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Sample records for early oral intake

  1. Feasibility of a Clinical Pathway with Early Oral Intake and Discharge for Laparoscopic Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Tomii, C; Inokuchi, M; Otsuki, S; Kojima, K

    2017-12-01

    Although some studies have reported the safety of early oral intake after gastrectomy, it still remains controversial. This study focused on the feasibility of a clinical pathway with early oral intake and discharge setting for exclusively laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. A clinical pathway was applied to 403 patients until December 2014. In the protocol, patients are allowed to take a sip of water and a soft diet on the first and second days after the operation, respectively, and the discharge day is set as the fifth to seventh day after the operation. Clinicopathological variables were prospectively collected, and risk factors for discharge variances were analyzed. The completion rate of the clinical pathway was 76.9%. There were five re-admissions (1.2%). The overall morbidity rate was 18% ( n = 72), and major complications (Clavien-Dindo IIIa or greater) occurred in 13 patients (3%). Complications were the causes for discharge variances in 68 cases (73%), while the attending surgeons' judgment was the cause in 25 cases (27%). On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio = 2.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.38-3.60, p = 0.001) and operative time (odds ratio = 2.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.45-3.98, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for discharge variances. A high completion rate of a clinical pathway with early oral intake and discharge setting for laparoscopic distal gastrectomy was achievable with an acceptably low re-admission rate. Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy is recommended as a first step for a clinical pathway with an early oral intake and discharge protocol.

  2. Comparison of "Nil by Mouth" Versus Early Oral Intake in Three Different Diet Regimens Following Esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Kristine Elisabeth; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rolff, Hans Christian; Belmouhand, Mohamed; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Thorsteinsson, Morten

    2017-06-01

    The literature on oral intake after esophagectomy and its influence on anastomotic leakage and complications is sparse. This retrospective study included 359 patients undergoing esophagectomy between January 2011 and August 2015. Three oral intake protocols were evaluated: regimen 1, nil by mouth until postoperative day (POD) 7 followed by a normal diet; regimen 2, oral intake of clear fluids from POD 1 followed by a normal diet; regimen 3, nil by mouth until POD 7 followed by a slow increase to a blended diet. The outcome endpoints were: (1) anastomotic leakage, (2) complications [severity and number described using the Dindo-Clavien Classification and Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI)] and (3) length of stay. A multivariate logistic regression model was obtained for CCI and anastomotic leakage using Wald's stepwise selection. CCI was significantly lower in regimen 3 (16 vs. 22 and 26 in regimen 1 and 2, p = 0.027). Additionally, significantly fewer patients in regimen 3 suffered from severe complications of Dindo-Clavien grade IIIb-IV (p = 0.025). The incidence of anastomotic leakage reached its lowest in regimen 3, 2%, compared to 7-9%. Multivariate analyses revealed that high American Society of Anesthesiologist score was a predicting factor for both CCI and anastomotic leakage. The study indicates that nil by mouth until postoperative day 7 followed by a slow increase to a blended diet after esophagectomy results in less severe complications and a tendency of fewer anastomotic leakages. Multiple comorbidities proved to be an important predictive factor of the postoperative course.

  3. Water swallow screening test for patients after surgery for head and neck cancer: early identification of dysphagia, aspiration and limitations of oral intake.

    PubMed

    Hey, Christiane; Lange, Benjamin P; Eberle, Silvia; Zaretsky, Yevgen; Sader, Robert; Stöver, Timo; Wagenblast, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at high risk for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) following surgical therapy. Early identification of OD can improve outcomes and reduce economic burden. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a water screening test using increasing volumes postsurgically for patients with HNC (N=80) regarding the early identification of OD in general, and whether there is a need for further instrumental diagnostics to investigate the presence of aspiration as well as to determine the limitations of oral intake as defined by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. OD in general was identified in 65%, with aspiration in 49%, silent aspiration in 21% and limitations of oral intake in 56%. Despite a good sensitivity, for aspiration of 100% and for limitations of oral intake of 97.8%, the presented water screening test did not satisfactorily predict either of these reference criteria due to its low positive likelihood ratio (aspiration=2.6; limitations of oral intake=3.1). However, it is an accurate tool for the early identification of OD in general, with a sensitivity of 96.2% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.4 in patients after surgery for HNC.

  4. Influence of desflurane on postoperative oral intake compared with propofol.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative oral intake is an important predictor of early postoperative recovery, and anesthesia is known to influence this intake. We compared the influences of desflurane anesthesia and propofol anesthesia on early postoperative oral intake retrospectively. The subjects included a consecutive series of patients who received general anesthesia with propofol or desflurane between June and December 2013. The total amount of calories and proteins taken orally and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) on postoperative days (POD) 0, 1, and 2 were collected. A total of 147 patients were analyzed. The desflurane (Des) and the propofol (Pro) groups included 52 and 95 patients, respectively. The incidence of PONV on POD 0, 1, and 2 did not show significant intergroup differences. Total calorie intake on POD 1 and 2 was not significantly different between the 2 groups (1117 ± 508 vs. 1036 ± 549 kcal/day, p=0.39 and 1504 ± 368 vs. 1437 ± 433 kcal/day, p=0.35, respectively). Total amount of protein via oral intake on POD 1 and 2 were not significantly different between the two groups (45.9 ± 21.1 vs. 43.8 ± 22.8 g/day, p=0.60 and 61.3 ± 15.0 vs. 58.9 ± 18.0 g/day, p=0.42, respectively). These findings suggest that desflurane and propofol affect postoperative oral intake in a similar fashion. These results should be confirmed in a future prospective study.

  5. Oral intake evaluation in patients following critical illness: an ICU cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jarden, Rebecca J; Sutton-Smith, Lynsey; Boulton, Catherine

    2018-04-16

    Timely and adequate nutrition improves health outcomes for the critically ill patient. Despite clinical guidelines recommending early oral nutrition, survivors of critical illness experience significant nutritional deficits. This cohort study evaluates the oral nutrition intake in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who have experienced recent critical illness. The oral nutrition intake of a convenience sample of ICU patients post-critical illness was observed during a 1-month period. Data pertaining to both the amount of oral nutrition intake and factors impacting optimal oral nutrition intake were collected and analysed. Inadequate oral intake was identified in 62% of the 79 patients assessed (n = 49). This was noted early in the ICU stay, around day 1-2, for most of the patients. A significant proportion (25%) of patients remained in the hospital with poor oral intake that persisted beyond ICU day 5. Unsurprisingly, these were the patients who had longer ICU stays. Critical illness weakness was a factor in the assessment of poor oral intake. To conclude, patients who have experienced critical illness also experience suboptimal oral nutrition. The three key factors that were identified as impacting optimal oral nutrition were early removal of nasogastric tubes, critical illness weakness and poor appetite post-critical illness. Seven key recommendations are made based on this cohort study. These recommendations are related to patient assessment, monitoring, documentation and future guidelines. Future research opportunities are highlighted, including the investigation of strategies to improve the transition of patients' post-critical illness to oral nutrition. © 2018 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  6. Restriction of oral intake during labor: whither are we bound?

    PubMed

    Sperling, Jeffrey D; Dahlke, Joshua D; Sibai, Baha M

    2016-05-01

    In 1946, Dr Curtis Mendelson suggested that aspiration during general anesthesia for delivery was avoidable by restricting oral intake during labor. This suggestion proved influential, and restriction of oral intake in labor became the norm. These limitations may contribute to fear and feelings of intimidation among parturients. Modern obstetrics, especially in the setting of advances in obstetric anesthesia, does not mirror the clinical landscape of Mendelson; hence, one is left to question if his findings remain relevant or if they should inform current recommendations. The use of general anesthesia at time of cesarean delivery has seen a remarkable decline with increased use of effective neuraxial analgesia as the standard of care in modern obstetric anesthesia. While the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists now endorses clear liquids during labor, current recommendations continue to suggest that solid food intake should be avoided. Recent evidence from a systematic review involving 3130 women in active labor suggests that oral intake should not be restricted in women at low risk of complications, given there were no identified benefits or harms of a liberal diet. Aspiration and other adverse maternal outcomes may be unrelated to oral intake in labor and as such, qualitative measures such as patient satisfaction should be paramount. It is time to reassess the impact of oral intake restriction during labor given the minimal risk of aspiration during labor in the setting of modern obstetric anesthesia practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early oral feeding after pancreatoduodenectomy enhances recovery without increasing morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gerritsen, Arja; Wennink, Roos A W; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Tseng, Dorine S J; Steenhagen, Elles; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a change in the routine feeding strategy applied after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) from nasojejunal tube (NJT) feeding to early oral feeding improved clinical outcomes. Methods An observational cohort study was performed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing PD. In period 1 (n = 51, historical controls), the routine postoperative feeding strategy was NJT feeding. This was changed to a protocol of early oral feeding with on-demand NJT feeding in period 2 (n = 51, consecutive prospective cohort). The primary outcome was time to resumption of adequate oral intake. Results The baseline characteristics of study subjects in both periods were comparable. In period 1, 98% (n = 50) of patients received NJT feeding, whereas in period 2, 53% (n = 27) of patients did so [for delayed gastric empting (DGE) (n = 20) or preoperative malnutrition (n = 7)]. The time to resumption of adequate oral intake significantly decreased from 12 days in period 1 to 9 days in period 2 (P = 0.015), and the length of hospital stay shortened from 18 days in period 1 to 13 days in period 2 (P = 0.015). Overall, there were no differences in the incidences of complications of Clavien–Dindo Grade III or higher, DGE, pancreatic fistula, postoperative haemorrhage and mortality between the two periods. Conclusions The introduction of an early oral feeding strategy after PD reduced the time to resumption of adequate oral intake and length of hospital stay without negatively impacting postoperative morbidity. PMID:24308458

  8. Oral intake during labor: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review evidence and practices within and beyond the United States related to the practice of maternal fasting during labor. Fasting in labor became standard policy in the United States after findings of a 1946 study suggested that pulmonary aspiration during general anesthesia was an avoidable risk. Today general anesthesia is rarely used in childbirth and its associated maternal mortality usually results from difficulty in intubation. Healthcare professionals have debated the risks and benefits of restricting oral intake during labor for decades, and practice varies internationally. Research from the United States, Australia, and Europe suggests that oral intake may be beneficial, and adverse events associated with oral intake such as vomiting and prolongation of labor do not seem to be associated with alterations in maternal or infant outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends that healthcare providers should not interfere in women's eating and drinking during labor when no risk factors are evident. Nurses in intrapartum settings are encouraged to work in multidisciplinary teams to revise policies that are unnecessarily restrictive regarding oral intake during labor among low-risk women.

  9. [Dysphagia screening on resumption of oral intake in inpatients predictive factor for the resumption of oral intake].

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Hirohisa; Endo, Tomonori; Nakayama, Tuguhisa; Kato, Takakuni

    2013-06-01

    There is much concern about the acute phase of restarting an oral diet for hospital inpatients who have been prohibited from any oral intake. We found predictive factors for the successful resumption of oral intake in such patients. A total of 186 subjects who had been hospitalized without oral intake were screened for dysphagia between January 1st and December 31st in 2010 (mean age 80.9 years), and formed the study population. We observed them from the initial consultation day until the discharge. (mean days 32.6) We examined factors of age, sex, appetite, gag reflex, tongue activity, the repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST), obeying commands, the status of the laryngopharynx, laryngeal sensation and the 3 ml water swallowing test under endoscopy. We excluded those who died in hospital after dysphagia screening because they were obviously lost to follow-up. One hundred and twelve patients (60.2%) could resume oral intake, 54 patients could not and 20 (10.8%) died. Logistic regression analysis identified seven significant factors in predicting the resumption of oral intake : 1) age (p = 0.01, OR = 0.938, 95% CI 0.903-0.976); 2) sex (p = 0.21, OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.124-4.128); 3) appetite (p = 0.041, OR = 1.983, 95% CI 1.029-3.821); 4) gag reflex (p = 0.06, OR = 1.932, 95% CI 0.971-3.844); 5) tongue activity (P = 0.002, OR = 3.825, 95% CI 1.647-8.883); 6) RSST (P = 0.013, OR = 2.284, 95% CI 1.186-4.397); 7) obeying commands (p = 0.02, OR = 3.005, 95% CI 1.507-5.993); 8) the status of the laryngopharynx (P = 0.668, OR = 0.668, 95% CI 0.351-1.272); 9) laryngeal sensation (P = 0.081, OR = 1.841, 95% CI 0.928-3.650); and the 3 ml water swallowing test under endoscopy (P = 0.000, OR = 0.226, 95% CI 0.102-0.499). These predictive factors could be very useful for dysphagia screening to help forecast the successful resumption of oral intake in affected patients. When the likelihood of dysphagia and the onset of aspiration pneumonia are suggested by dysphagia screening

  10. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ORAL NICOTINE INTAKE IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Collins, Allan C; Pogun, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    To study individual differences in nicotine preference and intake, male and female rats were given free access to a choice of oral nicotine (10 or 20 mg/L) or water for 24 hours/day for periods of at least six weeks, starting at adolescence or adulthood. A total of 341 rats, were used in four different experiments; weight, nicotine intake and total liquid consumption were recorded weekly. Results show that rats can discriminate nicotine from water, can regulate their intake, and that there are readily detected individual differences in nicotine preference. Ward analyses indicated that the animals could be divided into minimum, median and maximum preferring subgroups in all experiments. The effect of saccharine on nicotine intake was also evaluated; although the addition of saccharine increased total intake, rats drank unsweetened nicotine solutions and those with higher preferences for nicotine, preferred nicotine over water with or without saccharine added. Nicotine reduced weight gain and the effect was more pronounced in females than males. The average nicotine consumption of adolescent rats was higher than adults and nicotine exposure during adolescence reduced nicotine intake in adult rats. About half of the rats which had access to nicotine as adolescents and also as adults had a persistent pattern of consumption; the behavior was very stable in the female minimum preferring groups and a much higher ratio of rats sustained their adolescent behavior as adults. The change in preference was more pronounced when there was an interval between adolescent and adult exposure; female rats showed a more stable behavior than males suggesting a greater role for environmental influences on males. In conclusion, marked individual differences were observed in oral nicotine intake as measured in a continuous access 2-bottle choice test. Age and sex of the subjects and previous exposure to nicotine are significant factors which affect preference in rats. PMID:21504750

  11. Effect of herbal medicine daikenchuto on oral and enteral caloric intake after liver transplantation: A multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kaido, Toshimi; Shinoda, Masahiro; Inomata, Yukihiro; Yagi, Takahito; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Takada, Yasutsugu; Ohdan, Hideki; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Eguchi, Susumu; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Ogata, Satoshi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Ikegami, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Michio; Morita, Satoshi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2018-03-20

    Postoperative early oral or enteral intake is a crucial element of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol. However, normal food intake or enteral feeding cannot be started early in the presence of coexisting bowel dysfunction in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the enhancement effects of the Japanese herbal medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on oral/enteral caloric intake in patients undergoing LT. A total of 112 adult patients undergoing LT at 14 Japanese centers were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either DKT or placebo from postoperative day (POD) 1 to 14. The primary endpoints were total oral/enteral caloric intake, abdominal distension, and pain on POD 7. The secondary endpoints included sequential changes in total oral/enteral caloric intake after LT, and portal venous flow volume and velocity in the graft. A total of 104 patients (DKT, n = 55; placebo, n = 49) were included in the analyses. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of primary endpoints. However, postoperative total oral/enteral caloric intake was significantly accelerated in the DKT group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.023). Moreover, portal venous flow volume (POD 10, 14) and velocity (POD 14) were significantly higher in the DKT group than in the placebo group (P = 0.047, P = 0.025, P = 0.014, respectively). Postoperative administration of DKT may enhance total oral/enteral caloric intake and portal venous flow volume and velocity after LT and favorably contribute to the performance of the ERAS protocol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Affective responsiveness is influenced by intake of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Radke, Sina; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), little is known about their impact on psychological processes and emotional competencies. Recent data indicate impaired emotion recognition in OC users compared to naturally cycling females. Building upon these findings, the current study investigated the influence of OC use on three components of empathy, i.e., emotion recognition, perspective-taking, and affective responsiveness. We compared naturally cycling women to two groups of OC users, one being tested in their pill-free week and one in the phase of active intake. Whereas groups did not differ in emotion recognition and perspective-taking, an effect of pill phase was evident for affective responsiveness: Females currently taking the pill showed better performance than those in their pill-free week. These processing advantages complement previous findings on menstrual cycle effects and thereby suggest an association with changes in endogenous and exogenous reproductive hormones. The current study highlights the need for future research to shed more light on the neuroendocrine alterations accompanying OC intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral warfarin intake affects skin inflammatory cytokine responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Aleksandra Popov; Mirkov, Ivana; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Ninkov, Marina; Mileusnic, Dina; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin is an anticoagulant used in prevention/prophylaxis of thromboembolism. Besides the effects on coagulation, non-hemorrhagic reactions have also been documented. Although cutaneous reactions were reported in some patients, the impact on skin immunity was not explored. In the present paper, the effect of 30-day oral warfarin intake on skin cytokine responses in rats was analyzed. Increased release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β and IL-10) was noted by skin explants from rats which received warfarin, but without effect on IL-6. No impact on epidermal cell cytokine secretion was seen, except a tendency of an increase of IL-6 response to stimulation with microbial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Topical application of contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) resulted in slight (numerical solely) increase of TNF release by skin explants of warfarin-treated animals, while epidermal cells responded by increased secretion of all four cytokines examined. The data presented provide new information on the potential of oral warfarin to modulate skin innate immune activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Declining oral intake towards the end of life: how to talk about it? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jean; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; Allan, Simon; Zuylen, Lia van; Heide, Agnes van der

    2017-02-02

    Decreasing oral intake is common towards the end of life and a potential source of distress and concern for patients, relatives, whānau and clinicians. This paper provides insight to inform practice regarding clinicians' perceptions, practices, responses and communication with patients and their companions regarding declining oral intake towards the end of life. In this qualitative study ten specialist palliative care staff participated in semi-structured interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Three themes were identified: declining oral intake was a natural part of the dying process; responding empathetically; and clinicians described specific aims and ways regarding communication. Insight into clinicians' endeavours to manage declining oral intake and support the wellbeing of patients, families, and whānau can inform practice. However the perspectives of family, whānau and health professionals continue to show significant variation regarding the communication given and received around declining oral intake towards the end of life.

  15. Factors affecting return to oral intake in inpatient rehabilitation after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kjaersgaard, Annette; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2015-01-01

    To extend previous observations by investigating if differences exist in time to initiation or to recovery of total oral intake in patients with acquired brain injury assessed by either Facial-Oral Tract Therapy (F.O.T.T.) or Fibreoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) and to investigate whether other factors influence these outcomes. Randomized controlled trial. One hundred and nineteen patients with dysphagia in inpatient neurorehabilitation were randomized. The main outcome was time to maximum on the Functional Oral Intake Scale. There was no difference in time to initiation or recovery of total oral intake using F.O.T.T. or FEES. Oral intake was initiated for 42% on admission and 92% at discharge; 2.5% of the patients were on total oral intake within 24 hours of admission and 37% at discharge. The likelihood of recovery to total oral intake before discharge was found to depend on age, Functional Independence Measure score, length of stay and number of dysphagia interventions. There was no significant difference in time to initiation and recovery of total oral intake before discharge, whether assessed by F.O.T.T. or FEES, indicating that an instrumental assessment is unnecessary for standard evaluation. Age, functional independence and length of stay had a significant influence.

  16. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  17. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    PubMed

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  18. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

    PubMed

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk. Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2). Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P -trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P -trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other

  19. Prediction of decannulation, oral intake recovery, overall survival and lung metastasis following oral malignant tumor resection and reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidenori; Hyodo, Ikuo; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated whether tongue base and mandibular bone defects were associated with the rate of decannulation and oral intake recovery, and survival time, including overall and lung metastasis-free survival time, in patients that underwent oral malignant tumor (OMT) resection with reconstruction. A total of 105 patients that underwent OMT resection with laryngeal preservation and reconstruction were recruited. The extent of defects was classified according to Urken's classification. The rates of decannulation and oral intake recovery were assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method. It was identified that 4–5 section segmental mandibulectomy (SM) and total glossectomy (TG) were significantly associated with a lower rate of decannulation and oral intake recovery by univariate and multivariate analysis using a Cox's proportional model. Patients in the high risk group (4–5 sections or TG) were significantly less likely to achieve decannulation and unaided oral intake. Patients in the high risk group exhibited a significantly shorter overall and lung metastasis-free survival time. Following multivariate analysis adjusted for the clinical stage (IV/I–III), past history of or postoperative radiotherapy (yes/no) and age (per year), the high risk group was associated with a significantly rate of decannulation and unaided oral intake. In conclusion, TG or wide SM is a prognostic parameter for functional and survival outcomes, including lung metastasis, in OMT. PMID:29434993

  20. Oral nutritional supplementation increases caloric and protein intake in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Boudville, Neil; Rangan, Anna; Moody, Harry

    2003-03-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with a poor prognosis. Attempts to improve nutritional status with enteral supplements have yielded poor results. We performed a crossover-design trial on 13 PD patients to investigate whether these patients reduce their food intake after drinking oral nutritional supplements. Patients attended three visits in which they were administered a standard oral nutritional supplement either 2 hours or 30 minutes before lunch or a placebo drink 30 minutes before lunch. Lunch was provided as a self-select buffet-style meal, and food intake was measured. Total intake was calculated by adding the nutritional content of the oral supplement. Patients showed poor food intake, with mean values equaling only 18% of the recommended daily intake for calories and 34% for protein. Drinking the supplement 2 hours before lunch resulted in a significant increase compared with the placebo visit in total caloric (430 to 843 kcal; P < 0.001) and protein intake (27.6 to 41.3 g; P = 0.006). No significant difference in total intake was detected between drinking the supplement 2 hours versus 30 minutes before lunch. These results indicate that oral nutritional supplements administered before a meal may significantly increase caloric and protein intakes of PD patients. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  1. Early intensive rehabilitation after oral cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bschorer, Maximilian; Schneider, Daniel; Hennig, Matthias; Frank, Bernd; Schön, Gerhard; Heiland, Max; Bschorer, Reinhard

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of oral cancer requires an effective rehabilitation strategy such as an early intensive rehabilitation (EIR) program. The medical records and data of 41 patients who participated in an EIR program and 20 control group patients were analyzed. These patients all underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor followed by microsurgical reconstruction using free flaps. The length of stay (LOS) at the acute care hospital was compared between the two groups. Four indexes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the EIR program. EIR patients stayed an average of 11.6 fewer days at the acute care hospital. All indexes showed significant improvements (p < 0.001). The Barthel Index (BI) and the Early Intensive Rehabilitation Barthel Index (EIR-BI) improved by 36.0 and 103.6 points, respectively. At discharge, the Bogenhausener Dysphagia Score (BODS) had improved to a score of 11.0 compared to the 13.9 at admission. EIR patients had a Work Ability Index (WAI) score of 25.7. Length of stay at the acute care hospital can be reduced using early intensive rehabilitation if patients are transferred to an intensive rehabilitation clinic early. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour.

    PubMed

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian M L

    2013-08-22

    Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We identified 19 studies of which we included five, involving 3130 women. We excluded eight studies, one awaits classification and five are ongoing studies. All the included studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks.When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, four studies, 2902 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women's views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the

  3. Citrus fruits intake and oral cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cirmi, Santa; Navarra, Michele; Woodside, Jayne V; Cantwell, Marie M

    2018-05-10

    To quantify the relationship between Citrus intake and risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched until September 2017. Search terms included Citrus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus fruits, Citrus fruits extract, Citrus oil, fruits, oral cancer, mouth cancer, mouth neoplasm. The selection of studies and the systematic review were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A pre-defined inclusion checklist resulted in the inclusion of articles which were (i) published in peer-reviewed scientific journals; (ii) English language; (iii) and included a measure of Citrus fruit intake and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Studies were excluded if (i) preparations derived from other fruits were used, (ii) Citrus intake was combined with intake of other fruits; (iii) in vitro or animal models were used. We also excluded reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, letters, personal opinions, conference abstracts and book chapters. Three reviewers independently performed the extraction of data from studies included. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final review. Pooled analyses showed that those with the highest Citrus fruit intake compared to the lowest intake had a 50% reduction in risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.43-0.59). The studies included in this review and meta-analysis showed an inverse association between Citrus fruit intake and oral cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Factors Predicting Recovery of Oral Intake in Stroke Survivors with Dysphagia in a Convalescent Rehabilitation Ward.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Yasunori; Nakayama, Sayaka; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Ohori, Isao; Komatsu, Nahoko; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Katsuki, Yasuo

    2017-05-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy may be performed in dysphagic stroke patients. However, some patients regain complete oral intake without gastrostomy. This study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of intake, thereby determining gastrostomy indications. Stroke survivors admitted to our convalescent rehabilitation ward who underwent gastrostomy or nasogastric tube placement from 2009 to 2015 were divided into 2 groups based on intake status at discharge. Demographic data and Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Dysphagia Severity Scale (DSS), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores on admission were compared between groups. We evaluated the factors predicting intake using a stepwise logistic regression analysis. Thirty-four patients recovered intake, whereas 38 achieved incomplete intake. Mean age was lower, mean body mass index (BMI) was higher, and mean time from stroke onset to admission was shorter in the complete intake group. The complete intake group had less impairment in terms of GCS, FIM, and DSS scores. In the stepwise logistic regression analysis, BMI, FIM-cognitive score, and DSS score were significant independent factors predicting intake. The formula of BMI × .26 + FIM cognitive score × .19 + DSS score × 1.60 predicted recovery of complete intake with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 84.2%. Stroke survivors with dysphagia with a high BMI and FIM-cognitive and DSS scores tended to recover oral intake. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate solution intake on thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ayse B; Demirel, Ismail; Kavak, Burcin S; Gurbuz, Oguz; Unlu, Serap; Bayar, Mustafa K; Erhan, Ömer L

    2013-07-31

    We aimed to investigate the oral carbohydrate solution administered preoperatively on thermoregulation. The study included 40 female patients under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group CONT (stopped oral implementation 8 h before the operation) and Group CHO (800ml oral carbohydrate fluid 8 h before the operation and 400ml oral carbohydrate fluid 2 h before the operation). Patients were monitored as standard and temperature probes were placed. Temperatures were recorded immediately before anesthetics induction, 5 min after the anesthetics induction, and in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) every 10 min. Mean skin temperature (Tsk), mean body temperature (Tb), and vasoconstriction threshold were estimated. In general, we observed a decrease in tympanic temperature and Tb following anesthetic administration in groups, and increase in Tsk, and an increase in all 3 of these levels in the recovery unit. Tympanic temperature was significantly higher at 25, 55, 65, and 95 min after induction in Group CONT compared to Group CHO (p<0.05). Tsk was found to be lower in Group CONT compared to Group CHO in almost all periods. In PACU, it was found that the tympanic temperature was higher in Group CONT compared to Group CHO at 60 min (p<0.05). Postoperative shivering score was found to be significantly higher in Group C (p<0.01). Vasoconstriction threshold was higher in Group CONT than Group CHO. Oral carbohydrate solution administered was established to have effects thought to be negative on tympanic temperature, vasoconstriction, and vasoconstriction threshold.

  6. Red cell aspartate aminotransferase saturation with oral pyridoxine intake.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Marilena; Nonoyama, Kimiyo; Oliveira, Raimundo Antônio Gomes; Barretto, Orlando Cesar de Oliveira

    2005-03-02

    The coenzyme of aspartate aminotransferase is pyridoxal phosphate, generated from fresh vegetables containing pyridoxine. Vitamin B6-responsive sideroblastic anemia, myelofibrosis and Peyronies syndrome respond to high pyridoxine doses. The objective was to investigate the oral pyridoxine oral dose that would lead to maximized pyridoxal phosphate saturation of red cell aspartate aminotransferase. Controlled trial, in Hematology Division of Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Red cell aspartate aminotransferase activity was assayed (before and after) in normal volunteers who were given oral pyridoxine for 15-18 days (30 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg daily). In vitro study of blood from seven normal volunteers was also performed, with before and after assaying of aspartate aminotransferase activity. The in vivo study showed increasing aspartate aminotransferase saturation with increasing pyridoxine doses. 83% saturation was reached with 30 mg daily, 88% with 100 mg, and 93% with 200 mg after 20 days of oral supplementation. The in vitro study did not reach 100% saturation. Neither in vivo nor in vitro study demonstrated thorough aspartate aminotransferase saturation with its coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate in red cells, from increasing pyridoxine supplementation. However, the 200-mg dose could be employed safely in vitamin B6-responsive sideroblastic anemia, myelofibrosis and Peyronies syndrome treatment. Although maximum saturation in circulating red cells is not achieved, erythroblasts and other nucleated and cytoplasmic organelles containing cells certainly will reach thorough saturation, which possibly explains the results obtained in these diseases.

  7. Relationship between oral health, nutrient intake and nutritional status in a sample of Brazilian elderly people.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Fabiola Bof; de França Caldas, Arnaldo; Kitoko, Pedro Makumbundu

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the oral health condition, the nutrient intake and the body mass index (BMI) in elderly people. Impaired dentition has been associated with an inadequate consumption of key nutrients and with changes in nutritional status in elderly people. The sample comprised 887 elderly people, aged 60 and over, of whom 816 underwent a clinical oral examination and were allocated into groups according to the numbers of teeth and number of posterior occluding pairs of natural teeth. Nutritional status was determined using the BMI. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-h diet recall interview and the data from these records were converted to nutritional intake using DietPro software. Differences between means were evaluated using ANOVA, together with the Tukey test or Dunnet test, according to the normality of the data. Associations between categorical variables were tested using chi-square analysis. Ages ranged from 60 to 96 years (mean, 71.46 years), with 47% of the respondents in the 60-to 69-year-old group. A high DMFT index (mean, 27.81) was observed with the missing component accounting for 88.8% of the index. Significant differences were observed between the mean intake of nutrients and the number of posterior occluding pairs of natural teeth (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the number of teeth and BMI. Nutrient intake is associated with the oral health status as defined by clinical measures.

  8. [Primary research of early oral feeding after total laryngectomy].

    PubMed

    Huang, N; Zhu, Y M; An, C M; Liu, Y; Xu, Z G; Liu, S Y; Zhang, Z M

    2018-06-07

    Objective: To explore whether early oral feeding after total laryngectomy is safe and effective by evaluating the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) and the hospital duration. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including 52 patients underwent total laryngectomy, plus partial tongue base resection ( n =2), partial pharyngectomy ( n =1), or pedicle flap ( n =2) between January 2012 and October 2017. Patients who had a history of preoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, previous surgery for larynx or pharynx and who had severe complications were excluded. Early oral feeding started between 48 h and 72 h postoperatively, while delayed oral feeding started within postoperative day 8-10. The incidences of PCF in two groups were compared to evaluate whether PCF and early oral feeding was related. Multi-variables analysis was conducted to evaluate risk factors for PCF. Results: PCF rate was 19.2% among all patients, 11.1% in patients with early oral feeding and 23.5% in patients with delayed oral feeding. No significant statistically difference in PCF rate was found between two groups (χ(2)=0.506, P =0.477). Multi-variables analysis showed that oral feeding time (early or delayed) was not a independent risk factor of PCF (Two classification response variable Logistic regression, P =0.200, OR =0.242, 95% CI [0.028-2.118]). But low preoperative albumin level was observed as an independent risk factor for PCF ( P =0.039, OR =0.848, 95% CI [0.726-0.992]). A negative correlation was observed between preoperative albumin level and PCF. And also there was not a significant difference in hospital duration between patients with early oral feeding and delayed oral feeding( U =268, P =0.464). Conclusion: For patients total laryngectomy with no previous history of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, early oral feeding after surgery is safe and effective.

  9. Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mituuti, Cláudia T; Bianco, Vinicius C; Bentim, Cláudia G; de Andrade, Eduardo C; Rubo, José H; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses. To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase. Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30) and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8) and left (LHG, n=11), excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke. There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02) and RHG (P=0.01). Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01) and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05). There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04) for the HG. The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with the level of oral intake and the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  10. Oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey decreased transepidermal water loss and prevented the onset of sodium dodecylsulfate-induced dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hidehiko; Masuyama, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Chiaki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Takano, Toshiaki; Ohki, Kohji

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey on the intact and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-exposed skin of Hos:HR-1 hairless mice. The mice were allowed to drink 10% L. helveticus-fermented milk whey in distilled water ad libitum for 5 weeks. SDS solution was topically applied to the dorsal skin at 4 weeks, leading to the development of dermatitis. The skin moisture content, transepidermal water loss, and sizes of the dermatitis areas were periodically measured. Compared with oral intake of water alone, oral intake of water containing L. helveticus-fermented milk whey for 4 weeks significantly lowered transepidermal water loss from intact skin, significantly reduced in size the areas of early SDS-induced dermatitis, and ameliorated both the SDS-induced decrease in moisture content and the increase in transepidermal water loss. These results suggest that oral intake of L. helveticus-fermented milk whey might be effective in promoting the epidermal barrier function and in preventing the onset of dermatitis.

  11. Rapid post-oral stimulation of intake and flavor conditioning by glucose and fat in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Although widely assumed to have only satiating actions, nutrients in the gut can also condition increases in intake in some cases. Here we studied the time course of post-oral nutrient stimulation of ingestion in food-restricted C57BL/6J mice. In experiment 1, mice adapted to drink a 0.8% sucralose solution 1 h/day, rapidly increased their rate of licking (within 4–6 min) when first tested with an 8% glucose solution and even more so in tests 2 and 3. Other mice decreased their licking rate when switched from sucralose to 8% fructose, a sugar that is sweet like glucose but lacks positive post-oral effects in mice. The glucose-stimulated drinking is due to the sugar's post-oral rather than taste properties, because sucralose is highly preferred to glucose and fructose in brief choice tests. A second experiment showed that the glucose-stimulated ingestion is associated with a conditioned flavor preference in both intact and capsaicin-treated mice. This indicates that the post-oral stimulatory action of glucose is not mediated by capsaicin-sensitive visceral afferents. In experiment 3, mice consumed flavored saccharin solutions as they self-infused water or glucose via an intragastric (IG) catheter. The glucose self-infusion stimulated ingestion within 13–15 min in test 1 and produced a conditioned increase in licking that was apparent in the initial minute of tests 2 and 3. Experiment 4 revealed that IG self-infusions of a fat emulsion also resulted in post-oral stimulation of licking in test 1 and conditioned increases in tests 2 and 3. These findings indicate that glucose and fat can generate stimulatory post-oral signals early in a feeding session that increase ongoing ingestion and condition increases in flavor acceptance and preference revealed in subsequent feeding sessions. The test procedures developed here can be used to investigate the peripheral and central processes involved in stimulation of intake by post-oral nutrients. PMID:21975648

  12. Oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status among inpatients admitted in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Lammel Ricardi, Juliana; Marcadenti, Aline; Perocchin de Souza, Simone; Siviero Ribeiro, Anelise

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is very common in hospitals and inpatients with prescription of oral nutritional supplementation have improvement of the nutritional status. To detect the total acceptance rate and a possible association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 398 inpatients. Fifteen types of supplements were analyzed and nutritional status was detected by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Rest-ingestion index (RI) was obtained and Modified Poisson's regression was used to detect associations between nutritional status and intake of nutritional supplements. The prevalence of malnutrition was 43.7% and overall acceptance of supplements was around 75%. Industrialized supplements have better acceptance among well-nourished inpatients and patients who ate less than 80% of the supplement offered (industrialized or homemade) had higher risk for malnutrition (48%). There was an association between oral nutritional supplements intake and nutritional status, despite the good acceptance rate. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Consistency of Eating Rate, Oral Processing Behaviours and Energy Intake across Meals

    PubMed Central

    McCrickerd, Keri; Forde, Ciaran G.

    2017-01-01

    Faster eating has been identified as a risk factor for obesity and the current study tested whether eating rate is consistent within an individual and linked to energy intake across multiple meals. Measures of ad libitum intake, eating rate, and oral processing at the same or similar test meal were recorded on four non-consecutive days for 146 participants (117 male, 29 female) recruited across four separate studies. All the meals were video recorded, and oral processing behaviours were derived through behavioural coding. Eating behaviours showed good to excellent consistency across the meals (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.76, p < 0.001) and participants who ate faster took larger bites (β ≥ 0.39, p < 0.001) and consistently consumed more energy, independent of meal palatability, sex, body composition and reported appetite (β ≥ 0.17, p ≤ 0.025). Importantly, eating faster at one meal predicted faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent meals (β > 0.20, p < 0.05). Faster eating is relatively consistent within individuals and is predictive of faster eating and increased energy intake at subsequent similar meals consumed in a laboratory context, independent of individual differences in body composition. PMID:28817066

  15. Association of coffee and tea intake with the oral microbiome: results from a large cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brandilyn A; McCullough, Marjorie L; Purdue, Mark P; Freedman, Neal D; Um, Caroline Y; Gapstur, Susan M; Hayes, Richard B; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2018-04-27

    The oral microbiota play a central role in oral health, and possibly in carcinogenesis. Research suggests coffee and tea consumption may have beneficial health effects. We examined the associations of these common beverages with the oral ecosystem in a large cross-sectional study. We assessed oral microbiota in mouthwash samples from 938 participants in two U.S. cohorts using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Coffee and tea intake were assessed from food frequency questionnaires. We examined associations of coffee and tea intake with overall oral microbiota diversity and composition using linear regression and permutational MANOVA, respectively, and with taxon abundance using negative binomial generalized linear models; all models adjusted for age, sex, cohort, BMI, smoking, ethanol intake, and energy intake. Higher tea intake was associated with greater oral microbiota richness (P=0.05) and diversity (P=0.006), and shifts in overall community composition (P=0.002); coffee was not associated with these microbiome parameters. Tea intake was associated with altered abundance of several oral taxa; these included Fusobacteriales, Clostridiales, and Shuttleworthia satelles (higher with increasing tea) and Bifidobacteriaceae, Bergeyella, Lactobacillales, and Kingella oralis (lower with increasing tea). Higher coffee intake was only associated with greater abundance of Granulicatella and Synergistetes. In the largest study to date of tea and coffee consumption in relation to the oral microbiota, the microbiota of tea drinkers differed in several ways from non-drinkers. Tea-driven changes to the oral microbiome may contribute to previously observed associations between tea and oral and systemic diseases, including cancers. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Diversity Considerations for Promoting Early Childhood Oral Health: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Prowse, Sarah; Schroth, Robert J.; Wilson, Alexandria; Edwards, Jeanette M.; Sarson, Janet; Levi, Jeremy A.; Moffatt, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Several groups in Manitoba, Canada, experience early childhood caries (ECC), including Aboriginal, immigrant, and refugee children and those from select rural regions. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the views of parents and caregivers from four cultural groups on early childhood oral health and ECC. Methods. A qualitative descriptive study design using focus groups recruited parents and caregivers from four cultural groups. Discussions were documented, audio-recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed for content based on themes. Results. Parents and caregivers identified several potential barriers to good oral health practice, including child's temperament, finances, and inability to control sugar intake. Both religion and genetics were found to influence perceptions of oral health. Misconceptions regarding breastfeeding and bottle use were present. One-on-one discussions, parental networks, and using laypeople from similar backgrounds were suggested methods to promote oral health. The immigrant and refugee participants placed emphasis on the use of visuals for those with language barriers while Hutterite participants suggested a health-education approach. Conclusions. These pilot study findings provide initial insight into the oral health-related knowledge and beliefs of these groups. This will help to inform planning of ECC prevention and research strategies, which can be tailored to specific populations. PMID:24624141

  17. Effect of repeated oral therapeutic doses of methylphenidate on food intake and growth rate in rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nausheen; Najam, Rahila

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system stimulants are known to produce anorexia. Previous data suggest that methylphenidate can have variable effects on caloric intake and growth rate. A dose-response study was performed to monitor caloric intake, liquid intake and growth rate in rats following repeated administration of human oral therapeutic doses 2 mg/kg/day, 5mg/kg/day and 8mg/kg/day of methylphenidate. We found that food intake and water intake, increased in all weeks and at all doses used in the study. Growth rate increased more at higher dose (8mg/kg/day) and at low dose (2mg/kg/day) of methylphenidate in 1(st) and 2(nd) week whereas more decreased by the above doses in 3(rd) week, suggesting that food stimulation leads to initial increase in growth rate but long term administration of methylphenidate attenuate growth rate that is not due to modulation of appetite but may be due to anxiety and increased activity produce by stimulants. A possible role of DA, 5HT receptors in modulation of appetite and anxiety is discussed.

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Intake During Infancy and Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sonia A.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. METHODS: We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078). RESULTS: Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. PMID:25183758

  19. Fruit and vegetable intake during infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Kirsten A; Kim, Sonia A; Yaroch, Amy L; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2014-09-01

    To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078). Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years. Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Early writing deficits in preschoolers with oral language difficulties.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A group of 293 preschool children were administered an assessment battery that included measures to examine oral language, nonverbal cognition, emergent reading, and writing. Children were divided into four groups based on their language and cognitive performance. The findings from this study show that as early as preschool, children with weaker oral language skills lag behind their peers with stronger oral language skills in terms of their writing-related skills. Children with oral language and cognitive deficits performed more poorly than children whose deficits were confined to oral language. A child's cognitive ability also has an impact on emergent writing skills, but it appears to be moderated by oral language skills. These results are consistent with research documenting links between preschool language and emergent reading in children with a history of LI. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2012.

  1. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A group of 293 preschool children were administered an assessment battery that included measures to examine oral language, nonverbal cognition, emergent reading, and writing. Children were divided into four groups based on their language and cognitive performance. The findings from this study show that as early as preschool, children with weaker oral language skills lag behind their peers with stronger oral language skills in terms of their writing-related skills. Children with oral language and cognitive deficits performed more poorly than children whose deficits were confined to oral language. A child’s cognitive ability also has an impact on emergent writing skills, but it appears to be moderated by oral language skills. These results are consistent with research documenting links between preschool language and emergent reading in children with a history of LI. PMID:22043027

  2. Effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen administered orally on normal food intake and intraperitoneally on fat intake in non-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Bains, Rasneer S; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2013-01-05

    It has been previously reported that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen decreases food intake after oral administration and fat intake after intraperitoneal administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of baclofen (1-4 mg/ kg) administered orally (Experiment 1) on food intake in non-deprived rats (n=6) and intraperitoneally (Experiment 2) on fat intake in non-deprived rats (n=8) that were naïve to baclofen (1st set of trials) and in the same group of rats after they were sub-chronically exposed to baclofen (2nd set of trials). The results from Experiment 1 show that baclofen had no effects on food intake during the 1st set of trials, but the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased food consumption during the 2nd set of trials. Baclofen produced sedation during the 1st set of trials, but tolerance occurred to this effect and was not apparent during the 2nd set of trials. These observations suggest that the motor effects may have competed with the hyperphagic effects of baclofen during the 1st set of trials. The data from Experiment 2 show that baclofen had no effects on fat intake during either the 1st or 2nd set of trials. The results of the study thus indicate that orally administrated baclofen increases food intake and intraperitoneal administration has no effect on fat intake in non-deprived rats under the conditions used in this study. These findings may have important implications for research on the use of baclofen in studies concerned with ingestive behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Etonitazene as a reinforcer: oral intake of etonitazene by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Carroll, M E; Meisch, R A

    1978-12-08

    Drinking of etonitazene HCI was studied in three rhesus monkeys during daily 3-h sessions. As the drug concentration was increased, the number of liquid deliveries decreased, and etonitazene intake (microgram/kg body weight) increased. As fixed-ratio (FR) requirements were increased, rate of responding increased, and liquid deliveries slightly decreased. When water was substituted for the drug, there was a large increase in responding for several sessions, followed by a slow decline to low rates. When etonitazene was reintroduced, responding abruptly increased to previous drug levels. These data suggest that etonitazene can serve as a positive reinforcer when taken orally by rhesus monkeys.

  4. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  5. An orally available, brain-penetrant CAMKK2 inhibitor reduces food intake in rodent model.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel J; Drewry, David H; Schaller, Lee T; Thompson, Brian D; Reid, Paul R; Maloney, Patrick R; Liang, Xi; Banker, Periette; Buckholz, Richard G; Selley, Paula K; McDonald, Octerloney B; Smith, Jeffery L; Shearer, Todd W; Cox, Richard F; Williams, Shawn P; Reid, Robert A; Tacconi, Stefano; Faggioni, Federico; Piubelli, Chiara; Sartori, Ilaria; Tessari, Michela; Wang, Tony Y

    2018-06-01

    Hypothalamic CAMKK2 represents a potential mechanism for chemically affecting satiety and promoting weight loss in clinically obese patients. Single-digit nanomolar inhibitors of CAMKK2 were identified in three related ATP-competitive series. Limited optimization of kinase selectivity, solubility, and pharmacokinetic properties were undertaken on all three series, as SAR was often transferrable. Ultimately, a 2,4-diaryl 7-azaindole was optimized to afford a tool molecule that potently inhibits AMPK phosphorylation in a hypothalamus-derived cell line, is orally bioavailable, and crosses the blood-brain barrier. When dosed orally in rodents, compound 4 t limited ghrelin-induced food intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides reduces skin wrinkles and increases dermal matrix synthesis.

    PubMed

    Proksch, E; Schunck, M; Zague, V; Segger, D; Degwert, J; Oesser, S

    2014-01-01

    Dietary consumption of food supplements has been found to modulate skin functions and can therefore be useful in the treatment of skin aging. However, there is only a limited number of clinical studies supporting these claims. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effectiveness of the specific bioactive collagen peptide (BCP) VERISOL® on eye wrinkle formation and stimulation of procollagen I, elastin and fibrillin biosynthesis in the skin was assessed. A hundred and fourteen women aged 45-65 years were randomized to receive 2.5 g of BCP or placebo, once daily for 8 weeks, with 57 subjects being allocated to each treatment group. Skin wrinkles were objectively measured in all subjects, before starting the treatment, after 4 and 8 weeks as well as 4 weeks after the last intake (4-week regression phase). A subgroup was established for suction blister biopsies analyzing procollagen I, elastin and fibrillin at the beginning of the treatment and after 8 weeks of intake. The ingestion of the specific BCP used in this study promoted a statistically significant reduction of eye wrinkle volume (p < 0.05) in comparison to the placebo group after 4 and 8 weeks (20%) of intake. Moreover a positive long-lasting effect was observed 4 weeks after the last BCP administration (p < 0.05). Additionally, after 8 weeks of intake a statistically significantly higher content of procollagen type I (65%) and elastin (18%) in the BCP-treated volunteers compared to the placebo-treated patients was detected. For fibrillin, a 6% increase could be determined after BCP treatment compared to the placebo, but this effect failed to reach the level of statistical significance. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the oral intake of specific bioactive collagen peptides (Verisol®) reduced skin wrinkles and had positive effects on dermal matrix synthesis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  8. Early versus delayed oral fluids and food for reducing complications after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Matovinovic, Elizabeth

    2014-12-12

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2007. Traditionally, after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery postoperative oral intake is withheld until the return of bowel function. There has been concern that early oral intake would result in vomiting and severe paralytic ileus with subsequent aspiration pneumonia, wound dehiscence, and anastomotic leakage. However, evidence-based clinical studies suggest that there may be benefits from early postoperative oral intake. To assess the effects of early versus delayed (traditional) initiation of oral intake of food and fluids after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery. We searched the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL), and the citation lists of relevant publications. The most recent search was conducted 1 April 2014. We also searched a registry for ongoing trials (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 13 May 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible that compared the effect of early versus delayed initiation of oral intake of food and fluids after major abdominal gynaecologic surgery. Early feeding was defined as oral intake of fluids or food within 24 hours post-surgery regardless of the return of bowel function. Delayed feeding was defined as oral intake after 24 hours post-surgery and only after signs of postoperative ileus resolution. Two review authors selected studies, assessed study quality and extracted the data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We examined continuous data using the mean difference (MD) and a 95% CI. We tested for heterogeneity between the results of different studies using a forest plot of the meta-analysis, the statistical tests of homogeneity of 2 x 2 tables and the I² value. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE methods. Rates of developing

  9. Mechanism of body weight reducing effect of oral boric Acid intake.

    PubMed

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardımcı, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.

  10. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    SciT

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increasedmore » glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in

  11. The Improvement of Sleep by Oral Intake of GABA and Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Yamatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Maru, Isafumi; Yang, Jinwei; Tatsuzaki, Jin; Kim, Mujo

    2015-01-01

    The effects of two food materials, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) produced by natural fermentation and Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE), on the improvement of sleep were investigated in humans. The electroencephalogram (EEG) test revealed that oral administration of GABA (100 mg) and AVLE (50 mg) had beneficial effects on sleep. GABA shortened sleep latency by 5.3 min and AVLE increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time by 7.6%. Simultaneous intake of GABA and AVLE shortened sleep latency by 4.3 min and increased non-REM sleep time by 5.1%. The result of questionnaires showed that GABA and AVLE enabled subjects to realize the effects on sleep. These results mean that GABA can help people to fall asleep quickly, AVLE induces deep sleep, and they function complementarily with simultaneous intake. Since both GABA and AVLE are materials of foods and have been ingested for a long time, they can be regarded as safe and appropriate for daily intake in order to improve the quality of sleep.

  12. Acute effect of oral water intake during exercise on post-exercise hypotension.

    PubMed

    Endo, M Y; Kajimoto, C; Yamada, M; Miura, A; Hayashi, N; Koga, S; Fukuba, Y

    2012-11-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is a sustained reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) after prolonged exercise. As water drinking is known to elicit a large acute pressor response, we aimed to explore the effect of drinking water during exercise on PEH. Ten normotensive male volunteers performed the control protocol: 30 min supine rest, 60 min cycling exercise in moderate intensity, and 60 min supine rest recovery. In the water drinking protocol, the same procedure was followed but with water intake during exercise to compensate for exercise-induced body weight lost. Heart rate, MAP, cardiac output and blood flow in the brachial artery were measured pre- and post-exercise. The total vascular conductance (TVC) and the vascular conductance (VC) in the brachial artery were calculated pre- and post-exercise, and the relative change in plasma volume (ΔPV) was also measured. Body weight loss during exercise was 0.65 ± 0.24 kg in the control. ΔPV was not different during recovery in either protocol. MAP in the control was significantly reduced during the latter half of the recovery compared with baseline. In contrast, MAP in the water drinking showed no reduction during recovery, and was significantly higher than in the control. TVC and VC in the brachial artery were lower in the water drinking, in which vasoconstriction was relatively exaggerated. Prevention of dehydration after exercise by oral water intake, or oral water intake per se has a role in maintaining post-exercise MAP and it may be related to reduction in TVC.

  13. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  14. Parenting style and oral health practices in early childhood caries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dabawala, Suhel; Suprabha, Baranya S; Shenoy, Ramya; Rao, Arathi; Shah, Nachiket

    2017-03-01

    There is a need to carry out controlled investigations regarding risk factors for early childhood caries (ECC). To study the type of parenting style and oral health practices as risk factors among children with ECC in an Indian preschool population. Two hundred and eleven children with ECC and equal number of controls participated in this case-control study. A questionnaire was answered by parents regarding oral health practices such as oral hygiene methods, feeding habits, daily sugar intake, and dental attendance pattern along with socioeconomic and demographic status. The parenting style was determined using Parenting Styles Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ) index. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk factors associated with ECC were higher birth order, lower socioeconomic status, non-use of fluoridated toothpaste, breast/bottle feeding for more than one year, presence of formula milk or milk with sugar in the feeding bottle while falling asleep, higher sweet scores in the diet chart, and visiting dentist only when a problem was perceived. Majority of parents of children with and without ECC had authoritative parenting style. Improper oral health practices are the risk factors for ECC. The association of parenting style with ECC could not be confirmed. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The relationship between maternal serum iron and zinc levels and their nutritional intakes in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Safary, Kolsum; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Lamyian, Minoor; Goshtasebi, Azita; Goshtasbi, Azita; Alian-Moghaddam, Narges

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal iron/zinc serum levels and their nutritional intake in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes. The maternal serum zinc/iron levels were measured in 1,033 healthy singleton pregnant women aged 20-35 between 14 and 20 weeks of gestation, within two groups: namely, normal and gestational diabetes, and participants were followed up to 24-28 weeks of gestation. Food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutritional intakes of iron/zinc. The main outcome was gestational diabetes screened with the 50-g glucose challenge test and diagnosed with oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Gestational diabetes occurred in 72 (6.96 %) of 1,033 women in study. There was a statistical relationship between early pregnancy maternal serum iron and gestational diabetes, mean (SD), 143.8 (48.7) vs. 112.5 (83.5) μg/dl, P value of <0.0001. There was no statistical significant difference in zinc levels and iron/zinc nutritional intake between groups. The results remained unchanged after using regression model for adjustment of potential risk factors with an adjusted OR of 1.006 (95 % CI 1.002 to 1.009; P = 0.001) for early pregnancy maternal serum iron to cause gestational diabetes. The receiver-operator characteristic curve identified that a maternal serum iron above 100 μg/dl in early pregnancy is the optimum cutoff value for predicting gestational diabetes, which showed a sensitivity and specificity of 80.6 and 50.7 %, respectively. In conclusion, high maternal serum iron in early pregnancy could increase the risk of gestational diabetes. Also, it could be used as a sensitive and specific predictor for gestational diabetes.

