences make a unique and vital contribution to the child's development of language and literacy, as well as to the sense of…

  18. Early results from the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1995-01-01

    Data extraction and analysis of the LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment is continuing. Almost twice the pre LDEF world sample has been investigated and some details of the charge spectrum in the region from Z approximately 70 up to and including the actinides are presented. The early results indicate r process enhancement over solar system source abundances.

  19. Early Academic Experiences of Recently Incarcerated African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…

  20. Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) RPC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.; Hall, Callie

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the background, objectives, methodology, validation, and present status of the Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) experiment. The potential NASA contribution to CREWS Decision Support Tool (DST) centers on remotely sensed imagery products.

  1. Terminal-area STOL operating systems experiments program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. W.; Watson, D.; Christensen, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    Information which will aid in the choice by the U.S. Government and industry of system concepts, design criteria, operating procedures for STOL aircraft and STOL ports, STOL landing guidance systems, air traffic control systems, and airborne avionics and flight control systems. Ames has developed a terminal-area STOL operating systems experiments program which is a part of the joint DOT/NASA effort is discussed. The Ames operating systems experiments program, its objectives, the program approach, the program schedule, typical experiments, the research facilities to be used, and the program status are described.

  2. "Smart" Magnetic Fluids Experiment Operated on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Lekan, Jack F.

    2004-01-01

    InSPACE is a microgravity fluid physics experiment that was operated on the International Space Station (ISS) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox from late March 2003 through early July 2003. (InSPACE is an acronym for Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates From Colloidal Emulsions.) The purpose of the experiment is to obtain fundamental data of the complex properties of an exciting class of smart materials termed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. MR fluids are suspensions, or colloids, comprised of small (micrometer-sized) superparamagnetic particles in a nonmagnetic medium. Colloids are suspensions of very small particles suspended in a liquid. (Examples of other colloids are blood, milk, and paint.) These controllable fluids can quickly transition into a nearly solid state when exposed to a magnetic field and return to their original liquid state when the magnetic field is removed. Controlling the strength of the magnetic field can control the relative stiffness of these fluids. MR fluids can be used to improve or develop new seat suspensions, robotics, clutches, airplane landing gear, and vibration damping systems. The principal investigator for InSPACE is Professor Alice P. Gast of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The InSPACE hardware was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The InSPACE samples were delivered to the ISS in November 2002, on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, on Space Station Utilization Flight UF-2/STS113. Operations began on March 31, 2003, with the processing of three different particle size samples at multiple test parameters. This investigation focused on determining the structural organization of MR colloidal aggregates when exposed to a pulsing magnetic field. On Earth, the aggregates take the shape of footballs with spiky tips. This characteristic shape may be influenced by the pull of gravity, which causes most particles initially suspended in the fluid to sediment, (i.e., settle and collect at the

  3. Early endocrine attending surgeon presence increases operating room efficiency.

    PubMed

    Clark, Audra; Dackiw, Alan P; White, Wendy D; Nwariaku, Fiemu E; Holt, Shelby A; Rabaglia, Jennifer L; Oltmann, Sarah C

    2016-10-01

    Preincision operating room (OR) preparation varies greatly. Cases requiring exacting preoperative setup may be more sensitive to inconsistent team members and trainees. Leadership and oversight by the surgeon may facilitate a timely start. The study hypothesized that early attending presence in the OR expedites surgery start time, improving efficiency, and decreasing cost. Prospective data collection of endocrine surgery cases at an urban teaching hospital was performed. Time points recorded in minutes. Cost/min of OR time was $54. Patients classified as in the OR ≤10 min before attending arrival or >10 min before attending arrival. A total of 227 cases (166 thyroid, 54 parathyroid, 10 adrenal) were performed over 14 mo. Of the patients, 128 were in the OR ≤10 min before attending arrival, and 99 patients were >10 min (3 ± 3 min versus 35 ± 14 min, P < 0.01). The ≤10 min procedures started sooner after patient arrival in OR (40 ± 11 versus 63 ± 19, P < 0.01) which equated to $1202 of savings before incision. Although attending time in the OR before incision was equivalent between groups for adrenal and parathyroid, time to incision was shorter in the ≤10 min groups, saving $2416 ± 477 and $1458 ± 244, respectively (P < 0.01). Attending time in OR before thyroidectomy was 13 min longer in ≤10 min than >10 min (P < 0.01), but incisions were made 20 min sooner (P < 0.01) equating to $1076 ± 120 in savings. Early attending presence in the OR shortens time to incision. For parathyroid and adrenal cases, this does not require additional surgeon time. In ORs without consistent teams, early attending presence in the OR improves efficiency and yields significant cost savings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Gerbil Jar: A Basic Home Experience in Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a teaching method such as allowing students to raise gerbils at home can encourage students to gain experience with the fundamental techniques of operant conditioning which are otherwise generally unavailable to students in large introductory psychology courses. (DB)

  5. Terminal-area STOL operating systems experiments program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. W.; Watson, D.; Christensen, J. V.

    1972-01-01

    A system study to determine the application of short takeoff aircraft for a high speed, short haul air transportation service was conducted. The study focused on developing information which will aid in choosing system concepts, design criteria, operating procedures, landing guidance systems, air traffic control systems, and airborne avionics and flight control systems. A terminal area STOL operating system experiments program was developed. The objectives, program approach, program schedule, typical experiments, research facilities to be used, and program status are discussed.

  6. Spacelab operations planning. [ground handling, launch, flight and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA planning in the fields of ground, launch and flight operations and experiment integration to effectively operate Spacelab. Payload mission planning is discussed taking consideration of orbital analysis and the mission of a multiuser payload which may be either single or multidiscipline. Payload analytical integration - as active process of analyses to ensure that the experiment payload is compatible to the mission objectives and profile ground and flight operations and that the resource demands upon Spacelab can be satisfied - is considered. Software integration is touched upon and the major integration levels in ground operational processing of Spacelab and its experimental payloads are examined. Flight operations, encompassing the operation of the Space Transportation System and the payload, are discussed as are the initial Spacelab missions. Charts and diagrams are presented illustrating the various planning areas.

  7. Precision operation of the Nova laser for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caird, J. A.; Ehrlich, R. B.; Hermes, G. L.; Landen, O. L.; Laumann, C. W.; Lerche, R. A.; Miller, J. L.; Murray, J. E.; Nielsen, N. D.; Powell, H. T.; Rushford, M. C.; Saunders, R. L.; Thompson, C. E.; VanArsdall, P. J.; Vann, C. S.; Weiland, T. L.

    1994-10-01

    The operation of a Neodymium glass laser of a special design for fusion experiments is improved by a better pulse synchronization, the gain stabilization, and the laser diagnostics. We used sensor upgrading and antifriction coating of focusing lenses. The pointing accuracy of the Nova laser meets now our goal for precision operation. (AIP)

  8. Early laser operations at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmer, Gustavo; Lefebvre, Michael; Christou, Julian; Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Ziegleder, Julian; Borelli, José L.; Gässler, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    ARGOS is the GLAO (Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics) Rayleigh-based LGS (Laser Guide Star) facility for the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO). It is dedicated for observations with LUCI1 and LUCI2, LBTO's pair of NIR imagers and multi-object spectrographs. The system projects three laser beams from the back of each of the two secondary mirror units, which create two constellations circumscribed on circles of 2 arcmin radius with 120 degree spacing. Each of the six Nd:YAG lasers provides a beam of green (532nm) pulses at a rate of 10kHz with a power of 14W to 18W. We achieved first on-sky propagation on the night of November 5, 2013, and commissioning of the full system will take place during 2014. We present the initial results of laser operations at the observatory, including safety procedures and the required coordination with external agencies (FAA, Space Command, and Military Airspace Manager). We also describe our operational procedures and report on our experiences with aircraft spotters. Future plans for safer and more efficient aircraft monitoring and detection are discussed.

  9. Medical students, early general practice placements and positive supervisor experiences.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Margaret; Upham, Susan; King, David; Dick, Marie-Louise; van Driel, Mieke

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Community-based longitudinal clinical placements for medical students are becoming more common globally. The perspective of supervising clinicians about their experiences and processes involved in maximising these training experiences has received less attention than that of students. Aims This paper explores the general practitioner (GP) supervisor perspective of positive training experiences with medical students undertaking urban community-based, longitudinal clinical placements in the early years of medical training. Methods Year 2 medical students spent a half-day per week in general practice for either 13 or 26 weeks. Transcribed semi-structured interviews from a convenience sample of participating GPs were thematically analysed by two researchers, using a general inductive approach. Results Identified themes related to the attributes of participating persons and organisations: GPs, students, patients, practices and their supporting institution; GPs' perceptions of student development; and triggers enhancing the experience. A model was developed to reflect these themes. Conclusions Training experiences were enhanced for GPs supervising medical students in early longitudinal clinical placements by the synergy of motivated students and keen teachers with support from patients, practice staff and academic institutions. We developed an explanatory model to better understand the mechanism of positive experiences. Understanding the interaction of factors enhancing teaching satisfaction is important for clinical disciplines wishing to maintain sustainable, high quality teaching.

  10. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  11. Preparing New Teachers: Operating Successful Field Experience Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slick, Gloria Appelt, Ed.

    This is the second in a series of four books presenting a variety of field experience program models and philosophies that drive the programs provided to preservice teachers during their undergraduate teacher preparation. This publication addresses the operational aspects of a successfully functioning field experience program and office. The…

  12. Operating experience review of an INL gas monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; DeWall, K. G.; Herring, J. S.

    2015-03-12

    This article describes the operations of several types of gas monitors in use at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Electrolysis Experiment (HTE) laboratory. The gases monitored in the lab room are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The operating time, calibration, and both actual and unwanted alarms are described. The calibration session time durations are described. In addition, some simple calculations are given to estimate the reliability of these monitors and the results are compared to operating experiences of other types of monitors.

  13. Shifting from Production to Service to Experience-Based Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, Jannis; de Lima, Edson Pinheiro

    This chapter covers the shift in focus of value added business operations from ­production to services, and in turn, to experience-based operations where customer involvement itself becomes part of the offering. The shift has significant implications for how businesses are managed. The greater service focus affects the firm's unique value proposition, which necessitates considerations on strategy, supplier relations, post-sale offerings and so on. Meanwhile, the inclusion of customer ­experiences affect the way operations are designed and employed so that these are structurally systematically captured and capitalised.

  14. Early experience shapes vocal neural coding and perception in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds, like humans, are highly accomplished vocal learners. The many parallels between speech and birdsong and conserved features of mammalian and avian auditory systems have led to the emergence of the songbird as a model system for studying the perceptual mechanisms of vocal communication. Laboratory research on songbirds allows the careful control of early life experience and high-resolution analysis of brain function during vocal learning, production and perception. Here, I review what songbird studies have revealed about the role of early experience in the development of vocal behavior, auditory perception and the processing of learned vocalizations by auditory neurons. The findings of these studies suggest general principles for how exposure to vocalizations during development and into adulthood influences the perception of learned vocal signals. PMID:22711657

  15. Operative experience of surgery residents: trends and challenges.

    PubMed

    Malangoni, Mark A; Biester, Thomas W; Jones, Andrew T; Klingensmith, Mary E; Lewis, Frank R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate trends in operative experience and to determine the effect of establishing the Surgical Council on Resident Education (SCORE) operative classification system on changes in operative volume among graduating surgery residents. The general surgery operative logs of graduating surgery residents from 2005 were retrospectively compared with residents who completed training in 2010 and 2011. Nonparametric statistical analyses were used (Mann-Whitney and median test) with significance set at p<0.01. A total of 1022 residents completing residency in 2005 were compared with 1923 residents completing training in 2010-2011. Total operations reported increased from a median of 1023 to 1238 (21%) between 2005 and 2010-2011 (p<0.001). Cases increased in most SCORE categories. The median numbers of total, basic, and complex laparoscopic operations increased by 49%, 37%, and 82%, respectively, over the 5-year interval (p<0.001). Open cavitary (thoracic + abdominal) operations decreased by 5%, whereas other major operations increased by 35% (both p<0.001). The frequency of discrete operations done at least 10 times during residency did not change. The median number of SCORE essential-common operations performed ranged from 1 to 107, whereas essential-uncommon operations ranged from 0 to 4. Twenty-three of 67 SCORE essential-common operations (34%) had a median of less than 5 and 4 had a median of 0. The operative volume of graduating surgical residents has increased by 21% since 2005; however, the number of operations done 10 times or greater has not changed. Although open cavitary procedures continue to decline, there has been a large increase in endoscopy, complex laparoscopic, and other major operations. Some essential-common operations continue to be performed infrequently. These results suggest that education in the operating room must improve and alternate methods for teaching infrequently performed procedures are needed. © 2013 Published by Association of Program

  16. Early disaster response in Haiti: the Israeli field hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Peleg, Kobi; Levy, Gad; Vinker, Shlomo; Sagi, Ram; Abargel, Avi; Bartal, Carmi; Lin, Guy; Bar, Ariel; Bar-On, Elhanan; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Ash, Nachman

    2010-07-06

    The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused an estimated 230,000 deaths and injured approximately 250,000 people. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps Field Hospital was fully operational on site only 89 hours after the earthquake struck and was capable of providing sophisticated medical care. During the 10 days the hospital was operational, its staff treated 1111 patients, hospitalized 737 patients, and performed 244 operations on 203 patients. The field hospital also served as a referral center for medical teams from other countries that were deployed in the surrounding areas. The key factor that enabled rapid response during the early phase of the disaster from a distance of 6000 miles was a well-prepared and trained medical unit maintained on continuous alert. The prompt deployment of advanced-capability field hospitals is essential in disaster relief, especially in countries with minimal medical infrastructure. The changing medical requirements of people in an earthquake zone dictate that field hospitals be designed to operate with maximum flexibility and versatility regarding triage, staff positioning, treatment priorities, and hospitalization policies. Early coordination with local administrative bodies is indispensable.

  17. Videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology: early experience.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, D. A.; Hasan, A.; Forty, J.; Morritt, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    We report our experience using the new technique of videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology. In the last 12 months, 40 patients (24 male; 16 female) have undergone investigation by this method. Lung biopsy has been performed in 17 patients, pleural biopsy in 20 patients and mediastinal biopsy in three patients. The majority had been referred after other investigations had been inconclusive. All biopsies were diagnostic except one mediastinal biopsy. This early experience suggests that videothoracoscopic biopsy is a well-tolerated technique with high diagnostic yield. PMID:8154806

  18. Components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-20

    AS11-37-5551 (20 July 1969) --- Two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) are seen deployed on the lunar surface in this view photographed from inside the Lunar Module (LM). In the far background is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP); and to the right and closer to the camera is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3). The footprints of Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. are very distinct in the lunar soil.

  19. The Use of Concrete Experiences in Early Childhood Mathematics Instruction.

    PubMed

    Baroody, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Addressed are four key issues regarding concrete instruction: What is concrete? What is a worthwhile concrete experience? How can concrete experiences be used effectively in early childhood mathematics instruction? Is there evidence such experiences work? I argue that concrete experiences are those that build on what is familiar to a child and can involve objects, verbal analogies, or virtual images. The use of manipulatives or computer games, for instance, does not in itself guarantee an educational experience. Such experiences are worthwhile if they target and further learning (e.g., help children extend their informal knowledge or use their informal knowledge to understand and learn formal knowledge). A crucial guideline for the effective use of concrete experience is Dewey's principle of interaction-external factors (e.g., instructional activities) need to mesh with internal factors (readiness, interest). Cognitive views of concrete materials, such as the cognitive alignment perspective and dual-representation hypothesis, provide useful guidance about external factors but do not adequately take into account internal factors and their interaction with external factors. Research on the effectiveness of concrete experience is inconclusive because it frequently overlooks internal factors. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infant Operant Conditioning and Its Implications for Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giullo E.

    1980-01-01

    In this article infant operant conditioning studies are grouped according to distinct procedures: free operant; discrete trial with one discriminative stimulus; discrete trial with two or more discriminative stimuli; controlled operant with two or more discriminative stimuli; and unrestricted operant with two or more discriminative stimuli.…

  1. Non-Whipple Operations in the Management of Benign, Premalignant and Early Cancerous Duodenal Lesions.

    PubMed

    Papalampros, Alexandros; Moris, Demetrios; Petrou, Athanasios; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Karavokyros, Ioannis; Schizas, Dimitrios; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Pappas, Theodore N; Felekouras, Evangelos

    2017-03-01

    We reviewed our 20-year experience with non-Whipple operations (pancreas-preserving duodenectomy and transduodenal ampullectomy) for the treatment of benign, premalignant or early-stage malignant duodenal lesions. Twenty-four patients who underwent non-Whipple operations between January 1996 and December 2015 were identified from an institutional database and retrospectively analyzed. Between 1996 and 2015, 10 patients underwent pancreas-preserving duodenectomy and 14 patients underwent transduodenal ampullectomy. The mean follow-up was 25.8 months (range=6-54 months) and no patient was lost to follow-up. Eighteen patients had preoperative diagnosis of duodenal adenomatosis, three patients had preoperative diagnosis of duodenal adenocarcinoma, one had a bleeding polyp and two had localized inflammation. Average operative time was 145 min (range=127-168 min) for transduodenal ampullectomy and 183 min (range=173-200 min) for pancreas-preserving duodenectomy (p<0.05). The estimated blood loss for transduodenal ampullectomy was 85 vs. 125 ml for pancreas-preserving duodenectomy (p<0.05). Early postoperative complications were noted in 13 cases (54.17%). There were no postoperative (90-day) deaths observed in this series and there were no recurrences during follow-up for the patients operated on with neoplastic lesions. For carefully selected patients, transduodenal ampullectomy and pancreas-preserving duodenectomy may be used in place of the Whipple operation for benign and occasionally early-stage malignant (Tis and T1) duodenal and ampullary disease. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. CTS (Hermes): United States experiments and operations summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoughe, P. L.; Hunczak, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite, launched in January 1976 and embodying the highest power transmitter in a communications satellite, was considered. As a joint program between the U.S. and Canada, close coordination of the two countries was necessitated since the management and control of experiments were done in real time. Criteria used by NASA for acceptance of the United States experiments are noted and acceptance procedures are discussed. The category for each accepted experiment is given. The modus operandi employed for the U.S. experiments in the areas of management, coordination, liaison, and real time operation are described. Some of the highlights associated with satellite utilization are given.

  3. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other than...

  4. Telescience testbed: operational support functions for biomedical experiments.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Watanabe, S; Shoji, T; Clarke, A H; Suzuki, H; Yanagihara, D

    1992-07-01

    A telescience testbed was conducted to study the methodology of space biomedicine with simulated constraints imposed on space experiments. An experimental subject selected for this testbedding was an elaborate surgery of animals and electrophysiological measurements conducted by an operator onboard. The standing potential in the ampulla of the pigeon's semicircular canal was measured during gravitational and caloric stimulation. A principal investigator, isolated from the operation site, participated in the experiment interactively by telecommunication links. Reliability analysis was applied to the whole layers of experimentation, including design of experimental objectives and operational procedures. Engineering and technological aspects of telescience are discussed in terms of reliability to assure quality of science. Feasibility of robotics was examined for supportive functions to reduce the workload of the onboard operator.

  5. Parabolic dish test site: History and operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    The parabolic dish test site (PDTS) was established for testing point-focusing solar concentrator systems operating at temperatures approaching 1650 C. Among tests run were evaluation and performance characterization of parabolic dish concentrators, receivers, power conversion units, and solar/fossil-fuel hybrid systems. The PDTS was fully operational until its closure in June, 1984. The evolution of the test program, a chronological listing of the experiments run, and data summaries for most of the tests conducted are presented.

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) launch, commissioning, and early operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Kakar, Ramesh K.; Azarbarzin, Ardeshir A.; Hou, Arthur Y.

    2014-10-01

    JAXA. The GPM Core Observatory was launched from JAXA's Tanegashima Space Center on an H-IIA launch vehicle on February 28, 2014 Japan Standard Time (JST). The mission has completed its checkout and commissioning phase and is in Operations Phase. The current status and early results will be discussed.

  7. Energy potential and early operational experience for large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, W. H.; Thomas, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Projections for the total potential output of large wind turbines in the U.S. are reviewed. NASA has developed nine large windpowered generators, of 100 kW, 200 kW, 2 MW, and 2.5 MW capacities, with rotors 100-300 ft in diameter, and all with horizontal axes. Approximately 214,000 sq miles of the U.S. have been determined as having substantial wind regimes and terrain suitable for large wind turbine siting. This translates into 340,000 Mod 2 (2.5 MW) wind turbines producing 4.9 quads of electricity annually, equivalent to saving 2.5 billion barrels of oil/yr. The cost of electricity is seen as the critical factor in utility acceptance of large wind turbines, and the Mod 2 machines are noted to achieve the 2-4 cents/kWh (1977 dollars) COE which is necessary. Problems such as pollution, including visual, auditory, EM, and land use difficulties are considered, and solutions are indicated.

  8. Flight Validation of On-Demand Operations: The Deep Space One Beacon Monitor Operations Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Jay; Sherwood, Rob; Sue, Miles; Szijjarto, John

    2000-01-01

    After a brief overview of the operational concept, this paper will provide a detailed description of the _as-flown_ flight software components, the DS1 experiment plan, and experiment results to date. Special emphasis will be given to experiment results and lessons learned since the basic system design has been previously reported. Mission scenarios where beacon operations is highly applicable will be described. Detailed cost savings estimates for a sample science mission will be provided as will cumulative savings that are possible over the next fifteen years of NASA missions.

  9. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    PubMed

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  10. Modification of visual function by early visual experience.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, C

    1976-07-01

    Physiological experiments, involving recording from the visual cortex in young kittens and monkeys, have given new insight into human developmental disorders. In the visual cortex of normal cats and monkeys most neurones are selectively sensitive to the orientation of moving edges and they receive very similar signals from both eyes. Even in very young kittens without visual experience, most neurones are binocularly driven and a small proportion of them are genuinely orientation selective. There is no passive maturation of the system in the absence of visual experience, but even very brief exposure to patterned images produces rapid emergence of the adult organization. These results are compared to observations on humans who have "recovered" from early blindness. Covering one eye in a kitten or a monkey, during a sensitive period early in life, produces a virtually complete loss of input from that eye in the cortex. These results can be correlated with the production of "stimulus deprivation amblyopia" in infants who have had one eye patched. Induction of a strabismus causes a loss of binocularity in the visual cortex, and in humans it leads to a loss of stereoscopic vision and binocular fusion. Exposing kittens to lines of one orientation modifies the preferred orientations of cortical cells and there is an analogous "meridional amblyopia" in astigmatic humans. The existence of a sensitive period in human vision is discussed, as well as the possibility of designing remedial and preventive treatments for human developmental disorders.

  11. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  12. Utilisation of the healthcare system for authentic early experience placements.

    PubMed

    Hays, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Authentic early experience in clinical contexts adds interest and relevance to basic medical education, and is regarded positively by both learners and teachers. However, with the recent expansion of medical education, the healthcare system appears close to reaching its capacity for student supervision. This study explores the utilisation of the healthcare system for early clinical placements. A secondary analysis was conducted of data from the Medical Schools Outcomes Database, collected from the 2010 annual questionnaire, focusing on the timing, duration and location of clinical placements during 2009 within the first half of basic medical education programs in Australia. Data was received for 67% of Australian medical students, reporting a total of 16 812 early clinical placements that occupied 97 319 days of supervised time in a wide variety of hospital, general practice and Indigenous health contexts, both urban and rural, across the Australian healthcare system. These early placements occupied about 16% of total clinical placement time for all students in all training years during 2009. The majority of these placements were for only a few hours or days; exceptions were longitudinal placements in regional and rural communities at a minority of schools. Early clinical placements may pose significant resource costs for placement providers, particularly supervision time and expertise. As medical education expands and the teaching capacity of the Australian healthcare system appears to reach its limits, it may be necessary to allocate placements according to their specific learning outcomes, prioritise more acute settings for more senior students, and increase capacity in less acute health and social care settings.

  13. Utility operational experience on the NASA/DOE MOD-0A 200-kW wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, J. C.; Robbins, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mod-0A 200 wind turbine was designed and fabricated as part of the Federal Wind Energy Program. Early wind turbine operation and performance data were obtained while gaining initial experience in the operation of large, horizontal axis wind turbines in typical utility environments. The Mod-0A wind turbine was turned over to the Town of Clayton Light and Water Plant, Clayton, NM, for utility operation and on December 31, 1978, the machine had completed ten months of utility operation. The machine is described and the recent operational experience at Clayton, NMis documented.

  14. The Eole experiment - Early results and current objectives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Eole experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon, floating freely at approximately the 200-mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an rms uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the Eole wind data are given for describing the mean 200-mb zonal and meridional circulations.

  15. Early Results from the RAIDS Experiment on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) is a suite of three photometers, three spectrometers, and two spectrographs which span the wavelength range 55-874 nm and remotely sense the thermosphere and ionosphere by scanning and imaging the limb. RAIDS was scheduled to fly to the Japanese Experiment Module—Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. RAIDS along with a companion hyperspectral imaging experiment will serve as the first US payload on the JEM-EF. The scientific objectives of the new RAIDS experiment are to study the temperature of the lower thermosphere (100-200 km), to measure composition and chemistry of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere, and to measure the initial source of OII 83.4 nm emission. RAIDS will provide valuable data useful for exploring tidal effects in the thermosphere and ionosphere system, validating dayside ionospheric remote sensing methods, and studying local time variations in important chemical and thermal processes. Early observational results from the RAIDS experiment will be presented. The RAIDS sensor suite performs multispectral limb scanning from the open end of the HICO-RAIDS Experiment Payload aboard the ISS.

  16. Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments: origins and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nestar John Charles

    2011-03-01

    Stanley Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments remain one of the most inspired contributions in the field of social psychology. Although Milgram undertook more than 20 experimental variations, his most (in)famous result was the first official trial run - the remote condition and its 65% completion rate. Drawing on many unpublished documents from Milgram's personal archive at Yale University, this article traces the historical origins and early evolution of the obedience experiments. Part 1 presents the previous experiences that led to Milgram's conception of his rudimentary research idea and then details the role of his intuition in its refinement. Part 2 traces the conversion of Milgram's evolving idea into a reality, paying particular attention to his application of the exploratory method of discovery during several pilot studies. Both parts illuminate Milgram's ad hoc introduction of various manipulative techniques and subtle tension-resolving refinements. The procedural adjustments continued until Milgram was confident that the first official experiment would produce a high completion rate, a result contrary to expectations of people's behaviour. Showing how Milgram conceived of, then arrived at, this first official result is important because the insights gained may help others to determine theoretically why so many participants completed this experiment. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  17. New Safety and Technical Challenges and Operational Experience on the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, R.J.H.; Bell, A.C.; Brennan, D.

    'Trace Tritium Experiments' (TTE) were successfully performed on JET in 2003. The Campaign marked the first use of tritium in JET plasmas since the Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE1) Campaign in 1997, and was the first use of tritium in experiments under the EFDA organisation with the UKAEA as JET Operator. The safety and regulatory preparations for the experiment were extensive. Since JET has been operated by the UKAEA the operations have followed the model of a licensed nuclear site. The safe operation of the JET torus is demonstrated in a safety case. Key Safety Management Requirement (KSMR) and Key Safety Relatedmore » Equipment (KSRE) are identified in the Safety Case for DT operation. The safe operation of the torus is within the bounds of, and under the control of, an Authority to Operate (ATO). New technical challenges were presented by the need to inject and account for small quantities of tritium in very short pulses ({approx}80ms), with an accurate time stamp. The safety and operational management of the campaign are described. Valuable lessons were learned which would help in running future experiments. It is concluded that JET is in a strong position to run future trace tritium and full DT discharges.« less

  18. Making Visible Teacher Reports of Their Teaching Experiences: The Early Childhood Teacher Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John; Perlman, Staci; Sproul, Faith; Minney, Ashley; Perry, Marlo A.; Li, Feifei

    2012-01-01

    The study developed multiple independent scales of early childhood teacher experiences (ECTES). ECTES was co-constructed with preschool, kindergarten, and first grade teachers in a large urban school district. Demographic, ECTES, and teaching practices data were collected from 584 teachers. Factor analyses documented three teacher experience…

  19. Recent operating experiences with steam generators in Japanese NPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Yashima, Seiji

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Genkai-3 of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. and the Ikata-3 of Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. started commercial operation, and now 22 PWR plants are being operated in Japan. Since the first PWR plant now 22 PWR plants are being operated in was started to operate, Japanese PWR plants have had an operating experience of approx. 280 reactor-years. During that period, many tube degradations have been experienced in steam generators (SGs). And, in 1991, the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) occurred in the Mihama-2 of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. However, the occurrence of tube degradation ofmore » SGs has been decreased by the instructions of the MITI as regulatory authorities, efforts of Electric Utilities, and technical support from the SG manufacturers. Here the author describes the recent SGs in Japan about the following points. (1) Recent Operating Experiences (2) Lessons learned from Mihama-2 SGTR (3) SG replacement (4) Safety Regulations on SG (5) Research and development on SG.« less

  20. Early Experiences with the Endovascular Repair of Ruptured Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Oh, Se Jin; Sung, Yong Won; Moon, Hyun Jong; Lee, Jung Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to report our early experiences with the endovascular repair of ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (rDTAAs), which are a rare and life-threatening condition. Methods Among 42 patients who underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) between October 2010 and September 2015, five patients (11.9%) suffered an rDTAA. Results The mean age was 72.4±5.1 years, and all patients were male. Hemoptysis and hemothorax were present in three (60%) and two (40%) patients, respectively. Hypovolemic shock was noted in three patients who underwent emergency operations. A hybrid operation was performed in three patients. The mean operative time was 269.8±72.3 minutes. The mean total length of aortic coverage was 186.0±49.2 mm. No 30-day mortality occurred. Stroke, delirium, and atrial fibrillation were observed in one patient each. Paraplegia did not occur. Endoleak was found in two patients (40%), one of whom underwent an early and successful reintervention. During the mean follow-up period of 16.8±14.8 months, two patients died; one cause of death was a persistent type 1 endoleak and the other cause was unknown. Conclusion TEVAR for rDTAA was associated with favorable early mortality and morbidity outcomes. However, early reintervention should be considered if persistent endoleak occurs. PMID:27064672

  1. Women's experiences of having an early medical abortion at home.

    PubMed

    Hedqvist, Maria; Brolin, Lina; Tydén, Tanja; Larsson, Margareta

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess women's experiences of having an early medical abortion at home and to investigate their perceptions of the information provided before the abortion. The study also aimed to investigate possible differences between groups of women. The study is cross-sectional with a descriptive and comparative design. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 119 women who had undergone a medical abortion at home. Almost half of the women (43%, n = 51) experienced the bleeding as more than expected and one-fourth (26%, n = 31) bled for more than four weeks. One-third (34%, n = 41) stated a lack of information, especially about the bleeding and pain. The experience of pain differed between groups. Women who had undergone an earlier abortion and women who had previously given birth experienced the abortion as being less painful than that experienced by first-time gravidae (p < 0.05). The finding that women experience information about the pain and bleeding to be insufficient suggests that information in those areas can be improved. The result that women without previous experience of abortion or childbirth stated the pain as being worse than other groups investigated suggests that special attention should be paid to those women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  3. Operational Experience of the Upgraded Cryogenic Systems at the Nscl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, A. H.; Laumer, H. L.; Jones, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is a NSF-supported facility, with additional support from Michigan State University (MSU) for conducting research in nuclear and accelerator science. The facility consists of two superconducting cyclotrons and over fifty individual cryostats, each containing several superconducting magnets that are used in the beam transport system. Beginning in 1999 a major facility upgrade was started. New, larger magnets were added, increasing the total 4.5 K loads, necessitating an increase of the cryogenic capacity. A helium plant (nominal 1750-Watt at 4.5 K) was acquired from the United States Bureau of Mines where it had been operating as a pure liquefier since the early 1980's. It was refurbished for the NSCL with extensive support from the cryogenics group at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory. The new cryogenic system came online early in 2001. The cold-mass is relatively high in relation to the installed capacity, presenting challenges during cool downs. Reliability over the last five years has been greater than 99%. An overview of the last seven years of operations of our cryogenic systems is presented that includes normal operations, testing of new equipment, noteworthy breakdowns, routine maintenance, and system reliability.

  4. Teaching Children to Understand Operations in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladhams, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses teaching early child mathematics in an environment of unique challenge in a remote region of Western Australia. The challenges include: (1) a high proportion of transient students; (2) a student population that is forty percent aboriginal, many for whom English is a second language; (3) students who consistently perform below…

  5. Operational Thought in Alzheimer's Disease Early Onset and SDAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Olga B.; Breslau, Lawrence D.

    For more than a decade it has been convention to assume that senile dementia Alzheimer's type (SDAT) and Alzheimer's disease early onset represent a unitary disease process with only an onset difference. This assumption has been neither confirmed nor disconfirmed. To address this issue, a study was conducted which analyzed the dissolution of…

  6. Telescience operations with the solar array module plasma interaction experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence W.; Bibyk, Irene K.

    1995-01-01

    The Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) is a flight experiment that flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) in March 1994, as part of the OAST-2 mission. The overall objective of SAMPIE was to determine the adverse environmental interactions within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO) on modern solar cells and space power system materials which are artificially biased to high positive and negative direct current (DC) voltages. The two environmental interactions of interest included high voltage arcing from the samples to the space plasma and parasitic current losses. High voltage arcing can cause physical damage to power system materials and shorten expected hardware life. parasitic current losses can reduce power system efficiency because electric currents generated in a power system drain into the surrounding plasma via parasitic resistance. The flight electronics included two programmable high voltage DC power supplies to bias the experiment samples, instruments to measure the surrounding plasma environment in the STS cargo bay, and the on-board data acquisition system (DAS). The DAS provided in-flight experiment control, data storage, and communications through the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Hitchhiker flight avionics to the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The DAS and the SAMPIE POCC computer systems were designed for telescience operations; this paper will focus on the experiences of the SAMPIE team regarding telescience development and operations from the GSFC POCC during STS-62. The SAMPIE conceptual development, hardware design, and system verification testing were accomplished at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). SAMPIE was developed under the In-Space Technology Experiment Program (IN-STEP), which sponsors NASA, industry, and university flight experiments designed to enable and enhance space flight technology. The IN-STEP Program is sponsored by the Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT).

  7. Launch and Early Orbit Operations for CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardel, Nic; Marchese, Franco

    2010-12-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched from Baikonur on 8th of April 2010 aboard a modified Dnepr ICBM, the so-called SS18 Satan. Following the ascent and separation from the launch vehicle the Flight Operations Segment (FOS) in ESOC, Darmstadt started the operations to configure the satellite into the correct mode to acquire science; switching on units, configuring software and ensuring that the satellite health and performance was as expected. This paper will describe the operations performed by the FOS during the first weeks in orbit, including the unexpected problems encountered, their implications and solutions.

  8. ESOC's System for Interplanetary Orbit Determination: Implementation and Operational Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnik, F.; Morley, T. A.; MacKenzie, R. A.