  16. [Effects of early supplemental parenteral nutrition on nutrition intakes and clinical outcomes in trauma patients].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gui-zhen; Tang, Li-qun; Duan, Peng-kai; Qiu, Xiao-wen; Su, Lei

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate energy and protein intake changes in early supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) in trauma patients, and to assess its impact on clinical outcomes. Clinical results of patients receiving or not receiving additional PN during the first 7 days after injury were retrospectively analyzed, with a total of 195 patients classified into two groups: control group (n=105) and mixed nutrition group (n=90). The time of nutrition support, intakes of protein and energy within 14 days after trauma, and clinical outcomes were compared between two groups. The degree of injury was comparable between two groups with no significant differences in acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, injury severity score (ISS) and Glasgow coma score (GCS). Compared with the control group, the mixed nutrition group received parenteral nutritional support earlier (40.0±21.0 hours vs. 55.1±23.5 hours, P<0.01), with later beginning of enteral nutrition (EN, 75.2±54.5 hours vs. 55.1±23.5 hours, P<0.01) and lower rate of EN in 48 hours after admission [14.4% (13/90) vs. 43.8% (46/105), P<0.01]. The time of restoring oral diet was not different between the mixed nutrition group and control group (10.8±3.7 days vs. 11.4±3.6 days, P>0.05). The energy intake was significantly higher in the mixed nutrition group than in the control group in 3, 7, 14 days (3 days: 3981.6±2209.3 kJ vs. 2683.2±1414.9 kJ, 7 days: 5477.5±2008.4 kJ vs. 3619.1±1429.9 kJ, 14 days: 6250.2±2533.2 kJ vs. 5199.9±1972.7 kJ, P<0.05 or P<0.01). In both groups the protein intake was insufficient, and it was significantly lower in the mixed nutrition group than in the control group on day 3 (20.6±18.4 g vs. 26.5±13.8 g, P<0.05). The patients in the mixed nutrition group had longer hospital stay time (73.9±62.5 days vs. 50.9±33.3 days, P<0.01). The mortality rate of mixed nutrition group and control group was 4.4% (4/90) and 3.8% (4/105) respectively, the rate of infection and acute respiratory

  17. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life: impact on growth and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mads V; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity. Recent studies have looked at the effect of different sources of protein, and especially high-animal protein intake seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved and the role of different dietary protein sources and amino acids has increased, but intervention studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms. Avoiding high-protein intake in early life holds promise as a preventive strategy for childhood obesity.

  18. Effect of Oral Carbohydrate Intake on Labor Progress: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, R; Khakbazan, Z; Yavari, P; Granmayeh, M; Yavari, L

    2012-01-01

    Background Lack of information regarding biochemical changes in women during labor and its outcomes on maternal and neonatal health still is an unanswered question. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of oral carbohydrate intake during labor on the duration of the active phase and other maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods: A parallel prospective randomized controlled trial, conducted at the University Affiliated Teaching Hospital in Gonabad. Totally, 190 women were randomly assigned to an intervention (N=87) or control (N=90) group. Inclusion criteria were low-risk women with singleton cephalic presentation; and cervical dilatation 3–4 cm. Randomization was used by random number generator on every day. Odd numbers was used for intervention and even numbers for control group. Intervention was based on the preferences between: 3 medium dates plus 110 ml water; 3 dates plus 110 ml light tea without sugar; or 110 ml orange juice. The protocol is only run once but women ate and drank gradually before second stage of labor. Control group were fasted as routine practice. Neither participants nor care givers or staff could be blinded to group allocation. Differences between duration of the active phase of labor were assessed as primary outcome measure. Results: There was significant difference in the length of second stage of labor (P <.05). The effect size for this variable was 0.48. There were no significant differences in other maternal and neonatal outcomes. Conclusions: Oral intake of carbohydrate was an effective method for shortening the duration of second stage of labor in low-risk women. PMID:23304677

  19. Nutritional status, dietary intake and oral quality of life in elderly complete denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Cousson, Pierre Yves; Bessadet, Marion; Nicolas, Emmanuel; Veyrune, Jean-Luc; Lesourd, Bruno; Lassauzay, Claire

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition increases with age because of many factors. Edentulousness leads to the avoidance of many types of foods. The aim of this study was to determine whether elderly complete denture wearers have a higher risk of malnutrition than dentate controls. A Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and a 3-day dietary record were compiled for a group of fully dentates (21 women and 29 men; mean age 70.1 ± 6.1) and for a group of complete denture wearers (31 women and 16 men; mean age 70.1 ± 8.1). Socio-demographic data and scores on the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) questionnaire were collected. Inter-group comparison of MNA scores showed that more subjects in the edentulous group (21.3%) risked malnutrition than in the dentate group (0%). The variability of the MNA could be explained for 22% by dental status, 7% by loneliness and 4% by the GOHAI score (regression analysis). Both groups had insufficient energy intakes and deficits in vitamins and micronutrients; moreover, edentulous subjects had lower intakes than dentate subjects. The use of conventional dentures increases the risk of malnutrition in the elderly. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L M; Cartmel, B; Molinaro, A M; Leffell, D J; Bale, A E; Mayne, S T

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiological studies. To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Basal cell carcinoma cases (n = 380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n = 390) under 40 years of age were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage, during an in-person interview. Self-reported data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall [above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·69-1·73)] or in women only (OR 1·21, 95% CI 0·73-2·01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or spirits and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (P(interaction) = 0·003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping CIs. Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L.M.; Cartmel, B.; Molinaro, A.M.; Leffell, D.J.; Bale, A.E.; Mayne, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous epidemiologic studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) light, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiologic studies. Objective To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Methods BCC cases (n=380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=390) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage during an in-person interview. Self-report data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. Results There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall (above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.69-1.73) or in women only (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.73-2.01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or hard liquor and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (pinteraction=0.003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping confidence intervals. Conclusions Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. PMID:25059635

  2. Patterns of Return to Oral Intake and Decannulation Post-tracheostomy across Clinical Populations in an Acute Inpatient Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Lee; Ward, Elizabeth; Cornwell, Petrea; O'Connor, Stephanie; Chapman, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia is often a comorbidity in patients who require a tracheostomy, yet little is known about patterns of oral intake commencement in tracheostomized patients, or how patterns may vary depending on the clinical population and/or reason for tracheostomy insertion. Aims: To document patterns of clinical management around the…

  3. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause12

    PubMed Central

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk. Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS2). Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other

  4. The association of trajectories of protein intake and age-specific protein intakes from 2 to 22 years with BMI in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wright, Melecia; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda

    2017-03-01

    No study has analysed how protein intake from early childhood to young adulthood relate to adult BMI in a single cohort. To estimate the association of protein intake at 2, 11, 15, 19 and 22 years with age- and sex-standardised BMI at 22 years (early adulthood), we used linear regression models with dietary and anthropometric data from a Filipino birth cohort (1985-2005, n 2586). We used latent growth curve analysis to identify trajectories of protein intake relative to age-specific recommended daily allowance (intake in g/kg body weight) from 2 to 22 years, then related trajectory membership to early adulthood BMI using linear regression models. Lean mass and fat mass were secondary outcomes. Regression models included socioeconomic, dietary and anthropometric confounders from early life and adulthood. Protein intake relative to needs at age 2 years was positively associated with BMI and lean mass at age 22 years, but intakes at ages 11, 15 and 22 years were inversely associated with early adulthood BMI. Individuals were classified into four mutually exclusive trajectories: (i) normal consumers (referent trajectory, 58 % of cohort), (ii) high protein consumers in infancy (20 %), (iii) usually high consumers (18 %) and (iv) always high consumers (5 %). Compared with the normal consumers, 'usually high' consumption was inversely associated with BMI, lean mass and fat mass at age 22 years whereas 'always high' consumption was inversely associated with male lean mass in males. Proximal protein intakes were more important contributors to early adult BMI relative to early-childhood protein intake; protein intake history was differentially associated with adulthood body size.

  5. [Pickled food, fish, seafood intakes and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Huang, J F; Qiu, Y; Cai, L; Liu, F P; Chen, F; Yan, L J; Wu, J F; Bao, X D; Liu, F Q; Zheng, X Y; Lin, L S; He, B C

    2017-08-06

    Objective: To investigate the effects between fish, seafood and pickled food intakes on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Fujian area during September 2010 to December 2016, in which 604 newly diagnosed primary OSCC cases confirmed by pathological diagnosis were collected from hospital and 1 343 control subjects were enrolled from community and healthy hospital population. Demographic data, history of smoking drinking and tea drinking, oral hygiene status and dietary behaviors (fish, seafood and pickled food intakes) were collected by in-person interviews using a standard questionnaire.Using unconditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios ( ORs ) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals ( CIs ) to assess the effects of fish, seafood and pickled food intakes on OSCC. Analysis stratified by smoking, alcohol drinking and bad prosthesis to explore the possible difference in association between subgroups. Multiplicative interactions and additive interactions between fish and bad prosthesis, seafood and alcohol drinking, pickled food and bad prosthesis were assessed by unconditional logistic regression, relative excess risk due to interaction ( RERI ), attributable proportion due to interaction ( AP ) and synergy index (S). Results: The average age of case group and control group were separately (58.69±13.92) years old and (59.27±11.37) years old (χ(2)=4.75, P= 0.191). The people whose fish and seafood intakes ≥3 times/week had the lower risk of OSCC, the adjusted OR (95 %CI ) values were 0.63 (0.52-0.77) and 0.51 (0.41-0.64); The stratified analysis indicated that the people having bad prosthesis had the lower risk of OSCC if they eating fish ≥3 times/week, and the adjusted OR (95 %CI ) values was 0.53 (0.39-0.71); the people having bad prosthesis had the higher risk of OSCC if they eating pickled food ≥3 times/week, the adjusted OR (95 %CI ) values was 1.37 (1.02-1.88). Regularly eating

  6. Food intake, oral hygiene and gingival bleeding in pregnancy: does lifestyle make a difference? A cross sectional exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Gaffar, Balgis O.; El Tantawi, Maha M.A.; AlAgl, Adel S.; Al-Ansari, Asim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between lifestyle factors (food intake, sugary snacks consumption and oral health practices) and gingival bleeding during pregnancy. Methods A cross sectional exploratory study was conducted in the Maternity hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It included pregnant Saudi women selected using a convenience sample. Information was collected concerning participants’ background, oral hygiene practices and visits to dentists. They were asked about the amount of food they consumed and their use of sugary snacks. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between lifestyle factors and gingival bleeding. Results Responses were obtained from 197 women (92.1% response rate). Most women brushed their teeth but had < the recommended intake in the various food groups. Brushing was associated with lower odd of gingival bleeding (odds ratio= 0.47, 95% confidence interval= 0.23, 0.93) whereas intake of fewer servings than the recommended amounts in all food groups was associated with higher odds (odds ratio = 3.64, 95% confidence interval = 1.12, 11.82) Conclusion Brushing and food intake during pregnancy are associated with gingival bleeding. Pregnant women can potentially improve their oral health by modifying their lifestyle and following healthier practices. PMID:27004053

  7. A systematic review of the effect of oral glucocorticoids on energy intake, appetite, and body weight in humans.

    PubMed

    Berthon, Bronwyn S; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Wood, Lisa G

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a serious risk factor for chronic disease, and commonly prescribed oral glucocorticoids (OCS) may be contributing to the prevalence of obesity. The objective of this review was to assess the impact of OCS on obesity in humans through effects on body weight (BW), energy intake, appetite, and body composition. An electronic search of English language peer-reviewed studies from 1973 up to March 2012 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Original studies that addressed the effects of OCS on appetite, energy intake, BW, or body composition in adults were considered eligible. Data from 21 studies with objectively measured outcomes were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. The publication year varied from 1986 to 2013, and the sample size, from 6 to 189. Energy intake was measured in 6 studies; BW, in 19 studies; energy expenditure, in 3 studies; body composition, in 6 studies; and appetite was evaluated in 3 studies. Short-term oral glucocorticoid therapy may result in small increases in energy intake but does not appear to result in increased BW, possibly due to an increase in energy expenditure. Long-term therapy may result in clinically significant weight gain. Within-subject variation due to metabolism and physical activity levels confounds the relationship. A dose-response relationship of oral glucocorticoid therapy on energy intake, appetite, BW, or body composition was not found. Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized doses of OCS and assess the effects on appetite, energy intake, BW, and composition are strongly justified to confirm the findings of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    PubMed Central

    Wijlens, Anne G. M.; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration. PMID:26821045

  9. Primary Surgery vs Radiotherapy for Early Stage Oral Cavity Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark A; Graboyes, Evan M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Neskey, David M; Kaczmar, John M; Schopper, Heather K; Sharma, Anand K; Morgan, Patrick F; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to determine the effect of primary surgery vs radiotherapy (RT) on overall survival (OS) in patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). In addition, this study attempts to identify factors associated with receiving primary RT. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013). Subjects and Methods Reviewing the NCDB from 2004 to 2013, patients with early stage I to II OCSCC were identified. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival, Cox regression analysis, and propensity score matching were used to examine differences in OS between primary surgery and primary RT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with primary RT. Results Of the 20,779 patients included in the study, 95.4% (19,823 patients) underwent primary surgery and 4.6% (956 patients) underwent primary RT. After adjusting for covariates, primary RT was associated with an increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.74-2.22). On multivariable analysis, factors associated with primary RT included age ≥70 years, black race, Medicaid or Medicare insurance, no insurance, oral cavity subsite other than tongue, clinical stage II disease, low-volume treatment facilities, and earlier treatment year. Conclusion Primary RT for early stage OCSCC is associated with increased mortality. Approximately 5% of patients receive primary RT; however, this percentage is decreasing. Patients at highest risk for receiving primary RT include those who are elderly, black, with public insurance, and treated at low-volume facilities.

  10. Dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of subsequent preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Coughlin, Kara B; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Sorensen, Tanya K; Williams, Michelle A

    2008-08-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence documents diverse health benefits, including reduced risks of hypertension, associated with diets high in fiber. Few studies, however, have investigated the extent to which dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy is associated with reductions in preeclampsia risk. We assessed the relationship between maternal dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia. We also evaluated cross-sectional associations of maternal early pregnancy plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations with fiber intake. The study population comprised 1,538 pregnant Washington State residents. A 121-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess maternal dietary intake, 3 months before and during early pregnancy; and generalized linear regression procedures were used to derive relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Dietary total fiber intake was associated with reduced preeclampsia risk. After adjusting for confounders, the RR of preeclampsia for women in the highest (> or =21.2 g/day) vs. the lowest quartile (<11.9 g/day) was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.11-0.75). We observed associations of similar magnitude when the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of water-soluble fiber (RR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.86) and insoluble fiber (RR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.14-0.87) were evaluated. Mean triglyceride concentrations were lower (-11.9 mg/dl, P = 0.02) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were higher (+2.63 mg/dl, P = 0.09) for women in the highest quartile vs. those in the lowest quartile. These findings of reduced preeclampsia risk with higher total fiber intake corroborate an earlier report; and expand the literature by providing evidence, which suggests that dietary fiber may attenuate pregnancy-associated dyslipidemia, an important clinical characteristic of preeclampsia.

  11. Folate intake and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer: a pooled analysis within the INHANCE Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Galeone, Carlotta; Edefonti, Valeria; Parpinel, Maria; Leoncini, Emanuele; Matsuo, Keitaro; Talamini, Renato; Olshan, Andrew F.; Zevallos, Jose P.; Winn, Deborah M.; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Bosetti, Cristina; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    There are suggestions of an inverse association between folate intake and serum folate levels and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OPC), but most studies are limited in sample size, with only few reporting information on the source of dietary folate. This study aims to investigate the association between folate intake and the risk of OPC within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from 10 case-control studies participating in the INHANCE consortium, including 5,127 cases and 13,249 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the associations between total folate intake (natural, fortification and supplementation) and natural folate only, and OPC risk. We found an inverse association between total folate intake and overall OPC risk (the adjusted OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43–0.99), with a stronger association for oral cavity (OR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.43–0.75). A similar inverse association, though somewhat weaker, was observed for folate intake from natural sources only (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.45–0.91). The highest OPC risk was observed in heavy alcohol drinkers with low folate intake as compared to never/light drinkers with high folate (OR=4.05, 95% CI: 3.43–4.79); the attributable proportion due to interaction was 11.1%(95% CI: 1.4–20.8%). The present project of a large pool of case-control studies supports a protective effect total folate intake on OPC risk. PMID:24974959

  12. Early Life Protein Intake: Food Sources, Correlates, and Tracking across the First 5 Years of Life.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen J; Abbott, Gavin; Zheng, Miaobing; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-08-01

    High consumption of protein has been associated with accelerated growth and adiposity in early childhood. To describe intake, food sources, correlates, and tracking of protein in young children. Secondary analysis of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT). Dietary data were collected using three 24-hour dietary recalls at ages 9 and 18 months as well as 3.5 and 5 years. First-time mothers and their child (n=542) participated in an 18-month intervention to prevent childhood obesity and the cohort was followed-up with no intervention when children were aged 3.5 and 5 years. Protein intake, food sources, correlates, and tracking of protein. Child and maternal correlates of protein intake were identified using linear regression and tracking of protein intake was examined using Pearson correlations of residualized protein scores between time points. Mean protein (grams per day) intake was 29.7±11.0, 46.3±11.5, 54.2±13.8, and 60.0±14.8 at 9 and 18 months and 3.5 and 5 years, respectively. Protein intakes at all ages were two to three times greater than age-appropriate Australian recommendations. The primary source of protein at 9 months was breast/formula milk. At later ages, the principal sources were milk/milk products, breads/cereals, and meat/meat products. Earlier breastfeeding cessation, earlier introduction of solids, high dairy milk consumption (≥500 mL), and high maternal education were significant predictors of high protein intake at various times (P<0.05). Slight tracking was found for protein intakes at 9 months, 18 months, and 5 years (r=0.16 to 0.21; P<0.01). This study provides unique insights into food sources and correlates of young children's high protein intakes, and confirms that early protein intakes track slightly up to age 5 years. These finding have potential to inform nutrition interventions and strategies to address high protein intakes and protein-related obesity risk. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and

  13. Estimation of the total daily oral intake of NDMA attributable to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Fristachi, Anthony; Rice, Glenn

    2007-09-01

    Disinfection with chlorine and chloramine leads to the formation of many disinfection by-products including N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Because NDMA is a probable human carcinogen, public health officials are concerned with its occurrence in drinking water. The goal of this study was to estimate NDMA concentrations from exogenous (i.e., drinking water and food) and endogenous (i.e., formed in the human body) sources, calculate average daily doses for ingestion route exposures and estimate the proportional oral intake (POI) of NDMA attributable to the consumption of drinking water relative to other ingestion sources of NDMA. The POI is predicted to be 0.02% relative to exogenous and endogenous NDMA sources combined. When only exogenous sources are considered, the POI was predicted to be 2.7%. The exclusion of endogenously formed NDMA causes the POI to increase dramatically, reflecting its importance as a potentially major source of exposure and uncertainty in the model. Although concentrations of NDMA in foods are small and human exposure to NDMA from foods is quite low, the contribution from food is predicted to be high relative to that of drinking water. The mean concentration of NDMA in drinking water would need to increase from 2.1 x 10(-3) microg/L to 0.10 microg/L, a 47-fold increase, for the POI to reach 1%, relative to all sources of NDMA considered in our model, suggesting that drinking water consumption is most likely a minor source of NDMA exposure.

  14. Poor oral intake causes enteral nutrition dependency after concomitant chemoradiotherapy for pharyngeal cancers.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Ryo; Kato, Kengo; Ogawa, Takenori; Sato, Takeshi; Nakanome, Ayako; Ohkoshi, Akira; Kawamoto-Hirano, Ai; Shirakura, Masayuki; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Katori, Yukio

    2018-06-01

    To identify precipitating factors responsible for enteral nutrition (EN) dependency after concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) of head and neck cancers and to examine their statistical correlations. Factors related to feeding condition, nutritional status, disease, and treatment of 26 oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer patients who received definitive CCRT were retrospectively investigated by examining their medical records. The days of no oral intake (NOI) during hospitalization and the months using enteral nutrition after CCRT were counted as representing the feeding condition, and the changes in body weight (BW) were examined as reflecting nutritional status. The factors related to EN dependency after CCRT were analyzed. Long duration of total NOI (≥ 30 days) and maximum NOI ≥ 14 days were significant predictors of EN dependency. Decreased BW (≥ 7.5 kg) was the next predictor identified, but it was not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that the total duration of NOI was more correlated with EN dependency than changes in BW. A long duration of NOI was more strongly related to EN dependency than nutritional factors.

  15. Parental perceptions of children's oral health: The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS)

    PubMed Central

    Pahel, Bhavna Talekar; Rozier, R Gary; Slade, Gary D

    2007-01-01

    Background Dental disease and treatment experience can negatively affect the oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) of preschool aged children and their caregivers. Currently no valid and reliable instrument is available to measure these negative influences in very young children. The objective of this research was to develop the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) to measure the OHRQL of preschool children and their families. Methods Twenty-two health professionals evaluated a pool of 45 items that assess the impact of oral health problems on 6-14-year-old children and their families. The health professionals identified 36 items as relevant to preschool children. Thirty parents rated the importance of these 36 items to preschool children; 13 (9 child and 4 family) items were considered important. The 13-item ECOHIS was administered to 295 parents of 5-year-old children to assess construct validity and internal consistency reliability (using Cronbach's alpha). Test-retest reliability was evaluated among another sample of parents (N = 46) using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results ECOHIS scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with fair or poor parental ratings of their child's general and oral health, and the presence of dental disease in the child. Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.91 and 0.95 respectively, and the ICC for test-retest reliability was 0.84. Conclusion The ECOHIS performed well in assessing OHRQL among children and their families. Studies in other populations are needed to further establish the instrument's technical properties. PMID:17263880

  16. [Early childhood caries--a public oral health problem].

    PubMed

    Dănilă, I; Evghenikos, Adina

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries in preschool children from nurseries and kindergartens in Iaşi, an urban city in Romania. The study assessed the dental health status in 2 age groups. The first group included 366 children aged 2, 5-3 years and the second group included 455 children aged 4,5-5 years in 2005. The children were subjected to dental examination in 2005 and 2006 and the prevalence and severity of caries for each age group were determined. Evaluation was based on questionnaire completed by mothers and on clinical assessment of preschool children's oral health status. The mean number of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in the first group was 1.76 in 2005 and 2.39 in 2006, while the significant caries index increased from 4.79 to 6.35 during this period of time. For the 4.5-5 year children, the mean values for the dmft index were 3.95 in 2005 and 3.67 in 2006, while significant caries index increased from 7.89 to 8.4. Early childhood caries are the result of both inadequate diet behavior and cariogenic germs transmission from mother. The presence and extension of carious lesions in primary teeth are the most important predictors of permanent teeth disease. The high prevalence and severity of dental caries in pre-school children indicated that dental health program that include both prevention and treatment services targeted for young children and their parents is urgently needed. Socio-economic status improvement, changes in lifestyle, effective use of oral health services, and most of all, oral hygiene and use of fluoride would lead to obvious changes in caries prevalence and severity of disease. The study high-lights the importance of change of attitudes and improvement of knowledge in parents, children and educators in order to reach a healthy lifestyle.

  17. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    PubMed

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P < 0.01), maintained a fairly high correlation with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  18. Unstimulated whole salivary flow rate and anxiolytics intake are independently associated with oral Candida infection in patients with oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Bokor-Bratic, Marija; Cankovic, Milos; Dragnic, Natasa

    2013-10-01

    Many factors have been proposed to influence oral infection with yeast. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral yeasts in oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and control subjects, and to perform a multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors that influence oral Candida infection in OLP patients. In this cross-sectional study, 90 new patients with OLP and 90 sex- and age-matched control subjects with no mucosal lesions were interviewed about their health status, use of medication, and smoking and alcohol habits. Swab and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected and salivary pH was measured. A positive Candida culture was more prevalent among OLP patients (48.9%) than among control subjects (26.7%). Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species in both groups. By logistic regression analysis, unstimulated whole salivary flow rates of 0.11-0.24 ml min(-1) (OR = 5.90) and 0.25-0.32 ml min(-1) (OR = 3.51) and benzodiazepine anxiolytics intake (OR = 8.30) were independently associated with the presence of Candida among OLP patients. Age, denture wearing, levels of dentition, decreased salivary pH, antihypertensive drugs, and alcohol consumption were not associated with oral Candida infection in OLP patients. The results indicate that data on benzodiazepine anxiolytics intake and evaluation of unstimulated whole salivary flow rate should be considered as part of the clinical evaluation to identify OLP patients at risk for Candida infection. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms "Alaska Native", "children" and "oral health" were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970-2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising approaches to improve the oral and systemic health of Alaska Native

  20. Factors associated with the level of oral intake in hospitalized older adults with dysphagia: The importance of mental activity.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yoshitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Dysphagia is a highly prevalent condition in hospitalized older adults. One major consequence of dysphagia is reduced oral intake due to difficulty in safe and/or efficient swallowing. The aim of the present study was to explore the factors associated with the level of oral intake in older adults with dysphagia. The subjects were enrolled from older patients admitted to an acute hospital presenting with dysphagia, consisting of 36 patients (16 men and 20 women) with a mean age of 88.1 years. Level of oral intake was evaluated with the Food Intake Level Scale (FILS). Mental function was measured with the vitality index (as a measure of mental vitality related to activities of daily living) and a comprehension scale. Physical ability was evaluated with a mobility index. Nutritional status was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form. The FILS had significant correlations with the vitality index (r s  = 0.49, p = 0.002), comprehension scale (r s  = 0.49. p = 0.002), mobility index (r s  = 0.42, p = 0.010), and MNA-SF score (r s  = 0.37, p = 0.025). Although patients with dementia tended to have lower scores compared with those without dementia, there were no significant differences between the two groups except for the comprehension scale (p = 0.001). The results showed associations between the level of food intake and the mental, physical, and nutritional status in hospitalized older adults with dysphagia. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethanol, saccharin, and quinine: early ontogeny of taste responsiveness and intake.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2008-02-01

    Rat pups demonstrate high levels of immediate acceptance of ethanol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Given that the taste of ethanol is most likely perceived by infant rats as a combination of sweet and bitter, high intake of ethanol early in ontogeny may be associated with age-related enhanced responsiveness to the sweet component of ethanol taste, as well as with ontogenetic decreases in sensitivity to its bitter component. Therefore, the present study compared responsiveness to ethanol and solutions with bitter (quinine) and sweet (saccharin) taste in terms of intake and palatability across the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Characteristic patterns of responsiveness to 10% (v/v) ethanol, 0.1% saccharin, 0.2% quinine, and water in terms of taste reactivity and fluid intake were assessed in rat pups tested on postnatal day (P) 4, 9, or 12 using a new technique of on-line monitoring of fluid flow through a two-channel intraoral cannula. Taste reactivity included analysis of ingestive and aversive responses following six intraoral infusions of the test fluids. This taste reactivity probe was followed by the intake test, in which animals were allowed to voluntarily ingest fluids from an intraoral cannula. Pups of all ages showed more appetitive responses to saccharin and ethanol than to water or quinine. No age-related differences were apparent in taste responsiveness to saccharin and ethanol. However, the age-related pattern of ethanol intake drastically differed from that of saccharin. Intake of saccharin increased from P4 to P9 and decreased substantially by P12, whereas intake of ethanol gradually increased from P4 to P12. Intake of ethanol was significantly lower than intake of saccharin on P9, whereas P12 pups took in more ethanol than saccharin. The findings of the present study indicate ontogenetic dissociations between taste reactivity to ethanol and saccharin and intake of these solutions, and suggest that high acceptance of ethanol early in

  2. Doxazosin oral intake therapy to relieve stent - related urinary symptoms and pain: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Li, Junping; Pan, Minjie; Han, Weiwei; Liu, Shucheng; Xiao, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of Doxazosin Oral Intake Therapy on urinary symptoms and pain in patients with indwelling ureteral stents Patients and Methods: A total of 239 patients with ureteral stone-related hydronephrosis who underwent a double-J stent insertion after ureteroscopic lithotripsy were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive doxazosin cotrolled release 4 mg once daily for 4 weeks or matching placebo. Patients completed the brief-form Chinese version Ureteric Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) and quality of life (QoL) score 2 weeks and 4 weeks after stent placement and 4 weeks after stent withdrawal. The analgesic use was also recorded during the stenting period. Patients in Doxazosin Oral Intake Therapy group, in the first 2 weeks and second 2 weeks with the stent in situ, expressed significant lower daytime frequency (p=0.028 and p=0.038), nocturia (p=0.021 and p=0.008) and urgency (p=0.012 and p=0.014), respectively. Similarly, flank pain score, QoL score and analgesic use were also significant less in the stenting period. There was no significant difference in scores of urinary symptoms, pain and QoL during the post-stent period between two cohorts. Doxazosin Oral Intake Therapy reduced stent-related urinary symptoms, pain and the negative impact on QoL. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  3. Effects of high versus standard early protein intake on growth of extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Luca; Cota, Francesco; Gallini, Francesca; Lauriola, Valeria; Zecca, Chiara; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2007-01-01

    Early provision of protein has been shown to limit catabolism and could improve growth. Our objective was to determine whether early aggressive protein intake improved growth outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. ELBW infants were included in the study if they had no major congenital anomalies or renal failure and were still hospitalized at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 25 infants (HP) the early protein intake was planned to be 20% greater than in 31 historical controls (SP). The 2 groups were similar in the baseline characteristics. The mean protein intake during the first 14 days of life was significantly greater in the HP group (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 2.5 +/- 0.2 g/kg/d; P<0.0001). HP group showed lower postnatal weight loss (-3.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -5.9, -0.2) and earlier regain of birth weight (-4.1 days; 95% CI -6.6, -1.7). Mean blood urea nitrogen and bicarbonate levels were similar; mean serum glucose level was lower in the HP group (-21,7 mg/dL; 95% CI -41.9,-1.5). HP infants had a reduced fall in weight z score (-0.57; 95% CI -1.01, -0.12) and in length z score (-0.51; 95% CI -0.97, -0.05) from birth to discharge. Early high protein intake was associated with improved weight and length growth outcomes at discharge. These findings highlight the benefits of aggressive protein intake immediately after birth.

  4. The predictive value of hunger score on gastric evacuation after oral intake of carbohydrate solution.

    PubMed

    Weiji, Qiu; Shitong, Li; Yu, Luo; Tianfang, Hua; Ning, Kong; Lina, Zhang

    2018-01-12

    Surgical patients are asked to fast for a sufficient duration to ensure that the amount of residual liquid in the stomach is within the safe range, thereby reducing the risk of gastric reflux perioperatively. The authors hypothesized that subjective hunger numerical rating scale (NRS) score could also help assess the process of gastric emptying and determine the amount of fluid remaining in the stomach. The current study consisted of healthy volunteers recruited by advertisement and mutual introduction. Participants were asked to rate their subjective hunger feeling every 30 min after oral administration of 8 mL/kg carbohydrate nutrient solution that contained 10% maltodextrin and 2.5% sucrose. Consecutively, the gastric residual fluid was measured by magnetic resonance imagining (MRI). The Spearman's correlation coefficient, the ROC curves and the stepwise regression were used to analyze the predictive value of NRS for the gastric emptying process. The cohort consisted of 29 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study. The area under ROC curves estimated by the NRS score for the gastric residual volume of 2 mL/kg, 1 mL/kg, and 0.5 mL/kg were AUC 2.0  = 0.78, AUC 1.0  = 0.76, and AUC 0.5  = 0.72, respectively. The correlation coefficient between the NRS score and the residual liquid in the stomach was -0.57 (P < 0.01). The correlation coefficient between the increase of the NRS score and the decrease of gastric liquid residual volume was 0.46 (P < 0.01). The standardized estimate of NRS score for the residual volume was -0.18 (P < 0.01) and the standardized estimate of fasting time was -0.73 (P < 0.01). The subjective hunger NRS score can not accurately predict the gastric residual volume, but it can provide a reference for clinicians to judge the gastric emptying process and it should be used as a second check after oral intake of clear fluids before surgery according to the new fasting protocol.

  5. Malnutrition risk predicts recovery of full oral intake among older adult stroke patients undergoing enteral nutrition: Secondary analysis of a multicentre survey (the APPLE study).

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Shinta; Okamoto, Takatsugu; Takayama, Masako; Urushihara, Maki; Watanabe, Misuzu; Kiriya, Yumiko; Shintani, Keiko; Nakagomi, Hiromi; Kageyama, Noriko

    2017-08-01

    Whether malnutrition risk correlates with recovery of swallowing function of convalescent stroke patients is unknown. This study was conducted to clarify whether malnutrition risks predict achievement of full oral intake in convalescent stroke patients undergoing enteral nutrition. We conducted a secondary analysis of 466 convalescent stroke patients, aged 65 years or over, who were undergoing enteral nutrition. Patients were extracted from the "Algorithm for Post-stroke Patients to improve oral intake Level; APPLE" study database compiled at the Kaifukuki (convalescent) rehabilitation wards. Malnutrition risk was determined by the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index as follows: severe (<82), moderate (82 to <92), mild (92 to <98), and no malnutrition risks (≥98). Swallowing function was assessed by Fujishima's swallowing grade (FSG) on admission and discharge. The primary outcome was achievement of full oral intake, indicated by FSG ≥ 7. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictive factors, including malnutrition risk, for achieving full oral intake. Estimated hazard risk was computed by Cox's hazard model. Of the 466 individuals, 264 were ultimately included in this study. Participants with severe malnutrition risk showed a significantly lower proportion of achievement of full oral intake than lower severity groups (P = 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounders, binary logistic regression analysis showed that patients with severe malnutrition risk were less likely to achieve full oral intake (adjusted odds ratio: 0.232, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.047-1.141). Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that severe malnutrition risk was an independent predictor of full oral intake (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.374, 95% CI: 0.166-0.842). Compared to patients who did not achieve full oral intake, patients who achieved full oral intake had significantly higher energy intake, but there was no difference in protein intake and

  6. Maternal Oral Bacterial Levels Predict Early Childhood Caries Development

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, B.W.; Gansky, S.A.; Weintraub, J.A.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Ramos-Gomez, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the association of maternal salivary bacterial challenge (mutans streptococci [MS] and lactobacilli [LB]) from pregnancy through 24 months’ postpartum with child caries incidence (≥1 cavitated or restored teeth) at 36 months. Materials & Methods: Dental, salivary bacterial, sociodemographic, and behavioral measures were collected at three- to six-month intervals from a birth cohort of low-income Hispanic mother-child dyads (N = 243). We calculated the relative child caries incidence, adjusted for confounding, following higher maternal challenge of MS (>4500 colony-forming units per milliliter of saliva [CFU/mL]) and LB (>50 CFU/mL) based on multivariable models. Results: Salivary MS and LB levels were greater among mothers of caries-affected children versus caries-free children. Mothers with higher salivary MS challenge were more likely to have MS-positive children (>0 CFU/mL), but maternal LB challenge was not a statistically significant predictor of child LB-positive status. Adjusting for sociodemographics, feeding and care practices, and maternal dental status, higher maternal salivary challenge of both MS and LB over the study period predicted nearly double the child caries incidence versus lower MS and LB (cumulative incidence ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 3.8). Conclusion: Maternal salivary bacterial challenge not only is associated with oral infection among children but also predicts increased early childhood caries occurrence. PMID:24356441

  7. Effect of malocclusion severity on oral health-related quality of life and food intake ability in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Suk; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of malocclusion severity on oral health-related quality of life and food intake ability in adult patients, controlling for sex, age, and the type of dental clinic visited. The sample consisted of 472 Korean patients (156 male, 316 female) with a mean age of 21.1 (SD, 8.6) years in a dental hospital and a private clinic. The correlations between the Korean version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14K), subjective food intake ability (FIA) for 5 key foods, and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need-Dental Health Component (IOTN-DHC) were investigated. The mean IOTN-DHC and OHIP-14K scores were significantly higher for the dental hospital patients than for the private clinic patients (IOTN-DHC, P <0.001; OHIP-14K, P <0.05). Malocclusion severity was significantly higher in male than in female subjects (P <0.001). Older patients perceived their oral health-related quality of life more negatively than did the teens (P <0.001). As the severity of the malocclusion increased, oral health-related quality of life and masticatory function worsened (OHIP-14K, P <0.001; FIA, P <0.05). As the severity of the malocclusion and the age of the patients increased, oral health-related quality of life and masticatory function relatively deteriorated. This finding provides evidence that severe malocclusions are associated with lower quality of life and less masticatory efficiency in older patients. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  9. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  10. Early experience with diverse foods increases intake of nonfamiliar flavors and feeds in sheep.

    PubMed

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2012-08-01

    This study determined whether early experiences by sheep with monotonous or diverse diets influence intake of unfamiliar flavors and feeds later in life. Thirty 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatment diets (n = 10): diverse (DIV), diverse with plant toxins (DIV+T), and monotonous (MON). Lambs in DIV received in 9 successive periods of exposure 4-way choice combinations of 2 foods high in energy and 2 foods high in protein from an array of 6 foods: 3 high in energy [beet pulp, oat grain, and a mix of milo:grape pomace (60:40)] and 3 high in digestible protein (DP) (soybean meal, alfalfa, corn gluten meal). Lambs in DIV+T received the same exposure as DIV, but 2 plant toxins, oxalic acid (1.5%) and quebracho tannins (10%), were randomly added to 2 of the feeds in each of the choice combinations. Lambs in MON received a monotonous balanced diet, made with a mixture of all 6 feeds detailed before. All treatments received their feed in 4 separate buckets. During exposure, treatments did not differ in total daily DMI (P = 0.31), but daily intake of ME was less (P < 0.02) and daily intake of DP was greater (P < 0.03) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. Treatments did not differ in ADG or G:F (P > 0.05). After exposure, lambs were offered a familiar feed (wheat bran) containing novel flavors (maple, garlic, or bitter) and 2-way choices of novel feeds (fescue hay vs. corn distillers grains, rice vs. calf manna, and green peas vs. rolled oats). Intake of maple-flavored wheat bran tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for lambs in DIV than for lambs in DIV+T and MON. Intake of bitter-flavored and garlic-flavored wheat bran were greater (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. During 2-way choice trials, lambs in DIV, but not in DIV+T, showed greater intakes of fescue hay (P = 0.05) and rice (P = 0.04) than lambs in MON. Intake of green peas was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in

  11. Monitoring nicotine intake from e-cigarettes: measurement of parent drug and metabolites in oral fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Papaseit, Esther; Farré, Magí; Graziano, Silvia; Pacifici, Roberta; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; García-Algar, Oscar; Pichini, Simona

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cig) known as electronic nicotine devices recently gained popularity among smokers. Despite many studies investigating their safety and toxicity, few examined the delivery of e-cig-derived nicotine and its metabolites in alternative biological fluids. We performed a randomized, crossover, and controlled clinical trial in nine healthy smokers. Nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HCOT) were measured in plasma and oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after consumption of two consecutive e-cig administrations or two consecutive tobacco cigarettes. NIC and its metabolites were detected both in oral fluid and plasma following both administration conditions. Concentrations in oral fluid resulted various orders of magnitude higher than those observed in plasma. Oral fluid concentration of tobacco cigarette and e-cig-derived NIC peaked at 15 min after each administration and ranged between 1.0 and 1396 μg/L and from 0.3 to 860 μg/L; those of COT between 52.8 and 110 μg/L and from 33.8 to 94.7 μg/L; and those of 3-HCOT between 12.4 and 23.5 μg/L and from 8.5 to 24.4 μg/L. The oral fluid to plasma concentration ratio of both e-cig- and tobacco cigarette-derived NIC peaked at 15 min after both administrations and correlated with oral fluid NIC concentration. The obtained results support the measurement of NIC and metabolites in oral fluid in the assessment of intake after e-cig use and appear to be a suitable alternative to plasma when monitoring nicotine delivery from e-cig for clinical and toxicological studies.

  12. Effects of short-term oral corticosteroid intake on dietary intake, body weight and body composition in adults with asthma - a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berthon, B S; Gibson, P G; McElduff, P; MacDonald-Wicks, L K; Wood, L G

    2015-05-01

    Oral corticosteroids (OCS) are an efficacious treatment for asthma exacerbations, yet risk of adverse effects may decrease patient adherence to therapy. In particular, changes in appetite and dietary intake, which lead to weight gain and changes in body composition, are considered undesirable. To determine whether 10-day OCS therapy in adults with asthma causes changes in leptin, appetite, dietary intake, body weight and body composition. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over trial of 10 days prednisolone (50 mg) in adults with stable asthma (n = 55) (ACTRN12611000562976). Pre- and post-assessment included spirometry, body weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis, appetite measured using a validated visual analogue scale (VAS) and dietary intake assessed using 4-day food records. Leptin was measured as a biomarker of appetite and eosinophils as an adherence biomarker. Outcomes were analysed by generalized linear mixed models. Subject adherence was confirmed by a significant decrease in blood eosinophils (× 10(9) /L) following prednisolone compared to placebo [Coef. -0.29, 95% CI: (-0.39, -0.19) P < 0.001]. There was no difference in serum leptin (ng/mL) [Coef. 0.13, 95% CI: (-3.47, 3.72) P = 0.945] or appetite measured by VAS (mm) [Coef. -4.93, 95% CI: (-13.64, 3.79) P = 0.267] following prednisolone vs. placebo. There was no difference in dietary intake (kJ/day) [Coef. 255, 95% CI: (-380, 891) P = 0.431], body weight (kg) [Coef. -0.38, 95% CI: (-0.81, 0.05) P = 0.083] or body fat (%) [Coef. -0.31, 95% CI: (-0.81, 0.20) P = 0.230]. Symptoms including sleep and gastrointestinal disturbance were reported significantly more often during prednisolone vs. placebo. Short-term OCS in stable asthma did not induce significant changes in appetite, dietary intake, body weight or composition, although other adverse effects may require medical management. This evidence may assist in increasing

  13. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Design Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising

  14. Early oxytocin inhibition of salt intake after furosemide treatment in rats?

    PubMed

    Core, Sheri L; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2017-05-01

    Body fluid homeostasis requires a complex suite of physiological and behavioral processes. Understanding of the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in integrating these processes has been advanced by research employing immunohistochemical techniques to assess responses to a variety of body fluid challenges. Such techniques have revealed sex/estrogen differences in CNS activation in response to hypotension and hypernatremia. In contrast, it has been difficult to conclusively identify specific CNS areas and neurotransmitter systems that are activated by hyponatremia using these techniques. In part, this difficulty is due to the temporal disconnect between the physiological effects of treatments commonly used to deplete body sodium and the behavioral response to such depletion. In some methods, sodium ingestion is delayed in association with increased oxytocin (OT), suggesting an inhibitory role for OT in sodium intake. Urinary sodium loss increases within an hour after treatment with furosemide, a natriuretic-diuretic, but sodium intake is delayed for 18-24h. Accordingly, we hypothesized that acute furosemide-induced sodium loss activates centrally-projecting OT neurons which provide an initial inhibition of sodium intake, and tested this hypothesis in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats with or without estrogen using immunohistochemical methods. Neuronal activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) after administration of furosemide corresponded to the timing of the physiological effects. The activation was not different in estrogen-treated rats, nor did estrogen alter the initial suppression of sodium intake. However, virtually no fos immunoreactive (fos-IR) neurons in the parvocellular PVN were also immunolabeled for OT. Thus, acute sodium loss after furosemide produces neural activation and an early inhibition of sodium intake that does not appear to involve activation of centrally-projecting OT neurons and is not influenced by estrogen

  15. Early energy and protein intakes and associations with growth, BPD, and ROP in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Klevebro, Susanna; Westin, Vera; Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth; Norman, Mikael; Domellöf, Magnus; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Hallberg, Boubou

    2018-05-29

    Extremely preterm infants face substantial neonatal morbidity. Nutrition is important to promote optimal growth and organ development in order to reduce late neonatal complications. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of early nutritional intakes on growth and risks of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a high-risk population. This population-based cohort study includes infants born before 27 0/7 weeks of gestational age without severe malformations and surviving ≥10 days. Intake of energy and protein on postnatal days 4-6 and association with weight standard deviation score (WSDS) from birth to day 7, as well as intakes of energy and protein on postnatal days 4-6 and 7 to 27, respectively, and association with composite outcome of death and BPD and separate outcomes of BPD and ROP were examined, and adjusted for potential confounders. The cohort comprised 296 infants with a median gestational age of 25 3/7 weeks. Expressed as daily intakes, every additional 10 kcal/kg/d of energy during days 4-6 was associated with 0.08 higher WSDS on day 7 (95% CI 0.06-0.11; p < 0.001). Between days 7 and 27, every 10 kcal/kg/d increase in energy intake was associated with a reduced risk of BPD of 9% (95% CI 1-16; p = 0.029) and any grade of ROP with a reduced risk of 6% (95% CI 2-9; p = 0.005) in multivariable models. This association was statistically significant in infants with ≤10 days of mechanical ventilation. In infants with >10 days of mechanical ventilation, a combined higher intake of energy and protein was associated with a reduced risk of BPD. Early provision of energy and protein may reduce postnatal weight loss and risk of morbidity in extremely preterm infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, oral mucositis and xerostomia on nutritional status, oral intake and weight loss in head and neck cancer patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Valentina; Stevanin, Simone; Bianchi, Monica; Aleo, Giuseppe; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-04-01

    Combined-modality treatment of head and neck cancer is becoming more common, driven by the idea that organ(s) preservation should maintain patient appearance and the function of organ(s) involved. Even if treatments have improved, they can still be associated with acute and late adverse effects. The aim of this systematic review was to retrieve current data on how swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, oral mucositis, and xerostomia affect nutritional status, oral intake and weight loss in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. A systematic literature search covered four relevant electronic databases from January 2005 to May 2015. Retrieved papers were categorised and evaluated considering their methodological quality. Two independent reviewers reviewed manuscripts and abstracted data using a standardised form. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using the Edwards Method Score. Of the 1459 abstracts reviewed, a total of 25 studies were included. The most studied symptom was dysphagia, even if symptoms were interconnected and affected one other. In most of the selected studies the level of evidence was between 2 and 3, and their quality level was from medium to low. There are limited data about dysgeusia, oral mucositis and xerostomia outcomes available for HNC patients. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials and multicenter-prospective cohort studies, therefore further research is needed to ascertain which aspects of these symptoms should be measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel multimodal optical imaging system for early detection of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Wright, John M.; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several imaging techniques have been advocated as clinical adjuncts to improve identification of suspicious oral lesions. However, these have not yet shown superior sensitivity or specificity over conventional oral examination techniques. We developed a multimodal, multi-scale optical imaging system that combines macroscopic biochemical imaging of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with subcellular morphologic imaging of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for early detection of oral cancer. We tested our system on excised human oral tissues. Study Design A total of four tissue specimen were imaged. These specimens were diagnosed as one each: clinically normal, oral lichen planus, gingival hyperplasia, and superficially-invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The optical and fluorescence lifetime properties of each specimen were recorded. Results Both quantitative and qualitative differences between normal, benign and SCC lesions can be resolved with FLIM-RCM imaging. The results demonstrate that an integrated approach based on these two methods can potentially enable rapid screening and evaluation of large areas of oral epithelial tissue. Conclusions Early results from ongoing studies of imaging human oral cavity illustrate the synergistic combination of the two modalities. An adjunct device based on such optical characterization of oral mucosa can potentially be used to detect oral carcinogenesis in early stages. PMID:26725720

  18. Challenges of Early Detection of Oral Cancer: Raising Awareness as a First Step to Successful Campaigning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Eva; Koller, Michael; Wiltfang, Jörg; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Möller, Björn; Hertrampf, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, ~13 000 people are found to have oral and pharyngeal cancer every year. Awareness and knowledge about this cancer remain insufficient, particularly amongst elderly people. A campaign for early detection was launched in Northern Germany in April 2012. The first step of the campaign was to increase awareness about oral cancer. Prior to a…

  19. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2010-01-01

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  20. The Effects of Various Levels of Ascorbic Acid Intake Upon Oral Wound Healing in Guinea Pigs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    82174 7’ 4 8 Alfano observed increased permeability of oral tissue with decreased vitamin C supplementation. Periodontal tissues are susceptible to...make a uniform wound in the midline of the oral mucosa, anterior to the maxillary premolars. (Figure 2). The trephine bur penetrated the tissues until...grids across the wound site and dividing by two. This area encompassed the edges of the bone wound or residual mature soft connective tissue . The

  1. Factors Influencing Early Detection of Oral Cancer by Primary Health-Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Shahin, A; Maayta, W; Sawair, F

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study are to determine early detection practices performed by primary healthcare professionals, to compare medical and dental sub-groups, and to identify factors that influence the ability of medical and dental practitioners to recognize precancerous changes and clinical signs of oral cancer. A 28-item survey instrument was used to interview a total of 330 Jordanian primary health-care professionals (165 dental and 165 medical). An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge. An early detection practice scale (0 to 24) was generated from the reported usage and frequency of procedures in oral cancer examination. Also, a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Only 17.8 % of the participants reported that they routinely performed oral cancer screening in practices. Their oral cancer knowledge scores ranged from 3 to 31 with a mean of 15.6. The early detection practice scores ranged from 2 to 21 with a mean of 11.6. A significant positive correlation was found between knowledge scores and early detection practice scores (r = 0.22; p < 0.001). The diagnostic ability scores ranged from 11.5 to 96 with a mean of 43.6. The diagnostic ability score was significantly correlated with knowledge scores (r = 0.39; p < 0.001), but not with early detection practice scores (r = 0.01; p = 0.92). Few significant differences were found between medical and dental primary care professionals. Continuous education courses on early diagnosis of oral cancer and oral mucosal lesions are needed for primary health-care professionals.

  2. Time trends in alcohol intake in early pregnancy and official recommendations in Denmark, 1998-2013.

    PubMed

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Petersen, Gitte L; Henriksen, Tine B; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-07-01

    In 1999, Danish health authorities modified their recommendation to pregnant women, condoning some alcohol intake. In 2007, the recommendation was changed to one of alcohol abstention. We aimed to assess changes in average alcohol intake (drinks/week) and alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy from 1998 to 2013 in relation to the changes in official recommendations in 1999 (condoning some intake) and 2007 (abstention). All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, between September 1998 and June 2013 were invited to participate. During the study period, 68 395 pregnant women filled in a self-administered questionnaire at gestational week 11 (median). From 1998, questions on binge drinking included data on the number of binge episodes (≥5 drinks on a single occasion), and the timing (gestational week) of these episodes. Additional questions on binge drinking defined as ≥3 drinks on a single occasion were asked separately from 2000. A question assessed the average number of alcohol-containing drinks per week the woman consumed currently at the time of filling in the questionnaire. From 1998 to 2013 the proportion of women reporting no alcohol intake increased from 31.2 to 83.3% (p < 0.001), the main decline occurring between 1998 and 2007. The proportion of binge drinkers decreased (p < 0.001) but remained more stable across the period. The decline in the proportion of pregnant women consuming alcohol occurred independently of official recommendations. Increasing national and international awareness may partly explain the changes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Vegetable Intake in College-Aged Adults Is Explained by Oral Sensory Phenotypes and TAS2R38 Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Davidson, Andrew C.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Taste and oral sensations vary in humans. Some of this variation has a genetic basis, and two commonly measured phenotypes are the bitterness of propylthiouracil (PROP) and the number of fungiform papillae on the anterior tongue. While the genetic control of fungiform papilla is unclear, PROP bitterness associates with allelic variation in the taste receptor gene, TAS2R38. The two common alleles are AVI and PAV (proline, alanine, valine, and isoleucine); AVI/AVI homozygotes taste PROP as less bitter than heterozygous or homozygous PAV carriers. In this laboratory-based study, we determined whether taste of a bitter probe (quinine) and vegetable intake varied by taste phenotypes and TAS2R38 genotype in healthy adults (mean age=26 years). Vegetable intake was assessed via two validated, complementary methods: food records (Food Pyramid servings standardized to energy intake) and food frequency questionnaire (general intake question and composite vegetable groups). Quinine bitterness varied with phenotypes but not TAS2R38; quinine was more bitter to those who tasted PROP as more bitter or had more papillae. Nontasters by phenotype or genotype reported greater consumption of vegetables, regardless of type (i.e., the effect generalized to all vegetables and was not restricted to those typically thought of as being bitter). Furthermore, nontasters with more papillae reported greater vegetable consumption than nontasters with fewer papillae, suggesting that when bitterness does not predominate, more papillae enhance vegetable liking. These findings suggest that genetic variation in taste, measured by multiple phenotypes or TAS2R38 genotype, can explain differences in overall consumption of vegetables, and this was not restricted to vegetables that are predominantly bitter. PMID:21157576

  4. Oral cancer prevention and early detection knowledge and practices of Illinois dentists--a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Lehew, Charles W; Kaste, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess Illinois dentists' self-reported knowledge and practices concerning oral cancer prevention, early detection, and management as a baseline prior to conducting interventions designed to increase dentists' capacity to detect and manage oral cancers and counsel their patients about risk reduction. A weighted sample to represent licensed dentists in 19 counties yielded 518 dentists who responded to a 38-item mailed survey in 2004. Over 92 percent of the dentists reported providing oral cancer exams. However, many are not doing them properly or at frequent intervals. Over two-thirds had oral cancer continuing education, but 40 percent had it more than 2 years prior to the survey. Training in risk counseling was rare. Interventions are needed to assure appropriate skill and knowledge levels for oral cancer early detection, management, and risk counseling by Illinois dentists.

  5. Portal hemodynamic responses after oral intake of glucose in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, T; Ohnishi, K; Tanaka, H

    1988-04-01

    Changes of portal, superior mesenteric, and splenic venous flows, and portohepatic gradient (portal vein pressure minus free hepatic vein pressure) after a meal were studied in patients with cirrhosis using the duplex ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter, and portal and hepatic vein catheterizations after ingestion of 227 ml of 33% glucose solution (300 kcal). As a control, changes of portal venous flow and portohepatic gradient after drinking 227 ml of water, were studied. Portal and superior mesenteric venous flows increased significantly at 30 min after glucose intake, and they returned gradually to the basal values, whereas no significant postprandial change occurred in splenic venous flow. The sum of superior mesenteric and splenic venous flows was greater than the estimated portal venous flow before glucose intake, and the difference widened during post-prandial mesenteric hyperemia, indicating an increase of blood flow into the portal-systemic shunts. After glucose intake, portohepatic gradient elevated immediately, in parallel with an increase of portal venous flow, and these changes persisted for the 30 min studied; however, no significant change occurred in these parameters after drinking water. 1) In patients with cirrhosis, hyperemia occurs in the intestine but not in the spleen after glucose intake, and 2) postprandial mesenteric hyperemia causes an increase of portal venous inflow, portal-systemic collateral flow, portal venous flow, and an elevation of portohepatic gradient.

  6. Oral Leucine Supplementation Is Sensed by the Brain but neither Reduces Food Intake nor Induces an Anorectic Pattern of Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Thais T.; Pedroso, João A. B.; Furigo, Isadora C.; Tirapegui, Julio; Donato, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Leucine activates the intracellular mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Although central infusion of leucine reduces food intake, it is still uncertain whether oral leucine supplementation is able to affect the hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. We observed increased phosphorylation of p70s6k in the mouse hypothalamus after an acute oral gavage of leucine. We then assessed whether acute oral gavage of leucine induces the activation of neurons in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the brainstem. Leucine did not induce the expression of Fos in hypothalamic nuclei, but it increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the area postrema. In addition, oral gavage of leucine acutely increased the 24 h food intake of mice. Nonetheless, chronic leucine supplementation in the drinking water did not change the food intake and the weight gain of ob/ob mice and of wild-type mice consuming a low- or a high-fat diet. We assessed the hypothalamic gene expression and observed that leucine supplementation increased the expression of enzymes (BCAT1, BCAT2 and BCKDK) that metabolize branched-chain amino acids. Despite these effects, leucine supplementation did not induce an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, our data show that the brain is able to sense oral leucine intake. However, the food intake is not modified by chronic oral leucine supplementation. These results question the possible efficacy of leucine supplementation as an appetite suppressant to treat obesity. PMID:24349566

  7. Safety assessment of 4-week oral intake of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sano, Atsushi

    2017-10-01

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the safety and tolerability of oral doses of proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract (GSE) in healthy Japanese adult volunteers. In an open-label, 4-week toxicity test, 29 subjects daily received 1000, 1500, or 2500 mg GSE orally. Serum Fe levels of two subjects in the 2500 mg GSE group decreased to 61 and 60 μg/100 mL from 205 and 182 μg/100 mL at baseline respectively, at second week of GSE consumption; these values are low but within the normal range for the Japanese population. Two weeks after completing the 4-week course of GSE ingestion, the serum Fe levels of both subjects returned to near baseline levels (210 and 189 μg/100 mL). No subject discontinued the study. Oral intake of GSE up to 2500 mg for 4 weeks was found to be generally safe and well tolerated in humans. Research with a larger number of subjects is required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Rompelberg, Cathy; Heringa, Minne B; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Drijvers, José; Roos, Agnes; Westenbrink, Susanne; Peters, Ruud; van Bemmel, Greet; Brand, Walter; Oomen, Agnes G

    2016-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO 2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO 2 NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO 2 and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO 2 NPs in food products and supplements. For children aged 2-6 years, additional intake via ingestion of toothpaste was estimated. The mean long-term intake to TiO 2 ranges from 0.06 mg/kg bw/day in elderly (70+), 0.17 mg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 0.67 mg/kg bw/day in children (2-6 year old). The estimated mean intake of TiO 2 NPs ranges from 0.19 μg/kg bw/day in elderly, 0.55 μg/kg bw/day for 7-69-year-old people, to 2.16 μg/kg bw/day in young children. Ninety-fifth percentile (P95) values are 0.74, 1.61 and 4.16 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The products contributing most to the TiO 2 intake are toothpaste (in young children only), candy, coffee creamer, fine bakery wares and sauces. In a separate publication, the results are used to evaluate whether the presence of TiO 2 NPs in these products can pose a human health risk.

  9. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  10. A Comparative Study of Eating Habits and Food Intake in Women with Gestational Diabetes according to Early Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Status

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, You Jeong; Park, Bo Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Background Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD); continuous life-style intervention, especially diet, is central to managing T2DM and CVD. However, little is known about the dietary patterns of women with GDM after delivery. The goal of this study was to compare the eating habits and food intakes of women diagnosed with GDM during the early postpartum period. Methods We performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 184 women with GDM between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. Based on the results of the OGTT, the subjects were divided into three groups according to the American Diabetes Association criteria; normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=100), pre-diabetes (n=73), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=11). Eating habits and usual food intake after delivery were investigated using a questionnaire, based on 24 hour-recall, which was administered by a trained dietitian. The daily intake data were analyzed using CAN Pro 3.0. Blood tests were performed pre- and post-delivery. Results Eating habits were not significantly different among the three groups. However, animal fat consumption was significantly different among the three groups. The intake ratio of fat calories to total calories was also significantly higher in the pre-diabetes and DM groups. Conclusion Although diet in the period 6 to 12 weeks postpartum did not influence glucose level, it may be important to educate women with GDM about the risks of excessive animal fat intake during pregnancy and the postpartum period in order to prevent later onset of T2DM. PMID:21977455

  11. Daily Intake of Milk Powder and Risk of Celiac Disease in Early Childhood: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Hård Af Segerstad, Elin M; Lee, Hye-Seung; Andrén Aronsson, Carin; Yang, Jimin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Rayner, Marilyn; Kurppa, Kalle; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M; Agardh, Daniel

    2018-04-28

    Milk powder and gluten are common components in Swedish infants' diets. Whereas large intakes of gluten early in life increases the risk of celiac disease in genetically at-risk Swedish children, no study has yet evaluated if intake of milk powder by 2 years of age is associated with celiac disease. A 1-to-3 nested case-control study, comprised of 207 celiac disease children and 621 controls matched for sex, birth year, and HLA genotype, was performed on a birth cohort of HLA-DR3-DQ2 and/or DR4-DQ8-positive children. Subjects were screened annually for celiac disease using tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Three-day food records estimated the mean intake of milk powder at ages 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months. Conditional logistic regression calculated odds ratios (OR) at last intake prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity, and for each time-point respectively and adjusted for having a first-degree relative with celiac disease and gluten intake. Intake of milk powder prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity was not associated with celiac disease (OR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.99, 1.03; p = 0.763). In conclusion, intake of milk powder in early childhood is not associated with celiac disease in genetically susceptible children.

  12. Impact of kitchen organization on oral intake of malnourished inpatients: A two-center study.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Velasco-Gimeno, Cristina; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de-la-Maza, Begoña; Frías-Soriano, Laura; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; García-Peris, Pilar; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; García-Fernández, Camino; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2017-10-01

    To determine the impact of the type of hospital kitchen on the dietary intake of patients. A cross-sectional, two-centre study, of cooking in a traditional kitchen (TK) and in a chilled kitchen (CK). Subjective global assessment (SGA) was used for nutritional diagnosis. Before study start, a dietician performed a nutritional assessment of the menus of each hospital. All dishes were weighed upon arrival to the ward and at the end of the meal. 201 and 41 patients from the centres with TK and CK respectively were evaluated. Prevalence of malnutrition risk was 50.2% at the hospital with TK and 48.8% at the hospital with CK (p=0.328). Forty-eight and 56 dishes were nutritionally evaluated at the hospitals with TK and CK respectively. Intake analysis consisted of 1993 and 846 evaluations in the hospitals with TK and CK respectively. Median food consumption was 76.83% at the hospital with TK (IQR 45.76%) and 83.43% (IQR 40.49%) at the hospital with CK (p<0.001). Based on the prevalence of malnutrition, a higher protein and energy intake was seen in malnourished patients from the CK as compared to the TK hospital, but differences were not significant after adjustment for other factors. Cooking in a chilled kitchen, as compared to a traditional kitchen, may increase energy and protein intake in hospitalized patients, which is particularly beneficial for malnourished patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol intake and folate antagonism via CYP2E1 and ALDH1: Effects on oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Phillip H.; Lian, Lisa; Zavras, Athanasios I.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of folate and alcohol consumption has been shown to have an antagonistic effect on the risk of oral cancer. Studies have demonstrated that increased intake of folate decreases the risk of oral cancer, while greater alcohol consumption has an opposite effect. However, what is poorly understood is the biological interaction of these two dietary factors in relation to carcinogenesis. We hypothesize that cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and the family of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) enzymes may play a causal role in the occurrence of oral cancer. Chronic and high alcohol use has been implicated in the induction of CYP2E1, which oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde is a known carcinogen. As the first metabolite of ethanol, it has been shown to interfere with DNA methylation, synthesis and repair, as well as bind to protein and DNA to form stable adducts, which lead to the eventual formation of damaged DNA and cell proliferation. Studies using liver cells have demonstrated that S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), which is a product of folate metabolism, regulates the expression and catalytic activity of CYP2E1. Our first hypothesis is that as increased levels of folate lead to higher concentrations of SAM, SAM antagonizes the expression of CYP2E1, which results in decreased conversion of ethanol into acetaldehyde. Thus, the lower levels of acetaldehyde may lower risk of oral cancer. There are also two enzymes within the ALDH1 family that play an important role both in ethanol metabolism and the folate one-carbon pathway. The first, ALDH1A1, converts acetaldehyde into its non-carcinogenic byproduct, acetate, as part of the second step in the ethanol metabolism pathway. The second, ALDH1L1, also known as FDH, is required for DNA nucleotide biosynthesis, and is upregulated at high concentrations of folate. ALDH1L1 appears to be a chief regulator of cellular metabolism as it is strongly downregulated at certain physiological and pathological conditions

  14. Associations between fluorosis of permanent incisors and fluoride intake from infant formula, other dietary sources and dentifrice during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Marshall, Teresa A.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M.; Warren, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The authors describe associations between dental fluorosis and fluoride intakes, with an emphasis on intake from fluoride in infant formula. Methods The authors administered periodic questionnaires to parents to assess early fluoride intake sources from beverages, selected foods, dentifrice and supplements. They assessed relationships between fluorosis of the permanent maxillary incisors and fluoride intake from beverages and other sources, both for individual time points and cumulatively using area-under-the-curve (AUC) estimates. The authors determined effects associated with fluoride in reconstituted powdered infant formulas, along with risks associated with intake of fluoride from dentifrice and other sources. Results Considering only fluoride intake from age 3 to 9 months, the authors found that participants with fluorosis (97 percent of which was mild) had significantly greater cumulative fluoride intake (AUC) from reconstituted powdered infant formula, other beverages with added water or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. For participants aged 16 to 36 months, participants with fluorosis had significantly higher fluoride intake from water by itself, dentifrice or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. In a model combining both the 3- to 9-month and 16- to 36-months age groups, the significant variables were fluoride intake from reconstituted powder concentrate formula (by participants aged 3–9 months), other beverages with added water (also by participants aged 3–9 months) and dentifrice (by participants aged 16–36 months). Conclusions Greater fluoride intakes from reconstituted powdered formulas (when participants were aged 3–9 months) and other water-added beverages (when participants were aged 3–9 months) increased fluorosis risk as did higher dentifrice intake by participants when aged 16 to 36 months. Clinical Implications Results suggest that prevalence of mild dental fluorosis could be

  15. Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

  16. Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Tzu-Han; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, especially in a male adult. The median age of death in oral cancer was 55 years, 10-20 years earlier than other cancers. Presently, oral cancer is often found in late stage, because the lesion is often flat in early stage and is difficult to diagnose under traditional white light imaging. The only definitive method for determining cancer is an invasive biopsy and then using histology examination. How to detect precancerous lesions or early malignant lesions is an important issue for improving prognosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new optical tool for diagnosing early malignant lesions in the skin or gastrointestinal tract recently. Here we report a new method for detecting precancerous or early malignant oral lesions by using swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with center-wavelength 1310 nm, bandwidth 110 nm and 100 kHz swept rate. We used all single-mode fiber design to detect the change of birefringence information in the epithelium structure. This system has an advantage that enables measurement of backscattered intensity and birefringence simultaneously with only one A-scan per transverse location. In preliminary result, we computed the slope of the every A-scan signal in tissue part using a linear-curve fitting in backscattered intensity and birefringence on the enface. In this research, we used an oral cancer mice model for observing the change of structure and birefringence properties in different stages of oral cancer mice. We presented the parametric enface imaging that can detect the early oral malignant lesions.

  17. Oral health of early head start children: a qualitative study of staff, parents, and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mofidi, Mahyar; Zeldin, Leslie P; Rozier, R Gary

    2009-02-01

    We explored the oral health knowledge, attitudes, and activities of Early Head Start (EHS) staff members, parents, and pregnant women, along with their suggestions related to future oral health educational interventions targeting EHS children. Nine focus groups were conducted with EHS staff, parents, and pregnant women. Audiotapes of sessions were transcribed and entered into ATLAS.ti 5.0 for coding and analysis. Attitudes about the importance of children's oral health among parents and pregnant women were mixed. Staff members voiced responsibility for children's oral health but frustration in their inability to communicate effectively with parents. Parents in turn perceived staff criticism regarding how they cared for their children's oral health. Gaps were noted in the oral health activities of EHS programs. Participants expressed confusion regarding the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS. The need for culturally sensitive, hands-on oral health education was highlighted. Tailored, theory-based interventions are needed to improve communication between EHS staff and families. Clear policies on the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS are warranted. Educational activities should address the needs and suggestions of EHS participants.

  18. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554

  19. Ergogenic and metabolic effects of oral glucocorticoid intake during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Zorgati, Houssem; Prieur, Fabrice; Vergniaud, Thomas; Cottin, François; Do, Manh-Cuong; Labsy, Zakaria; Amarantini, David; Gagey, Olivier; Lasne, Françoise; Collomp, Katia

    2014-08-01

    All systemically administered glucocorticoids (GC) are prohibited in-competition, because of the potential ergogenic effects. Although short-term GC intake has been shown to improve performance during submaximal exercise, literature on its impact during brief intense exercise appears to be very scant. The purpose of this study was to examine the ergogenic and metabolic effects of prednisone during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. In a double-blind randomized protocol, ten recreational male athletes followed two 1-week treatments (Cor: prednisone, 60mg/day or Pla: placebo). At the end of each treatment, they hopped on their dominant leg for 30s three times consecutively and then hopped until exhaustion, with intervals of 5min of passive recovery. Blood and saliva samples were collected at rest and 3min after each exercise bout to determine the lactate, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, TNF-alpha, DHEA and testosterone values. The absolute peak force of the dominant leg was significantly increased by Cor but only during the first 30-s hopping bout (p<0.05), whereas time to exhaustion was not significantly changed after Cor treatment vs Pla (Pla: 119.9±24.7; Cor: 123.1±29.5s). Cor intake lowered basal and end-exercise plasma interleukin-6 and saliva DHEA (p<0.01) and increased interleukin-10 (p<0.01), whereas no significant change was found in blood lactate and TNF-alpha or saliva testosterone between Pla and Cor. According to these data, short-term glucocorticoid intake did not improve endurance performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise, despite the significant initial increase in absolute peak force and anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of light based detection systems for early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nagi, R; Reddy-Kantharaj, Y-B; Rakesh, N; Janardhan-Reddy, S; Sahu, S

    2016-07-01

    Earlier detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) is essential for dental professionals to improve patient survival rates. The aim of this systematic review is to to evaluate the effectiveness of devices that utilise the principles of chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence as adjuncts in the detection of OSCC and OPMD. The electronic retrieval systems and databases searched for relevant articles were PubMed [MEDLINE] and Science direct. The search was for limited articles published in English or with an English abstract and articles published during the period from January 2005 to April 2014. Clinical trials utilized ViziLite, Microlux TM/DL and Visual Enhanced Light scope (VELscope) for early detection of OPMD and OSCC. Twenty primary studies published satisfied our criteria for selection - 10 utilised chemiluminescence and 10 tissue autofluorescence. Senstivity of Vizilite for detecting OSCC nad OPMD ranged from 77.1 % to 100% and specificity was low that ranged from 0% to 27.8%.Most have shown that chemiluminescence increases the brightness and margins of oral mucosal white lesions and thus assist in identification of mucosal lesions not considered under Conventional visual examination. However, it preferentially detects leukoplakia and may fail to spot red patches. Clinical trials demonstrated that sensitivity of VELscope in detecting malignancy and OPMD ranged from 22 % to 100 % and specificity ranged from 16 % to 100%. Most studies concluded that VELscope can help the experienced clinician to find oral precursor malignant lesions. But it couldnot differentiate between dysplasia and benign inflammatory conditions. Both devices are simple, non-invasive test of the oral mucosa but are suited for clinicians with sufficient experience and training. More clinical trials in future should be conducted to establish optical imaging as an efficacious adjunct tool in early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD.

  1. Oral cancer. Practical prevention and early detection for the dental team.

    PubMed

    Kerr, A Ross; Cruz, Gustavo D

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 2,000 patients a year are diagnosed with oral cancer in New York State. In an effort to control this deadly disease, Governor George Pataki has taken a leadership role in the United States by mandating and funding training for dentists in the prevention and early detection of oral cancer. The purpose of this article is to highlight the epidemiology of oral cancer, to show how the dental profession can contribute to the health of the citizens of New York State, and to provide practical guidelines for both tobacco cessation intervention and utilization of existing technology for the early detection of oral cancer and precancerous conditions in the general dental practice setting.

  2. Evaluation of an oral health education session for Early Head Start home visitors.

    PubMed

    Glatt, Kevin; Okunseri, Christopher; Flanagan, Diane; Simpson, Pippa; Cao, Yumei; Willis, Earnestine

    2016-06-01

    Home visiting programs promote the education and health of Early Head Start (EHS) children and pregnant women. However, EHS's oral health component is unevenly implemented. We conducted an educational intervention to improve oral health knowledge and motivational interviewing techniques among Wisconsin EHS home visitors. A questionnaire assessing oral health-related knowledge and confidence was administered to home visitors before and after an educational session. Changes between pre/post-responses were analyzed with McNemar's test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. After the intervention there were increases in both knowledge and confidence related to oral health communication. Knowledge increases were observed in such topics as fluoridation, dental caries, and caregivers' role in assisting and supervising children's tooth brushing. A brief educational intervention was associated with increased home visitor knowledge and confidence in communicating oral health messages to EHS caregivers and pregnant women. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Effect of low zinc intake and oral contraceptive agents on nitrogen utilization and clinical findings in young women.

    PubMed

    Hess, F M; King, J C; Margen, S

    1977-12-01

    In a previous paper we reported that serum, urine and fecal zinc levels fell markedly in women taking a combination oral contraceptive agent (+OCA) and in women with normal menstrual cycles (-OCA) when they consumed a low-zinc diet (less than 0.2 mg/day) for 35 days. We evaluated other biochemical and clinical data in order to determine if depletion of accessible body zinc and/or physiologic adjustment to conserve body zinc stores had occurred. Neither low zinc intake nor oral contraceptive use appeared to influence nitrogen balance or body weight. Use of contraceptive drugs appeared to influence the response of blood parameters to zinc depletion. Serum transferrin and cholesterol declined significantly in the -OCA group, whereas alkaline phosphatase and gamma-globulin changed significantly in both groups. Clinical problems developed in all the subjects with serum zinc levels below 50 microgram/dl during the study; three of the six with serum zinc levels above 50 microgram/dl also complained of clinical symptoms. The results suggest that zinc deficiency through depletion of accessible body zinc stores developed during the 35-day study.

  4. Oral intake of curcumin markedly activated CYP 3A4: in vivo and ex-vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Huang, Ching-Ya; Yang, Shih-Ying; Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Yu, Chung-Ping; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a specific secondary metabolite of Curcuma species, has potentials for a variety of beneficial health effects. It is nowadays used as a dietary supplement. Everolimus (EVL) is an immunosuppressant indicated for allograft rejection and cancer therapy, but with narrow therapeutic window. EVL is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). This study investigated the effect of coadministration of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of EVL in rats and the underlying mechanisms. EVL (0.5 mg/kg) was orally administered without and with 50 and 100 mg/kg of curcumin, respectively, in rats. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and EVL concentrations in blood were determined by QMS® immunoassay. The underlying mechanisms were evaluated using cell model and recombinant CYP 3A4 isozyme. The results indicated that 50 and 100 mg/kg of curcumin significantly decreased the AUC0-540 of EVL by 70.6% and 71.5%, respectively, and both dosages reduced the Cmax of EVL by 76.7%. Mechanism studies revealed that CYP3A4 was markedly activated by curcumin metabolites, which apparently overrode the inhibition effects of curcumin on P-gp. In conclusion, oral intake of curcumin significantly decreased the bioavailability of EVL, a probe substrate of P-gp/CYP 3A4, mainly through marked activation on CYP 3A4. PMID:25300360

  5. Rice Protein Matrix Enhances Circulating Levels of Xanthohumol Following Acute Oral Intake of Spent Hops in Humans.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Annalouise; Konda, Veera; Reed, Ralph L; Christensen, J Mark; Stevens, Jan F; Contractor, Nikhat

    2018-03-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid found in hops, exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, poor bioavailability may limit therapeutic applications. As food components are known to modulate polyphenol absorption, the objective is to determine whether a protein matrix could enhance the bioavailability of XN post oral consumption in humans. This is a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in healthy participants (n = 6) evaluating XN and its major metabolites (isoxanthohumol [IX], 6- and 8-prenylnaringenin [6-PN, 8-PN]) for 6 h following consumption of 12.4 mg of XN delivered via a spent hops-rice protein matrix preparation or a control spent hops preparation. Plasma XN and metabolites are measured by LC-MS/MS. C max , T max , and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values were determined. Circulating XN and metabolite response to each treatment was not bioequivalent. Plasma concentrations of XN and XN + metabolites (AUC) are greater with consumption of the spent hops-rice protein matrix preparation. Compared to a standard spent hops powder, a protein-rich spent hops matrix demonstrates enhanced plasma levels of XN and metabolites following acute oral intake. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Vitamin B12 intake and status in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Duggan, Christopher; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the vitamin B12 status of South Indian women in early pregnancy and its relationship with sociodemographic, anthropometry and dietary intake. Methods Cross-sectional study among 366 pregnant urban South Indian women ≤14 weeks of gestation with outcome variables defined as low vitamin B12 blood concentration (<150 pmol/L) and impaired vitamin B12 status [low vitamin B12 plus elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) >0.26 μmol/L)]. Results Low plasma vitamin B12 concentration was observed in 51.1% of the women, while 42.4% had impaired B12 status. Elevated MMA, elevated homocysteine ( >10 μmol/L) and low erythrocyte folate (<283 nmol/L) was observed among 75.8%, 43.3% and 22.2% of women, respectively. The median (25th, 75th percentile) dietary intake of vitamin B12 was 1.25 (0.86, 1.96) μg/day. Lower maternal body weight was associated with higher vitamin B12 concentration [prevalence ratios (PR) (95% CI) 0.57 (0.39, 0.84)). The predictors of impaired vitamin B12 status were non-use of yoghurt [PR (95%CI) 1.63 (1.03, 2.58)], non-use of fish [PR (95% CI) 1.32 (1.01, 1.71)] and primiparity [PR (95% CI) 1.41 (1.05, 1.90)]. Conclusion A high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women was related to primiparity and to a low consumption of yoghurt and fish. PMID:23344013

  7. Oral health content of early education and child care regulations and standards.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary

    2011-01-01

    Almost two out of every three US children younger than five receive child care from someone other than their parents. Health promotion in early education and child care (EECC) programs can improve the general health of children and families, but little is known about the role of these programs in oral health. We identified U.S. EECC program guidelines and assessed their oral health recommendations for infants and toddlers. State licensing regulations were obtained from the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care's online database. Professional standards were identified through a search of PubMed, early childhood organizations' websites, and early childhood literature. All EECC guidelines were reviewed for key terms related to oral health promotion in children and summarized by domains. Thirty-six states include oral health in their licensing regulations, but recommendations are limited and most often address the storage of toothbrushes. Eleven sets of standards were identified, four of which make recommendations about oral health. Standards from the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Public Health Association (AAP/APHA) and the Office of Head Start (OHS) provide the most comprehensive oral health recommendations regarding screening and referral, classroom activities, and education. Detailed guidelines for oral health practices exist but they exhibit large variation in number and content. States can use the comprehensive standards from the AAP/APHA and OHS to inform and strengthen the oral health content of their licensing regulations. Research is needed to determine compliance with regulations and standards, and their effect on oral health.

  8. Oral Health Content of Early Education and Child Care Regulations and Standards

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Ashley M.; Rozier, R. Gary

    2012-01-01

    Objective Almost two out of every three U.S. children younger than five receive child care from someone other than their parents. Health promotion in early education and child care (EECC) programs can improve the general health of children and families, but little is known about the role of these programs in oral health. We identified U.S. EECC program guidelines and assessed their oral health recommendations for infants and toddlers. Methods State licensing regulations were obtained from the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care’s online database. Professional standards were identified through a search of PubMed, early childhood organizations’ websites, and early childhood literature. All EECC guidelines were reviewed for key terms related to oral health promotion in children and summarized by domains. Results Thirty-six states include oral health in their licensing regulations, but recommendations are limited and most often address the storage of toothbrushes. Eleven sets of standards were identified, four of which make recommendations about oral health. Standards from the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Public Health Association (AAP/APHA) and the Office of Head Start (OHS) provide the most comprehensive oral health recommendations regarding screening and referral, classroom activities and education. Conclusions Detailed guidelines for oral health practices exist but they exhibit large variation in number and content. States can use the comprehensive standards from the AAP/APHA and OHS to inform and strengthen the oral health content of their licensing regulations. Research is needed to determine compliance with regulations and standards, and their effect on oral health. PMID:21070244

  9. Early water intake restriction to prevent inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following transsphenoidal surgery: low BMI predicts postoperative SIADH.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Junko; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Sato, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Koh; Ohashi, Genichiro; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the incidence of and risk factors for the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in patients following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and to validate the effectiveness of early prophylactic restriction of water intake. Retrospective analysis was performed for 207 patients who had undergone TSS, including 156 patients not placed on early prophylactic water restriction. Sixty-four patients received treatment for SIADH. We compared the incidence of SIADH between patients with and without early water intake restriction, and analyzed various risk factors for SIADH using statistical analyses. BMI was significantly lower for patients with SIADH than for those patients without SIADH. Statistical analysis revealed that the threshold BMI predicting SIADH was 26. Serum sodium levels on postoperative days 5-10 and daily urine volumes on postoperative days 5-10 were significantly lower in patients with SIADH than in those without SIADH. Postoperative body weight loss on days 6, 8, 10, and 11 was significantly higher in patients with SIADH. The incidence of SIADH after starting prophylactic water intake restriction (14%) was significantly lower than the rate before early water restriction (38%; P<0.05). SIADH is relatively common after TSS, and serum sodium concentrations and daily urine volumes should be carefully monitored. Patients with low preoperative BMI should be closely observed, as this represented a significant preoperative risk factor for SIADH. Early prophylactic water intake restriction appears effective at preventing postoperative SIADH. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. Oral health changes during early phase of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudarević, Karlo; Jurela, Antonija; Repić, Dario; Jokić, Dražen; Mikić, Ivana Medvedec; Pejda, Slavica

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of fixed orthodontic appliance on Streptococcus (S.) mutans and S. sobrinus counts in orthodontic patients with regard to their previous caries experience (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index) during the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. Twenty-two patients that satisfied inclusion criteria (healthy systemic and periodontal condition, avoidance of antibiotic therapy and antiseptic mouthwashes in the past three months) were included. All clinical measurements took place prior to and 12 weeks after fixed orthodontic appliance placement, in the following order: 1) stimulated saliva flow (SS); 2) Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S); and 3) DMFT. The method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus at T1 and T2. T-test showed significant increase in DMFT index and SS between T1 and T2. Results also indicated significant improvement in OHI-S index. By use of the PCR method, S. mutans was detected in two patients at T1. At T2, two more patients had S. mutans, but the increase was not statistically significant. Using the same method, S. sobrinus was detected only in two patients at T2. In conclusion, fixed orthodontic appliances did not induce statistically significant changes in caries microflora even in the presence of enhanced oral hygiene habits.

  11. Oral history of Florence Downs; the early years.

    PubMed

    Fairman, J; Mahon, M M

    2001-01-01

    Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.

  12. Sniffin' Away the Feeding Tube - The Influence of Olfactory Stimulation on Oral Food Intake in Newborns and Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Schriever, Valentin A; Gellrich, Janine; Rochor, Nora; Croy, Ilona; Cao-Van, Helene; Rüdiger, Mario; Hummel, Thomas

    2018-06-02

    Because of their immaturity many premature infants are fed via nasogastric tube. One objective of the neonatal care is to feed infants orally early. The olfactory function of premature infants is developed before birth and odorants have a significant impact on nutrition in infants. The aim of the study was to test whether odor stimulation has a positive effect on the transition from gavage to oral feeding in infants. Participants were premature infants with gestational age of more than 27 weeks, with full or partial gavage feeding, stable vital parameters and without invasive ventilation. Before each feeding procedure an odorant was presented in front of the infant's nose. Infants were randomized into one of three groups and received either rose odor (not food-associated), vanilla odor (food-associated) or placebo (no odor). The primary outcome of the study was defined as the time until complete oral nutrition. 150 children born at a postnatal age of 9.5±7.8 days were included in this study. The duration until complete oral nutrition was reached after 11.8±7.7 (vanilla), 12.2±7.7 (rose) and 12.9±8.8 (control) days. A nearly linear relation between odor presentation frequency and effect size was detectable. For infants that received the intervention for more than 66.7% of the time the length of gavage feeding (8±5.4) and hospitalization (11±6.5) was significantly lower in the vanilla group when compared with control (15±7.3 and 21±13.7 respectively). Odor stimulation with vanilla has an impact on oral feeding in premature infants, however the odor has to be presented on regular basis.

  13. Persimmon bezoar successfully treated by oral intake of Coca-Cola: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kazuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Naitoh, Itaru; Okumura, Fumihiro; Andoh, Tomoaki; Itoh, Takafumi; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Joh, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Background An 82-year-old male presented with a chief complaint of upper abdominal pain. Subsequently, a bezoar and a gastric ulcer were detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Case presentation The bezoar was dark green in color and extremely hard, having a major axis of 7 cm. After hospitalization, 500–1000 ml/day of Coca-Cola was orally administered continuously for 3 weeks. Conclusion Thereafter, the bezoar decreased in size to a major axis of 4 cm and showed a softening trend. Therefore, lithotripsy was thereafter carried out under endoscopy using forceps. PMID:19077219

  14. Persimmon bezoar successfully treated by oral intake of Coca-Cola: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Naitoh, Itaru; Okumura, Fumihiro; Andoh, Tomoaki; Itoh, Takafumi; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Joh, Takashi

    2008-12-11

    An 82-year-old male presented with a chief complaint of upper abdominal pain. Subsequently, a bezoar and a gastric ulcer were detected by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The bezoar was dark green in color and extremely hard, having a major axis of 7 cm. After hospitalization, 500-1000 ml/day of Coca-Cola was orally administered continuously for 3 weeks. Thereafter, the bezoar decreased in size to a major axis of 4 cm and showed a softening trend. Therefore, lithotripsy was thereafter carried out under endoscopy using forceps.

  15. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Dietary Intake of Protein in Early Childhood Is Associated with Growth Trajectories between 1 and 9 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kim Ve; Erler, Nicole S; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; van den Hooven, Edith H; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-11-01

    High protein intake in infancy might lead to a higher body mass index (BMI) in childhood. However, whether these associations differ between different sources of protein is unclear. We investigated associations between the intake of total protein, protein from different sources, and individual amino acids in early childhood and repeatedly measured height, weight, and BMI up to the age of 9 y. This study was performed in 3564 children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, Netherlands. Intakes of total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, and individual amino acids (including methionine, arginine, lysine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, cysteine, tyrosine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, proline, and serine) at 1 y were assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured at the approximate ages of 14, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 45 mo and at 6 and 9 y, and BMI was calculated. After adjustment for confounders, linear mixed models showed that a 10-g higher total protein intake/d at 1 y was significantly associated with a 0.03-SD greater height (95% CI: 0.00, 0.06), a 0.06-SD higher weight (95% CI: 0.03, 0.09), and a 0.05-SD higher BMI (95% CI: 0.03, 0.08) up to the age of 9 y. Associations were stronger for animal than for vegetable protein intake but did not differ between dairy and nondairy animal protein or between specific amino acids. A higher intake of protein, especially animal protein, at 1 y of age was associated with a greater height, weight, and BMI in childhood up to 9 y of age. Future studies should explore the role of growth hormones and investigate whether protein intake in early childhood affects health later in life. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Detection of Early-Stage Oral Cancer Lesions: A Survey of California Dental Hygienists.

    PubMed

    Barao, Dayna M Hashimoto; Essex, Gwen; Lazar, Ann A; Rowe, Dorothy J

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To assess dental hygienists' knowledge of early-stage oral cancer lesions and their practices, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to early detection. Methods: A 20-item survey containing images of oral lesions and related multiple-choice questions was distributed electronically by the California Dental Hygienists' Association to all dental hygienists whose email addresses were in their database. Response frequencies were calculated per survey item. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore associations. Results: Seven hundred fifty-one dental hygienists responded, yielding a 12% response rate. Respondents' correct identification of the six images of oral lesions varied from 40%-97%. Most respondents reported conducting oral cancer examinations (OCE) at every dental hygiene appointment and performing palpation during OCE. Regions of the mouth varied regarding the frequency of palpation. Lymph node palpation was considered the most commonly omitted step. Those who conducted palpations were 3.3 (95% CI: 1.4 to 7.9, p=0.006) times more likely to report that they knew someone with oral cancer and had detected oral cancer lesions than those who did not. Knowing a person with a history of oral cancer and previously detecting a cancerous lesion were also reported as factors encouraging respondents to bring suspicious lesions to the attention of the dentist. Discouraging factors were mostly related to the dentist' behavior, such as not referring a suspicious lesion for biopsy that the respondent identified. Conclusion: Detection of early-stage oral cancer lesions by dental hygienists may be enhanced through more extensive education of visual appearances of lesions and the importance of palpation in a comprehensive OCE. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  18. Influences of Early English Language Teaching on Oral Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Stephana; Smit, Nienke; Lowie, Wander

    2017-01-01

    Elementary-level foreign language education is currently receiving a lot of attention in the literature on second language learning, and has emerged as an important educational policy issue. The present study aims to contribute to this discussion by focusing on the fluency benefits gained from early foreign language teaching. The participants were…

  19. Vulnerability related to oral health in early childhood: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Mattheus, Deborah J

    2010-09-01

    This article is a report of the analysis of the concept of vulnerability and its relationship to oral health in early childhood. Poor oral health is a continued problem for children worldwide. Vulnerability increases the probability of poor oral health outcomes. The lack of clarity of the concept of vulnerability creates difficulty in understanding this multi-factoral condition. Data source included 34 articles covering the period 2000-2009 from a variety of disciplines, including nursing, dentistry, medicine and public health. The concept analysis was conducted using Rodgers' evolutionary method. The literature was analysed and a social ecology model was used to frame the discussion, recognizing family and community influences on children's oral health. The context of oral health in early childhood contributes to the changes in the concept vulnerability. The attributes are closely related to family and community factors and identified as limited parental income, parental education, community-based services and fluoride; and exposure to poor parental habits, parental neglect and harmful toxins. The primary antecedent is identified as a form of limited protection from exposure to various circumstances. Children with limited protection have increased vulnerability and greater probability of poor health outcomes. Nurses who understand the concept of vulnerability related to oral health and can identify factors that create protection and are capable of decreasing vulnerability through parent education, community awareness and policy changes that support children and families.

  20. Chronological shifts and changing causes of death after radiotherapy for early-stage oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Rina; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Harata, Naoki; Yuasa-Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Hayashi, Keiji

    2014-02-01

    Following recent improvements in the curability of oral cancer, chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after treatment have been observed. We conducted a review of the post-treatment causes of death following radiotherapy for oral cancers. The medical records of 966 patients with early-stage (stage I and II) oral cancer treated at our institute between 1980 and 2001 were reviewed, and the chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death after radiotherapy were assessed. Of the 966 patients enrolled in this study, 365 have died to date. Two hundred and eleven patients died of their primary malignancy; 193 of these deaths occurred within 5 years of treatment for the primary oral cancer. The second most frequent cause of death was second primary cancer (n = 90). Twenty-three patients with head and neck cancers and 18 patients with esophageal cancers died within 10 years of radiotherapy, and six patients with lung cancers died after more than 10 years. Within the first 5 years following treatment, the major cause of death was the primary oral cancer. After 5-10 years, a second primary cancer, such as head and neck cancer or esophageal cancer, became the leading cause of death. Over a 10-year period, the proportion of deaths from a second primary cancer in the lung was significant. We have demonstrated that there are chronological shifts and changes in the causes of death following treatment for early-stage oral cancer.

  1. Early pharmaceutical profiling to predict oral drug absorption: current status and unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Christel A S; Holm, René; Jørgensen, Søren Astrup; Andersson, Sara B E; Artursson, Per; Beato, Stefania; Borde, Anders; Box, Karl; Brewster, Marcus; Dressman, Jennifer; Feng, Kung-I; Halbert, Gavin; Kostewicz, Edmund; McAllister, Mark; Muenster, Uwe; Thinnes, Julian; Taylor, Robert; Mullertz, Anette

    2014-06-16

    Preformulation measurements are used to estimate the fraction absorbed in vivo for orally administered compounds and thereby allow an early evaluation of the need for enabling formulations. As part of the Oral Biopharmaceutical Tools (OrBiTo) project, this review provides a summary of the pharmaceutical profiling methods available, with focus on in silico and in vitro models typically used to forecast active pharmaceutical ingredient's (APIs) in vivo performance after oral administration. An overview of the composition of human, animal and simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids is provided and state-of-the art methodologies to study API properties impacting on oral absorption are reviewed. Assays performed during early development, i.e. physicochemical characterization, dissolution profiles under physiological conditions, permeability assays and the impact of excipients on these properties are discussed in detail and future demands on pharmaceutical profiling are identified. It is expected that innovative computational and experimental methods that better describe molecular processes involved in vivo during dissolution and absorption of APIs will be developed in the OrBiTo. These methods will provide early insights into successful pathways (medicinal chemistry or formulation strategy) and are anticipated to increase the number of new APIs with good oral absorption being discovered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pokemon proto-oncogene in oral cancer: potential role in the early phase of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sartini, D; Lo Muzio, L; Morganti, S; Pozzi, V; Di Ruscio, G; Rocchetti, R; Rubini, C; Santarelli, A; Emanuelli, M

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents about 90% of all oral neoplasms with a poor clinical prognosis. To improve survival of OSCC patients, it is fundamental to understand the basic molecular mechanisms characterizing oral carcinogenesis. Dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes seems to play a central role in tumorigenesis, including malignant transformation of the oral cavity. We analyzed the expression levels of the pro-oncogenic transcription factor Pokemon through real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in tumor, and normal oral tissue samples obtained from 22 patients with OSCC. The relationship between tumor characteristics and the level of Pokemon intratumor expression was also analyzed. Pokemon was significantly downregulated in OSCC. In particular, both mRNA and protein levels (tumor vs normal tissue) inversely correlated with histological grading, suggesting its potential role as a prognostic factor for OSCC. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between Pokemon protein expression levels (OSCC vs normal oral mucosa) and tumor size, supporting the hypothesis that Pokemon could play an important role in the early phase of tumor expansion. This work shows that reduced expression of Pokemon is a peculiar feature of OSCC. Additional studies may establish the effective role of Pokemon in oral tumorigenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Association of oral hygiene habits and food intake with the risk of dental caries among undergraduate university women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Abduljawad, Eman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of dental caries in relation to oral hygiene habits and food intake among women at university in Saudi Arabia. A sample of 935 undergraduate university women was selected from the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A previously pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Odds ratios were calculated to estimate the risk of dental caries associated with oral hygiene and food intake. The findings revealed that women who cleaned their teeth three times or more per day mostly cleaned their teeth after intake of sweets and chocolates, and had no gingivitis were at less risk of dental caries than other women (p=0.029, p=0.000 and p=0.000, respectively). The intake of milk, fruit and vegetables on 4 days or more per week was found to protect against dental caries (odds ratios=0.34, 0.64 and 0.73, respectively), whereas the intake of chocolate and soft drinks for the same period was found to be a risk factor for dental caries (odds ratios=1.8 and 1.4, respectively). The results of this study are useful for public health intervention programs to combat dental caries in the Saudi community.

  4. Oral manifestations as an early clinical sign of acute myeloid leukaemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Guan, G; Firth, N

    2015-03-01

    Leukaemia is the most common malignancy in children and one of the most common malignancies in young adults. Acute myeloid leukaemia is often associated with early oral manifestations. The purpose of this study is to report the case of a 49-year-old male with spontaneous gingival bleeding for over two years with undiagnosed leukaemia. Haematological investigation was instigated and on referral to the Haematology Department at Dunedin Public Hospital, the diagnosis of an acute myeloid leukaemia was confirmed. Since oral lesions can be one of the early events of acute myeloid leukaemia, they may be considered as an important diagnostic indicator for oral health practitioners, and their roles in diagnosing and treating such patients. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin.

    PubMed

    Barel, A; Calomme, M; Timchenko, A; De Paepe, K; Paepe, K De; Demeester, N; Rogiers, V; Clarys, P; Vanden Berghe, D

    2005-10-01

    Chronic exposure of the skin to sunlight causes damage to the underlying connective tissue with a loss of elasticity and firmness. Silicon (Si) was suggested to have an important function in the formation and maintenance of connective tissue. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid ("ch-OSA") is a bioavailable form of silicon which was found to increase the hydroxyproline concentration in the dermis of animals. The effect of ch-OSA on skin, nails and hair was investigated in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty women with photodamaged facial skin were administered orally during 20 weeks, 10 mg Si/day in the form of ch-OSA pellets (n=25) or a placebo (n=25). Noninvasive methods were used to evaluate skin microrelief (forearm), hydration (forearm) and mechanical anisotropy (forehead). Volunteers evaluated on a virtual analog scale (VAS, "none=0, severe=3") brittleness of hair and nails. The serum Si concentration was significantly higher after a 20-week supplementation in subjects with ch-OSA compared to the placebo group. Skin roughness parameters increased in the placebo group (Rt:+8%; Rm: +11%; Rz: +6%) but decreased in the ch-OSA group (Rt: -16%; Rm: -19%; Rz: -8%). The change in roughness from baseline was significantly different between ch-OSA and placebo groups for Rt and Rm. The difference in longitudinal and lateral shear propagation time increased after 20 weeks in the placebo group but decreased in the ch-OSA group suggesting improvement in isotropy of the skin. VAS scores for nail and hair brittleness were significantly lower after 20 weeks in the ch-OSA group compared to baseline scores. Oral intake of ch-OSA during the 20 weeks results in a significant positive effect on skin surface and skin mechanical properties, and on brittleness of hair and nails.

  6. Oral processing behaviours that promote children's energy intake are associated with parent-reported appetitive traits: Results from the GUSTO cohort.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Anna; Fries, Lisa R; McCrickerd, Keri; Goh, Ai Ting; Quah, Phaik Ling; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Fong Chong, Mary Foong; Forde, Ciarán G

    2018-07-01

    Oral processing behaviours associated with faster eating rates have been consistently linked to increased energy intakes, but little is known about their links to children's appetitive traits. This study used the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) to explore cross-sectional and prospective associations between parent-reported appetitive traits and observed oral processing behaviours. Participants were 195 children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes cohort, who participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5 (Time 1) and 6 years (Time 2). Their mothers completed the CEBQ around the same time points. Children's bites, chews and swallows were coded, and used to calculate their eating rate, bite size, chews per bite, chew rate, oral exposure time and oral exposure per bite. At Time 1, children with higher scores in slowness in eating had lower eating and chew rates. At Time 2, higher scores for food enjoyment and lower for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and food fussiness were linked with higher eating rates and greater energy intakes (r > 0.16, p < 0.05). Post-hoc analyses revealed that these associations were moderated by BMI and only present among children with higher BMI. Faster eating rates mediated the associations between greater food enjoyment, lower slowness in eating, lower food fussiness and higher intakes of energy. Children with higher slowness in eating scores had lower increases in eating rates over time, and children with higher BMI who had greater food enjoyment and food responsiveness scores had greater increases in eating rates over time. The findings suggest that oral processing behaviours linked with increased obesity risk may be underpinned by appetitive traits and may be one of the behavioural pathways through which these appetitive traits influence energy intakes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Student Characteristics on Early Elementary Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Wilhelmina

    2018-01-01

    Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) is a widely-used index of reading ability in early elementary grades; however, little information exists on predictive value of student characteristics on ORF scores (Wang, Algozzine, Ma, & Porfeli, 2011). A three-step sequential model was used to analyze the influence of student characteristics on scores (N = 2649)…

  8. Distribution of chloramphenicol to tissues, plasma and urine in pigs after oral intake of low doses.

    PubMed

    Aspenström-Fagerlund, Bitte; Nordkvist, Erik; Törnkvist, Anna; Wallgren, Per; Hoogenboom, Ron; Berendsen, Bjorn; Granelli, Kristina

    2016-09-01

    Toxic effects of chloramphenicol in humans caused the ban for its use in food-producing animals in the EU. A minimum required performance level (MRPL) was specified for chloramphenicol at 0.3 μg kg(-1) for various matrices, including urine. In 2012, residues of chloramphenicol were found in pig urine and muscle without signs of illegal use. Regarding its natural occurrence in straw, it was hypothesised that this might be the source, straw being compulsory for use as bedding material for pigs in Sweden. Therefore, we investigated if low daily doses of chloramphenicol (4, 40 and 400 μg/pig) given orally during 14 days could result in residues in pig tissues and urine. A dose-related increase of residues was found in muscle, plasma, kidney and urine (showing the highest levels), but no chloramphenicol was found in the liver. At the lowest dose, residues were below the MRPL in all tissues except in the urine. However, in the middle dose, residues were above the MRPL in all tissues except muscle, and at the highest dose in all matrices. This study proves that exposure of pigs to chloramphenicol in doses occurring naturally in straw could result in residues above the MRPL in plasma, kidney and especially urine.

  9. Oral intake of zirconia nanoparticle alters neuronal development and behaviour of Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Monalisa; Sabat, Debabrat; Ekka, Basanti; Sahu, Swetapadma; P, Unnikannan; Dash, Priyabrat

    2017-08-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) have been extensively used in teeth and bone implants and thus get a chance to interact with the physiological system. The current study investigated the oral administration of various concentrations of ZrO2 NPs synthesized by the hydrothermal method (0.25 to 5.0 mg L-1) on Drosophila physiology and behaviour. The size of the currently studied nanoparticle varies from 10 to 12 nm. ZrO2 NPs accumulated within the gut in a concentration-dependent manner and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) only at 2.5 and 5.0 mg L-1 concentrations. ROS was detected by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20370560 (H2DCF) staining. The ROS toxicity alters the larval gut structure as revealed by DAPI staining. The NP stress of larvae affects the Drosophila development by distressing pupa count and varying the phenotypic changes in sensory organs (eye, thorax bristle, wings). Besides phenotypic changes, flawed climbing behaviour against gravity was seen in ZrO2 NP-treated flies. All together, for the first time, we have reported that a ROS-mediated ZrO2 NP toxicity alters neuronal development and functioning using Drosophila as a model organism. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. US youths in the early stages of HIV disease have low intakes of some micronutrients important for optimal immune function.

    PubMed

    Kruzich, Laurie A; Marquis, Grace S; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Wilson, Craig M; Stephensen, Charles B

    2004-07-01

    We examined the association between micronutrient intakes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in youths who were at increased nutritional risk because of the demands of growth and disease as well as poor dietary habits. This was a cross-sectional study to collect dietary intake data using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (98.2). Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and sociodemographic data were available.Subjects/Setting Participants included 264 HIV-infected and 127 HIV-uninfected adolescents and young adults from the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health network, a multisite observational study on HIV progression. Statistical analyses CD4(+) T cells were stratified for HIV-infected youths: >/=500, 200 to 499, and <200 cells/microL. Micronutrient intakes were compared by presence of HIV infection, using two-sample Student's t tests. Categoric analyses used chi(2) test. Generalized linear regression determined predictors of vitamins A, C, and E; iron; and zinc intakes. Almost half (49.0%) of the HIV-infected participants had CD4(+) T cells >/=500 cells/microL. After controlling for other factors, HIV-infected participants with CD4(+) T cells >/=500 had decreased iron intake (P<.05) and tended to be associated with lower intakes of vitamins C and E (P<.10) compared with those with more advanced disease and HIV-uninfected youths. Among those youths with CD4(+) T cells between 200 and 499 cells/microL, a high anxiety score was associated with a sixfold increase in vitamin A intake as compared with those with a low score.Applications/conclusions Given the increased micronutrient requirements, nutrition counseling with HIV-infected youths should focus on early increase of intake of foods rich in micronutrients to improve growth, slow disease progression, and increase survival.

  11. Effects of a Computer-Based Early Reading Program on the Early Reading and Oral Language Skills of At-Risk Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffstetter, Mary; King, James R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Schneider, Jenifer J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a computer-based early reading program (Headsprout Early Reading) on the oral language and early reading skills of at-risk preschool children. In a pretest-posttest control group design, 62 children were randomly assigned to receive supplemental instruction with Headsprout Early Reading (experimental group) or…

  12. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  13. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay.

    PubMed

    Arrow, Peter; Raheb, Joseph; Miller, Margaret

    2013-03-20

    Severe untreated dental decay affects a child's growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children's eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6-12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child-parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; "lift the lip". The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG.Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent proportions and means. Multivariate

  14. Oral health activities of early head start teachers directed toward children and parents.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary; Zeldin, Leslie P; Preisser, John S

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined Early Head Start (EHS) teachers' oral health program activities and their association with teacher and program characteristics. Self-completed questionnaires were distributed to the staff in all EHS programs in North Carolina. Variables for dental health activities for parents (four items) and children (four items) were constructed as the sum of responses to a 0-4 Likert-type scale (never to very frequently). Ordinary least squares regression models examined the association between teachers' oral health program activities and modifiable teacher (oral health knowledge, values, self-efficacy, dental health training, perceived barriers to dental activities) and program (director and health coordinator knowledge and perceived barriers to dental activities) characteristics. Teachers in the parent (n=260) and child (n=231) analyses were a subset of the 485 staff respondents (98 percent response rate). Teachers engaged in child oral health activities (range = 0-16; mean = 9.0) more frequently than parent activities (range = 0-16; mean = 6.9). Teachers' oral health values, perceived oral health self-efficacy, dental training, and director and health coordinator knowledge were positively associated with oral health activities (P < 0.05). Perceived barriers were negatively associated with child activities (P < 0.05). The level of oral health activity in EHS programs is less than optimal. Several characteristics of EHS staff were identified that can be targeted with education interventions. Evidence for effectiveness of EHS interventions needs to be strengthened, but results of this survey provide encouraging findings about the potential effects of teacher training on their oral health practices.

  15. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiang; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Masutani, Kosuke; Peng, Ximei; Sun, Qing; Stolz, Donna B.; Pribis, John P.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sun, Xuejun; Bermudez, Christian A.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Nakao, Atsunori

    2012-01-01

    Aims Arterialized vein grafts often fail due to intimal hyperplasia. Hydrogen potently protects organs and cells from many insults via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the efficacy of oral administration of hydrogen-rich water (HW) for prevention of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results The inferior vena cava was excised, stored in cold Ringer solution for 2 h, and placed as an interposition graft in the abdominal aorta of syngeneic Lewis rats. HW was generated by immersing a magnesium stick in tap water (Mg + 2H2O → Mg (OH)2 + H2). Beginning on the day of graft implantation, recipients were given tap water [regular water (RW)], HW or HW that had been subsequently degassed water (DW). Six weeks after grafting, the grafts in the rats given RW or DW had developed intimal hyperplasia, accompanied by increased oxidative injury. HW significantly suppressed intimal hyperplasia. One week after grafting, the grafts in HW-treated rats exhibited improved endothelial integrity with less platelet and white blood cell aggregation. Up-regulation of the mRNAs for intracellular adhesion molecules was attenuated in the vein grafts of the rats receiving HW. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 was also significantly inhibited in grafts receiving HW. In rat smooth muscle cell (A7r5) cultures, hydrogen treatment for 24 h reduced smooth muscle cell migration. Conclusion Drinking HW significantly reduced neointima formation after vein grafting in rats. Drinking HW may have therapeutic value as a novel therapy for intimal hyperplasia and could easily be incorporated into daily life. PMID:22287575

  16. Acute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation, as compared with non-flavonoid white chocolate, by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Shiina, Yumi; Funabashi, Nobusada; Lee, Kwangho; Murayama, Taichi; Nakamura, Koki; Wakatsuki, Yu; Daimon, Masao; Komuro, Issei

    2009-01-24

    To assess the effects of the oral intake of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on coronary circulation, we measured coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, single-blind design conducted for 2 weeks in 39 healthy men (mean age 29.7+/-3.9 years, range 23-40 years). Subjects were randomly assigned a daily intake of either flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (Meiji Black Chocolate 45 g, Meiji Seika kaisya Ltd, including cacao polyphenol 550 mg/day, 200 kcal) or non-flavonoid white chocolate (Meiji White Chocolate 35 g, Meiji Seika kaisya Ltd, including cacao polyphenol 0 mg/day, 140 kcal) as a control. CFVR was recorded by TTDE, and assessed before and after 2 weeks of intake. At the same time, we also assessed serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, 8-isoprostanes, and malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) as markers of oxidative stress. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate consumption significantly improved CFVR (3.38+/-0.49 before intake, 4.28+/-0.85 after intake; p<0.01), whereas non-flavonoid white chocolate consumption did not (3.28+/-0.49 before intake, 3.16+/-0.49 after intake; p=0.44). All predictor variables were used as dependent variables in a multiple regression model of the incremental change in CFVR after 2 weeks of chocolate intake. Intake of dark (but not white) chocolate, MDA-LDL, triglyceride (TG) and heart rate (HR) significantly influenced the change of CFVR after 2 weeks of intake (p<0.01) according to the multiple regression formula: Y=1.01X(1)-0.005X(2)-0.003X(3)-0.017X4 (Y=change in CFVR after 2 weeks of chocolate intake, X1=intake of dark (but not white) chocolate, X2=MDA-LDL, X3=TG, X4=HR). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake significantly improved coronary circulation in healthy adults, independent of changes in oxidative stress parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile, whereas non-flavonoid white chocolate had no such effects.