    A system for interplanetary orbit determination has been developed at ESOC over the past six years. Today, the system is in place and has been proven to be both reliable and robust by successfully supporting critical operations of ESA's interplanetary spacecraft Rosetta, Mars Express, and SMART-1. To reach this stage a long and challenging way had to be travelled. This paper gives a digest about the journey from the development and testing to the operational use of ESOC's new interplanetary orbit determination system. It presents the capabilities and reflects experiences gained from the performed tests and tracking campaigns.

  9. Challenges for operational forecasting and early warning of rainfall induced landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    models. Building on the experience gained in designing, implementing, and operating national and regional landslide forecasting systems in Italy, and on a preliminary review of the existing literature on regional landslide early warning systems, the talk discusses concepts, limitations and challenges inherent to the design of reliable forecasting and early warning systems for rainfall-triggered landslides, the evaluation of the performances of the systems, and on problems related to the use of the forecasts and the issuing of landslide warnings. Several of the typical elements of an operational landslide forecasting system are considered, including: (i) the rainfall and landslide information used to establish the threshold models, (ii) the methods and tools used to define the empirical rainfall thresholds, and their associated uncertainty, (iii) the quality (e.g., the temporal and spatial resolution) of the rainfall information used for operational forecasting, including rain gauge and radar measurements, satellite estimates, and quantitative weather forecasts, (iv) the ancillary information used to prepare the forecasts, including e.g., the terrain subdivisions and the landslide susceptibility zonations, (v) the criteria used to transform the forecasts into landslide warnings and the methods used to communicate the warnings, and (vi) the criteria and strategies adopted to evaluate the performances of the systems, and to define minimum or optimal performance levels.

  10. Operations summary for the convection and moisture experiment (CAMEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, V. L.; Guillory, A. R.; Susko, M.; Arnold, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    During the fall of 1993, NASA sponsored a field program called the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX) at Wallops Island, Virginia. CAMEX was a multidisciplinary experiment design to measure the three dimensional moisture fields over Wallops Island and to characterize the multifrequency radiometric signature of tropical convection over the Gulf Stream and southeastern Atlantic Ocean. This document summarizes the daily CAMEX activities, including ground and aircraft (NASA ER-2) operations, and includes 'quick-look' summaries of data acquisition along with data examples provided by the various CAMEX PI's.

  11. Operational Experience with the MICE Spectrometer Solenoid System

    DOE PAGES

    Feher, Sandor; Bross, Alan; Hanlet, Pierrick

    2018-01-11

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment located at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in England utilizes a supercon-ducting solenoid system for the muon cooling channel that also holds particle tracking detectors and muon absorbers inside their bores. The solenoid system installation was completed in summer of 2015 and after commissioning the system it has been running successfully. As a result, this paper summarizes the commissioning results and operational experience with the magnets focusing on the per-formance of the two Spectrometer Solenoids built by the US.

  12. Operational Experience with the MICE Spectrometer Solenoid System

    SciTech Connect

    Feher, Sandor; Bross, Alan; Hanlet, Pierrick

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment located at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in England utilizes a supercon-ducting solenoid system for the muon cooling channel that also holds particle tracking detectors and muon absorbers inside their bores. The solenoid system installation was completed in summer of 2015 and after commissioning the system it has been running successfully. As a result, this paper summarizes the commissioning results and operational experience with the magnets focusing on the per-formance of the two Spectrometer Solenoids built by the US.

  13. Characteristics of Early Work Experiences and Their Association with Future Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; O'Mally, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Early work experiences are a key predictor of future employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments. We investigated how specific characteristics of early work experiences influence future employment and whether the receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits is associated with early work experiences among…

  14. The early postpartum experience of previously infertile mothers.

    PubMed

    Ladores, Sigrid; Aroian, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To explore the lived experience of becoming a new mother from the unique perspectives of previously infertile women. A descriptive phenomenological design was used to extract the fundamental structure of the postpartum experience of previously infertile mothers. Central Florida. Twelve first-time, previously infertile mothers age 27 to 43 years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted twice with each participant. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Colaizzi's approach. Two main themes emerged that described the early postpartum experience of first-time, previously infertile mothers: (a) lingering identity as infertile and (b) gratitude for the gift of motherhood. Participants reported that their lingering identities as infertile and immense gratitude for the gift of motherhood propelled them to establish unrealistic expectations to be perfect mothers. When they were unable to live up this expectation, they censored their feelings of inadequacy, guilt, and shame. Findings from this study may help to sensitize health care providers to the difficulties faced by previously infertile women during their transition to motherhood. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  15. Hemispheric differences in processing of vocalizations depend on early experience.

    PubMed

    Phan, Mimi L; Vicario, David S

    2010-02-02

    An intriguing phenomenon in the neurobiology of language is lateralization: the dominant role of one hemisphere in a particular function. Lateralization is not exclusive to language because lateral differences are observed in other sensory modalities, behaviors, and animal species. Despite much scientific attention, the function of lateralization, its possible dependence on experience, and the functional implications of such dependence have yet to be clearly determined. We have explored the role of early experience in the development of lateralized sensory processing in the brain, using the songbird model of vocal learning. By controlling exposure to natural vocalizations (through isolation, song tutoring, and muting), we manipulated the postnatal auditory environment of developing zebra finches, and then assessed effects on hemispheric specialization for communication sounds in adulthood. Using bilateral multielectrode recordings from a forebrain auditory area known to selectively process species-specific vocalizations, we found that auditory responses to species-typical songs and long calls, in both male and female birds, were stronger in the right hemisphere than in the left, and that right-side responses adapted more rapidly to stimulus repetition. We describe specific instances, particularly in males, where these lateral differences show an influence of auditory experience with song and/or the bird's own voice during development.

  16. The experience of Taiwan photon source commissioning and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. C.; Chen, C. H.; Y Chen, J.; Chiu, M. S.; Chou, P. J.; Huang, C. S.; Fann, Sam; Kuo, C. C.; Y Lee, T.; Liang, C. C.; Luo, G. H.; Tsai, H. J.; Tseng, F. H.

    2017-07-01

    TPS commissioning occurred between August 2014 and March 2016. The experience of phase I (bare lattice 2014.8∼2015.3) and phase II (SRF and insertion devices 2015.9∼2016.3) commissioning will be discussed. The Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) started user operation in March 2016 and delivery of user time has reached 3,211 hours in 2016. Continuous improvements of integrated accelerator performance and future developments are described and discussed.

  17. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    SciTech Connect

    Troxclair, E.J.; Stultz, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined highmore » sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.« less

  18. Experiences with operations and autonomy of the Mars Pathfinder Microrover.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Morrison, J. C.; Nguyen, T. T.; Stone, H. W.; Cooper, B. K.; Wilcox, B. H.

    The Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX) is a NASA OACT (Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology) flight experiment which, integrated with the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) lander and spacecraft system, landed on Mars on July 4, 1997. In the succeeding 30 sols (1 sol = 1 Martian day), the Sojourner microrover accomplished all of its primary and extended mission objectives. After completion of the originally planned extended mission, MFEX continued to conduct a series of technology experiments, deploy its alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) on rocks and soil, and image both terrain features and the lander. This mission was conducted under the constraints of a once-per-sol opportunity for command and telemetry transmissions between the lander and Earth operators. As such, the MFEX rover was required to carry out its mission, including terrain navigation and contingency response, under supervised autonomous control. For example, goal locations were specified daily by human operators; the rover then safely traversed to these locations. During traverses, the rover autonomously detected and avoided rock, slope, and drop-off hazards, changing its path as needed before turning back towards its goal. This capability to operate in an unmodeled environment, choosing actions in response to sensor input to accomplish requested objectives, is unique among robotic space missions to date.

  19. Early Weightbearing After Operatively Treated Ankle Fractures: A Biomechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eric W; Sirisreetreerux, Norachart; Paez, Adrian G; Parks, Brent G; Schon, Lew C; Hasenboehler, Erik A

    2016-06-01

    No consensus exists regarding the timing of weightbearing after surgical fixation of unstable traumatic ankle fractures. We evaluated fracture displacement and timing of displacement with simulated early weightbearing in a cadaveric model. Twenty-four fresh-frozen lower extremities were assigned to Group 1, bimalleolar ankle fracture (n=6); Group 2, trimalleolar ankle fracture with unfixed small posterior malleolar fracture (n=9); or Group 3, trimalleolar ankle fracture with fixed large posterior malleolar fracture (n=9) and tested with axial compressive load at 3 Hz from 0 to 1000 N for 250 000 cycles to simulate 5 weeks of full weightbearing. Displacement was measured by differential variable reluctance transducer. The average motion at all fracture sites in all groups was significantly less than 1 mm (P < .05). Group 1 displacement of the lateral and medial malleolus fracture was 0.1±0.1 mm and 0.4±0.4 mm, respectively. Group 2 displacement of the lateral, medial, and posterior malleolar fracture was 0.6±0.4 mm, 0.5±0.4 mm, and 0.5±0.6 mm, respectively. Group 3 displacement of the lateral, medial, and posterior malleolar fracture was 0.1±0.1 mm, 0.5±0.7 mm, and 0.5±0.4 mm, respectively. The majority of displacement (64.0% to 92.3%) occurred in the first 50 000 cycles. There was no correlation between fracture displacement and bone mineral density. No significant fracture displacement, no hardware failure, and no new fractures occurred in a cadaveric model of early weightbearing in unstable ankle fracture after open reduction and internal fixation. This study supports further investigation of early weightbearing postoperative protocols after fixation of unstable ankle fractures. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Operation Heli-STAR - Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE). Volume 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Operation Heli-STAR (Helicopter Short-Haul Transportation and Aviation Research) was established and operated in Atlanta, Georgia, during the period of the 1996 Centennial Olympic Games. Heli-STAR had three major thrusts: (1) the establishment and operation of a helicopter-based cargo transportation system, (2) the management of low-altitude air traffic in the airspace of an urban area, and (3) the collection and analysis of research and development data associated with items 1 and 2. Heli-STAR was a cooperative industry/government program that included parcel package shippers and couriers in the Atlanta area, the helicopter industry, aviation electronics manufacturers, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and support contractors. Several detailed reports have been produced as a result of Operation Heli-STAR. These include four reports on acoustic measurements and associated analyses, and reports on the Heli-STAR tracking data including the data processing and retrieval system, the Heli-STAR cargo simulation, and the community response system. In addition, NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) program has produced a report describing the Atlanta Communications Experiment (ACE) which produced the avionics and ground equipment using automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) technology. This latter report is restricted to organizations belonging to NASA's AGATE industry consortium. A complete list of these reports is shown on the following page.

  1. Early experiences building a software quality prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.; Evanco, W. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiences building a software quality prediction model are discussed. The overall research objective is to establish a capability to project a software system's quality from an analysis of its design. The technical approach is to build multivariate models for estimating reliability and maintainability. Data from 21 Ada subsystems were analyzed to test hypotheses about various design structures leading to failure-prone or unmaintainable systems. Current design variables highlight the interconnectivity and visibility of compilation units. Other model variables provide for the effects of reusability and software changes. Reported results are preliminary because additional project data is being obtained and new hypotheses are being developed and tested. Current multivariate regression models are encouraging, explaining 60 to 80 percent of the variation in error density of the subsystems.

  2. Sweet and Sour Preferences During Childhood: Role of Early Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of early experience on sweet and sour preferences in children. Eighty-three children were divided into four groups based on the type of formula fed during infancy and age. By using a forced-choice, sip-and-swallow procedure, we determined the level of sweetness and sourness preferred in juice. Children who were fed protein hydrolysate formulas, which have a distinctive sour and bitter taste and unpleasant odor, preferred higher levels of citric acid in juice when compared to older children who were fed similar formulas. No such difference was observed between the groups for sweet preference. However, the level of sweetness preferred in juice was related to the sugar content of the child's favorite cereal and whether the mother routinely added sugar to their foods. These data illustrate the wide variety of experiential factors that can influence flavor preferences during childhood. PMID:12430162

  3. Early MIMD experience on the CRAY X-MP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, Clifford E.; Stevens, K. G.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes some early experience with converting four physics simulation programs to the CRAY X-MP, a current Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data (MIMD) computer consisting of two processors each with an architecture similar to that of the CRAY-1. As a multi-processor, the CRAY X-MP together with the high speed Solid-state Storage Device (SSD) in an ideal machine upon which to study MIMD algorithms for solving the equations of mathematical physics because it is fast enough to run real problems. The computer programs used in this study are all FORTRAN versions of original production codes. They range in sophistication from a one-dimensional numerical simulation of collisionless plasma to a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code with heat flow to a couple of three-dimensional fluid dynamics codes with varying degrees of viscous modeling. Early research with a dual processor configuration has shown speed-ups ranging from 1.55 to 1.98. It has been observed that a few simple extensions to FORTRAN allow a typical programmer to achieve a remarkable level of efficiency. These extensions involve the concept of memory local to a concurrent subprogram and memory common to all concurrent subprograms.

  4. Snow, Ice, & Satellites: An Early Career Researcher's Experience with Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a doctoral student, I was lucky enough to be able to experiment with a variety of communication and outreach activities (classroom visits, museum events, science festivals, blogging, social media, etc.) to build communication skills and learn how to talk about my science without writing a journal article. More importantly, the wide range of experience helped me identify what worked for me. My favorite way to share my science now? Twitter. To many, Twitter is a frivolous platform for sharing snippets 140 characters or less. To me, however, it is how I can connect directly with the elusive "wider public" and share my science. Specifically, I use satellite imagery (mostly Landsat 8) to study glaciers around the world. I look at long-term change related to climate, and I also investigate new, innovative ways to use satellite imagery to better understand glaciers and ice sheets. Luckily for me, my research is very visual. Whether fieldwork snapshots or satellite data, images make for great, shareable, accessible tweets. In this presentation, I propose to share my experience of tweeting as an early career researcher. I will include successful strategies (e.g. particular #hashtags, creating new content, using story-telling, timely tweets), as well as some not-so-successful attempts. I will also talk about how I built my Twitter network. In addition to anecdotes, I will include evaluation of my Twitter activity using available metrics and analytics (e.g. followers, favorites, re-tweets, Klout score, etc.). While misunderstood by many in the scientific community, Twitter is a platform increasingly being adopted by researchers. Used correctly, it can be a great tool for connecting directly with an interested, non-technical audience eager to learn about your research. With my experiences and evaluation, I will show how both scientists and the networks that they join and create can benefit by using Twitter as a platform for science communication.

  5. Early history of operative treatment of patellar fractures.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Rammelt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    The presented overview shows that the first efforts to address patellar fractures by operative treatment, although sporadic, emerged in the pre-antiseptic era. Introduction of Lister's antiseptic method in Great Britain, Germany and the USA in 1877-1882 contributed to a new, progressive trend in the treatment of fractures of the patella as well as of other bones. The authors, using Lister's antiseptic method, evaluated three basic aspects in their operations, namely healing of the surgical wound without infective complications, achievement of bony union and a good functional outcome, i.e. restoring the range of motion in the knee, even if limited in most cases. The majority of them used a longitudinal incision and fixation by a silver wire.

  6. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ≥3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults. PMID:23645114

  8. Operative experience of residents in US general surgery programs: a gap between expectation and experience.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard H; Biester, Thomas W; Tabuenca, Arnold; Rhodes, Robert S; Cofer, Joseph B; Britt, L D; Lewis, Frank R

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify a group of operations which general surgery residency program directors believed residents should be competent to perform by the end of 5 years of training and then ascertain actual resident experience with these procedures during their training. There is concern about the adequacy of training of general surgeons in the United States. The American Board of Surgery and the Association of Program Directors in Surgery undertook a study to determine what operative procedures residency program directors consider to be essential to the practice of general surgery and then we measured the actual operative experience of graduating residents in those procedures, as reported to the Residency Review Committee for Surgery (RRC). An electronic survey was sent to residency program directors at the 254 general surgery programs in the US accredited by the RRC as of spring 2006. The program directors were presented with a list of 300 types of operations. Program directors graded the 300 procedures "A," "B," or "C" using the following criteria: A--graduating general surgery residents should be competent to perform the procedure independently; B--graduating residents should be familiar with the procedure, but not necessarily competent to perform it; and C--graduating residents neither need to be familiar with nor competent to perform the procedure. After ballots were tallied, the actual resident operative experience reported to the RRC by all residents finishing general surgery training in June 2005 was reviewed. One hundred twenty-one of the 300 operations were considered A level procedures by a majority of program directors (PDs). Graduating 2005 US residents (n = 1022) performed only 18 of the 121 A procedures, an average of more than 10 times during residency; 83 of 121 procedures were performed on an average less than 5 times and 31 procedures less than once. For 63 of the 121 procedures, the mode (most commonly reported) experience was 0

  9. Towards Operational Meteotsunami Early Warning System: the Adriatic Project MESSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibic, I.; Sepic, J.; Denamiel, C. L.; Mihanovic, H.; Muslim, S.; Tudor, M.; Ivankovic, D.; Jelavic, D.; Kovacevic, V.; Masce, T.; Dadic, V.; Gacic, M.; Horvath, K.; Monserrat, S.; Rabinovich, A.; Telisman-Prtenjak, M.

    2017-12-01

    A number of destructive meteotsunamis - atmospherically-driven long ocean waves in a tsunami frequency band - occurred during the last decade through the world oceans. Owing to significant damage caused by these meteotsunamis, several scientific groups (occasionally in collaboration with public offices) have started developing meteotsunami warning systems. Creation of one such system has been initialized in the late 2015 within the MESSI (Meteotsunamis, destructive long ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band: from observations and simulations towards a warning system) project. Main goal of this project is to build a prototype of a meteotsunami warning system for the eastern Adriatic coast. The system will be based on real-time measurements, operational atmosphere and ocean modeling and real time decision-making process. Envisioned MESSI meteotsunami warning system consists of three modules: (1) synoptic warning module, which will use established correlation between forecasted synoptic fields and high-frequency sea level oscillations to provide qualitative meteotsunami forecasts for up to a week in advance, (2) probabilistic premodeling prediction module, which will use operational WRF-ROMS-ADCIRC modeling system and compare the forecast with an atlas of presimulations to get the probabilistic meteotsunami forecast for up to three days in advance, and (3) real-time module, which is based on real time tracking of properties of air pressure disturbance (amplitude, speed, direction, period, ...) and their real-time comparison with the atlas of meteotsunami simulations. System will be tested on recent meteotsunami events which were recorded in the MESSI area shortly after the operational meteotsunami network installation. Albeit complex, such a multilevel warning system has a potential to be adapted to most meteotsunami hot spots, simply by tuning the system parameters to the available atmospheric and ocean data.

  10. Summaries of early materials processing in space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Mason, D.

    1979-01-01

    Objectives, methods, and results of low-gravity materials processing experiments are summarized, and a bibliography of published results for each experiment is provided. Included are drop tower experiments, the Apollo demonstration experiments, the skylab experiments and demonstration experiments, and the Apollo-Soyuz experiments and demonstrations. The findings of these experiments in the fields of crystal growth, metallurgy, and fluid behavior are summarized.

  11. Variable Operative Experience in Hand Surgery for Plastic Surgery Residents.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Levin, Lawrence Scott; Chang, Benjamin

    Efforts to standardize hand surgery training during plastic surgery residency remain challenging. We analyze the variability of operative hand experience at U.S. plastic surgery residency programs. Operative case logs of chief residents in accredited U.S. plastic surgery residency programs were analyzed (2011-2015). Trends in fold differences of hand surgery case volume between the 10th and 90th percentiles of residents were assessed graphically. Percentile data were used to calculate the number of residents achieving case minimums in hand surgery for 2015. Case logs from 818 plastic surgery residents were analyzed of which a minority were from integrated (35.7%) versus independent/combined (64.3%) residents. Trend analysis of fold differences in case volume demonstrated decreasing variability among procedure categories over time. By 2015, fold differences for hand reconstruction, tendon cases, nerve cases, arthroplasty/arthrodesis, amputation, arterial repair, Dupuytren release, and neoplasm cases were below 10-fold. Congenital deformity cases among independent/combined residents was the sole category that exceeded 10-fold by 2015. Percentile data suggested that approximately 10% of independent/combined residents did not meet case minimums for arterial repair and congenital deformity in 2015. Variable operative experience during plastic surgery residency may limit adequate exposure to hand surgery for certain residents. Future studies should establish empiric case minimums for plastic surgery residents to ensure hand surgery competency upon graduation. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Software Engineering Laboratory: An operational software experience factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software and software processes within a production software development environment at NASA/GSFC. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) NASA/GSFC, Flight Dynamics Division; (2) University of Maryland, Department of Computer Science; and (3) Computer Sciences Corporation, Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents, all of which describe some aspect of the software engineering technology that was analyzed in the flight dynamics environment at NASA. The studies range from small, controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus that of functional testing) to large, multiple project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The organization's driving goal is to improve the software process continually, so that sustained improvement may be observed in the resulting products. This paper discusses the SEL as a functioning example of an operational software experience factory and summarizes the characteristics of and major lessons learned from 15 years of SEL operations.

  13. Adverse Experiences in Early Childhood and Kindergarten Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Manuel E; Wade, Roy; Lin, Yong; Morrow, Lesley M; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-02-01

    To examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in early childhood and teacher-reported academic and behavioral problems in kindergarten. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort. Subjects with primary caregiver-reported information on ACE exposures ascertained at 5 years and teacher-reported outcomes at the end of the child's kindergarten year were included. Outcomes included teacher ratings of academic skills, emergent literacy skills, and behavior. We included 8 ACE exposures on the basis of the original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kaiser study and created an ACE score by summing individual adversities. We examined the associations between teacher-reported academic and behavioral outcomes and ACE scores by using logistic regression. In the study sample, 1007 children were included. Fifty-five percent had experienced 1 ACE and 12% had experienced ≥ 3. Adjusting for potential confounders, experiencing ≥ 3 ACEs was associated with below-average language and literacy skills (adjusted odds ratio [AORs]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.9) and math skills (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), poor emergent literacy skills, attention problems (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.8-6.5), social problems (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0), and aggression (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.6). In this study of urban children, experiencing ACEs in early childhood was associated with below-average, teacher-reported academic and literacy skills and behavior problems in kindergarten. These findings underscore the importance of integrated approaches that promote optimal development among vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    PubMed

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes. Learning in medical practice includes a socialisation process in which some learning outcomes may be valued, but others neglected or discouraged. This study describes students' learning goals (prior to a Year 1 nursing attachment) and learning outcomes (after the attachment) in relation to institutional educational goals, and evaluates associations between learning outcomes, student characteristics and place of attachment. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions about learning goals and learning outcomes was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n = 347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in either a hospital or a nursing home. Two confirmatory focus group interviews were conducted and data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. Students' learning goals corresponded with educational goals with a main emphasis on communication and empathy. Other learning goals included gaining insight into the organisation of health care and learning to deal with emotions. Self-reported learning outcomes were the same, but students additionally mentioned reflection on professional behaviour and their own future development. Women and younger students mentioned communication and empathy more often than men and older students. Individual learning goals, with the exception of communicating and empathising with patients, did not predict learning outcomes. Students' learning goals closely match educational goals, which are adequately met in early nursing attachments in both hospitals and nursing homes. Learning to deal with emotions was under-represented as a learning goal and learning outcome, which may indicate that emotional aspects

  15. Two year operational experience with the TPS vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. C.; Chan, C. K.; Sheng, I. C.; Huang, I. T.; Y Chung, J.; Liang, C. C.

    2017-07-01

    The Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a 3-GeV third generation synchrotron light source, was commissioned in 2014 December and is now currently operated in top-up mode at 300mA for users. During the past two years, the machine was completed to meet design goals with among others the installation of superconducting cavities (SRF), the installation of insertion devices (ID) and the correction of vacuum chamber structure downstream from the IDs. The design goal of 500mA beam current was achieved with a total accumulated beam dose of more than 1000Ah, resulting in three orders of magnitude reduction of out-gassing. As the beam current was increased, a few vacuum problems were encountered, including vacuum leaks, unexpected pressure bursts, etc. Vacuum related issues including high pressure events, lessons learned and operational experience will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  17. Vascular Trauma Operative Experience is Inadequate in General Surgery Programs.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huan; Maximus, Steven; Koopmann, Matthew; Keeley, Jessica; Smith, Brian; Virgilio, Christian de; Kim, Dennis Y

    2016-05-01

    Vascular injuries may be challenging, particularly for surgeons who have not received formal vascular surgery fellowship training. Lack of experience and improper technique can result in significant complications. The objective of this study was to examine changes in resident experience with operative vascular trauma over time. A retrospective review was performed using Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs of general surgery residents graduating between 2004 and 2014 at 2 academic, university-affiliated institutions associated with level 1 trauma centers. The primary outcome was number of reported vascular trauma operations, stratified by year of graduation and institution. A total of 112 residents graduated in the study period with a median 7 (interquartile range 4.5-13.5) vascular trauma cases per resident. Fasciotomy and exposure and/or repair of peripheral vessels constituted the bulk of the operative volume. Linear regression showed no significant trend in cases with respect to year of graduation (P = 0.266). Residents from program A (n = 53) reported a significantly higher number of vascular trauma cases when compared with program B (n = 59): 12.0 vs. 5.0 cases, respectively (P < 0.001). Level 1 trauma center verification does not guarantee sufficient exposure to vascular trauma. The operative exposure in program B is reflective of the national average of 4.0 cases per resident as reported by the ACGME, and this trend is unlikely to change in the near future. Fellowship training may be critical for surgeons who plan to work in a trauma setting, particularly in areas lacking vascular surgeons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test /SMEAT/ facility design and operation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinners, A. H., Jr.; Correale, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the design approaches and test facility operation methods used to successfully accomplish a 56-day test for Skylab to permit evaluation of selected Skylab medical experiments in a ground test simulation of the Skylab environment with an astronaut crew. The systems designed for this test include the two-gas environmental control system, the fire suppression and detection system, equipment transfer lock, ground support equipment, safety systems, potable water system, waste management system, lighting and power system, television monitoring, communications and recreation systems, and food freezer.

  19. Laparoscopic single port surgery in children using Triport: our early experience.

    PubMed

    de Armas, Ismael A Salas; Garcia, Isabella; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopy has become the gold standard technique for appendectomy and cholecystectomy. With the emergence of newer laparoscopic instruments which are roticulating and provide 7 degrees of freedom it is now possible to perform these operations through a single umbilical incision rather than the standard 3-4 incisions and thus lead to more desirable cosmetic results and less postoperative pain. The newer reticulating telescopes provide excellent exposure of the operating field and allow the operations to proceed routinely. Recently, ports [Triports (Olympus surgery)/SILS ports] especially designed for single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) have been developed. We herein describe our experience with laparoscopic single port appendectomies and cholecystectomies in children using the Triport. This is a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent single incision laparoscopic surgery between May 2009 and August 2010 at Texas Children's Hospital and Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston Texas by a single surgeon. Charts were reviewed for demographics, type of procedure, operative time, early or late complications, outcome and cosmetic results. Fifty-four patients underwent SILS. A total of 50 appendectomies (early or perforated) and 4 cholecystectomies were performed using this new minimally invasive approach. The average operative time for SILS/LESS appendectomy was 54 min with a range between 25 and 205 min, while operative time for SILS cholecystectomy was 156 min with a range of 75-196 min. Only small percentage (4%) of appendectomies (mostly complicated) were converted to standard laparoscopy, but none were converted to open procedure. All patients were followed up in the clinic after 3-4 weeks. No complications were noted and all patients had excellent cosmetic results. Parents were extremely satisfied with the cosmetic results. SILS/LESS is a safe, minimally invasive approach for appendectomy and cholecystectomy in children. This new approach is

  20. Preliminary analysis of WL experiment number 701: Space environment effects on operating fiber optic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E. W.; Padden, R. J.; Berry, J. N.; Sanchez, A. D.; Chapman, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    A brief overview of the analysis performed on WL Experiment number 701 is presented, highlighting the successful operation of the first know active fiber optic links orbited in space. Four operating fiber optic links were exposed to the space environment for a period exceeding five years, situated aboard and external to the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Despite the prolonged space exposure to radiation, wide temperature extremums, atomic oxygen interactions, and micrometeorite and debris impacts, the optical data links performed well within specification limits. Early Phillips Laboratory tests and analyses performed on the experiment and its recovered magnetic tape data strongly indicate that fiber optic application in space will have a high success rate.

  1. Development and Operation of Space-Based Disease Early Warning Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    program, and the The Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA) program. Based on the understanding of basic processes as well as the experience of currently operational programs, the paper offers a number of recommendations to governments and researchers for future development of operational disease early warning programs.

  2. Utility of Early Post-operative High Resolution Volumetric MR Imaging after Transsphenoidal Pituitary Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kunal S.; Kazam, Jacob; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Anand, Vijay K.; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists over the utility of early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for macroadenomas. We investigate whether valuable information can be derived from current higher resolution scans. Methods Volumetric MRI scans were obtained in the early (<10 days) and late (>30 days) post-operative periods in a series of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The volume of the residual tumor, resection cavity, and corresponding visual field tests were recorded at each time point. Statistical analyses of changes in tumor volume and cavity size were calculated using the late MRI as the gold standard. Results 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Pre-operative tumor volume averaged 8.8 cm3. Early postoperative assessment of average residual tumor volume (1.18 cm3) was quite accurate and did not differ statistically from late post-operative volume (1.23 cm3, p=.64), indicating the utility of early scans to measure residual tumor. Early scans were 100% sensitive and 91% specific for predicting ≥ 98% resection (p<.001, Fisher’s exact test). The average percent decrease in cavity volume from pre-operative MRI (tumor volume) to early post-operative imaging was 45% with decreases in all but 3 patients. There was no correlation between the size of the early cavity and the visual outcome. Conclusions Early high resolution volumetric MRI is valuable in determining the presence or absence of residual tumor. Cavity volume almost always decreases after surgery and a lack of decrease should alert the surgeon to possible persistent compression of the optic apparatus that may warrant re-operation. PMID:25045791

  3. The EOLE experiment: Early results and current objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The EOLE experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon floating freely at approximately the 200 mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an RMS uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the EOLE wind data are given for describing the mean 200 mb zonal and meridional circulations. The effect of the small scale eddies of two-dimensional turbulence has been studied with respect to the relative eddy diffusion of pairs of balloons and the relative dispersion of triangular clusters. New estimates of the RMS divergence of the 200 mb flow are given, together with their scale dependence which was found to be a logarithmic law.

  4. Consumer-directed health plans: enrollee views, early employer experience.

    PubMed

    Frates, Janice; Severoni, Ellen

    2005-06-01

    Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) are a new health insurance product that is of growing interest to employers who are struggling to cope with rising health insurance premium costs and to consumers who are desiring more choice and engagement in their health care. This paper presents the results of a study of California consumer awareness of, and attitudes toward, CDHPs in the context of several national surveys and the experiences of some early-adopting employers. California Health Decisions conducted a telephone survey of 800 insured adult California residents in November 2002. Few respondents had heard of CDHPs. They appealed more to younger, single, less educated, and healthier respondents and those who did not understand them well. The most attractive CDHP features were greater provider choice and health savings accounts' portability and flexibility. Concerns centered on personal financial exposure. While CDHPs' commercial market penetration is increasing, their greatest potential future contributions might be to reduce the number of uninsured Americans by offering an affordable health insurance product and to fund additional health services for retirees. As CDHPs further evolve, more consumer involvement in their refinement, implementation, and evaluation is essential.

  5. Early experience with endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for plantar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Kaur, Simranjit; Wilson, Paul

    2016-05-01

    We describe our endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy technique and our early experience using it to treat plantar hyperhidrosis. We reviewed 20 lumbar sympathectomies performed in our vascular unit for plantar hyperhidrosis in 10 patients from 2011 and 2014. Demographics and outcomes were analyzed and a review of the literature conducted. All procedures were carried out endoscopically with no intraoperative or postoperative morbidity. Plantar anhidrosis was achieved in all the patients, although two patients (20%) suffered a relapse. Unwanted side-effects occurred in the form of compensatory sweating in three patients (30%) and post-sympathectomy neuralgia in two patients (20%). None of the patients experienced sexual dysfunction. Management of plantar hyperhidrosis may be based upon a therapeutic ladder starting with conservative measures and working up to surgery depending on the severity of the disease. Minimally invasive (endoscopic) sympathectomy for the thoracic chain is well established, but minimally invasive sympathectomy for the lumbar chain is a relatively new technique. Endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy provides an effective, minimally invasive method of surgical management, but long-term data are lacking. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Early adverse experiences and the neurobiology of facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Moulson, Margaret C; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad facial expressions of emotion. At 3 assessments (baseline, 30 months, and 42 months), institutionalized children showed markedly smaller amplitudes and longer latencies for the occipital components P1, N170, and P400 compared to family-reared children. By 42 months, ERP amplitudes and latencies of children placed in foster care were intermediate between the institutionalized and family-reared children, suggesting that foster care may be partially effective in ameliorating adverse neural changes caused by institutionalization. The age at which children were placed into foster care was unrelated to their ERP outcomes at 42 months. Facial emotion processing was similar in all 3 groups of children; specifically, fearful faces elicited larger amplitude and longer latency responses than happy faces for the frontocentral components P250 and Nc. These results have important implications for understanding of the role that experience plays in shaping the developing brain.

  7. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas T

    2015-02-01

    The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway.

  8. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas. T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway. PMID:26523124

  9. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 mission flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, C. H.; Mcintosh, R. J.; Rowe, J. N.; Defazio, R. L.; Galal, K. F.

    1995-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 spacecraft was launched on April 13, 1994, at 06:04:02 coordinated universal time (UTC), with separation from the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle occurring at 06:33:05 UTC. The launch was followed by a series of complex, intense operations to maneuver the spacecraft into its geosynchronous mission orbit. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) was responsible for GOES-8 attitude, orbit maneuver, orbit determination, and station acquisition support during the ascent phase. This paper summarizes the efforts of the FDF support teams and highlights some of the unique challenges the launch team faced during critical GOES-8 mission support. FDF operations experience discussed includes: (1) The abort of apogee maneuver firing-1 (AMF-1), cancellation of AMF-3, and the subsequent replans of the maneuver profile; (2) The unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the digital integrating rate assembly (DIRA) and its effect on GOES-8 attitude targeting in support of perigee raising maneuvers; (3) The significant effect of attitude control thrusting on GOES-8 orbit determination solutions; (4) Adjustment of the trim tab to minimize torque due to solar radiation pressure; and (5) Postlaunch analysis performed to estimate the GOES-8 separation attitude. The paper also discusses some key FDF GOES-8 lessons learned to be considered for the GOES-J launch which is currently scheduled for May 19, 1995.