  17. Impact of early childhood caries on oral health-related quality of life of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Li, M Y; Zhi, Q H; Zhou, Y; Qiu, R M; Lin, H C

    2015-03-01

    Child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) has been assessed in developed areas; however, it remains unstudied in mainland China. Studies on COHRQoL would benefit a large number of children in China suffering from oral health problems such as dental caries. This study explored the relationship between COHRQoL and early childhood caries, adjusted by socioeconomic factors, in 3- to 4-year-old children in a region of southern China. In this study, 1062 children aged 3-4 years were recruited by cluster sampling and their oral health statuses were examined by a trained dentist. The Chinese version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and questions about the children's socioeconomic conditions were completed by the children's parents. A negative binomial regression analysis was used to assess the prevalence of early childhood caries among the children and its influence on COHRQoL. The total ECOHIS scores of the returned scale sets ranged from 0 to 31, and their average scores was 3.1±5.1. The negative binomial analysis showed that the dmfs indices were significantly associated with the ECOHIS score and subscale scores (P<0.05). The multivariate adjusted model showed that a higher dmft index was associated with greater negative impact on COHRQoL (RR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.13; P < 0.05). However, demographic and socioeconomic factors were not associated with COHRQoL (P>0.05). The severity of early childhood caries has a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life of preschool children and their parents.

  18. Physicians' opinions regarding the criteria for resuming oral intake after aspiration pneumonia: A questionnaire survey and cluster analysis of hospitals across Japan.

    PubMed

    Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Kumabe, Ayako; Kosami, Koki; Matsuoka, Yasufumi; Minami, Kensuke; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Noda, Ayako; Okayama, Masanobu

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the items that are considered by physicians when making decisions regarding the resumption of oral intake among patients with aspiration pneumonia who have undergone short-term fasting. We surveyed 2490 Japanese hospitals that had internal medicine and respiratory medicine departments. We mailed questionnaires that contained 24 items related to oral intake resumption after aspiration pneumonia to the head of the department at each hospital. Cronbach statistics, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze the results. We received responses from 350 hospitals; 89.7% of the respondents answered that they "Strongly agree" that "level of consciousness" is a useful criterion for resuming oral intake. Furthermore, 66%, 66%, 63.4%, 58.5% and 51% of the respondents answered that they "strongly agree" regarding the use of SpO 2 , the discretion of the attending physician, body temperature, swallowing function test results, mental state and respiratory rate, respectively. In the cluster analysis, level of consciousness, body temperature, SpO 2 , respiratory rate, mental state and the discretion of the attending physician belonged to the first cluster. The second cluster consisted of the patient's request, the family's request, the opinions of the medical staff and non-physician healthcare providers, and performance status. Physicians consider several criteria during decision-making regarding oral intake resumption, which can be assigned to two clusters. Future studies are required to develop generalizable and objective criteria. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 810-818. © 2016 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. OC28 - Effect of mode of delivery on early oral colonization and childhood dental caries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Antão, Celeste; Teixeira, Cristina; Gomes, Maria José

    2016-05-09

    Theme: Multidisciplinary team working. Oral colonization starts at birth by vertical transmission. To determine whether mode of delivery influences the oral colonization of infants and contributes to the risk of childhood dental caries. A systematic review was conducted in the electronic database Web of Science for articles published from January 1995 to December 2015 by using a set of keywords. From 2,644 citations identified through electronic search, ten studies met the inclusion criteria. According to the studies mode of delivery influences oral microbial density, oral microbial profile and the timing of oral colonization by cariogenic microbiota. However, there are no consistent results concerning either the prevalence of children harboring cariogenic microbiota or the prevalence of early childhood caries by mode of delivery. Mode of delivery influences early oral colonization. However, it seems that other determinants rather than mode of delivery could be major contributors to the development of early childhood caries.

  20. Effect of regular oral intake of aspirin during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome of high-risk pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, F-M; Zhao, M; Wang, M; Yang, H-L; Li, L

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of 100 mg/d regular oral intake of aspirin during pregnancy on high-risk pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome patients. We consecutively selected 98 cases high-risk pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome patients. After obtaining the informed consent of the patients, we randomly divided the patients into aspirin group (50 cases) and placebo group (48 cases). The oral intake of aspirin lasted from the final diagnosis of pregnancy to antepartum time, and was taken before sleep. The bleeding index was closely detected and we stop taking aspirin when necessary. The comparison of clinical outcome showed that the incidents of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia of aspirin group were significantly lower than that of the placebo group (p<0.05). Comparing the complications of fetus perinatal period, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). 100 mg/d regular oral intake of aspirin during pregnancy is safe, effective and worthy of generalization to high-risk pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome patients.

  1. Early Programming by Protein Intake: The Effect of Protein on Adiposity Development and the Growth and Functionality of Vital Organs

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Veronica; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Escribano, Joaquín; Ferré, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of protein intake on metabolic programming early in life. The observations that breastfeeding in infancy reduces the risk of being overweight and obese later in life and the differences in the protein content between formula milk and human milk have generated the early protein hypothesis. The present review focuses on a mechanistic approach to programmed adiposity and the growth and development of other organs by protein intake in infancy, which may be mediated by branched-chain amino acids, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 via the mammalian target of rapamycin. Observational studies and clinical trials have shown that lowering the protein content in infant and follow-on formulas may reduce the risk of becoming obese later in life. The recent body of evidence is currently being translated into new policies. Therefore, the evolution of European regulatory laws and recommendations by expert panels on the protein content of infant and follow-on formulas are also reviewed. Research gaps, such as the critical window for programming adiposity by protein intake, testing formulas with modified amino acids, and the long-term consequences of differences in protein intake on organ functionality among well-nourished infants, have been identified. PMID:27013888

  2. Evaluation of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale in an Australian preschool child population.

    PubMed

    Arrow, P; Klobas, E

    2015-09-01

    Early childhood caries has significant impacts on children and their families. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument for capturing the complex dimensions of preschool children's oral health. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument among Australian preschool children. Parents/children dyads (n = 286) participating in a treatment trial on early childhood caries completed the scale at baseline, and 33 parents repeated the questionnaire 2-3 weeks later. The validity and reliability of the ECOHIS was determined using tests for convergent and discriminant validity, internal reliability of the instrument and test-retest reliability. Scale impacts were strongly correlated with global oral health ratings (Spearman's correlations; r = 0.51, total score; r = 0.43, child impact; and r = 0.49, family impact; p < 0.001). The scale was significantly associated with children's caries experience, p < 0.001. Cronbach's alpha values were 0.87, 0.89 and 0.74 for the total, the child and the family domains, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 0.92, 0.89 and 0.78 for the total, child and family domains, respectively. The scale demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability for assessing the impact of early childhood caries among Australian preschool children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Efficacy of oral health promotion in primary care practice during early childhood: creating positive changes in parent's oral health beliefs and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mattheus, Deborah J

    2014-06-01

    Nurse practitioners frequently provide care to children suffering from poor oral health. Creative approaches to impacting dental disease are needed due to the current lack of traditional dental providers. This study investigated the effects of oral health promotion provided by primary care providers on parental oral health beliefs and behaviors. Participants receiving standard oral care during two well child visits and two additional enhanced oral health visits (n=44) were compared to participants receiving standard oral care during two well child visits alone (n=40). Results revealed changes in parent's perception of the importance of oral care for their children's primary teeth compared to general healthcare needs (p<0.05), response to brushing their children's teeth (p<0.0001), confidence in brushing their teeth (p<0.05) and frequency of brushing (p<0.0001) in both groups. This small but important study shows that oral health programs in primary care can produce changes that can improve oral health outcomes. Parents and children exposed to oral health programs during their frequent well child care visits in the first years of life may help decrease the rate of early childhood caries and improve their quality of life.

  4. Relationships between early-life growth, intake, and birth season with first-lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chester-Jones, H; Heins, B J; Ziegler, D; Schimek, D; Schuling, S; Ziegler, B; de Ondarza, M B; Sniffen, C J; Broadwater, N

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to determine the relationships between early-life parameters [including average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW), milk replacer intake, starter intake, and birth season] and the first-lactation performance of Holstein cows. We collected data from birth years 2004 to 2012 for 2,880 Holstein animals. Calves were received from 3 commercial dairy farms and enrolled in 37 different calf research trials at the University of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center from 3 to 195 d. Upon trial completion, calves were returned to their respective farms. Milk replacer options included varying protein levels and amounts fed, but in the majority of studies, calves were fed a milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 0.57 kg/calf daily. Most calves (93%) were weaned at 6 wk. Milk replacer dry matter intake, starter intake, ADG, and BW at 6 wk were 21.5 ± 2.2 kg, 17.3 ± 7.3 kg, 0.53 ± 0.13 kg/d, and 62.4 ± 6.8 kg, respectively. Average age at first calving and first-lactation 305-d milk yield were 715 ± 46.5 d and 10,959 ± 1,527 kg, respectively. We conducted separate mixed-model analyses using the REML model-fitting protocol of JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to determine the effect of early-life BW or ADG, milk replacer and starter intake, and birth season on first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and true protein yield. Greater BW and ADG at 6 wk resulted in increased first-lactation milk and milk component yields. Intake of calf starter at 8 wk had a significant positive relationship with first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Milk replacer intake, which varied very little in this data set, had no effect on first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Calves born in the fall and winter had greater starter intake, BW, and ADG at 8 wk. However, calves born in the summer had a higher 305-d milk yield during their first lactation than those born in the fall and winter. Improvements were modest, and

  5. Early childhood caries and infant oral health: Paediatricians’ and family physicians’ knowledge, practices and training

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Preeti; Lawrence, Herenia P; Harvey, Bart J; McIsaac, Warren J; Limeback, Hardy; Leake, James L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the knowledge of early childhood caries and to examine the current preventive oral health-related practices and training among Canadian paediatricians and family physicians who provide primary care to children younger than three years. METHODS A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 1928 paediatricians and family physicians. RESULTS A total of 1044 physicians met the study eligibility criteria, and of those, 537 returned completed surveys, resulting in an overall response rate of 51.4% (237 paediatricians and 300 family physicians). Six questions assessed knowledge of early childhood caries; only 1.8% of paediatricians and 0.7% of family physicians answered all of these questions correctly. In total, 73.9% of paediatricians and 52.4% of family physicians reported visually inspecting children’s teeth; 60.4% and 44.6%, respectively, reported counselling parents or caregivers regarding teething and dental care; 53.2% and 25.6%, respectively, reported assessing children’s risk of developing tooth decay; and 17.9% and 22.3%, respectively, reported receiving no oral health training in medical school or residency. Respondents who felt confident and knowledgeable and who considered their role in promoting oral health as “very important” were significantly more likely to carry out oral health-related practices. CONCLUSION Although the majority of paediatricians and family physicians reported including aspects of oral health in children’s well visits, a reported lack of dental knowledge and training appeared to pose barriers, limiting these physicians from playing a more active role in promoting the oral health of children in their practices. PMID:19030271

  6. Early childhood experiences, cultural beliefs, and oral health of Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Miltiades, Helen B

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative article examines how financial resources, cultural beliefs, and early childhood experiences affect perceptions of oral health and dental utilization of middle-aged and older Mexican American women. Fourteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted. The women's ages range from 49 to 87 years. Most had not visited the dentist in more than 2 years. Most women's early childhood experiences did not include dental visits or dental instruction. Some believed tooth loss was a normal aging process. Misconceptions regarding preventive care, the belief that dental visits were only necessary when experiencing pain, and finances were the primary reasons for not visiting the dentist. The results lend insight into the oral health, self-care practices, and dental utilization of middle-aged and older immigrant Mexican American women.

  7. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    PubMed

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-21

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  8. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    PubMed Central

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L.; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G.; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L.; Mercer Moss, Felix J.; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. PMID:27213451

  9. Oral Contraceptive Use, Micronutrient Deficiency, and Obesity among Premenopausal Females in Korea: The Necessity of Dietary Supplements and Food Intake Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed the associations between oral contraceptive (OC) use and obesity as measured by recording the body mass index (BMI) of premenopausal females, and possible interactions with micronutrient intake were considered. A group of 39,189 premenopausal females aged 35–59 were included in the analysis; they were in the Health Examinee cohort. Participant BMIs were calculated from anthropometric measurements, and females with a BMI≥25kg/m2 were considered obese. Individual OC use, age at first OC use, duration of OC use, nutrient intake, and other covariates were measured with a structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression with an interaction term was applied to identify the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between OC use and obesity along with consideration of micronutrient intake interactions. OC use is associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04–1.20), and females who used OCs for more than 6 months over their lifetimes were more likely to be obese (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01–1.32) compared with those who used OCs for <6 months. There were interaction effects between phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, vitamin C intake and total duration of OC use on being obesity (P-value<0.05). When stratified by micronutrient intake, the associations between total OC use duration and obesity were present only among those with calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A, B1, B2, C, niacin, and folate intakes below the recommended levels. Efforts to estimate nutrient intake and prevent micronutrient depletion with supplements or food should be considered by clinicians for females who take OC for a long period. PMID:27348598

  10. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake.

    PubMed

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Kimʼs, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children.

  11. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake

    PubMed Central

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children. PMID:26825887

  12. Early intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids preserves brain structure and function in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Zerbi, Valerio; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Noordman, Rikko H J; Bolijn, Simone; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Dederen, Pieter J W C; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Schoemaker, Marieke H; Heerschap, Arend; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, and the number of children with obesity is especially worrisome. These developments raise concerns about the physical, psychosocial and cognitive consequences of obesity. It was shown that early dietary intake of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the detrimental effects of later obesogenic feeding on lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in an animal model of mild obesity. In the present study, the effects of early dietary ARA and DHA on cognition and brain structure were examined in mildly obesogenic ApoE*3Leiden mouse model. We used cognitive tests and neuroimaging during early and later life. During their early development after weaning (4-13weeks of age), mice were fed a chow diet or ARA and DHA diet for 8 weeks and then switched to a high-fat and high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet for 12weeks (14-26weeks of age). An HFHC-diet led to increased energy storage in white adipose tissue, increased cholesterol levels, decreased triglycerides levels, increased cerebral blood flow and decreased functional connectivity between brain regions as well as cerebrovascular and gray matter integrity. ARA and DHA intake reduced the HFHC-diet-induced increase in body weight, attenuated plasma triglycerides levels and improved cerebrovasculature, gray matter integrity and functional connectivity in later life. In conclusion, an HFHC diet causes adverse structural brain and metabolic adaptations, most of which can be averted by dietary ARA and DHA intake early in life supporting metabolic flexibility and cerebral integrity later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of prosthetic rehabilitation and simple dietary counseling on food intake and oral health related quality of life among the edentulous individuals: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Noriko; Komagamine, Yuriko; Kanazawa, Manabu; Iwaki, Maiko; Jo, Ayami; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the combined effect of complete denture renewal and simple dietary advice. A randomized controlled trial was performed with edentulous patients who required new complete dentures. All participants received complete denture treatment. In addition, the intervention group received dietary advice in a pamphlet form, while the control group received advice pertaining to the care and maintenance of the dentures. The advice was given by dentists for each group. The participants' food intake was assessed at baseline and 3 months after intervention using a diet history questionnaire and an oral health related quality of life assessment measured using the Japanese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile for edentulous people (OHIP-EDENT-J). Among 70 participants who were randomized, 62 participants finished all parts of this trial. At baseline, there was no significant difference in the food intake between the two groups. At the 3-month assessment, the intervention group showed significantly greater intake of chicken (P=0.013), fish with bones (P=0.012), and carrots and pumpkins (P=0.025) compared to the control group. However, at baseline and at the 3-month assessment, there was no significant difference in the OHIP-EDENT-J scores between the groups, but the OHIP-EDENT-J scores significantly improved for both groups at the 3-month assessment. There were more significant improved dimensions of OHIP-EDENT-J in the intervention group than in the control group at the 3-month assessment. Simple dietary advice combined with complete denture treatment could improve food intake of edentulous patients. The present study suggests that brief dietary advice provided by dentists can improve food intake of edentulous elderly. This simply diet advice is much easier compared to customized forms, might enable normal dentists provide patients it. The result of this study broadens possibility of nutritional counseling in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:26798423

  15. Hydrogen-Rich Water Intake Accelerates Oral Palatal Wound Healing via Activation of the Nrf2/Antioxidant Defense Pathways in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Orihuela-Campos, Rita Cristina; Fukui, Makoto; Ito, Hiro-O

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing process attempts to restore the integrity and function of the injured tissue. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress play important roles in wound healing. The aim of this study was to determine whether hydrogen-rich water intake induces the activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway in rat palatal tissue, thereby reducing systemic oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoting healing-associated genes. A circular excisional wound was created in the oral palatal region, and the wound healing process was observed. The rats were divided into two experimental groups in which either hydrogen-rich water or distilled water was consumed. In the drinking hydrogen-rich water, the palatal wound healing process was accelerated compared to that in the control group. As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich water intake exhibited multiple beneficial effects through activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  16. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Oral Communicative Competence and Peer Rejection: An Explorative Study in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van der Veen, Chiel; van Oers, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between oral communicative competence and peer rejection in early childhood education. It was hypothesized that children with poorer oral communicative competence would be rejected by their peers more frequently and that the strength of this relationship would differ for boys and…

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-06

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  18. Effects of Orally Administered Augmentin on Glutamate Transporter 1, Cystine-glutamate Exchanger Expression as well as Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hakami, Alqassem Y.; Alshehri, Fahad S.; Althobaiti, Yusuf S.; Sari, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with deficits in glutamate uptake and impairment of glutamate homeostasis in different brain reward regions. Glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1), cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) are the key players in regulating extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Parenteral treatment with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate ethanol consumption and reinstatement to cocaine-seeking behavior, in part, by restoring the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in mesocorticolimbic brain regions in rats. In this study, we focus to test Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate), which can be administered orally to subjects. Therefore, we examined the effects of orally administered Augmentin on ethanol intake as well as GLT-1, xCT and GLAST expression in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We found that orally administered Augmentin significantly attenuated ethanol consumption in P rats as compared to the vehicle-treated group. Importantly, the attenuation in ethanol consumption was associated with a significant upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). There was no effect of oral Augmentin on GLAST expression in either NAc or PFC. These findings present strong evidence that oral administration of Augmentin can be used as an alternative to parenteral administration. PMID:27993695

  19. Effects of orally administered Augmentin on glutamate transporter 1, cystine-glutamate exchanger expression and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Alqassem Y; Alshehri, Fahad S; Althobaiti, Yusuf S; Sari, Youssef

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with deficits in glutamate uptake and impairment of glutamate homeostasis in different brain reward regions. Glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1), cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) are one of the key players in regulating extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain. Parenteral treatment with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate ethanol consumption and reinstatement to cocaine-seeking behavior, in part, by restoring the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in mesocorticolimbic brain regions in rats. In this study, we focused to test Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate), which can be administered orally to subjects. Therefore, we examined the effects of orally administered Augmentin on ethanol intake as well as GLT-1, xCT and GLAST expression in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We found that orally administered Augmentin significantly attenuated ethanol consumption in P rats as compared to the vehicle-treated group. Importantly, the attenuation in ethanol consumption was associated with a significant upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). There was no effect of orally administered Augmentin on GLAST expression in either NAc or PFC. These findings present strong evidence that oral administration of Augmentin can be used as an alternative to parenteral treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Early Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Oral Contraceptive Cost Sharing, Discontinuation, And Nonadherence.

    PubMed

    Pace, Lydia E; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-09-01

    The oral contraceptive pill is the contraceptive method most commonly used by US women, but inconsistent use of the pill is a contributor to high rates of unintended pregnancy. The relationship between consumer cost sharing and consistent use of the pill is not well understood, and the impact of the elimination of cost sharing for oral contraceptive pills in a mandate in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is not yet known. We analyzed insurance claims for 635,075 women with employer-sponsored insurance who were initiating use of the pill, to examine rates of discontinuation and nonadherence, their relationship with cost sharing, and trends before and during the first year after implementation of the ACA mandate. We found that cost sharing for oral contraceptives decreased markedly following implementation, more significantly for generic than for brand-name versions. Higher copays were associated with greater discontinuation of and nonadherence to generic pills than was the case with zero copayments. Discontinuation of the use of generic or brand-name pills decreased slightly but significantly following ACA implementation, as did nonadherence to brand-name pills. Our findings suggest a modest early impact of the ACA on improving consistent use of oral contraceptives among women initiating their use. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. The Effects of a Normal Rate versus a Slow Intervalled Rate of Oral Nutrient Intake and Intravenous Low Rate Macronutrient Application on Psychophysical Function - Two Pilot Studies.

    PubMed

    Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Y; Bachlechner, Stephan; Wielopolski, Jan; Fischer, Marie; Buettner, Andrea; Doerfler, Arndt; Schöfl, Christof; Münch, Gerald; Kornhuber, Johannes; Thürauf, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Stomach distension and energy per time are factors influencing satiety. Moreover, different rates of nutrient intake induce different stomach distension. The goal of our studies was to elucidate the influence of different oral rates of nutrient intake (normal rate versus slow intervalled rate; study I) and intravenous low rate macronutrient application (protein, carbohydrate, fat) or placebo (study II) on psychophysical function. The pilot studies investigated the effects of 1) study I: a mixed nutrient solution (1/3 protein, 1/3 fat, 1/3 carbohydrates) 2) study II: intravenous macronutrient infusions (protein, carbohydrate, fat) or placebo on psychophysical function (mood, hunger, food craving, alertness, smell intensity ratings and hedonic ratings) in human subjects. In study I 10 male subjects (age range: 21-30 years) completed the study protocol participating in both test conditions and in study II 20 male subjects (age range: 19-41 years) completed the study protocol participating in all test conditions. Additionally, metabolic function was analyzed and cognitive and olfactory tests were conducted twice starting 100 min before the beginning of the intervention and 240 min after. Psychophysical (mood, hunger, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-, sweets- and vegetable-craving), alertness and metabolic function tests were performed seven times on each examination day. Greater effects on hunger and food cravings were observed for normal rate of intake compared to slow intervalled rate of intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application. Our findings potentially confirm that volume of the food ingested and a higher rate of energy per time contribute to satiety during normal rate of food intake, while slow intervalled rate of food intake and intravenous low rate macronutrient application showed no effects on satiation. Our results motivate the view that a certain amount of volume of the food ingested and a certain energy per time ratio are necessary to reduce

  2. Postpartum Consequences of an Overlap of Breastfeeding and Pregnancy: Reduced Breast Milk Intake and Growth During Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Grace S.; Penny, Mary E.; Diaz, Judith M.; Marín, R. Margot

    2006-01-01

    Objective Despite cultural pressure to wean when a new pregnancy occurs, some women choose to continue breastfeeding. We determined the effect of an overlap of lactation and late pregnancy on breastfeeding and growth in early infancy. Methods We studied 133 Peruvian pregnant women who were ≥18 years of age, had a child <4 years old, and who then had a vaginal birth with a healthy, normal weight infant. Of the 133 women, 68 breastfed during the last trimester of pregnancy (BFP), and 65 had not breastfed during pregnancy (NBFP). On day 2 and at 1-month postpartum, 24-hour intake of breast milk and other liquids was measured. Twice weekly home surveillance documented infant morbidity and dietary intakes. Anthropometry was taken at birth and at 1 month. Maternal anthropometric, health, and socioeconomic status data were collected pre- and postpartum. Results Pregnant BFP mothers breastfed 5.3 ± 4.3 times/day. BFP and NBFP infants did not differ in breastfeeding behavior or in colostrum intake on day 2. BFP infants breastfed longer per feed and per 24 hours (35.2 minutes/24 hours) than did NBFP infants; however, 1-month intakes per feed tended to be lower among the BFP infants. After controlling for confounders, BFP infants gained 125 g less than did NBFP infants (about 15% of mean weight gain). A sustained decline would result in a −0.7 z score change in weight-for-age by 6 months. Conclusions A lactation-pregnancy overlap had a negative effect on early infant outcomes. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the effect continues past 1 month of age. PMID:11927729

  3. Interferential current sensory stimulation, through the neck skin, improves airway defense and oral nutrition intake in patients with dysphagia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation with muscle contraction, administered through the skin of the neck, improves a patient's swallowing ability. However, the beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS), without muscle contraction, are controversial. We investigated the effect of TESS, using interferential current, in patients undergoing dysphagia rehabilitation. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial involved 43 patients who were prescribed in-hospital dysphagia rehabilitation for ≥3 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to the sensory stimulation (SS) or sham groups; all received usual rehabilitative care plus 2 weeks of SS or sham intervention. Outcome measures included cough latency times against a 1% citric acid mist, functional oral intake scale (FOIS) scores, and oral nutritional intake - each determined after the second and third week following treatment initiation. Mean patient age was 84.3±7.5 years; 58% were women. The SS and sham groups had similar baseline characteristics. Changes in cough latency time at 2 weeks (-14.1±14.0 vs -5.2±14.2 s, p =0.047) and oral nutrition intake at 3 weeks (437±575 vs 138±315 kcal/day, p =0.042) improved more in the SS group than in the sham group. Changes in cough frequency and FOIS scores indicated better outcomes in the SS group, based on substantial effect sizes. TESS, using interferential current through the neck, improved airway defense and nutrition in patients suffering from dysphagia. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm the technique's effect on swallowing ability.

  4. Interferential current sensory stimulation, through the neck skin, improves airway defense and oral nutrition intake in patients with dysphagia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation with muscle contraction, administered through the skin of the neck, improves a patient’s swallowing ability. However, the beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS), without muscle contraction, are controversial. We investigated the effect of TESS, using interferential current, in patients undergoing dysphagia rehabilitation. Methods This double-blind, randomized controlled trial involved 43 patients who were prescribed in-hospital dysphagia rehabilitation for ≥3 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to the sensory stimulation (SS) or sham groups; all received usual rehabilitative care plus 2 weeks of SS or sham intervention. Outcome measures included cough latency times against a 1% citric acid mist, functional oral intake scale (FOIS) scores, and oral nutritional intake – each determined after the second and third week following treatment initiation. Results Mean patient age was 84.3±7.5 years; 58% were women. The SS and sham groups had similar baseline characteristics. Changes in cough latency time at 2 weeks (−14.1±14.0 vs −5.2±14.2 s, p=0.047) and oral nutrition intake at 3 weeks (437±575 vs 138±315 kcal/day, p=0.042) improved more in the SS group than in the sham group. Changes in cough frequency and FOIS scores indicated better outcomes in the SS group, based on substantial effect sizes. Conclusion TESS, using interferential current through the neck, improved airway defense and nutrition in patients suffering from dysphagia. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm the technique’s effect on swallowing ability. PMID:29158670

  5. A multi-wavelength (u.v. to visible) laser system for early detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najda, S. P.; Perlin, P.; Leszczyński, M.; Slight, T. J.; Meredith, W.; Schemmann, M.; Moseley, H.; Woods, J. A.; Valentine, R.; Kalra, S.; Mossey, P.; Theaker, E.; Macluskey, M.; Mimnagh, G.; Mimnagh, W.

    2015-03-01

    A multi-wavelength (360nm - 440nm), real-time Photonic Cancer Detector (PCD) optical system based on GaN semiconductor laser technology is outlined. A proof of concept using blue laser technology for early detection of cancer has already been tested and proven for esophageal cancer. This concept is expanded to consider a wider range of wavelengths and the PCD will initially be used for early diagnosis of oral cancers. The PCD creates an image of the oral cavity (broad field white light detection) and maps within the oral cavity any suspicious lesions with high sensitivity using a narrow field tunable detector.

  6. Effects of healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions on feeding practices and dietary intake: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Toomey, Elaine; Delaney, Lisa; Harrington, Janas; Byrne, Molly; Kearney, Patricia M

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health challenge. Parental feeding practices, such as responsive feeding, are implicated in the etiology of childhood obesity. This systematic review aimed to examine of effects of healthcare professional-delivered early feeding interventions, on parental feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes for children up to 2 years. The role of responsive feeding interventions was also specifically examined. Databases searched included: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care. participants are parents of children ≤2 years; intervention includes focus on early child feeding to prevent overweight and obesity; intervention delivered by healthcare professionals. Sixteen papers, representing 10 trials, met inclusion criteria for review. Six interventions included responsive feeding components. Interventions demonstrated inconsistent effects on feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes. Findings suggest some reductions in pressure to eat and infant consumption of non-core beverages. Responsive feeding based interventions demonstrate greater improvements in feeding approaches, and weight outcomes. The findings of this review highlight the importance of incorporating responsive feeding in healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Observed inconsistencies across trials may be explained by methodological limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beverage intake and obesity in early childhood: evidence form primary health care clients in Northwest Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alderete, E; Bejarano, I; Rodríguez, A

    2015-12-07

    Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) are thought to play an important role in weight gain. We examined the relationship between the intake of caloric and noncaloric beverages (SSB and water) and the nutritional status of children. In 2014, we randomly selected 16 public health clinics in four cities of Northwest Argentina and conducted a survey among mothers of children 0-6 years of age. Children's beverage intake was ascertained by 24-h dietary recall provided by the mothers. Children's weight and height measures were obtained from clinic's registries. We calculated the body mass index using the International Obesity Task Force standards. The analysis included 562 children 25 months to 6 years of age with normal or above normal nutritional status. Children's beverage consumption was as follows, water 81.8%, carbonated soft drinks (CSD) 49.7%, coffee/tea/cocoa 44.0%, artificial fruit drinks 35.6%, flavored water 17.9%, natural fruit juice 14.5%. In multivariate logistic regression models the likelihood of being obese v. being overweight or having normal weight doubled with an intake of one to five glasses of CSD (OR=2.2) and increased by more than three-fold with an intake of more than five glasses (OR=3.5). Drinking more than five glasses of water decreased the likelihood of being obese by less than half (OR=0.3). The percentage of children drinking more than five glasses of other beverages was low (3.3-0.9%) and regression models did not yield significant results. The study contributed evidence for reducing children's CSD intake and for promoting water consumption, together with the implementation of comprehensive regulatory public health policies.

  8. Detection Times of Diazepam, Clonazepam, and Alprazolam in Oral Fluid Collected From Patients Admitted to Detoxification, After High and Repeated Drug Intake.

    PubMed

    Nordal, Kristin; Øiestad, Elisabeth L; Enger, Asle; Christophersen, Asbjorg S; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2015-08-01

    . Results from blood samples revealed that high doses of benzodiazepines had been ingested before admission, and explains the longer detection times in oral fluids than reported previously after intake of therapeutic doses of these drugs. This study has shown that oral fluid might be a viable alternative medium to urine when the abuse of benzodiazepines is suspected.

  9. Study protocol for the SOFIA project: Swallowing function, Oral health, and Food Intake in old Age: a descriptive study with a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Patricia; Olai, Lena; Ståhlnacke, Katri; Persenius, Mona; Hägg, Mary; Andersson, Maria; Koistinen, Susanne; Carlsson, Eva

    2017-03-23

    -intervention, all assessments will be repeated in both study groups. The results will make important contributions to rehabilitation knowledge, including approaches for improving swallowing function, oral health, and food intake and for improving the quality of oral care for older people. This trial was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, on July 4, 2016, identifier: NCT02825927 .

  10. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  11. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer.

  12. Profiling of Oral Microbiota in Early Childhood Caries Using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Sa; Xu, Lei; Tu, Yan; Zheng, Pei; Wang, Ying; Lin, Xiaolong; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alterations of oral microbiota are the main cause of the progression of caries. The goal of this study was to characterize the oral microbiota in childhood caries based on single-molecule real-time sequencing. Methods: A total of 21 preschoolers, aged 3–5 years old with severe early childhood caries, and 20 age-matched, caries-free children as controls were recruited. Saliva samples were collected, followed by DNA extraction, Pacbio sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of the oral microbial communities. Results: Eight hundred and seventy six species derived from 13 known bacterial phyla and 110 genera were detected from 41 children using Pacbio sequencing. At the species level, 38 species, including Veillonella spp., Streptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., and Lactobacillus spp., showed higher abundance in the caries group compared to the caries-free group (p < 0.05). The core microbiota at the genus and species levels was more stable in the caries-free micro-ecological niche. At follow-up, oral examinations 6 months after sample collection, development of new dental caries was observed in 5 children (the transitional group) among the 21 caries free children. Compared with the caries-free children, in the transitional and caries groups, 6 species, which were more abundant in the caries-free group, exhibited a relatively low abundance in both the caries group and the transitional group (p < 0.05). We conclude that Abiotrophia spp., Neisseria spp., and Veillonella spp., might be associated with healthy oral microbial ecosystem. Prevotella spp., Lactobacillus spp., Dialister spp., and Filifactor spp. may be related to the pathogenesis and progression of dental caries. PMID:29187843

  13. Profiling of Oral Microbiota in Early Childhood Caries Using Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Xi; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Sa; Xu, Lei; Tu, Yan; Zheng, Pei; Wang, Ying; Lin, Xiaolong; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alterations of oral microbiota are the main cause of the progression of caries. The goal of this study was to characterize the oral microbiota in childhood caries based on single-molecule real-time sequencing. Methods: A total of 21 preschoolers, aged 3-5 years old with severe early childhood caries, and 20 age-matched, caries-free children as controls were recruited. Saliva samples were collected, followed by DNA extraction, Pacbio sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of the oral microbial communities. Results: Eight hundred and seventy six species derived from 13 known bacterial phyla and 110 genera were detected from 41 children using Pacbio sequencing. At the species level, 38 species, including Veillonella spp., Streptococcus spp., Prevotella spp., and Lactobacillus spp., showed higher abundance in the caries group compared to the caries-free group ( p < 0.05). The core microbiota at the genus and species levels was more stable in the caries-free micro-ecological niche. At follow-up, oral examinations 6 months after sample collection, development of new dental caries was observed in 5 children (the transitional group) among the 21 caries free children. Compared with the caries-free children, in the transitional and caries groups, 6 species, which were more abundant in the caries-free group, exhibited a relatively low abundance in both the caries group and the transitional group ( p < 0.05). We conclude that Abiotrophia spp., Neisseria spp., and Veillonella spp., might be associated with healthy oral microbial ecosystem. Prevotella spp., Lactobacillus spp., Dialister spp., and Filifactor spp. may be related to the pathogenesis and progression of dental caries.

  14. Increased salt intake during early ontogenesis lead to development of arterial hypertension in salt-resistant Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Svitok, Pavel; Molcan, Lubos; Vesela, Anna; Kruzliak, Peter; Moravcik, Roman; Zeman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    A direct relationship exists between salt consumption and hypertension. Increased sodium intake does not automatically lead to a rise in blood pressure (BP) because of marked intra-individual variability in salt sensitivity. Wistar rats are a salt-resistant strain and increased salt intake in adults does not induce hypertension. Mechanisms regulating BP develop during early ontogenesis and increased sodium consumption by pregnant females leads to an increase in BP of their offspring, but early postnatal stages have not been sufficiently analyzed in salt-resistant strains of rats. The aim of this work was to study the effects of increased salt during early ontogeny on cardiovascular characteristics of Wistar rats. We used 16 control (C; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a standard diet (0.2% sodium) and 16 experimental (S; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a diet containing 0.8% sodium. BP was measured weekly and plasma renin activity, aldosterone and testosterone concentrations were assayed by radioimmunoassay after the experiment in 16-week-old animals. In the kidney, AT1 receptors were determined by the western blot. BP was higher in the S as compared with the C rats and did not differ between males and females. The relative left ventricle mass was increased in S as compared with C males and no differences were recorded in females. No significant differences between groups were found in hormonal parameters and AT1 receptors. Results indicate that moderately increased salt intake during postnatal ontogeny results in a BP rise even in salt-resistant rats.

  15. Effect of early nutritional intake on long-term growth and bone mineralization of former very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Christmann, V; van der Putten, M E; Rodwell, L; Steiner, K; Gotthardt, M; van Goudoever, J B; van Heijst, A F J

    2018-03-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for impaired bone mineralization and growth in length later in life due to inadequate nutritional intake in the early postnatal period. To investigate whether increased nutritional supplementation of calcium, phosphate and protein in Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants during the first 14days after birth was associated with improvement in length and bone development until 9-10years of age. Observational follow-up study of VLBW infants (birth weight<1500g or gestational age<32weeks) born in two consecutive years (eligible infants: 2004 n: 63 and 2005: n: 66). Cohort 2005 received higher intake of calcium, phosphate and protein with parenteral nutrition compared to Cohort 2004. Anthropometric data were collected during standard follow-up visits until five years, and additionally at 9-10years of age including measurements of bone mineral content, bone mineral density of the whole body and lumbar spine determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Long-term growth trajectories of both cohorts were evaluated separately for participants born appropriate (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA), stratified by gender. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the effect of nutritional intake and clinical covariates on length and bone mineralization. Both cohorts achieved a catch-up in length to SDS within the normal range by 6months (length SDS: estimated mean (95% confidence interval (CI): 6months: Cohort 2004: -0.7 (-1.1, -0.3) Cohort 2005: -0.5 (-0.8, -0.2)). Bone mineral content and density were within the normal range and not different between the cohorts. SGA children achieved a catch-up in length at 5years with bone mineralization comparable to AGA children. Only for girls birth weight was significantly associated with length SDS (per gram: β 0.001; 95% CI (0.000, 0.003); p=0.03) There was no evidence of an association between early nutritional intake and bone mineralization. Children born as appropriate or small for

  16. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.

  17. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth, and body fat distribution at school age.

    PubMed

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Gaillard, Romy

    2016-05-01

    The associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns and body fat and insulin levels at school age were examined. In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy was assessed by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onward. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years, and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. These results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Developing Leadership for Early Childhood Professionals through Oral Inquiry: Strengthening Equity through Making Particulars Visible in Dilemmas of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Julie Marie; Kroll, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Developing leadership among early childhood professionals has become increasingly important as investing in children's early years has been championed as a public and private national and international priority. Two case studies present how oral inquiry and specifically, the Prospect Center's Descriptive Review of a Professional Dilemma of…

  19. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Morisaki, Naho; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    The relative validity of food frequency questionnaires for estimating long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake among pregnant Japanese women is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to verify the external validity of a food frequency questionnaire, originally developed for non-pregnant adults, to assess the dietary intake of LC-PUFA using dietary records and serum phospholipid levels among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. A validation study involving 188 participants in early pregnancy and 169 participants in late pregnancy was conducted. Intake LC-PUFA was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and evaluated using a 3-day dietary record and serum phospholipid concentrations in both early and late pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire provided estimates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake with higher precision than dietary records in both early and late pregnancy. Significant correlations were observed for LC-PUFA intake estimated using dietary records in both early and late pregnancy, particularly for EPA and DHA (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.34 to 0.40, p < 0.0001). Similarly, high correlations for EPA and DHA in serum phospholipid composition were also observed in both early and late pregnancy (correlation coefficients ranged 0.27 to 0.34, p < 0.0001). Our findings suggest that the food frequency questionnaire, which was originally designed for non-pregnant adults and was evaluated in this study against dietary records and biological markers, has good validity for assessing LC-PUFA intake, especially EPA and DHA intake, among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Caregiver knowledge and attitudes of preschool oral health and early childhood caries (ECC).

    PubMed

    Schroth, Robert J; Brothwell, Douglas J; Moffatt, Michael E K

    2007-04-01

    Prevention strategies are integral to improving the oral health for young Aboriginal children. For such to be effective, it is important to understand the social value that parents and caregivers ascribe to primary teeth. The purpose of this paper is to report caregiver knowledge and attitudes toward preschool oral health and early childhood caries (ECC) from 4 communities in Manitoba. Cross-sectional study, including a retrospective interview with caregivers. Children and their main caregivers served as the sample. Preschoolers underwent a comprehensive dental screening while caregivers completed a questionnaire that explored knowledge and attitudes toward preschool dental health. Caregiver responses were matched with findings from each child's examination. A majority agreed that primary teeth were important, that dental disease could lead to health problems and that a first dental visit should be made by age 1. Caregivers of children with ECC were more likely to believe that caries could not affect a child's health while those who believed primary teeth are important had children with significantly less decay. Most caregivers believed that primary teeth are important and correctly responded to inquiries about knowledge and attitudes toward oral health. Attitudes on the importance of baby teeth and bottle feeding after one year of age, the effect of rotten teeth on childhood health and night-time nursing emerged as variables most associated with the absence/presence of ECC and deft rates. Incorporating such questioning into caries risk assessments may be a useful means to determine a child's risk for ECC.

  1. Challenges of early detection of oral cancer: raising awareness as a first step to successful campaigning.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Eva; Koller, Michael; Wiltfang, Jörg; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Möller, Björn; Hertrampf, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    In Germany, ∼ 13,000 people are found to have oral and pharyngeal cancer every year. Awareness and knowledge about this cancer remain insufficient, particularly amongst elderly people. A campaign for early detection was launched in Northern Germany in April 2012. The first step of the campaign was to increase awareness about oral cancer. Prior to a pre-campaign evaluation at the campaign start, March 2012 and an intermediate-campaign evaluation, November 2012, a sample representative for the population aged 50 ≥ years (target group; N = 500) was drawn for a first process evaluation. The surveys were conducted by means of telephone interviews including questions on behaviour, knowledge and sociodemographic/socioeconomic aspects and target group-oriented questions on issue, media and campaign material awareness. The process evaluation showed an increase in issue awareness from 25 to 40% (P < 0.001) and the media awareness increased by over 10% (P < 0.001). The results suggested that particularly women, the core age group (60-79 years) and the educationally disadvantaged group might benefit from the campaign. Awareness about the issue 'oral cancer' was already significantly increased 7 months after the campaign start. The highest general and media-related increase in awareness was achieved in the target group. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Early Pregnancy Cravings, Dietary Intake, and Development of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Farland, Leslie V; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationships between pregnancy cravings, maternal diet, and development of abnormal glucose tolerance. We examined relationships of pregnancy cravings with dietary intake and risk of developing isolated hyperglycemia (IH), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or gestational diabetes (GDM) later in pregnancy. Among 2,022 mothers in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort recruited from medical practices in eastern Massachusetts between 1999 and 2002, we assessed type of pregnancy craving based on self-report at mean gestation of 10.9 weeks. The outcomes were cross-sectional dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire and incident IH, IGT, or GDM determined by glucose tolerance screening at 26 to 28 weeks. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional relationships between pregnancy cravings and dietary intake and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the prospective relationships among pregnancy cravings and development of IH, IGT, or GDM. During the first trimester, 443 (22%) women craved sweets, 225 (11%) craved salty foods, 261 (13%) craved savory foods, and 100 (4.9%) craved starchy foods. Sweet cravings were associated with increased intake of sucrose (1.9 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 3.7), total fat (1.5 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 2.9), and saturated fat (0.8 g/day; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.4); salty cravings were associated with increased fiber (0.7 servings/day; 95% CI -0.1 to 1.6); savory cravings were associated with increased n-3 fatty acids (0.10 g/day; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.17); and starchy cravings were associated with increased carbohydrates (8.0 g/day; 95% CI 0.3 to 15.7) and decreased total fat (-2.6 g/day; 95% CI -5.2 to -0.1). Salty cravings were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.97). New cravings in the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with dietary intake. Craving salty foods may predict reduced risk of developing GDM, whereas craving sweet food does not appear to alter one

  3. Early Head Start, Pediatric Dental Use, and Oral Health–Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Burgette, J.M.; Preisser, J.S.; Weinberger, M.; King, R.S.; Rozier, R.G.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the mediating effect of child dental use on the effectiveness of North Carolina Early Head Start (EHS) in improving oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL). In total, 479 parents of children enrolled in EHS and 699 parents of Medicaid-matched children were interviewed at baseline when children were approximately 10 mo old and 24 mo later. In this quasi-experimental study, mediation analysis was performed using the counterfactual framework analysis, which employed 2 logit models with random effects: 1) for the mediator as a function of the treatment and covariates and 2) for the outcome as a function of the treatment, mediator, and covariates. The covariates were baseline dental OHRQoL, dental need, survey language, and a propensity score. We used in-person computer-assisted, structured interviews to collect information on demographic characteristics and dental use and to administer the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale, a measure of OHRQoL. Dental use had a mediation effect in the undesired direction with a 2–percentage point increase in the probability of any negative impact to OHRQoL (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3%–3.9%). Even with higher dental use by EHS participants, the probability of any negative impact to OHRQoL was approximately 8 percentage points lower if an individual were moved from the non-EHS group to the EHS group (95% CI, −13.9% to −1.2%). EHS increases child dental use, which worsens family OHRQoL. However, EHS is associated with improved OHRQoL overall. Knowledge Transfer Statement: Study results can inform policy makers that comprehensive early childhood education programs improve oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL) for disadvantaged families with young children in pathways outside of clinical dental care. This awareness and its promotion can lead to greater resource investments in early childhood education programs. Information about the negative impacts of dental

  4. Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2017-02-10

    Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P < 0.05). The median postoperative length of stay in the multimodal EON group was 8 days (6, 12) versus 10 days (7, 18) in the conventional care group (P < 0.001). The total cost of treatment and nutritional support were also less in the multi-modal early oral nutrition group (P < 0.001). The effectiveness was 84.9 and 79.9% in the multimodal EON and conventional care group, respectively (P = 0.475). However, the cost-effectiveness ratio was USD 537.6 (506.1, 589.3) and USD 637.8 (593.9, 710.3), respectively (P < 0.001). The multi-modal early oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal

  5. Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children: Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Early Childhood Caries Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P < 0.001). Additional caregiver behaviors included providing their child with a bottle containing cariogenic liquids in a crib (P < 0.001). As a result of this research, it is pertinent that culturally sensitive oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations.

  6. Multimodality approach to optical early detection and mapping of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Chung, Jungrae; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping

    2011-07-01

    Early detection of cancer remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Squamous cell carcinoma is usually preceded by dysplasia presenting as white, red, or mixed red and white epithelial lesions on the oral mucosa (leukoplakia, erythroplakia). Dysplastic lesions in the form of erythroplakia can carry a risk for malignant conversion of 90%. A noninvasive diagnostic modality would enable monitoring of these lesions at regular intervals and detection of treatment needs at a very early, relatively harmless stage. The specific aim of this work was to test a multimodality approach [three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and polarimetry] to noninvasive diagnosis of oral premalignancy and malignancy using the hamster cheek pouch model (nine hamsters). The results were compared to tissue histopathology. During carcinogenesis, epithelial down grow, eventual loss of basement membrane integrity, and subepithelial invasion were clearly visible with OCT. Polarimetry techniques identified a four to five times increased retardance in sites with squamous cell carcinoma, and two to three times greater retardance in dysplastic sites than in normal tissues. These techniques were particularly useful for mapping areas of field cancerization with multiple lesions, as well as lesion margins.

  7. An exploratory study of parental knowledge of early childhood oral health care in Southland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Chia, Leonard; Densie, Ian; Morgan, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective was to clearly assess the oral health care knowledge of Southland parents. The secondary objective was to identify whether inequalities exist between parents with different ethnicity, education or income. An exploratory study based on a simple online/ paper questionnaire. Participants were recruited through Southland early childcare centres. Researchers contacted 115 centres, 66 agreed to participate and 58 returned questionnaires. Questionnaires were distributed to each centre to be completed by the parents. The questionnaire was able to be completed online or as a paper copy. Centres were supplied with dental brochures, which were distributed after the questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were collated and the responses analysed. Six hundred and seventy questionnaires were returned, 213 online and 457 paper copies. The typical participant was a mother (93.9%), age 34 years (median), a non-smoker (86.3%), non-Maori (87.1%), with a university degree (33.9%) and an annual household income between $60,001 and $100,000 (36.5%). Twenty of the 47 questions were selected to reflect parental knowledge. Overall, 65.1% of the respondents answered all 20 questions correctly. Differences in knowledge were identified between mothers and other participants (65.4% vs. 59.4%), smokers and non-smokers (61.3% vs. 65.7%), Maori and non-Maori (61.6% vs. 65.6%) and education level (Primary 58.0% vs. Degree 68.7%) (P < 0.05). This study revealed differences in knowledge in early childhood oral health care. Participants who identified as non-mothers (fathers, step-fathers, legal care givers or other), smokers, Maori or low education displayed significantly less knowledge. Further education and oral health care promotion may be needed to improve this disparity.

  8. A novel intravital multi-harmonic generation microscope for early diagnosis of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Feng; Shih, Ting-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed human cancers and leading causes of cancer death all over the world, but the prognosis and overall survival rate are still poor because of delay in diagnosis and lack of early intervention. The failure of early diagnosis is due to insufficiency of proper diagnostic and screening tools and most patients are reluctant to undergo biopsy. Optical virtual biopsy techniques, for imaging cells and tissues at microscopic details capable of differentiating benign from malignant lesions non-invasively, are thus highly desirable. A novel multi-harmonic generation microscope, excited by a 1260 nm Cr:forsterite laser, with second and third harmonic signals demonstrating collagen fiber distribution and cell morphology in a sub-micron resolution, was developed for clinical use. To achieve invivo observation inside the human oral cavity, a small objective probe with a suction capability was carefully designed for patients' comfort and stability. By remotely changing its focus point, the same objective can image the mucosa surface with a low magnification, illuminated by side light-emitting diodes, with a charge-coupled device (CCD) for site location selection before the harmonic generation biopsy was applied. Furthermore, the slow galvanometer mirror and the fast resonant mirror provide a 30 fps frame rate for high-speed real-time observation and the z-motor of this system is triggered at the same rate to provide fast 3D scanning, again ensuring patients' comfort. Focusing on the special cytological and morphological changes of the oral epithelial cells, our preliminary result disclosed excellent consistency with traditional histopathology studies.

  9. Feasibility of a patient-centred nutrition intervention to improve oral intakes of patients at risk of pressure ulcer: a pilot randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Shelley; Desbrow, Ben; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is important for pressure ulcer prevention. This randomised control pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a larger trial to test the effectiveness of a patient-centred intervention for improving the dietary intakes of patients at risk of pressure ulcer in hospital. A 3-day intervention targeting patients at risk of pressure ulcer was developed, based on three main foundations: patient education, patient participation and guided goal setting. The intervention was piloted in three wards in a metropolitan hospital in Queensland, Australia. Participants were randomised into control or intervention groups and had their oral intakes monitored. A subset of intervention patients was interviewed on their perceptions of the intervention. Feasibility was tested against three criteria: ≥75% recruitment; ≥80% retention; and ≥80% intervention fidelity. Secondary outcomes related to effects on energy and protein intakes. Eighty patients participated in the study and 66 were included in final analysis. The recruitment rate was 82%, retention rate was 88%, and 100% of intervention patients received the intervention. Patients viewed the intervention as motivating and met significantly more of their estimated energy and protein requirements over time. This pilot study indicates that the intervention is feasible and acceptable by patients at risk of pressure ulcer. A larger trial is needed to confirm the effectiveness of the intervention in the clinical setting. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. [The status of protein intake and energy supply in the early life of very/extremely low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Bi, Chun-Yu; Ru, Xi-Fang; Feng, Qi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xing; Meng, Jing-Wen

    2013-05-01

    To study the relationship of protein intake and energy supply with the physical growth in very/extremely low birth weight infant at their early life. Retrospective survey was performed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Peking University First Hospital. Inclusion criteria were preterm infant, birth weight < 1500 g, hospitalization for longer than 2 weeks, discharge with body weight greater than 1800 g. The infants were divided into two groups according to gestational age (GA). GA < 32 weeks and ≥ 32 weeks. Physical growth and its relation with the protein intake and energy supply were analyzed. The predictive value of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on protein intake was studied. Ninety-three very/extremely low birth weight infants were involved, 69 in GA < 32 weeks group and 24 in GA ≥ 32 weeks group.Compared with GA ≥ 32 group, GA < 32 weeks preterm infants had more weight loss, (9.2 ± 4.4)% vs. (5.0 ± 3.1)%, P = 0.000; slower birth weight recovery (10.6 ± 3.8) d vs. (7.1 ± 2.6) d, P = 0.000; poorer weight gain at 1, 4, 5 weeks of life, (-4.5 ± 9.3) g/ (kg·d) vs. (3.4 ± 6.9) g/ (kg·d), P = 0.000 , (13.5 ± 7.3) g/ (kg·d) vs. (19.2 ± 4.9) g/ (kg·d), P = 0.001, (14.6 ± 5.6) g/ (kg·d) vs. (18.2 ± 4.5) g/ (kg·d), P = 0.031; less energy supply at 1 to 5 weeks (P value was 0.000,0.000,0.025,0.001,0.008 respectively) and less protein intake at 1, 4, 5 weeks of life (P value was 0.009,0.006,0.032). Extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) was still predominant in our subjects, 47.8% in GA < 32 weeks group, and 95.8% in GA ≥ 32 weeks group, P = 0.000. The incidence increased greater in GA < 32 weeks infants, 43.5% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.000.The duration of weight loss and mechanical ventilation correlated negatively with weight gain rate, respectively β = -0.591, P = 0.000 and β = -0.281, P = 0.005; the average energy supply and time taken to reach full enteral feeding were factors improving weight gain, respectively β = 0.202, P = 0.021 and

  11. Does a reduced glucose intake prevent hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery? a randomized controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia in children after cardiac surgery can be treated with intensive insulin therapy, but hypoglycemia is a potential serious side effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing glucose intake below standard intakes to prevent hyperglycemia, on blood glucose concentrations, glucose kinetics and protein catabolism in children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Subjects received a 4-hour low glucose (LG; 2.5 mg/kg per minute) and a 4-hour standard glucose (SG; 5.0 mg/kg per minute) infusion in a randomized blinded crossover setting. Simultaneously, an 8-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was conducted to determine glucose and leucine kinetics. Data are presented as mean ± SD or median (IQR); comparison was made by paired samples t test. Results Eleven subjects (age 5.1 (20.2) months) were studied 9.5 ± 1.9 hours post-cardiac surgery. Blood glucose concentrations were lower during LG than SG (LG 7.3 ± 0.7 vs. SG 9.3 ± 1.8 mmol/L; P < 0.01), although the glycemic target (4.0-6.0 mmol/L) was not achieved. No hypoglycemic events occurred. Endogenous glucose production was higher during LG than SG (LG 2.9 ± 0.8 vs. SG 1.5 ± 1.1 mg/kg per minute; P = 0.02), due to increased glycogenolysis (LG 1.0 ± 0.6 vs. SG 0.0 ± 1.0 mg/kg per minute; P < 0.05). Leucine balance, indicating protein balance, was negative but not affected by glucose intake (LG -54.8 ± 14.6 vs. SG -58.8 ± 16.7 μmol/kg per hour; P = 0.57). Conclusions Currently recommended glucose intakes aggravated hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery with CPB. Reduced glucose intake decreased blood glucose concentrations without causing hypoglycemia or affecting protein catabolism, but increased glycogenolysis. Trial registration Dutch trial register NTR2079. PMID:23031354

  12. Use of residual feed intake in Holsteins during early lactation shows potential to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Norman, H D; Olson, K M; Van Tassell, C P; Leith, J M; Baldwin, R L

    2013-08-01

    Improved feed efficiency is a primary goal in dairy production to reduce feed costs and negative impacts of production on the environment. Estimates for efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle are limited, primarily due to a lack of individual feed intake measurements for lactating cows. Feed intake was measured in Holstein cows during the first 90 d of lactation to estimate the heritability and repeatability of RFI, minimum test duration for evaluating RFI in early lactation, and its association with other production traits. Data were obtained from 453 lactations (214 heifers and 239 multiparous cows) from 292 individual cows from September 2007 to December 2011. Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and monitored for individual daily feed consumption using the GrowSafe 4000 System (GrowSafe Systems, Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada). Animals were fed a total mixed ration 3 times daily, milked twice daily, and weighed every 10 to 14 d. Milk yield was measured at each milking. Feed DM percentage was measured daily, and nutrient composition was analyzed from a weekly composite. Milk composition was analyzed weekly, alternating between morning and evening milking periods. Estimates of RFI were determined as the difference between actual energy intake and predicted intake based on a linear model with fixed effects of parity (1, 2, ≥ 3) and regressions on metabolic BW, ADG, and energy-corrected milk yield. Heritability was estimated to be moderate (0.36 ± 0.06), and repeatability was estimated at 0.56 across lactations. A test period through 53 d in milk (DIM) explained 81% of the variation provided by a test through 90 DIM. Multiple regression analysis indicated that high efficiency was associated with less time feeding per day and slower feeding rate, which may contribute to differences in RFI among cows. The heritability and repeatability of RFI suggest an opportunity to improve feed efficiency through genetic

  13. Predictive model accuracy in estimating last Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC.

    PubMed

    Karschner, Erin L; Schwope, David M; Schwilke, Eugene W; Goodwin, Robert S; Kelly, Deanna L; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-10-01

    Determining time since last cannabis/Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure is important in clinical, workplace, and forensic settings. Mathematical models calculating time of last exposure from whole blood concentrations typically employ a theoretical 0.5 whole blood-to-plasma (WB/P) ratio. No studies previously evaluated predictive models utilizing empirically-derived WB/P ratios, or whole blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics after subchronic THC dosing. Ten male chronic, daily cannabis smokers received escalating around-the-clock oral THC (40-120 mg daily) for 8 days. Cannabinoids were quantified in whole blood and plasma by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Maximum whole blood THC occurred 3.0 h after the first oral THC dose and 103.5h (4.3 days) during multiple THC dosing. Median WB/P ratios were THC 0.63 (n=196), 11-hydroxy-THC 0.60 (n=189), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) 0.55 (n=200). Predictive models utilizing these WB/P ratios accurately estimated last cannabis exposure in 96% and 100% of specimens collected within 1-5h after a single oral THC dose and throughout multiple dosing, respectively. Models were only 60% and 12.5% accurate 12.5 and 22.5h after the last THC dose, respectively. Predictive models estimating time since last cannabis intake from whole blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were inaccurate during abstinence, but highly accurate during active THC dosing. THC redistribution from large cannabinoid body stores and high circulating THCCOOH concentrations create different pharmacokinetic profiles than those in less than daily cannabis smokers that were used to derive the models. Thus, the models do not accurately predict time of last THC intake in individuals consuming THC daily. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Predictive model accuracy in estimating last Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC*

    PubMed Central

    Karschner, Erin L.; Schwope, David M.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining time since last cannabis/Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure is important in clinical, workplace, and forensic settings. Mathematical models calculating time of last exposure from whole blood concentrations typically employ a theoretical 0.5 whole blood-to-plasma (WB/P) ratio. No studies previously evaluated predictive models utilizing empirically-derived WB/P ratios, or whole blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics after subchronic THC dosing. Methods Ten male chronic, daily cannabis smokers received escalating around-the-clock oral THC (40-120 mg daily) for 8 days. Cannabinoids were quantified in whole blood and plasma by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Maximum whole blood THC occurred 3.0 h after the first oral THC dose and 103.5 h (4.3 days) during multiple THC dosing. Median WB/P ratios were THC 0.63 (n=196), 11-hydroxy-THC 0.60 (n=189), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) 0.55 (n=200). Predictive models utilizing these WB/P ratios accurately estimated last cannabis exposure in 96% and 100% of specimens collected within 1-5 h after a single oral THC dose and throughout multiple dosing, respectively. Models were only 60% and 12.5% accurate 12.5 and 22.5 h after the last THC dose, respectively. Conclusions Predictive models estimating time since last cannabis intake from whole blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were inaccurate during abstinence, but highly accurate during active THC dosing. THC redistribution from large cannabinoid body stores and high circulating THCCOOH concentrations create different pharmacokinetic profiles than those in less than daily cannabis smokers that were used to derive the models. Thus, the models do not accurately predict time of last THC intake in individuals consuming THC daily. PMID:22464363

  15. Correlation of serum biomarkers (TSA & LSA) and epithelial dysplasia in early diagnosis of oral precancer and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, Hemant; Kumar, C Anand

    Oral cancer is currently the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths, which is usually preceded by oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditions. Altered glycosylation of glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid, fucose, etc. are amongst the important molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate usefulness of serum Total Sialic Acid (TSA) and serum Lipid-Bound Sialic Acid (LSA) as markers of oral precancerous lesions and histopathologically correlating them with grades of epithelial dysplasia. Blood samples were collected from 50 patients with oral precancer (Leukoplakia & OSMF), 25 patients with untreated oral cancer and 25 healthy subjects. Serum sialic acid (total and lipid bound) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Tissue samples from all the patients were evaluated for dysplasia. Serum levels of total and lipid bound sialic acid were significantly elevated in patients with oral precancer and cancer when compared with healthy subjects. Analysis of variance test documented that there is progressive rise in serum levels of sialic acid with the degree of dysplastic changes in oral precancer patients. We observed positive correlation between serum levels of the markers and the extent of malignant disease (TNM Clinical staging) as well as histopathological grades. The results suggested that serum levels of TSA and LSA progressively increases with grades of dysplasia in precancerous groups and cancer group, when compared with healthy controls. These glycoconjugates, especially LSA has the clinical utility in indicating a premalignant change.

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for early oral cancers: Westmead Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Razak, Muzib; Chung, Hsiang; Wong, Eva; Palme, Carsten; Veness, Michael; Farlow, David; Coleman, Hedley; Morgan, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an alternative option to elective neck dissection (END) for early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) outside of Australia. We sought to assess the technical feasibility of SLNB and validate its accuracy against that of END in an Australian setting. We performed a prospective cohort study consisting of 30 consecutive patients with cT 1 - 2 N 0 OCSCC referred to the Head and Neck Cancer Service, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, between 2011 and 2014. All patients underwent SLNB followed by immediate selective neck dissection (levels I-III). A total of 30 patients were diagnosed with an early clinically node-negative OCSCC (seven cT1 and 23 cT2), with the majority located on the oral tongue. A median of three (range: 1-14) sentinel nodes were identified on lymphoscintigraphy, and all sentinel nodes were successfully retrieved, with 50% having a pathologically positive sentinel node. No false-negative sentinel nodes were identified using selective neck dissection as the gold standard. The negative predictive value (NPV) of SLNB was 100%, with 40% having a sentinel node identified outside the field of planned neck dissection on lymphoscintigraphy. Of these, one patient had a positive sentinel node outside of the ipsilateral supraomohyoid neck dissection template. SLNB for early OCSCC is technically feasible in an Australian setting. It has a high NPV and can potentially identify at-risk lymphatic basins outside the traditional selective neck dissection levels even in well-lateralized lesions. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  17. Is the Macronutrient Intake of Formula-Fed Infants Greater Than Breast-Fed Infants in Early Infancy?

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Shelly N.; Hustead, Deborah S.; Mackey, Amy D.; Singhal, Atul; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Faster weight gain early in infancy may contribute to a greater risk of later obesity in formula-fed compared to breast-fed infants. One potential explanation for the difference in weight gain is higher macronutrient intake in formula-fed infants during the first weeks of life. A systematic review was conducted using Medline to assess the macronutrient and energy content plus volume of intake in breast-fed and formula-fed infants in early infancy. All studies from healthy, term, singleton infants reporting values for the composition of breast milk during the first month of life were included. The energy content of colostrum (mean, SEM: 53.6 ± 2.5 kcal/100 mL), transitional milk (57.7 ± 4.2 kcal/100 mL), and mature milk (65.2 ± 1.1 kcal/100 mL) was lower than conventional infant formula (67 kcal/100 mL) on all days analyzed. The protein concentration of colostrum (2.5 ± 0.2 g/100 mL) and transitional milk (1.7 ± 0.1 g/100 mL) was higher than formula (1.4 g/100 mL), while the protein content of mature milk (1.3 ± 0.1 g/100 mL) was slightly lower. Formula-fed infants consume a higher volume and more energy dense milk in early life leading to faster growth which could potentially program a greater risk of long-term obesity. PMID:23056929

  18. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (p<0.05); nevertheless, sPLA2 concentrations were not significantly modified. After a fat-enriched diet added with red wine, TAC increased as compared to the same diet supplemented with rum, brandy, vodka or the control (water with sugar) (p<0.05). Moderate red wine intake, but not other alcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  19. A Systematic Evaluation of Food Textures to Decrease Packing and Increase Oral Intake in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Meeta R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Layer, Stacy A.; Coleman, Russell; Swartzwelder, Dana M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined packing (pocketing or holding accepted food in the mouth) in 3 children who were failing to thrive or had inadequate weight gain due to insufficient caloric intake. The results of an analysis of texture indicated that total grams consumed were higher when lower textured foods were presented than when higher textured foods were…

  20. Influence of occlusal characteristics, food intake and oral hygiene habits on dental caries in adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; d'Apuzzo, F; Majorana, A; Campus, G; Nucci, F; Flores-Mir, C; Perillo, L

    2018-06-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common oral diseases affecting children. The complex multifactorial aetiology of caries involves host (saliva composition and tooth enamel characteristics), oral microflora and substrate (oral hygiene quality and dietary habits composition). Occlusal characteristics may be also a factor in dental caries development. The aim of this aepidemiologic study was to verify the association between DMFT (Decayed, Missed, Filled Teeth) index and occlusal characteristics, dietary habits, oral hygiene habits and parents' education level in a sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren from Southern Italy. A sample of 536 children was examined to detect dental caries status and several occlusal variables (i.e. molar relationship, overjet and overbite, presence of crossbite, scissor bite, crowding, diastemas and/or midline deviation). A questionnaire to retrieve parents' educational level, patient's dietary and oral hygiene habits was administered. The associations among these variables were assessed statistically through the ?2 test. A positive association was found between caries, parents' social status and some occlusal disorders. va specificato, l'abstract non può essere una caccia al tesoro. In relation to occlusal variables, crossbite (?2=3.96, P=0.04) was significantly associated to caries. A significant association was also found between the education level of mothers (?2=7.74, P<0.01) and fathers (?2=6.35, P=0.01) and the presence of caries. Dietary habits, oral hygiene and remaining occlusal characteristics were not associated with caries presence (all P>0.05). Of the evaluated occlusal characteristics only posterior crossbite was associated with caries prevalence. Education level of the parents was the other factor significantly associated with caries. Dietary habits, oral hygiene frequency and the remaining occlusal characteristics were not associated with dental caries.

  1. Early Ethanol and Water Intake: Choice Mechanism and Total Fluid Regulation Operate in Parallel in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol / water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol / water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol / water choice. PMID:24095933

  2. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Associations between Prenatal and Early Childhood Fish and Processed Food Intake, Conduct Problems, and Co-Occurring Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Mesirow, Maurissa Sc; Cecil, Charlotte; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about early life diet as a risk factor for early-onset persistent conduct problems (EOP CP). To investigate this, we used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK-based prospective epidemiological birth cohort. 5727 mother-child pairs (49.9 % boys) monitored since pregnancy (delivery date between 1 April, 1991 and 31 December, 1992) reported intake of fish and processed foods at 32 weeks gestation and, for the child, at 3 years; EOP (n = 666) and Low conduct problem (Low CP, n = 5061) trajectories were measured from 4 to 13 years; hyperactivity and emotional difficulties were assessed in childhood (4-10 years) and early adolescence (12-13 years), in addition to potential confounding factors (family adversity, birth complications, income). Compared to Low CP, mothers of EOP children consumed less fish (p < 0.01) and more processed food (p < 0.05) prenatally, while EOP children consumed more processed food at 3 years (p < 0.05). For EOP, but not Low CP children, consuming less than two servings/week of fish (vs. two or more servings/week, p < 0.05), and one or more servings/day of processed food (vs. less than one serving/day, p < 0.01), was associated with higher emotional difficulties in early adolescence. Findings suggest that prenatal and postnatal diets high in processed food, and low in fish, associate with an EOP CP trajectory and co-occurring difficulties in early adolescence. As small effect size differences were found, further studies are needed to investigate the long-term impact of early unhealthy diet.

  4. Reducing discretionary food and beverage intake in early childhood: a systematic review within an ecological framework.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brittany J; Hendrie, Gilly A; Golley, Rebecca K

    2016-06-01

    To systematically review the literature and map published studies on 4-8-year-olds' intake of discretionary choices against an ecological framework (ANalysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity; ANGELO). Articles were identified through database searches (PubMed, PyscINFO®, Web of Science) in February and March 2014 and hand-searching reference lists. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and mapped against the ANGELO framework by environment size (macro and micro setting) and type (physical, economic, policy and socio-cultural influences). Studies were conducted in the USA (n 18), Australia (n 6), the UK (n 3), the Netherlands (n 3), Belgium (n 1), Germany (n 1) and Turkey (n 1). Children aged 4-8 years, or parents/other caregivers. Thirty-three studies met the review criteria (observational n 23, interventions n 10). Home was the most frequently studied setting (67 % of exposures/strategies), with the majority of these studies targeting family policy-type influences (e.g. child feeding practices, television regulation). Few studies were undertaken in government (5·5 %) or community (11 %) settings, or examined economic-type influences (0 %). Of the intervention studies only four were categorised as effective. The present review is novel in its focus on mapping observational and intervention studies across a range of settings. It highlights the urgent need for high-quality research to inform interventions that directly tackle the factors influencing children's excess intake of discretionary choices. Interventions that assist in optimising a range of environmental influences will enhance the impact of future public health interventions to improve child diet quality.

  5. The Influence of Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Stress Response before Total Hip Replacement Surgery during Epidural and General Anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Çeliksular, M Cem; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yentür, Ercüment

    2016-06-01

    The effects of oral carbohydrate solutions, ingested 2 h prior to operation, on stress response were studied in patients undergoing general or epidural anaesthesia. The study was performed on 80 ASA I-II adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement, which were randomized to four groups (n=20). Group G patients undergoing general anaesthesia fasted for 8 h preoperatively; Group GN patients undergoing general anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively; Group E patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia fasted for 8 h and Group EN patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively. Groups GN and EN drank 800 mL of 12.5% oral carbohydrate solution at 24:00 preoperatively and 400 mL 2 h before the operation. Blood samples were taken for measurements of glucose, insulin, cortisol and IL-6 levels. The effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate ingestion on blood glucose levels was not significant. Insulin levels 24 h prior to surgery were similar; however, insulin levels measured just before surgery were 2-3 times higher in groups GN and EN than in groups G and E. Insulin levels at the 24(th) postoperative hour in epidural groups were increased compared to those at basal levels, although general anaesthesia groups showed a decrease. From these measurements, only the change in Group EN was statistically significant (p<0.05). Plasma cortisol levels at the 2(nd) peroperative hour were higher in epidural groups than in general anaesthesia groups. Both anaesthesia techniques did not have an effect on IL-6 levels. We concluded that epidural anaesthesia suppressed stress response, although preoperative oral carbohydrate nutrition did not reveal a significant effect on surgical stress response.

  6. (Super)hydrophobic coating of orthodontic dental devices and reduction of early oral biofilm retention.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adauê S; Kaizer, Marina R; Azevedo, Marina S; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Cenci, Maximiliano S; Moraes, Rafael R

    2015-11-03

    This study was designed to apply (super)hydrophobic crosslinked coatings by means of a sol-gel process on the surface of orthodontic devices and investigate the potential effect of these coatings in reducing the early retention of oral biofilm. Two organosilane-based hydrophobic solutions (HSs) were prepared containing hexadecyltrimethoxysilane diluted in ethanol (HS1) or 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (HS2). Stainless steel plates and ceramic discs were coated with HS1 or HS2 and heated at 150 °C for 2 h for condensation of a crosslinked SiO x network. Organosilane coatings were applied after previous, or no, surface sandblasting. Commercial stainless steel and ceramic brackets were used to evaluate oral biofilm retention after 12 h or 24 h of biofilm growth, using a microcosm model with human saliva as the inoculum. Surface roughness analysis (Ra, μm) indicated that sandblasting associated with organosilane coatings increased roughness for stainless steel brackets only. Analysis of the water contact angle showed that the stainless steel surface treated with HS1 was hydrophobic (~123°), while the ceramic surface treated with HS2 was superhydrophobic (~155°). Biofilm retention after 24 h was significantly lower in groups treated with hydrophobic coatings. An exponential reduction in biofilm accumulation was associated with increased water contact angle for both stainless steel and ceramic at 24 h. Application of (super)hydrophobic coatings on the surface of stainless steel and ceramic orthodontic devices might reduce the retention of oral biofilm.

  7. Nanodiamond modified copolymer scaffolds affects tumour progression of early neoplastic oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Salwa; Mustafa, Kamal; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Osdal, Tereza; Hamza, Amani O; Sun, Yang; Parajuli, Himalaya; Waag, Thilo; Nickel, Joachim; Johannessen, Anne Christine; McCormack, Emmet; Costea, Daniela Elena

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tumorigenic potential of functionalising poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds. The copolymer scaffolds were functionalised with nanodiamonds (nDP) or with nDP and physisorbed BMP-2 (nDP-PHY) to enhance osteoinductivity. Culturing early neoplastic dysplastic keratinocytes (DOK(Luc)) on nDP modified scaffolds reduced significantly their subsequent sphere formation ability and decreased significantly the cells' proliferation in the supra-basal layers of in vitro 3D oral neoplastic mucosa (3D-OT) when compared to DOK(Luc) previously cultured on nDP-PHY scaffolds. Using an in vivo non-invasive environmentally-induced oral carcinogenesis model, nDP scaffolds were observed to reduce bioluminescence intensity of tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAF). nDP modification was also found to promote differentiation of DOK(Luc) both in vitro in 3D-OT and in vivo in xenografts formed by DOK(Luc) alone. The nDP-PHY scaffold had the highest number of invasive tumours formed by DOK(Luc) + CAF outside the scaffold area compared to the nDP and control scaffolds. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results presented here demonstrate that nDP modified copolymer scaffolds are able to decrease the tumorigenic potential of DOK(Luc), while confirming concerns for the therapeutic use of BMP-2 for reconstruction of bone defects in oral cancer patients due to its tumour promoting capabilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. State Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment guidelines: adherence to professionally recommended best oral health practices.

    PubMed

    Hom, Jacqueline M; Lee, Jessica Y; Silverman, Janice; Casamassimo, Paul S

    2013-03-01

    The authors evaluated the adherence of state Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) guidelines to recommended best oral health practices for infants and toddlers. The authors obtained state EPSDT guidelines via the Internet or from the Medicaid-CHIP State Dental Association, Washington. They identified best oral health practices through the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), Chicago. They evaluated each EPSDT dental periodicity schedule with regard to the timing and content of seven key oral health domains. Thirty-two states and the District of Columbia (D.C.) had EPSDT dental periodicity schedules. With the exception of the dentist referral domain, 29 states (88 percent) adhered to the content and timing of best oral health practices, as established by the AAPD guideline. For the dentist referral domain, 31 of the 32 states and D.C. (94 percent) required referral of children to a dentist, but only 11 states (33 percent) adhered to best oral health practices by requiring referral by age 1 year. With the exception of the timing of the first dentist referral, there was high adherence to best oral health practices for infants and toddlers among states with separate EPSDT dental periodicity schedules. States with low adherence to best oral health practices, especially regarding the dental visit by age 1 year, can strengthen the oral health content of their EPSDT schedules by complying with the AAPD recommendations.

  9. Venous Thromboembolism Due to Oral Contraceptive Intake and Spending Nights in a Vehicle -A Case from the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Sueta, Daisuke; Akahoshi, Rika; Okamura, Yoshinori; Kojima, Sunao; Ikemoto, Tomokazu; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Tsujita, Kenichi; Kaikita, Koichi; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Hokimoto, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman experiencing sudden dyspnea went to her personal doctor for advice. She was previously diagnosed with endometriosis and prescribed oral contraceptives for treatment. During earthquakes, she spent 7 nights sleeping in a vehicle. The patient had swelling and pain in her left leg and high D-dimer concentration levels. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed a contrast deficit in the bilateral pulmonary artery and in the left lower extremity. She was diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), and anticoagulation therapy was initiated. This present case is the first report of PTE attributed to the use of oral contraceptives after earthquakes.

  10. Effectiveness on Early Childhood Caries of an Oral Health Promotion Program for Medical Providers

    PubMed Central

    Widmer-Racich, Katina; Sevick, Carter; Starzyk, Erin J.; Mauritson, Katya; Hambidge, Simon J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To assess an oral health promotion (OHP) intervention for medical providers’ impact on early childhood caries (ECC). Methods. We implemented a quasiexperimental OHP intervention in 8 federally qualified health centers that trained medical providers on ECC risk assessment, oral examination and instruction, dental referral, and fluoride varnish applications (FVAs). We measured OHP delivery by FVA count at medical visits. We measured the intervention’s impact on ECC in 3 unique cohorts of children aged 3 to 4 years in 2009 (preintervention; n = 202), 2011 (midintervention; n = 420), and 2015 (≥ 4 FVAs; n = 153). We compared numbers of decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces using adjusted zero-inflated negative binomial models. Results. Across 3 unique cohorts, the FVA mean (range) count was 0.0 (0), 1.1 (0–7), and 4.5 (4–7) in 2009, 2011, and 2015, respectively. In adjusted zero-inflated negative binomial models analyses, children in the 2015 cohort had significantly fewer decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces than did children in previous cohorts. Conclusions. An OHP intervention targeting medical providers reduced ECC when children received 4 or more FVAs at a medical visit by age 3 years. PMID:28661802

  11. Free and Glucuronide Whole Blood Cannabinoids' Pharmacokinetics after Controlled Smoked, Vaporized, and Oral Cannabis Administration in Frequent and Occasional Cannabis Users: Identification of Recent Cannabis Intake.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, Matthew N; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Barnes, Allan J; Abulseoud, Osama A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-12-01

    There is increasing interest in markers of recent cannabis use because following frequent cannabis intake, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may be detected in blood for up to 30 days. The minor cannabinoids cannabidiol, cannabinol (CBN), and THC-glucuronide were previously detected for ≤2.1 h in frequent and occasional smokers' blood after cannabis smoking. Cannabigerol (CBG), Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV might also be recent use markers, but their blood pharmacokinetics have not been investigated. Additionally, while smoking is the most common administration route, vaporization and edibles are frequently used. We characterized blood pharmacokinetics of THC, its phase I and phase II glucuronide metabolites, and minor cannabinoids in occasional and frequent cannabis smokers for 54 (occasional) and 72 (frequent) hours after controlled smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration. Few differences were observed between smoked and vaporized blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics, while significantly greater 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) and THCCOOH-glucuronide concentrations occurred following oral cannabis. CBG and CBN were frequently identified after inhalation routes with short detection windows, but not detected following oral dosing. Implementation of a combined THC ≥5 μg/L plus THCCOOH/11-hydroxy-THC ratio <20 cutoff produced detection windows <8 h after all routes for frequent smokers; no occasional smoker was positive 1.5 h or 12 h following inhaled or oral cannabis, respectively. Vaporization and smoking provide comparable cannabinoid delivery. CBG and CBN are recent-use cannabis markers after cannabis inhalation, but their absence does not exclude recent use. Multiple, complimentary criteria should be implemented in conjunction with impairment observations to improve interpretation of cannabinoid tests. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02177513. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  12. Clinical comparison of oral administration and viscosupplementation of hyaluronic acid (HA) in early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, M; Micheloni, G M; Berti, M; Perusi, F; Sambugaro, E; Vecchini, E; Magnan, B

    2017-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive, chronic and degenerative joint disease characterized by a loss of articular cartilage. Treatment of OA is largely palliative based on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids and injections of steroids. Regarding conservative treatment, intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) can play a role in early symptomatic knee OA. Between August 2015 and September 2015, sixty patients (32 males and 28 females) between 40 and 70 years old were randomly allocated into two groups: Half were treated with three weekly intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid 1.6 % (group A), while the others were treated with Syalox 300 Plus ® (hyaluronic acid 300 mg + Boswellia serrata extract 100 mg) 1 tab/die for 20 days and afterward Syalox 150 ® (hyaluronic acid 150 mg) 1 tab/die for other 20 days (group B). All patients were evaluated clinically with American Knee Society Score (AKSS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) for the pain before the treatment and after 3 months. AKSS of the patients in both groups was significantly increased by the treatment, and VAS score was significantly reduced. In both groups, two subgroups were created with patients older than 60 years and patients younger than 60 years. Better results are reported in younger patients of group A and older subjects in group B. Despite several limitations, the results of the study have shown that HA injection and oral administration may have beneficial therapeutic effects on patients with early osteoarthritis. Different outcomes in younger and older subject suggested a combined therapy first with local infiltrations and then with oral composition.

  13. Early speech development in Koolen de Vries syndrome limited by oral praxis and hypotonia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Angela T; Haaften, Leenke van; van Hulst, Karen; Edley, Carol; Mei, Cristina; Tan, Tiong Yang; Amor, David; Fisher, Simon E; Koolen, David A

    2018-01-01

    Communication disorder is common in Koolen de Vries syndrome (KdVS), yet its specific symptomatology has not been examined, limiting prognostic counselling and application of targeted therapies. Here we examine the communication phenotype associated with KdVS. Twenty-nine participants (12 males, 4 with KANSL1 variants, 25 with 17q21.31 microdeletion), aged 1.0-27.0 years were assessed for oral-motor, speech, language, literacy, and social functioning. Early history included hypotonia and feeding difficulties. Speech and language development was delayed and atypical from onset of first words (2; 5-3; 5 years of age on average). Speech was characterised by apraxia (100%) and dysarthria (93%), with stuttering in some (17%). Speech therapy and multi-modal communication (e.g., sign-language) was critical in preschool. Receptive and expressive language abilities were typically commensurate (79%), both being severely affected relative to peers. Children were sociable with a desire to communicate, although some (36%) had pragmatic impairments in domains, where higher-level language was required. A common phenotype was identified, including an overriding 'double hit' of oral hypotonia and apraxia in infancy and preschool, associated with severely delayed speech development. Remarkably however, speech prognosis was positive; apraxia resolved, and although dysarthria persisted, children were intelligible by mid-to-late childhood. In contrast, language and literacy deficits persisted, and pragmatic deficits were apparent. Children with KdVS require early, intensive, speech motor and language therapy, with targeted literacy and social language interventions as developmentally appropriate. Greater understanding of the linguistic phenotype may help unravel the relevance of KANSL1 to child speech and language development.

  14. Intake of Diet Including 1% Ovomucoid for 4 Weeks Induces Oral Desensitization in Ovomucoid-Specific Allergic Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Maeta, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoko; Yuki, Sayo; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new oral immunotherapy (OIT) method that includes a small amount of a food allergen in the diet. However, it is not clear whether this method will induce oral desensitization and immune tolerance. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic effectiveness using a 1% food allergen diet in an allergic mouse model. C3H/HeJ mice were sensitized to ovomucoid (OM) in alum four times at 12-d intervals. Sensitized mice were divided into two groups: the OIT group (19% casein diet with 1% OM) and the non-treated group (20% casein diet without OM). The non-sensitized mice served as the non-allergy group. The OIT treatment was performed for 4 wk. To assess desensitization and immune tolerance, we performed oral and intraperitoneal OM challenges, assessed vascular permeability of the dorsal skin, and measured allergic biomarkers. The OIT group exhibited significantly lower oral symptom scores and vascular permeability than the non-treated group, but the two groups did not differ in intraperitoneal allergy symptom scores. Furthermore, the OIT group had significantly higher OM-specific IgA levels in their plasma than the non-treated group. However, the plasma levels of OM-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a were not significantly different between the OIT and the non-treated groups. These results suggest that the proposed OIT using an OM-supplemented diet may induce desensitization, but not immune tolerance, in an OM allergic mouse model.

  15. Comparison of oral health status and daily nutrient intake between elders who live alone and elders who live with family: Based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI) (2013-2015).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Jeong; Jin, Bo-Hyoung

    2018-06-01

    To compare the nutritional factors and oral status of elders living alone and elders living with their families in Korea. Numerous studies have found that the presence of fewer remaining teeth is associated with decreased nutrient intake; however, there is no study comparing the nutritional status and oral status of elders living alone with that of elders living with family based on a nationally representative sample. A sample of 2904 individuals who participated in the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was reviewed (65-84 years of age). Living status was defined according to the participants' self-reported questionnaire, and a nutrient intake questionnaire was designed as an open questionnaire and used during the face-to-face interviews. The number of existing teeth was used to determine oral status. A complex-sample general linear analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between the number of teeth and nutrient intake among elders living with family and elders living alone after adjusting for confounders. Elders living alone were significantly older and tended to have the following characteristics: women, lower household income, lower educational level, poor perceived health status, non-smokers, non-drinkers and lack of physical activity. Elders living alone had a poorer perceived oral health status, had not received an oral examination in the past year, had chewing problems and had fewer existing teeth (P < .05). Elders living with family showed better oral health and nutrient intake status. Participants who had many existing teeth had higher nutrient intake than the participants who had fewer existing teeth. For healthy lives at old age, family support or additional social support for elders living alone should be considered. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Immunoprotective effects of oral intake of heat-killed Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 in elderly adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Shoji; Toba, Masamichi; Saito, Takao; Sato, Ikutaro; Tsubouchi, Mina; Taira, Kiyoto; Kakumoto, Keiji; Inamatsu, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Fukaya, Taro; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kohda, Noriyuki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-05-28

    Oral intake of Lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 (b240) has been shown to enhance the secretion of salivary secretory IgA in elderly adults. However, its clinical benefits remain to be determined. We tested the hypothesis that b240 exerts a protective effect against the common cold in elderly adults. The design of the present study was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) with parallel three-group comparison. For this purpose, 300 eligible elderly adults were randomly allocated to one of three groups, namely a placebo, low-dose or high-dose b240 group. Participants in the low-dose and high-dose b240 groups were given tablets containing 2 × 10(9) or 2 × 10(10) cells, respectively, of heat-killed b240, while those in the placebo group were given tablets without b240. Each group consumed their respective tablets once daily for 20 weeks. The common cold was assessed on the basis of a diary. Change in quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36. Of the total participants, 280 completed the 20-week RCT. The accumulated incidence rate of the common cold was 47·3, 34·8 and 29·0 % for the placebo, low-dose b240 and high-dose b240 groups, respectively (P for trend = 0·012). Lower incidence rates were consistently observed throughout the experimental period in the b240 groups (log-rank test, P= 0·034). General health perception, as determined by the SF-36®, dose-dependently increased in the b240 groups ( P <0·025). In conclusion, oral intake of b240 significantly reduced the incidence rate of the common cold in elderly adults, indicating that b240 might be useful in improving resistance against infection through mucosal immunity.

  17. Oral intake of γ-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks.

    PubMed

    Yoto, A; Murao, S; Motoki, M; Yokoyama, Y; Horie, N; Takeshima, K; Masuda, K; Kim, M; Yokogoshi, H

    2012-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a kind of amino acid contained in green tea leaves and other foods. Several reports have shown that GABA might affect brain protein synthesis, improve many brain functions such as memory and study capability, lower the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats, and may also have a relaxation effect in humans. However, the evidence for its mood-improving function is still not sufficient. In this study, we investigated how the oral intake of GABA influences human adults psychologically and physiologically under a condition of mental stress. Sixty-three adults (28 males, 35 females) participated in a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed study over two experiment days. Capsules containing 100 mg of GABA or dextrin as a placebo were used as test samples. The results showed that EEG activities including alpha band and beta band brain waves decreased depending on the mental stress task loads, and the condition of 30 min after GABA intake diminished this decrease compared with the placebo condition. That is to say, GABA might have alleviated the stress induced by the mental tasks. This effect also corresponded with the results of the POMS scores.

  18. Consistent, high-level ethanol consumption in pig-tailed macaques via a multiple-session, limited-intake, oral self-dosing procedure.

    PubMed

    Weed, Michael R; Wilcox, Kristin M; Ator, Nancy A; Hienz, Robert D

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major public health burden that can lead to many adverse health effects such as impaired hepatic, gastrointestinal, central nervous system and immune system function. Preclinical animal models of alcohol abuse allow for experimental control over variables often difficult to control in human clinical studies (e.g., ethanol exposure before or during the study, history of other drug use, access to medical care, nutritional status, etc). Nonhuman primate models in particular provide increased genetic, anatomic and physiologic similarity to humans, relative to rodent models. A small percentage of macaques will spontaneously consume large quantities of ethanol; however, most nonhuman primate models of "voluntary" ethanol intake produce relatively low daily ethanol intake in the majority of monkeys. To facilitate study of chronic exposure to high levels of ethanol intake, a macaque model has been developed that induces consistent, daily high-level ethanol consumption. This multiple-session procedure employed 4 drinking sessions per day, with sessions occurring once every 6 hours. The group average alcohol consumption was 4.6 g/kg/d (SEM 0.4), roughly twice the group average consumption of previous reports. Ethanol drinking sessions produced group mean blood ethanol levels of 95 mg/dl after 60 minutes, and fine motor control was impaired up to 90 minutes after a drinking session. This model of multiple-session, limited access, oral ethanol self-dosing produced consistent, high-level ethanol consumption with each session qualifying as a "binge" drinking session using the definition of "binge" provided by the NIAAA (>80 mg/dl/session). This model of ethanol drinking in macaques will be of great utility in the study of immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of ethanol in nonhuman primates.

  19. Oral language supports early literacy: a pilot cluster randomized trial in disadvantaged schools.

    PubMed

    Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ≤ .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy.

  20. Alcohol Intake More than Doubles the Risk of Early Cardiovascular Events in Young Hypertensive Smokers.

    PubMed

    Palatini, Paolo; Fania, Claudio; Mos, Lucio; Mazzer, Adriano; Saladini, Francesca; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2017-08-01

    An interactive effect of tobacco and alcohol use has been described for cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the joint effect of smoking and alcohol intake on major adverse cardiovascular and renal events (MACE) in young subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension. A total of 1204 untreated patients aged from 18 to 45 years (mean 33.1) were included in this prospective cohort study. Subjects were classified into 4 categories of cigarette smoking and 3 classes of alcohol use. Main outcome variable was risk for MACE. During a 12.6-year follow-up, there were 74 fatal and nonfatal MACE. In multivariable Cox models, current smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with risk of MACE. In a multivariable model also including follow-up changes in blood pressure and body weight, hazard ratio (HR) was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.83) for smoking and was 1.82 (95% CI, 1.05-3.15) for alcohol use. In addition, an interactive effect was found between smoking and alcohol on risk of MACE (P <.001). Among the 142 smokers who also drank alcoholic beverages, the risk of MACE (HR 4.02; 95% CI, 1.98-8.15) was more than doubled compared with the 112 smokers who abstained from drinking (HR 1.64; 95% CI, 0.63-4.27). In the group of heavy smokers who also were alcohol drinkers (n = 51), the risk of MACE was even quadrupled (HR 7.79; 95% CI, 4.22-14.37). Alcohol use potentiates the deleterious cardiovascular effects of heavy smoking in stage 1 hypertensive subjects younger than 45 years. These results call for prompt intervention addressed to improve unhealthy behaviors in these subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Prevalence of histological types of bone disease in a hemodialysis center limiting the oral intake of aluminum hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Belbrik, S; Marie, A; Boudailliez, B; Morinière, P; Sébert, J L; Solal, M C; Westeel, P F; Roche, D; Fournier, A

    1990-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of histologic bone disease in our center where Al(OH)3 intake is restricted, we reviewed 42 bone biopsies performed between 1975 and 1985 in patients dialyzed more than 29 months. Bone biopsies were performed systematically (2/3 of the cases) or because of a mild hypercalcemia (1/3 of the cases). Seventeen of these patients had been dialyzed before 1978 with softened water moderately contaminated by aluminum. Fifteen had always been dialyzed with reverse osmosis treated water and 10 had been exclusively treated by hemofiltration. The prevalence of osteitis fibrosa was 76%, that of osteomalacia null and that of adynamic bone disease 24% (but only 9.5% with positive Aluminon staining). When the 17 patients dialyzed with aluminum contaminated water before 1978 were excluded, only one patient among 25 had an aluminum adynamic bone disease (4%). This low prevalence can probably be explained by the restricted intake of Al(OH)3 thanks to the systematic administration of Ca CO3 and in a few cases of Mg (OH). The adynamic bone disease group has lower serum concentration of PTH and shorter duration on dialysis whereas the serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and aluminum and daily dose of Ca CO3, Mg (OH)2 and Al(OH)3 do not differ. The frequency of the positivity of aluminum staining is not statistically different in the 2 groups. In 4 cases, adynamic bone disease without aluminum or iron intoxications is found, associated with a relative hypoparathyroidism. It is not explained by previous parathyroidectomy, diabetes or steroid therapy. 1) Restriction of aluminum intake and dialysis with reverse osmosis treated water lead to a low prevalence of aluminum bone disease. 2) A new bone disease in uremia is described: the idiopathic adynamic bone disease associated with a relative hypoparathyroidism.

  2. Surgical Outcome in Patients Taking Concomitant or Recent Intake of Oral Isotretinoin: A Multicentric Study-ISO-AIMS Study.

    PubMed

    Mahadevappa, Omprakash Heggadahalli; Mysore, Venkataram; Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Thurakkal, Salim; Majid, Imran; Talwar, Suresh; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J; Chatterjee, Manas; Bhat, M Ramesh; Barua, Shyamanta; Ganjoo, Anil

    2016-01-01

    The current standard recommendation is to avoid surgical interventions in patients taking oral isotretinoin. However, this recommendation has been questioned in several recent publications. To document the safety of cosmetic and surgical interventions, among patients receiving or recently received oral isotretinoin. Association of Cutaneous Surgeons, India, in May 2012, initiated this study, at 11 centers in different parts of India. The data of 183 cases were collected monthly, from June 2012 to May 2013. Of these 61 patients had stopped oral isotretinoin before surgery and 122 were concomitantly taking oral isotretinoin during the study period. In these 183 patients, a total of 504 interventions were performed. These included[1] 246 sessions of chemical peels such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and combination peels;[2] 158 sessions of lasers such as ablative fractional laser resurfacing with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and CO2, conventional full face CO2 laser resurfacing, laser-assisted hair reduction with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, diode laser, and LASIK surgery;[3] 27 sessions of cold steel surgeries such as microneedling, skin biopsy, subcision, punch elevation of scars, excision of skin lesion, and wisdom tooth extraction;[4] 1 session of electrosurgery. No significant side effects were noted in most patients. 2 cases of keloid were documented which amounted to 0.4% of side effects in 504 interventions, with a significant P value of 0.000. Reversible transient side effects were erythema in 10 interventions and hyperpigmentation in 15. The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised.

  3. Chronic social isolation and chronic variable stress during early development induce later elevated ethanol intake in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Becker, Howard C

    2011-06-01

    Experience with stress situations during early development can have long-lasting effects on stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Importantly, this can also favor drug self-administration. These studies examined the effects of chronic social isolation and/or variable stress experiences during early development on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake in adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. The experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 1), chronic isolation during adulthood (Experiment 2), and chronic variable stress (CVS) alone or in combination with chronic social isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 3) on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake. Mice were born in our facility and were separated into two housing conditions: isolate housed (one mouse/cage) or group housed (four mice/cage) according to sex. Separate groups were isolated for 40 days starting either at time of weaning postnatal day 21 (PD 21) (early isolation, Experiments 1 and 3) or at adulthood (PD 60: late isolation, Experiment 2). The effects of housing condition on subsequent ethanol intake were assessed starting at around PD 65 in Experiments 1 and 3 or PD 105 days in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, starting at PD 32, isolate-housed and group-housed mice were either subjected to CVS or left undisturbed. CVS groups experienced random presentations of mild stressors for 14 days, including exposure to an unfamiliar open field, restraint, physical shaking, and forced swim, among others. All mice were tested for ethanol intake for 14 days using a two-bottle choice (ethanol 15% vol/vol vs. water) for a 2-h limited access procedure. Early social isolation resulted in greater ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 1). In contrast, social isolation during adulthood (late isolation) did not increase subsequent ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 2

  4. Listening to the Voices of Education Professionals Involved in Implementing an Oral Language and Early Literacy Program in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, Maria; Garvis, Susanne; Westerveld, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores teachers' and teacher assistants' self-efficacy of delivering PrepSTART, a classroom based, oral language and early literacy program for five-year-old students. In the current study, speech pathologists developed, provided training and monitored program implementation. Teachers and teacher assistants (n = 17) shared their…

  5. Which route of antibiotic administration should be used for third molar surgery? A split-mouth study to compare intramuscular and oral intake.

    PubMed

    Crincoli, V; Di Comite, M; Di Bisceglie, M B; Petruzzi, M; Fatone, L; De Biase, C; Tecco, S; Festa, F

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two different routes of antibiotic administration in preventing septic complications in patients undergoing third molar extraction. Twenty-four healthy patients requiring bilateral surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars were successfully enrolled for this study. Depth of impaction, angulation, and relationship of the lower third molars with the mandibular branch had to be overlapping on both sides. A split-mouth design was chosen, so each patient underwent both the first and second surgeries, having for each extraction a different antibiotic route of administration. The second extraction was carried out 1 month later. To compare the effects of the two routes of antibiotic administration, inflammatory parameters, such as edema, trismus, pain, fever, dysphagia and lymphadenopathy were evaluated 2 and 7 days after surgery. Side effects of each therapy were evaluated 48 h after surgery. Oral and intramuscular antibiotic therapies overlap in preventing post-operative complications in dental surgery (p>0.05), even if the oral intake, seems to promote the onset of significant gastrointestinal disorders (p=0.003). This study could help dentists in their ordinary practice to choose the right route of antibiotic administration in the third molar surgery. At the same effectiveness, the higher cost and the minor compliance of the patient seem not to justify a routine antibiotic intramuscular therapy, reserving it for patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  6. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) Score in the Assessment of Acute Stroke Patients with Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongzhen; Zhu, Yafang; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) score in acute stroke patients with dysphagia. A sample of 128 consecutive patients with acute stroke, admitted to Department of Neurology from April to October in 2016, completed the FOIS. The interrater reliability, criterion validity, discriminant validity, cross validation, and the sensitivity of FOIS scale were evaluated. Results showed that rater agreements were excellent for FOIS (Kw = 0.881, p < 0.001). A highly negative correlation between FOIS and WST (water swallow test) was detected (r = -0.937, p < 0.001). There was significant difference for FOIS level of patients with different evaluation outcomes (χ2 = 126.551, p < 0.001). The FOIS evaluation results were significantly correlated with two physiological measures of swallowing. The Chinese version of the FOIS score is a reliable scale for evaluating the level of oral feeding function in patients with acute stroke.

  7. Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Celso A R A; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Takahira, Regina K; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Barbisan, Luís F; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is currently used in traditional folk medicine. Although this species presents widespread use, there are no scientific data on its efficacy or safety after repeated treatments. Therefore, this work investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of this lemongrass's essential oil (EO) in male Swiss mice. The single LD(50) based on a 24h acute oral toxicity study was found to be around 3500 mg/kg. In a repeated-dose 21-day oral toxicity study, mice were randomly assigned to two control groups, saline- or Tween 80 0.01%-treated groups, or one of the three experimental groups receiving lemongrass EO (1, 10 or 100mg/kg). No significant changes in gross pathology, body weight, absolute or relative organ weights, histology (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach, spleen and urinary bladder), urinalysis or clinical biochemistry were observed in EO-treated mice relative to the control groups. Additionally, blood cholesterol was reduced after EO-treatment at the highest dose tested. Similarly, data from the comet assay in peripheral blood cells showed no genotoxic effect from the EO. In conclusion, our findings verified the safety of lemongrass intake at the doses used in folk medicine and indicated the beneficial effect of reducing the blood cholesterol level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early introduction of direct oral anticoagulants in cardioembolic stroke patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cappellari, Manuel; Carletti, Monica; Danese, Alessandra; Bovi, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are superior to warfarin in reduction of the intracranial bleeding risk. The aim of the present study was to assess whether early DOAC introduction (1-3 days after onset) in stroke patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (nVAF) may be safe and effective, compared with DOAC introduction after 4-7 days. We conducted a prospective analysis based on data collected from 147 consecutive nVAF patients who started DOAC within 7 days after stroke onset. In all patients, we performed pre-DOAC CT scan 24-36 h after onset and follow-up CT scan at 7 days after DOAC introduction. Outcome measures were post-DOAC intracranial bleeding (new any intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with pre-DOAC infarct without hemorrhagic transformation (HT) or expansion of ICH in patients with pre-DOAC infarct with asymptomatic HT) and post-DOAC recurrent ischemic stroke (any new ischemic infarct) on follow-up CT scan. 97 patients started DOAC after 1-3 days and 50 patients started DOAC after 4-7 days. On pre-DOAC CT scan, 132 patients had an infarct without HT and 15 an infarct with asymptomatic HT. On follow-up CT scan, new any ICH was noted in seven patients (asymptomatic in 6) and asymptomatic expansion of ICH in one patient. We found no association between early DOAC introduction and intracranial bleeding. Large infarct remained the only independent predictor of post-DOAC intracranial bleeding. No patients suffered recurrent ischemic stroke after DOAC introduction. Early DOAC introduction might be safe in carefully selected patients with nVAF who experience small- and medium-sized cardioembolic ischemic strokes. Further investigation will be needed.

  9. Genetic profiling of the oral microbiota associated with severe early-childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ge, Y; Saxena, D; Caufield, P W

    2007-01-01

    The determination of the composition of the microbial community in the oral cavity is usually based on cultivation methods; however, nearly half of the bacteria in the saliva and the dental plaque are not cultivable. In this study, we evaluated the difference in oral microbial diversity between children with severe early-childhood caries (S-ECC) and caries-free (CF) controls by means of a cultivation-independent approach called denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Pooled dental plaque samples were collected from 20 children aged 2 to 8 years. Total microbial genomic DNA was isolated from those subjects, and a portion of the 16S rRNA gene locus was PCR amplified by using universal primers. We observed that the mean species richness of the bacterial population was greater in the CF children (n = 12) (42 +/- 3.7) than in the S-ECC children (n = 8) (35 +/- 4.3); the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.005). The overall diversity of plaque samples as measured by the Shannon index was 3.5 for the S-ECC group and 3.7 for the CF group (P = 0.004). Differences in DGGE profiles were distinguished on the basis of a cluster analysis. Sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands consisted of 2.7 phylotypes, on average. After adjusting for the number of observed bands, we estimated that the S-ECC group exhibited 94.5 total phylotypes and that the CF group exhibited 113.4. These results suggest that the microbial diversity and complexity of the microbial biota in dental plaque are significantly less in S-ECC children than in CF children.

  10. Comprehensive Oral Health Care to Reduce the Incidence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (s-ECC) in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Si, Yan; Guo, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu Guo

    2016-03-01

    To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive oral health care to reduce the caries incidence for children with severe early childhood caries (s-ECC) in an urban area in China. A total of 357 children aged 3 to 4 years old and diagnosed with s-ECC were recruited in this randomised controlled, single-blinded clinical trial for 1 year. Children of two different kindergarten classes were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into a test group (205 children) and a control group (152 children). The test group received comprehensive oral health care, which included: oral health examination, oral health education, topical fluoride application and dental treatment, and the children in the control group only received the oral health examination. The evaluation of the oral health questionnaire for parents was also performed. An evaluation was carried out at the time of recruitment and 1 year later to explore the effectiveness of the comprehensive oral health care model. The differences in decayed teeth (dt), decayed tooth surfaces (ds), filled teeth (ft), filled tooth surfaces (fs) and the ratio of ft /(dt + ft) between the two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001) at 1 year. The incidence of caries in the control group was higher than that of the test group (P = 0.02). The rate of awareness of oral health knowledge (P = 0.01) and the practice of good diet habits (P = 0.02) by parents in the test group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The present study demonstrated that the comprehensive oral health care program reduces and prevents caries amongst children with s-ECC.

  11. Prevalence of Dental Caries in relation to Body Mass Index, Daily Sugar Intake, and Oral Hygiene Status in 12-Year-Old School Children in Mathura City: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To correlate the prevalence of dental caries to body mass index, daily sugar intake, and oral hygiene status of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and included 100 school children aged 12 years (n = 50 boys and n = 50 girls) who were randomly selected from two schools based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. Body weight/height was recorded and BMI was calculated and plotted on CDC-BMI for age growth charts/curves for boys and girls to obtain percentile ranking. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Oral hygiene status of the study subjects was assessed using oral hygiene index-simplified. Data regarding the daily sugar intake was recorded using 24-hour recall diet frequency chart. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows. Result. Only 27 subjects were affected by caries. The mean DMFT/dmft was 0.37 ± 0.79 and 0.12 ± 0.60, respectively. Statistical analysis by means of a logistic regression model revealed that only oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence (OR = 5.061, P = 0.004), whereas daily sugar intake and body mass index had no significant effect. Conclusion. From the analysis, it was concluded that oral hygiene status had a significant effect on caries prevalence of 12-year-old school children of Mathura city.

  12. Efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide and low renal solute feed in Neonatal Central Diabetes Insipidus with transition to Oral Desmopressin in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Mary B; Rao, Shripada; Price, Glynis; Choong, Catherine S

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of central diabetes insipidus (DI) with desmopressin in the neonatal period is challenging because of the significant risk of hyponatremia with this agent. The fixed anti-diuresis action of desmopressin and the obligate high fluid intake with milk feeds lead to considerable risk of water intoxication and hyponatremia. To reduce this risk, thiazide diuretics, part of the treatment of nephrogenic DI, were used in conjunction with low renal solute feed and were effective in a single case series of neonatal central DI. We evaluated the efficacy of early treatment of neonatal central DI with hydrochlorothiazide with low solute feed and investigated the clinical indicators for transition to desmopressin during infancy. A retrospective chart review was conducted at Princess Margaret Hospital, Perth of neonates diagnosed with central DI and treated with hydrochlorothiazide, between 2007 and 2013. Four newborns were identified. Mean sNa and mean change in sNa with desmopressin and hydrochlorothiazide treatment were recorded along with episodes of hyponatremia and hypernatremia. Length and weight trajectories during the first 12 months were assessed. The mean change in sNa per day with hydrochlorothiazide and low renal solute feed was 2.5 - 3 mmol/L; on desmopressin treatment, the mean change in sNa was 6.8-7.9 mmol/L. There was one episode of symptomatic hyponatremia with intranasal desmopressin with no episodes of hyponatremia or hypernatremia during treatment with hydrochlorothiazide or following transition to oral desmopressin. Transition to oral desmopressin between 3 to 12 months of age was associated with good control of DI. Following introduction of solids, sNa remained stable but weight gain was slow. This improved following transition to desmopressin in one infant. Hydrochlorothiazide with low renal solute feed is a safe and effective treatment option in neonatal central DI. However, transition to desmopressin should be considered early in infancy

  13. Early Oral-Motor Interventions for Pediatric Feeding Problems: What, When and How

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Cecilia J.; Fox, Catherine; Eicher, Peggy S.; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.