  10. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  11. Effect of minimally invasive surgery fellowship on residents' operative experience.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Maria S; Frenkel, Catherine; Scriven, Richard; Thornton, Deborah; Halbert, Caitlin; Talamini, Mark; Telem, Dana A; Pryor, Aurora D

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased need for surgical trainees to acquire advanced laparoscopic skills as laparoscopy becomes the standard of care in many areas of general surgery. Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) fellowships, there has been a continuing debate as to whether these fellowships adversely affect general surgery resident exposure to laparoscopic cases. The aim of our study was to examine whether the introduction of an MIS fellowship negatively impacts general surgery residents' experience at a single academic center. We describe the changes following establishment of MIS fellowship at an academic center. Resident case log system from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education was queried to obtain all PGY 1-5 resident operative case logs. Two-year time period preceding and following the institution of an MIS fellowship at our institution in 2012 was compared. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Following initiation of the MIS fellowship, an MIS service was established. The service comprised of a fellow, midlevel resident, and intern. Operative experience was examined. From 2010-2012 to 2012-2014, residents logged a total of 272 and 585 complex laparoscopic cases, respectively. There were 43 residents from 2010 to 2013 and 44 residents from 2013 to 2014. When the two time periods were compared, a trend of increased numbers for all procedures was noted, except laparoscopic GYN/genito-urinary procedures. Average percent increase in complex general surgery procedures was 249 ± 179.8 %. Following establishment of a MIS fellowship, reported cases by residents were higher or similar to those reported nationally for laparoscopic procedures. Institution of an MIS fellowship had a favorable effect on general surgery resident operative education at a single academic training center. Residents may benefit from the presence of a fellowship at an academic center because they are able to participate in an

  12. Practical experience and challenges in the operation of medical cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, Rajendra G; Pandey, Anil K; Tripathi, Madhavi; Damle, Nishikant A; Kumar, Praveen; Bal, Chandra S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article was to share 10 years of operational experience of medical cyclotron and to provide working knowledge on the same. This experience has helped us gain working knowledge on cyclotron operation with practical points, which may help in improving F yield, minimizing the breakdown time, and help in the prevention of the occurrence of unusual events. Our facility has a self-shielded radioisotope delivery system eclipse 111 medical cyclotron with an 11 MeV proton beam in use for the past 10 years to produce positron emitters - namely, F, N, and F-2 gas - for PET imaging. During F production, we have followed a set protocol comprising the following: monitoring target pressure, rinsing the target with O water just immediately after bombardment, ion source feedback, radiofrequency (RF) feedback, and recording any unusual events that occurred during the operation. Besides this, enrichment of O water, target volume, target current, energy of the beam, variation in argon pressure on the target, bombardment duration, target status (new or old target or total number of previous bombardments on the same target), status of the delivery lines from target to the radiochemistry module (old or new) were also recorded. Rinsing with O water immediately after bombardment increases the life of the target and delivery line. The frequent problems encountered were with the ion source, RF, and target foil rupture. These problems were solved by rebuilding the ion source, changing the fuse of RF, and rebuilding the target. F yield can be increased by rinsing with O water immediately after bombardment. The effect of target leak - that is, rupture of vacuum window - can be avoided by immediate stoppage of bombardment.

  13. Early experience with Suboxone maintenance therapy in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Farkas, Judit; Csorba, József; Németh, Attila; Mervó, Barbara; Szemelyácz, János; Fleischmann, Enikö; Kassai-Farkas, Akos; Petke, Zsolt; Oroján, Tibor; Rózsa, Sándor; Rigó, Péter; Funk, Sándor; Kapitány, Máté; Kollár, Anna; Rácz, József

    2009-12-01

    Suboxone (Buprenorphine/naloxone) is a novel drug used in opiate substitution therapy. In Hungary, it was introduced in November 2007. Suboxone is a product for sublingual administration containing the partial mu-receptor agonist buprenorphine and antagonist naloxone in a 4:1 ratio. Objectives of our study were to monitor and evaluate the effects of Suboxone treatment. 6 outpatient centers participated in the study, 3 from Budapest and 3 from smaller cities in Hungary. At these centers, all patients entering Suboxone maintenance therapy between November 2007 and March 2008, altogether 80 persons (55 males, 35 females, mean age = 30.2 years, SD=5.48) were included in the study sample. During the 6-month period of treatment, data were collected 4 times; when entering treatment, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after entering treatment. Applied measures were the Addiction Severity Index, SCID-I, SCID-II, Hamilton Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, STAI-S State Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Heroin Craving Questionnaire, WHO Well-being Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, ADHD retrospective questionnaire, TCI short version, and Ways of Coping questionnaire. Nearly fourth of the altogether 80 heroin dependent patients (18 persons, 22.5%) dropped out of treatment during the first month (the majority, 12 persons [15%] during the first week) or chose methadone substitution instead. Following this period however, dropout rate decreased and the six-month treatment period was completed by 32 patients (40%). During the first month of treatment significant positive changes were experienced in all studied psychological and behavioral dimensions that proved to be stabile throughout the studied period. According to the early experience with Suboxone treatment, it is a well tolerable and successfully applicable drug in the substitution therapy of opiate addicts. A critical phase seems to be the first one or two weeks of treatment. Dropout rate is high during this

  14. LANL OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH THE WAND AND HERCULES PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. GRUETZMACHER; C. L. FOXX; S. C. MYERS

    2000-09-01

    The Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal (WAND) and the High Efficiency Radiation Counters for Ultimate Low Emission Sensitivity (HERCULES) prototype systems have been operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Solid Waste Operation's (SWO'S) non-destructive assay (NDA) building since 1997 and 1998, respectively. These systems are the cornerstone of the verification program for low-density Green is Clean (GIC) waste at the Laboratory. GIC waste includes all non-regulated waste generated in radiological controlled areas (RCAS) that has been actively segregated as clean (i.e., nonradioactive) through the use of waste generator acceptable knowledge (AK). The use of this methodology alters LANL's pastmore » practice of disposing of all room trash generated in nuclear facilities in radioactive waste landfills. Waste that is verified clean can be disposed of at the Los Alamos County Landfill. It is estimated that 50-90% of the low-density room trash from radioactive material handling areas at Los Alamos might be free of contamination. This approach avoids the high cost of disposal of clean waste at a radioactive waste landfill. It also reduces consumption of precious space in the radioactive waste landfill where disposal of this waste provides no benefit to the public or the environment. Preserving low level waste (LLW) disposal capacity for truly radioactive waste is critical in this era when expanding existing radioactive waste landfills or permitting new ones is resisted by regulators and stakeholders. This paper describes the operating experience with the WAND and HERCULES since they began operation at SWO. Waste for verification by the WAND system has been limited so far to waste from the Plutonium Facility and the Solid Waste Operations Facility. A total of461 ft3 (13.1 m3) of low-density shredded waste and paper have been verified clean by the WAND system. The HERCULES system has been used to verify waste from four Laboratory facilities. These are

  15. Early post-operative cerebrospinal fluid hypovolemia: Report of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kun; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Xianfeng; Suo, Shihuan; Zhao, Jinchuan; Li, Guichen

    2018-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia is a common neurosurgical condition, which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. At our institution, a substantial number of the reported cases of early post-operative CSF hypovolemia were identified to have unintentional or unrecognized post-operative continuous excessive CSF leakage. Cases who presented with post-operative CSF hypovolemia several days after uneventful intracranial surgeries without continuous CSF leakage were rarely reported. A retrospective review of the medical records of these patients was performed to identify those patients who developed early post-operative CSF hypovolemia without the presence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. A total of 7 patients, 5 of which were males, were identified in this retrospective study. They experienced CSF hypovolemia between days 1 and 7 after emergency or scheduled intracranial surgeries. Ventricular collapse, cisternal effacement and midline shift are the most common radiological observations. With early diagnosis and management, 4 of the patients achieved a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5, 1 achieved a GOS score of 4 and the remaining 2 had a GOS score of 3. No mortality was noted in this series. Although rare in incidence, early post-operative CSF hypovolemia may occur without the existence of post-operative continuous CSF leakage. When the diagnosis of CSF hypovolemia is reached, factors that may exacerbate CSF compensation should be promptly terminated. Trendelenburg position and sufficient intravenous hydration are practical and effective managements, and CSF hypovolemia may thereby be reversed in a substantial number of patients.

  16. Robotic Inguinal Hernia Repair: Technique and Early Experience.

    PubMed

    Arcerito, Massimo; Changchien, Eric; Bernal, Oscar; Konkoly-Thege, Adam; Moon, John

    2016-10-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has been shown to have multiple advantages compared with open repair such as less postoperative pain and earlier resume of daily activities with a comparable recurrence rate. We speculate robotic inguinal hernia repair may yield equivalent benefits, while providing the surgeon added dexterity. One hundred consecutive robotic inguinal hernia repairs with mesh were performed with a mean age of 56 years (25-96). Fifty-six unilateral hernias and 22 bilateral hernias were repaired amongst 62 males and 16 females. Polypropylene mesh was used for reconstruction. All but, two patients were completed robotically. Mean operative time was 52 minutes per hernia repair (45-67). Five patients were admitted overnight based on their advanced age. Regular diet was resumed immediately. Postoperative pain was minimal and regular activity was achieved after an average of four days. One patient recurred after three months in our earlier experience and he was repaired robotically. Mean follow-up time was 12 months. These data, compared with laparoscopic approach, suggest similar recurrence rates and postoperative pain. We believe comparative studies with laparoscopic approach need to be performed to assess the role robotic surgery has in the treatment of inguinal hernia repair.

  17. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  18. Professional Socialization Experiences of Early Career Urban Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara Barnard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how three physical education (PE) teachers' professional socialization programmes influenced their early careers in urban schools in the US. Using cultural relevance theory and occupational socialization theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for a period of six weeks each.…

  19. The First Three Years: Experiences of Early Career Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This study considers two discourses of current relevance to national and international educators--early professional learning (EPL) and curriculum change. Induction arrangements for early career teachers (ECTs), EPL and informal learning have received considerable attention in the past few years. Changes to induction inevitably have knock-on…

  20. Australian experience with frozen blood products on military operations.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Susan J; Wishaw, Ken; Lelkens, Charles

    2010-02-15

    Historically, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) has sourced all its blood supplies from the Australian Red Cross Blood Service. Recent ADF operations in the Middle East have highlighted a need to rely on other nations' blood supply systems. In 2008, the ADF embedded a surgical and intensive care team into the Netherlands-led forward health facility at the Uruzgan Medical Centre at Tarin Kowt in Afghanistan. To date, three teams have provided 2-month rotations as part of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. The Netherlands armed forces use a sophisticated system for supply of liquid and frozen blood products (frozen red cells, plasma and platelets). We review Australian experience with the Dutch system of supplying blood products for major trauma resuscitation in Afghanistan.

  1. Savannah River Site Operating Experience with Transuranic (TRU) Waste Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, K.A.; Milner, T.N.

    2006-07-01

    Drums of TRU Waste have been stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on concrete pads from the 1970's through the 1980's. These drums were subsequently covered with tarpaulins and then mounded over with dirt. Between 1996 and 2000 SRS ran a successful retrieval campaign and removed some 8,800 drums, which were then available for venting and characterization for WIPP disposal. Additionally, a number of TRU Waste drums, which were higher in activity, were stored in concrete culverts, as required by the Safety Analysis for the Facility. Retrieval of drums from these culverts has been ongoing since 2002. This papermore » will describe the operating experience and lessons learned from the SRS retrieval activities. (authors)« less

  2. Operational experience from LCLS-II cryomodule testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Hansen, B.; White, M.; Hurd, J.; Atassi, O. Al; Bossert, R.; Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Makara, J.; Theilacker, J.; Kaluzny, J.; Wu, G.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  3. Operational Experience from LCLS-II Cryomodule Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Renzhuo; Hansen, Benjamin; White, Michael

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in themore » cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.« less

  4. Early and late outcomes of 1000 minimally invasive aortic valve operations.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Minoru; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Cohn, Lawrence H; Bolman, Ralph Morton; Shekar, Prem S; Chen, Frederick Y; Couper, Gregory S; Aranki, Sary F

    2008-04-01

    Minimal access cardiac valve surgery is increasingly utilized. We report our 11-year experience with minimally invasive aortic valve surgery. From 07/96 to 12/06, 1005 patients underwent minimally invasive aortic valve surgery. Early and late outcomes were analyzed. Median patient age was 68 years (range: 24-95), 179 patients (18%) were 80 years or older, 130 patients (13%) had reoperative aortic valve surgery, 86 (8.4%) had aortic root replacement, 62 (6.1%) had concomitant ascending aortic replacement, and 26 (2.6%) had percutaneous coronary intervention on the day of surgery (hybrid procedure). Operative mortality was 1.9% (19/1005). The incidences of deep sternal wound infection, pneumonia and reoperation for bleeding were 0.5% (5/1005), 1.3% (13/1005) and 2.4% (25/1005), respectively. Median length of stay was 6 days and 733 patients (72%) were discharged home. Actuarial survival was 91% at 5 years and 88% at 10 years. In the subgroup of the elderly (> or =80 years), operative mortality was 1.7% (3/179), median length of stay was 8 days and 66 patients (37%) were discharged home. Actuarial survival at 5 years was 84%. There was a significant decreasing trend in cardiopulmonary bypass time, the incidence of bleeding, and operative mortality over time. Minimal access approaches in aortic valve surgery are safe and feasible with excellent outcomes. Aortic root replacement, ascending aortic replacement, and reoperative surgery can be performed with these approaches. These procedures are particularly well-tolerated in the elderly.

  5. Avoiding Human Error in Mission Operations: Cassini Flight Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Operating spacecraft is a never-ending challenge and the risk of human error is ever- present. Many missions have been significantly affected by human error on the part of ground controllers. The Cassini mission at Saturn has not been immune to human error, but Cassini operations engineers use tools and follow processes that find and correct most human errors before they reach the spacecraft. What is needed are skilled engineers with good technical knowledge, good interpersonal communications, quality ground software, regular peer reviews, up-to-date procedures, as well as careful attention to detail and the discipline to test and verify all commands that will be sent to the spacecraft. Two areas of special concern are changes to flight software and response to in-flight anomalies. The Cassini team has a lot of practical experience in all these areas and they have found that well-trained engineers with good tools who follow clear procedures can catch most errors before they get into command sequences to be sent to the spacecraft. Finally, having a robust and fault-tolerant spacecraft that allows ground controllers excellent visibility of its condition is the most important way to ensure human error does not compromise the mission.

  6. The ATLAS Tier-0: Overview and operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsing, Markus; Goossens, Luc; Nairz, Armin; Negri, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Within the ATLAS hierarchical, multi-tier computing infrastructure, the Tier-0 centre at CERN is mainly responsible for prompt processing of the raw data coming from the online DAQ system, to archive the raw and derived data on tape, to register the data with the relevant catalogues and to distribute them to the associated Tier-1 centers. The Tier-0 is already fully functional. It has been successfully participating in all cosmic and commissioning data taking since May 2007, and was ramped up to its foreseen full size, performance and throughput for the cosmic (and short single-beam) run periods between July and October 2008. Data and work flows for collision data taking were exercised in several "Full Dress Rehearsals" (FDRs) in the course of 2008. The transition from an expert to a shifter-based system was successfully established in July 2008. This article will give an overview of the Tier-0 system, its data and work flows, and operations model. It will review the operational experience gained in cosmic, commissioning, and FDR exercises during the past year. And it will give an outlook on planned developments and the evolution of the system towards first collision data taking expected now in late Autumn 2009.

  7. It depends on your perspective: Resident satisfaction with operative experience.

    PubMed

    Perone, Jennifer A; Fankhauser, Grant T; Adhikari, Deepak; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Woods, Majka B; Tyler, Douglas S; Brown, Kimberly M

    2017-02-01

    Resident satisfaction is a key performance metric for surgery programs; we studied factors influencing resident satisfaction in operative cases, and the concordance of faculty and resident perceptions on these factors. Resident and faculty were separately queried on satisfaction immediately following operative cases. Statistical significance of the associations between resident and faculty satisfaction and case-related factors were tested by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Residents and faculty were very satisfied in 56/87 (64%) and 36/87 (41%) of cases respectively. Resident satisfaction was associated with their perceived role as surgeon (p < 0.04), performing >50% of the case (p < 0.01), autonomy (p < 0.03), and PGY year 4-5(p < 0.02). Faculty taking over the case was associated with both resident and faculty dissatisfaction. Faculty satisfaction was associated with resident preparation (p < 0.01), faculty perception of resident autonomy (p < 0.01), and faculty familiarity with resident's skills (p < 0.01). Resident and faculty satisfaction are associated with the resident's competent performance of the case, suggesting interventions to optimize resident preparation for a case or faculty's ability to facilitate resident autonomy will improve satisfaction with OR experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variability in Resident Operative Hand Experience by Specialty.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Levin, L Scott; Chang, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Recent attention has sought to standardize hand surgery training in the United States. This study analyzes the variability in operative hand experience for orthopedic and general surgery residents. Case logs for orthopedic and general surgery residency graduates were obtained from the American Council of Graduate Medical Education (2006-2007 to 2014-2015). Plastic surgery case logs were not available for comparison. Hand surgery case volumes were compared between specialties with parametric tests. Intraspecialty variation in orthopedic surgery was assessed between the bottom and top 10th percentiles in procedure categories. Case logs for 9605 general surgery residents and 5911 orthopedic surgery residents were analyzed. Orthopedic surgery residents performed a greater number of hand surgery cases than general surgery residents ( P < .001). Mean total hand experience ranged from 2.5 ± 4 to 2.8 ± 5 procedures for general surgery residents with no reported cases of soft tissue repairs, vascular repairs, and replants. Significant intraspecialty variation existed in orthopedic surgery for all hand procedure categories (range, 3.3-15.0). As the model for hand surgery training evolves, general surgeons may represent an underutilized talent pool to meet the critical demand for hand surgeon specialists. Future research is needed to determine acceptable levels of training variability in hand surgery.

  9. Operational Experience with the Frontier System in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenfeld, Barry; Dykstra, Dave; Kreuzer, Peter

    2012-06-20

    The Frontier framework is used in the CMS experiment at the LHC to deliver conditions data to processing clients worldwide, including calibration, alignment, and configuration information. Each central server at CERN, called a Frontier Launchpad, uses tomcat as a servlet container to establish the communication between clients and the central Oracle database. HTTP-proxy Squid servers, located close to clients, cache the responses to queries in order to provide high performance data access and to reduce the load on the central Oracle database. Each Frontier Launchpad also has its own reverse-proxy Squid for caching. The three central servers have been deliveringmore » about 5 million responses every day since the LHC startup, containing about 40 GB data in total, to more than one hundred Squid servers located worldwide, with an average response time on the order of 10 milliseconds. The Squid caches deployed worldwide process many more requests per day, over 700 million, and deliver over 40 TB of data. Several monitoring tools of the tomcat log files, the accesses of the Squids on the central Launchpad servers, and the availability of remote Squids have been developed to guarantee the performance of the service and make the system easily maintainable. Following a brief introduction of the Frontier framework, we describe the performance of this highly reliable and stable system, detail monitoring concerns and their deployment, and discuss the overall operational experience from the first two years of LHC data-taking.« less

  10. Operational Experience with the Frontier System in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenfeld, Barry; Dykstra, Dave; Kreuzer, Peter; Du, Ran; Wang, Weizhen

    2012-12-01

    The Frontier framework is used in the CMS experiment at the LHC to deliver conditions data to processing clients worldwide, including calibration, alignment, and configuration information. Each central server at CERN, called a Frontier Launchpad, uses tomcat as a servlet container to establish the communication between clients and the central Oracle database. HTTP-proxy Squid servers, located close to clients, cache the responses to queries in order to provide high performance data access and to reduce the load on the central Oracle database. Each Frontier Launchpad also has its own reverse-proxy Squid for caching. The three central servers have been delivering about 5 million responses every day since the LHC startup, containing about 40 GB data in total, to more than one hundred Squid servers located worldwide, with an average response time on the order of 10 milliseconds. The Squid caches deployed worldwide process many more requests per day, over 700 million, and deliver over 40 TB of data. Several monitoring tools of the tomcat log files, the accesses of the Squids on the central Launchpad servers, and the availability of remote Squids have been developed to guarantee the performance of the service and make the system easily maintainable. Following a brief introduction of the Frontier framework, we describe the performance of this highly reliable and stable system, detail monitoring concerns and their deployment, and discuss the overall operational experience from the first two years of LHC data-taking.

  11. Operations of a spaceflight experiment to investigate plant tropisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Kumar, Prem; Millar, Katherine D. L.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Correll, Melanie J.

    2009-10-01

    Plants will be an important component in bioregenerative systems for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars. Since gravity is reduced both on the Moon and Mars, studies that identify the basic mechanisms of plant growth and development in altered gravity are required to ensure successful plant production on these space colonization missions. To address these issues, we have developed a project on the International Space Station (ISS) to study the interaction between gravitropism and phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. These experiments were termed TROPI (for tropisms) and were performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) in 2006. In this paper, we provide an operational summary of TROPI and preliminary results on studies of tropistic curvature of seedlings grown in space. Seed germination in TROPI was lower compared to previous space experiments, and this was likely due to extended storage in hardware for up to 8 months. Video downlinks provided an important quality check on the automated experimental time line that also was monitored with telemetry. Good quality images of seedlings were obtained, but the use of analog video tapes resulted in delays in image processing and analysis procedures. Seedlings that germinated exhibited robust phototropic curvature. Frozen plant samples were returned on three space shuttle missions, and improvements in cold stowage and handing procedures in the second and third missions resulted in quality RNA extracted from the seedlings that was used in subsequent microarray analyses. While the TROPI experiment had technical and logistical difficulties, most of the procedures worked well due to refinement during the project.

  12. Robotic assembly and maintenance of future space stations based on the ISS mission operations experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembala, Richard; Ower, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    MDA has provided 25 years of real-time engineering support to Shuttle (Canadarm) and ISS (Canadarm2) robotic operations beginning with the second shuttle flight STS-2 in 1981. In this capacity, our engineering support teams have become familiar with the evolution of mission planning and flight support practices for robotic assembly and support operations at mission control. This paper presents observations on existing practices and ideas to achieve reduced operational overhead to present programs. It also identifies areas where robotic assembly and maintenance of future space stations and space-based facilities could be accomplished more effectively and efficiently. Specifically, our experience shows that past and current space Shuttle and ISS assembly and maintenance operations have used the approach of extensive preflight mission planning and training to prepare the flight crews for the entire mission. This has been driven by the overall communication latency between the earth and remote location of the space station/vehicle as well as the lack of consistent robotic and interface standards. While the early Shuttle and ISS architectures included robotics, their eventual benefits on the overall assembly and maintenance operations could have been greater through incorporating them as a major design driver from the beginning of the system design. Lessons learned from the ISS highlight the potential benefits of real-time health monitoring systems, consistent standards for robotic interfaces and procedures and automated script-driven ground control in future space station assembly and logistics architectures. In addition, advances in computer vision systems and remote operation, supervised autonomous command and control systems offer the potential to adjust the balance between assembly and maintenance tasks performed using extra vehicular activity (EVA), extra vehicular robotics (EVR) and EVR controlled from the ground, offloading the EVA astronaut and even the robotic

  13. Integrating Renewable Generation into Grid Operations: Four International Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, Mark R.; Mylrea, Michael E.; Levin, Todd

    International experiences with power sector restructuring and the resultant impacts on bulk power grid operations and planning may provide insight into policy questions for the evolving United States power grid as resource mixes are changing in response to fuel prices, an aging generation fleet and to meet climate goals. Australia, Germany, Japan and the UK were selected to represent a range in the level and attributes of electricity industry liberalization in order to draw comparisons across a variety of regions in the United States such as California, ERCOT, the Southwest Power Pool and the Southeast Reliability Region. The study drawsmore » conclusions through a literature review of the four case study countries with regards to the changing resource mix and the electricity industry sector structure and their impact on grid operations and planning. This paper derives lessons learned and synthesizes implications for the United States based on answers to the above questions and the challenges faced by the four selected countries. Each country was examined to determine the challenges to their bulk power sector based on their changing resource mix, market structure, policies driving the changing resource mix, and policies driving restructuring. Each countries’ approach to solving those changes was examined, as well as how each country’s market structure either exacerbated or mitigated the approaches to solving the challenges to their bulk power grid operations and planning. All countries’ policies encourage renewable energy generation. One significant finding included the low- to zero-marginal cost of intermittent renewables and its potential negative impact on long-term resource adequacy. No dominant solution has emerged although a capacity market was introduced in the UK and is being contemplated in Japan. Germany has proposed the Energy Market 2.0 to encourage flexible generation investment. The grid operator in Australia proposed several approaches to

  14. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  15. The LBT experience of adaptive secondary mirror operations for routine seeing- and diffraction-limited science operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, J. C.; Brusa, G.; Christou, J.; Miller, D.; Ricardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Wagner, M.; Lefebvre, M.; Sosa, R.

    2013-09-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is unique in that it is currently the only large telescope (2 x 8.4m primary mirrors) with permanently mounted adaptive secondary mirrors (ASMs). These ASMs have been used for regular observing since early 2010 on the right side and since late 2011 on the left side. They are currently regularly used for seeing-limited observing as well as for selective diffraction-limited observing and are required to be fully operational every observing night. By comparison the other telescopes using ASMs, the Multi Mirrot Telescope (MMT) and more recently Magellan, use fixed secondaries of seeing-limited observing and switch in the ASMs for diffraction-limited observing. We will discuss the night-to-night operational requirements for ASMs specifically for seeing-limited but also for diffraction-limited observations based on the LBT experience. These will include preparation procedures for observing (mirror flattening and resting as examples); hardware failure statistics and how to deal with them such as for the actuators; observing protocols for; and current limitations of use due to the ASM technology such as the minimum elevation limit (25 degrees) and the hysteresis of the gravity-vector induced astigmatism. We will also discuss the impact of ASM maintenance and preparation

  16. Early Extubation in the Operating Room after Congenital Open-Heart Surgery.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, Takuma; Oka, Norihiko; Yoshii, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Horai, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Tadashi; Okamoto, Hirotsugu; Miyaji, Kagami

    2018-01-27

    Early extubation in the operating room after congenital open-heart surgery is feasible, but extubation in the intensive care unit after the operation remains common practice at many institutions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the adequacy of our early-extubation strategy and exclusion criteria through analysis based on the Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery method (RACHS-1).This retrospective analysis included 359 cases requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (male, 195; female, 164; weight > 3.0 kg; aged 1 month to 18 years). Neonates and preoperatively intubated patients were excluded. Other exclusion criteria included severe preoperative pulmonary hypertension, high-dose catecholamine requirement after cardiopulmonary bypass, delayed sternal closure, laryngomalacia, serious bleeding, and delayed awakening. The early-extubation rates were compared between age groups and RACHS-1 classes.Overall, 83% of cases (298/359) were extubated in the operating room, classified by RACHS-1 categories as follows: 1, 59/59 (100%); 2, 164/200 (84%); 3, 61/78 (78%); and 4-6, 10/22 (45%). The early extubation rate in categories 1-3 (86%, 288/337) was significantly higher than for categories 4-6 (45.5%, 10/22) (P < 0.001). Because they met one of the exclusion criteria, 61 patients (17%) were not extubated in the operating room. Eight patients (2.7%) required re-intubation after early extubation in the operating room, and longer operation time was significantly associated with re-intubation (P < 0.001).Extubation in the operating room after congenital open-heart surgery was feasible based on our criteria, especially for patients in the low RACHS-1 categories, and involves a very low rate of re-intubation.

  17. STORMVEX: The Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J; Matrosov, S; Shupe, M

    2010-09-29

    During the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX), a substantial correlative data set of remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements from fixed and airborne platforms will be created in a winter season, mountainous environment. This will be accomplished by combining mountaintop observations at Storm Peak Laboratory and the airborne National Science Foundation-supported Colorado Airborne Multi-Phase Cloud Study campaign with collocated measurements from the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2). We describe in this document the operational plans and motivating science for this experiment, which includes deployment of AMF2 to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The intensive STORMVEX field phasemore » will begin nominally on 1 November 2010 and extend to approximately early April 2011.« less

  18. Utility operational experience on the NASA/DOE Mod-OA 200 kW Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, J. C.; Robbins, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mod-OA 200 kW Wind Turbine was designed and fabricated by the Lewis Research Center of the NASA under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy. The project is a part of the Federal Wind Energy Program and is designed to obtain early wind turbine operation and performance data while gaining initial experience in the operation of large, horizontal axis wind turbines in typical utility environments. On March 6, 1978, the Mod-OA wind turbine was turned over to the Town of Clayton Light and Water Plant, Clayton, NM, for utility operation and on December 31, 1978 the machine had completed ten months of utility operation. This paper describes the machine and documents the recent operational experience at Clayton, NM.

  19. Operational and troubleshooting experiences in the SST-1 cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesuria, G.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Sonara, D.; Gupta, N. C.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Sharma, R.; Patel, J. C.; Tank, J.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the cooldown and current charging campaign have been carried out towards the demonstration of the first successful plasma discharge in the steady state superconducting Tokomak (SST-1). The SST-1 machine consists of cable-in-conduit wound superconducting toroidal as well as poloidal coils, cooled using 1.3 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator -cum- liquefier (HRL) system. The cryo system provides the two-phase helium at 0.13 MPa at 4.5 K as well as forced-flow pressurized helium at 0.4 MPa and in addition to 7 g-s-1 liquefaction capacity required for the current leads and other cold mass at 4.5 K. The entire integrated cold masses having different thermo hydraulic resistances cooled with the SST-1 HRL in optimised process parameters. In order to maintain different levels of temperatures and to facilitate smooth and reliable cooldown, warm-up, normal operations as well as to handle abnormal events such as, quench or utilities failures etc., exergy efficient process are adopted for the helium refrigerator-cum-liquefier (HRL) with an installed equivalent capacity of 1.3 kW at 4.5 K. Using the HRL, the cold mass of about 40 tons is being routinely cooled down from ambient temperature to 4.5 K with an average cooldown rate of 0.75 - 1 K-h-1. Long-term cryogenic stable conditions were obtained within 15 days in the superconducting coils and their connecting feeders. Afterwards, all of the cold mass is warmed-up in a controlled manner to ambient temperature. In this paper, we report the recent operational results of the cryogenic system during the first plasma discharge in SST-1 as well as the troubleshooting experiences of the cryogenic plant related hardware.

  20. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2013-10-01

    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P < .001), with hospitalization rates between 3% and 66% (P < .001) and surgical rates from 1% to 24% (P < .001). In spite of characteristic scenarios and injury patterns after earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  1. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  2. Examining the Content of Preservice Teachers' Reflections of Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study that examined the content of preservice elementary teachers' reflections of their documented early field experiences of science teaching in authentic contexts. The study used an early field experience model that was focused on the objective of profiling an elementary science teacher as the practical…

  3. The Influence of Technology-Rich Early Childhood Field Experiences on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas; Lux, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a comprehensive body of research on field experiences in teacher education, technology-rich early field experiences in early childhood environments is one particular area of inquiry lacking substantive current research. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand how preservice teachers' perceptions of global concepts related…

  4. Early Workplace Learning Experiences: What Are the Pedagogical Possibilities beyond Retention and Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; McEwen, Celina

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, we explore early placement experiences and their pedagogical potential, including ways of keeping students enrolled and persisting with their studies. Few university courses offer early placements because traditionally placement experiences have a focus on employability and work readiness of graduates, hence occur towards the end…

  5. Operational early warning of shallow landslides in Norway: Evaluation of landslide forecasts and associated challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter; Colleuille, Hervé; Boje, Søren; Sund, Monica; Krøgli, Ingeborg; Devoli, Graziella

    2015-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) runs a national early warning system (EWS) for shallow landslides in Norway. Slope failures included in the EWS are debris slides, debris flows, debris avalanches and slush flows. The EWS has been operational on national scale since 2013 and consists of (a) quantitative landslide thresholds and daily hydro-meteorological prognosis; (b) daily qualitative expert evaluation of prognosis / additional data in decision to determine warning levels; (c) publication of warning levels through various custom build internet platforms. The effectiveness of an EWS depends on both the quality of forecasts being issued, and the communication of forecasts to the public. In this analysis a preliminary evaluation of landslide forecasts from the Norwegian EWS within the period 2012-2014 is presented. Criteria for categorizing forecasts as correct, missed events or false alarms are discussed and concrete examples of forecasts falling into the latter two categories are presented. The evaluation show a rate of correct forecasts exceeding 90%. However correct forecast categorization is sometimes difficult, particularly due to poorly documented landslide events. Several challenges has to be met in the process of further lowering rates of missed events of false alarms in the EWS. Among others these include better implementation of susceptibility maps in landslide forecasting, more detailed regionalization of hydro-meteorological landslide thresholds, improved prognosis on precipitation, snowmelt and soil water content as well as the build-up of more experience among the people performing landslide forecasting.

  6. Development of the Play Experience Model to Enhance Desirable Qualifications of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panpum, Watchara; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Nakunsong, Thatsanee

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop the play experience model and to study the effect of usage in play experience model for enhancing the early childhood's desirable qualification. There were 3 phases of research: 1) the document and context in experience management were studied, 2) the play experience model was developed, and 3) the…

  7. Conceptions of and Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Early Childhood Professional Development Programs: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…

  8. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles : Early Implementation Experience

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-07-01

    This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) for three prototype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. This is the third evaluation report for this site, and it describes new ...

  9. Early breastfeeding problems: A mixed method study of mothers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Jørgine Kirkeby, Mette; Thygesen, Marianne; Danbjørg, Dorthe B; Kronborg, Hanne

    2018-06-01

    Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Still length of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers' perspectives on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also to identify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers' open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Up to 40% of the mothers had experienced early breastfeeding problems. The problems were associated with the mother, the infant and to lack of support from health care professionals. Most prominent problems were infant's inability to latch on (40%) and mothers having sore, wounded and cracked nipples (38%). Pain often occurred when experiencing breastfeeding problems. Factors associated with the problems were primiparity, lower self-efficacy and lower self-perceived knowledge of breastfeeding. Mothers with no or short education reported less frequently breastfeeding problems. Breastfeeding problems occurred frequently in the early postnatal period and often caused breastfeeding to be painful. Health care professionals should prepare mothers to deal with possible breastfeeding problems. New support options should be reviewed in an early postnatal discharge setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Operative interventions for failed heller myotomy: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Pallati, Pradeep K; Mittal, Sumeet K

    2011-03-01

    Recurrent dysphagia and/or gastroesophageal reflux (GER) are failures of treatment after Heller myotomy for achalasia. We present our single center experience with surgical interventions for these failures. We did a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database. Based on preoperative symptoms and endoscopy, esophagogram, and manometry results, patients were divided into three groups to guide management. Telephone follow-up was done using a structured foregut questionnaire. Between December 2003 and June 2009, 16 patients underwent operative interventions for disabling symptoms after previous Heller myotomy. Eight patients presented primarily with recurrent dysphagia and underwent transabdominal Heller myotomy with partial fundoplication. Seven patients reported good to excellent symptom relief at mean follow-up of 42 months. One patient reported no relief and eventually required esophageal bypass with retrosternal gastric pull-up. Four patients presented with uncontrolled GER. Two patients who underwent redo partial fundoplication reported poor symptomatic outcome and one patient has since undergone short limb Roux-en-y gastric bypass (SLRNYGB) with excellent symptom relief. The other two patients underwent SLRNYGB with excellent relief at 10 months. Four patients had end stage achalasia and underwent esophageal resection with reconstruction. All reported excellent symptom relief at mean follow-up of 36 months. Transabdominal redo Heller myotomy for dysphagia has good outcomes. Redo fundoplication for GER after previous myotomy has poor results and SLRNYGB is an effective option in these patients. Esophageal resection remains an effective, albeit morbid, option for end-stage achalasia.