    2005-01-01

    Children with developmental delays often have feeding difficulties resulting from oral-motor problems. Based on both clinical experience and a review of published studies, oral-motor interventions have been shown to be effective in improving the oral function of preterm infants and children with neuromotor disorders, such as cerebral palsy.…

  14. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mouth self-examination to improve oral cancer awareness and early detection in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Elango, Kalavathy Jayapal; Anandkrishnan, Nitin; Suresh, Amritha; Iyer, Subramania K; Ramaiyer, Sundaram Karimassery; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Oral cancer is a potentially preventable disease due to its association with well-known risk factors and easy detectability. There is a significant deficiency in the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors among the public. Raising public awareness could effectively contribute to achieving a significant reduction in the incidence of oral cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth self-examination (MSE) in improving the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors as well as test its feasibility as an oral cancer-screening tool. The study was carried out in a high-risk population of 57,704 from India, of which, 34,766 individuals who have met the eligibility criteria formed the study population. MSE brochures and trained health workers were employed for the purpose of health education and cancer screening. The present study compared their efficacy to detect oral lesions. Subjects with suspicious lesions were referred to the trained oral cancer specialist for confirmation. A questionnaire to assess the awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors was developed and validated. SPSS (v.11.0) was used for data analysis. The program identified 216 cases of potentially malignant lesions as well as three cases of oral cancer. The findings of MSE and health workers showed 72% concordance, while that of health workers and oral cancer specialist showed 100% concordance. MSE had a low sensitivity of 18%, while the specificity was 99.9%. Though the technique identified high-risk lesions such as red patches (66.7%) and non-healing ulcers (42.9%), the detection rate of white patches was low (12.7%). Overall awareness of oral cancer and its risk factors after introduction of MSE program was over 80%; but the compliance to seek treatment was poor (32%). Mouth self-examination may be used as an effective tool to improve the awareness of oral cancer and for the early detection of lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Breastmilk-Saliva Interactions Boost Innate Immunity by Regulating the Oral Microbiome in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehri, Saad S.; Knox, Christine L.; Liley, Helen G.; Cowley, David M.; Wright, John R.; Henman, Michael G.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Charles, Bruce G.; Shaw, Paul N.; Sweeney, Emma L.; Duley, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Xanthine oxidase (XO) is distributed in mammals largely in the liver and small intestine, but also is highly active in milk where it generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Adult human saliva is low in hypoxanthine and xanthine, the substrates of XO, and high in the lactoperoxidase substrate thiocyanate, but saliva of neonates has not been examined. Results Median concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine in neonatal saliva (27 and 19 μM respectively) were ten-fold higher than in adult saliva (2.1 and 1.7 μM). Fresh breastmilk contained 27.3±12.2 μM H2O2 but mixing baby saliva with breastmilk additionally generated >40 μM H2O2, sufficient to inhibit growth of the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Oral peroxidase activity in neonatal saliva was variable but low (median 7 U/L, range 2–449) compared to adults (620 U/L, 48–1348), while peroxidase substrate thiocyanate in neonatal saliva was surprisingly high. Baby but not adult saliva also contained nucleosides and nucleobases that encouraged growth of the commensal bacteria Lactobacillus, but inhibited opportunistic pathogens; these nucleosides/bases may also promote growth of immature gut cells. Transition from neonatal to adult saliva pattern occurred during the weaning period. A survey of saliva from domesticated mammals revealed wide variation in nucleoside/base patterns. Discussion and Conclusion During breast-feeding, baby saliva reacts with breastmilk to produce reactive oxygen species, while simultaneously providing growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays more than a simply nutritional role in mammals, interacting with infant saliva to produce a potent combination of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral–and hence gut–microbiota. Consequently, milk-saliva mixing appears to represent unique biochemical synergism which boosts early innate immunity. PMID:26325665

  17. Early prediction of oral calcium and vitamin D requirements in post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhahri, Saleh F; Mubasher, Mohamed; Al-Muhawas, Fida; Alessa, Mohammed; Terkawi, Rayan S; Terkawi, Abdullah S

    2014-09-01

    To optimize and individualize post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia management. A multicenter prospective cohort study. Two tertiary care hospitals. parathyroid hormone (PTH) was measured preoperatively, then at 1 and 6 hours after surgery. The required doses of calcium and vitamin D were defined as those maintaining the patients asymptomatic and their cCa ≥ 2 mmol/L. They were used as an endpoint in a generalized linear mixed effect model (GLIMMEX) aiming to identify the best predictors of these optimal required doses. Models were evaluated by goodness of fit and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were analyzed; 85.1% were female, 49.3% had BMI > 30, and 64% had vitamin D deficiency. Post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia was found in 25.6%, of whom 18 (41.9%) were symptomatic and received intravenous calcium. First hour percentage of drop in PTH correlated positively with the severity of hypocalcemia (P < .0001). The GLIMMIX prediction model for oral calcium requirement was based on first-hour percentage change from preoperative PTH level, preoperative actual PTH, BMI, and thyroid function. The same predictors were identified for vitamin D, except that thyroid function was replaced with vitamin D status. These factors were used to build predictive equations for calcium and vitamin D doses. Our findings help to optimize management of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia by assisting in the early identification of those who are not at risk of hypocalcaemia and by guiding early effective management of those at risk. This may reduce complications and medical cost. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  18. Oral treatment with enrofloxacin early in life promotes Th2-mediated immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Strzępa, Anna; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Kowalczyk, Paulina; Woźniak, Dorota; Motyl, Sylwia; Szczepanik, Marian

    2016-02-01

    Th2 lymphocytes play a crucial role in the development of allergy. These pathologies are caused by coordinated production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 that regulate the activity of eosinophils, basophils and B cells. According to the 'hygiene hypothesis', the reduced exposure to microorganisms favors allergy occurrence. The advances in medicine in the field of infection therapy promoted an increasing application of antibiotics which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate the microbiota. Epicutaneous (EC) immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by OVA challenge was used to study the influence of partial gut flora depletion by oral treatment with enrofloxacin on type-2 immune response. Current work describes the influence of enrofloxacin application on anti-OVA antibody production and cytokine synthesis in young and adult mice. Immune response in adult mice is less sensitive to modification of natural gut flora. We observed that enrofloxacin treatment of adult mice leads to significant decrease of anti-OVA IgG2a production while synthesis of anti-OVA IgE was not changed. The production of type-1 (IFN-γ), type-2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and Th17-associated (IL-17A) cytokines was inhibited. On the other hand, treatment of young mice with enrofloxacin significantly upregulates the production of anti-OVA IgE and inhibits the secretion of anti-OVA IgG2a antibodies. Additionally, treatment with enrofloxacin early in life prior to OVA immunization results in increased production of type-2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines. Our results clearly indicate that the immune system is more vulnerable to decreased bacterial exposure early in life that may promote development of allergy. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Early initiation of new oral anticoagulants in acute stroke and TIA patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Shibazaki, Kensaku; Kimura, Kazumi; Aoki, Junya; Saji, Naoki; Sakai, Kenichiro

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether early initiation of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) for acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are safe. Between March 2011 and September 2012, stroke or TIA patients with NVAF who started NOAC within 2 weeks were enrolled retrospectively. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), hemorrhagic transformation (HT) on T2*-weighted MRI, recurrence of stroke or TIA, systemic embolism and any bleeding complications after initiation of NOAC were evaluated. 41 patients (25 males; mean age 76.2 years) started NOAC; of which, 39 (95%) patients had stroke, and 2 (5%) had TIA. The median (interquartile range) interval from onset to treatment with NOAC was 2 (1-6) days. Symptomatic ICH was not observed. HT on initial T2* and new HT on follow-up T2* were 5 (12%) and 11 (31%), but it was asymptomatic. Of 5 patients who had HT on the initial T2*, enlargement of hemorrhage on follow-up T2* (hemorrhagic infarction (HI) Type 1→HI Type 2) was observed in 1 patient, but it was asymptomatic. None of the patients had recurrent stroke or TIA, systemic embolism, and any bleeding complications. The NOAC may be safe in acute stroke or TIA patients with NVAF. A large, prospective study is needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of oral preoperative carbohydrate on early postoperative outcome after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Lauwick, S M; Kaba, A; Maweja, S; Hamoir, E E; Joris, Jean L

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) reduces perioperative insulin resistance and improves preoperative patient comfort. We tested the hypotheses that preoperative CHO reduces the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and improves early postoperative patient comfort. Two hundred women scheduled for thyroidectomy were randomly allocated to drink 50 g CHO in 400 ml of water or 0.5 g aspartam in 100 ml of water 2 h before surgery. The incidence and the severity of PONV, pain scores, and analgesic consumption were recorded postoperatively. Intensity of thirst, hunger, anxiety, fatigue were recorded on 100-mm visual analog scales just before the induction of anesthesia, 2, 6, and 24 h postoperatively. The incidence and severity of PONV were similar in both groups. Patients from the CHO group reported significantly less thirst (P = 0.007), hunger (P = 0.04), and fatigue (P = 0.01) than patients from the control group. Postoperative pain scores did not differ significantly between both groups (P = 0.34). However patients from the CHO group requested less acetaminophen during the first 24 postoperative h: 3 g vs. 2 g (median, P = 0.002). Oral carbohydrate before thyroidectomy improves pre- and postoperative patient comfort, as well as postoperative analgesia, but has no effect on the PONV.

  1. Effects of maternal dietary egg intake during early lactation on human milk ovalbumin concentration: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, J R; Marsh, J A; D'Vaz, N; Geddes, D T; Lai, C T; Prescott, S L; Palmer, D J

    2016-12-01

    There is limited understanding of how maternal diet affects breastmilk food allergen concentrations, and whether exposure to allergens through this route influences the development of infant oral tolerance or sensitization. To investigate how maternal dietary egg ingestion during early lactation influences egg protein (ovalbumin) levels detected in human breastmilk. In a randomized controlled trial, women were allocated to a dietary group for the first six weeks of lactation: high-egg diet (> 4 eggs per week), low-egg diet (one-three eggs per week) or an egg-free diet. Breastmilk samples were collected at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of lactation for the measurement of ovalbumin. The permeability of the mammary epithelium was assessed by measuring the breastmilk sodium : potassium ratio. Egg-specific IgE and IgG4 were measured in infant plasma at 6 weeks, and prior to the introduction of egg in solids at 16 weeks. Average maternal egg ingestion was associated with breastmilk ovalbumin concentration. Specifically, for each additional egg ingested per week, there was an average 25% increase in ovalbumin concentration (95% CI: 5-48%, P = 0.01). Breastmilk ovalbumin concentrations were significantly higher in the 'high-egg' group (> 4 eggs per week) compared with the 'egg-free' group (P = 0.04). However, one-third of women had no breastmilk ovalbumin detected. No detectable associations were found between mammary epithelium permeability and breastmilk ovalbumin concentrations. Infant plasma egg-specific IgG4 levels were also positively associated with maternal egg ingestion, with an average 22% (95% CI: 3-45%) increase in infant egg-specific IgG4 levels per additional egg consumed per week (P = 0.02). Increased maternal egg ingestion is associated with increased breastmilk ovalbumin, and markers of immune tolerance in infants. These results highlight the potential for maternal diet to benefit infant oral tolerance development during lactation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Influence of chronic oral intake of cannabis extract on oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism of xenobiotics in rat.

    PubMed

    Khanna, P; Gupta, M B; Gupta, G P; Sanwal, G G; Ali, B

    1991-01-01

    Dietary intake of petroleum ether extract of cannabis leaves by rats in doses of 158, 250 and 500 mg/kg in the first, second and third week, respectively, caused selective induction of hepatic microsomal carboxylesterases/amidases without affecting the renal hydrolytic activity. Acetanilide N-deacetylase, p-nitrophenylacetate (NPA) esterase and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) esterase I and II (active at pH 5.5 and 7.4) were stimulated 125, 64, 82 and 60%, respectively, whereas the activities of procaine esterase and acetylaminofluorene (AAF) N-deacetylase remained unaltered. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine was also unchanged. Upon withdrawal of treatment microsomal hydrolytic activity receded to basal levels within 7 days. Curiously though, the two-fold induction of thiacetazone N-deacetylase (118%), a cytosolic hydrolase, remained largely undiminished (62%). An appraisal of the hepatic cytochrome P450 mediated oxidative metabolism revealed approximately three-fold induction of aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) metabolizing benzo(a)pyrene whereas the N-demethylation of aminopyrene was unaffected. These activities were restored to normal when resin administration was discontinued.

  3. Unexpected Lack of Deleterious Effects of Uranium on Physiological Systems following a Chronic Oral Intake in Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Dublineau, Isabelle; Souidi, Maâmar; Gueguen, Yann; Lestaevel, Philippe; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Grison, Stéphane; Paulard, Anaïs; Monin, Audrey; Kern, Yseult; Rouas, Caroline; Loyen, Jeanne; Gourmelon, Patrick; Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    Uranium level in drinking water is usually in the range of microgram-per-liter, but this value may be as much as 100 to 1000 times higher in some areas, which may raise question about the health consequences for human populations living in these areas. Our purpose was to improve knowledge of chemical effects of uranium following chronic ingestion. Experiments were performed on rats contaminated for 9 months via drinking water containing depleted uranium (0.2, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 120 mg/L). Blood biochemical and hematological indicators were measured and several different types of investigations (molecular, functional, and structural) were conducted in organs (intestine, liver, kidneys, hematopoietic cells, and brain). The specific sensitivity of the organs to uranium was deduced from nondeleterious biological effects, with the following thresholds (in mg/L): 0.2 for brain, >2 for liver, >10 for kidneys, and >20 for intestine, indicating a NOAEL (No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level) threshold for uranium superior to 120 m g/L. Based on the chemical uranium toxicity, the tolerable daily intake calculation yields a guideline value for humans of 1350 μg/L. This value was higher than the WHO value of 30 μg/L, indicating that this WHO guideline for uranium content in drinking water is very protective and might be reconsidered. PMID:24693537

  4. Unexpected lack of deleterious effects of uranium on physiological systems following a chronic oral intake in adult rat.

    PubMed

    Dublineau, Isabelle; Souidi, Maâmar; Gueguen, Yann; Lestaevel, Philippe; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Grison, Stéphane; Paulard, Anaïs; Monin, Audrey; Kern, Yseult; Rouas, Caroline; Loyen, Jeanne; Gourmelon, Patrick; Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    Uranium level in drinking water is usually in the range of microgram-per-liter, but this value may be as much as 100 to 1000 times higher in some areas, which may raise question about the health consequences for human populations living in these areas. Our purpose was to improve knowledge of chemical effects of uranium following chronic ingestion. Experiments were performed on rats contaminated for 9 months via drinking water containing depleted uranium (0.2, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 120 mg/L). Blood biochemical and hematological indicators were measured and several different types of investigations (molecular, functional, and structural) were conducted in organs (intestine, liver, kidneys, hematopoietic cells, and brain). The specific sensitivity of the organs to uranium was deduced from nondeleterious biological effects, with the following thresholds (in mg/L): 0.2 for brain, >2 for liver, >10 for kidneys, and >20 for intestine, indicating a NOAEL (No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level) threshold for uranium superior to 120 m g/L. Based on the chemical uranium toxicity, the tolerable daily intake calculation yields a guideline value for humans of 1350 μg/L. This value was higher than the WHO value of 30 μg/L, indicating that this WHO guideline for uranium content in drinking water is very protective and might be reconsidered.

  5. Inequality in oral health related to early and later life social conditions: a study of elderly in Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-02-10

    A life course perspective recognizes influences of socially patterned exposures on oral health across the life span. This study assessed the influence of early and later life social conditions on tooth loss and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) of people aged 65 and 70 years. Whether social inequalities in oral health changed after the usual age of retirement was also examined. In accordance with "the latent effect life course model", it was hypothesized that adverse early-life social conditions increase the risk of subsequent tooth loss and impaired OIDP, independent of later-life social conditions. Data were obtained from two cohorts studies conducted in Sweden and Norway. The 2007 and 2012 waves of the surveys were used for the present study. Early-life social conditions were measured in terms of gender, education and country of birth, and later-life social conditions were assessed by working status, marital status and size of social network. Logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to analyse the data. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to adjust estimates for missing responses and loss to follow-up. Early-life social conditions contributed to tooth loss and OIDP in each survey year and both countries independent of later-life social conditions. Lower education correlated positively with tooth loss, but did not influence OIDP. Foreign country of birth correlated positively with oral impacts in Sweden only. Later-life social conditions were the strongest predictors of tooth loss and OIDP across survey years and countries. GEE revealed significant interactions between social network and survey year, and between marital status and survey year on tooth loss. The results confirmed the latent effect life course model in that early and later life social conditions had independent effects on tooth loss and OIDP among the elderly in Norway and Sweden. Between age 65 and 70, inequalities in tooth loss related to marital

  6. The effects of clopidogrel (Plavix) and other oral anticoagulants on early hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Collinge, Cory A; Kelly, Kevin C; Little, Bert; Weaver, Tara; Schuster, Richard D

    2012-10-01

    Risk for bleeding complications during and after early hip fracture surgery for patients taking clopidogrel and other anticoagulants have not been defined. The purpose of this study is to assess the perioperative bleeding risks and clinical outcome after early hip fracture surgery performed on patients taking clopidogrel (Plavix) and other oral anticoagulants. Study design is a retrospective cohort analysis using data extracted from hospital records and state death records. Regional medical center (level II trauma). Data for 1118 patients ≥60 years of age who had surgical treatment for a hip fracture between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. Eighty-two patients undergoing late surgery (>3 days after admission) were excluded. Patients taking clopidogrel were compared against those not taking clopidogrel. In addition, patients taking clopidogrel only were compared against cohorts of patients taking both clopidogrel and aspirin, aspirin only, warfarin only, or no anticoagulant. Seventy-four of 1036 patients (7%) were taking clopidogrel, although control groups included 253 patients on aspirin alone, 90 patients on warfarin, and 619 taking no anticoagulants. No significant differences were noted between patients taking clopidogrel and those not taking clopidogrel in estimated blood loss, transfusion requirement, final blood count, hematoma evacuation, hospital length of stay (LOS), or mortality while in hospital or at 1 year. A higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score was seen in the clopidogrel and warfarin groups (P = 0.05 each), increased LOS in the clopidogrel group (P = 0.05), and higher rate of deep vein thrombosis seen in those patients taking warfarin (P = 0.05). Clopidogrel only versus aspirin versus both aspirin and clopidogrel, versus no anticoagulant versus warfarin showed no significant differences in estimated blood loss, transfusion requirement, final blood count, bleeding or perioperative complications, or mortality. Patients undergoing early hip

  7. Early changes in plasma glucagon and growth hormone response to oral glucose in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tosi, F; Moghetti, P; Castello, R; Negri, C; Bonora, E; Muggeo, M

    1996-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying deterioration of glucose tolerance associated with hyperthyroidism are not completely understood. Increases in glucagon and growth hormone (GH) secretion have been previously found in hyperthyroid subjects, and could play a crucial role in this phenomenon. However, studies have not yet established the time sequence of changes in plasma glucose on the one hand and glucagon and GH on the other. To assess the early effects of thyroid hormone excess on glucose tolerance and plasma concentrations of the main glucoregulatory hormones, 12 nondiabetic euthyroid subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after triiodothyronine ([T3] 120 micrograms/d) was administered for 10 days. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and GH were determined at fasting and after the glucose load. T3 administration caused a marked increase in serum T3 (8.8 +/- 0.6 v 2.0 +/- 0.1 nmol/L), with clinical and biochemical signs of thyrotoxicosis. During the treatment, plasma glucose significantly increased both at fasting and after the glucose load (basal, 5.3 +/- 0.1 v 4.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L, P < .05; area under the curve [AUC] for OGTT, 7.7 +/- 0.3 v 6.7 +/- 0.4 mmol/L min, P < .01) without any change in plasma insulin levels. After T3 administration, plasma glucagon levels were lower than at baseline (basal, 92 +/- 7 v 148 +/- 35 ng/L; AUC, 74 +/- 6 v 98 +/- 16 ng/L.min, P < .05), showing an appropriate reduction by the increased glucose levels. Conversely, plasma GH showed impaired suppression by hyperglycemia (AUC, 1.2 +/- 0.3 v 0.7 +/- 0.2 microgram/L.min, P < .05). In conclusion, thyroid hormone excess rapidly impairs glucose tolerance. Altered secretion of GH is an early event in thyrotoxicosis accompanying the onset of hyperglycemia, whereas plasma glucagon is appropriately suppressed by the increased plasma glucose levels. Thus, GH but not glucagon may contribute to the early hyperglycemic effect of thyrotoxicosis.

  8. Gum chewing combined with oral intake of a semi-liquid diet in the postoperative care of patients after gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuping; Chen, Li; Zhong, Xiaorong; Feng, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of gum chewing combined with a semi-liquid diet on patients after gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies suggested that chewing gum before traditional postoperative care promotes the postoperative recovery of bowel motility and function after open and laparoscopic surgery. However, gum chewing combined with a semi-liquid diet has not been reported in postoperative care of patients following gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. A prospective randomised study. Total 234 patients were randomly assigned after elective gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery to a gum chewing and semi-liquid diet group, a semi-liquid only diet group or a liquid diet group. The gum chewing and semi-liquid diet group chewed sugar-free gum with an oral intake of a semi-liquid diet six hours postoperatively. The semi-liquid only diet and liquid diet groups received a semi-liquid diet or a liquid diet, respectively. The time to first bowel sounds, time to first regular postoperative bowel sounds, time to first passage of flatus, time to first defecation, serum gastrin and incidences of hunger, nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension were recorded. Hunger and gastrointestinal sensations were assessed using a four-point scale. Serum gastrin was assayed pre- and postoperatively using a gastrin radioimmunoassay kit. The gum chewing and semi-liquid diet group had first bowel sounds, first regular bowel sounds, first passage of flatus and first defecation earlier than the semi-liquid only and liquid groups. Increased serum gastrin was observed in the gum chewing and semi-liquid diet group. Incidences of nausea, vomiting and abdominal distention were not significantly different between these groups. Chewing gum combined with an oral intake of a semi-liquid diet is safe and accelerates the postoperative recovery of bowel function. It might be recommended as a better postoperative care regimen for patients after gynaecologic laparoscopic surgery. This study developed a

  9. An early oral health care program starting during pregnancy: results of a prospective clinical long-term study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Karen; Geurtsen, Werner; Günay, Hüsamettin

    2010-06-01

    This study covers phase IV of a prospective clinical long-term study. Objective of this clinical investigation was to analyze the effects of a long-term prevention program on dental and oral health of teenagers at the age of 13 to 14 years. The entire study was subdivided into four phases. Phase I comprised an individual preventive care during pregnancy ("primary-primary prevention"); phase II assessed mothers and their young children until the age of 3 years ("primary prevention"); and in phase III, mothers and children at the age of 6 years were investigated. In phase IV of the study, the oral health of 13- to 14-year-old teenagers was examined (13.4 +/- 0.5 years; n = 29). All phases consisted of an examination, education about oral health care, and treatment based on the concept of an early oral health care promotion. The control group consisted of randomly selected adolescents at the same age (n = 30). The following clinical parameters were assessed: decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMF-T)/decayed, missing, and filled surface teeth index, hygiene index, papilla bleeding index, Periodontal Screening Index, and Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus concentration in saliva. The teenagers of the "prevention" group of phase IV of our prospective study revealed a share of 89.7% caries-free dentitions (65.5% sound; 24.2% caries-free with fillings). Mean DMF-T was 0.55 +/- 1.0. The control group showed a significantly higher mean DMF-T of 1.5 +/- 1.5 (p < 0.05) and revealed 56.7% of caries-free dentitions (30% sound, 26.7% caries-free with restorations). Our data clearly document that an early oral health care promotion starting during pregnancy may cause a sustained and long-term improvement of the oral health of children.

  10. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on hair tensile strength and morphology in women with fine hair.

    PubMed

    Wickett, R R; Kossmann, E; Barel, A; Demeester, N; Clarys, P; Vanden Berghe, D; Calomme, M

    2007-12-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. Silicon (Si) has been suggested to have a role in the formation of connective tissue and is present at 1-10 ppm in hair. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid ("ch-OSA") is a bioavailable form of silicon which was found to improve skin microrelief and skin mechanical properties in women with photoaged skin. The effect of ch-OSA on hair was investigated in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-eight women with fine hair were given 10 mg Si/day in the form of ch-OSA beadlets (n = 24) or a placebo (n = 24), orally for 9 months. Hair morphology and tensile properties were evaluated before and after treatment. Urinary silicon concentration increased significantly in the ch-OSA supplemented group but not in the placebo group. The elastic gradient decreased in both groups but the change was significantly smaller in the ch-OSA group (-4.52%) compared to placebo group (-11.9%). Break load changed significantly in the placebo group (-10.8%) but not in the ch-OSA supplemented group (-2.20%). Break stress and elastic modulus decreased in both groups but the change was smaller in the ch-OSA group. The cross sectional area increased significantly after 9 months compared to baseline in ch-OSA supplemented subjects but not in the placebo group. The change in urinary silicon excretion was significantly correlated with the change in cross sectional area. Oral intake of ch-OSA had a positive effect on tensile strength including elasticity and break load and resulted in thicker hair.

  11. Comparison of oral microbial profiles between children with severe early childhood caries and caries-free children using the human oral microbe identification microarray.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chen; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Yifei; Sun, Xiangyu; Tong, Peiyuan; Si, Yan; Zheng, Shuguo

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) has become a prevalent public health problem among Chinese preschool children. The bacterial microflora is considered to be an important factor in the formation and progress of dental caries. However, high-throughput and large-scale studies of the primary dentition are lacking. The present study aimed to compare oral microbial profiles between children with severe ECC (SECC) and caries-free children. Both saliva and supragingival plaque samples were obtained from children with SECC (n = 20) and caries-free children (n = 20) aged 3 to 4 years. The samples were assayed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). A total of 379 bacterial species were detected in both the saliva and supragingival plaque samples from all children. Thirteen (including Streptococcus) and two (Streptococcus and Actinomyces) bacterial species in supragingival plaque and saliva, respectively, showed significant differences in prevalence between the two groups. Of these, the frequency of Streptococcus mutans detection was significantly higher in both saliva (p = 0.026) and plaque (p = 0.006) samples from the SECC group than in those from the caries-free group. The findings of our study revealed differences in the oral microbiota between the SECC and caries-free groups Several genera, including Streptococcus, Porphyromonas, and Actinomyces, are strongly associated with SECC and can be potential biomarkers of dental caries in the primary dentition.

  12. Early transition to oral antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia: duration of therapy, clinical outcomes, and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Omidvari, K; de Boisblanc, B P; Karam, G; Nelson, S; Haponik, E; Summer, W

    1998-08-01

    Our objective was to compare therapeutic outcome and analyse cost-benefit of a 'conventional' (7-day course of i.v. antibiotic therapy) vs. an abbreviated (2-day i.v. antibiotic course followed by 'switch' to oral antibiotics) therapy for in-patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used a multicenter prospective, randomized, parallel group with a 28 day follow-up, at the University-based teaching hospitals: The Medical Center of Louisiana in New Orleans, LA and hospitals listed in the acknowledgement. Ninety-five patients were randomized to receive either a 'conventional' course of intravenous antibiotic therapy with cefamandole 1 g i.v. every 6 h for 7 days (n = 37), or an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy with cefamandole (1 g i.v. every 6 h for 2 days) followed by oral therapy with cefaclor (500 mg every 8 h for 5 days). No difference was found in the clinical courses, cure rates, survival or the resolution of the chest radiograph abnormalities among the two groups. The mean duration of therapy (6.88 days for the conventional group compared to 7-30 days for the early oral therapy group) and the frequencies of overall symptomatic improvement (97% vs. 95%, respectively) were similar in both groups. Patients who received early oral therapy had shorter hospital stays (7.3 vs. 9.71 days, P = 0.01), and a lower total cost of care ($2953 vs. $5002, P < 0.05). It was concluded that early transition to an oral antibiotic after an abbreviated course of intravenous therapy in CAP is substantially less expensive and has comparable efficacy to conventional intravenous therapy. Altering physicians' customary management of hospitalized patients with CAP can reduce costs with no appreciable additional risk of adverse patient outcome.

  13. Optimal and safe upper limits of iodine intake for early pregnancy in iodine-sufficient regions: a cross-sectional study of 7190 pregnant women in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoguang; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Fan, Chenling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    The WHO Technical Consultation recommends urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) from 250 to 499 μg/L as more-than-adequate iodine intake and UIC ≥ 500 μg/L as excessive iodine for pregnant and lactating women, but scientific evidence for this is weak. We investigated optimal and safe ranges of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region of China. Seven thousand one hundred ninety pregnant women at 4-8 weeks gestation were investigated and their UIC, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was lowest in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L, which corresponded to the lowest serum Tg concentration (10.18 μg/L). Prevalences of subclinical hypothyroidism (2.4%) and isolated hypothyroxinemia (1.7%) were lower in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that more-than-adequate iodine intake (UIC 250-499 μg/L) and excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 500 μg/L) were associated with a 1.72-fold and a 2.17-fold increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, respectively. Meanwhile, excessive iodine intake was associated with a 2.85-fold increased risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia. Moreover, the prevalence of TPOAb positivity and TgAb positivity presented a U-shaped curve, ranging from mild iodine deficiency to iodine excess. The upper limit of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region should not exceed UIC 250 μg/L, because this is associated with a significantly high risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, and a UIC of 500 μg/L should not be exceeded, as it is associated with a significantly high risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia.

  14. Self-reported dietary intake and appetite predict early treatment outcome among low-BMI adults initiating HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire; Nyirenda, Christopher; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Mwango, Albert; Kasongo, Webster; Zulu, Isaac; Shepherd, Bryan E; Heimburger, Douglas C

    2013-03-01

    Low BMI is a major risk factor for early mortality among HIV-infected persons starting antiretrovial therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa and the common patient belief that antiretroviral medications produce distressing levels of hunger is a barrier to treatment adherence. We assessed relationships between appetite, dietary intake and treatment outcome 12 weeks after ART initiation among HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition and immunosuppression. A prospective, observational cohort study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall survey. The relationships of appetite, intake and treatment outcome were analysed using time-varying Cox models. A public-sector HIV clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. One hundred and forty-two HIV-infected adults starting ART with BMI <16 kg/m2 and/or CD4+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/μl. Median age, BMI and CD4+ lymphocyte count were 32 years, 16 kg/m2 and 34 cells/μl, respectively. Twenty-five participants (18%) died before 12 weeks and another thirty-three (23%) were lost to care. A 500 kJ/d higher energy intake at any time after ART initiation was associated with an approximate 16% reduction in the hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.84; P = 0.01), but the relative contribution of carbohydrate, protein or fat to total energy was not a significant predictor of outcome. Appetite normalized gradually among survivors and hunger was rarely reported. Poor early ART outcomes were strikingly high in a cohort of HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition and mortality was predicted by lower dietary intake. Intervention trials to promote post-ART intake in this population may benefit survival and are warranted.

  15. Self-reported Dietary Intake and Appetite Predict Early Treatment Outcome among Low Body Mass Index Adults Initiating HIV Treatment in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, John R.; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire; Nyirenda, Christopher; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Mwango, Albert; Kasongo, Webster; Zulu, Isaac; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Low body mass index (BMI) is a major risk factor for early mortality among HIV infected persons starting antiretrovial therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, and the common patient belief that antiretroviral medications produce distressing levels of hunger is a barrier to treatment adherence. We assessed relationships between appetite, dietary intake, and treatment outcome 12 weeks after ART initiation among HIV infected adults with advanced malnutrition and immunosuppression. Design A prospective, observational cohort study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour recall survey. The relationships of appetite, intake, and treatment outcome were analyzed using time-varying Cox models. Setting A public-sector HIV clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. Subjects 142 HIV-infected adults starting ART with BMI <16 kg/m2 and/or CD4+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/µl. Results Median age, BMI, and CD4+ lymphocyte count were 32 years, 16 kg/m2, and 34 cells/µL, respectively. Twenty-five participants (18%) died before 12 weeks, and another 33 (23%) were lost to care. A 500 kJ/day higher energy intake at any time after ART initiation was associated with an approximate 16% reduction in the hazard of death (AHR 0.84; p=0.01), but the relative contribution of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy was not a significant predictor of outcome. Appetite normalized gradually among survivors, and hunger was rarely reported. Conclusions Poor early ART outcomes were strikingly high in a cohort of HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition, and mortality was predicted by lower dietary intake. Intervention trials to promote post-ART intake in this population may benefit survival and are warranted. PMID:22691872

  16. Uteroplacental circulation in early pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion supplemented with vaginal micronized progesterone or oral dydrogesterone.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, Krzysztof; Sienko, Jacek; Mogilinski, Mariusz; Bros, Magdalena; Szczecina, Roman; Czajkowska, Anna

    2007-03-01

    To compare the influence of vaginal micronized progesterone and oral dydrogesterone supplementation on uteroplacental circulation in early pregnancy that is complicated by threatened abortion. Randomized, parallel group, double-blind, double dummy-controlled study. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty-three patients with threatened abortion and a living embryo. Three hundred milligrams of micronized vaginal progesterone or 30 mg of oral dydrogesterone daily supplementation for 6 weeks, serial transvaginal Doppler ultrasound measurement of pulsatility index, resistance index, and systolic/diastolic ratio of the spiral arteries, the uterine arteries, and the intrachorionic area. Uteroplacental blood flow. The study demonstrated that vaginal progesterone administration, but not oral dydrogesterone treatment, results in the decrease in the spiral artery pulsatility and resistance index and systolic/diastolic ratio. Insignificant decrease in pulsatility index and resistance index of the uterine artery was observed at >9 weeks and was not associated with treatment regimen. Dydrogesterone treatment was only accompanied by the decrease in the uterine artery systolic/diastolic ratio. Vaginal progesterone and oral dydrogesterone supplementation have a different influence on the uteroplacental circulation in early pregnancy that is complicated by threatened abortion.

  17. A randomized controlled trial on early physiotherapy intervention versus usual care in acute care unit for elderly: potential benefits in light of dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Bisson, C; Dechamps, A; Gouspillou, G; Dehail, P; Bourdel-Marchasson, I

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate effects of early intensive physiotherapy during acute illness on post hospitalization activity daily living autonomy (ADL). Prospective randomized controlled trial of intensive physiotherapy rehabilitation on day 1 to 2 after admission until clinical stability or usual care. acute care geriatric medicine ward. A total of 76 acutely ill patients, acutely bedridden or with reduced mobility but who were autonomous for mobility within the previous 3 months. Patients in palliative care or with limiting mobility pathology were excluded. Mean age was 85.4 (SD 6.6) years. At admission, at clinical stability and one month later: anthropometry, energy and protein intakes, hand grip strength, ADL scores, and baseline inflammatory parameters. An exploratory principal axis analysis was performed on the baseline characteristics and general linear models were used to explore the course of ADL and nutritional variables. A 4-factor solution was found explaining 71.7% of variance with a factor "nutrition", a factor "function" (18.8% of variance) for ADL, handgrip strength, bedridden state, energy and protein intakes, serum albumin and C-reactive protein concentrations; a factor "strength" and a fourth factor . During follow-up, dietary intakes, handgrip strength, and ADL scores improved but no changes occurred for anthropometric variables. Intervention was associated only with an increase in protein intake. Better improvement in ADL was found in intervention group when model was adjusted on "function" factor items. Physical intervention programs should be proposed according to nutritional intakes with the aim of preventing illness induced disability.

  18. Tracking of dietary intake and factors associated with dietary change from early adolescence to adulthood: the ASH30 study.

    PubMed

    Lake, Amelia A; Adamson, Ashley J; Craigie, Angela M; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Mathers, John C

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the tracking of food intake from adolescence to adulthood according to location as an adult (at the time of the follow-up study) and gender. Additionally this paper explores factors associated with change in food intake. Two 3-day food diaries, demographic and socio-economic information were collected in 1980 and 2000 from the same 198 participants (81 male, 117 female). Foods consumed were assigned to the five categories in The Balance of Good Health (BGH) food model. The tracking of food intake was assessed using Pearson correlation analyses. In 2000 two questionnaires were completed. Demographic and key attributional factors, derived from closed and open-ended responses to the questionnaire, were compared with measured change using regression analysis. There was significant tracking of intake by food group from adolescence to adulthood according to location as an adult and gender. Eight combinations of descriptive variables and questionnaire factors were associated with change in intake of four of the five BGH food groups. Between adolescence and adulthood, dietary tracking is influenced by variables including gender and location. Attributions for change in food intake were associated with measured changes in food intake. In order to support healthier eating habits, it is important to be aware of factors contributing to changes in food intake, such as parental influences and perceived influences of time and work. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Physical and chemical stability of proflavine contrast agent solutions for early detection of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Myers, Alan L; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R; Kramer, Mark A; Gillenwater, Ann M; Culotta, Kirk S

    2016-02-01

    Proflavine hemisulfate solution is a fluorescence contrast agent to visualize cell nuclei using high-resolution optical imaging devices such as the high-resolution microendoscope. These devices provide real-time imaging to distinguish between normal versus neoplastic tissue. These images could be helpful for early screening of oral cancer and its precursors and to determine accurate margins of malignant tissue for ablative surgery. Extemporaneous preparation of proflavine solution for these diagnostic procedures requires preparation in batches and long-term storage to improve compounding efficiency in the pharmacy. However, there is a paucity of long-term stability data for proflavine contrast solutions. The physical and chemical stability of 0.01% (10 mg/100 ml) proflavine hemisulfate solutions prepared in sterile water was determined following storage at refrigeration (4-8℃) and room temperature (23℃). Concentrations of proflavine were measured at predetermined time points up to 12 months using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Proflavine solutions stored under refrigeration were physically and chemically stable for at least 12 months with concentrations ranging from 95% to 105% compared to initial concentration. However, in solutions stored at room temperature increased turbidity and particulates were observed in some of the tested vials at 9 months and 12 months with peak particle count reaching 17-fold increase compared to baseline. Solutions stored at room temperature were chemically stable up to six months (94-105%). Proflavine solutions at concentration of 0.01% were chemically and physically stable for at least 12 months under refrigeration. The solution was chemically stable for six months when stored at room temperature. We recommend long-term storage of proflavine solutions under refrigeration prior to diagnostic procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. High incidence of oral corticosteroids prescriptions in children with asthma in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Arabkhazaeli, Ali; Vijverberg, Susanne J H; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H

    2016-12-01

    Severe asthma exacerbations are often treated with short courses of oral corticosteroids (OCS). This study assessed the incidence of OCS being prescribed in asthmatic children of various age groups and calculated their chances of receiving subsequent OCS prescriptions. Longitudinal Dutch community pharmacy data of 2272 children who were regular users of asthma medication was analyzed retrospectively. Incidence rates for first, second and third prescriptions of OCS were calculated, stratified by age and sex. Probabilities of receiving first, second or third OCS prescriptions were assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Incidence rates for first OCS prescriptions were 4.5 for the 1(st) year of life per 100 person-years (100PY); 3.9 for the 2(nd); 4.6 for the 3(rd); 4.2 for the 4(th), and 4.7 for the 5(th) year of life per 100PY. This was relatively high compared to incidence rates for children between the ages of 6 and 11 (ranging between 2.2 per 100PY (age 9) and 3.7(age 11)). Incidence rates for second and third OCS prescriptions were very high: 78.2(95%CI: 45.0-123.7) and 241.2(95%CI: 81.2-583.4) per 100PY for infants, respectively. The chances of receiving a first OCS prescription was higher in males (P value < 0.01). In the Netherlands, the incidence of OCS being prescribed to children being treated with asthma medication in early childhood is relatively high for first OCS prescriptions and extremely high for second and third OCS prescriptions compared to other ages. Furthermore, there is a high probability of receiving a further OCS prescription shortly after an OCS prescription.

  1. The Effect of Oral Intake of Low-Temperature-Processed Whey Protein Concentrate on Colitis and Gene Expression Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayatilake, Sharmila; Arai, Katsuhito; Kumada, Nanami; Ishida, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Ichiro; Iwatsuki, Satoru; Ohwada, Takuji; Ohnishi, Masao; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Kinoshita, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and can lead to inflammation and cancer. Whey proteins contain many bioactive peptides with potential health benefits against IBD. We investigated the effect of low-temperature-processed whey protein concentrate (LWPC) on the suppression of IBD by using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in BALB/c mice. Oral intake of LWPC resulted in improved recovery of body weight in mice. Histological analysis showed that the epithelium cells of LWPC-treated mice were healthier and that lymphocyte infiltration was reduced. The increase in mucin due to the LWPC also reflected reduced inflammation in the colon. Transcriptome analysis of the colon by DNA microarrays revealed marked downregulation of genes related to immune responses in LWPC-fed mice. In particular, the expression of interferon gamma receptor 2 (Ifngr2) and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) was increased by DSS treatment and decreased in LWPC-fed mice. These findings suggest that LWPCs suppress DSS-induced inflammation in the colon by suppressing the signaling of these cytokines. Our findings suggest that LWPCs would be an effective food resource for suppressing IBD symptoms. PMID:28234324

  2. The Effect of Oral Intake of Low-Temperature-Processed Whey Protein Concentrate on Colitis and Gene Expression Profiles in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jayatilake, Sharmila; Arai, Katsuhito; Kumada, Nanami; Ishida, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Ichiro; Iwatsuki, Satoru; Ohwada, Takuji; Ohnishi, Masao; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Kinoshita, Mikio

    2014-06-13

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and can lead to inflammation and cancer. Whey proteins contain many bioactive peptides with potential health benefits against IBD. We investigated the effect of low-temperature-processed whey protein concentrate (LWPC) on the suppression of IBD by using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in BALB/c mice. Oral intake of LWPC resulted in improved recovery of body weight in mice. Histological analysis showed that the epithelium cells of LWPC-treated mice were healthier and that lymphocyte infiltration was reduced. The increase in mucin due to the LWPC also reflected reduced inflammation in the colon. Transcriptome analysis of the colon by DNA microarrays revealed marked downregulation of genes related to immune responses in LWPC-fed mice. In particular, the expression of interferon gamma receptor 2 (Ifngr2) and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) was increased by DSS treatment and decreased in LWPC-fed mice. These findings suggest that LWPCs suppress DSS-induced inflammation in the colon by suppressing the signaling of these cytokines. Our findings suggest that LWPCs would be an effective food resource for suppressing IBD symptoms.

  3. Metronomic chemotherapy in platinum-insensitive failures and/or early failures postmultimodality management in oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijay M.; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Pinninti, Rakesh; Dhumal, Sachin; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Prabhash, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Oral cancer patients with platinum-resistant disease and or early failures have limited treatment options. This analysis was planned to study the efficacy of metronomic chemotherapy in this group of patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of oral cancer patients who had squamous cell carcinoma and had an early failure and/or platinum-insensitive failure. Early failure was defined as a failure either within 1-month of adjuvant radiotherapy or within 6 months of chemoradiation (CTRT). A sample size of 100 patients was selected for this study. If ≥39 of 100 patients would have survived at 6 months with metronomic chemotherapy, then additional studies would be warranted. Results: The ECOG PS was 0-1 in 92 patients and 2 in 8 patients. The subsite of primary was buccal mucosa in 38 patients (38%), anterior two-third tongue (oral tongue) in 51 patients (51%), and alveolus in 11 patients (11%). The median estimated overall survival was 110 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85-134 days). The proportion of patients surviving at 6 months was 26.4% (95% CI: 17.9-35.6). Conclusion: Metronomic combination of methotrexate and celecoxib failed to meet its prespecified efficacy limit and should not be used in these patients as routine. PMID:26855524

  4. Early caries predicts low oral health-related quality of life at later age

    PubMed Central

    Kragt, Lea; van der Tas, Justin T.; Moll, Henriette A.; Elfrink, Marlies E.C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Wolvius, Eppo B.; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M.

    2017-01-01

    Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) is the perceived impact of one’s own oral health on daily life. Oral diseases influence children’s OHRQOL directly, but OHRQOL might also be related to oral health experiences from the past. We investigate the relation between dental caries at the age of 6 with OHRQOL assessed at the age of 10. This study was conducted within the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. Caries experience was assessed with the decayed, missing and filled teeth -index (dmft) at a median (90%range) age of 6.09 (5.73-6.80). OHRQOL was assessed with a short form of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile at the children’s age of 9.79 (9.49-10.44). In total, n= 2833 children participated in this study, of which n= 472 (16.6%) had mild caries (dmft 1-3) and n= 228 (8.0%) had severe caries (dmft>3). The higher the dmft-score at the age of 6, the lower the OHRQOL at the age of 10 (p<0.001). The children with severe caries at the age of 6 had significant higher odds to be in the lowest OHRQOL quartile at the age of 10 (OR=1.69; 95% CI=1.17-2.45). Our study highlights the importance of oral health during childhood, because those who get a compromised start to oral health are much more likely to follow a trajectory which will lead to poor oral health (-related quality of life) later. OHRQOL is not only related to current oral health experiences, but also to oral health experiences from the past. PMID:27585185

  5. Effects of dietary cation-anion difference on intake, milk yield, and blood components of the early lactation cow.

    PubMed

    Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K; Fernandez, J M

    2005-12-01

    Early lactation Holsteins cows (15 primiparous and 18 multiparous) were offered rations with dietary cation-anion difference, calculated as mEq (Na + K - Cl - S)/100 g of feed dry matter (DCAD:S), of 20, 35, or 50 mEq from d 0 (calving) to 42 d postpartum (August 20, 2000 to January 9, 2001) to determine the effects of increasing DCAD:S on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and blood metabolites. For DCAD:S of 20, 35, and 50, DMI was 3.30, 3.38, 2.96 kg/100 kg of body weight (BW); milk yield was 25.5, 24.2, and 22.4 kg/d, respectively. No differences were observed for concentration or yield of milk fat or milk protein. Serum Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, cation-anion difference, insulin, and glucose did not differ with DCAD. Serum HCO3- was 26.07, 25.88, and 27.64 mEq/L for 20, 35, and 50 DCAD:S. Serum Ca, Mg, Na, and K concentrations were greater for primiparous cows (9.52 mg/dL, 2.35 mg/dL, 140.03 mEq/L, 4.66 mEq/L, respectively) than for multiparous cows (9.27 mg/dL, 2.12 mg/dL, 137.63 mEq/L, 4.46 mEq/ L, respectively). A DCAD:S between 23 and 33 mEq/100 g of dry matter (DM) appears to be adequate during cool weather for the milk yield that occurred in the present study based on DMI (kg/100 kg of BW), whereas DCAD:S of 50 mEq/100 g of DM may be excessive and could be too alkaline or unpalatable, resulting in decreased DMI (kg/100 kg of BW).

  6. The early postnatal nutritional intake of preterm infants affected neurodevelopmental outcomes differently in boys and girls at 24 months.

    PubMed

    Christmann, Viola; Roeleveld, Nel; Visser, Reina; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Reuser, Jolanda J C M; van Goudoever, Johannes B; van Heijst, Arno F J

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed whether increased amino acid and energy intake in preterm infants during the first week of life was associated with improved neurodevelopment at the corrected age (CA) of 24 months. We evaluated preterm infants from two consecutive cohorts in 2004 (Cohort 1) and 2005 (Cohort 2) with different nutritional intakes in the Netherlands. Nutritional intake and growth were recorded until week 5 and after discharge. Neurodevelopment was determined using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - Second Edition at a CA of 24 months. Compared to Cohort 1 (n = 56), Cohort 2 (n = 56) received higher nutritional intake during week 1 (p < 0.001). The weight gain in Cohort 2 was higher until week 5, especially among boys (p < 0.002). The mean Mental Developmental Index (MDI) scores did not differ, but Cohort 2 was associated with an increased chance of having an MDI ≥ 85, with an odds ratio of 6.4 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.5-27.4, among all girls with a higher protein intake (5.3, 1.2-23.3). The Psychomotor Developmental Index increased with increasing nutritional intake, especially among boys (β-coefficient 3.1, 95% CI 0.2-6.0). Higher nutritional intake was associated with different improvements in growth and neurodevelopment in boys and girls. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Comparing medical and dental providers of oral health services on early dental caries experience.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Weinberger, Morris; Lee, Jessica Y

    2014-07-01

    Most state Medicaid programs reimburse nondental primary care providers (PCPs) for providing preventive oral health services to young children. We examined the association between who (PCP, dentist, or both) provides these services to Medicaid enrollees before age 3 years and oral health at age 5 years. We linked North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) to oral health surveillance data (2005-2006). Regression models estimated oral health status (number of decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and untreated disease (proportion of untreated decayed teeth), with adjustment for relevant characteristics and by using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to address confounding. We analyzed data for 5235 children with 2 or more oral health visits from a PCP, dentist, or both. Children with multiple PCP or dentist visits had a similar number of overall mean decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth in kindergarten, whereas children with only PCP visits had a higher proportion of untreated decayed teeth. The setting and provider type did not influence the effectiveness of preventive oral health services on children's overall oral health. However, children having only PCP visits may encounter barriers to obtaining dental treatment.

  8. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium intake affect rates of bone calcium deposition during pregnancy and the early postpartum period123

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kimberly O; Donangelo, Carmen M; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Gildengorin, Ginny; Abrams, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background: Factors affecting bone calcium deposition across pregnancy and lactation are not well characterized. Objective: The impact of maternal age, calcium intake, race-ethnicity, and vitamin D status on the rate of bone calcium deposition (VO+) was assessed across pregnancy and lactation. Design: Stable calcium isotopes were given to 46 women at pre- or early pregnancy (trimester 1), late pregnancy (trimester 3), and 3–10 wk postpartum. Three cohorts were included: 23 adolescents from Baltimore (MD), aged 16.5 ± 1.4 y (mean ± SD; Baltimore cohort); 13 adults from California, aged 29.5 ± 2.6 y (California cohort); and 10 adults from Brazil, aged 30.4 ± 4.0 y (Brazil cohort). The total exchangeable calcium pool, VO+, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], parathyroid hormone, and calcium intake were evaluated. Results: At trimester 3, inverse associations between 1,25(OH)2D and VO+ were evident in the Baltimore (P = 0.059) and Brazil (P = 0.008) cohorts and in the whole group (P = 0.029); calcium intake was not a significant determinant of VO+ in any group during pregnancy. At postpartum, a significant positive association was evident between VO+ and calcium intake (P ≤ 0.002) and between VO+ and African ethnicity (P ≤ 0.004) in the whole group and within the Baltimore and Brazil cohorts. Conclusions: Elevated 1,25(OH)2D was associated with decreased rates of bone calcium deposition during late pregnancy, a finding that was particularly evident in pregnant adolescents and adult women with low calcium intakes. Higher dietary calcium intakes and African ethnicity were associated with elevated rates of bone calcium deposition in the postpartum period. PMID:22648718

  9. Amplification and protein overexpression of cyclin D1: Predictor of occult nodal metastasis in early oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Noorlag, Rob; Boeve, Koos; Witjes, Max J H; Koole, Ronald; Peeters, Ton L M; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M; van Es, Robert J J

    2017-02-01

    Accurate nodal staging is pivotal for treatment planning in early (stage I-II) oral cancer. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack sensitivity to detect occult nodal metastases. Chromosomal region 11q13, including genes CCND1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and CTTN, is often amplified in oral cancer with nodal metastases. However, evidence in predicting occult nodal metastases is limited. In 158 patients with early tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinomas, both CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1, FADD, and cortactin protein expression were correlated with occult nodal metastases. CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression correlated with occult nodal metastases. Cyclin D1 expression was validated in an independent multicenter cohort, confirming the correlation with occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Cyclin D1 is a predictive biomarker for occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Prospective research on biopsy material should confirm these results before implementing its use in routine clinical practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 326-333, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Long-term outcome of oral health in patients with early childhood caries treated under general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    EzEldeen, M; Gizani, S; Declerck, D

    2015-08-01

    Reports on the long-term outcome of oral health in children with early childhood caries (ECC) treated under general anaesthesia (GA) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess oral health in adolescents with history of ECC treated under GA at young age. A total of 98 children treated under GA because of ECC at the University Hospitals of Leuven (Belgium) (1995-1996) were included in a follow-up study. Information was collected at baseline (GA) and 1 and 12 years after treatment. The children were examined clinically [oral hygiene, caries experience (CE)] and oral health behaviour was recorded using a questionnaire. At second recall, 46 (48 %) adolescents could be contacted; 21 of these attended the dental clinic. Their mean age was 17.5 years (SD 1.4) with mean time span since GA of 13.1 years (SD 0.8); 91 % presented with CE. Mean D3MFT was 8.2 (SD 5.6) (median 7; range 0-18); 71 % showed untreated decay. A considerable gap between knowledge of content and actual use of fluoride in toothpaste was evident. Individuals with a history of ECC remained at high risk for caries in their permanent dentition. There is a need for well-designed long-term studies to explore associated factors.

  11. [Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus].

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  13. Early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Annelise; Jarden, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to explore early and late physical and psychosocial effects of primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and to investigate the factors that influence these effects. PubMed, Cinahl, and PsycInfo were searched for studies concerning patients diagnosed with oral and oropharyngeal cancers and treated with primary surgery and which followed the treatment trajectory from time of diagnosis to 10 years after surgery; these studies reported the quantitative assessments and qualitative experiences of the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. Of the 438 articles accessed, 20 qualified for inclusion, of which 16 and 4 were quantitative and qualitative articles, respectively, and mainly quality-of-life assessments. Time of measurement ranged from time of diagnosis to 9 years after the surgical procedure. The total number of patients included in this review was 3386; of these, 1996 were treated by surgery alone and 1390 with combined surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. The studies showed that because of the nature of their disease, patients are negatively affected by the different types of surgical treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers, with both early and late interrelated effects, and by the side effects of adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Literacy Skills in Children With Cochlear Implants: The Importance of Early Oral Language and Joint Storybook Reading

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to longitudinally examine relationships between early factors (child and mother) that may influence children's phonological awareness and reading skills 3 years later in a group of young children with cochlear implants (N = 16). Mothers and children were videotaped during two storybook interactions, and children's oral language skills were assessed using the “Reynell Developmental Language Scales, third edition.” Three years later, phonological awareness, reading skills, and language skills were assessed using the “Phonological Awareness Test,” the “Woodcock–Johnson-III Diagnostic Reading Battery,” and the “Oral Written Language Scales.” Variables included in the data analyses were child (age, age at implant, and language skills) and mother factors (facilitative language techniques) and children's phonological awareness and reading standard scores. Results indicate that children's early expressive oral language skills and mothers’ use of a higher level facilitative language technique (open-ended question) during storybook reading, although related, each contributed uniquely to children's literacy skills. Individual analyses revealed that the children with expressive standard scores below 70 at Time 1 also performed below average (<85) on phonological awareness and total reading tasks 3 years later. Guidelines for professionals are provided to support literacy skills in young children with cochlear implants. PMID:18417463

  15. Oral haloperidol or olanzapine intake produces distinct and region-specific increase in cannabinoid receptor levels that is prevented by high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Delis, Foteini; Rosko, Lauren; Shroff, Aditya; Leonard, Kenneth E; Thanos, Panayotis K

    2017-10-03

    Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic oral intake of a first and a second generation antipsychotic, haloperidol and olanzapine, on the levels and distribution of CB1Rs in the rat brain. Rats consumed either regular chow or high-fat food and drank water, haloperidol drinking solution (1.5mg/kg), or olanzapine drinking solution (10mg/kg) for four weeks. Motor and cognitive functions were tested at the end of treatment week 3 and upon drug discontinuation. Two days after drug discontinuation, rats were euthanized and brains were processed for in vitro receptor autoradiography. In chow-fed animals, haloperidol and olanzapine increased CB1R levels in the basal ganglia and the hippocampus, in a similar, but not identical pattern. In addition, olanzapine had unique effects in CB1R upregulation in higher order cognitive areas, in the secondary somatosensory cortex, in the visual and auditory cortices and the geniculate nuclei, as well as in the hypothalamus. High fat food consumption prevented antipsychotic-induced increase in CB1R levels in all regions examined, with one exception, the globus pallidus, in which they were higher in haloperidol-treated rats. The results point towards the hypothesis that increased CB1R levels could be a confounding effect of antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia that is circumveneted by high fat feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and validation of oral health-related early childhood quality of life tool for North Indian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Logani, Ajay; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable instrument [Oral Health related Early Childhood Quality of Life (OH- ECQOL) scale] for measuring oral health related quality of life (OHrQoL) in preschool children in North Indian population. Four pediatric dentists evaluated a pool of 65 items from various QoL questionnaires to assess their relevance to Indian population. These items were discussed with eight independent pediatric dentists and two community dentists who were not a part of this study to assess relevance of these items to preschool age children based on their comprehensiveness and clarity. Based on their responses and feedback a modified pool of items was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 20 parents who rated these items according to their relevance. The test retest reliability was evaluated on another sample of 20 parents of 2-5 year old children. The final questionnaire comprised of 16 items (12 child and 4 family). This was administered to 300 parents of 24-71 months old children divided on the basis of early childhood caries to assess its reliability and validity. OH-ECQOL scores were significantly associated with parental ratings of their child's general and oral health, and the presence of dental disease in the child. Cronbach's alpha was 0.862, and the ICC for test-retest reliability was 0.94. The OH-ECQOL proved reliable and valid tool for assessing the impact of oral disorders on the quality of life of preschool children in Northern India.