  11. Predictability Experiments With the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Gelaro, R.; Rosmond, T. E.

    2003-12-01

    There are several areas of research in numerical weather prediction and atmospheric predictability, such as targeted observations and ensemble perturbation generation, where it is desirable to combine information about the uncertainty of the initial state with information about potential rapid perturbation growth. Singular vectors (SVs) provide a framework to accomplish this task in a mathematically rigorous and computationally feasible manner. In this study, SVs are calculated using the tangent and adjoint models of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). The analysis error variance information produced by the NRL Atmospheric Variational Data Assimilation System is used as the initial-time SV norm. These VAR SVs are compared to SVs for which total energy is both the initial and final time norms (TE SVs). The incorporation of analysis error variance information has a significant impact on the structure and location of the SVs. This in turn has a significant impact on targeted observing applications. The utility and implications of such experiments in assessing the analysis error variance estimates will be explored. Computing support has been provided by the Department of Defense High Performance Computing Center at the Naval Oceanographic Office Major Shared Resource Center at Stennis, Mississippi.

  12. AH-64 IHADSS aviator vision experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harris, Eric S.; McGilberry, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Forty AH-64 Apache aviators representing a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom and its aftermath were surveyed for their visual experiences with the AH-64's monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display in a combat environment. A major objective of this study was to determine if the frequencies of reports of visual complaints and illusions reported in the previous studies, addressing mostly benign training environments, differ in the more stressful combat environments. The most frequently reported visual complaints, both while and after flying, were visual discomfort and headache, which is consistent with previous studies. Frequencies of complaints after flying in the current study were numerically lower for all complaint types, but differences from previous studies are statistically significant only for visual discomfort and disorientation (vertigo). With the exception of "brownout/whiteout," reports of degraded visual cues in the current study were numerically lower for all types, but statistically significant only for impaired depth perception, decreased field of view, and inadvertent instrumental meteorological conditions. This study also found statistically lower reports of all static and dynamic illusions (with one exception, disorientation). This important finding is attributed to the generally flat and featureless geography present in a large portion of the Iraqi theater and to the shift in the way that the aviators use the two disparate visual inputs presented by the IHADSS monocular design (i.e., greater use of both eyes as opposed to concentrating primarily on display imagery).

  13. The safety experience of New Zealand adventure tourism operators.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen; Walker, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This survey examined parameters of the New Zealand adventure tourism industry client injury risk. The research also sought to establish priorities for intervention to reduce adventure tourism risk, and identify client injury control measures currently in place (or absent) in the New Zealand adventure tourism industry, with a view to establishing guidelines for the development of effective adventure tourism safety management systems. This 2003 survey builds upon an exploratory study of New Zealand adventure tourism safety conducted by us during 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to survey all identifiable New Zealand adventure tourism operators. The questionnaire asked respondents about their recorded client injury experience, perceptions of client injury risk factors, safety management practices, and barriers to safety. Some 27 adventure tourism activities were represented among the responding sample (n=96). The highest client injury risk was reported in the snow sports, bungee jumping and horse riding sectors, although serious underreporting of minor injuries was evident across the industry. Slips, trips and falls (STF) were the major client injury mechanisms, and a range of risk factors for client injuries were identified. Safety management measures were inconsistently applied across the industry. The industry should consider the implications of poor injury reporting standards and safety management practices generally. Specifically, the industry should consider risk management that focuses on minor (e.g., STF) as well as catastrophic events.

  14. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    simple empirical models [Versace et al., 2003] based on correlation between some features of rainfall records (cumulated height, duration, season etc.) and the correspondent observed landslides. Laboratory experiments on instrumented small scale slope models represent an effective way to provide data sets [Eckersley, 1990; Wang and Sassa, 2001] useful for building up more complex models of landslide triggering prediction. At the Geotechnical Laboratory of C.I.R.I.AM. an instrumented flume to investigate on the mechanics of landslides in unsaturated deposits of granular soils is available [Olivares et al. 2003; Damiano, 2004; Olivares et al., 2007]. In the flume a model slope is reconstituted by a moist-tamping technique and subjected to an artificial uniform rainfall since failure happens. The state of stress and strain of the slope is monitored during the entire test starting from the infiltration process since the early post-failure stage: the monitoring system is constituted by several mini-tensiometers placed at different locations and depths, to measure suction, mini-transducers to measure positive pore pressures, laser sensors, to measure settlements of the ground surface, and high definition video-cameras to obtain, through a software (PIV) appositely dedicated, the overall horizontal displacement field. Besides, TDR sensors, used with an innovative technique [Greco, 2006], allow to reconstruct the water content profile of soil along the entire thickness of the investigated deposit and to monitor its continuous changes during infiltration. In this paper a series of laboratory tests carried out on model slopes in granular pyroclastic soils taken in the mountainous area north-eastern of Napoli, are presented. The experimental results demonstrate the completeness of information provided by the various sensors installed. In particular, very useful information is given by the coupled measurements of soil water content by TDR and suction by tensiometers. Knowledge of

  15. Operative Outcome and Patient Satisfaction in Early and Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hokkam, Emad N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually associated with reduced hospital stay, sick leave, and health care expenditures. Early diagnosis and treatment of acute cholecystitis reduce both mortality and morbidity and the accurate diagnosis requires specific diagnostic criteria of clinical data and imaging studies. Objectives. To compare early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy regarding the operative outcome and patient satisfaction. Patients and Methods. Patients with acute cholecystitis were divided into two groups, early (A) and delayed (B) cholecystectomy. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was confirmed by clinical examination, laboratory data, and ultrasound study. The primary end point was operative and postoperative outcome and the secondary was patient's satisfaction. Results. The number of readmissions in delayed treatment group B was three times in 10% of patients, twice in 23.3%, and once in 66.7% while the number of readmissions was once only in patients in group A and the mean total hospital stays were higher in group B than in group A. The overall patient's satisfaction was 92.66 ± 6.8 in group A compared with 75.34 ± 12.85 in group B. Conclusion. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy resulted in significant reduction in length of hospital stay and accepted rate of operative complications and conversion rates when compared with delayed techniques. PMID:25197568

  16. Early Childhood Professionals' Experience of Time to Facilitate Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…

  17. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

    2007-01-01

    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  18. Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad…

  19. Early Field Experience in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Scott Walter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the three studies in this dissertation was to enhance career and technical education in the area of agriculture, business, and family and consumer sciences. This dissertation contains three papers: (1) a Delphi study identifying the purpose, expected outcomes, and methods of documenting preservice teacher early field experience…

  20. New Languages of Possibility: Early Experiments in Education as Dissent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Brendan; Lalor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the work of four early radical educators: the cultural nationalist Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), Asia's first Nobel Laureate; Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Cambridge mathematician and philosopher; the Irish educationalist and insurgent Patrick Pearse (1879-1916) and Leonard Elmhirst (1893-1975), co-founder of Dartington Hall…

  1. The Minnesota Experience with Family-Centered Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Lois

    1988-01-01

    The author describes Minnesota's Early Childhood Family Education program for all children from birth to kindergarten and their parents. Topics include the types of activities each local program undertakes, administration and planning, and financing. A list of important program attributes is included. (CH)

  2. Caregiver Coaching Strategies for Early Intervention Providers: Moving toward Operational Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Mollie; Woods, Juliann; Salisbury, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) providers increasingly coach and collaborate with caregivers to strengthen and support caregiver-child interactions. The EI providers learning to coach other adults benefit from knowing what, exactly, they should do to support caregivers. This article serves two purposes. First, it proposes an operationally defined,…

  3. Operational Features of the Kamehameha Early Education Project. Technical Report #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    This report summarizes the operational features of the initial phases of the Kamehameha Early Education Project (KEEP). The rationale for KEEP's focus on conducting research on programs similar to those in the public schools rather than on developing radically innovative educational programs is discussed. Start up procedures such as recruitment of…

  4. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  5. Submucosal reconstructive hemorrhoidectomy (Parks' operation): a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Rosa, G; Lolli, P; Piccinelli, D; Vicenzi, L; Ballarin, A; Bonomo, S; Mazzola, F

    2005-12-01

    Submucosal reconstructive hemorrhoidectomy has never been a popular operation due to its difficulty and duration, the amount of blood loss, and the risk of incontinence. The main indication for hemorrhoidectomy according to Parks is fourth-degree hemorrhoids with prolapse of the dentate line outside the anus and with simultaneous presence of external hemorrhoids. We report our experience in the treatment of hemorrhoids using submucosal reconstructive hemorrhoidectomy according to Parks. A total of 640 patients (381 men and 259 women) of median age 42 years (range, 18-81) were treated between 1983 and 2002; 80% of patients had fourth-degree, 19% third-degree and 1% second- degree hemorrhoids. All patients underwent rectosigmoidoscopic examination before surgery; patients over 35 years of age or with a suspected inflammatory or neoplastic disease underwent colonoscopy or barium enema. All patients underwent anorectal manometry before operation, to measure anal resting pressure, maximal squeeze and sphincter length, with the purpose of determining if an internal sphincterotomy was also necessary (in case of high anal resting tone). One-third of the patients also had an internal sphincterotomy to correct anal hypertonia. Postoperative bleeding occurred in 19 patients (2.9%), 0.9% requiring a reintervention. Severe pain was reported by 9 patients (1.4%); fecal impaction occurred in 3 cases (0.5%) and suture disruption in 2 patients (0.3%). In 74 patients (11.6%), bladder catheterization was needed due to urinary retention. Of 550 patients who had a minimum follow-up of 3 years and were sent a postal questionnaire, 374 patients responded, with a median 7.3-year follow- up; 176 patients (32%) were lost to follow-up. Eleven patients (2.9% of 374 cases) reported pain during defecation, 6 (1.6%) developed skin tags or recurrence, 3 (0.8%) reported gas incontinence, 2 (0.5%) developed anal fistula and 1 (0.3%) had anal stricture. Submucosal reconstructive hemorrhoidectomy

  6. An early warning indicator for atmospheric blocking events using transfer operators

    SciTech Connect

    Tantet, Alexis, E-mail: a.j.j.tantet@uu.nl; Burgt, Fiona R. van der; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    The existence of persistent midlatitude atmospheric flow regimes with time-scales larger than 5–10 days and indications of preferred transitions between them motivates to develop early warning indicators for such regime transitions. In this paper, we use a hemispheric barotropic model together with estimates of transfer operators on a reduced phase space to develop an early warning indicator of the zonal to blocked flow transition in this model. It is shown that the spectrum of the transfer operators can be used to study the slow dynamics of the flow as well as the non-Markovian character of the reduction. The slowest motionsmore » are thereby found to have time scales of three to six weeks and to be associated with meta-stable regimes (and their transitions) which can be detected as almost-invariant sets of the transfer operator. From the energy budget of the model, we are able to explain the meta-stability of the regimes and the existence of preferred transition paths. Even though the model is highly simplified, the skill of the early warning indicator is promising, suggesting that the transfer operator approach can be used in parallel to an operational deterministic model for stochastic prediction or to assess forecast uncertainty.« less

  7. How the Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Influence the Development of Brain Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Sharon E.; Levitt, Pat; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Early life events can exert a powerful influence on both the pattern of brain architecture and behavioral development. In this paper a conceptual framework is provided for considering how the structure of early experience gets “under the skin.” The paper begins with a description of the genetic framework that lays the foundation for brain development, and then to the ways experience interacts with and modifies the structures and functions of the developing brain. Much of the attention is focused on early experience and sensitive periods, although it is made clear that later experience also plays an important role in maintaining and elaborating this early wiring diagram, which is critical to establishing a solid footing for development beyond the early years. PMID:20331653

  8. [Experience with early induced abortion, the socalled "menstrual extraction" method].

    PubMed

    Voskuijl, P; Wibaut, F P

    1978-10-14

    500 women underwent menstrual regulation (MR). The operation was performed without local anesthesia, using Karman-catheters no. 4-6 with a vacuum pump. 3 conditions were set for the acceptance of MR patients: the urine pregnancy test had to be positive, the menstrual period could not be more than 14 days overdue, and there must be no enlargement or other abnormality of the uterus or internal genital organs. A failure rate of 5.8% was reported. The failure rate was 7.6 among nulliparae and 3.9% among multiparae. The length of time until the next menstrual bleeding was 40.2 days for the successful operations and 41.4 days for the unsuccessful operations. These patients were compared to 500 clinical abortion patients. The MR patients tended to use contraceptive methods that were not 100% effective. 45 came as a result of extramarital relations, compared with 2 of the clinical abortion patients. It is important to consult with the patient to determine the sincerity of the wish to undergo the operation. An assistant should be present during the operation to reassure and relax the patient.

  9. HISPASAT launch and early operations phases: Computation and monitoring of geostationary satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brousse, Pascal; Desprairies, Arnaud

    1993-01-01

    Since 1974, CNES, the French National Space Agency, has been involved in the geostationary launch and early operations phases (LEOP) of moving satellites from a transfer orbit delivered by a launcher to a geostationary point. During the operations and their preparation, the Flight Dynamics Center (FDC), part of CNES LEOP facilities, is in charge of the space mechanics aspects. What is noteworthy about the Spanish HISPASAT satellite positioning is that all the operations were performed on the customer's premises, and consequently the FDC was duplicated in Madrid, Spain. The first part of this paper is the FDC presentation: its role, its hardware configuration, and its space dynamics ground control system called MERCATOR. The second part of this paper details the preparation used by the FDC for the HISPASAT mission: hardware and software installation in Madrid, integration with the other entities, and technical and operational qualifications. The third part gives results concerning flight dynamics aspects and operational activities.

  10. New experiments selected for 1980 operational shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Experiments selected for NASA's Long Duration Exposure Facility mission are described. Technical areas represented by the experiments include materials, thermal control coatings, detectors, power, micrometeoroids, electronics, lubrication, optics, and space debris detection.

  11. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Ramírez, Gabriela P.; Balbuena, María Sol; Farina, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions, and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe (AL). Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees' physiology, behavior, and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits. PMID:23986708

  12. Medical abortion in early pregnancy: experience in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Linan

    2006-07-01

    When medical abortion was first introduced in China, prostaglandins (PGs) were used alone or in combination with Chinese herbs or steroid drugs, but the results were not satisfactory. Mifepristone is now produced in three companies in China and is commonly used with PGs for medical abortion. We performed a Chinese- and English-language literature review of medical abortion in early pregnancy in China. A large multicenter trial conducted in China showed that, when used with a PGF(2alpha) analogue, the complete abortion rate in women given multiple doses of mifepristone (total, 150 mg) was significantly higher than that in women given a single dose of 200 mg of mifepristone. Oral misoprostol (0.6 mg) with mifepristone is now the most commonly used regimen, with a complete abortion rate of over 93%. In China, medical abortion is currently restricted to pregnancies before 49 days, but some hospitals have recently extended the use of medical abortion to pregnancies beyond 49 days. Prolonged bleeding is the main medical abortion side effect and is more likely to occur if the blood levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin fall slowly or when the gestational sac is big. Prescription of testosterone propionate may reduce the duration of bleeding. Over 80% of Chinese women are satisfied with current medical abortion regimens and will choose medical abortion again if they need to terminate a future unwanted pregnancy. Currently, medical abortion is a safe, efficient and acceptable method for the termination of early pregnancy in China.

  13. Management of penetrating stab wounds of the chest: an assessment of the indications for early operation.

    PubMed Central

    Sandrasagra, F A

    1978-01-01

    Haemothorax, haemopneumothorax, and pneumothorax were the most common complications in 85 patients with penetrating stab injuries of the chest. These complications were amenable to conservative treatment by aspiration or drainage of the pleural space. Immediate operation was indicated in 30 cases. Indications for surgery were haemorrhage from a major systemic or pulmonary vessel or the heart, cardiac tamponade, diaphragmatic penetration, oesophageal and bronchial tears, and sucking chest wounds. The need for immediate operation was clinically obvious at presentation in most cases. It should have been suspected from the situation of the entry wound, the nature of the weapon used, the size of the haemothorax, and the clinical findings in the others. All 11 deaths occurred in that group in which early operation was indicated, and some could have been averted had the need for operation been suspected early. Seven patients developed an empyema; five were in the group that required immediate surgery and in the other two infection occurred in a clotted haemothorax. Early repair of the associated visceral injuries and complete evacuation of a haemothorax, either fluid or clotted, could reduce the incidence of empyema. Images PMID:694799

  14. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Cash Register Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course is on the fundamentals of operating a cash register. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Face of Cash Register, (2) Operating a Checkout Station, (3) Checker-Cashier Qualities, and (4) NCR 250 Electronic Cash Register. Each unit begins with a Unit…

  15. Experiences of Early Transdisciplinary Teams in Pediatric Community Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubin, Tamie; Mortenson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Although a transdisciplinary approach (TA) is considered best practice for children aged 0-3 years, there is limited information for professionals on how to successfully implement TA services. Using qualitative inquiry, in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the experiences of 6 service providers and managers who took part in early…

  16. Early School Experiences: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Gilah C.

    This study of gender differences in mathematics learning examined two 4-year-olds who attended a Melbourne, Australia preschool. The study traces the experiences of the students, one female and one male, during their first formal exposure to mathematics in kindergarten. Of particular concern was how the preschoolers interacted with their teacher,…

  17. Enhancing the Early Reading Experience: Books, Strategies, and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Michael; Abbott, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Selecting books for young children can not only be a fun and rewarding experience but also a little daunting, considering the number of books available. Frequent collaboration between an author and a public librarian has produced valuable insights about how to begin reading with very young children. Suggestions are offered for how parents and…

  18. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  19. Remotely Operated Vehicles under sea ice - Experiences and results from five years of polar operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Lange, Benjamin; Belter, Hans Jakob; Schiller, Martin; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    The availability of advanced robotic technologies to the Earth Science community has largely increased in the last decade. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) enable spatially extensive scientific investigations underneath the sea ice of the polar oceans, covering a larger range and longer diving times than divers with significantly lower risks. Here we present our experiences and scientific results acquired from ROV operations during the last five years in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice region. Working under the sea ice means to have all obstacles and investigated objects above the vehicle, and thus changes several paradigms of ROV operations as compared to blue water applications. Observations of downwelling spectral irradiance and radiance allow a characterization of the optical properties of sea ice and the spatial variability of the energy partitioning across the atmosphere-ice-ocean boundary. Our results show that the decreasing thickness and age of the sea ice have led to a significant increase in light transmission during summer over the last three decades. Spatially extensive measurements from ROV surveys generally provide more information on the light field variability than single spot measurements. The large number of sampled ice conditions during five cruises with the German research icebreaker RV Polarstern allows for the investigations of the seasonal evolution of light transmittance. Both, measurements of hyperspectral light transmittance through sea ice, as well as classification of upward-looking camera images were used to investigate the spatial distribution of ice-algal biomass. Buoyant ice-algal aggregates were found to be positioned in the stretches of level ice, rather than pressure ridges due to a physical interaction of aggregate-buoyancy and under-ice currents. Synchronous measurements of sea ice thickness by upward looking sonar provides crucial additional information to put light-transmittance and biological observations into context

  20. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  1. Early experiences with big data at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Halamka, John D

    2014-07-01

    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), an academic health care institution affiliated with Harvard University, has been an early adopter of electronic applications since the 1970s. Various departments of the medical center and the physician practice groups affiliated with it have implemented electronic health records, filmless imaging, and networked medical devices to such an extent that data storage at BIDMC now amounts to three petabytes and continues to grow at a rate of 25 percent a year. Initially, the greatest technical challenge was the cost and complexity of data storage. However, today the major focus is on transforming raw data into information, knowledge, and wisdom. This article discusses the data growth, increasing importance of analytics, and changing user requirements that have shaped the management of big data at BIDMC. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Operating experience with 100% pellet burden on Amanda blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, D.E.; Minakawa, T.

    1993-01-01

    A number of significant changes in operations at the Ashland Works of the Armco Steel Company occurred in 1992 which directly impacted the Amanda Blast Furnace operation. These changes included the shutdown of the hot strip mill which resulted in coke oven gas enrichment of the Amanda stoves and an increase of 75 C in hot blast temperature, transition to 100% continuous cast operation which resulted in increased variation of the hot metal demand, and the July idling of the sinter plant. Historically, the Amanda Blast Furnace burden was 30% fluxed sinter and 70% acid pellet. It was anticipated thatmore » the change to 100% pellet burden would require changes in charging practice and alter furnace performance. The paper gives a general furnace description and then describes the burden characteristics, operating practice with 30% sinter/70% acid pellet burden, preparations for the 100% acid pellet burden operation, the 100% acid pellet operation, and the 100% fluxed pellet burden operation.« less

  3. Design reuse experience of space and hazardous operations robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, P. Graham

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of design drivers for space and hazardous nuclear waste operating robots details similarities and differences in operations, performance and environmental parameters for these critical environments. The similarities are exploited to provide low risk system components based on reuse principles and design knowledge. Risk reduction techniques are used for bridging areas of significant differences. As an example, risk reduction of a new sensor design for nuclear environment operations is employed to provide upgradeable replacement units in a reusable architecture for significantly higher levels of radiation.

  4. CHD associated with syndromic diagnoses: peri-operative risk factors and early outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Benjamin J.; Cooper, David S.; Hinton, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    CHD is frequently associated with a genetic syndrome. These syndromes often present specific cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular co-morbidities that confer significant peri-operative risks affecting multiple organ systems. Although surgical outcomes have improved over time, these co-morbidities continue to contribute substantially to poor peri-operative mortality and morbidity outcomes. Peri-operative morbidity may have long-standing ramifications on neurodevelopment and overall health. Recognising the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular risks associated with specific syndromic diagnoses will facilitate expectant management, early detection of clinical problems, and improved outcomes – for example, the development of syndrome-based protocols for peri-operative evaluation and prophylactic actions may improve outcomes for the more frequently encountered syndromes such as 22q11 deletion syndrome. PMID:26345374

  5. Standard operating procedures for serum and plasma collection: early detection research network consensus statement standard operating procedure integration working group.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Melissa K; Chan, Daniel W; Chia, David; Godwin, Andrew K; Grizzle, William E; Krueger, Karl E; Rom, William; Sanda, Martin; Sorbara, Lynn; Stass, Sanford; Wang, Wendy; Brenner, Dean E

    2009-01-01

    Specimen collection is an integral component of clinical research. Specimens from subjects with various stages of cancers or other conditions, as well as those without disease, are critical tools in the hunt for biomarkers, predictors, or tests that will detect serious diseases earlier or more readily than currently possible. Analytic methodologies evolve quickly. Access to high-quality specimens, collected and handled in standardized ways that minimize potential bias or confounding factors, is key to the "bench to bedside" aim of translational research. It is essential that standard operating procedures, "the how" of creating the repositories, be defined prospectively when designing clinical trials. Small differences in the processing or handling of a specimen can have dramatic effects in analytical reliability and reproducibility, especially when multiplex methods are used. A representative working group, Standard Operating Procedures Internal Working Group (SOPIWG), comprised of members from across Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) was formed to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for various types of specimens collected and managed for our biomarker discovery and validation work. This report presents our consensus on SOPs for the collection, processing, handling, and storage of serum and plasma for biomarker discovery and validation.

  6. Reflecting on the Challenges of Informal Contexts: Early Field Experiences with Technology in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nick; Obery, Amanda; Cornish, Jamie; Grimberg, Bruna Irene; Hartshorn, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Early field experiences, or those that come early in a teacher's preparation before more formalized opportunities like practicum and student teaching, can provide a venue for pre service teachers to practice technology-specific instructional decision-making and reflective practice. Although research exists on the potential roles of field…

  7. Early Care, Education, and Family Life in Rural Fiji: Experiences and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Janis

    2005-01-01

    As a member of a delegation of educators, physicians, and lay people to rural Fiji the author shares her experiences and reflections of early care, education, and family life on a small, remote island. She discusses her visits to the village and boarding school, and her interactions with teachers, children, and parents in the early childhood…

  8. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  9. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  10. Preparing Beginning Reading Teachers: An Experimental Comparison of Initial Early Literacy Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor…

  11. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  12. Synchronising Pedagogy and Musical Experiences in Early Childhood: Addressing Challenges in Preschool Music Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andang'o, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines pedagogy in early childhood music education and the resultant learning experiences in music for children in Kenyan preschools. Two important principles proposed for the synchronisation of teaching and learning in early childhood music education are cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. These terms are…

  13. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Treesearch

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sánchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  14. Safe Start: How Early Experiences Can Help Reduce Violence. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Noting that many communities have overlooked a promising approach to reducing violence in the United States, this report examines early risk factors for violence and discusses the potential of prevention and intervention programs for children ages birth to 5 years. The report defines violence and discusses the importance of early experiences in…

  15. How the Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Influence the Development of Brain Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sharon E.; Levitt, Pat; Nelson, Charles A., III.

    2010-01-01

    Early life events can exert a powerful influence on both the pattern of brain architecture and behavioral development. In this study a conceptual framework is provided for considering how the structure of early experience gets "under the skin." The study begins with a description of the genetic framework that lays the foundation for brain…

  16. A Systems Perspective on Practicum Experiences in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Focus on Interprofessional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paro, Karen M.; Van Schagen, Amy; King, Elizabeth; Lippard, Christine

    2018-01-01

    High quality early childhood teachers have a wealth of knowledge and use a range of skills in their daily classroom practices, and research has consistently demonstrated the positive influence effective early childhood teachers have on children's development and long-term outcomes. Given the importance of practicum experiences in the development…

  17. Designing Informal Learning Experiences for Early Career Academics Using a Knowledge Ecosystem Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Hemmings, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a "knowledge ecosystem" model of how early career academics experience using information to learn while building their social networks for developmental purposes. Developed using grounded theory methodology, the model offers a way of conceptualising how to empower early career academics through (1) agency…

  18. Robotic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy: our early experience.

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, C; Sgarbură, O; Tudor, St; Popa, M; Turcanu, A; Florescu, A; Herlea, V; Anghel, R

    2009-01-01

    Robotic surgery overcomes some limitations of laparoscopic surgery for prostate, rectal and uterine cancer. In this study we analyze the feasibility of robotic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in gynecological cancers in a developping program of robotic surgery. This prospective study started the 1st of March 2008. Since then, 250 cases of robotic surgery were performed out of which 29 cases addressed gynecological conditions. We selected all radical interventions summing up to 19 cases. Our final group consisted of 19 patients, a gedbetween 30 and 78 years old, with an average age of 53.22 years (+/- 10.03). Twelve patients were diagnosed with cervical cancer, the rest of them with endometrial cancer. Mean operative time was 180 +/- 23.45 min. Oral intake were started the next day after the operation and the patients were discharged 3.5 (+/- 1.2) days postoperatively. There were 3 urinary complications in patients with tumors adherent to the urinary bladder. We believe that robotic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in gynecological cancers is a rapid, feasible, and secure method that should be used whenever available. However further prospective studies and late follow-up results are needed in order to fully assess the value of this new technology.

  19. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    PubMed Central

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  20. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    PubMed

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  1. Does the pre-operative serum phosphate level predict early hypocalcaemia following parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism?

    PubMed

    Ellul, David; Townsley, Richard Brendan; Clark, Louise Jane

    2013-06-01

    Hypocalcaemia is a significant post-operative complication following parathyroidectomy. Early identification of risk factors can help pre-empt hypocalcaemia and avoid serious sequelae. It can also help identify those patients that are not suitable for day-case surgery. The aim of this study was to analyse the predictive value of the pre-operative serum phosphate level as an indicator for developing hypocalcaemia post-operatively in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent parathyroidectomy between 2008 and 2010 at the Southern General Hospital in Glasgow. Data collected included the number of parathyroid glands excised and their histology, pre-operative adjusted calcium (aCa) and phosphate levels, post-operative aCa at 6 and 24 h following surgery, and the fall in aCa levels in the first 6 h and 24 h following surgery. Minitab Statistical Analysis (Version 15) was used for data analysis. Fifty-six patients underwent parathyroidectomy in the study period. Twelve patients were excluded for various reasons including incomplete records and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Patients given calcium or Vitamin D supplements immediately post-operatively were also excluded. Statistical analysis showed no significant correlation between the pre-operative phosphate level and the post-operative decline in aCa level 6 h or 24 h following surgery. Patients with a lower phosphate level pre-operatively were not at risk of a more drastic fall in calcium levels following parathyroidectomy. The pre-operative phosphate level was not found to be predictive of post-operative hypocalcaemia in our study. Copyright © 2012 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis: single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Engin; Keleş, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Akçay, Murat; Ayhan, Hüseyin; Bayram, Nihal Akar; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Baştuğ, Serdal; Bilen, Emine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a promising alternative to high risk surgical aortic valve replacement. The procedure is mainly indicated in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who cannot undergo surgery or who are at very high surgical risk. Aim Description early results of our single-center experience with balloon expandable aortic valve implantation. Material and methods Between July 2011 and August 2012, we screened in total 75 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis and high risk for surgery. Twenty-one of them were found ineligible for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) because of various reasons, and finally we treated a total of 54 patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who could not be treated by open heart surgery (inoperable) because of high-risk criteria. The average age of the patients was 77.4 ±7.1; 27.8% were male and 72.2% were female. The number of patients in NYHA class II was 7 while the number of patients in class III and class IV was 47. Results The average mortality score of patients according to the STS scoring system was 8.5%. Pre-implantation mean and maximal aortic valve gradients were measured as 53.2 ±14.1 mm Hg and 85.5 ±18.9 mm Hg, respectively. Post-implantation mean and maximal aortic valve gradients were 9.0 ±3.0 and 18.2 ±5.6, respectively (p < 0.0001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was calculated as 54.7 ±14.4% before the operation and 58.0 ±11.1% after the operation (p < 0.0001). The duration of discharge after the operation was 5.29 days, and a statistically significant correlation between the duration of discharge after the operation and STS was found (r = 0385, p = 0.004). Conclusions We consider that with decreasing cost and increasing treatment experience, TAVI will be used more frequently in broader indications. Our experience with TAVI using the Edwards-Sapien XT (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) devices suggests that this is an

  3. Operation and Development Status of the Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a series of Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire) have been under development by the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration (SFS Demo) project, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Division. The overall objective of this project is to reduce the uncertainty and risk associated with the design of spacecraft fire safety systems for NASA's exploration missions. The approach to achieving this goal has been to define, develop, and conduct experiments that address gaps in spacecraft fire safety knowledge and capabilities identified by NASA's Fire Safety System Maturation Team. The Spacecraft Fire Experiments (Saffire-I, -II, and -III) are material flammability tests at length scales that are realistic for a spacecraft fire in low-gravity. The specific objectives of these three experiments are to (1) determine how rapidly a large scale fire grows in low-gravity and (2) investigate the low-g flammability limits compared to those obtained in NASA's normal gravity material flammability screening test. The experiments will be conducted in Orbital ATK's Cygnus vehicle after it has unberthed from the International Space Station. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the atmosphere. This paper discusses the status of the Saffire-I, II, and III experiments followed by a review of the fire safety technology gaps that are driving the development of objectives for the next series of experiments, Saffire-IV, V, and VI.

  4. [LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR EARLY OVARIAN CANCER: EXPERIENCE AT THE P. A. HERZEN ONCOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE].

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, A S; Novikova, E G; Utkina, A B

    2015-01-01

    For the period from 2003 to 2014 at the Oncogynecology Department laparoscopic surgery for ovarian cancer was performed in 49 patients aged 19 to 76 years. During the surgical interventions special attention was paid to the principles of oncological radicalism and ablastics, the volume of surgery depended on the extent of tumor process, morphological characteristics of tumor, a patient's age and the desire to preserve reproductive function. In 42 (85.7%) cases laparoscopic procedures were conducted to restaging (after non-radical operations in gynecological hospitals). In all 49 patients a histological form of ovarian tumor corresponded to adenocarcinoma. Mean operative time was 140 ± 10,5 minutes, the average blood loss--80,2 ± 14,3 ml. Postoperative complications (bleeding from the omentum) were recorded in 1 (2%) patient, the need for conversion was occurred in 4 (8.2%) cases due to the adhesive process or signs of dissemination. As a result of laparoscopic surgery an increase in staging of disease was fixed in 14 cases (28.6%). Follow-up median was 45 months, relapses occurred in 5 (10.2%) patients. Of 49 patients 2 (4.1%) died from disease progression. Disease-free and overall survival rates were 89.8% and 95.9%, respectively. Thus, data of world literature and our own experience indicate the potential equivalent of laparoscopic and laparotomy approaches in treatment for early ovarian cancer.

  5. Tuned by experience: How orientation probability modulates early perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Jabar, Syaheed B; Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt

    2017-09-01

    Probable stimuli are more often and more quickly detected. While stimulus probability is known to affect decision-making, it can also be explained as a perceptual phenomenon. Using spatial gratings, we have previously shown that probable orientations are also more precisely estimated, even while participants remained naive to the manipulation. We conducted an electrophysiological study to investigate the effect that probability has on perception and visual-evoked potentials. In line with previous studies on oddballs and stimulus prevalence, low-probability orientations were associated with a greater late positive 'P300' component which might be related to either surprise or decision-making. However, the early 'C1' component, thought to reflect V1 processing, was dampened for high-probability orientations while later P1 and N1 components were unaffected. Exploratory analyses revealed a participant-level correlation between C1 and P300 amplitudes, suggesting a link between perceptual processing and decision-making. We discuss how these probability effects could be indicative of sharpening of neurons preferring the probable orientations, due either to perceptual learning, or to feature-based attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early flight test experience with Cockpit Displayed Traffic Information (CDTI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.; Moen, G. C.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Coded symbology, based on the results of early human factors studies, was displayed on the electronic horizontal situation indicator and flight tested on an advanced research aircraft in order to subject the coded traffic symbology to a realistic flight environment and to assess its value by means of a direct comparison with simple, uncoded traffic symbology. The tests consisted of 28 curved, decelerating approaches, flown by research-pilot flight crews. The traffic scenarios involved both conflict-free and blunder situations. Subjective pilot commentary was obtained through the use of a questionnaire and extensive pilot debriefing sessions. The results of these debriefing sessions group conveniently under either of two categories: display factors or task performance. A major item under the display factor category was the problem of display clutter. The primary contributors to clutter were the use of large map-scale factors, the use of traffic data blocks, and the presentation of more than a few aircraft. In terms of task performance, the cockpit displayed traffic information was found to provide excellent overall situation awareness.