  17. Perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners on the detection deficit in oral premalignant and early cancers in Puerto Rico: a qualitative research study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Puerto Rico, relative to the United States, a disparity exists in detecting oral precancers and early cancers. To identify factors leading to the deficit in early detection, we obtained the perspectives of San Juan healthcare practitioners whose practice could be involved in the detection of such oral lesions. Methods Key informant (KI) interviews were conducted with ten clinicians practicing in or around San Juan, Puerto Rico. We then triangulated our KI interview findings with other data sources, including recent literature on oral cancer detection from various geographic areas, current curricula at the University of Puerto Rico Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine, as well as local health insurance regulations. Results Key informant-identified factors that likely contribute to the detection deficit include: many practitioners are deficient in knowledge regarding oral cancer and precancer; oral cancer screening examinations are limited regarding which patients receive them and the elements included. In Puerto Rico, specialists generally perform oral biopsies, and patient referral can be delayed by various factors, including government-subsidized health insurance, often referred to as Reforma. Reforma-based issues include often inadequate clinician knowledge regarding Reforma requirements/provisions, diagnostic delays related to Reforma bureaucracy, and among primary physicians, a perceived financial disincentive in referring Reforma patients. Conclusions Addressing these issues may be useful in reducing the deficit in detecting oral precancers and early oral cancer in Puerto Rico. PMID:21612663

  18. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years. PMID:25829790

  19. Wide-field and high-resolution optical imaging for early detection of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Mark C.; Schwarz, Richard A.; Rosbach, Kelsey; Roblyer, Darren; Muldoon, Tim; Williams, Michelle D.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-02-01

    Current procedures for oral cancer screening typically involve visual inspection of the entire tissue surface at risk under white light illumination. However, pre-cancerous lesions can be difficult to distinguish from many benign conditions when viewed under these conditions. We have developed wide-field (macroscopic) imaging system which additionally images in cross-polarized white light, narrowband reflectance, and fluorescence imaging modes to reduce specular glare, enhance vascular contrast, and detect disease-related alterations in tissue autofluorescence. We have also developed a portable system to enable high-resolution (microscopic) evaluation of cellular features within the oral mucosa in situ. This system is a wide-field epi-fluorescence microscope coupled to a 1 mm diameter, flexible fiber-optic imaging bundle. Proflavine solution was used to specifically label cell nuclei, enabling the characteristic differences in N/C ratio and nuclear distribution between normal, dysplastic, and cancerous oral mucosa to be quantified. This paper discusses the technical design and performance characteristics of these complementary imaging systems. We will also present data from ongoing clinical studies aimed at evaluating diagnostic performance of these systems for detection of oral neoplasia.

  20. How Talk Becomes Text: Investigating the Concept of Oral Rehearsal in Early Years' Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The principle that emergent writing is supported by talk, and that an appropriate pedagogy for writing should include planned opportunities for talk is well researched and well understood. However, the process by which talk becomes text is less clear. The term "oral rehearsal" is now commonplace in English classrooms and curriculum policy…

  1. Refocusing on Oral Language and Rich Representations to Develop the Early Mathematical Understandings of Indigenous Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Susan; Warren, Elizabeth; DeVries, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the nature of oral language and representations used by teachers as they instruct young Indigenous Australian students at the beginning of formal schooling during play-based activities in mathematics. In particular, the use of Standard Australian English (SAE), the mathematical register used, and the interplay with…

  2. Early Home Activities and Oral Language Skills in Middle Childhood: A Quantile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, James; Rush, Robert; King, Tom; Westrupp, Elizabeth; Reilly, Sheena

    2018-01-01

    Oral language development is a key outcome of elementary school, and it is important to identify factors that predict it most effectively. Commonly researchers use ordinary least squares regression with conclusions restricted to average performance conditional on relevant covariates. Quantile regression offers a more sophisticated alternative.…

  3. Correlates of Oral Sex and Vaginal Intercourse in Early and Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Fisher, Deborah A.; Grube, Joel W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether a comprehensive set of psychosocial factors was equally predictive of both adolescent vaginal intercourse and oral sex among 1,105 adolescents aged 12-16. Logistic regressions were used to examine the relationships between parental communication, religiosity, bonding to school, heavy drinking, sex expectancies,…

  4. Aberrant proteins featured in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers: an indication of early oral premalignancy?

    PubMed

    Jessie, Kala; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged chewing of betel quid is known to cause oral diseases, including cancer. The present study was performed to screen for aberrant proteins in the saliva of habitual betel quid chewers compared to nonchewers. Saliva of female subjects (n = 10) who had been chewing betel quid for more than 20 years and nonbetel quid chewers (n = 10) of the same gender and range of age was analyzed by gel-based proteomics. Increased structural microheterogeneity of saliva haptoglobin beta chains indicated by shifts of focused spots similar to that earlier reported in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and their relatively higher abundance compared to nonbetel quid chewers, were detected in saliva protein profiles of all chewers. In addition, the majority of the betel quid chewers also showed significant higher abundance of hemopexin, alpha-1B glycoprotein, alpha1-antitrypsin, complement C3, and transthyretin. These proteins had previously been associated with several different cancers. Our data demonstrated different forms of protein aberration in the saliva of betel quid chewers, which may be indicative of early oral precancerous conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Post-weaning Environmental Enrichment, But Not Chronic Maternal Isolation, Enhanced Ethanol Intake during Periadolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Berardo, Luciana R.; Fabio, María C.; Pautassi, Ricardo M.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats exposed to maternal separation (MS) during infancy (postnatal days 1–21, PD1–21) and environmental enrichment (EE) during adolescence (PD 21–42). Previous work revealed that MS enhances ethanol consumption during adulthood. It is still unknown if a similar effect is found during adolescence. Several studies, in turn, have revealed that EE reverses stress experiences, and reduces ethanol consumption and reinforcement; although others reported greater ethanol intake after EE. The interactive effects between these treatments upon ethanol’s effects and intake have yet to be explored. We assessed chronic ethanol intake and preference (12 two-bottle daily sessions, spread across 30 days, 1st session on PD46) in rats exposed to MS and EE. The main finding was that male – but not female – rats that had been exposed to EE consumed more ethanol than controls given standard housing, an effect that was not affected by MS. Subsequent experiments assessed several factors associated with heightened ethanol consumption in males exposed to MS and EE; namely taste aversive conditioning and hypnotic-sedative consequences of ethanol. We also measured anxiety response in the light-dark box and in the elevated plus maze tests; and exploratory patterns of novel stimuli and behaviors indicative of risk assessment and risk-taking, via a modified version of the concentric square field (CSF) test. Aversive conditioning, hypnosis and sleep time were similar in males exposed or not to EE. EE males, however, exhibited heightened exploration of novel stimuli and greater risk taking behaviors in the CSF test. It is likely that the promoting effect of EE upon ethanol intake was due to these effects upon exploratory and risk-taking behaviors. PMID:27790100

  6. Elevated S100A9 expression in tumor stroma functions as an early recurrence marker for early-stage oral cancer patients through increased tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment and interleukin-6 production

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Liu, Chiang-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Zih; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Chang, Mei-Zhu; Lin, Siao-Han; Wu, Li-Wha

    2015-01-01

    S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein with two EF-hands and frequently deregulated in several cancer types, however, with no clear role in oral cancer. In this report, the expression of S100A9 in cancer and adjacent tissues from 79 early-stage oral cancer patients was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Although S100A9 protein was present in both tumor and stromal cells, only the early-stage oral cancer patients with high stromal expression had reduced recurrence-free survival. High stromal S100A9 expression was also significantly associated with non-well differentiation and recurrence. In addition to increasing cell migration and invasion, ectopic S100A9 expression in tumor cells promoted xenograft tumorigenesis as well as the dominant expression of myeloid cell markers and pro-inflammatory IL-6. The expression of S100A9 in one stromal component, monocytes, stimulated the aggressiveness of co-cultured oral cancer cells. We also detected the elevation of serum S100A9 levels in early-stage oral cancer patients of a separate cohort of 73 oral cancer patients. The release of S100A9 protein into extracellular milieu enhanced tumor cell invasion, transendothelial monocyte migration and angiogenic activity. S100A9-mediated release of IL-6 requires the crosstalk of tumor cells with monocytes through the activation of NF-κB and STAT-3. Early-stage oral cancer patients with both high S100A9 expression and high CD68+ immune infiltrates in stroma had shortest recurrence-free survival, suggesting the use of both S100A9 and CD68 as poor prognostic markers for oral cancer. Together, both intracellular and extracellular S100A9 exerts a tumor-promoting action through the activation of oral cancer cells and their associated stroma in oral carcinogenesis. PMID:26315114

  7. Elevated S100A9 expression in tumor stroma functions as an early recurrence marker for early-stage oral cancer patients through increased tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment and interleukin-6 production.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Yu; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Liu, Chiang-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Zih; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Chang, Mei-Zhu; Lin, Siao-Han; Wu, Li-Wha

    2015-09-29

    S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein with two EF-hands and frequently deregulated in several cancer types, however, with no clear role in oral cancer. In this report, the expression of S100A9 in cancer and adjacent tissues from 79 early-stage oral cancer patients was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Although S100A9 protein was present in both tumor and stromal cells, only the early-stage oral cancer patients with high stromal expression had reduced recurrence-free survival. High stromal S100A9 expression was also significantly associated with non-well differentiation and recurrence. In addition to increasing cell migration and invasion, ectopic S100A9 expression in tumor cells promoted xenograft tumorigenesis as well as the dominant expression of myeloid cell markers and pro-inflammatory IL-6. The expression of S100A9 in one stromal component, monocytes, stimulated the aggressiveness of co-cultured oral cancer cells. We also detected the elevation of serum S100A9 levels in early-stage oral cancer patients of a separate cohort of 73 oral cancer patients. The release of S100A9 protein into extracellular milieu enhanced tumor cell invasion, transendothelial monocyte migration and angiogenic activity. S100A9-mediated release of IL-6 requires the crosstalk of tumor cells with monocytes through the activation of NF-κB and STAT-3. Early-stage oral cancer patients with both high S100A9 expression and high CD68+ immune infiltrates in stroma had shortest recurrence-free survival, suggesting the use of both S100A9 and CD68 as poor prognostic markers for oral cancer. Together, both intracellular and extracellular S100A9 exerts a tumor-promoting action through the activation of oral cancer cells and their associated stroma in oral carcinogenesis.

  8. Salivary zinc finger protein 510 peptide as a novel biomarker for detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma in early stages.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Chia-Der; Lai, Chih-Ho; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Su-Hua; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chen, Shih-Yin; Kao, Jung-Yie; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2011-07-15

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis can mean adequate treatment and increase survival. This study uses ClinProt technique to identify salivary biomarkers for early diagnosis of OSCC. A total of 77 salivary samples from both OSCC patients (n=47) and healthy donors (n=30) were analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS technology. Salivary peptides from OSCC patients were separated, using C8-functionalized magnetic beads. Three signals (2918.57 Da, 5592.64 Da, and 4372.66 Da) distinguished OSCC patients from controls. Among them, unique peptide 2918.57 Da, identified as a 24-mer peptide of zinc finger protein 510 (ZNF510), was found in 0% of saliva from healthy individuals, versus 25.0% and 60% from OSCC patients with T1+T2 and T3+T4 stages, respectively (P<0.001). ELISA analysis with rabbit anti-ZNF510 peptide sera shows a starkly higher 24-mer ZNF510 peptide level in saliva from OSCC patients than that in controls (P<0.001). Also, in immunohistochemical analysis of oral tissues, a significantly higher level of ZNF510 was observed in OSCC tissues than in the OSCC free control tissues. Analysis of areas under receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves in OSCC early (T1+T2) and late stages (T3+T4) shows greater than 0.95. Identifying 24-mer ZNF510 peptide as OSCC-related salivary biomarkers via proteomic approach proved useful in adjunct diagnosis for early detection rather than specific diagnosis marker for progression of OSCC patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation and identification of potential biomarkers in human saliva for the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qihui; Gao, Pan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Duan, Yixiang

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is 1 of the 6 most common human cancers, with an annual incidence of >300,000 cases worldwide. This study aimed to investigate potential biomarkers in human saliva to facilitate the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Unstimulated whole saliva obtained from OSCC patients (n=30) and apparently healthy individuals (n=30) were assayed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode. The data were analyzed using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, logistic regression, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) to evaluate the predictive power of each of 4 biomarkers, or combinations of biomarkers, for OSCC screening. Four potential salivary biomarkers demonstrated significant differences (P<0.05) in concentrations between patients at stages I-II and the healthy individuals. The area under the curve (AUC) values in control vs OSCC I-II mode based on choline, betaine, pipecolinic acid, and l-carnitine were 0.926, 0.759, 0.994, and 0.708, respectively. Four salivary biomarkers in combination yielded satisfactory accuracy (0.997), sensitivity (100%), and specificity (96.7%) in distinguishing OSCC I-II from control. Salivary metabolite biomarkers for the early diagnosis of OSCC were verified in this study. The proposed approach is expected to be applied as a potential technique of preclinical screening of OSCC. © 2013.

  10. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Depth of invasion, size and number of metastatic nodes predicts extracapsular spread in early oral cancers with occult metastases.

    PubMed

    Mair, Manish D; Shetty, Rathan; Nair, Deepa; Mathur, Yash; Nair, Sudhir; Deshmukh, Anuja; Thiagarajan, Shiva; Pantvaidya, Gouri; Lashkar, Sarbani; Prabhash, Kumar; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathmesh; Cruz, Anil D; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2018-06-01

    Presence of extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly decreases survival in oral cancer patients. Considering its prognostic impact, we have studied the incidence and factors predicting ECS in clinically node negative early oral cancers. We performed a retrospective chart review of 354 treatment naïve clinically node negative early oral cancer patients operated between 2012 and 2014. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for identifying predictors of ECS, while cox-regression test was used for survival analysis. The incidence of occult nodal metastasis was 28.5% (101/354). Among them, ECS was seen in 15.3%(54/354) patients. The incidence of ECS in T1 and T2 lesion was 13.4% (21/157) and 16.8% (33/197), respectively. The overall incidence of ECS was 48% and 29% in lymph nodes smaller than 10 mm and 5 mm respectively. We found that tumor depth of invasion (>5 mm; p-0.027) and node (metastatic) size >15 mm (p-0.018) were significant predictors of ECS. p N2b disease was seen in 41/354 (11.6%) of which 31/354 (8.7%) had ECS, i.e. 75.6% of pN2b patients been ECS positive (p-0.000). The 3-year OS of patients without nodal metastasis, nodal metastasis without ECS and nodal metastasis with ECS was 88.4%, 66.9% and 59.2% (p-0.000) respectively. A significant number of patients with metastatic nodal size less than 1 cm have ECS which suggests aggressive behavior of the primary tumor. Thus, elective neck dissection is the only way of detecting ECS in these patients which may warrant treatment intensification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of early switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobials in patients with aspiration pneumonia: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Uni, Masahiro; Nishimura, Naoki; Yamano, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Genta; Kitamura, Atsushi; Tomishima, Yutaka; Jinta, Torahiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Deshpande, Gautam; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2015-09-01

    Previous reports have documented the efficacy of an early switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobials in community-acquired pneumonia, but not aspiration pneumonia. Therefore, we assessed the feasibility and efficacy of these newly developed criteria for community-acquired pneumonia in patients with aspiration pneumonia. This prospective observational study included consecutive patients admitted with aspiration pneumonia over a 10-month period at St. Luke's International Hospital; we excluded patients that required intensive care. The criteria for an early switch were stability of vital signs (temperature ≤ 38 °C; respiratory rate ≤ 24 breaths/min; pulse rate ≤ 100 beats/min for >24 h) and a successful swallow evaluation (repetitive saliva swallowing test score ≥ 2; modified water swallowing test score ≥ 4). Our primary endpoint was successful completion of antimicrobial treatment 30 days after the switch, without reversion to intravenous antimicrobials. Our anticipated success rate was set as 60-75%, based on a previous study. Of the 70 patients admitted with aspiration pneumonia, 32 (45.7%) were excluded, and 38 (54.3%) met the inclusion criteria. Of these 38 patients, 29 (76.3%) met the switch criteria. The median duration of hospital stay for the included patients was 16 (5-30) days and 30 (12-68) days, respectively (P=0.03). Among patients who met the switch criteria, 26 (89.7%) completed oral treatment successfully while 3 (10.3%) reverted to intravenous antimicrobials. Approximately 75% of patients met the switch criteria; of these, nearly 90% underwent safe conversion to oral therapy. These results demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of our switch criteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Gastric Fluid Volume Change After Oral Rehydration Solution Intake in Morbidly Obese and Normal Controls: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Toshie; Kurosaki, Dai; Nakamura, Mitsuyo; Yazaki, Taiji; Kobinata, Satomi; Seki, Yosuke; Kasama, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2017-04-01

    Although preoperative fluid intake 2 hours before anesthesia is generally considered safe, there are concerns about delayed gastric emptying in obese subjects. In this study, the gastric fluid volume (GFV) change in morbidly obese subjects was investigated after ingesting an oral rehydration solution (ORS) and then compared with that in nonobese subjects. GFV change over time after the ingestion of 500 mL of ORS containing 2.5% carbohydrate (OS-1) was measured in 10 morbidly obese subjects (body mass index [BMI], >35) scheduled for bariatric surgery and 10 nonobese (BMI, 19-24) using magnetic resonance imaging. After 9 hours of fasting, magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at preingestion, 0 min (just after ingestion), and every 30 minutes up to 120 minutes. GFV values were compared between morbidly obese and control groups and also between preingestion and postingestion time points. The morbidly obese group had a significantly higher body weight and BMI than the control group (mean body weight and BMI in morbidly obese, 129.6 kg and 46.3 kg/m, respectively; control, 59.5 kg and 21.6 kg/m, respectively). GFV was significantly higher in the morbidly obese subjects compared with the control group at preingestion (73 ± 30.8 mL vs 31 ± 19.9 mL, P = .001) and at 0 minutes after ingestion (561 ± 30.8 mL vs 486 ± 42.8 mL; P < .001). GFV declined rapidly in both groups and reached fasting baseline levels by 120 minutes (morbidly obese, 50 ± 29.5 mL; control, 30 ± 11.6 mL). A significant correlation was observed between preingestion residual GFV and body weight (r = .66; P = .001). Morbidly obese subjects have a higher residual gastric volume after 9 hours of fasting compared with subjects with a normal BMI. However, no differences were observed in gastric emptying after ORS ingestion in the 2 populations, and GFVs reached baseline within 2 hours after ORS ingestion. Further studies are required to confirm whether the preoperative fasting and fluid

  14. Links between Early Oral Narrative and Decoding Skills and Later Reading in a New Zealand Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaughency, Elizabeth; Suggate, Sebastian; Reese, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    We examined earlier oral narrative and decoding and later reading in two samples spanning the first four years of reading instruction. The Year 1 sample (n = 44) was initially assessed after one year of instruction (M = 6; 1 years) and followed through their third year (M = 8; 1 years); the Year 2 sample (n = 34) assessed after two years of…

  15. Early diagnosis and prevention of oral cancer and precancer: report of Symposium III.

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    Oral precancer encompasses several conditions and lesions. Among those entities included in the concept are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, lichen planus, and submucous fibrosis. For prevention, knowledge about etiologic and pathogenetic factors is imperative. It is well-known that excessive consumption of tobacco and alcohol has a bearing on the development of oral leukoplakia and probably also of erythroplakia. However, among leukoplakias, the idiopathic or cryptogenic type probably shows the most serious malignant potential. Involved in the development of such lesions may be general nutritional aspects, e.g., proper utilization of vitamin A. It is also well-known that iron deficiency has been linked to Plummer-Vinson's syndrome, showing a precancerous trait. Among factors involved in the pathogenesis of lichen planus is probably mental stress. Thus, stress factors and related neurological components have been linked to the immunological system. Lifestyle factors, such as nutrition, tobacco, and alcohol, and also mental environment may be of importance for the development of oral precancer and cancer.

  16. Effect of early oral feeding on length of hospital stay following gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a Japanese multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Oki, Eiji; Tanizawa, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yutaka; Aikou, Susumu; Kunisaki, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Fukushima, Ryoji; Doki, Yuichiro; Natsugoe, Shoji; Nishida, Yasunori; Morita, Masaru; Hirabayashi, Naoki; Hatao, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Ikuo; Choda, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2018-05-02

    This multicenter, randomized controlled study evaluates the safety of early oral feeding following gastrectomy, and its effect on the length of postoperative hospital stay. The subjects of this study were patients who underwent distal gastrectomy (DG) or total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer between January 2014 and December 2015. Patients were randomly assigned to the early oral feeding group (intervention group) or the conventional postoperative management group (control group) for each procedure. We evaluated the length of postoperative hospital stay and the incidence of postoperative complications in each group. No significant differences in length of postoperative stay were found between the intervention and control groups of the patients who underwent DG. The incidence of postoperative complications was significantly greater in the DG intervention group. In contrast, the length of postoperative stay was significantly shorter in the TG intervention group, although the TG group did not attain the established target sample size. Early oral feeding did not shorten the postoperative hospital stay after DG. The higher incidence of postoperative complications precluded the unselected adoption of early oral feeding for DG patients. Further confirmative studies are required to definitively establish the potential benefits of early oral feeding for TG patients.

  17. Use of sexual risk assessment and feedback at intake to promote counselor awareness of subsequent client risk behavior during early treatment.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan; Beadnell, Blair; Calsyn, Donald A

    2014-08-01

    Sexual risk is an important, oft-neglected area in addiction treatment. This report examines computerized sexual risk assessment and client feedback at intake as means of enhancing counselor awareness of client risk behavior during early treatment, as well as any clinical impact of that counselor awareness. In 2009-2011, new clients at both opiate treatment and drug-free treatment programs endorsed in a computer-assisted assessment at intake 90-day retrospective indices for: being sexually active, having multiple partners, having sex under drug influence, and inconsistently using condoms. Clients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive or not receive a personal feedback report, and those receiving a report chose if a counselor copy was also distributed. Ninety days later, retained clients (N = 79) repeated the assessment and their counselors concurrently reported perceptions of recent client risk behavior. Based on client reports, pretreatment risk behaviors were prevalent among men and women and remained so during treatment. A general linear model revealed greater counselor awareness of subsequent client risk behavior with mutual distribution of intake feedback reports to client and counselor, and at the opiate treatment program. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that counselor awareness did not predict change in temporally stable patterns of sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Findings document that computerized intake assessment of sexual risk and mutually distributed feedback reports prompt greater counselor awareness of clients' subsequent risk behavior. Future research is needed to determine how best to prepare counselors to use such awareness to effectively prompt risk reduction in routine care.

  18. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth and body fat distribution at school-age. The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns, and body fat and insulin levels at school-age. Methods In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, we assessed maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onwards. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Results Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Conclusions Our results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. PMID:27015969

  19. Early oral switch therapy in low-risk Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SABATO): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kaasch, Achim J; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Prinz-Langenohl, Reinhild; Paulus, Ursula; Hellmich, Martin; Weiß, Verena; Jung, Norma; Rieg, Siegbert; Kern, Winfried V; Seifert, Harald

    2015-10-09

    Current guidelines recommend that patients with Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) are treated with long courses of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. This serves to avoid SAB-related complications such as relapses, local extension and distant metastatic foci. However, in certain clinical scenarios, the incidence of SAB-related complications is low. Patients with a low-risk for complications may thus benefit from an early switch to oral medication through earlier discharge and fewer complications of intravenous therapy. The major objective for the SABATO trial is to demonstrate that in patients with low-risk SAB a switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy (oral switch therapy, OST) is non-inferior to a conventional course of intravenous therapy (intravenous standard therapy, IST). The trial is designed as randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded, clinical non-inferiority trial. The primary endpoint is the occurrence of a SAB-related complication (relapsing SAB, deep-seated infection, and attributable mortality) within 90 days. Secondary endpoints are the length of hospital stay; 14-day, 30-day, and 90-day mortality; and complications of intravenous therapy. Patients with SAB who have received 5 to 7 full days of adequate intravenous antimicrobial therapy are eligible. Main exclusion criteria are polymicrobial bloodstream infection, signs and symptoms of complicated SAB (deep-seated infection, hematogenous dissemination, septic shock, and prolonged bacteremia), the presence of a non-removable foreign body, and severe comorbidity. Patients will receive either OST or IST with a protocol-approved antimicrobial and are followed up for 90 days. Four hundred thirty patients will be randomized 1:1 in two study arms. Efficacy regarding incidence of SAB-related complications is tested sequentially with a non-inferiority margin of 10 and 5 percentage points. The SABATO trial assesses whether early oral switch therapy is safe and effective for

  20. Effects of combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation on muscle strength and daily movements in patients with hip fracture in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P < 0.05). The combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation for two weeks in the early postoperative period has a beneficial effect on knee extension strength in both lower limbs and BI (transfer, walking and toilet use) scores in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sampling of Margins From Tumor Bed and Worse Local Control

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Jessica H.; Thompson, Lester D. R.; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret S.; Weiss, Bernhard G.; Canis, Martin; Purgina, Bibianna; Prabhu, Arpan V.; Lai, Chi; Shuai, Yongli; Carroll, William R.; Morlandt, Anthony; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Kim, Seungwon; Johnson, Jonas T.; Ferris, Robert L.; Seethala, Raja; Chiosea, Simion I.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Positive margins are associated with poor prognosis among patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, wide variation exists in the margin sampling technique. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of the margin sampling technique on local recurrence (LR) in patients with stage I or II oral tongue SCC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective study was conducted from January 1, 1986, to December 31, 2012, in 5 tertiary care centers following tumor resection and elective neck dissection in 280 patients with pathologic (p)T1-2 pN0 oral tongue SCC. Analysis was conducted from June 1, 2013, to January 20, 2015. INTERVENTIONS In group 1 (n = 119), tumor bed margins were not sampled. In group 2 (n = 61), margins were examined from the glossectomy specimen, found to be positive or suboptimal, and revised with additional tumor bed margins. In group 3 (n = 100), margins were primarily sampled from the tumor bed without preceding examination of the glossectomy specimen. The margin status (both as a binary [positive vs negative] and continuous [distance to the margin in millimeters] variable) and other clinicopathologic parameters were compared across the 3 groups and correlated with LR. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Local recurrence. RESULTS Age, sex, pT stage, lymphovascular or perineural invasion, and adjuvant radiation treatment were similar across the 3 groups. The probability of LR-free survival at 3 years was 0.9 and 0.8 in groups 1 and 3, respectively (P = .03). The frequency of positive glossectomy margins was lowest in group 1 (9 of 117 [7.7%]) compared with groups 2 and 3 (28 of 61 [45.9%] and 23 of 95 [24.2%], respectively) (P < .001). Even after excluding cases with positive margins, the median distance to the closest margin was significantly narrower in group 3 (2 mm) compared with group 1 (3 mm) (P = .008). The status (positive vs negative) of margins obtained from the glossectomy specimen correlated with LR (P = .007), while

  2. Early Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Sampling of Margins From Tumor Bed and Worse Local Control.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jessica H; Thompson, Lester D R; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret S; Weiss, Bernhard G; Canis, Martin; Purgina, Bibianna; Prabhu, Arpan V; Lai, Chi; Shuai, Yongli; Carroll, William R; Morlandt, Anthony; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Kim, Seungwon; Johnson, Jonas T; Ferris, Robert L; Seethala, Raja; Chiosea, Simion I

    2015-12-01

    Positive margins are associated with poor prognosis among patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, wide variation exists in the margin sampling technique. To determine the effect of the margin sampling technique on local recurrence (LR) in patients with stage I or II oral tongue SCC. A retrospective study was conducted from January 1, 1986, to December 31, 2012, in 5 tertiary care centers following tumor resection and elective neck dissection in 280 patients with pathologic (p)T1-2 pN0 oral tongue SCC. Analysis was conducted from June 1, 2013, to January 20, 2015. In group 1 (n = 119), tumor bed margins were not sampled. In group 2 (n = 61), margins were examined from the glossectomy specimen, found to be positive or suboptimal, and revised with additional tumor bed margins. In group 3 (n = 100), margins were primarily sampled from the tumor bed without preceding examination of the glossectomy specimen. The margin status (both as a binary [positive vs negative] and continuous [distance to the margin in millimeters] variable) and other clinicopathologic parameters were compared across the 3 groups and correlated with LR. Local recurrence. Age, sex, pT stage, lymphovascular or perineural invasion, and adjuvant radiation treatment were similar across the 3 groups. The probability of LR-free survival at 3 years was 0.9 and 0.8 in groups 1 and 3, respectively (P = .03). The frequency of positive glossectomy margins was lowest in group 1 (9 of 117 [7.7%]) compared with groups 2 and 3 (28 of 61 [45.9%] and 23 of 95 [24.2%], respectively) (P < .001). Even after excluding cases with positive margins, the median distance to the closest margin was significantly narrower in group 3 (2 mm) compared with group 1 (3 mm) (P = .008). The status (positive vs negative) of margins obtained from the glossectomy specimen correlated with LR (P = .007), while the status of tumor bed margins did not. The status of the tumor bed margin was 24% sensitive (95

  3. Gathering the forgotten voices: An oral history of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope's early years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laychak, M. B.; Bryson, L.

    2008-06-01

    They came to the Big Island from as far away as Murrumbeena, Australia, and as near by as Hilo, Hawaii. They were the progeny of Scottish coal miners, French physicists, Chicago truck drivers, Japanese samurai and Big Island cane workers. Together, these men and women would build and commission one of the most dynamic and productive 3.6-m telescopes in the world and one that remains at the forefront of science and technology. The CFHT oral history DVD preserves the stories of the first decade and a half of the observatory.

  4. Gathering the forgotten voices: an oral history of the CFHT's early years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laychak, Mary Beth; Bryson, Liz

    2011-06-01

    They came to the Big Island from as far away as Murrumbeena, Australia, and as near by as Hilo, Hawaii. They were progeny of Scottish coal miners, French physicists, Chicago truck drivers, Japanese samurai and Big Island cane workers. Together, these men and women would build and commission one of the most dynamic and productive 3.6 meter telescopes in the world that remains in the forefront of science and technology. The CFHT oral history DVD preserves the stories of the first decade and a half of the observatory.

  5. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, W. H.; Daeschner, C. W.; Files, B. A.; McConnell, M. E.; Strandjord, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated. PMID:11688916

  6. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed

    Waugh, W H; Daeschner, C W; Files, B A; McConnell, M E; Strandjord, S E

    2001-10-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated.

  7. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  8. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in early adolescent and adult male rats: effects on tolerance, social behavior, and ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of this study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Juvenile/adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10-day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), nonmanipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), or nonmanipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) upon regaining of righting reflex (RORR) were tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and nonmanipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hours after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals using an 8-day 2 bottle choice, limited-access ethanol intake procedure. In general, adolescent animals showed shorter durations of LORR and higher BECs upon RORR than adults on the first and last ethanol exposure days, regardless of chronic exposure condition. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults

  9. Obesogenic dietary intake in families with 1-year-old infants at high and low obesity risk based on parental weight status: baseline data from a longitudinal intervention (Early STOPP).

    PubMed

    Svensson, Viktoria; Sobko, Tanja; Ek, Anna; Forssén, Michaela; Ekbom, Kerstin; Johansson, Elin; Nowicka, Paulina; Westerståhl, Maria; Riserus, Ulf; Marcus, Claude

    2016-03-01

    To compare dietary intake in 1-year-old infants and their parents between families with high and low obesity risk, and to explore associations between infant dietary intake and relative weight. Baseline analyses of 1-year-old infants (n = 193) and their parents participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention (Early STOPP) were carried out. Dietary intake and diet quality indicators were compared between high- and low-risk families, where obesity risk was based on parental weight status. The odds for high diet quality in relation to parental diet quality were determined. Associations between measured infant relative weight and dietary intake were examined adjusting for obesity risk, socio-demographics, and infant feeding. Infant dietary intake did not differ between high- and low-risk families. The parents in high-risk families consumed soft drinks, French fries, and low-fat spread more frequently, and fish and fruits less frequently (p < 0.05) compared to parents in low-risk families. Paternal intake of vegetables and fish increased the odds for children being consumers of vegetables (OR 1.7; 95 % CI 1.0-2.9) and fish, respectively (OR 2.5; 95 % CI 1.4-4.4). Infant relative weight was weakly associated with a high intake of milk cereal drink (r = 0.15; p < 0.05), but not with any other aspect of dietary intake, obesity risk, or early feeding patterns. At the age of one, dietary intake in infants is not associated with family obesity risk, nor with parental obesogenic food intake. Milk cereal drink consumption but no other infant dietary marker reflects relative weight at this young age.

  10. CpG location and methylation level are crucial factors for the early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma in brushing samples using bisulfite sequencing of a 13-gene panel.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Luca; Gissi, Davide; Tarsitano, Achille; Asioli, Sofia; Gabusi, Andrea; Marchetti, Claudio; Montebugnoli, Lucio; Foschini, Maria Pia

    2017-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and is commonly preceded by oral premalignant lesions. The mortality rates have remained unchanged (50% within 5 years after diagnosis), and it is related to tobacco smoking and alcohol intake. Novel molecular markers for early diagnosis are urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of methylation level in a set of 18 genes by bisulfite next-generation sequencing. With minimally invasive oral brushing, 28 consecutive OSCC, one squamous cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features, six high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL), 30 normal contralateral mucosa from the same patients, and 65 healthy donors were evaluated for DNA methylation analyzing 18 target genes by quantitative bisulfite next-generation sequencing. We further evaluated an independent cohort (validation dataset) made of 20 normal donors, one oral fibroma, 14 oral lichen planus (OLP), three proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL), and two OSCC. Comparing OSCC with normal healthy donors and contralateral mucosa in 355 CpGs, we identified the following epigenetically altered genes: ZAP70 , ITGA4 , KIF1A , PARP15 , EPHX3 , NTM , LRRTM1 , FLI1 , MIR193 , LINC00599 , PAX1 , and MIR137HG showing hypermethylation and MIR296 , TERT , and GP1BB showing hypomethylation . The behavior of ZAP70 , GP1BB , H19 , EPHX3 , and MIR193 fluctuated among different interrogated CpGs. The gap between normal and OSCC samples remained mostly the same (Kruskal-Wallis P values < 0.05), but the absolute values changed conspicuously. ROC curve analysis identified the most informative CpGs, and we correctly stratified OSCC and HGSIL from normal donors using a multiclass linear discriminant analysis in a 13-gene panel (AUC 0.981). Only the OSCC with sarcomatoid features was negative. Three contralateral mucosa were positive, a sign of a possible field cancerization. Among imprinted genes, only MIR296

  11. An Early Natural Auditory-Oral Intervention Approach for Children with Hearing Loss: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Zerrin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the session goals and their realization during the session flow for a child with a hearing loss and his mother in an early intervention program. The study was designed as a case study. Video recordings of the intervention sessions, reflective journals, session plans, and the plan evaluations were used to collect and…

  12. Early Years Teachers and the Influence of Piaget: Evidence from Oral History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In studying the historical development of early years provision, a clear factor in raising its profile was the growth in scientific study of children, especially the reception and interpretation of Piaget's research. For an understanding of how the mediation of new thinking and new discoveries influenced students and teachers, textbooks provide an…

  13. Stimuli-disassembling gold nanoclusters for diagnosis of early stage oral cancer by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Ingato, Dominique; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2018-01-01

    A key design consideration in developing contrast agents is obtaining distinct, multiple signal changes in diseased tissue. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been developed as contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study aims to demonstrate that stimuli-responsive plasmonic Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) can be used as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early-stage cancer. Au NPs were clustered via acid-cleavable linkers to synthesize Au NCs that disassemble under mildly acidic conditions into individual Au NPs, simultaneously diminishing SPR effect (quantified by scattering intensity) and increasing Brownian motion (quantified by Doppler variance). The acid-triggered morphological and accompanying optico-physical property changes of the acid-disassembling Au NCs were confirmed by TEM, DLS, UV/Vis, and OCT. Stimuli-responsive Au NCs were applied in a hamster check pouch model carrying early-stage squamous carcinoma tissue. The tissue was visualized by OCT imaging, which showed reduced scattering intensity and increased Doppler variance in the dysplastic tissue. This study demonstrates the promise of diagnosing early-stage cancer using molecularly programmable, inorganic nanomaterial-based contrast agents that are capable of generating multiple, stimuli-triggered diagnostic signals in early-stage cancer.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Child oral health-related quality of life and early childhood caries: a non-inferiority randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Arrow, P; Klobas, E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare changes in child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL) after treatment for early childhood caries (ECC) using two alternative treatment approaches. A randomized control trial with random allocation of parent/child dyads with ECC to test (minimum intervention) or control (standard care). Participating parents completed the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) at baseline and follow-up. Changes in ECOHIS scores and extent of COHRQoL impacts between and within groups were tested using the chi-squared statistic for groups, Wilcoxon's rank-sum test, and matched-pairs signed-rank test. Two hundred and fifty-four children were randomized (test = 127; control = 127). At baseline, mean ECOHIS score 11.1, sd 8.2; mean age = 3.8 years, sd 0.90; mean dmft = 4.9, sd 4.0; and 59% male. After a mean interval of 11.4 months, 210 children were followed-up and returned a completed questionnaire (test = 111; control = 99). There was no significant difference in COHRQoL changes between test and control. For all the children combined, there were significantly fewer impacts at follow-up in the child and family domains and the total ECOHIS, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.05. COHRQoL improved with primary dental care for ECC, and there was no statistically significant difference between test and control in the extent of the improvement. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Relationships of the early insulin secretory response and oral disposition index with gastric emptying in subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Chinmay S; Rayner, Christopher K; Lange, Kylie; Bound, Michelle; Wishart, Judith; Jones, Karen L; Kahn, Steven E; Horowitz, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The oral disposition index, the product of the early insulin secretory response during an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity, is used widely for both the prediction of, and evaluation of the response to interventions, in type 2 diabetes. Gastric emptying, which determines small intestinal exposure of nutrients, modulates postprandial glycemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the insulin secretory response and the disposition index (DI) related to gastric emptying in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Thirty-nine subjects consumed a 350 mL drink containing 75 g glucose labeled with 99m Tc-sulfur colloid. Gastric emptying (by scintigraphy), blood glucose (G) and plasma insulin (I) were measured between t  = 0-120 min. The rate of gastric emptying was derived from the time taken for 50% emptying ( T 50 ) and expressed as kcal/min. The early insulin secretory response was estimated by the ratio of the change in insulin (∆I 0-30 ) to that of glucose at 30 min (∆G 0-30 ) represented as ∆I 0-30 /∆G 0-30 Insulin sensitivity was estimated as 1/fasting insulin and the DI was then calculated as ∆I 0-30 /∆G 0-30  × 1/fasting insulin. There was a direct relationship between ∆G 0-30 and gastric emptying ( r  = 0.47, P  = 0.003). While there was no association of either ∆I 0-30 ( r  = -0.16, P  = 0.34) or fasting insulin ( r  = 0.21, P  = 0.20), there were inverse relationships between the early insulin secretory response ( r  = -0.45, P  = 0.004) and the DI ( r  = -0.33, P  = 0.041), with gastric emptying. We conclude that gastric emptying is associated with both insulin secretion and the disposition index in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, such that when gastric emptying is relatively more rapid, both the early insulin secretory response and the disposition index are less. These findings should be interpreted as "hypothesis generating" and provide the rationale for longitudinal studies to

  16. Measurement of salivary metabolite biomarkers for early monitoring of oral cancer with ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qihui; Gao, Pan; Cheng, Fei; Wang, Xiaoyi; Duan, Yixiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to set-up an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) method for the determination of salivary L-phenylalanine and L-leucine for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In addition, the diagnostic accuracy for both biomarkers was established by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Mean recoveries of l-phenylalanine and L-leucine ranged from 88.9 to 108.6% were obtained. Intra- and inter-day precision for both amino acids was less than 7%, with acceptable accuracy. Linear regression coefficients of both biomarkers were greater than 0.99. The diagnostic accuracy for both biomarkers was established by analyzing 60 samples from apparently healthy individuals and 30 samples from OSCC patients. Both potential biomarkers demonstrated significant differences in concentrations in distinguishing OSCC from control (P<0.05). As a single biomarker, L-leucine might have better predictive power in OSCC with T1-2 (early stage of OSCC including stage I and II), and L-phenylalanine might be used for screening and diagnosis of OSCC with T3-4 (advanced stage of OSCC including stage III and IV). The combination of L-phenylalanine and L-leucine will improve the sensitivity (92.3%) and specificity (91.7%) for early diagnosis of OSCC. The possibility of salivary metabolite biomarkers for OSCC diagnosis is successfully demonstrated in this study. This developed method shows advantages with non-invasive, simple, reliable, and also provides lower detection limits and excellent precision and accuracy. These non-invasive salivary biomarkers may lead to a simple clinical tool for the early diagnosis of OSCC. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Dietary intake in the early years and its relationship to BMI in a bi-ethnic group: the Born in Bradford 1000 study.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Samuel; Bryant, Maria; Sahota, Pinki; Barber, Stuart

    2018-04-02

    To assess relationships between dietary intake at age 12, 18 and 36 months and BMI Z-scores at age 36 months in a bi-ethnic group. A prospective cohort study comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Exposures included dietary intake at 12, 18 and 36 months (FFQ) with an outcome of BMI Z-score at age 36 months. Born in Bradford 1000 study, Bradford, UK. Infants at age 12 months (n 722; 44 % White British, 56 % Pakistani), 18 months (n 779; 44 % White British, 56 % Pakistani) and 36 months (n 845; 45 % White British, 55 % Pakistani). Diet at age 12 months was not associated with BMI Z-score at age 36 months. Higher consumption of vegetables at 18 and 36 months was associated with a lower BMI Z-score at 36 months (model coefficient (95 % CI): -0·20 (-0·36, -0·03) and -0·16 (-0·31, -0·02), respectively). Higher consumption of high-fat chips at age 36 months was associated with a lower BMI Z-score at age 36 months (-0·16 (-0·32, 0·00)). Overall, White British children had higher 36-month BMI Z-scores than Pakistani children (adjusted mean difference (95 % CI): 0·21 (0·02, 0·41)). Our findings indicate that dietary intake at 18 and 36 months was somewhat related to BMI Z-score at age 36 months and suggest the importance of early interventions aimed at establishing healthy eating behaviours.

  18. Resveratrol Intake During Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Early Metabolic Effects of Maternal Nutrition Differently in Male and Female Offspring.

    PubMed

    Ros, Purificación; Díaz, Francisca; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Barrios, Vicente; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2018-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition can have detrimental long-term consequences on energy homeostasis in the offspring. Resveratrol exerts antioxidant and antiobesity actions, but its impact during development remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation could improve the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring metabolism. Wistar rats received a low-fat diet (LFD; 10.2% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 61.6% kcal from fat), with half of each group receiving resveratrol in their drinking water (50 mg/L) during pregnancy and lactation. Body weight (BW) of dams was measured at treatment onset and weaning [postnatal day (PND) 21] and of pups at birth and PND21, at which time dams and pups were euthanized. Although HFD dams consumed more energy, their BW at the end of lactation was unaffected. Mean litter size was not modified by maternal diet or resveratrol. At birth, male offspring from HFD and resveratrol (HFD + R) dams weighed less than those from LFD and resveratrol (LFD + R) dams. On PND21, pups of both sexes from HFD dams weighed more, had more visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and had higher serum leptin levels than those from LFD dams. Resveratrol reduced BW, leptin, VAT, and SCAT, with females being more affected, but increased glycemia. Neuropeptide levels were unaffected by resveratrol. In conclusion, resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation decreased BW and adipose tissue content in offspring of dams on an HFD but did not affect offspring from LFD-fed dams, suggesting that the potential protective effects of resveratrol during gestation/lactation are diet dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  19. UV radiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice is effectively prevented by oral intake of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit blend for 6 weeks through MMP suppression and increase of SOD activity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Il; Lee, Hye Ryun; Lee, Young Ju; Jang, Min Ju; Son, Hong Ju; Lee, Hee Seob; Oh, Chung Hun; Kim, Bae Hwan; Lee, Sang Hak; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress and oxidative photodamage induced by UV radiation can cause serious skin damage that is characterized by wrinkling, roughness, laxity and pigmentation. The effects of a sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit blend (SFB) containing sea buckthorn fruit extract, blueberry extract and collagen on UV-induced skin aging were examined by treating hairless mice for 6 weeks with UV irradiation and SFB administered orally. The effects of SFB were measured in the skin of these mice by phenotypical and histological analysis and western blotting. According to wrinkle formation analysis, the oral intake of SFB induced a decrease in wrinkle formation in the damaged skin of UV-irradiated mice. The thickness of the epidermis and dermis in the vitamin extracts (Vit)- and SFB-treated group was lower than that in the vehicle-treated group, but the group treated with SFB50 was the most effective group. The mice treated with the Vit- or SFB solution maintained a normal moisture content through the inhibition of transdermal water loss (TEWL) and an increase in skin moisture content. Furthermore, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and collagen protein expression were assessed in five groups to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of SFB oral intake. The application of SFB induced a decrease in MMP-1 and -9 expression to the levels observed in the vehicle-treated group, but MMP-9 expression showed a much larger decrease than MMP-1. Furthermore, the expression of collagen-1 in the skin corresponded to MMP expression except for the SFB30-treated group, whereas the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased dramatically in the SFB50-treated group. These results suggest that SFB has potential as a protective and therapeutic drug candidate against skin aging that functions by regulating the moisture content, MMP expression levels and SOD activity.

  20. Longitudinal Prediction of 1st and 2nd Grade English Oral Reading Fluency in English Language Learners: Which Early Reading and Language Skills Are Better Predictors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solari, Emily J.; Aceves, Terese C.; Higareda, Ignacio; Richards-Tutor, Cara; Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between Spanish and English early literacy skills in kindergarten and first grade, and English oral reading fluency at the end of first and second grade in a sample of 150 Spanish-speaking English language learners. Students were assessed in kindergarten, first, and second grades on a broad bilingual academic…

  1. Early Oral Language and Later Reading Development in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Evidence from a Nine-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally-representative, longitudinal data on a cohort of Spanish-speaking English language learners in the U.S., this study investigated the extent to which early oral language proficiency in Spanish and English predicts later levels and rates of growth in English reading. Latent growth models indicated that both Spanish and English…

  2. Impact of a Reading Program on Rural Elementary School Students' Oral Reading Fluency and Early Literacy Skill Acquisition and Rate of Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This program evaluation is a study of the effectiveness of a core reading program, Journeys, by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH), on the early literacy skills and oral reading fluency (ORF) of kindergarten through second grade students in a rural elementary school. The scores of the students in the experimental group were compared to scores of…

  3. Gastric Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (G-POEM) for the Treatment of Refractory Gastroparesis: Early Experience.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zubair; Kataria, Rahul; Modayil, Rani; Ehrlich, Adam C; Schey, Ron; Parkman, Henry P; Stavropoulos, Stavros N

    2018-02-22

    Gastric per oral endoscopic myotomy (G-POEM) of the pylorus is a technique that is recently being used to treat gastroparesis. Our aim was to report our experience in performing G-POEM for refractory gastroparesis of different etiologies and determine symptom improvement. Thirteen patients undergoing G-POEM are reported. Pre- and post-procedure gastric emptying study (GES) and PAGI-SYM for symptom severity were obtained. Patients underwent G-POEM by creating a submucosal tunnel starting in the greater curvature of the distal antrum and extending it to the beginning of the duodenal bulb, followed by a full thickness pyloromyotomy. All 13 gastroparesis patients successfully underwent G-POEM (one diabetic [DGp], four idiopathic [IGp], eight postsurgical [PSGp]). Postsurgical patients included 4 s/p esophagectomy for esophageal cancer, 3 s/p Nissen fundoplication, and 1 s/p esophagectomy for achalasia. There were no procedure-related side effects. Of 11 patients completing follow-up questionnaires, eight were improved subjectively (four patients reported considerably better, four patients somewhat better, one unchanged, and two worse). Individual symptom severity scores tended to improve, particularly vomiting, retching, and loss of appetite. Of six patients that had post-G-POEM GES; GES improved in four, unchanged in one, and worsened in one). G-POEM for treatment of refractory gastroparesis appears to be a feasible and safe technique that can be successfully performed in patients with a variety of etiologies including different types of postsurgical gastroparesis. Our initial experience suggests that the majority of patients report some improvement in symptoms, particularly symptoms of vomiting, retching, and loss of appetite. Further experience is needed to determine the efficacy and safety of G-POEM and predict those who best respond to this treatment.

  4. Effects of ambient temperature and early open-field response on the behaviour, feed intake and growth of fast- and slow-growing broiler strains.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B L

    2012-09-01

    Increased activity improves broiler leg health, but also increases the heat production of the bird. This experiment investigated the effects of early open-field activity and ambient temperature on the growth and feed intake of two strains of broiler chickens. On the basis of the level of activity in an open-field test on day 3 after hatching, fast-growing Ross 208 and slow-growing i657 chickens were allocated on day 13 to one of the 48 groups. Each group included either six active or six passive birds from each strain and the groups were housed in floor-pens littered with wood chips and fitted with two heat lamps. Each group was fed ad libitum and subjected to one of the three temperature treatments: two (HH; 26°C), one (HC; 16°C to 26°C) or no (CC; 16°C) heat lamps turned on. Production and behavioural data were collected every 2 weeks until day 57. For both strains, early open-field activity had no significant effects on their subsequent behaviour or on any of the production parameters measured, and overall, the slow-growing strain was more active than the fast-growing strain. Ambient temperature had significant effects on production measures for i657 broilers, with CC chickens eating and weighing more, and with a less efficient feed conversion than HH chickens, with HC birds intermediate. A similar effect was found for Ross 208 only for feed intake from 27 to 41 days of age. Ross 208 chickens distributed themselves in the pen with a preference for cooler areas in the hottest ambient temperature treatments. In contrast, the behaviour of the slow-growing strain appeared to be relatively unaffected by the ambient temperature. In conclusion, fast-growing broilers use behavioural changes when trying to adapt to warm environments, whereas slow-growing broilers use metabolic changes to adapt to cooler ambient temperatures.