  7. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of early empyema: an initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Hornick, P.; Townsend, E. R.; Clark, D.; Fountain, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients were referred for management of empyema between April 1991 and March 1992. Fourteen patients defined as having an 'early' empyema were initially treated by videothoracoscopy. The other three patients, defined as having a 'late' empyema proceeded directly to thoracotomy. Videothoracoscopy was successful in 10 out of the 14 patients. The mean postoperative stay was 7.8 days. At a mean follow-up at 16.7 months, these patients were rendered apyrexial with full lung expansion and no residual pleural collection. The postoperative results were at least equivalent to other conventional forms of treatment without an undue level of complications. In this series, thoracoscopy was found to be successful when symptoms had been present up to 31 days before presentation at the first hospital, and the mean length of treatment before referral to Harefield was 47 days. It is now our policy to videothoracoscope all patients with empyema thoracis, regardless of the length of referral. It may circumvent the need for a thoracotomy, it does not add any increased risk of complications, and does not appreciably increase the length of hospital stay should thoracotomy ultimately be required. PMID:8659973

  8. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…

  9. The Gravity Probe B experiment and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John W.; Gravity Probe B Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Gravity Probe B orbiting gyroscope test of General Relativity, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 April, 2004 tests two consequences of Einstein's theory: 1) the predicted 6.6 arcs/yr geodetic effect due to the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth; 2) the predicted 0.039 arcs/yr frame-dragging effect due to the rotating Earth. The mission required the development of many technologies that did not exist when experiment was conceived in 1960. Cryogenic gyroscopes with drift-rates 7 orders of magnitude better than the best inertial navigation gyroscopes, a < 1 marcs star tracking telescope, and other essential technologies were developed as a result of an intensive collaboration between Stanford physicists and engineers, NASA and industry. Gravity Probe B collected science data from August 27, 2004 through September 29, 2005. Analysis of the data began during the mission and is on-going. This paper describes the main features and challenges of the experiment and presents the preliminary results to date.

  10. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from two-parent families. Parents’ educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths’ educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents’ educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths’ gender, target youths’ age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent. PMID:18999319

  11. Early experience of a safety net provider reorganizing into an accountable care organization.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Santos, Palmira; Thompson, Douglas; Stout, Somava S; Bearse, Adriana; Mechanic, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Although safety net providers will benefit from health insurance expansions under the Affordable Care Act, they also face significant challenges in the postreform environment. Some have embraced the concept of the accountable care organization to help improve quality and efficiency while addressing financial shortfalls. The experience of Cambridge Health Alliance (CHA) in Massachusetts, where health care reform began six years ago, provides insight into the opportunities and challenges of this approach in the safety net. CHA's strategies include care redesign, financial realignment, workforce transformation, and development of external partnerships. Early results show some improvement in access, patient experience, quality, and utilization; however, the potential efficiencies will not eliminate CHA's current operating deficit. The patient population, payer mix, service mix, cost structure, and political requirements reduce the likelihood of financial sustainability without significant changes in these factors, increased public funding, or both. Thus the future of safety net institutions, regardless of payment and care redesign success, remains at risk. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  12. Three years of operational experience from Schauinsland CTBT monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Zähringer, M; Bieringer, J; Schlosser, C

    2008-04-01

    Data from three years of operation of a low-level aerosol sampler and analyzer (RASA) at Schauinsland monitoring station are reported. The system is part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The fully automatic system is capable to measure aerosol borne gamma emitters with high sensitivity and routinely quantifies 7Be and 212Pb. The system had a high level of data availability of 90% within the reporting period. A daily screening process rendered 66 tentative identifications of verification relevant radionuclides since the system entered IMS operation in February 2004. Two of these were real events and associated to a plausible source. The remaining 64 cases can consistently be explained by detector background and statistical phenomena. Inter-comparison with data from a weekly sampler operated at the same station shows instabilities of the calibration during the test phase and a good agreement since certification of the system.

  13. Clinical outcomes of redo valvular operations: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Naoto; Okada, Yukikatsu; Konishi, Yasunobu; Murashita, Takashi; Yuzaki, Mitsuru; Shomura, Yu; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Koyama, Tadaaki

    2012-12-01

    A higher operative mortality rate has been reported after redo valvular procedures than after the primary operation. Outcomes of 330 consecutive patients undergoing 433 redo valvular operations at our institute during a 20-year period (January 1990 to December 2010) were reviewed retrospectively. The mean follow-up was 6.4 years (range, 0.05 to 1.3 years). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hospital death. The overall hospital mortality rate was 6.7% (29 of 433 procedures). Logistic regression analysis identified only advanced New York Heart Association (NYHA) class as an independent predictor of hospital death. Overall survival at 5, 10, and 15 years was 83.6%±2.2%, 70.7%±3.4%, and 61.5%±4.5%, respectively. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year survivals for the first redo vs more than second redo groups were 86.5%±2.4% vs 74.7%±5.5%, 71.8%±3.9% vs 66.8%±6.6%, and 60.2%±5.7% vs 63.1%±7.2%, respectively (log-rank P=0.505). The 5- and 10-year survivals for NYHA class I/II vs III/IV patients were 91.5%±2.1% vs 70.4%±4.5% and 77.8%±4.1% vs 58.5%±5.6%, respectively (log-rank p<0.005). Redo valvular operation in NYHA class III/IV patients is associated with high hospital death and poor long-term survival. To achieve low hospital death and good long-term survival, redo operations, including more than third redo operations, should be performed in patients with lower NYHA class. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lidar In-space Technology Experiment: Overview and early results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, M. Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The September 1994 Shuttle flight of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) brought to fruition 10 years of effort at NASA's Langley Research Center where it was built. Being the first flight of a spaceborne lidar to measure atmospheric constituents and parameters and surface properties, it culminates the efforts of many worldwide over the last 20 years to usher in this new remote sensing technique from space. This paper will describe the LITE instrument, the in-orbit performance, and initial results. In addition, the global correlative measurements program will be outlined which involved 60 groups in 20 countries who made various simultaneous ground-based or aircraft measurements as LITE flew overhead.

  15. New designs of LMJ targets for early ignition experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C-Clérouin, C.; Bonnefille, M.; Dattolo, E.; Fremerye, P.; Galmiche, D.; Gauthier, P.; Giorla, J.; Laffite, S.; Liberatore, S.; Loiseau, P.; Malinie, G.; Masse, L.; Poggi, F.; Seytor, P.

    2008-05-01

    The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 40 laser quads, delivering up to 1.4MJ and 380TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness are then designed for this purpose. A first strategy is to use scaled-down cylindrical hohlraums and capsules, taking advantage of our better understanding of the problem, set on theoretical modelling, simulations and experiments. Another strategy is to work specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, which is with parametric instabilities a crucial drawback of indirect drive. An alternative design is proposed, made up of the nominal 60 quads capsule, named A1040, in a rugby-shaped hohlraum. Robustness evaluations of these different targets are in progress.

  16. Main components and characteristics of landslide early warning systems operational worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piciullo, Luca; Cepeda, José

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades the number of victims and economic losses due to natural hazards are dramatically increased worldwide. The reason can be mainly ascribed to climate changes and urbanization in areas exposed at high level of risk. Among the many mitigation measures available for reducing the risk to life related to natural hazards, early warning systems certainly constitute a significant cost-effective option available to the authorities in charge of risk management and governance. The aim is to help and protect populations exposed to natural hazards, reducing fatalities when major events occur. Landslide is one of the natural hazards addressed by early warning systems. Landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) are mainly composed by the following four components: set-up, correlation laws, decisional algorithm and warning management. Within this framework, the set-up includes all the preliminary actions and choices necessary for designing a LEWS, such as: the area covered by the system, the types of landslides and the monitoring instruments. The monitoring phase provides a series of important information on different variables, considered as triggering factors for landslides, in order to define correlation laws and thresholds. Then, a decisional algorithm is necessary for defining the: number of warning levels to be employed in the system, decision making procedures, and everything else system managers may need for issuing warnings in different warning zones. Finally the warning management is composed by: monitoring and warning strategy; communication strategy; emergency plan and, everything connected to the social sphere. Among LEWSs operational worldwide, two categories can be defined as a function of the scale of analysis: "local" and "territorial" systems. The scale of analysis influences several actions and aspects connected to the design and employment of the system, such as: the actors involved, the monitoring systems, type of landslide phenomena

  17. Global Equity Gauge Alliance: reflections on early experiences.

    PubMed

    McCoy, David; Bambas, Lexi; Acurio, David; Baya, Banza; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Liu, Yuanli; Ngom, Pierre; Ngulube, Thabale J; Ntuli, Antoinette; Sanders, David; Vega, Jeanette; Shukla, Abhay; Braveman, Paula A

    2003-09-01

    The paper traces the evolution and working of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) and its efforts to promote health equity. GEGA places health equity squarely within a larger framework of social justice, linking findings on socioeconomic and health inequalities with differentials in power, wealth, and prestige in society. The Alliance's 11 country-level partners, called Equity Gauges, share a common action-based vision and framework called the Equity Gauge Strategy. An Equity Gauge seeks to reduce health inequities through three broad spheres of action, referred to as the 'pillars' of the Equity Gauge Strategy, which define a set of interconnected and overlapping actions. Measuring and tracking the inequalities and interpreting their ethical import are pursued through the Assessment and Monitoring pillar. This information provides an evidence base that can be used in strategic ways for influencing policy-makers through actions in the Advocacy pillar and for supporting grassroots groups and civil society through actions in the Community Empowerment pillar. The paper provides examples of strategies for promoting pro-equity policy and social change and reviews experiences and lessons, both in terms of technical success of interventions and in relation to the conceptual development and refinement of the Equity Gauge Strategy and overall direction of the Alliance. To become most effective in furthering health equity at both national and global levels, the Alliance must now reach out to and involve a wider range of organizations, groups, and actors at both national and international levels. Sustainability of this promising experiment depends, in part, on adequate resources but also on the ability to attract and develop talented leadership.

  18. Cognition and adjustment after late and early operation for ruptured aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sonesson, B; Ljunggren, B; Säveland, H; Brandt, L

    1987-09-01

    Does early aneurysm operation, while lowering the overall management mortality, result in an unacceptable morbidity in terms of increased cognitive disturbances and psychosocial maladjustment? The present study evaluates quality of life, degree of cognitive dysfunction, and adjustment of 93 patients with satisfactory neurological recoveries after operations for ruptured supratentorial aneurysms. All patients had been in neurological Grades I to III (Hunt and Hess) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Fifty-five patients were operated upon during the acute state, i.e., within 72 hours after bleeding (early surgery = ES), and 38 patients had been subjected to late surgery (LS), i.e., were operated on 9 days or more after SAH. Each patient was subjected to a clinical interview and a comprehensive neuropsychological investigation. The time interval between SAH and assessment varied between 12 and 103 months (mean, 56 months). The results confirm that there are indication of cognitive malfunctioning and psychosocial disturbances of varying severity and distribution in patients who have undergone LS. The pattern and distribution of sequelae after LS did not differ substantially from that in patients subjected to ES. The results offer strong support to the concept that remaining disturbances in cognition are mainly related to the impact of the initial hemorrhage per se. In patients with anterior communicating artery aneurysms, a larger decrease in tempo and perceptual vigilance was noted, suggesting that the subfrontal midline structures are particularly involved in processes demanding flexibility, attention, and capacity to adapt to novel demands in a perceptual situation.

  19. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Marketing. Course: Marketing Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, T.; Egan, B.

    One of thirteen individualized courses included in a marketing curriculum, this course covers the fundamental concepts of the marketing and distribution field, including the operations of wholesale and retail businesses. The course is comprised of three units: (1) The Marketing Process, (2) Wholesaling, and (3) Retailing. Each unit begins with a…

  20. Federated software defined network operations for LHC experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongkyun; Byeon, Okhwan; Cho, Kihyeon

    2013-09-01

    The most well-known high-energy physics collaboration, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is based on e-Science, has been facing several challenges presented by its extraordinary instruments in terms of the generation, distribution, and analysis of large amounts of scientific data. Currently, data distribution issues are being resolved by adopting an advanced Internet technology called software defined networking (SDN). Stability of the SDN operations and management is demanded to keep the federated LHC data distribution networks reliable. Therefore, in this paper, an SDN operation architecture based on the distributed virtual network operations center (DvNOC) is proposed to enable LHC researchers to assume full control of their own global end-to-end data dissemination. This may achieve an enhanced data delivery performance based on data traffic offloading with delay variation. The evaluation results indicate that the overall end-to-end data delivery performance can be improved over multi-domain SDN environments based on the proposed federated SDN/DvNOC operation framework.

  1. Army Experiences with Deployment Planning in Operation Desert Shield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Hindered Operations ........................ 53 Recommendatior . ........................................ 55 Procedures... 55 System s ............................................... 57 Persomnel ................................................ 59 Appendix A...litwes should stress and facilitate concurrent lanninlg anlad tecit i011 thley hoLild ackno vledge tha: nao:.t w.,c: ,ill re,’,iie t, -- tr a i"V

  2. Operational experience at a "dog-hair" site.

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Ricketts; Richard E. Miller

    1995-01-01

    To monitor consequences of past operational practices, we installed eight 0.05-acre plots in a 9-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation established after clearcutting a grossly overstocked stand on a poor-quality site. Logging slash was broadcast burned on half this clearcut. One...

  3. Operational experiences with Bt in the Eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Henry, Jr. Trial

    1985-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t.) has been used operationally in the eastern U. S. since 1978 with most applications occurring in Maine. Changes in B. t. dosage rates, volume, cost, spray aircraft, and use patterns will be discussed. Evaluation of B. t. dosage in the east has consisted of variable results with 8 B.I.U. treatments in 1978 through 1980,...

  4. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  5. [Influence of early kinesitherapy on rehabilitation postoperative recovery in case of low extremity operations].

    PubMed

    Tanović, Edina

    2009-01-01

    Arteriosclerosis is a disease effecting large elastic, elastic muscular and large muscular arteries. The primary pathological changes are found inside the arteries. Salient feature is atherosclerotic plaque. The main purpose of this paper is to determine whether early kinesitherapy with verticalization and mobilization can give better rehabilitation results with patients after lower extremities operation, in comparison to patients which were not mobilized early in this stage. In this paper we have analyzed two groups of 40 patients that were operatively treated for circulation obstruction to lower extremities. The first, tested group was treated with early kinesiotherapy with early verticalization and mobilization. The second, controlled group was treated with kinesitherapy in bed. All the patients were analyzed according to their gender, age, primary diagnosis, postoperative complications, as well as capabilities for everyday activities. For the evaluation of the everyday life activities we used the Barthel index at hospital admission and discharge. Both groups of patients were equable in gender and age. The most common age group within the tested groups was between 61-70 for males and 51-60 for woman.The most common type of obstruction in both groups was occlusion of femoral artery. The complications which occurred among the tested patients were thrombosis, ileus and contracture in 7.5% of cases, while 85% of patients did not have any complications. Within the controlled group, decubitus occurred in 7.5% of cases, as well as gangrene and ileus. Ulcus occurred in 5% of patients, thrombosis in 10%, and contracture in 4% of cases. 40% of patients in this group were without complications. Based on the results stated above we can conclude that early kinesitherapy with verticalization and mobilization of patients in postoperative phase after the treatment of lower extremities obstruction, have shown much better results in comparison to the patients which were only

  6. Operational characterisation of requirements and early validation environment for high demanding space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barro, E.; Delbufalo, A.; Rossi, F.

    1993-01-01

    The definition of some modern high demanding space systems requires a different approach to system definition and design from that adopted for traditional missions. System functionality is strongly coupled to the operational analysis, aimed at characterizing the dynamic interactions of the flight element with its surrounding environment and its ground control segment. Unambiguous functional, operational and performance requirements are to be defined for the system, thus improving also the successive development stages. This paper proposes a Petri Nets based methodology and two related prototype applications (to ARISTOTELES orbit control and to Hermes telemetry generation) for the operational analysis of space systems through the dynamic modeling of their functions and a related computer aided environment (ISIDE) able to make the dynamic model work, thus enabling an early validation of the system functional representation, and to provide a structured system requirements data base, which is the shared knowledge base interconnecting static and dynamic applications, fully traceable with the models and interfaceable with the external world.

  7. Effects of early dental office visits on dental caries experience.

    PubMed

    Beil, Heather; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Lee, Jessica Y

    2014-10-01

    We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005-2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n=11,394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.81, 0.95; IRR=0.75; 95% CI=0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years.

  8. Early clinical experience with Guidezilla for transradial interventions in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Min; Diao, Kai-Yue; Liu, Xiao-Jing; He, Yong

    2018-04-03

    Anatomic variations, calcified, tortuous, angulated lesions, and lack of support to increase the complexity of transradial intervention (TRI). Guidezilla is a mother-and-child catheter enabling increased support during complex interventions. As there are few published reports of its use, we describe our experience using this device to assist TRI in Chinese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the Guidezilla guide extension catheter in complex coronary interventions. Thirty-two patients' clinical characteristics, angiographic details, and in-hospital outcome retrospectively collected between June 2015 and August 2017. Patients were 59.44 ± 10.48 years of age and 26 (81%) were men. The most frequent target vessels were the RCA (34%) and LAD (31%), patients had complex type C (53%) or B (47%) lesions, severely tortuous (41%) and angulated (22%).With the use of Guidezilla, technique success was 100%, and procedural success was 94%. The mean diameter of the deployed stents was 2.97 ± 0.37 mm, and the length was 27.19 ± 8.14 mm. The estimated mean distance of Guidezilla intubation into the target vessel was 7.66 ± 2.29 cm.The Guidezilla catheter extension safely facilitated successful completion of TRI in complex coronary artery lesions. This device can help interventionalists successfully perform difficult procedures.

  9. Operational experience and design recommendations for teleoperated flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, T. W.; Kuban, D. P.; Hankins, W. W.; Mixon, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Teleoperation (remote manipulation) will someday supplement/minimize astronaut extravehicular activity in space to perform such tasks as satellite servicing and repair, and space station construction and servicing. This technology is being investigated by NASA with teleoperation of two space-related tasks having been demonstrated at the Oak Ridge National Lab. The teleoperator experiments are discussed and the results of these experiments are summarized. The related equipment design recommendations are also presented. In addition, a general discussion of equipment design for teleoperation is also presented.

  10. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2013-10-12

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register;The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of their wounds

  11. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2015-07-23

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (30th June 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of

  12. BUSINESS WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS, AN OPERATIONAL HANDBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AIKIN, BRENTON R.; LEVENDOWSKI, J.C.

    BUSINESS EDUCATION INCLUDES INSTRUCTION IN BOTH OFFICE AND DISTRIBUTIVE OCCUPATIONS. THE BUSINESS WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS ARE BASED ON INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP INSTRUCTION IN THE RELATED CLASS IN WHICH ALL STUDENTS ARE ENROLLED, AND INSTRUCTION THROUGH PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT. THIS HANDBOOK SHOULD BE HELPFUL IN ORGANIZING AND OPERATING…

  13. The military operator's experience of reliability and maintainability characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Mcc.

    An account is given of the British Army's approach to the achievement of high reliability and maintainability in rotorcraft during the procurement process. Attention is given to experience accumulated to date with the Gazelle, Scout, Agusta A109A, and Lynx helicopters; these offer lessons with respect to the Gem engine, fuel filtering, vibration, and an aircraft flight control system.

  14. Child impulsiveness-inattention, early peer experiences, and the development of early onset conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James; Prichard, Joy; Schrepferman, Lynn; Patrick, M Renee; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2004-12-01

    The conjoint influence of child impulsiveness-inattention (I/I) and peer relationships on growth trajectories of conduct problems was assessed in a community sample of 267 boys and girls. I/I reliably predicted teacher- and parent-reported conduct problems at kindergarten entry and growth in those problems over the next 2 years for boys and girls. The relation of boys' I/I to conduct problems was mediated, in part, by peer rejection and involvement in coercive exchanges with peers. The relation of girls' I/I to conduct problems was less clearly mediated by peer processes, but peer difficulties had additive effects. The impact of peer relationships on trajectories of conduct problems was apparent to parents as well as to teachers. Although I/I increments risk for early and persisting conduct problems in concert with poor peer relationships, it does so in complex and gender-specific ways.

  15. Early Career Teachers' Emotional Experiences and Development--A Norwegian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakhelln, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Emotional experiences that are an integral part of the process of becoming teachers have been insufficiently explored in the research literature. The early experiences of three new teachers in a Norwegian upper secondary school are analysed using a collective case-study design and a socio-cultural theoretical framework. Emotions arising in the…

  16. Preparedness to Teach: Experiences of the University of Ibadan Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in terms of their preparedness to teach. Using a survey design involving 104 ECAs in a large Nigeria university, quantitative and qualitative data were obtained to address the research questions raised. Findings showed that (1) prior experience and training impacted on…

  17. Supporting Learning to Teach in Early Field Experiences: The UTE Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieda, Kristen N.; Dillman, Brittany; Gundlach, Michael; Voogt, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Most teacher preparation programs require prospective teachers (PTs) to engage in early field experiences (EFEs) prior to completing required coursework. These EFEs, however, may lack meaningful connections to course content and provide limited opportunities to experience the demands of classroom teaching. In this paper, we share evidence from the…

  18. Private Management of Public Schools: Early Experiences in Four School Districts. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    School districts nationwide are experimenting with a range of reform options, one of which is private management of public schools. This General Accounting Office (GAO) report describes the early experiences of four school districts that contracted with private companies for management of their public schools. Specifically, the report describes:…

  19. Early Intervention Experiences of Families of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Guerette, Amy R.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an understanding of the unique experiences of families who have a young child at risk for or identified with an autism spectrum disorder and their experiences with early intervention. Thirty-nine parents of children with or at risk for an autism spectrum disorder receiving Part C services in a state in the…

  20. A Road Like No Other: Mothers' Experiences with Early Intervention Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Amy Wickizer

    2010-01-01

    This dual case study utilizes qualitative research methods to examine the experiences of two mothers of young children with special needs. Over the course of ten months, the researcher spent many hours interviewing both mothers about their experiences with Early Intervention (EI) professionals. Observations of medical appointments, team meetings,…

  1. Effects of Experience on the Brain: The Role of Neuroscience in Early Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twardosz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Research on the effect of experience on the structure and function of the brain across the lifespan pertains directly to the concerns of professionals involved with children's early development and education. This paper briefly reviews (a) the role of experience in shaping the developing brain, (b) individual adaptation to the…

  2. A Comparison of Premenarcheal Expectations and Postmenarcheal Experiences in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…

  3. Operational experience with intermediate flat-plate photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risser, V. V.; Zwibel, H. S.

    Operating features, data acquisition, and fault isolation and maintenance procedures at 20 kWp and 100 kWp photovoltaic (PV) installations in Texas and New Mexico are discussed. Weather and system performance are sensed each minute, averages are calculated for each ten readings, and data is stored on magnetic tape. A total of 84 parameters, including 64 string currents, are recorded at the 20 kWp array and 84 parameters, with 42 string currents, are traced in New Mexico. The 20 kW array is coupled to a 197 MW utility power plant, which determines the voltage of the array. It produced 12 MWh in one yr of operation, functioning at 24 pct overall efficiency. The 100 kWp system is coupled to a 60 kW power conditioning unit and feeds a shopping center, producing 8 pct of the annual load with a cap factor of 25 pct and 192 MWh of dc current produced in one year. It was found that under normal conditions washing the panels is not economically justified in terms of the small power lost if washing does not occur. It is concluded that the PV arrays can be successfully used in an automated operation mode.

  4. High Temperature Electrolysis Pressurized Experiment Design, Operation, and Results

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G.K. Housley

    2012-09-01

    A new facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for pressurized testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. Pressurized operation is envisioned for large-scale hydrogen production plants, yielding higher overall efficiencies when the hydrogen product is to be delivered at elevated pressure for tank storage or pipelines. Pressurized operation also supports higher mass flow rates of the process gases with smaller components. The test stand can accommodate planar cells with dimensions up to 8.5 cm x 8.5 cm and stacks of up to 25 cells. It is also suitable for testing other cell and stack geometries including tubular cells.more » The pressure boundary for these tests is a water-cooled spool-piece pressure vessel designed for operation up to 5 MPa. Pressurized operation of a ten-cell internally manifolded solid oxide electrolysis stack has been successfully demonstrated up 1.5 MPa. The stack is internally manifolded and operates in cross-flow with an inverted-U flow pattern. Feed-throughs for gas inlets/outlets, power, and instrumentation are all located in the bottom flange. The entire spool piece, with the exception of the bottom flange, can be lifted to allow access to the internal furnace and test fixture. Lifting is accomplished with a motorized threaded drive mechanism attached to a rigid structural frame. Stack mechanical compression is accomplished using springs that are located inside of the pressure boundary, but outside of the hot zone. Initial stack heatup and performance characterization occurs at ambient pressure followed by lowering and sealing of the pressure vessel and subsequent pressurization. Pressure equalization between the anode and cathode sides of the cells and the stack surroundings is ensured by combining all of the process gases downstream of the stack. Steady pressure is maintained by means of a backpressure regulator and a digital pressure controller. A full description of the pressurized test apparatus is provided in

  5. Early Experience with Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS): A Novel Ophthalmologic Telemedicine Initiative.

    PubMed

    Maa, April Y; Wojciechowski, Barbara; Hunt, Kelly J; Dismuke, Clara; Shyu, Jason; Janjua, Rabeea; Lu, Xiaoqin; Medert, Charles M; Lynch, Mary G

    2017-04-01

    The aging population is at risk of common eye diseases, and routine eye examinations are recommended to prevent visual impairment. Unfortunately, patients are less likely to seek care as they age, which may be the result of significant travel and time burdens associated with going to an eye clinic in person. A new method of eye-care delivery that mitigates distance barriers and improves access was developed to improve screening for potentially blinding conditions. We present the quality data from the early experience (first 13 months) of Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS), a novel ophthalmologic telemedicine program. With TECS, a trained ophthalmology technician is stationed in a primary care clinic away from the main hospital. The ophthalmology technician follows a detailed protocol that collects information about the patient's eyes. The information then is interpreted remotely. Patients with possible abnormal findings are scheduled for a face-to-face examination in the eye clinic. Any patient with no known ocular disease who desires a routine eye screening examination is eligible. Technology-Based Eye Care Services was established in 5 primary care clinics in Georgia surrounding the Atlanta Veterans Affairs hospital. Four program operation metrics (patient satisfaction, eyeglass remakes, disease detection, and visit length) and 2 access-to-care metrics (appointment wait time and no-show rate) were tracked. Care was rendered to 2690 patients over the first 13 months of TECS. The program has been met with high patient satisfaction (4.95 of 5). Eyeglass remake rate was 0.59%. Abnormal findings were noted in 36.8% of patients and there was >90% agreement between the TECS reading and the face-to-face findings of the physician. TECS saved both patient (25% less) and physician time (50% less), and access to care substantially improved with 99% of patients seen within 14 days of contacting the eye clinic, with a TECS no-show rate of 5.2%. The early experience with

  6. Operational Tsunami Modelling with TsunAWI for the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakowsky, N.; Harig, S.; Androsov, A.; Fuchs, A.; Immerz, A.; Schröter, J.; Hiller, W.

    2012-04-01

    Starting in 2005, the GITEWS project (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) established from scratch a fully operational tsunami warning system at BMKG in Jakarta. Numerical simulations of prototypic tsunami scenarios play a decisive role in a priori risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. Repositories with currently 3470 regional tsunami scenarios for GITEWS and 1780 Indian Ocean wide scenarios in support of Indonesia as a Regional Tsunami Service Provider (RTSP) were computed with the non-linear shallow water modell TsunAWI. It is based on a finite element discretisation, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast and includes inundation. This contribution gives an overview on the model itself, the enhancement of the model physics, and the experiences gained during the process of establishing an operational code suited for thousands of model runs. Technical aspects like computation time, disk space needed for each scenario in the repository, or post processing techniques have a much larger impact than they had in the beginning when TsunAWI started as a research code. Of course, careful testing on artificial benchmarks and real events remains essential, but furthermore, quality control for the large number of scenarios becomes an important issue.

  7. Contributing to operations of community agencies through integrated fieldwork experiences.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Lisa; Bossers, Ann

    2009-06-01

    Occupational therapists are change agents who are well equipped to participate in community development. Community development projects can help agencies in many ways, including determining needs, educating stakeholders, developing novel programs, finding and creating resources, marketing the agency, and creating or implementing policy. In order for service agencies to profit, they need an understanding of the skills occupational therapists can offer. The best way to gain that knowledge may be through direct experience. This paper describes the benefits that flow to community agency partners and to occupational therapy students from an innovative, integrated fieldwork model that links students with service agencies. This approach has demonstrated many benefits to community partners, while allowing all students in an occupational therapy program to have community development experience. This is a cost-effective way to demonstrate the value of occupational therapy and to deliver multiple community development projects.

  8. Initial operation with sodium in the Madison Dynamo Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R.; Spence, Ej; Forest, C. B.; O'Connell, R.; Nornberg, Md; Canary, Hw; Wright, A.; Robinson, K.

    1999-11-01

    A new liquid metal MHD experiment has been constructed at the University of Wisconsin to test several key predictions of dynamo theory: magnetic instabilities driven by sheared flow, the effects of turbulence on current generation, and the back-reaction of the self-generated magnetic field on the fluid motion which brings saturation. This presentation describes the engineering design of the experiment, which is a 0.5 m radius spherical vessel, filled with liquid sodium at 150 ^circC. The experiment is designed to achieve a magnetic Reynolds number in excess of 100, which requires approximately 80 Hp of mechanical drive, producing flow velocities in sodium of 15 m/s through impellers. Handling liquid sodium offers a number of technical challenges, but routine techniques have been developed over the past several decades for safely handling large quantities for the fast breeder reactor. The handling strategy is discussed, technical details concerning seals and pressurization are presented, and safety elements are highlighted.

  9. Network Enabled Operations: The Experiences of Senior Canadian Commanders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-31

    d’opérations par réseaux dans ce pays, qu’il n’y a pas de solution universelle car, selon les commandants interrogés, les besoins en réseaux...was provide by Lerhe who said that the commander must understand his communications systems sufficiently to appreciate the allocation of bandwidth...alter bandwidth allocation as he moves from the operational theatre (at sea) to port and vice versa. More specifically, this officer felt that a task

  10. Operational Knowledge Management: Signaleers Share Front Line Experiences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    commander recommended for you to be the division KMO . You’ve heard “knowledge management” thrown around at NTC or JRTC, and usually from your...technology? You check the division’s MTOE and fi nd out the authorizations are for an 02A, Branch Immaterial O-5/ LTC as the KMO and a FA 57A Battle...Command Systems Operator O-4/ MAJ as the deputy KMO . Then you start to research the fi eld of KM and fi nd FM 6-01.1 Knowledge Wading through mounds of

  11. Experience with Round Beam Operation at The Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, A.; Emery, L.; Sajaev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Very short Touschek lifetime becomes a common issue for next-generation ultra-low emittance storage ring light sources. In order to reach a longer beamlifetime, such amachine often requires operating with a vertical-to-horizontal emittance ratio close to an unity, i.e. a “round beam”. In tests at the APS storage ring, we determined how a round beam can be reached experimentally. Some general issues, such as beam injection, optics measurement and corrections, and orbit correction have been tested also. To demonstrate that a round beam was achieved, the beam size ratio is calibrated using beam lifetime measurement.

  12. An Experiment on Repetitive Pulse Operation of Microwave Rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Yasuhisa; Shibata, Teppei; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2008-04-28

    Microwave Rocket was operated with repetitive pulses. The microwave rocket model with forced breathing system was used. The pressure history in the thruster was measured and the thrust impulse was deduced. As a result, the impulse decreased at second pulse and impulses at latter pulses were constant. The dependence of the thrust performance on the partial filling rate of the thruster was compared to the thrust generation model based on the shock wave driven by microwave plasma. The experimental results showed good agreement to the predicted dependency.

  13. The effect of early berthing prospects on the energy efficiency operational index in oil tanker vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Marine pollution is one of the main concerns of our society. In order to reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed technical, operational and management measures. Part of the operational measures refers to CO2 emissions that contribute to the energy efficiency of the vessel. The difficulty in assessing the energy efficiency of the vessel rests with the diversity of voyage parameters, including quantity of cargo, distance and type of fuel in use. Assessing the energy efficiency of the vessel is thus not a matter of determining the absolute value of the CO2, but of providing a meaningful construct to enable tracking performance trends over time, for the same ship, a fleet of ships or across the industry. This concept is the Energy Efficiency Operational Index, EEOI. The purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of a well predicted voyage on the EEOI value. The method used consists in a comparative analysis of two situations regarding berthing prospects: the real passage plan and an early prediction that supposes the vessel to arrive on time as required. The results of the study represent a monitoring tool for the ship owners to assess the EEOI from the early stage of designing the berthing prospects.

  14. [Correction of early cognitive disorders in school-age children operated under total intravenous anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Ovezov, A M; Lobov, M A; Panteleeva, M V; Lugovoĭ, A V; Miatchin, P S; Gus'kov, I E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the possibility and effectiveness of hopaten acid use for early postoperative cognitive dysfunction correction in children of school age. In compliance with inclusion and exclusion criteria, totally 40 children of school age (7-16 years old, ASA status I-II) with surgical pathology: (varicocele, cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia) were included A comperative assessment of neuropsychic status during pre - and postoperative are period in children, operated under propofol-fentanyl total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was conducted All patients were randomized to the control (without cepebroprotection 1st group, 20 children) and experimental (using cepebroprotection with hopaten acid within 1 month after the operation, 2nd group, 20 children) groups. Dimension of the study: Harvard standard monitoring, respiratory gas composition, neuropsychic tests (Bourdon test, "10 words test", etc.). For full compatibility groups (age, ASA status and anthropometric data, equal operation duration and the equipotential drug dosage adjustment is revealed, that in group of propofol-fentanyl TIVA in the early postoperative period in school age children postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is developing, which in case of absence of the corresponding correction is maintained after 1 month after operation (at least) in 80% of cases. In the application of hopaten acid cerebroprotection (40 mg/kg per day) severity of POCD reliably is reduced or compensated by the time of discharge from the hospital (3-7-th day when non-traumatic interventions), and 1 month after the operation in 30% of patients experienced improvement of cognitive functions, which proves the effectiveness of hopaten acid for POCD treatment. In case of propofol-fentanyl TIVA anesthesia in children of school age is indicated preventive prescription of multimodal cerebroprotectors without age limitations (for example hopaten acid (40 mg/kg per day) for POCD treatment.

  15. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for operable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Tsurugai, Yuichiro; Aoki, Yousuke; Oku, Yohei; Hara, Yu; Akiba, Takeshi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2017-07-01

    To analyze outcomes of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for operable patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to evaluate factors associated with outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed operable patients with NSCLC, staged as cT1-2N0M0, treated with SBRT between 2006 and 2015. Both biopsy-proven and clinically diagnosed NSCLC were included. Local control and survival rates were calculated and compared between subsets of patients. We investigated factors associated with outcomes. We identified 88 operable patients among 661 patients with cT1-2N0M0 NSCLC. The median age was 79 years (range: 55-88). The median follow-up time after SBRT was 40 months (range: 4-121). Fifty-nine patients had been pathologically diagnosed and the other 29 had been clinically diagnosed as having NSCLC. Local control, cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years were 91%, 97% and 90% for T1, and 100%, 82% and 74% for T2, respectively. The CSS and OS at 3 years were 100% and 100% for GGO and 83% and 59% for solid tumors, respectively (p=0.005). On univariate analysis, age and T stage were significantly associated with CSS, and age, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and opacity were significantly associated with OS. On multivariate analysis, age and CCI were significantly associated with OS. As for toxicities, Grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis occurred in 37.5%, 47.7%, 13.6% and 1.1% of patients, respectively. No Grade 4 or 5 radiation pneumonitis occurred, and no other toxicities of Grade 2 or above were observed. Outcomes of SBRT for operable early stage NSCLC were as good as previous SBRT and surgery studies. Further investigation for selecting good SBRT candidates is warranted in high-risk operable patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mothers' experience of caring for a child with early onset scoliosis: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education

  17. [Operative treatment strategies for multiple trauma patients : early total care versus damage control].

    PubMed

    Klüter, T; Lippross, S; Oestern, S; Weuster, M; Seekamp, A

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of multiple trauma patients is a great challenge for an interdisciplinary team. After preclinical care and subsequent treatment in the emergency room the order of the interventions is prioritized depending of the individual risk stratification. For planning the surgery management it is essential to distinguish between absolutely essential operations to prevent life-threatening situations for the patient and interventions with shiftable indications, depending on the general condition of the patient. All interventions need to be done without causing significant secondary damage to prohibit hyperinflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The challenge consists in determination of the appropriate treatment at the right point in time. In general the early primary intervention, early total care, is differentiated from the damage control concept.

  18. Assessing the experience in complex hepatopancreatobiliary surgery among graduating chief residents: Is the operative experience enough?

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Teviah E.; Ejaz, Aslam; Weiss, Matthew; Spolverato, Gaya; Ahuja, Nita; Makary, Martin A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Hirose, Kenzo; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Resident operative autonomy and case volume is associated with posttraining confidence and practice plans. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for graduating general surgery residents are four liver and three pancreas cases. We sought to evaluate trends in resident experience and autonomy for complex hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery over time. Methods We queried the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education General Surgery Case Log (2003–2012) for all cases performed by graduating chief residents (GCR) relating to liver, pancreas, and the biliary tract (HPB); simple cholecystectomy was excluded. Mean (±SD), median [10th–90th percentiles] and maximum case volumes were compared from 2003 to 2012 using R2 for all trends. Results A total of 252,977 complex HPB cases (36% liver, 43% pancreas, 21% biliary) were performed by 10,288 GCR during the 10-year period examined (Mean = 24.6 per GCR). Of these, 57% were performed during the chief year, whereas 43% were performed as postgraduate year 1–4. Only 52% of liver cases were anatomic resections, whereas 71% of pancreas cases were major resections. Total number of cases increased from 22,516 (mean = 23.0) in 2003 to 27,191 (mean = 24.9) in 2012. During this same time period, the percentage of HPB cases that were performed during the chief year decreased by 7% (liver: 13%, pancreas 8%, biliary 4%). There was an increasing trend in the mean number of operations (mean ± SD) logged by GCR on the pancreas (9.1 ± 5.9 to 11.3 ± 4.3; R2 = .85) and liver (8.0 ± 5.9 to 9.4 ± 3.4; R2 = .91), whereas those for the biliary tract decreased (5.9 ± 2.5 to 3.8 ± 2.1; R2 = .96). Although the median number of cases [10th:90th percentile] increased slightly for both pancreas (7.0 [4.0:15] to 8.0 [4:20]) and liver (7.0 [4:13] to 8.0 [5:14]), the maximum number of cases preformed by any given GCR remained stable for pancreas (51 to 53; R2 = .18), but increased for liver (38

  19. What has changed in the evidence for early experience? Update of a BEME systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah; Littlewood, Sonia; Margolis, Stephen A; Scherpbier, Albert; Spencer, John; Ypinazar, Valmae; Dornan, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We previously reviewed evidence published from 1992 to 2001 concerning early experience for healthcare undergraduates (Dornan T, Littlewood S, Margolis S, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Ypinazar V. 2006. How can experience in clinical and community settings contribute to early medical education? A BEME systematic review. Med Teach 28:3-18). This subsequent study reviews evidence published from 2002 to 2008. Identify changes in the evidence base; determine the value of re-reviewing; set a future research agenda. The same search strategy as in the original review was repeated. Newly identified publications were critically appraised against the same benchmarks of strength and educational importance. Twenty-four new empirical studies of early authentic experience in education of health professionals met our inclusion criteria, yielding 96 outcomes. Sixty five outcomes (from 22 studies) were both educationally important and based on strong evidence. A new significant theme was found: the use of early experience to help students understand and align themselves with patient and community perspectives on illness and healthcare. More publications were now from outside Europe and North America. In addition to supporting the findings of our original review, this update shows an expansion in research sources, and a shift in research content focus. There are still questions, however, about how early authentic experience leads to particular learning outcomes and what will make it most educationally effective.

  20. Initial operation of the Lockheed Martin T4B experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, M. L.; Blinzer, A.; Ebersohn, F.; Gucker, S.; Heinrich, J.; Lohff, C.; McGuire, T.; Montecalvo, N.; Raymond, A.; Rhoads, J.; Ross, P.; Sommers, B.; Strandberg, E.; Sullivan, R.; Walker, J.

    2017-10-01

    The T4B experiment is a linear, encapsulated ring cusp confinement device, designed to develop a physics and technology basis for a follow-on high beta (β 1) machine. The experiment consists of 13 magnetic field coils (11 external, 2 internal), to produce a series of on-axis field nulls surrounded by modest magnetic fields of up to 0.3 T. The primary plasma source used on T4B is a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) cathode, capable of coupling over 100 kW into the plasma. Initial testing focused on commissioning of components and integration of diagnostics. Diagnostics include both long and short wavelength interferometry, bolometry, visible and X-ray spectroscopy, Langmuir and B-dot probes, Thomson scattering, flux loops, and fast camera imagery. Low energy discharges were used to begin validation of physics models and simulation efforts. Following the initial machine check-out, neutral beam injection (NBI) was integrated onto the device. Detailed results will be presented. 2017 Lockheed Martin Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

  1. MagLev Cobra: Test Facilities and Operational Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo, G. G.; Dias, D. H. J. N.; de Oliveira, R. A. H.; Ferreira, A. C.; De Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2014-05-01

    The superconducting MagLev technology for transportation systems is becoming mature due to the research and developing effort of recent years. The Brazilian project, named MagLev-Cobra, started in 1998. It has the goal of developing a superconducting levitation vehicle for urban areas. The adopted levitation technology is based on the diamagnetic and the flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) bulk blocks in the interaction with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. A laboratory test facility with permanent magnet guideway, linear induction motor and one vehicle module is been built to investigate its operation. The MagLev-Cobra project state of the art is presented in the present paper, describing some construction details of the new test line with 200 m.

  2. Impact of the 80-hour work week on resident emergency operative experience.

    PubMed

    Feanny, Mark A; Scott, Bradford G; Mattox, Kenneth L; Hirshberg, Asher

    2005-12-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the impact of the 80-hour work week on the emergency operative experience of surgical residents. A 2-year retrospective comparison of the operative experience in emergency abdominal procedures of postgraduate year 4 and 5 residents in a city hospital before (group 1) and after (group 2) duty hour restriction. There was no difference between groups in the mean number of procedures performed as the primary surgeon, but group 2 showed a 40% decrease in technically advanced procedures with a 44% increase in basic procedures. The study also demonstrated a 54% decrease in the operative volume as first assistant. Operative continuity of care by residents decreased from 60% to 26% of cases. The ACGME regulatory environment is adversely affecting the emergency operative experience of surgical residents. Our findings underscore the need to develop alternative methods to augment the residents' operative experience.

  3. High-power S-band experiment study: Objectives, description, planning and operation of experiment for ATS-G spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walp, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a study to develop and define requirements for the high power S-band experiment for the ATS-G are summarized. The objectives of the experiment are: (1) to demonstrate high power technology at S-band frequencies in orbiting spacecraft, (2) to employ high power carrier from the spacecraft for conducting interference measurements with Instructional Television Fixed Service systems, and (3) to provide means for performing educationally oriented applications experiments. Experiment organization and operation, and hardware for flight on the ATS-G spacecraft are described. Earth stations designed for the experiment as well as other special ground equipment are also described.

  4. Amphibious Landing Operations in World War II: Personal Experience in Applying and Developing Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    the forefront of the Army’s effort to gain experience planning and conducting amphibious landings was Lucian K . Truscott, Jr, a Cavalry officer by...Landing Operations, Lucian K . Truscott, Jr., Operation Torch, Operation Husky, 3rd Infantry Division, World War II 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...gain experience planning and conducting amphibious landings was Lucian K . Truscott, Jr., a Cavalry officer by training. Following his assignment to

  5. Analysis of failure and maintenance experiences of motor operated valves in a Finnish nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simola, Kaisa; Laakso, Kari

    1992-01-01

    Eight years of operating experiences of 104 motor operated closing valves in different safety systems in nuclear power units were analyzed in a systematic way. The qualitative methods used were Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Maintenance Effects and Criticality Analysis (MECA). These reliability engineering methods are commonly used in the design stage of equipment. The successful application of these methods for analysis and utilization of operating experiences was demonstrated.

  6. 3 Echo: concept of operations for early care and evacuation of victims of mass violence.

    PubMed

    Autrey, Allen W; Hick, John L; Bramer, Kurtis; Berndt, Jeremy; Bundt, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the successful use of a simple 3-phase approach that guides the initial 30 minutes of a response to blast and active shooter events with casualties: Enter, Evaluate, and Evacuate (3 Echo) in a mass-shooting event occurring in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA, on September 27, 2012. Early coordination between law enforcement (LE) and rescue was emphasized, including establishment of unified command, a common operating picture, determination of evacuation corridors, swift victim evaluation, basic treatment, and rapid evacuation utilizing an approach developed collaboratively over the four years prior to the event. Field implementation of 3 Echo requires multi-disciplinary (Emergency Medical Services (EMS), fire and LE) training to optimize performance. This report details the mass-shooting event, the framework created to support the response, and also describes important aspects of the concepts of operation and curriculum evolved through years of collaboration between multiple disciplines to arrive at unprecedented EMS transport times in response to the event.

  7. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array - from Early Science to Full Operations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remijan, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is now entering its 6th cycle of scientific observations. Starting with Cycle 3, science observations were no longer considered "Early Science" or "best efforts". Cycle 5 is now the third cycle of "steady state" observations and Cycle 7 is advertised to begin ALMA "full science" operations. ALMA Full Science Operations will include all the capabilities that were agreed upon by the international consortium after the ALMA re-baselining effort. In this talk, I will detail the upcoming ALMA Cycle 5 observing capabilities, describe the process of selecting new observing modes for upcoming cycles and provide an update on the status of the ALMA Full Science capabilities.

  8. Some Operating Experience and Problems Encountered During Operation of a Free-jet Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, John E; Prince, William R

    1957-01-01

    During a free-jet investigation of a 28-inch ram-jet engine at a Mach number of 2.35, flow pulsation at the engine inlet were discovered which proved to have an effect on the engine performance and operational characteristics, particularly the engine rich blowout limits. This report discusses the finding of the flow pulsations, their elimination, and effect. Other facility characteristics, such as the establishment of flow simulation and the degree of subcritical operation of the diffuser, are also explained.

  9. Early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System for the treatment of mediastinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Taira, Masahiro; Yoshida, Koichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Usuda, Jitsuo; Uchida, Osamu; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2011-10-01

    The da Vinci Surgical System has been used in only a few cases for treating mediastinal tumors in Japan. Recently, we used the da Vinci Surgical System for various types of anterior and middle mediastinal tumors in clinical practice. We report our early experience using the da Vinci Surgical System. Seven patients gave written informed consent to undergo robotic surgery for mediastinal tumor dissection using the da Vinci Surgical System. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of this system for the surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors. Two specialists in thoracic surgery who are certified to use the da Vinci S Surgical System and another specialist acted as an assistant performed the tumor dissection. We were able to access difficult-to-reach areas, such as the mediastinum, safely. All the resected tumors were classified as benign tumors histologically. The average da Vinci setting time was 14.0 min, the average working time was 55.7 min, and the average overall operating time was 125.9 min. The learning curve for the da Vinci setup and manipulation time was short. Robotic surgery enables mediastinal tumor dissection in certain cases more safely and easily than conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and less invasively than open thoracotomy.

  10. Operational experience with nanocoulomb bunch charges in the Cornell photoinjector

    DOE PAGES

    Bartnik, Adam; Gulliford, Colwyn; Bazarov, Ivan; ...

    2015-08-19

    Characterization of 9–9.5 MeV electron beams produced in the dc-gun based Cornell photoinjector is given for bunch charges ranging from 20 pC to 2 nC. Comparison of the measured emittances and longitudinal current profiles to optimized 3D space charge simulations yields excellent agreement for bunch charges up to 1 nC when the measured laser distribution is used to generate initial particle distributions in simulation. Analysis of the scaling of the measured emittance with bunch charge shows that the emittance scales roughly as the square root of the bunch charge up to 300 pC, above which the trend becomes linear. Furthermore,more » these measurements demonstrate that the Cornell photoinjector can produce cathode emittance dominated beams meeting the emittance and peak current specifications for next generation free electron lasers operating at high repetition rate. In addition, the 1 and 2 nC results are relevant to the electron ion collider community.« less

  11. The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Process: Overview and Operational Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri Kraft

    2008-01-01

    Orbital debris poses a significant threat to spacecraft health and safety. Recent events such as China's anti-satellite test and the Breeze-M rocket explosion have led to an even greater awareness and concern in the satellite community. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established requirements that routine conjunction assessment screening shall be performed for all maneuverable spacecraft having perigees less than 2000 km or within 200 km of geosynchronous altitude. NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed an operational collision risk assessment process to protect NASA s high-value unmanned (robotic) assets that has been in use since January 2005. This paper provides an overview of the NASA robotic conjunction assessment process, including descriptions of the new tools developed to analyze close approach data and of the risk mitigation strategies employed. In addition, statistical data describing the number of conjunctions experienced are presented. A debris avoidance maneuver performed by Aura in June of 2008 is described in detail to illustrate the process.

  12. Operational procedures for ground station operation: ATS-3 Hawaii-Ames satellite link experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, K.; Gross, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Hardware description and operational procedures for the ATS-3 Hawaii-Ames satellite computer link are presented in basic step-by-step instructions. Transmit and receive channels and frequencies are given. Details such as switch settings for activating the station to the sequence of turning switches on are provided. Methods and procedures for troubleshooting common problems encountered with communication stations are also provided.

  13. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Mohajer A; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test - II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study's strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  14. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Mohajer A.; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications. PMID:29375433

  15. The effect of early operative stabilization on late displacement of zone I and II sacral fractures.

    PubMed

    Emohare, Osa; Slinkard, Nathaniel; Lafferty, Paul; Vang, Sandy; Morgan, Robert

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect on displacement of early operative stabilization on unstable fractures when compared to stable fractures of the sacrum. Patient consisted of those sustaining traumatic pelvic fractures that also included sacral fractures of Denis type I and type II classification, who were over 18 at the time of the study. Patients were managed emergently, as judged appropriate at the time and then subsequently divided into two cohorts, comprising those who were either treated operatively or non-operatively. The operative group comprised those treated with either internal fixation or external fixation. Twenty-eight patients had zone II fractures, and 20 had zone I fractures. Zone II fractures showed average displacements of 6.5mm and 6.9mm in the rostral-caudal and anteroposterior directions, respectively, at final follow up. Zone I fractures had average displacements of 6.6mm and 6.1mm in both directions. There were no significant differences between zone I and II sacral fractures (rostral-caudal P=0.74, anteroposterior P=0.24). Average changes in fracture displacement in patients with zone I fractures were 0.6-1.0mm in both directions. Average changes in zone II fractures were 1.8-1.5mm in both directions. There were no significant differences between the average changes in zone I and II fractures in any direction (rostral-caudal P=0.64, anteroposterior P=0.68) or in average displacements at final follow up in any of zone or the entire cohort. Statistically significant differences were noted in average changes in displacement in zone II fractures in the anteroposterior plane (P=0.03) and the overall cohort in the anteroposterior plane (P=0.02). Operative fixation for unstable sacral fractures ensures displacement at follow up is comparable with stable fractures treated non operatively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Ricor K508 cryocooler operational experience on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dean L.; Lysek, Mark J.; Morookian, John Michael

    The Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity) landed successfully on Mars on August 5, 2012, eight months after launch. The chosen landing site of Gale Crater, located at 4.5 degrees south latitude, 137.4 degrees east longitude, has provided a much more benign environment than was originally planned for during the critical design and integration phases of the MSL Project when all possible landing sites were still being considered. The expected near-surface atmospheric temperatures at the Gale Crater landing site during Curiosity's primary mission (1 Martian year or 687 Earth days) are from −90°C to 0°C. However, enclosed within Curiosity's thermal control fluidmore » loops the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument is maintained at approximately +20°C. The CheMin instrument uses X-ray diffraction spectroscopy to make precise measurements of mineral constituents of Mars rocks and soil. The instrument incorporated the commercially available Ricor K508 Stirling cycle cryocooler to cool the CCD detector. After several months of brushing itself off, stretching and testing out its subsystems, Curiosity began the exploration of the Mars surface in October 2012. The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) received its first soil sample from Curiosity on October 24, and successfully analyzed its first soil sample. After a brief review of the rigorous Ricor K508 cooler qualification tests and life tests based on the original MSL environmental requirements this paper presents final pre-launch instrument integration and testing results, and details the operational data of the CheMin cryocooler, providing a snapshot of the resulting CheMin instrument analytical data.« less

  17. The importance of early operative treatment in open fractures of the fingers.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tim; Unadkat, Jignesh; Bilonick, Richard A; Wollstein, Ronit

    2014-04-01

    Current guidelines suggest early surgical treatment of open fractures. This rule in open hand fractures is not well supported and may be practically difficult to observe. Furthermore, desirable washout can be obtained in the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of early surgery in our institution. Seventy patients with open fractures of the hand were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, fracture characteristics, and complications. Statistical analysis included univariate analysis, Fisher exact test, and Akaike information criterion. Intravenous antibiotics were administered early in 53 (75.7%) patients. Mean (SD) time to surgery was 2.3 (134.9) hours. The infection rate was 11.4%. No significant relationship was found between fracture type, finger involved, hand dominance, comorbidities, and infection. Antibiotic administration was significantly related to infection (P = 0.007), whereas time to surgery was not (P = 0.33). Age was weakly related to infection (P = 0.08). Administration of intravenous antibiotics in the ED was the most significant factor in preventing infection, whereas the time to operation was not significant. Because a thorough washout and debridement can be performed on open hand fractures in the ED due to the ability to provide adequate anesthesia, the actual time to surgery may possibly be delayed without increasing the risk of infection. Future prospective studies may allow for better guidelines for the treatment of open hand fractures.

  18. An optimal painless treatment for early hemorrhoids; our experience in Government Medical College and Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Singal, R; Gupta, S; Dalal, AK; Dalal, U; Attri, AK

    2013-01-01

    Objective - To evaluate the efficacy of Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) for hemorrhoids. IRC is a painless, safe and successful procedure. Place and duration of study - Department of Surgery, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector-32, Chandigarh, India, from August 2006 to October 2008. The choice of procedure depends on the patient's symptoms, the extent of the hemorrhoidal disease, and the experience of the surgeon along with the availability of the techniques/instruments. Materials and methods - This is a prospective study done from August 2006 to October 2008. Total number of 155 patients was included in the study. Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) was performed through a special designed proctoscope. Patients excluded were with coagulopathy disorders, fissure in ano, and anal ulcers. Results - It is an outpatient Department (OPD), non-surgical, ambulatory, painless and bloodless procedure, without any hospital stay. Early recovery and minimal recurrence of hemorrhoids were noted without any morbidity or mortality. We have studied 155 patients, treated with IRC on OPD basis. Surgery was required in few patients in whom IRC failed or was contraindicated. Out of the total 155 patients, 127 came for follow up. After the 1st sitting of IRC therapy: out of 127; 43 patients got a total relief, mass shrinkage was of > 75% in 57 cases and < 50% in 14 cases. Twenty-eight cases did not come for follow-up. In the 2nd sitting, out of 84/127; 58 patients got a total relief, >75% relief in 15 cases and >50 % relief in 11 patients. In the 3rd sitting out of 26/84 cases: 13 cases got a total relief and 13 cases refused to take the third sitting; however, in 7 cases the hemorrhoidal mass shrank up to 50% after the two sittings. These 14 were operated as there was no relief from bleeding after giving two sittings of IRC. Our opinion is that, in the above 14 cases, the patient might have not followed the instructions properly for dietary habits. Conclusion - IRC is a

  19. An optimal painless treatment for early hemorrhoids; our experience in Government Medical College and Hospital.

    PubMed

    Singal, R; Gupta, S; Dalal, A K; Dalal, U; Attri, A K

    2013-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) for hemorrhoids. IRC is a painless, safe and successful procedure. Department of Surgery, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector-32, Chandigarh, India, from August 2006 to October 2008. The choice of procedure depends on the patient's symptoms, the extent of the hemorrhoidal disease, and the experience of the surgeon along with the availability of the techniques/instruments. This is a prospective study done from August 2006 to October 2008. Total number of 155 patients was included in the study. Infrared Coagulation Therapy (IRC) was performed through a special designed proctoscope. Patients excluded were with coagulopathy disorders, fissure in ano, and anal ulcers. Results - It is an outpatient Department (OPD), non-surgical, ambulatory, painless and bloodless procedure, without any hospital stay. Early recovery and minimal recurrence of hemorrhoids were noted without any morbidity or mortality. We have studied 155 patients, treated with IRC on OPD basis. Surgery was required in few patients in whom IRC failed or was contraindicated. Out of the total 155 patients, 127 came for follow up. After the 1st sitting of IRC therapy: out of 127; 43 patients got a total relief, mass shrinkage was of > 75% in 57 cases and < 50% in 14 cases. Twenty-eight cases did not come for follow-up. In the 2nd sitting, out of 84/127; 58 patients got a total relief, >75% relief in 15 cases and >50 % relief in 11 patients. In the 3rd sitting out of 26/84 cases: 13 cases got a total relief and 13 cases refused to take the third sitting; however, in 7 cases the hemorrhoidal mass shrank up to 50% after the two sittings. These 14 were operated as there was no relief from bleeding after giving two sittings of IRC. Our opinion is that, in the above 14 cases, the patient might have not followed the instructions properly for dietary habits. IRC is a safe, simple and effective procedure for early hemorrhoids without any

  20. Operational Earthquake Forecasting and Earthquake Early Warning: The Challenges of Introducing Scientific Innovations for Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Although variants of both earthquake early warning and short-term operational earthquake forecasting systems have been implemented or are now being implemented in some regions and nations, they have been slow to gain acceptance within the disciplines that produced them as well as among those for whom they were intended to assist. To accelerate the development and implementation of these technologies will require the cooperation and collaboration of multiple disciplines, some inside and others outside of academia. Seismologists, social scientists, emergency managers, elected officials and key opinion leaders from the media and public must be the participants in this process. Representatives of these groups come from both inside and outside of academia and represent very different organizational cultures, backgrounds and expectations for these systems, sometimes leading to serious disagreements and impediments to further development and implementation. This presentation will focus on examples of the emergence of earthquake early warning and operational earthquake forecasting systems in California, Japan and other regions and document the challenges confronted in the ongoing effort to improve seismic safety.

  1. International Co-Operation in Control Engineering Education Using Online Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Schaedel, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the international co-operation experience in teaching control engineering with laboratories being conducted remotely by students via the Internet. This paper describes how the students ran the experiments and their personal experiences with the laboratory. A tool for process identification and controller tuning based on…

  2. PRESSCA: A regional operative Early Warning System for landslides risk scenario assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponziani, Francesco; Stelluti, Marco; Berni, Nicola; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2013-04-01

    The Italian national alert system for the hydraulic and hydrogeological risk is ensured by the National Civil Protection Department, through the "Functional Centres" Network, together with scientific/technical Support Centres, named "Competence Centres". The role of the Functional Centres is to alert regional/national civil protection network, to manage the prediction and the monitoring phases, thus ensuring the flow of data for the management of the emergency. The Umbria regional alerting procedure is based on three increasing warning levels of criticality for 6 sub-areas (~1200 km²). Specifically, for each duration (from 1 to 48 hours), three criticality levels are assigned to the rainfall values corresponding to a recurrence interval of 2, 5, and 10 years. In order to improve confidence on the daily work for hydrogeological risk assessment and management, a simple and operational early warning system for the prediction of shallow landslide triggering on regional scale was implemented. The system is primarily based on rainfall thresholds, which represent the main element of evaluation for the early-warning procedures of the Italian Civil Protection system. Following previous studies highlighting that soil moisture conditions play a key role on landslide triggering, a continuous physically-based soil water balance model was implemented for the estimation of soil moisture conditions over the whole regional territory. In fact, a decreasing trend between the cumulated rainfall values over 24, 36 and 48 hours and the soil moisture conditions prior to past landslide events was observed. This trend provides an easy-to-use tool to dynamically adjust the operational rainfall thresholds with the soil moisture conditions simulated by the soil water balance model prior to rainfall events. The application of this procedure allowed decreasing the uncertainties tied to the application of the rainfall thresholds only. The system is actually operational in real-time and it was

  3. [Experience with the Norwood operation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome].

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Juan A; González-Rodríguez, Juan D; Martínez-López, Adoración I; Canalejo-González, David; Romero-Parreño, Antonio; Santos de Soto, José; Loscertales-Abril, Mercedes; Cayuela-Domínguez, Aurelio; Fournier-Carazo, Mauro Gil

    2007-07-01

    To describe our experience and to identify risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Between October 1991 and June 2005, 42 children underwent the Norwood procedure. In the first 30 patients, pulmonary circulation was established using a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (Group 1), while a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit was used in the remaining 12 (Group 2). Preoperative anatomic features and procedural factors were analyzed with respect to their impact on mortality. Postoperatively, data were collected on arterial blood pressure, arterial and venous oxygen saturation, arterial pH, venous pCO2, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, tissue oxygen extraction, and dead space fraction. The association between each individual variable and mortality was investigated. Thirty patients (71.4%) had both aortic and mitral atresia, eight (19%) had either aortic or mitral atresia, and four (9.5%) had no valvular atresia. There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative mortality between the groups 1 and 2 (12/22 [54.5%] vs 7/12 [58.3%]; P=.56). The only significant risk factor for in-hospital mortality was a longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (P=.01) and, for intraoperative mortality, primary rather than delayed sternal closure (P=.004). Venous pCO2, the mean dead space fraction, and tissue oxygen extraction all tended to be higher among infants who died, but the difference was not statistically significant. Use of a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit did not improve postoperative survival. Both a long cardiopulmonary bypass time and primary sternal closure were associated with increased mortality.

  4. Separation, failure and temporary relinquishment: women's experiences of early mothering in the context of emergency hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Elmir, Rakime; Schmied, Virginia; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2012-04-01

    To describe the experiences of women who have had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage and the impact on their early mothering experiences. Postpartum haemorrhage and subsequent hysterectomy is a traumatic birth event. Traumatic birth experiences have the potential to impact on a woman's experience of motherhood and her initial relationship with her baby. The relative rarity of this event makes it easy to dismiss the experiences of women having a hysterectomy following childbirth. Little is known about a woman's early mothering experience in the context of having an emergency hysterectomy. Qualitative naturalistic inquiry approach. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative interviews from 21 Australian women who had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. Findings revealed three themes in relation to early mothering experiences in the context of having a hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. They were 'initial separation: lost bonding time', 'feelings of failure' and 'relinquishing care of the infant'. This paper highlights the ways undergoing emergency hysterectomy following childbirth can impact on the experience of early mothering in the postnatal period. Greater recognition and attention to the specific needs of women who have an emergency hysterectomy following childbirth is required. Providing women with an opportunity to talk, debrief and ask questions related to their birthing experiences, will help women to reconcile their feelings. Giving women the opportunity to have their infants with them in intensive care unit, together with ongoing emotional support and anticipatory guidance, may also be useful approaches in assisting women during this difficult and traumatic time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Early Adversity and Developmental Outcomes: Interaction Between Genetics, Epigenetics, and Social Experiences Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Frances A

    2010-09-01

    Longitudinal studies in humans demonstrate the association between prenatal and postnatal experiences of adversity and long-term changes in neurodevelopment. These studies raise the question of how experiences become incorporated at a biological level to induce persistent changes in functioning. Laboratory studies using animal models and recent analyses in human cohorts implicate epigenetic mechanisms as a possible route through which these environmental effects are achieved. In particular, there is evidence that changes in DNA methylation are associated with early life experiences with consequences for gene expression and behavior. Despite the potential stability of DNA methylation, it is apparent that this epigenetic mark can be dynamically modified through pharmacological targeting and behavioral experiences. Developmental plasticity may also be achieved through modification of the juvenile environment. Although these juvenile experiences may lead to common endpoints, there is evidence suggesting that the effects of early and later life experiences may be achieved by different molecular pathways. This review discusses evidence for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in shaping developmental trajectories in response to early life experience as well as the potential plasticity that can occur beyond the perinatal period. These studies have implications for approaches to intervention and suggest the importance of considering individual differences in genetic and epigenetic vulnerability in developing treatment strategies. © The Author(s) 2010.

  6. Exposure to a mildly aversive early life experience leads to prefrontal cortex deficits in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Antonios; Manatos, Vasileios; Kalpachidou, Theodora; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2016-11-01

    Aversive early life experiences in humans have been shown to result in deficits in the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In an effort to elucidate possible neurobiological mechanisms involved, we investigated in rats, the effects of a mildly aversive early experience on PFC structure and function. The early experience involved exposure of rat pups during postnatal days (PND) 10-13 to a T-maze in which they search for their mother, but upon finding her are prohibited contact with her, thus being denied the expected reward (DER). We found that the DER experience resulted in adulthood in impaired PFC function, as assessed by two PFC-dependent behavioral tests [attention set-shifting task (ASST) and fear extinction]. In the ASST, DER animals showed deficits specifically in the intra-dimensional reversal shifts and a lower activation-as determined by c-Fos immunohistochemistry-of the medial orbital cortex (MO), a PFC subregion involved in this aspect of the task. Furthermore, the DER experience resulted in decreased glutamatergic neuron and dendritic spine density in the MO and infralimbic cortex (IL) in the adult brain. The decreased neuronal density was detected as early as PND12 and was accompanied by increased micro- and astroglia-density in the MO/IL.

  7. NASA/ESA CT-990 Spacelab simulation. Appendix A: The experiment operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    A joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Two experiment operators from Europe and two from the U.S. were selected to live aboard the aircraft along with a mission manager for a six-day period and operate the experiments in behalf of the principal scientists. This appendix discusses the experiment operators and their relationship to the joint mission under the following general headings: selection criteria, training programs, and performance. The performance of the proxy operators was assessed in terms of adequacy of training, amount of scientific data obtained, quality of data obtained, and reactions to problems that arose in experiment operation.

  8. Undergraduate surgical nursing preparation and guided operating room experience: A quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Foran, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if guided operating theatre experience in the undergraduate nursing curricula enhanced surgical knowledge and understanding of nursing care provided outside this specialist area in the pre- and post-operative surgical wards. Using quantitative analyses, undergraduate nurses were knowledge tested on areas of pre- and post-operative surgical nursing in their final semester of study. As much learning occurs in nurses' first year of practice, participants were re-tested again after their Graduate Nurse Program/Preceptorship year. Participants' results were compared to the model of operating room education they had participated in to determine if there was a relationship between the type of theatre education they experienced (if any) and their knowledge of surgical ward nursing. Findings revealed undergraduates nurses receiving guided operating theatre experience had a 76% pass rate compared to 56% with non-guided or no experience (p < 0.001). Graduates with guided operating theatre experience as undergraduates or graduate nurses achieved a 100% pass rate compared to 53% with non-guided or no experience (p < 0.001). The research informs us that undergraduate nurses achieve greater learning about surgical ward nursing via guided operating room experience as opposed to surgical ward nursing experience alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of early warning system performance and improvements since it is in operational phase in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortansa Cioflan, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster for Romanian territory. The main goal following the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. A rapid early warning system (REWS) was developed in Romania in order to provide 25-35 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for the earthquakes with M>5.0. The system consists of four components: a network of strong motion sensors installed in the epicentral area, a redundant communication network, an automatic analyzing system located in the Romanian Data Centre and an alert distribution system. The detection algorithm is based on the magnitude computation using strong motion data and rapid evaluation and scaling relation between the maximum P-wave acceleration measured in the epicentral area and the higher ground motion amplitude recorded in Bucharest. In order to reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, the exploitation of the up to date technology is very important. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the internet is one of the most used instrument, implying also low costs. The Rapid Early Warning System was expanded to cover all countries affected by major earthquakes originating in the Vrancea seismic area and reduce their impact on existing installations of national interest in neighbouring Romania and elsewhere. REWS provides an efficient instrument for prevention and reaction based on the integrated system for seismic detection in South-Eastern Europe. REWS has been operational since 2013 and sends alert the authorities, hazardous facilities in Romania and Bulgaria (NPP, emergency response agencies etc.) and to public via twitter and some smartphone applications developed in the house. Also, NIEP is part of the UNESCO initiative case on developing a platform on earthquake early warning systems (IP-MEP) that aims to promote and strengthen the development of earthquake early warning systems in earthquake-prone regions of the world by sharing

  10. [Emotional experience of early traumatic experiences and relationship-specific attachment styles in alcohol-dependent patients].

    PubMed

    Hebein, Ursula; Quantschnig, Bettina; Andreas, Sylke

    2018-03-01

    Emotional experience of early traumatic experiences and relationship-specific attachment styles in alcohol-dependent patients Objectives: The present investigation studied the differences in emotional experiences among alcohol-dependent patients in inpatient psychotherapy, taking into account their traumatic experiences and relationship-specific attachment styles. Three standardized instruments were used on this clinical sample of 70 patients in inpatient psychotherapy: (1) Scales for Experiencing Emotions (SEE), (2) Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), (3) Relationship-Specific Attachment Scales for Adults (RASA). The results showed that traumatic experiences in childhood and adolescence as well as relationship-specific attachment styles were indeed associated with deficits in emotional experience and regulation. Especially emotional abuse was associated with deficits in emotional experience. An insecure attachment style was associated with a lower level of acceptance of emotions, a lower level of self-control, and dysfunctional emotion regulation. In particular, the attachment style to the mother seems to be important. These results suggest that a distinction of alcohol-addicted patients, with respect to attachment styles and traumatic experiences in childhood and adolescent, seems to be important in order to define specific interventions to improve the ability to regulate emotions.

  11. Effects of Cyberbullying Experience and Cyberbullying Tendency on School Violence in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Miyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: School violence in early adolescence, whose frequency and status have recently changed significantly. Objective: This study attempts to detect the cyber bullying inclination of youth in early adolescence when aggressiveness reaches its peak, to identify school violence, and to develop a school violence prevention program. Method: This study was a survey research, investigating participants who were 470 middle school students in South Korea. For the analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: It is suggested that the school violence victimization experience and cyber bullying infliction experience has an influence in the school violence infliction. And the cyber bullying victimization experience and school violence victimization experience variables exert effects. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that school nurses who are connecting to the community-school-home should take an active part in the development of school violence mediation education program, considering the cultural characteristics of the country. PMID:29081871

  12. Utilization of operating experience to prevent piping failures at steam plants

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.S.; Dietrich, E.B.

    1999-11-01

    The key to preventing flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) induced piping failures in steam plants is the development and implementation of a methodical program for assessing plant susceptibility to FAC and managing the effects of FAC. One of the key elements of an effective FAC program is the accurate and comprehensive utilization of plant-specific and industry-wide operating experience. Operating experience should be used to develop the program to identify specific areas for inspection or replacement, and to maintain an effective program. This paper discusses the utilization of operating experience in FAC programs at nuclear power plants, fossil plants and other steam plants.

  13. The Social Experience of Early Childhood for Children with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion, Competence and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Flewitt, Rosie; Payler, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells of the social experiences of three four-year-old children with learning disabilities as they negotiate their daily lives in their homes and early education settings in England. We apply a social model of childhood disability to the relatively unexplored territory of young children and use vignettes drawn from video observation to…

  14. Voices from the Other Side of the Fence: Early Childhood Teachers' Experiences with Mandatory Regulatory Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Guided by feminist research principles, the study reported in this article contributes to the growing research dialogue on early childhood teachers' experiences with, and perceptions of, the impact of regulatory requirements on their teaching and on their perceptions of themselves as professionals. Specifically, three teachers from metropolitan…

  15. Perinatal Experiences: The Association of Stress, Childbearing, Breastfeeding, and Early Mothering

    PubMed Central

    Humenick, Sharron S.; Howell, Olivia S.

    2003-01-01

    The support of women and their families through childbirth, breastfeeding, and early parenting experiences are often treated as separate areas of maternity care. In fact, growing evidence, as cited in this article, links their intertwined impact on the health of mothers, infants, and their families. PMID:17273350

  16. Early Experience and the Development of Cognitive Competence: Some Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvund, Stein Erik

    1982-01-01

    Argues that in analyzing effects of early experience on development of cognitive competence, theoretical analyses as well as empirical investigations should be based on a transactional model of development. Shows optimal stimulation hypothesis, particularly the enhancement prediction, seems to represent a transactional approach to the study of…

  17. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  18. Developing Reflexive Identities through Collaborative, Interdisciplinary and Precarious Work: The Experience of Early Career Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Bryony; Facer, Keri

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of 24 Early Career Researchers working in interdisciplinary and precarious employment conditions in which they are managing collaborations with multiple partners beyond the university as part of the AHRC's "Connected Communities" Programme. These conditions emerge from conflicting sources--from…

  19. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  20. Teachers' Experiences of Georgia's Early Math Intervention Program: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rachel Amanda Garner

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the perceptions that K-5 teachers have toward Georgia's mandated Early Intervention Math Program (EIP) on at risk learners in an elementary school in a rural, North Georgia community. The following questions guided the study: 1. How do K-5 teachers describe their experience with…

  1. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  2. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  3. Early Field Experience Innovations to Increase Positive Impact on K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Anny Fritzen; Traynor, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes several innovations to an early field experience emerging from a community, school, and university partnership focused on a middle school serving diverse students from low-income neighborhoods. With the primary goal of utilizing teaching candidates to provide direct academic, social, and instructional support to the middle…

  4. Beyond Surviving: Gender Differences in Response to Early Sexual Experiences with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sally V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to explore how men and women constructed a sense of self through narrative following an early sexual experience with an adult. Using narrative inquiry methodology, 22 in-depth interviews were conducted in New South Wales, Australia, with 13 women and 9 men ages between 25 and 70. All participants had an early…

  5. Teacher Attunement: Supporting Students' Peer Experiences in the Early Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Abigail S.

    2012-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the role of teacher attunement (teacher accuracy in identifying the peer group memberships of individual students) in children's peer experiences in early elementary classrooms (1st-3rd grades). Social cognitive mapping (SCM) procedures assessed and compared students' and teachers'…

  6. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    Treesearch

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  7. The Hidden Factor in Early Field Experience: Teachers' Perception of the Quality of Life at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divins, Barbara; And Others

    This project identified work environment factors in eight schools where a teacher preparation program placed early field experience students and where the university students reported experiencing positive field placements. The purpose was to determine the impact of certain variables on teachers' perception of the quality of their own professional…

  8. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  9. The Effects of Early Socialization Experiences on Content Mastery and Outcomes: A Mediational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Howard J.; Fan, Jinyan; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This field study examined how early socialization experiences affect new employee mastery of socialization content and socialization outcomes. New employees reported the realism of their preentry knowledge and the helpfulness of socialization agents. A follow-up survey assessed mastery of socialization content along with role clarity, job…

  10. The Effect of Early Classroom Teaching Experience Upon the Attitudes and Performance of Science Teacher Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, Diane R.

    Reported is a study on effects of early classroom teaching experience upon the attitudes and performance of teacher candidates from a student group primarily composed of science majors or minors. The subjects were paired mainly on their choice of a credential or noncredential program. One of each pair was randomly assigned to the experimental…

  11. The Impact of Discrimination on the Early Schooling Experiences of Children from Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2015-01-01

    How the young children of immigrants experience their early school years may in large part determine their academic future and negatively affect their emotional, social, and mental development. Children benefit from a positive, supportive learning environment where their contributions are valued; many from immigrant families, however, experience…

  12. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCE ON AFTER BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORGAYS, DONALD G.

    TWO SERIES OF STUDIES WHOSE SUBJECTS WERE EITHER HOODED AND ALBINO RATS OR YOUNG CHILDREN INVESTIGATED THE INFLUENCE OF EARLY EXPERIENCES ON LATER BEHAVIOR. IN THE FIRST, BOTH SUBSPECIES OF RATS WERE EXPOSED TO EITHER ENRICHED OR RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS TO ASSESS THEIR PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITIES UNDER VARIOUS LEARNING CONDITIONS. THE RESULTS…

  13. Survey Examines Experiences of Families Entering Early Intervention. FPG Snapshot #14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A recent FPG study looked at families' initial experiences in determining their child's eligibility for early intervention (EI) services as mandated by Part C (IDEA), interactions with medical professionals, effort required to get services, participation in planning for services, satisfaction with services, and interactions with professionals. A…

  14. Parent-Child Relationships and Dyadic Friendship Experiences as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n = 182; M age = 12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesized to moderate the effects of experiences in…

  15. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  16. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered. PMID:23576122

  17. Aesthetic Experience in a Dynamic Cycle: Implications for Early Childhood Teachers and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Booyeun

    2005-01-01

    This study describes early childhood teachers' own beliefs and concepts of aesthetic experience in young children. The teachers involved in this study were directly engaged in preschools for 4 and 5 year-olds where arts and aesthetic education are a primary consideration of their integrated curriculum. These teachers identified a variety of…

  18. Early Childhood Development and Social Integration: The Mediterranean Experience. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oudenhoven, Nico; Wazir, Rekha

    This paper explores early childhood education (ECD) and social integration within a common framework and against the backdrop of experience gained in these fields in the following 12 Mediterranean nations: Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Turkey. The paper notes that…

  19. The Beliefs and Perceived Experiences of Preservice and Early Service Teachers Who Use Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to identify commonly held beliefs and perceived experiences of preservice and early service teachers with regard to their use of the social networking site Facebook. This study included recorded and transcribed interviews of 14 participants as well as observations of their Facebook accounts. The…

  20. The Experiences of Early Career Teachers: New Initiatives and Old Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter; Buchanan, John; Varadharajan, Meera; Burke, Paul F.

    2018-01-01

    The task of supporting beginning teachers has received considerable attention in recent years, and numerous initiatives have been implemented. In this article we investigate the experiences of early career teachers (ECTs) in New South Wales, Australia, at a time when their employing authority mandated the provision of mentors and a reduction in…

  1. Early Experiences with Family Conflict: Implications for Arguments with a Close Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Dunn, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examined associations between children's early experiences in family disputes and later conflict management with close friends. Found that argument used by mothers and siblings that considered children's needs was positively associated with children's later constructive argument and resolution techniques. Mothers' use of argument predicted…

  2. The Role of Family Experiences and ADHD in the Early Development of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Herbert, Sharonne D.; Fanton, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the role of family experiences in the early development and maintenance of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in preschool-age children with behavior problems. Method: Participants were 199 3-year-old children with behavior problems who took part in 4 annual child and family assessments. Results:…

  3. Socialization to Student Affairs: Early Career Experiences Associated with Professional Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Boyle, Kathleen M.; Pasquesi, Kira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose and test a model of professional identity development among early career student affairs professionals. Using survey data from 173 new professionals (0-5 years of experience), factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions of professional identity: commitment, values congruence, and intellectual investment. Multivariate…

  4. Early Labor Force Experiences and Debt Burden. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Geis, Sonya; Carroll, C. Dennis

    This study used data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond (B&B) and Beginning Postsecondary Student (BPS) studies to examine: the early labor force experiences of college students who either graduated or dropped out; student borrowing for postsecondary education; and student loan debt burden and repayment status. The B&B group (n=11,000) was…

  5. Out of the Mouths of Babes: Early College High School Students' Transformational Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Denise; Farrell, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Focus Group interviews with 31 disadvantaged students in an Early College High School (ECHS) program present insights to students' experience in the hybrid school, specifically regarding their perceptions of college readiness. Student "voice" in research can yield significant information when examining aspects of school design that…

  6. Implicit Association to Infant Faces: How Genetics, Early Care Experiences, and Cultural Factors Influence Caregiving Propensities

    PubMed Central

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Esposito, Gianluca; Doi, Hirokazu; Venuti, Paola; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2018-01-01

    Genetics, early experience, and culture shape caregiving, but it is still not clear how genetics, early experiences, and cultural factors might interact to influence specific caregiving propensities, such as adult responsiveness to infant cues. To address this gap, 80 Italian adults (50% M; 18-25 years) were (1) genotyped for two oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs2254298) and the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which are implicated in parenting behaviour, (2) completed the Adult Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire to evaluate their recollections of parental behaviours toward them in childhood, and (3) were administered a Single Category Implicit Association Test to evaluate their implicit responses to faces of Italian infants, Japanese infants, and Italian adults. Analysis of implicit associations revealed that Italian infant faces were evaluated as most positive; participants in the rs53576 GG group had the most positive implicit associations to Italian infant faces; the serotonin polymorphism moderated the effect of early care experiences on adults’ implicit association to both Italian infant and adult female faces. Finally, 5-HTTLPR S carriers showed less positive implicit responses to Japanese infant faces. We conclude that adult in-group preference extends to in-group infant faces and that implicit responses to social cues are influenced by interactions of genetics, early care experiences, and cultural factors. These findings have implications for understanding processes that regulate adult caregiving. PMID:27650102

  7. Classroom Teachers' Feelings and Experiences in Teaching Early Reading and Writing: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to reveal classroom teachers' feelings and experiences in teaching early reading and writing. Phenomenological research design was applied in the qualitative research methodology of the study. The participants of the study were 15 classroom teachers working in different cities. The data were collected through…

  8. Experiences, Perceived Challenges, and Support Systems of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáenz, Karen P.; Combs, Julie P.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the prior experiences, perceived challenges, and support systems of 17 Grade 12 Hispanic students at an early college high school were explored using the framework of social capital theory. Utilizing Moustakas's phenomenological design, data were collected using focus group and individuals interviews. Several themes…

  9. Seeing What They See--A Photovoice Analysis of Exploratory Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marshall A.; Culbertson, Avery L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Ramsey, Jon W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this photovoice study was to investigate what and how pre-service teachers conceive and make meaning of exploration observations of early field experiences (EFEs). EFEs are vital components of the teacher preparation program and include all activities that occur in pre-service teacher education prior to student teaching, including…

  10. Onboarding Experiences: An Examination of Early Institutional Advancement Professionals' Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radosh, Meghan E.

    2013-01-01

    Onboarding is a new employee orientation process that is designed to formalize and socialize new hires to an organization, or in this case higher education institutions. The onboarding experience that many new employees have can shape employee views and first impressions of their new employer, and shape their early career path to stay or leave…

  11. Developing the Effective Teaching Skills of Teacher Candidates during Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Kelly A.; Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the development of effective teaching skills in teacher candidates in the context of early field experiences directly tied to a pedagogical course. Evidence from faculty instructors, mentor teachers, and teacher candidates suggests secondary education candidates were able to develop effective teaching skills related to…

  12. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  13. Access to edge scenarios for testing a scraper element in early operation phases of Wendelstein 7-X

    DOE PAGES

    Holbe, H.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Geiger, J.; ...

    2016-01-29

    The edge topology of magnetic fusion devices is decisive for the control of the plasma exhaust. In Wendelstein 7-X, the island divertor concept will be used, for which the edge topology can change significantly as the internal currents in a plasma discharge evolve towards steady-state. Consequently, the device has been optimized to minimize such internal currents, in particular the bootstrap current [1]. Nonetheless, there are predicted pulse scenarios where effects of the remaining internal currents could potentially lead to overload of plasma-facing components. These internal currents are predicted to evolve on long time scales (tens of seconds) so their effectsmore » on the edge topology and the divertor heat loads may not be experimentally accessible in the first years of W7-X operation, where only relatively short pulses are possible. However, we show here that for at least one important long-pulse divertor operation issue, relevant physics experiments can be performed already in short-pulse operation, through judicious adjustment of the edge topology by the use of the existing coil sets. The specific issue studied here is a potential overload of the divertor element edges. This overload might be mitigated by the installation of an extra set of plasma-facing components, so-called scraper elements, as suggested in earlier publications. It is shown here that by a targeted control of edge topology, the effectiveness of such scraper elements can be tested already with uncooled test-scraper elements in short-pulse operation. Furthermore, this will allow an early and well-informed decision on whether long-pulse-capable (actively cooled) scraper elements should be built and installed.« less

  14. Oxytocin mediates early experience-dependent cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing-Jing; Li, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Miao, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan; Yu, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Sensory experience is critical to development and plasticity of neural circuits. Here we report a new form of plasticity in neonatal mice, where early sensory experience cross-modally regulates development of all sensory cortices via oxytocin signaling. Unimodal sensory deprivation from birth through whisker deprivation or dark rearing reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in the correspondent sensory cortex and cross-modally in other sensory cortices. Sensory experience regulated synthesis and secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as its level in the cortex. Both in vivo oxytocin injection and increased sensory experience elevated excitatory synaptic transmission in multiple sensory cortices and significantly rescued the effects of sensory deprivation. Together, these results identify a new function for oxytocin in promoting cross-modal, experience-dependent cortical development. This link between sensory experience and oxytocin is particularly relevant to autism, where hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to sensory inputs is prevalent and oxytocin is a hotly debated potential therapy.

  15. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.

  16. Sociodemographic differences in women's experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-07-13

    To explore women's experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. England, 2014. Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women's worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: 'Differentiating between early and active labour', 'Staff attitudes', 'Not being allowed…', 'Previous labours' and 'Perceived consequences for women'. These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and ethnic minority women reported greater worry about early labour and require additional reassurance.

  17. Sociodemographic differences in women’s experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore women’s experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. Setting England, 2014. Participants Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Outcome measures Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. Methods This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Results Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women’s worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: ‘Differentiating between early and active labour’, ‘Staff attitudes’, ‘Not being allowed…’, ‘Previous labours’ and ‘Perceived consequences for women’. Conclusion These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and

  18. Scenario development during commissioning operations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, D. J.; Boyer, M. D.; Gerhardt, S.; Mueller, D.; Myers, C. E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Menard, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Scotti, F.; Bedoya, F.; Bell, R. E.; Berkery, J. W.; Diallo, A.; Ferraro, N.; Kaye, S. M.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Ono, M.; Park, J.-K.; Podesta, M.; Raman, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; NSTX-U Research, the; Operations; Engineering Team

    2018-04-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) will advance the physics basis required for achieving steady-state, high-beta, and high-confinement conditions in a tokamak by accessing high toroidal fields (1 T) and plasma currents (1.0-2.0 MA) in a low aspect ratio geometry (A  =  1.6-1.8) with flexible auxiliary heating systems (12 MW NBI, 6 MW HHFW). This paper describes the progress in the development of L- and H-mode discharge scenarios and the commissioning of operational tools in the first ten weeks of operation that enable the scientific mission of NSTX-U. Vacuum field calculations completed prior to operations supported the rapid development and optimization of inductive breakdown at different values of ohmic solenoid current. The toroidal magnetic field (B T0  =  0.65 T) exceeded the maximum values achieved on NSTX and novel long-pulse L-mode discharges with regular sawtooth activity exceeded the longest pulses produced on NSTX (t pulse  >  1.8 s). The increased flux of the central solenoid facilitated the development of stationary L-mode discharges over a range of density and plasma current (I p). H-mode discharges achieved similar levels of stored energy, confinement (H98y,2  >  1) and stability (β N/β N-nowall  >  1) compared to NSTX discharges for I p  ⩽  1 MA. High-performance H-mode scenarios require an L-H transition early in the I p ramp-up phase in order to obtain low internal inductance (l i) throughout the discharge, which is conducive to maintaining vertical stability at high elongation (κ  >  2.2) and achieving long periods of MHD quiescent operations. The rapid progress in developing L- and H-mode scenarios in support of the scientific program was enabled by advances in real-time plasma control, efficient error field identification and correction, effective conditioning of the graphite wall and excellent diagnostic availability.

  19. Scenario development during commissioning operations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, D. J.; Boyer, M. D.; Gerhardt, S.

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) will advance the physics basis required for achieving steady-state, high-beta, and high-confinement conditions in a tokamak by accessing high toroidal field (1 T) and plasma current (1.0 - 2.0 MA) in a low aspect ratio geometry (A = 1.6 - 1.8) with flexible auxiliary heating systems (12 MW NBI, 6 MW HHFW). This paper describes progress in the development of L- and Hmode discharge scenarios and the commissioning of operational tools in the first ten weeks of operation that enable the scientific mission of NSTX-U. Vacuum field calculations completed prior to operations supportedmore » the rapid development and optimization of inductive breakdown at different values of ohmic solenoid current. The toroidal magnetic field (BT0 = 0.65 T) exceeded the maximum values achieved on NSTX and novel long-pulse L-mode discharges with regular sawtooth activity exceeded the longest pulses produced on NSTX (tpulse > 1.8s). The increased flux of the central solenoid facilitated the development of stationary L-mode discharges over a range of density and plasma current (Ip). H-mode discharges achieved similar levels of stored energy, confinement (H98y,2 > 1) and stability (βN/βN-nowall > 1) compared to NSTX discharges for Ip ≤ 1 MA. High-performance H-mode scenarios require an L-H transition early in the Ip ramp-up phase in order to obtain low internal inductance (li) throughout the discharge, which is conducive to maintaining vertical stability at high elongation (κ > 2.2) and achieving long periods of MHD quiescent operations. The rapid progress in developing L- and H-mode scenarios in support of the scientific program was enabled by advances in real-time plasma control, efficient error field identification and correction, effective conditioning of the graphite wall and excellent diagnostic availability.« less

  20. Scenario development during commissioning operations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Battaglia, D. J.; Boyer, M. D.; Gerhardt, S.; ...

    2018-02-20

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) will advance the physics basis required for achieving steady-state, high-beta, and high-confinement conditions in a tokamak by accessing high toroidal field (1 T) and plasma current (1.0 - 2.0 MA) in a low aspect ratio geometry (A = 1.6 - 1.8) with flexible auxiliary heating systems (12 MW NBI, 6 MW HHFW). This paper describes progress in the development of L- and Hmode discharge scenarios and the commissioning of operational tools in the first ten weeks of operation that enable the scientific mission of NSTX-U. Vacuum field calculations completed prior to operations supportedmore » the rapid development and optimization of inductive breakdown at different values of ohmic solenoid current. The toroidal magnetic field (BT0 = 0.65 T) exceeded the maximum values achieved on NSTX and novel long-pulse L-mode discharges with regular sawtooth activity exceeded the longest pulses produced on NSTX (tpulse > 1.8s). The increased flux of the central solenoid facilitated the development of stationary L-mode discharges over a range of density and plasma current (Ip). H-mode discharges achieved similar levels of stored energy, confinement (H98y,2 > 1) and stability (βN/βN-nowall > 1) compared to NSTX discharges for Ip ≤ 1 MA. High-performance H-mode scenarios require an L-H transition early in the Ip ramp-up phase in order to obtain low internal inductance (li) throughout the discharge, which is conducive to maintaining vertical stability at high elongation (κ > 2.2) and achieving long periods of MHD quiescent operations. The rapid progress in developing L- and H-mode scenarios in support of the scientific program was enabled by advances in real-time plasma control, efficient error field identification and correction, effective conditioning of the graphite wall and excellent diagnostic availability.« less

  1. First deep space operational experience with simultaneous X- and Ka-bands coherent tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, S.; Herrera, R.; Armstrong, J.; Barbinis, E.; Fleischman, D.; Gatti, M.; Goltz, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the new DSN science capability and highlights of the engineering work that lead to its development. It will also discuss experience with operations along with statistics and data quality.

  2. Operational experience on the MP-200 series commercial wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    The MP-200 wind turbine generator is described. The mechanical system, microprocessor controller, and display devices, are described. Also discussed are modifications to the prototype, operational experience, and MP-600 systems development.

  3. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  4. Operative treatment of early infection after internal fixation of limb fractures (exclusive of severe open fractures).

    PubMed

    Bonnevialle, P

    2017-02-01

    Early infection after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of a limb bone is defined as bacteriologically documented, deep and/or superficial surgical-site infection (SSI) diagnosed within 6months after the surgical procedure. This interval is arbitrarily considered sufficient to obtain fracture healing. The treatment of early infection after ORIF should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. The principles are the same as for revision arthroplasty. Superficial SSIs should be differentiated from deep SSIs, based on the results of bacteriological specimens collected using flawless technique. A turning point in the local microbial ecology occurs around the third or fourth week, when a biofilm develops around metallic implants. This biofilm protects the bacteria. The treatment relies on both non-operative and operative measures, which are selected based on the time to occurrence of the infection, condition of the soft tissues, and stage of bone healing. Both the surgical strategy and the antibiotic regimen should be determined during a multidisciplinary discussion. When treating superficial SSIs after ORIF, soft-tissue management is the main challenge. The treatment differs according to whether the hardware is covered or exposed. Defects in the skin and/or fascia can be managed using reliable reconstructive surgery techniques, either immediately or after a brief period of vacuum-assisted closure. In deep SSIs, deciding whether to leave or to remove the hardware is difficult. If the hardware is removed, the fracture site can be stabilised provisionally using either external fixation or a cement rod. Once infection control is achieved, several measures can be taken to stimulate bone healing before the end of the classical 6-month interval. If the hardware was removed, then internal fixation must be performed once the infection is eradicated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Early outcome for the primary arterial switch operation beyond the age of 3 weeks.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sameh R; Kabbani, Mohamed S; Najm, Hani K; Abusuliman, Riyadh M; Elbarbary, Mahmoud

    2010-07-01

    The arterial switch operation (ASO) for neonates is the standard management for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with an intact ventricular septum (IVS). Patients presenting for late ASO are at risk due to the possibility of left ventricle (LV) involution. This study aimed to assess the early postoperative course and outcome for children with TGA/IVS and still conditioned LV presenting for late primary ASO. A retrospective study of all TGA/IVS patients who underwent a primary ASO between March 2002 and March 2008 was conducted. The cases were divided into two groups. Group A included all the cases of early ASO repaired before the age of 3 weeks, whereas group B included all the preslected cases of late ASO repaired after the age of 3 weeks. The demographics, intensive care unit (ICU) parameters, complications, and short-term outcomes of the two groups were compared. The study enrolled of 91 patients: 64 patients (70%) in group A and 27 patients (30%) in group B. The mean age was 11 +/- 4 days in group A and 37 +/- 17 days in group B (P < 0.001). The two groups showed no significant statistical differences in ICU parameters, complications, or mortality. For patients with TGA/IVS, ASO still can be tolerated beyond the first month of life in selected cases. Provided the LV still is conditioned, age should not be a limitation for ASO.

  6. Testing Drugs and Trying Cures: Experiment and Medicine in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elaine; Rankin, Alisha

    2017-01-01

    This article examines traditions of testing drugs (as substances) and trying cures (on patients) in medieval and early modern Europe. It argues that the history of drug testing needs to be a more central story to overall histories of scientific experiment. The practice of conducting thoughtful-and sometimes contrived-tests on drugs has a rich and varied tradition dating back to antiquity, which expanded in the Middle Ages and early modern period. Learned physicians paired text-based knowledge (reason) with hands-on testing (experience or experiment) in order to make claims about drugs' properties or effects on humans. Lay practitioners similarly used hands-on testing to gain knowledge of pharmaceutical effects. Although drug testing practices expanded in scale, actors, and sites, therpublished a work extolling the virtues of drugs froe was significant continuity from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century.

  7. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  8. [Early activation of heart-operated patients as a tool for optimization of cardio-surgery curation (review)].

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    During last years in foreign countries there was widely introduced tactic of early activation of cardio-surgery patients. Necessary components of this methodical approach are early finishing of post-operation artificial respiration and extubation of trachea, shortening of time spending in intensive therapy till 1 day and sign out from stationary after 5 days. As a result of reducing hospitalization period, the curation costs are reduced significantly. Goal of this research was the analysis of methods of anesthesia that allow early extubation and activation after cardio-surgery interventions. There were analyzed data of protocols of anesthesia and post-operation periods for 270 patients. It was concluded that applied methods of anesthesia ensure adequate protection from operation stress and allow reduce time of post-operation artificial respiration, early activation of patients without reducing level of their safety. It was also proved that application of any type of anesthesia medicines is not influencing the temp of post-operation activation. Conducted research is proving the advisability of using tactic of early activation of patients after heart operations and considers this as a tool for optimization of cardio-surgery curation.

  9. Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Syudo; Ando, Shuntaro; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Endo, Kaori; French, Paul; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Toshi A; Hasegawa-Hiraiwa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N  = 4478). We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015). The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p  < .001) was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = -.0066, p  = 0.318) and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p  = 0.321) were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

  10. Reducing radiation exposure during CRT implant procedures: early experience with a sensor-based navigation system.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Bernard; Andrade, Jason G; Dubuc, Marc; Talajic, Mario; Guerra, Peter G; Dyrda, Katia; Macle, Laurent; Rivard, Léna; Roy, Denis; Mondésert, Blandine; Khairy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implant procedures are often complex and prolonged, resulting in significant ionizing radiation (IR) exposure to the patient and operator. We report our early experience working with a novel sensor-based electromagnetic tracking system (MediGuide™, MDG, St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA), in terms of procedural IR exposure reduction. Information regarding patient demographics, procedural details, procedural duration, and IR exposure were prospectively collected on 130 consecutive CRT procedures performed between January 2013 and January 2014. Sixty procedures were performed with MDG guidance, and 70 were performed without MDG guidance. Despite a nonsignificant trend toward shorter procedure duration with the use of MDG (120 minutes vs 138 minutes with non-MDG, P = 0.088), a 66% reduction in total IR exposure (median 769 μGray · m(2) vs 2,608 μGray · m(2), P < 0.001) was found. This reduction was primarily driven by a >90% reduction in IR dose required to cannulate the coronary sinus (median 80 μGray · m(2) vs 922 μGray · m(2), P < 0.001), and to a lesser extent from a reduction in IR dose required for LV lead placement (median 330 μGray·m(2) vs 737 μGray · m(2), P = 0.059). In addition, a significant learning curve effect was observed with a significantly shorter procedural duration for the last 15 cases compared to the first 15 cases (median 98 minutes vs 175 minutes, P < 0.001). The nonfluoroscopic MDG positioning system is associated with a dramatic reduction in exposure to IR during CRT implant procedures, with a 90% decrease in the IR dose required to cannulate the coronary sinus. A steep learning curve was quantified. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Function Transfer in Human Operant Experiments: The Role of Stimulus Pairings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonneau, Francois; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    Although function transfer often has been studied in complex operant procedures (such as matching to sample), whether operant reinforcement actually produces function transfer in such settings has not been established. The present experiments, with high school students as subjects, suggest that stimulus pairings can promote function transfer in…

  12. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Early analysis of operative management of Chiari I malformation in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Samples, Derek C; Thoms, Dewey J; Tarasiewicz, Izabela

    2018-04-02

    Chiari I malformation, defined as herniation of the cerebellar tonsils at least 5 mm below the foramen magnum, can result from congenital or acquired pathology. While the mechanism is not well understood, an association between Chiari I and cystic fibrosis has been described in the literature. The lifelong respiratory status management necessitated by cystic fibrosis creates a greater risk of Chiari symptomatology as well as post-operative CSF-related complications in the setting of duraplasty secondary to recurrent transient increases in intracranial pressure. We will review the literature, describe our experience with these patients, and propose bony decompression as an approach to treatment. A retrospective review of pediatric patients treated at our institution with both cystic fibrosis and Chiari I was performed. Since our first case in 2016, our department has evaluated four patients carrying that dual diagnosis. All four underwent posterior fossa decompression surgery. Two patients had incidental pathology. Two symptomatic patients exhibited headaches and/or coordination difficulty. Half of the patients had associated syringomyelia. All patients were offered posterior fossa decompression utilizing intraoperative ultrasound. All four patients underwent posterior fossa decompression without duraplasty. Average operative time was 128 min. There were no complications post-operatively. Average hospital stay was 3.8 days. Average surgical length of stay was 2.3 days. Morbidity and mortality were 0%. The longest follow-up to date is 20 months. The two asymptomatic patients remained so post-operatively. The child with headaches and imbalance had complete resolution of his symptoms after surgery, as did the toddler with headaches. Both patients with syringomyelia demonstrated significant decrease in the size of their syrinxes on imaging performed at least 3 months post-operatively. Based on the literature and our experience, we recommend considering posterior

  14. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: The Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuroimmune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short- and long-term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking, leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions.

  15. 0 + 5 Vascular Surgery Residents' Operative Experience in General Surgery: An Analysis of Operative Logs from 12 Integrated Programs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brigitte K; Kang, P Chulhi; McAninch, Chris; Leverson, Glen; Sullivan, Sarah; Mitchell, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Integrated (0 + 5) vascular surgery (VS) residency programs must include 24 months of training in core general surgery. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education currently does not require specific case numbers in general surgery for 0 + 5 trainees; however, program directors have structured this time to optimize operative experience. The aim of this study is to determine the case volume and type of cases that VS residents are exposed to during their core surgery training. Accreditation council for graduate medical education operative logs for current 0 + 5 VS residents were obtained and retrospectively reviewed to determine general surgery case volume and distribution between open and laparoscopic cases performed. Standard statistical methods were applied. A total of 12 integrated VS residency programs provided operative case logs for current residents. A total of 41 integrated VS residents in clinical years 2 through 5. During the postgraduate year-1 training year, residents participated in significantly more open than laparoscopic general surgery cases (p < 0.0001). This difference was consistent over the first 3 years of training. The most frequently logged open general surgery cases are hernia repair (20%), skin and soft tissue (7.4%), and breast (6.3%). Residents in programs with core surgery over 3 years participated in significantly more general surgery operations compared with residents in programs with core surgery spread out over 4 years (p = 0.035). 0 + 5 VS residents perform significantly more open operations than laparoscopic operations during their core surgery training. The majority of these operations are minor, nonabdominal procedures. The 0 + 5 VS residency program general surgery operative training requirements should be reevaluated and case minimums defined. The general surgery training component of 0 + 5 VS residencies may need to be restructured to meet the needs of current and future trainees. Copyright © 2016 Association of

  16. Early life experience alters behavior during social defeat: focus on serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Gardner, K L; Thrivikraman, K V; Lightman, S L; Plotsky, P M; Lowry, C A

    2005-01-01

    Early life experience can have prolonged effects on neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of early life experience on behavior during social defeat, as well as on associated functional cellular responses in serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus, a structure which plays an important role in modulation of stress-related physiology and behavior. Male Long Evans rat pups were exposed to either normal animal facility rearing or 15 min or 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14. As adults, these rats were exposed to a social defeat protocol. Differences in behavior were seen among the early life treatment groups during social defeat; rats exposed to 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14 displayed more passive-submissive behaviors and less proactive coping behaviors. Analysis of the distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase and c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in control rats exposed to a novel cage and rats exposed to social defeat revealed that, independent of the early life experience, rats exposed to social defeat showed an increase in the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in serotonergic neurons in the middle and caudal parts of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus and caudal part of the ventral dorsal raphe nucleus, regions known to contain serotonergic neurons projecting to central autonomic and emotional motor control systems. This is the first study to show that the dorsomedial part of the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus is engaged by a naturalistic stressor and supports the hypothesis that early life experience alters behavioral coping strategies during social conflict; furthermore, this study is consistent with the hypothesis that topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons principally within the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal part of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus modulate stress

  17. Operational plans for life science payloads - From experiment selection through postflight reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccollum, G. W.; Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    Key features of operational plans developed in a study of the Space Shuttle era life science payloads program are presented. The data describes the overall acquisition, staging, and integration of payload elements, as well as program implementation methods and mission support requirements. Five configurations were selected as representative payloads: (a) carry-on laboratories - medical emphasis experiments, (b) mini-laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (c) seven-day dedicated laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (d) 30-day dedicated laboratories - Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) with selected life science experiments, and (e) Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) - extended duration primate (Type I) and small vertebrate (Type II) missions. The recommended operational methods described in the paper are compared to the fundamental data which has been developed in the life science Spacelab Mission Simulation (SMS) test series. Areas assessed include crew training, experiment development and integration, testing, data-dissemination, organization interfaces, and principal investigator working relationships.

  18. Impact of Surgical Stroke on the Early and Late Outcomes After Thoracic Aortic Operations.

    PubMed

    Okada, Noritaka; Oshima, Hideki; Narita, Yuji; Abe, Tomonobu; Araki, Yoshimori; Mutsuga, Masato; Fujimoto, Kazuro L; Tokuda, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Thoracic aortic operations still remain associated with substantial risks of death and neurologic injury. This study investigated the impact of surgical stroke on the early and late outcomes, focusing on the physical status and quality of life (QOL). From 1986 to 2008, 500 patients (aged 63 ± 13 years) underwent open thoracic aortic repair for root and ascending (31%), arch (39%), extended arch (10%), and descending and thoracoabdominal (19%) aneurysms. Brain protection consisted of retrograde cerebral perfusion (52%), antegrade cerebral perfusion (29%), and simple deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (19%). Surgical stroke was defined as a neurologic deficit persisting more than 72 hours after the operation. QOL was assessed with the Short-Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire 5.9 ± 4.2 years after the operation. Stroke occurred in 10.3% of patients. Hospital mortality was 21% in the stroke group and 2.7% in the nonstroke group (p < 0.001). At hospital discharge, 76% of survivors in the stroke group had permanent neurologic deficits (PNDs), with sustained tracheostomy in 39%, tube feeding in 46%, and gastrostomy in 14%, and 89% required transfer to other facilities. PND was an independent risk factor for late death (hazard ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 4.62; p = 0.041) in a multivariate analysis. The physical component of the QOL score was worse in the PND group (51% vs 100%; p = 0.039), whereas the mental component was similar in both groups (14% vs 14%). Surgical stroke is associated with high hospital mortality and PNDs that decrease late survival and the physical component score of the QOL survey. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Operating Experience and Reliability Improvements on the 5 kW CW Klystron at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R.; Holben, S.

    1997-05-01

    With substantial operating hours on the RF system, considerable information on reliability of the 5 kW CW klystrons has been obtained. High early failure rates led to examination of the operating conditions and failure modes. Internal ceramic contamination caused premature failure of gun potting material and ultimate tube demise through arcing or ceramic fracture. A planned course of repotting and reconditioning of approximately 300 klystrons, plus careful attention to operating conditions and periodic analysis of operational data, has substantially reduced the failure rate. It is anticipated that implementation of planned supplemental monitoring systems for the klystrons will allow most catastrophic failures to be avoided. By predicting end of life, tubes can be changed out before they fail, thus minimizing unplanned downtime. Initial tests have also been conducted on this same klystron operated at higher voltages with resultant higher output power. The outcome of these tests will provide information to be considered for future upgrades to the accelerator.

  20. The University of Colorado OSO-8 spectrometer experiment. IV - Mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, E. R.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The remote operation of two high-resolution ultraviolet spectrometers on the OSO-8 satellite is discussed. Mission operations enabled scientific observers to plan observations based on current solar data, interact with the observing program using real- or near real-time data and commands, evaluate quick-look instrument data, and analyze the observations for publication. During routine operations, experiments were planned a day prior to their execution, and the data from these experiments received a day later. When a shorter turnaround was required, a real-time mode was available. Here, the real-time data and command links into the remote control center were used to evaluate experiment operation and make satellite pointing or instrument configuration changes with a 1-90 minute turnaround.

  1. [Implementation of modern operating room management -- experiences made at an university hospital].

    PubMed

    Hensel, M; Wauer, H; Bloch, A; Volk, T; Kox, W J; Spies, C

    2005-07-01

    Caused by structural changes in health care the general need for cost control is evident for all hospitals. As operating room is one of the most cost-intensive sectors in a hospital, optimisation of workflow processes in this area is of particular interest for health care providers. While modern operating room management is established in several clinics yet, others are less prepared for economic challenges. Therefore, the operating room statute of the Charité university hospital useful for other hospitals to develop an own concept is presented. In addition, experiences made with implementation of new management structures are described and results obtained over the last 5 years are reported. Whereas the total number of operation procedures increased by 15 %, the operating room utilization increased more markedly in terms of time and cases. Summarizing the results, central operating room management has been proved to be an effective tool to increase the efficiency of workflow processes in the operating room.

  2. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Early experiences with family conflict: implications for arguments with a close friend.

    PubMed

    Herrera, C; Dunn, J

    1997-09-01

    This study examined associations between children's early experiences in family disputes and their later management of conflicts with a close friend. Thirty-seven children were observed interacting with their mother and older sibling at 33 months and with a friend at 72 months. Children's early use of argument was not associated with their later behavior during disputes with a friend. However, argument used by the mother and sibling that considered the child needs was positively associated with the child's later use of constructive argument and resolution techniques. The mother's use of argument that focused on her own needs was negatively related to these outcomes. These associations were independent of global characteristics of the mother-child and sibling relationships. Moreover, the mother's use of argument predicted the child's later conflict management independent of the child's early argument patterns, emotion understanding, and verbal fluency.

  4. Bias to pollen odors is affected by early exposure and foraging experience.

    PubMed

    Arenas, A; Farina, W M

    2014-07-01

    In many pollinating insects, foraging preferences are adjusted on the basis of floral cues learned at the foraging site. In addition, olfactory experiences gained at early adult stages might also help them to initially choose food sources. To understand pollen search behavior of honeybees, we studied how responses elicited by pollen-based odors are biased in foraging-age workers according to (i) their genetic predisposition to collect pollen, (ii) pollen related information gained during foraging and (iii) different experiences with pollen gained at early adult ages. Bees returning to the hive carrying pollen loads, were strongly biased to unfamiliar pollen bouquets when tested in a food choice device against pure odors. Moreover, pollen foragers' orientation response was specific to the odors emitted by the pollen type they were carrying on their baskets, which suggests that foragers retrieve pollen odor information to recognize rewarding flowers outside the hive. We observed that attraction to pollen odor was mediated by the exposure to a pollen diet during the first week of life. We did not observe the same attraction in foraging-age bees early exposed to an artificial diet that did not contain pollen. Contrary to the specific response observed to cues acquired during foraging, early exposure to single-pollen diets did not bias orientation response towards a specific pollen odor in foraging-age bees (i.e. bees chose equally between the exposed and the novel monofloral pollen odors). Our results show that pollen exposure at early ages together with olfactory experiences gained in a foraging context are both relevant to bias honeybees' pollen search behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the causes of early life experience effects: evaluating the role of mom.

    PubMed

    Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S

    2014-04-01

    Early life experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early adverse experience and substance addiction: dopamine, oxytocin, and glucocorticoid pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohye; Kwok, Stephanie; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Substance addiction may follow a chronic, relapsing course and critically undermine the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual and the social units of which the individual is a member. Despite the public health burden associated with substance addiction, treatment options remain suboptimal, with relapses often seen. The present review synthesizes growing insights from animal and human research to shed light upon developmental and neurobiological pathways that may increase susceptibility to addiction. We examine the dopamine system, the oxytocin system, and the glucocorticoid system, as they are particularly relevant to substance addiction. Our aim is to delineate how early adverse experience may induce long-lasting alterations in each of these systems at molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral levels and ultimately lead to heightened vulnerability to substance addiction. We further discuss how substance addiction in adulthood may increase the risk of suboptimal caregiving for the next generation, perpetuating the intergenerational cycle of early adverse experiences and addiction. PMID:27508337

  7. Early childhood experiences, cultural beliefs, and oral health of Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Miltiades, Helen B

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative article examines how financial resources, cultural beliefs, and early childhood experiences affect perceptions of oral health and dental utilization of middle-aged and older Mexican American women. Fourteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted. The women's ages range from 49 to 87 years. Most had not visited the dentist in more than 2 years. Most women's early childhood experiences did not include dental visits or dental instruction. Some believed tooth loss was a normal aging process. Misconceptions regarding preventive care, the belief that dental visits were only necessary when experiencing pain, and finances were the primary reasons for not visiting the dentist. The results lend insight into the oral health, self-care practices, and dental utilization of middle-aged and older immigrant Mexican American women.

  8. Identifying key features of early stressful experiences that produce stress vulnerability and resilience in primates

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complex role of early stressful experiences in producing both vulnerability and resilience to later stress-related psychopathology in a variety of primate models of human development. Two types of models are reviewed: Parental Separation Models (e.g., isolate-rearing, peer-rearing, parental separations, and stress inoculation) and Maternal Behavior Models (e.g., foraging demands, variation in maternal style, and maternal abuse). Based on empirical evidence, it is argued that early life stress exposure does not increase adult vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as a linear function, as is generally believed, but instead reflects a quadratic function. Features of early stress exposure including the type, duration, frequency, ecological validity, sensory modality, and developmental timing, within and between species, are identified to better understand how early stressful experiences alter neurobiological systems to produce such diverse developmental outcomes. This article concludes by identifying gaps in our current knowledge, providing directions for future research, and discussing the translational implications of these primate models for human development and psychopathology. PMID:20851145

  9. Design of a reliable and operational landslide early warning system at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvello, Michele; Piciullo, Luca; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Melillo, Massimo; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Peruccacci, Silvia; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    Landslide early warning systems at regional scale are used to warn authorities, civil protection personnel and the population about the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides over wide areas, typically through the prediction and measurement of meteorological variables. A warning model for these systems must include a regional correlation law and a decision algorithm. A regional correlation law can be defined as a functional relationship between rainfall and landslides; it is typically based on thresholds of rainfall indicators (e.g., cumulated rainfall, rainfall duration) related to different exceedance probabilities of landslide occurrence. A decision algorithm can be defined as a set of assumptions and procedures linking rainfall thresholds to warning levels. The design and the employment of an operational and reliable early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides at regional scale depend on the identification of a reliable correlation law as well as on the definition of a suitable decision algorithm. Herein, a five-step process chain addressing both issues and based on rainfall thresholds is proposed; the procedure is tested in a landslide-prone area of the Campania region in southern Italy. To this purpose, a database of 96 shallow landslides triggered by rainfall in the period 2003-2010 and rainfall data gathered from 58 rain gauges are used. First, a set of rainfall thresholds are defined applying a frequentist method to reconstructed rainfall conditions triggering landslides in the test area. In the second step, several thresholds at different exceedance probabilities are evaluated, and different percentile combinations are selected for the activation of three warning levels. Subsequently, within steps three and four, the issuing of warning levels is based on the comparison, over time and for each combination, between the measured rainfall and the pre-defined warning level thresholds. Finally, the optimal percentile combination to be employed in

  10. Providing Quality Early Care and Education to Young Children Who Experience Maltreatment: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura H.; Katz, Lynne F.; Manfra, Louis; Ullery, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper highlights the few studies that examine the role of early care and education on the developmental and early academic outcomes of children who experience maltreatment. First, we argue that children who experience maltreatment are at significant risk for poor developmental outcomes as a result of the chronic exposure to stress that…

  11. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  12. INEQUITY ISSUES AND MOTHERS' PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND EARLY-AGE SURVIVAL EXPERIENCES IN ENDE DISTRICT, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut

    2015-11-01

    Indonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18-45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge about the danger signs for a child's illness. Mothers with early-age deaths generally did not know the cause of death. Very few mothers had received adequate information on maternal and child health during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the health facility. Some mothers expressed a preference for using a traditional birth attendant, because of their ready availability and the more extensive range of support services they provide, compared with local midwives. Unprofessional attitudes displayed by midwives were reported by several mothers. As elsewhere in Indonesia, the power of health decision-making lies with the husband. Policies aimed at elevating mothers' roles in health care decision-making are discussed as measures that would help to improve early-age survival outcomes. Widening the public health insurance distribution, especially among poorer mothers, and equalizing the geographical distribution of midwives and health facilities are recommended to tackle geographical inequities and to increase early-age survival in Ende district.

  13. The Multidimensional Relationship between Early Adult Body Weight and Women’s Childbearing Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Weden, Margaret M.; Lippert, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States’ women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women’s social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women’s educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717

  14. Effect of the 80-hour work week on resident operative experience in general surgery.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Arthur M; Gasevic, Enej; Shepard, Alexander D

    2007-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the 80-hour work week on resident operative experience. General surgery resident operative experience was evaluated during a 4-year period and divided into 2 groups: before (group A [July 1, 2001, to June 30, 2003]) and after (group B July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005]) implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty hour guidelines. There was a significant decrease in mean total and primary surgeon cases in group B for postgraduate year (PGY) levels 1, 2, and 4 (P < or = .001). There was a significant decrease in PGY 5 teaching assistant and PGY 1 first assistant experience in group B (P < or = .001). There was no difference in PGY 3 resident operative volume. The mandated work-hour guidelines have negatively impacted the operative experience of general surgery residents, especially at the junior level. Despite implementing modifications designed to optimize resident operative experience, surgical training programs may require further adaptations.

  15. Meta-analysis of operative experiences of general surgery trainees during training.

    PubMed

    Elsey, E J; Griffiths, G; Humes, D J; West, J

    2017-01-01

    General surgical training curricula around the world set defined operative numbers to be achieved before completion of training. However, there are few studies reporting total operative experience in training. This systematic review aimed to quantify the published global operative experience at completion of training in general surgery. Electronic databases were searched systematically for articles in any language relating to operative experience in trainees completing postgraduate general surgical training. Two reviewers independently assessed citations for inclusion using agreed criteria. Studies were assessed for quantitative data in addition to study design and purpose. A meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model of studies with appropriate data. The search resulted in 1979 titles for review. Of these, 24 studies were eligible for inclusion in the review and data from five studies were used in the meta-analysis. Studies with published data of operative experience at completion of surgical training originated from the USA (19), UK (2), the Netherlands (1), Spain (1) and Thailand (1). Mean total operative experience in training varied from 783 procedures in Thailand to 1915 in the UK. Meta-analysis produced a mean pooled estimate of 1366 (95 per cent c.i. 1026 to 1707) procedures per trainee at completion of training. There was marked heterogeneity between studies (I 2  = 99·6 per cent). There is a lack of robust data describing the operative experiences of general surgical trainees outside the USA. The number of surgical procedures performed by general surgeons in training varies considerably across the world. © 2016 The Authors. BJS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of BJS Society Ltd.

  16. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  17. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. 77 FR 15818 - License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-05: Ongoing Review of Operating Experience

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ...-05: Ongoing Review of Operating Experience AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Interim... License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2011-05, ``Ongoing Review of Operating Experience... industry-wide operating experience as an attribute of aging management programs used at nuclear power...

  19. Initial operation and checkout of stratospheric aerosol gas experiment and Meteor-3M satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid; Makridenko, Leonid; Chu, William P.; Salikhov, Rashid; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.; Trepte, Charles R.; Cisewski, Michael S.

    2003-04-01

    Under a joint agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Aviation and Space Agency (RASA), the Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument was launched in low earth orbit on December 10, 2001 aboard the Russian Meteor-3M(1) satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. SAGE III is a spectrometer that measures attenuated radiation in the 282 nm to 1550 nm wavelength range to obtain the vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, and other chemical species that are critical in studying the trends for the global climate change phenomena. This instrument version is more advanced than any of the previous versions and has more spectral bands, elaborate data gathering and storage, and intelligent terrestrial software. There are a number of Russian scientific instruments aboard the Meteor satellite in addition to the SAGE III instrument. These instruments deal with land imaging and biomass changes, hydro-meteorological monitoring, and helio-geophysical research. This mission was under development for over a period of six years and offered a number of unique technical and program management challenges for both Agencies. SAGE III has a long space heritage, and four earlier versions of this instrument have flown in space for nearly two decades now. In fact, SAGE II, the fourth instrument, is still flying in space on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), and has been providing important atmospheric data over the last 18 years. It has provided vital ozone and aerosol data in the mid latitudes and has contributed vastly in ozone depletion research. Ball Aerospace built the instrument under Langley Research Center's (LaRC) management. This paper presents the process and approach deployed by the SAGE III and the Meteor teams in performing the initial on-orbit checkout. It further documents a number of early science results obtained by deploying low risk, carefully coordinated procedures in resolving the serious operational

  20. Estimation of left ventricular operating stiffness from Doppler early filling deceleration time in humans.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M J; Firstenberg, M S; Greenberg, N L; Smedira, N; Rodriguez, L; Prior, D; Thomas, J D

    2001-02-01

    Shortened early transmitral deceleration times (E(DT)) have been qualitatively associated with increased filling pressure and reduced survival in patients with cardiac disease and increased left ventricular operating stiffness (K(LV)). An equation relating K(LV) quantitatively to E(DT) has previously been described in a canine model but not in humans. During several varying hemodynamic conditions, we studied 18 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Transesophageal echocardiographic two-dimensional volumes and Doppler flows were combined with high-fidelity left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) pressures to determine K(LV). From digitized Doppler recordings, E(DT) was measured and compared against changes in LV and LA diastolic volumes and pressures. E(DT) (180 +/- 39 ms) was inversely associated with LV end-diastolic pressures (r = -0.56, P = 0.004) and net atrioventricular stiffness (r = -0.55, P = 0.006) but had its strongest association with K(LV) (r = -0.81, P < 0.001). K(LV) was predicted assuming a nonrestrictive orifice (K(nonrest)) from E(DT) as K(nonrest) = (0.07/E(DT))(2) with K(LV) = 1.01 K(nonrest) - 0.02; r = 0.86, P < 0.001, DeltaK (K(nonrest) - K(LV)) = 0.02 +/- 0.06 mm Hg/ml. In adults with cardiac disease, E(DT) provides an accurate estimate of LV operating stiffness and supports its application as a practical noninvasive index in the evaluation of diastolic function.

  1. ALSAT-2A power subsystem behavior during launch, early operation, and in-orbit test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, N.; Attaba, M.; Beaufume, E.

    2012-09-01

    In 2006, Algerian Space Agency (ASAL) decided to design and built two optical Earth observation satellites. The first one, ALSAT-2A, was integrated and tested as a training and cooperation program with EADS Astrium. The second satellite ALSAT-2B will be integrated by ASAL engineers in the Satellite Development Center (CDS) at Oran in Algeria. On 12th July 2010, Algeria has launched ALSAT-2A onboard an Indian rocket PSLV-C15 from the Sriharikota launch base, Chennaï. ALSAT-2A is the first Earth observation satellite of the AstroSat-100 family; the design is based on the Myriade platform and comprising the first flight model of the New Astrosat Observation Modular Instrument (NAOMI). This Instrument offers a 2.5m ground resolution for the PAN channel and a 10m ground resolution for four multi-spectral channels which provides high imaging quality. The operations are performed from ALSAT-2 ground segment located in Ouargla (Algeria) and after the test phase ALSAT-2A provides successful images. ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem (EPS) is composed of a Solar Array Generator (SAG ), a Li-ion battery dedicated to power storage and energy source during eclipse or high consumption phases and a Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU). This paper focuses primarily on ALSAT-2A electrical power subsystem behavior during Launch and Early OPeration (LEOP) as well as In Orbit Test (IOT). The telemetry data related to the SAG voltage, current and temperature will be analyzed in addition to battery temperature, voltage, charge and discharge current. These parameters will be studied in function of satellite power consumption.

  2. Estimation of left ventricular operating stiffness from Doppler early filling deceleration time in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M. J.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Prior, D.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Shortened early transmitral deceleration times (E(DT)) have been qualitatively associated with increased filling pressure and reduced survival in patients with cardiac disease and increased left ventricular operating stiffness (K(LV)). An equation relating K(LV) quantitatively to E(DT) has previously been described in a canine model but not in humans. During several varying hemodynamic conditions, we studied 18 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Transesophageal echocardiographic two-dimensional volumes and Doppler flows were combined with high-fidelity left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) pressures to determine K(LV). From digitized Doppler recordings, E(DT) was measured and compared against changes in LV and LA diastolic volumes and pressures. E(DT) (180 +/- 39 ms) was inversely associated with LV end-diastolic pressures (r = -0.56, P = 0.004) and net atrioventricular stiffness (r = -0.55, P = 0.006) but had its strongest association with K(LV) (r = -0.81, P < 0.001). K(LV) was predicted assuming a nonrestrictive orifice (K(nonrest)) from E(DT) as K(nonrest) = (0.07/E(DT))(2) with K(LV) = 1.01 K(nonrest) - 0.02; r = 0.86, P < 0.001, DeltaK (K(nonrest) - K(LV)) = 0.02 +/- 0.06 mm Hg/ml. In adults with cardiac disease, E(DT) provides an accurate estimate of LV operating stiffness and supports its application as a practical noninvasive index in the evaluation of diastolic function.

  3. First-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Giulia; Nespoli, Antonella; Fumagalli, Simona; Borrelli, Sara E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore first-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services when admitted to hospital or advised to return home after maternity triage assessment. The study was conducted in a second-level maternity hospital in northern Italy with an obstetric unit for both low- and high-risk women. The participants included 15 first-time mothers in good general health with spontaneous labour at term of a low-risk pregnancy who accessed maternity triage during early labour, and were either admitted to hospital or advised to return home. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. A face-to-face recorded semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant 48-72h after birth. Four key themes emerged from the interviews: (a) recognising signs of early labour; (b) coping with pain at home; (c) seeking reassurance from healthcare professionals; and (d) being admitted to hospital versus returning home. Uncertainty about the progression of labour and the need for reassurance were cited by women as the main reasons for hospital visit in early labour. An ambivalent feeling was reported by the participants when admitted to hospital in early labour. In fact, while the women felt reassured in the first instance, some women subsequently felt dissatisfied due to the absence of one-to-one dedicated care during early labour. When advised to return home, a number of women reported feelings of disappointment, anger, fear, discouragement and anxiety about not being admitted to hospital; however, some of these women reported a subsequent feeling of comfort due to being at home and putting in place the suggestions made by the midwives during the maternity triage assessment. The guidance provided by midwives during triage assessment seemed to be the key factor influencing women׳s satisfaction when advised either to return home or to stay at the hospital during early labour. During antenatal classes and clinics

  4. Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy: early post-operative parathyroid hormone assay as a risk stratification and management tool.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Al Maqbali, T; Howe, D; Campbell, J

    2014-03-01

    To develop a practical, efficient and predictive algorithm to manage potential or actual post-operative hypocalcaemia after complete thyroidectomy, using a single post-operative parathyroid hormone assay. This paper reports a prospective study of 59 patients who underwent total or completion thyroidectomy over a period of 24 months. Parathyroid hormone levels were checked post-operatively on the day of surgery, and all patients were evaluated for hypocalcaemia both clinically and biochemically with serial corrected calcium measurements. No patient with an early post-operative parathyroid hormone level of 23 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately twice the lower limit of the normal range) developed hypocalcaemia. All the patients who initially had post-operative hypocalcaemia but had an early parathyroid hormone level of 8 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately two-thirds of the lower limit of the normal range) had complete resolution of their hypocalcaemia within three months. Early post-operative parathyroid hormone measurement can reliably predict patients at risk of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia, and predict those patients expected to recover from temporary hypocalcaemia. A suggested post-operative management algorithm is presented.

  5. Analysing the operative experience of basic surgical trainees in Ireland using a web-based logbook

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is concern about the adequacy of operative exposure in surgical training programmes, in the context of changing work practices. We aimed to quantify the operative exposure of all trainees on the National Basic Surgical Training (BST) programme in Ireland and compare the results with arbitrary training targets. Methods Retrospective analysis of data obtained from a web-based logbook (http://www.elogbook.org) for all general surgery and orthopaedic training posts between July 2007 and June 2009. Results 104 trainees recorded 23,918 operations between two 6-month general surgery posts. The most common general surgery operation performed was simple skin excision with trainees performing an average of 19.7 (± 9.9) over the 2-year training programme. Trainees most frequently assisted with cholecystectomy with an average of 16.0 (± 11.0) per trainee. Comparison of trainee operative experience to arbitrary training targets found that 2-38% of trainees achieved the targets for 9 emergency index operations and 24-90% of trainees achieved the targets for 8 index elective operations. 72 trainees also completed a 6-month post in orthopaedics and recorded 7,551 operations. The most common orthopaedic operation that trainees performed was removal of metal, with an average of 2.90 (± 3.27) per trainee. The most common orthopaedic operation that trainees assisted with was total hip replacement, with an average of 10.46 (± 6.21) per trainee. Conclusions A centralised web-based logbook provides valuable data to analyse training programme performance. Analysis of logbooks raises concerns about operative experience at junior trainee level. The provision of adequate operative exposure for trainees should be a key performance indicator for training programmes. PMID:21943313

  6. Silicon Valley as an Early Adopter for On-Demand Civil VTOL Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antcliff, Kevin R.; Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    With high incomes, long commutes, severe ground geographic constraints, severe highway congestion during peak commute times, high housing costs, and near perfect year-round weather, the Silicon Valley is positioned to be an excellent early adopter market for emerging aviation On-Demand Mobility transportation solutions. Prior efforts have attempted to use existing aviation platforms (helicopters or General Aviation aircraft) with existing infrastructure solutions, or only investigated new vehicle platforms without understanding how to incorporate new vehicle types into existing built-up communities. Research has been performed with the objective of minimizing door-to-door time for "Hyper Commuters" (frequent, long-distance commuters) in the Silicon Valley through the development of new helipad infrastructure for ultra-low noise Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft. Current travel times for chosen city-pairs across urban and suburban commutes are compared to future mobility concepts that provide significantly higher utilization and productivity to yield competitive operating costs compared to existing transportation choices. Helipads are introduced near current modes of transportation and infrastructure for ease-of-access, and maximizing proximity. Strategies for both private and public infrastructure development are presented that require no new land purchase while minimizing community noise exposure. New VTOL concepts are introduced with cruise speeds of 200 mph, which yield a greater than three times improvement in overall door-to-door time when compared to current automobiles, and in some cases, improvements of up to 6 times lower trip times.

  7. Visual Detection Under Uncertainty Operates Via an Early Static, Not Late Dynamic, Non-Linearity

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Signals in the environment are rarely specified exactly: our visual system may know what to look for (e.g., a specific face), but not its exact configuration (e.g., where in the room, or in what orientation). Uncertainty, and the ability to deal with it, is a fundamental aspect of visual processing. The MAX model is the current gold standard for describing how human vision handles uncertainty: of all possible configurations for the signal, the observer chooses the one corresponding to the template associated with the largest response. We propose an alternative model in which the MAX operation, which is a dynamic non-linearity (depends on multiple inputs from several stimulus locations) and happens after the input stimulus has been matched to the possible templates, is replaced by an early static non-linearity (depends only on one input corresponding to one stimulus location) which is applied before template matching. By exploiting an integrated set of analytical and experimental tools, we show that this model is able to account for a number of empirical observations otherwise unaccounted for by the MAX model, and is more robust with respect to the realistic limitations imposed by the available neural hardware. We then discuss how these results, currently restricted to a simple visual detection task, may extend to a wider range of problems in sensory processing. PMID:21212835

  8. Insights from Australian parents into educational experiences in the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Lois V; Pincombe, Jan I; Henderson, Ann M

    2006-12-01

    to investigate the provision of parent education during the early postnatal period in order to gain insight that, through stakeholder collaboration, will contribute to the development of innovative strategies to enhance the provision of postnatal education in a contemporary health-care environment. the study comprises the first stage of an action-research project. The first stage of research sought to explore the experiences of mothers and fathers in the early postnatal period by conducting a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the birth of their baby. The data obtained from the questionnaire is to inform an action-research group for stage two of the project. The Children, Youth and Women's Health Service, a large city maternity hospital in South Australia, covering a range of socio-economic strata. 85 parents completed and returned the questionnaire, comprising 52 mothers and 33 fathers. an anonymous self-report questionnaire was purpose designed to provide each parent with an opportunity to reflect on their own experience, with particular emphasis given to the provision of education and support during the early postnatal period. a number of themes emerged, including a window of opportunity during the postnatal hospital stay to provide education and support, despite the reduction in the length of stay; the need for a family-centred approach to maternity services; and the significance of self and social network in the early transition to parenthood. The findings from this stage of the research, combined with a review of the literature, provide insight that will contribute to stage two of the study. At this stage, an action-research group will continue planning to develop specific actions to enhance the provision of education to parents in the early postnatal period. These actions will subsequently be implemented and assessed.

  9. The effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    The Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River-a 16-mile segment from Glen Canyon Dam to the confluence with the Paria River-supports an important recreational rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery. In Grand Canyon, nonnative rainbow trout prey on and compete for habitat and food with native fish, such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Experimental flow fluctuations from the dam during winter and spring 2003-5 dewatered and killed a high proportion of rainbow trout eggs in gravel spawning bars, but this mortality had no measurable effect on the abundance of juvenile fish. Flow fluctuations during summer months reduced growth of juvenile trout relative to steadier flows. A high-flow experiment in March 2008 increased both trout survival rates for early life stages and fish abundance. These findings demonstrate that Glen Canyon Dam operations directly affect the trout population in the Lees Ferry reach and could be used to regulate nonnative fish abundance to limit potential negative effects of trout on native fish in Grand Canyon.

  10. [Surgical treatment for incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Guan, Ting-Jin; Zheng, Liang-Guo; Sun, Peng; Li, Xing-Xue

    2014-05-01

    To explore the reason, key diagnosic point and therapeutic method of the incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation. From July 2007 to May 2012, clinical data of 11 patients with incision fat liquefaction or early infection after lumbar discectomy were retrospectively analyzed. There were 5 males and 6 females with an average age of 43.1 years, and the mean time of incisions fat colliquation or infection was 5 days and a half after operation. The main clinical features included local wound pain aggravating, fervescence, fresh seepage in the wound, and blood inflammatory index increased, etc. The wound could heal at the first treatment stage or not was an evaluation standard of curative effect. All patients were followed up with an average period of 21 months. The wounds of 10 cases healed at the first stage without recurrence and complications. In 1 case infected by staphylococcus aureus, distal part of the wound present local red, swelling and with wave motion at 2 months after operation, staphylococcus aureus infection was confirmed after puncture and bacterial culture, and 1 thrum was found after local incision. The wound healed after change dressings for 1 week, without recurrence after followed up for 13 months. Preventing the risk factors before operation, minimizing invasive technique during operation reasonable antibiotics application for the lumbar operation reguiring placement objects, and correctly handling with wound after operation could prevent and reduce the incidence of incisions fat liquefaction or infection after operation of lumbar disc herniation. For incision fat liquefaction or infection, early diagnosis, debridement, VSD negative pressure irrigation and drainage, to choosing sensitive antibiotics according to the results of drug sensitivity, may contribute to wound early healing and decrease complication.

  11. The US Military’s Experience in Stability Operations, 1789-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    better trained in IO technical procedures than they were in how to produce a persuasive message . In the Dominican Republic in 1965, for example, the ...Yates, provides his thoughts and analysis of the US Army’s participation in stability operations (SO) since 1789. Dr. Yates, a member of the CSI Team...experience in the conduct of stability operations prior to the Global War on Terrorism can be divided chronologically into four periods: the country’s

  12. Utility interconnection experience with an operating central station MW-sized photovoltaic plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patapoff, N. W., Jr.; Mattijetz, D. R.

    1985-08-01

    Utility experience to date with photovoltaic systems has been with small dispersed systems designed primarily as demonstration projects. The 1 MW photovoltaic plant at Lugo Substation in Hesperia, California, has been designed and is operated as a central station power plant. The performance of the system has been monitored since first coming on line in November 1982. The potential impact of this and similar systems upon the operation of the utility is discussed.

  13. Student agreement regarding adequacy of didactic content and practical experiences of vaccination clinic business operations.

    PubMed

    George, David L; Johnson, Eric J; O'Neal, Katherine S; Smith, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    To report student perceived adequacy regarding didactic content and practical experiences of vaccination clinic business operations. Didactic content, a case study, and practical experiences regarding vaccination clinic business operations were implemented in related lectures of a Pharmacy Business and Entrepreneurship (PBE) elective and the college of pharmacy sponsored vaccination clinics. An online survey was used to evaluate student perceived adequacy of didactic content and practical experiences of vaccination clinic business operations. Mean scaled agreement was compared between students in the PBE elective versus those not in the elective. Student confidence in performing business operations was also assessed. Students in the PBE had higher mean confidence than non-elective students regarding staff management (3.23 vs. 2.73, p = 0.04). Success of the interventions may be attributed to students in the PBE elective that reported a higher mean perceived adequacy of content and practical experiences and confidence in performing nearly all business operations. Still, further evaluation of interventions is being considered to assess effectiveness of learning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K. J.; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H.; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L.; Mills, John G.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M.; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-01-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ2 = 6.3, P = 0.044), activities (χ2 = 6.7, P = 0.036), and areas (χ2 = 9.4, P = 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ2 = 9.3, P = 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ2 = 5.7, P = 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ2 = 12.3, P = 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. PMID:26834027

  15. Stress Sensitivity, Aberrant Salience, and Threat Anticipation in Early Psychosis: An Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Kempton, Matthew J; Valmaggia, Lucia; Craig, Tom K J; Garety, Philippa; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; So, Suzanne H; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L; Mills, John G; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; McGuire, Philip; van Os, Jim; Murray, Robin M; Wykes, Til; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Morgan, Craig

    2016-05-01

    While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ(2)= 6.3,P= 0.044), activities (χ(2)= 6.7,P= 0.036), and areas (χ(2)= 9.4,P= 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ(2)= 9.3,P= 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ(2)= 5.7,P= 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ(2)= 12.3,P= 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  16. Development and Operation of a MUMPS Laboratory Information System: A Decade's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R. E.; Causey, J. P.; Moore, G. W.; Wilk, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    We describe more than a decade's experience with inhouse development and operation of a clinical laboratory computer system written in the MUMPS programming language for a 1000 bed teaching hospital. The JHLIS is a networked minicomputer system that supports accessioning, instrument monitoring, and result reporting for over 3000 specimens and 30,000 test results daily. Development and operation of the system accounts for 6% of the budget of the laboratories which have had a 70% increase in workload over the past decade. Our experience with purchased MUMPS software maintained and enhanced inhouse suggests an attractive alternative to lengthy inhouse development.

  17. On the hitchhiker Robot Operated Materials Processing System: Experiment data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Jenstrom, Del

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery STS-64 mission carried the first American autonomous robot into space, the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS). On this mission ROMPS was the only Hitchhiker experiment and had a unique opportunity to utilize all Hitchhiker space carrier capabilities. ROMPS conducted rapid thermal processing of the one hundred semiconductor material samples to study how micro gravity affects the resulting material properties. The experiment was designed, built and operated by a small GSFC team in cooperation with industry and university based principal investigators who provided the material samples and data interpretation. ROMPS' success presents some valuable lessons in such cooperation, as well as in the utilization of the Hitchhiker carrier for complex applications. The motivation of this paper is to share these lessons with the scientific community interested in attached payload experiments. ROMPS has a versatile and intelligent material processing control data system. This paper uses the ROMPS data system as the guiding thread to present the ROMPS mission experience. It presents an overview of the ROMPS experiment followed by considerations of the flight and ground data subsystems and their architecture, data products generation during mission operations, and post mission data utilization. It then presents the lessons learned from the development and operation of the ROMPS data system as well as those learned during post-flight data processing.

  18. Experience from three years of local capacity development for tsunami early warning in Indonesia: challenges, lessons and the way ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahn, H.; Hoppe, M.; Vidiarina, H. D.; Usdianto, B.

    2010-07-01

    Five years after the 2004 tsunami, a lot has been achieved to make communities in Indonesia better prepared for tsunamis. This achievement is primarily linked to the development of the Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (InaTEWS). However, many challenges remain. This paper describes the experience with local capacity development for tsunami early warning (TEW) in Indonesia, based on the activities of a pilot project. TEW in Indonesia is still new to disaster management institutions and the public, as is the paradigm of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). The technology components of InaTEWS will soon be fully operational. The major challenge for the system is the establishment of clear institutional arrangements and capacities at national and local levels that support the development of public and institutional response capability at the local level. Due to a lack of information and national guidance, most local actors have a limited understanding of InaTEWS and DRR, and often show little political will and priority to engage in TEW. The often-limited capacity of local governments is contrasted by strong engagement of civil society organisations that opt for early warning based on natural warning signs rather than technology-based early warning. Bringing together the various actors, developing capacities in a multi-stakeholder cooperation for an effective warning system are key challenges for the end-to-end approach of InaTEWS. The development of local response capability needs to receive the same commitment as the development of the system's technology components. Public understanding of and trust in the system comes with knowledge and awareness on the part of the end users of the system and convincing performance on the part of the public service provider. Both sides need to be strengthened. This requires the integration of TEW into DRR, clear institutional arrangements, national guidance and intensive support for capacity development at local levels as well as

  19. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  20. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-11-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, five-factor model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily and neurobiologically based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially housed, captive chimpanzees residing in 2 independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, whereas personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).