  5. Early Initiation of Anticoagulation with Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients after Transient Ischemic Attack or Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Macha, Kosmas; Volbers, Bastian; Bobinger, Tobias; Kurka, Natalia; Breuer, Lorenz; Huttner, Hagen B; Schwab, Stefan; Köhrmann, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are increasingly used for secondary prevention of cardioembolic stroke. While DOACs are associated with a long-term reduced risk of intracranial hemorrhage compared to vitamin K antagonists, pivotal trials avoided the very early period after stroke and few data exist on early initiation of DOAC therapy post stroke. We retrospectively analyzed data from our prospective database of all consecutive transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation treated with DOACs during hospital stay. As per our institutional treatment algorithm for patients with cardioembolic ischemia DOACs are started immediately in TIA and minor stroke (group 1), within days 3-5 in patients with infarcts affecting one third or less of the middle cerebral artery, the anterior cerebral artery, or the posterior cerebral artery territories (group 2) as well as in infratentorial stroke (group 3) and after 1-2 weeks in patients with large infarcts (>⅓MCA territory, group 4). We investigated baseline characteristics, time to initiation of DOAC therapy after symptom onset, and hemorrhagic complications. In 243 included patients, administration of DOAC was initiated 40.5 hours (interquartile range [IQR] 23.0-65.5) after stroke onset in group 1 (n = 41) and after 76.7 hours (IQR 48.0-134.0), 108.4 hours (IQR 67.3-176.4), and 161.8 hours (IQR 153.9-593.8) in groups 2-4 (n = 170, 28, and 4), respectively. Two cases of asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (.8%) and 1 case of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (.4%) were observed, both in group 2. No severe safety issues were observed in early initiation of DOACs for secondary prevention after acute stroke in our in-patient cohort. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995

    SciT

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham`s involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as amore » researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others.« less

  7. Micronucleus Assay: An Early Diagnostic Tool to Assess Genotoxic Changes in Patients with Tobacco Use, Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Puneet; Mehendiratta, Monica; Sharma, Mohit; Dutta, Jahnobi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Micronuclei (MNi) are acentric chromatid or chromosome fragments produced via genetic damage through genotoxic agents contained in tobacco and betel nut. Evidently, the various Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMDs) like oral lichen Planus, oral leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) demonstrate MNi, as a substantiation of genetic damage. As these changes can be easily appreciated in oral exfoliated cells, an exfoliated cell based MNi assay might be utilized as handy and non invasive biomonitoring tool for gauging the genetic damage and hence the propensity for malignant transformation in OPMDs. To this end, MNi are definitely easier to evaluate when compared to chromosome aberrations. Aim To compare the MNi frequency in normal mucosa, in individuals using various tobacco forms without oral leukoplakia, individuals using various tobacco forms with oral leukoplakia, and areca nut chewers with OSMF, using three different stains. Materials and Methods Oral exfoliated cells from 50 cases of normal mucosa (Group I), 50 cases of tobacco chewing people without Oral Leukoplakia (Group II), 50 cases of people with Oral Leukoplakia (Group III) and 50 cases of areca nut chewers with OSMF (Group IV) were taken. MNi frequencies were compared in these groups using three different stains i.e., Papanicolaou (PAP) stain, May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) stain and Feulgen stain. The data between cases (Group II, III and IV) and control groups (Group I) was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis Test. The comparison between two independent groups was done by Mann-Whitney U test and interstain comparison between cases and control was done by Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and the individual p-value was obtained. Results A significant increase in the count was observed during transition of normal mucosa to OPMDs. The best stain for detecting MNi was PAP stain followed by MGG stain and Feulgen stain. Conclusion The higher mean MNi count for PAP stain and MGG stain could be attributed

  8. Early induction of cytokines/cytokine receptors and Cox2, and activation of NF-κB in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced murine oral cancer model

    SciT

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the genes induced early in murine oral carcinogenesis. Murine tongue tumors induced by the carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO), and paired non-tumor tissues were subjected to microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering of upregulated genes in the tumor tissues revealed an association of induced genes with inflammation. Cytokines/cytokine receptors induced early were subsequently identified, clearly indicating their involvement in oral carcinogenesis. Hierarchical clustering also showed that cytokine-mediated inflammation was possibly linked with Mapk6. Cox2 exhibited the greatest extent (9–18 fold) of induction in the microarray data, and its early induction was observed in a 2more » h painting experiment by RT-PCR. MetaCore analysis showed that overexpressed Cox2 may interact with p53 and transcriptionally inhibit expression of several downstream genes. A painting experiment in transgenic mice also demonstrated that NF-κB activates early independently of Cox2 induction. MetaCore analysis revealed the most striking metabolic alterations in tumor tissues, especially in lipid metabolism resulting from the reduction of Pparα and Rxrg. Reduced expression of Mapk12 was noted, and MetaCore analysis established its relationship with decreased efficiency of Pparα phosphorylation. In conclusion, in addition to cytokines/cytokine receptors, the early induction of Cox2 and NF-κB activation is involved in murine oral carcinogenesis.« less

  9. Effect of Antimicrobial Intervention on Oral Microbiota Associated with Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihong; Tanner, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify research-based evidence for an effect of antimicrobial therapeutic approaches on the cariogenic microbiota and early childhood caries (ECC) outcomes. Additionally, we reviewed methods used to perform microbial assessments in clinical studies of ECC. Methods Multiple database searches were conducted; only clinical cohort studies and randomized controlled trials published from 1998 to 2014 were selected for the review. A total of 471 titles and abstracts were identified; 114 studies met the inclusion criteria for a full review, and finally 41 studies were selected for the meta-analyses. Results Moderate reductions in cariogenic bacterial levels, mainly in mutans streptococci (MS), were demonstrated following the use of antimicrobial agents. The results varied depending on the different approaches used. In most of the reviewed studies MS levels were reduced after treatment, but the bacterial regrowth occurred once the treatment had ceased, and new caries lesions developed, particularly in high-risk children. Relatively consistent findings suggested that anti-cariogenic-microbial interventions in mothers significantly reduced MS acquisition by children. However, studies of the long-term benefits of ECC prevention are lacking. Conclusion Based on the meta-analyses, antimicrobial interventions and treatments show temporary reductions in MS colonization levels. However, insufficient evidence suggest that the approaches used produced sustainable effects on cariogenic microbial colonization, caries reduction, and ECC prevention. PMID:26063552

  10. Prediction of Early Childhood Caries via Spatial-Temporal Variations of Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Yang, Fang; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Amir, Amnon; Knight, Rob; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian

    2015-09-09

    Microbiota-based prediction of chronic infections is promising yet not well established. Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common infection in children. Here we simultaneously tracked microbiota development at plaque and saliva in 50 4-year-old preschoolers for 2 years; children either stayed healthy, transitioned into cariogenesis, or experienced caries exacerbation. Caries onset delayed microbiota development, which is otherwise correlated with aging in healthy children. Both plaque and saliva microbiota are more correlated with changes in ECC severity (dmfs) during onset than progression. By distinguishing between aging- and disease-associated taxa and exploiting the distinct microbiota dynamics between onset and progression, we developed a model, Microbial Indicators of Caries, to diagnose ECC from healthy samples with 70% accuracy and predict, with 81% accuracy, future ECC onsets for samples clinically perceived as healthy. Thus, caries onset in apparently healthy teeth can be predicted using microbiota, when appropriately de-trended for age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Antimicrobial Interventions on the Oral Microbiota Associated with Early Childhood Caries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihong; Tanner, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this systematic literature review were to identify research-based evidence for an effect of antimicrobial therapeutic approaches on the cariogenic microbiota and early childhood caries (ECC) outcomes; and to review methods used to perform microbial assessments in clinical studies of ECC. Multiple databases were searched; only clinical cohort studies and randomized controlled trials published from 1998 to 2014 were selected. A total of 471 titles and abstracts were identified; 114 studies met the inclusion criteria for a full review, from which 41 studies were included in the meta-analyses. In most of the reviewed studies, moderate reductions in cariogenic bacterial levels, mainly in mutans streptococci (MS), were demonstrated following the use of antimicrobial agents, but bacterial regrowth occurred and new carious lesions developed once the treatment had ceased, particularly in high-risk children. Relatively consistent findings suggested that anti-cariogenic microbial interventions in mothers significantly reduced MS acquisition by children. However, studies of the long-term benefits of ECC prevention are lacking. Based on the meta-analyses, antimicrobial interventions and treatments show temporary reductions in MS colonization levels. However, there is insufficient evidence to indicate that the approaches used produced sustainable effects on cariogenic microbial colonization or ECC reduction and prevention.

  12. The early childhood oral health program: a qualitative study of the perceptions of child and family health nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Veale, Maxine; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Nash, Linda; Patterson, Tiffany; George, Ajesh

    2016-05-16

    Early childhood caries affects nearly half the population of Australian children aged 5 years and has the potential to negatively impact their growth and development. To address this issue, an Early Childhood Oral Health (ECOH) program, facilitated by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs), commenced in 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. This study builds on the previous evaluation of the program. It aims to explore the perceptions of CFHNs regarding the implementation of the ECOH program in South Western Sydney and the challenges and barriers related to its sustainability. A descriptive qualitative design was used in this study. Two focus groups were conducted with 22 CFHNs who were sampled from two Community Health Centres in South Western Sydney, Australia. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Most CFHNs acknowledged the importance of early childhood oral health promotion and were providing education, oral assessments and referrals during child health checks. Many stressed the need for collaboration with other health professionals to help broaden the scope of the program. Some barriers to implementing the program included confusion regarding the correct referral process, limited feedback from dental services and the lack of oral health awareness among parents. The study findings suggest that the ECOH program is being sustained and effectively implemented into practice by CFHNs. Improvement in the referral and feedback process as well as enhancing parental knowledge of the importance of infant and child oral health could further strengthen the effectiveness of the program. Expanding oral health education opportunities into general practice is advocated, while regular on-line training for CFHNs is preferred. Future research should include strategies to reduce non-attendances, and an assessment of the impact on the prevalence of childhood caries of the ECOH program.

  13. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: a prospective feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Plaudis, H; Pupelis, G; Zeiza, K; Boka, V

    2012-01-01

    Experience with administration of synbiotics (prebiotics/probiotics) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity. The aim of this trial was evaluation of the feasibility and perspective of early clinical application of oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplements in patients with SAP. 90 SAP patients were enrolled during the period from 2005-2008. Patients were stratified according to the feeding mode. CONTROL (n = 32) group received standard whole protein feeding formula. SYNBIO (n = 30) and FIBRE groups (n = 28) received early (within first 24-48 hours) synbiotic or prebiotic supplements. Oral administration of synbiotics or prebiotics was commenced when patients were able to sip water. Daily provided average volume and calories of synbiotic/prebiotic blends were smaller compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.001. Oral administration of synbiotic/prebiotic supplements was associated with lower infection rate (pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis) compared to the CONTROL, (p = 0.03; p = 0.001), lower rate of surgical interventions, p = 0.005, shorter ICU (p = 0.05) and hospital stay (p = 0.03). Synbiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut resulted in reduced mortality rate compared to the CONTROL, p = 0.02. Early low volume oral synbiotic/prebiotic supplemented enteral stimulation of the gut seems to be a potentially valuable complement to the routine treatment protocol of SAP.

  14. Beyond the "First Hit": Marked Inhibition by N-Acetyl Cysteine of Chronic Ethanol Intake But Not of Early Ethanol Intake. Parallel Effects on Ethanol-Induced Saccharin Motivation.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, María Elena; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Berríos-Cárcamo, Pablo; Salinas-Luypaert, Catalina; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Israel, Yedy

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have shown that acetaldehyde synthesized in the brain is necessary to induce ethanol (EtOH) reinforcement in naïve animals (acquisition phase). However, after chronic intake is achieved (maintenance phase), EtOH intake becomes independent of acetaldehyde generation or its levels. Glutamate has been reported to be associated with the maintenance of chronic EtOH intake. The levels of brain extracellular glutamate are modulated by 2 glial processes: glutamate reabsorption via an Na(+) -glutamate transporter (GLT1) and a cystine-glutamate exchanger. Chronic EtOH intake lowers GLT1 levels and increases extracellular glutamate. The administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a precursor of cystine, has been shown to reduce the relapse of several drugs of abuse, while NAC has not been tested on chronic EtOH intake or on EtOH's influence on the motivation for another drug. These were investigated in the present study. (i) Rats bred for their high EtOH intake were allowed access to 10% EtOH and water up to 87 days. NAC was administered (30 and 60 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally) for 14 consecutive days, either during the acquisition phase or the maintenance phase of EtOH drinking. (ii) In additional experiments, rats were allowed EtOH (10%) and water access for 61 days, after which EtOH was replaced by saccharin (0.3%) to determine both if chronic EtOH consumption influences saccharin intake and whether NAC modifies the post chronic EtOH saccharin intake. NAC did not influence the acquisition ("first hit") of chronic EtOH intake, but greatly inhibited (60 to 70%; p < 0.0001) EtOH intake when NAC was administered to animals that were consuming EtOH chronically. NAC did not influence saccharin intake in naïve animals. In animals that had consumed EtOH chronically and were thereafter offered a saccharin solution (0.3%), saccharin intake increased over 100% versus that of EtOH-untreated animals, an effect that was fully suppressed by NAC. N

  15. c-Fos induction in mesotelencephalic dopamine pathway projection targets and dorsal striatum following oral intake of sugars and fats in rats.

    PubMed

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Coke, T; Karagiorgis, T; Sampson, C; Icaza-Cukali, D; Kest, K; Ranaldi, R; Bodnar, R J

    2015-02-01

    Overconsumption of nutrients high in fats and sugars can lead to obesity. Previous studies indicate that sugar or fat consumption activate individual brain sites using Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI). Sugars and fats also elicit conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) that are differentially mediated by flavor-flavor (orosensory: f/f) and flavor-nutrient (post-ingestive: f/n) processes. Dopamine (DA) signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the amygdala (AMY) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), has been implicated in acquisition and expression of fat- and sugar-CFP. The present study examined the effects of acute consumption of fat (corn oil: f/f and f/n), glucose (f/f and f/n), fructose, (f/f only), saccharin, xanthan gum or water upon simultaneous FLI activation of DA mesotelencephalic nuclei (ventral tegmental area (VTA)) and projections (infralimbic and prelimbic mPFC, basolateral and central-cortico-medial AMY, core and shell of NAc as well as the dorsal striatum). Consumption of corn oil solutions, isocaloric to glucose and fructose, significantly increased FLI in all sites except for the NAc shell. Glucose intake significantly increased FLI in both AMY areas, dorsal striatum and NAc core, but not in either mPFC area, VTA or Nac shell. Correspondingly, fructose intake significantly increased FLI in the both AMY areas, the infralimbic mPFC and dorsal striatum, but not the prelimbic mPFC, VTA or either NAc area. Saccharin and xanthan gum intake failed to activate FLI relative to water. When significant FLI activation occurred, highly positive relationships were observed among sites, supporting the idea of activation of a distributed brain network mediating sugar and fat intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of the uptake and biodistribution of nano-titanium dioxide using in vitro and in vivo models of oral intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNicoll, Alan; Kelly, Mick; Aksoy, Hatice; Kramer, Evelien; Bouwmeester, Hans; Chaudhry, Qasim

    2015-02-01

    Certain food additives may contain a sizeable fraction of particles in the nanoscale. However, little is known about the fate, behaviour and toxicological effects of orally-ingested nanoparticles. This study investigated the uptake and biodistribution of nano- and larger-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) using an in vitro model of gut epithelium and in vivo in rat. The results of the in vivo study showed that oral administration of 5 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 nano- or larger particles did not lead to any significant translocation of TiO2 (measured as titanium) either to blood, urine or to various organs in rat at any of the time intervals studied over a 96 h post-administration period. Different methods used for dispersing particles did not affect the uptake, and orally administered TiO2 was found excreted in the faeces over a period of time. The in vitro study provided further evidence for the lack of translocation of TiO2 across the gut epithelium model. The overall evidence from both in vivo and in vitro studies did not support that oral ingestion of nano- or larger particles of TiO2 via food would result in any significant internal exposure of the consumer to the nanoparticles. The dietary TiO2 nanoparticles are likely to be excreted in the faeces.

  17. In vivo effect of single oral dose of artemether against early juvenile stages of Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strain.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Taman, Amira; El-Malky, Mohamed; Azab, Manar S; El-Hawary, Amira K; El-Tantawy, Dina A

    2013-10-01

    The current treatment and control of schistosomiasis, rely on a single drug, praziquantel, although, it has minor activity against juvenile stages of the parasite. Studies have shown that artemether (ART) exhibits effects against juveniles of Schistosoma mansoni Liberian and Puerto Rican strains, Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma haematobium. Aiming to assess the in vivo activity of single oral dose of ART against early juvenile stages of S. mansoni Egyptian strain, this study was established. Mice were treated with ART (400 mg/kg) at two time points evenly spaced over the period of larval development (7 and 21 days post-infection; pi), and a third treatment point (day 49 pi) was included to elucidate when susceptibility decreases. Administration of ART on day 7 pi reduced the total worm burden by 85.94%. The greatest reductions were seen when treatment was given on day 21 pi, with total and female worm burden reductions of 91.52% and 90.57%, respectively, and cessation of oviposition. Similar dose given on day 49 pi reduced total worm burden by 55.17% and female worm burden by 66.51%. Moreover, it induced significant reduction in the tissue egg load and significant alterations in the oogram pattern with decreased immature eggs and increased dead eggs. Antipathological activities were evident in significant reductions in granulomata count and diameter. In conclusion, ART exhibits major in vivo schistosomicidal effects against the early larval migratory stages of S. mansoni Egyptian strain, mainly the 21-day old schistosomula, hence preventing disease progression and morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The value of histological grading of biopsy and resection specimens in early stage oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dik, Eric A; Ipenburg, Norbertus A; Kessler, Peter A; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2018-04-05

    In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) the differentiation grade of the tumor is determined on the biopsy and the resection specimen. The relation between tumor grade, nodal metastasis and survival is debatable. The aims of this study were to determine the correlation between differentiation grade of the biopsy and the resection specimen. Furthermore, we wanted to correlate tumor differentiation grade with nodal stage and survival. One-hundred and forty-five patients with OSCC staged as T1-2, N0 of the tongue, floor of mouth or cheek with primary resection of the tumor were examined. Biopsy and resection specimen were histologically re-assessed with regard to differentiation grade, as well as infiltrative, peri-neural and vascular invasive growth. This study showed a poor correlation between differentiation grade in the incisional biopsy and the resection specimen of the same tumor. No significant relation between differentiation grade of the resection specimen and nodal involvement, as well as overall and disease-specific survival was found. In early OSCC the differentiation grade determined by biopsy is of little predictive value for the grading of the resection specimen. Poor differentiation grade could not be related to the presence of nodal metastasis or survival and seems not to have any prognostic value concerning outcome. Treatment planning must be related to these findings. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamics of oral microbial community profiling during severe early childhood caries development monitored by PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ye; Zhou, Yan; Ouyang, Yong; Lin, HuanCai

    2013-09-01

    To monitor the longitudinal changes in oral microbial diversity of children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) compared to caries free (CF) controls. Dental plaque samples of 12 children in each group at 8, 14, 20, 26 and 32 months of age were analysed. Total microbial genomic DNA was isolated from each sample, and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses were carried out. The number of bands was significantly higher in the CF group (18.17±4.91 bands) than in the S-ECC group (14.54±5.56 bands) at 32 months of age (P<0.05). A total of 21 genera were identified in all subjects, and there were no significant differences between the two groups at genus level. DGGE profiles showed that most of the clusters were constructed from one individual over time in the both groups. The onset of S-ECC is accompanied by a decrease in microbial diversity. The overall composition of the microbiota is highly similar within an individual over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of neonatal allopregnanolone manipulations and early maternal separation on adult alcohol intake and monoamine levels in ventral striatum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Llidó, Anna; Bartolomé, Iris; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Changes in endogenous neonatal levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (AlloP) as well as a single 24h period of early maternal separation (EMS) on postnatal day (PND) 9 affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS), causing adolescent/adult alterations including systems and behavioural traits that could be related to vulnerability to drug abuse. In rats, some behavioural alterations caused by EMS can be neutralised by previous administration of AlloP. Thus, the aim of the present work is to analyse if manipulations of neonatal AlloP could increase adult alcohol consumption, and if EMS could change these effects. We administered AlloP or finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, from PND5 to PND9, followed by 24h of EMS at PND9. At PND70 we measured alcohol consumption using a two-bottle free-choice model (ethanol 10% (v/v)+glucose 3% (w/v), and glucose 3% (w/v)) for 15days. Ventral striatum samples were obtained to determine monoamine levels. Results revealed that neonatal finasteride increased both ethanol and glucose consumption, and AlloP increased alcohol intake compared with neonatal vehicle-injected animals. The differences between neonatal groups in alcohol consumption were not found in EMS animals. In accordance, both finasteride and AlloP animals that did not suffer EMS showed lower levels of dopamine and serotonin in ventral striatum. Taken together, these results reveal that neonatal neurosteroids alterations affect alcohol intake; an effect which can be modified by subsequent EMS. Thus, these data corroborate the importance of the relationship between neonatal neurosteroids and neonatal stress for the correct CNS development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy intake and sources of nutritional support in patients with head and neck cancer--a randomised longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Silander, E; Jacobsson, I; Bertéus-Forslund, H; Hammerlid, E

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition decreases the cancer patient's ability to manage treatment, affects quality of life and survival, and is common among head and neck (HN) cancer patients due to the tumour location and the treatment received. In this study, advanced HN cancer patients were included and followed during 2 years in order to measure their energy intake, choice of energy sources and to assess problems with dysphagia. The main purpose was to explore when and for how long the patients had dysphagia and lost weight due to insufficient intake and if having a PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy) in place for enteral nutrition made a difference. One hundred thirty-four patients were included and randomised to either a prophylactic PEG for early enteral feeding or nutritional care according to clinical praxis. At seven time points weight, dysphagia and energy intake (assessed as oral, nutritional supplements, enteral and parenteral) were measured. Both groups lost weight the first six months due to insufficient energy intake and used enteral nutrition as their main intake source; no significant differences between groups were found. Problems with dysphagia were vast during the 6 months. At the 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups both groups reached estimated energy requirements and weight loss ceased. Oral intake was the major energy source after 1 year. HN cancer patients need nutritional support and enteral feeding for a long time period during and after treatment due to insufficient energy intake. A prophylactic PEG did not significantly improve the enteral intake probably due to treatment side effects.

  2. Ramjet Intakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    the fixes applied during previous testing of isolated intakes. The outline of this lecture is a brief tour of some historic supersonic intakes...flow elements. 1 INTRODUCTION There is an established format for lectures , books and reviews concerning intakes, with a large section allocated to...and controlling boundary layers are necessarily included. This lecture approaches the subject from a different perspective, here we are less concerned

  3. Safe intake of an oral supplement containing carbohydrates and whey protein shortly before sedation to gastroscopy; a double blind, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Metelo, José Sebastião; Tanajura, Guilherme Henrique; Canevari-de-Oliveira, Mariana; da Cunha Costa, Rodrigo

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the gastric emptying of an oral supplement containing carbohydrate plus whey protein drunk before sedation for gastroscopy. This is a randomized double-blind trial including adult patients (ages 18-65) with a chief complaint of epigastric burning and who were candidates to elective gastroscopy. After overnight fast subjects were randomized to drink 200 mL of an oral nutritional supplement containing maltodextrine in addition to whey protein 150 to 210 min before the gastroscopy (intervention group, n = 12) or to undergo the endoscopic procedure with no supplement (control group, n = 12). The residual gastric volume (RGV) suctioned and measured during the exam was the main endpoint of the study. There were no complications during all exams. The median (range) fasting time was greater (P < 0.001) in control group (770 min, ranging from 660-917 min) than in the study group (175 min ranging from 150 to 210 min). The median (range) RGV was similar in between the two groups (control group: 25 (10-70) mL versus intervention group: 10 (0-100) mL; p = 0.32). Gastric emptying 150-210 min after the ingestion of an oral supplement containing carbohydrate plus whey protein is similar to an overnight fasting condition. Although limited by the number of cases, the sedation for endoscopic procedures is safe with this fasting protocol. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy to prevent early post thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and evaluation of postoperative parathyroid hormone levels to detect hypocalcemia: A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Kus, Murat; Akkapulu, Nezih; Aytac, Huseyin Ozgur; Yabanoglu, Hakan; Caliskan, Kenan; Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative hypocalcemia is the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement is one of the methods to detect or prevent postoperative hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation is another method to prevent early postoperative hypocalcemia. The aim of this study is to detect the accurate timing of PTH and evaluate efficacy of routine oral calcium supplementation for postoperative hypocalcemia. A total of 106 patients were performed total thyroidectomy. Rotuine oral calcium supplementation was given to group 1 and no treatment to group 2 according to randomization. Serum calcium and PTH level of patients in group 2 at postoperative 6, 12 and 24 h and patients in both groups at postoperative day 7 were evaluated. Patients were compared according to age, sex, operation findings, serum calcium and PTH levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia. Half of the patients (50%) were in group 1. Most of the patients were female (83%). The most common etiology of thyroid disease was multinodular goiter (64.1%). Oral calcium supplementation was given to 18 (33.9%) patients in group 2. Symptomatic hypocalcemia for group 1 and 2 was found to be 1.9 and 33.9% respectively (p < 0.05). No statistical difference can be observed regarding the timing of serum biomarkers. Serum PTH levels at postoperative 12 and 24 h can predict early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Prophylactic oral calcium supplementation therapy can prevent early post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia with advantages of being cost effective and safe. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High animal fat intake enhances prostate cancer progression and reduces glutathione peroxidase 3 expression in early stages of TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seo-Na; Han, Juhee; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Lee, Ji Min; Song, Juha; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Western men, and more men have been diagnosed at younger ages in recent years. A high-fat Western-style diet is a known risk factor for prostate cancer and increases oxidative stress. We evaluated the association between dietary animal fat and expression of antioxidant enzymes, particularly glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), in the early stages of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Six-week-old male nontransgenic and TRAMP mice were placed on high animal fat (45% Kcal fat) or control (10% Kcal fat) diets and sacrificed after 5 or 10 weeks. The histopathological score increased with age and high-fat diet consumption. The histopathological scores in dorsal and lateral lobes increased in the 10-week high-fat diet group (6.2±0.2 and 6.2±0.4, respectively) versus the 10-week control diet group (5.3±0.3 and 5.2±0.2, respectively). GPx3 decreased both at the mRNA and protein levels in mouse prostate. GPx3 mRNA expression decreased (∼36.27% and ∼23.91%, respectively) in the anterior and dorsolateral prostate of TRAMP mice fed a high-fat diet compared to TRAMP mice fed a control diet. Cholesterol treatment increased PC-3 human prostate cancer cell proliferation, decreased GPx3 mRNA and protein levels, and increased H2 O2 levels in culture medium. Moreover, increasing GPx3 mRNA expression by troglitazone in PC-3 cells decreased cell proliferation and lowered H2 O2 levels. Dietary fat enhances prostate cancer progression, possibly by suppressing GPx3 expression and increasing proliferation of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) epithelial cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An oral health intervention for people with serious mental illness (Three Shires Early Intervention Dental Trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah F; Adams, Clive E; Clifton, Andrew; Simpson, Jayne; Tosh, Graeme; Liddle, Peter F; Callaghan, Patrick; Yang, Min; Guo, Boliang; Furtado, Vivek

    2013-05-29

    Oral health is an important part of general physical health and is essential for self-esteem, self-confidence and overall quality of life. There is a well-established link between mental illness and poor oral health. Oral health problems are not generally well recognized by mental health professionals and many patients experience barriers to treatment. This is the protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised trial that has been designed to fit within standard care. Dental awareness training for care co-ordinators plus a dental checklist for service users in addition to standard care will be compared with standard care alone for people with mental illness. The checklist consists of questions about service users' current oral health routine and condition. Ten Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) teams in Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire will be cluster randomised (five to intervention and five to standard care) in blocks accounting for location and size of caseload. The oral health of the service users will be monitored for one year after randomisation. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN63382258.

  7. Inequalities in the frequency of free sugars intake among Syrian 1-year-old infants: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Joury, Easter; Khairallah, May; Sabbah, Wael; Elias, Kanaan; Bedi, Raman

    2016-09-08

    High frequency of free sugars intake, during the first year of life is probably the greatest risk factor for early childhood caries. The latter is a global public health challenge. Very little is known about the social determinants of infant's frequency of free sugars intake, particularly in low-income countries. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the association between the frequency of free sugars intake among 1-year-old Syrian infants and each of parents' socioeconomic position (SEP), maternal frequency of free sugars intake and knowledge of infant's oral health behaviour. Using a cross-sectional design, 323 1-year-old infants, attending vaccination clinics in 3 maternal and child health centres (MCHCs) in Damascus, Syria, were selected. A systematic random sampling was applied using the MCHCs' monthly vaccination registries. The 3 MCHCs were located in affluent, moderate and deprived areas. Infants' mothers completed a structured questionnaire on socio-demographics, infant's and mother's frequency of free sugars intake from cariogenic foods and beverages, and mother's knowledge about infant's oral health behaviour. Binary and multiple regression analyses were performed. The level of significance was set at 5 %. The response rate was 100 %. Overall, 42.7 % of infants had high frequency of free sugars intake (>4times a day). Infants whose fathers were not working were more likely to have high frequency of free sugars intake. Similarly, infants whose mothers had low level of knowledge about infant's oral health behaviour, or high frequency of free sugars intake were more likely to have high frequency of free sugars intake. The association between father's occupation and infant's frequency of free sugars intake attenuated after adjustment for mother's knowledge and frequency of free sugars intake (adjusted OR = 1.5, 1.8, 3.2; 95%CI = 0.5-4.8, 1.1-3, 1.4-7.4; respectively). There are socioeconomic inequalities in the frequency of free sugars intake

  8. Correlation and comparative analysis of discriminative validity of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Izabella Barbosa; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-03-10

    The perceptions of parents and children regarding oral health are useful to oral public health and clinical practice in pediatric dentistry. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the total and item scores of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) (parental version and child's self-reports) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Subsequently, the discriminative validity of these assessment tools regarding dental caries was compared. One hundred twenty-one children randomly selected in the city of Diamantina (Brazil) were submitted to oral examinations. Parents answered the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (parental version) and children answered the SOHO-5c (child's self-reports). Statistical analysis involved the Mann-Whitney test as well as the calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficients. A significant correlation was found between the SOHO-5p and ECOHIS (r = 0.85), whereas no significant correlations were found between the SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p (r = 0.00) or between the SOHO-5c and ECOHIS (r = -0.41). Significant differences in the impact on quality of life were found between children with severe decay and no severe decay (caries free, with initial or established caries) both the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was found in SOHO-5c (p > 0.05). The ECOHIS and SOHO-5p were correlated with each other. The accounts of the children differed from their parents' reports and were not capable of discriminating dental caries in advanced stages of progression.

  9. Caretaker's caries experience and its association with early childhood caries and children's oral health-related quality of life: A prospective two-generation study.

    PubMed

    Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars Thore; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tumwine, James Kashugyera; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2016-11-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine the association between caretakers' caries experience and caries experience of their children. Second, to investigate whether children's and caretaker's caries experience is associated with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children and their families. This study is based on the prenatal recruitment interviews and the 5-year follow-up of 417 caretaker-children pairs from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE-EBF trial conducted in Mbale, Eastern Uganda. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with caretakers at the household level. Caries experience of caretakers (DMFT >0) and children (dmft >0) were assessed in accordance with the criteria of the World Health Organization. OHRQoL was assessed using an abbreviated version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Adjusted negative binomial regression analysis revealed that caretaker's caries experience was positively associated with early childhood caries of their offspring (IRR 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.0). Children's caries experience (IRR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-3.0), but not caries experience of caretakers, was associated with worse OHRQoL of children and their families. Caretakers who perceived good child oral health were less likely to report OHRQoL impacts (IRR 0.20, 95% CI 0.12-0.35). Improving caretaker's caries experience and her perception of child's oral health status could improve children's caries experience and the OHRQoL of children and family. Such knowledge is important and should inform public oral health programs for young children.

  10. Comparison of spatula and cytobrush cytological techniques in early detection of oral malignant and premalignant lesions: a prospective and blinded study.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, P G C L; Dissanayaka, W L; Nanayakkara, B G; Amaratunga, E A P D; Tilakaratne, W M

    2016-04-01

    The use of oral cytology to diagnose malignant and premalignant lesions at an early stage is considered crucial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnoses of the spatula and the cytobrush techniques compared with the gold standard histopathological findings, analysed according to different diagnostic criteria. Cytological smears were obtained from 76 suspicious oral malignant lesions and 116 oral leukoplakia lesions using two techniques: cytobrush plus cell collector and metal spatula. Subsequently, a surgical biopsy was performed on each lesion to achieve a histopathological diagnosis. Evaluation was conducted with respect to three different diagnostic criteria. The sensitivity for diagnosing carcinoma in clinically malignant cases was 89.58% and 60.42% for cytobrush and spatula techniques, respectively. Inclusion of severe dysplastic cases for 'high-risk' lesions increased the sensitivity up to 96.36% and 78.18% for two techniques, respectively. In leukoplakia lesions, malignant and severely dysplastic cells were diagnosed at a sensitivity of 88.89% in the cytobrush and 55.56% in the spatula techniques. Extending the criteria by defining malignant or any dysplastic findings as positive, sensitivity was increased to 98.02% and 89.11% for the spatula and the cytobrush techniques, respectively. Specificity for both techniques increased to 100%. The difference between the diagnoses of histopathology and the spatula cytology was statistically significant (P < 0.01), while no such difference was found with the cytobrush technique (P > 0.1). The cytobrush, unlike the spatula, is a useful screening instrument for early diagnosis of suspicious oral lesions and could therefore contribute to improved oral cancer prognosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Prospective, randomised, controlled study evaluating early modification of oral microbiota following admission to the intensive care unit and oral hygiene with chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Gavrilko, Oleg; Almeida, Saulo de; Sumi, Eigi Ricardo; Alberto, Thiago; Rocha, Jaime Luis; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most commonly used oral hygiene product for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). The change in dental plaque (DP) microbiota following CHX use in patients under MV has not been described previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria associated with VAP and the coverage of DP within the oral cavity in patients administered CHX. This was a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind study in patients (n=16) under MV who were mouth-rinsed with either CHX or placebo. Microbiology samples were collected from the oral mucosa (OM) and DP after admission to the ICU and on Days 3, 5, 7 and 10. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of CHX were determined. Upon admission, the occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, was reported. The CHX group had a lower incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared with the placebo group for the OM (RR=0.51, 95% CI 0.27-0.98; P=0.011). There was high agreement between the culture results of OM and DP (κ=0.825). VAP developed in six patients. The species identified following tracheal aspiration of VAP patients were similar to those found in the OM for four cases. The strains showed low MICs and MBCs for CHX (<0.039mg/mL). Although DP is rapidly colonised by MDR bacteria, use of 2% CHX reduced the incidence of S. aureus colonisation. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the oral intake of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici BA28 on Helicobacter pylori causing peptic ulcer in C57BL/6 mice models.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Garg, Neena; Sachdev, Atul; Kumar, Balvir

    2014-01-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are being proposed to cure peptic ulcers by reducing colonization of Helicobacter pylori within the stomach mucosa and by eradicating already established infection. In lieu of that, in vitro inhibitory activity of pediocin-producing probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici BA28 was evaluated against H. pylori by growth inhibition assays. Further, chronic gastritis was first induced in two groups of C57BL/6 mice by orogastric inoculation with H. pylori with polyethylene catheter, and probiotic P. acidilactici BA28 was orally administered to study the eradication and cure of peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori and P. acidilactici BA28 were detected in gastric biopsy and fecal samples of mice, respectively. A probiotic treatment with P. acidilactici BA28, which is able to eliminate H. pylori infection and could reverse peptic ulcer disease, is being suggested as a co-adjustment with conventional antibiotic treatment. The study provided an evidence of controlling peptic ulcer disease, by diet mod

  14. Combined determination of circulating miR-196a and miR-196b levels produces high sensitivity and specificity for early detection of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ya-Ching; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Huang, Yu-Chen; Huang, Chi-Che; Chen, Wen-Ho; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Bing-Shen; Chen, Yin-Ju; Li, Hsiao-Fang; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the oncogenic microRNA family members miR-196a and miR-196b can be circulating biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer. To determine the stability of circulating miRNA, the blood sample was aliquot and stored at different temperature conditions for analysis. To assess the diagnostic efficacy, we determined the levels of miR-196s in plasma samples, including 53 from healthy individuals, 16 from pre-cancer patients, and 90 from oral cancer patients. In general, circulating miRNA was very stable when storing plasma samples at -20°C or below. In clinical study, both circulating miR-196a and miR-196b were substantially up-regulated in patients with oral pre-cancer lesions (5.9- and 14.8-fold, respectively; P < 0.01), as well as in oral cancer patients (9.3- and 17.0-fold, respectively; P < 0.01). These results show prominent discrimination between normal and pre-cancer patients (AUC = 0.764 or 0.840, miR-196a or miR-196b, respectively), and between normal and cancer patients (AUC = 0.864 or 0.960, miR-196a or miR-196b, respectively). The combined determination of miR-196a and miR-196b levels produces excellent sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of patients with oral pre-cancer (AUC = 0.845) or oral cancer (AUC = 0.963), as well as in the prediction of potential malignancy (AUC = 0.950, sensitivity = 91%, specificity = 85%). Combined determination of circulating miR-196a and miR-196b levels may serve as panel plasma biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of oral calcium bolus administration on milk production, concentrations of minerals and metabolites in serum, early-lactation health status, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Chashnidel, Y; Teimouri-Yansari, A; Mahjoubi, E; Dirandeh, E

    2018-05-01

    To determine the effects of oral Ca bolus administration in the early postpartum period of cows on milk yield and composition, blood metabolites, early-lactation health status, and reproductive performance. Multiparous Holstein dry cows (n=66) with a mean parity of 3.1 (SD 0.35) were fed a diet with a positive dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) prior to calving. They were randomly assigned to receive no treatment (Control; n=33) or two oral Ca boluses (n=33, 45 g of Ca per bolus); one was administered immediately after calving (Day 0) and the second 24 hours (±30 minutes) later. Blood samples were collected at calving, and on Days 2 and 7 to determine concentrations in serum of Ca, P, Mg, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA). Milk yield was recorded daily and milk composition was determined weekly from calving until 28 day postpartum. Health and outcomes were determined during the first 30 days postpartum and reproductive outcomes to 180 days postpartum. Mean milk yields and composition over the first month of lactation were similar between cows in the two treatment groups (p>0.1). Mean concentrations of Ca in serum were not different between treatment groups on Day 0, but were higher on Day 2 for cows that received oral Ca boluses (1.77 (SE 0.07)) compared with Control cows (1.54 (SE 0.08)) (p=0.04). Concentrations in serum of P, Mg, glucose, NEFA and ΒHBA did not differ between treatment groups on any day of measurement. Fewer cows that received oral Ca were diagnosed with hypocalcaemia (total concentrations of Ca in serum <1.5 mmol/L) by Day 2 (2/33; 6%) compared with Control cows (12/33; 36%) (p=0.01). There was no difference in the prevalence of other health outcomes between treatment groups. The proportion of cows conceiving to first insemination was greater in cows that received an oral Ca bolus (19/29; 65%) than Control cows (12/29; 41%) (p=0.01). Oral Ca bolus administration increased concentrations of Ca

  16. Pharmacokinetics and Plasma Cellular Antioxidative Effects of Flavanols After Oral Intake of Green Tea Formulated with Vitamin C and Xylitol in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Son, Yu-Ra; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to test whether green tea formulated with vitamin C and xylitol (GTVX) could improve absorption of flavanols and total antioxidant activity (TAC) of plasma compared with green tea only (GT) in healthy subjects. The total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter method was used to measure the TAC of plasma. Cmax, Tmax, and area under the curve (AUC) of flavanols in plasma after consumption of GTVX were 5980.58 μg/mL, 2.14 h, and 18,915.56 h·μg/mL, respectively, indicating that GTVX showed significantly higher AUC than GT (13,855.43 μg/mL). The peak TACs occurred at 3 and 0.5 h after intake of GT and GTVX, respectively. The TAC of plasma was found to be significantly higher in GTVX than in GT at each time point. This study suggests that formulating green tea with vitamin C and xylitol could increase the absorption of flavanols in green tea, enhancing cellular antioxidative effects.

  17. Oral intake of Boesenbergia pandurata extract improves skin hydration, gloss, and wrinkling: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Un; Chung, Hee Chul; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2017-12-01

    Photoaging is a severe skin damage that occurs as a result of exposure to external elements, primarily ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Chronically, UV-irradiated skin exhibits the signs of sunburn and hyperpigmentation with the destruction of connective tissues. Previously, Boesenbergia pandurata (B. pandurata) and its active compound panduratin A showed antiphotoaging activities in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of B. pandurata intake on skin hydration, gloss, wrinkling, and elasticity. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to clinically evaluate the effect of B. pandurata ethanol extract (BPE) containing 8% of panduratin A on human skin hydration, gloss, wrinkling, and elasticity. Ninety-two subjects were randomly assigned to receive tablets containing either BPE or placebo for 12 weeks. The test group had significantly increased skin hydration and gloss and decreased wrinkling compared to the placebo group at 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in skin elasticity between the two groups; however, the increment rate in the test group was higher than that in the placebo group at 12 weeks. None of the subjects developed adverse symptoms during the study period. These results suggest that BPE can be used as a nutraceutical or nutricosmetic material for improving human skin hydration, gloss, and wrinkling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Synthesis of Colloidal Quantum Dots Coated with Mercaptosuccinic Acid for Early Detection and Therapeutics of Oral Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jocelin, G.; Arivarasan, A.; Ganesan, M.; Prasad, N. Rajendra; Sasikala, G.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are gaining widespread recognition for its luminescence behavior and unique photo physical properties as a bio-marker and inorganic fluorophore. In spite of such rampant advantages, its application is clinically hampered depending on the surface coating decreasing its luminescence efficiency. The present study reports preparation of CdTe QDs capped with biologically active thiol based material, mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) for diagnosis of oral cancer (KB) cells by acting as a fluorophore marking targeted tumor cells and at the same time exhibiting certain cytotoxic effects. Synthesized MSA coated CdTe QDs is spherical in shape with an average particle size of 3-5nm. In vitro, the rapid uptake of MSA CdTe QDs in oral cancer cell lines were assessed through fluorescence microscopy. Further, this study evaluates the therapeutic efficiency of MSA CdTe QDs in human oral cancer cell lines using MTT analysis. MSA CdTe QDs exhibit significant cytotoxicity in oral cancer cells in a dose dependent manner with low IC50 when compared with other raw CdTe QDs. MSA CdTe QDs were also treated with human lymphocytes (normal cells) to assess and compare the toxicity profile of QDs in normal and oral tumors. The results of our present study strengthen our hypothesis of using MSA CdTe QDs as detector for tracking and fluorescence imaging of oral cancer cells and exhibiting sufficient cytotoxicity in them.

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of oral health education program among mothers with 6-18 months children in prevention of early childhood caries

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Kavita; Sampath, Naganandini; Sarkar, Avishek De

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mothers play a key role as transmitters of oral health behavior for their children. Hence increasing their knowledge about positive attitude toward desirable oral health behaviors regarding their children will lead to the better oral health of the children. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral health education program among mothers with 6-18 months old children in the prevention of early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: A total of 480 mothers with 6-18 months old children were selected using cluster randomization of the primary health center. The allocated mothers were assigned into three groups: Motivation group (group A), traditional health education group (group B) and control group (group C). Clinical examination was carried out to record the dental decay of the child. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed using SPSS 13. Evaluation of statistical significance between groups was made using the Chi-square test, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: Mean number of decayed teeth was 0.23 + 0.58 in group A that was significantly less as compared to 0.39 + 0.79 and 1.17 + 1.32 in group B and C, respectively. Conclusion: Motivational intervention was more effective in reducing dental decay in the children as compared to the other two groups. PMID:25395763

  20. Oral health-related quality of life following dental treatment under general anaesthesia for early childhood caries - a UK-based study.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Michelle C; Harrison, Mike; Marshman, Zoe

    2017-01-01

    To assess parental reports of changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of young children in the UK with early childhood caries (ECC) following dental treatment under general anaesthesia (DGA). To compare the impact of oral rehabilitation (OR) and extraction-only (Exo) treatment approaches on this. Data were collected using the proxy reported components of the Child Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (COHRQoL ® ) questionnaire: the Parent-Caregivers Perceptions questionnaire (P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS), from a convenience sample of parents of children receiving DGA at a UK Paediatric Dental Department. Mean scores and prevalence impacts were compared pre- and postoperatively with mean change score and effect sizes calculations. Seventy-eight parents were recruited (51 children undergoing OR, 27 Exo) with 6 lost to follow-up (92.3%). Following treatment, changes in mean P-CPQ and FIS scores were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with medium to large effect sizes (0.45-1.39). The differences in change scores between the two treatment approaches were not statistically different. DGA for young children with early childhood caries resulted in substantial improvements in parent's ratings of their child's OHRQoL and of the impact on their families. Larger cohort studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed term infants.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Craig L; Voigt, Robert G; Llorente, Antolin M; Peters, Sarika U; Prager, Thomas C; Zou, Yali L; Rozelle, Judith C; Turcich, Marie R; Fraley, J Kennard; Anderson, Robert E; Heird, William C

    2010-12-01

    We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women were assigned to receive identical capsules containing either a high-DHA algal oil (∼200 mg/d of DHA) or a vegetable oil (containing no DHA) from delivery until 4 months postpartum. Primary outcome variables at 5 years of age were measures of gross and fine motor function, perceptual/visual-motor function, attention, executive function, verbal skills, and visual function of the recipient children at 5 years of age. There were no differences in visual function as assessed by the Bailey-Lovie acuity chart, transient visual evoked potential or sweep visual evoked potential testing between children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo. Children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo performed significantly better on the Sustained Attention Subscale of the Leiter International Performance Scale (46.5 ± 8.9 vs 41.9 ± 9.3, P < .008) but there were no statistically significant differences between groups on other neuropsychological domains. Five-year-old children whose mothers received modest DHA supplementation versus placebo for the first 4 months of breastfeeding performed better on a test of sustained attention. This, along with the previously reported better performance of the children of DHA-supplemented mothers on a test of psychomotor development at 30 months of age, suggests that DHA intake during early infancy confers long-term benefits on specific aspects of neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Juana; Bonet, M Luisa; Keijer, Jaap; van Schothorst, Evert M; Mölller, Ingrid; Chetrit, Carles; Martinez-Puig, Daniel; Palou, Andreu

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore peripheral blood gene expression as a source of biomarkers of joint health improvement related to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) intake in humans. Healthy individuals with joint discomfort were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study in humans. Subjects ate control yoghurt or yoghurt supplemented with a recently authorized novel food in Europe containing hyaluronic acid (65 %) from rooster comb (Mobilee™ as commercial name) for 90 days. Effects on functional quality-of-life parameters related to joint health were assessed. Whole-genome microarray analysis of peripheral blood samples from a subset of 20 subjects (10 placebo and 10 supplemented) collected pre- and post-intervention was performed. Mobilee™ supplementation reduced articular pain intensity and synovial effusion and improved knee muscular strength indicators as compared to placebo. About 157 coding genes were differentially expressed in blood cells between supplemented and placebo groups post-intervention, but not pre-intervention (p < 0.05; fold change ≥1.2). Among them, a reduced gene expression of glucuronidase-beta (GUSB), matrix metallopeptidase 23B (MMP23B), xylosyltransferase II (XYLT2), and heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (HS6ST1) was found in the supplemented group. Correlation analysis indicated a direct relationship between blood cell gene expression of MMP23B, involved in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and pain intensity, and an inverse relationship between blood cell gene expression of HS6ST1, responsible for 6-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate, and indicators of knee muscular strength. Expression levels of specific genes in blood cells, in particular genes related to GAG metabolism and extracellular matrix dynamics, are potential biomarkers of beneficial effects on articular health.

  3. The effect of oral intake during the immediate pre-colonoscopy time period on volume depletion in patients who receive sodium picosulfate.

    PubMed

    Labuschagne, G S; Morris, R W

    2017-07-01

    Sodium picosulfate, used in combination with magnesium oxide and citric acid for bowel cleansing, can result in dehydration. We investigated whether enhanced carbohydrate fluid intake pre-colonoscopy could mitigate this effect. We enrolled 398 elective colonoscopy patients in a prospective, controlled, single-blinded study. The control group (n=194) fasted routinely (minimum seven hours) whilst the treatment group (n=197) drank 1,200 ml carbohydrate solution leading up to admission (up until two hours pre-colonoscopy). On admission a patient survey was completed, and urine specific gravity obtained. Supine blood pressure and pulse rate were measured, and repeated within three minutes of standing. The carbohydrate group had reduced symptoms and signs of dehydration, including thirst (34% versus 65%, P <0.001), dry mouth (45% versus 59%, P =0.008), dizziness (10% versus 20%, P =0.010), lower mean urine specific gravity (1.007 versus 1.017, P <0.001), lower incidence of orthostatic hypotension (2.6% versus 11%, P <0.001), and lower mean erect pulse rate (78 versus 81 /minute, P =0.047). The postural change in systolic blood pressure was less in the treatment group (mean -0.4 mmHg, median -1 mmHg [interquartile range, IQR -7 to 7]) than in the control group (mean -4.1 mmHg, median -1 mmHg [IQR -12 to 3], P =0.028). These findings indicate that hydration with carbohydrate solution in patients taking sodium picosulfate has clinical benefit.

  4. Comparison of survival between radiation therapy and trans-oral laser microsurgery for early glottic cancer patients; a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    De Santis, R J; Poon, I; Lee, J; Karam, I; Enepekides, D J; Higgins, K M

    2016-08-02

    The literature reports various treatment methodologies, such as trans-oral laser microsurgery, radiation therapy, total/partial laryngectomies, and concurrent radiation chemotherapy for patients with early larynx cancer. However, at the forefront of early glottis treatment is trans-oral laser microsurgery and radiation therapy, likely due to better functional and survival outcomes. Here we conduct the largest Canadian head-to-head comparison of consecutive patients treated with either radiation therapy or trans-oral laser microsurgery. Additionally, we compare these two treatments and their 5-year survival rates post treatment to add to the existing literature. Charts of patients who were diagnosed with early glottic cancer between 2006 and 2013 were reviewed. Seventy-five patients were identified, and split into 2 groups based on their primary treatment, trans-oral laser microsurgery and radiation therapy. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, life-tables, and the log-rank statistic were reported to determine if there was a difference between the two treatment groups and their disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and total laryngectomy-free survival. Additionally, each different survival analysis was stratified by potential confounding variables, to help conclude which treatment is more efficacious in this population. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate is 93.3 % σ = 0.063 and 90.8 % σ = 0.056 for patients treated with trans-oral laser microsurgery and radiation therapy, respectively (χ (2) < 0.001, p = 0.983). The disease free survival rate is 60.0 % (σ =0.121) for patients treated with trans-oral laser microsurgery, and 67.2 % (σ = 0.074) for those who received RT (χ (2) = 0.19, p = 0.663). Additionally, the total laryngectomy-free survival rate is 84.1 % (σ = 0.1) and 79.1 % (σ = 0.072) for patients' early glottic cancer treated by trans-oral laser microsurgery and radiation therapy, respectively (

  5. Pathological analysis of the Candida albicans-infected tongue tissues of a murine oral candidiasis model in the early infection stage.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masashi; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Miyasaka, Takahiro; Abe, Shigeru; Satoh, Tazuko

    2013-04-01

    The early pathological process of Candida infection and immunological responses in tongues of the mice with experimental oral candidiasis was analysed. CD-1 mice, pretreated by prednisolone were orally inoculated with Candida albicans. Symptoms were monitored by measuring the area of white tongue coating and number of viable Candida cells in oral cavity. The histopathological analysis was carried by PAS-stain and immunofluorescent staining. IL-4, IL-12p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α in recovered from the homogenates of the tongues were measured by ELISA. The fungus invaded the tongue surface of the mice and white patches developed within 24h after inoculation. Histopathological examination indicated the presence of local acute inflammation in superficial tissues of tongues covered by mycelium of C. albicans. Pathological exacerbation was observed from 24 to 48 h after the inoculation and from then the symptoms of oral candidiasis appeared to move into the recovery phase. Inflammatory cells mainly consisting of neutrophils was accumulated and located under the lesions covered by Candida-hyphae. An increase in IL-12p70 and IFN-γ in tongue homogenates was observed at 48 h after inoculation. The worst condition in the pathological process in experimental oral candidiasis was found 48 h after C. albicans inoculation. When the surface of the Candida-inoculated tongues was covered with Candida-hyphae, a dense accumulation of neutrophils was observed under the lesions and homogenates of the tongues contained increased levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ. These suggested that local pathological condition of Candida-infected tongues may be affected by neutrophils accumulation and increased levels of some cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of food intake on the pharmacokinetic properties of mirabegron oral controlled-absorption system: a single-dose, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Zhang, Wenhui; Moy, Selina; Kowalski, Donna; Kerbusch, Virginie; van Gelderen, Marcel; Sawamoto, Taiji; Grunenberg, Nicole; Keirns, James

    2013-03-01

    Mirabegron is a β3-adrenoceptor agonist used for the treatment of overactive bladder. Mirabegron is formulated as an extended-release tablet using oral controlled-absorption system (OCAS) technology. This study was designed to assess the effects of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of mirabegron OCAS in accordance with regulatory requirements to support dosing recommendations. In this single-dose, randomized, open-label, 3-period, parallel-dose-group, crossover study, mirabegron OCAS 50 or 100 mg was administered orally to healthy adult subjects in the fasted state or after a high- or low-fat breakfast. Dose administrations were separated by a washout period of at least 10 days. Blood samples were drawn up to 96 hours after dosing, and plasma concentrations of mirabegron were analyzed by LC/MS-MS. PK properties were determined using noncompartmental methods. Primary end points for the assessment of food effects were Cmax and AUC0-∞. For tolerability assessment, adverse events (AEs) were monitored using investigators' questionnaires and subjects' spontaneous reports, vital sign measurements, hematology, clinical chemistry, and ECG. Thirty-eight subjects (male, 50%; mean age, 32.1 years; mean weight, 77.3 kg; race, 76.3% white) were enrolled in the 50-mg dose group and 38 subjects (male, 52.6%; mean age, 30.9 years; mean weight, 74.5 kg; race, 63.2% white) in the 100-mg dose group. With either fed condition or dose, the 90% CIs for the fed/fasted ratios of both Cmax and AUC0-∞ of mirabegron fell below the predetermined range for bioequivalence (80.0%-125.0%), suggesting that food had no effect on exposure to mirabegron OCAS. With the 50-mg dose, mirabegron Cmax was reduced by 45% with a high-fat breakfast compared with fasted conditions (geometric mean ratio [GMR], 54.8% [90% CI, 43.7%-68.6%]) and AUC0-∞, by 17% (GMR, 83.2% [90% CI, 74.2%-93.4%]). With the 100-mg dose, mirabegron Cmax and AUC0-∞ were reduced by 39% (GMR, 61.3% [90% CI, 47.8%-78.7%]) and

  7. Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.

    PubMed

    Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J

    2015-04-01

    Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.

  8. Effect of Food Intake on the Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Methylphenidate Extended-Release Oral Suspension for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sallee, Floyd R; Palumbo, Donna R; Abbas, Richat; Berry, Sally A; Puthli, Shivanand P; Kathala, Kalyan K

    2017-09-01

    We conducted an open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover study in healthy adults to assess the impact of food on the bioavailability of 60 mg methylphenidate extended-release oral suspension (MEROS; Quillivant XR™)-a long-acting stimulant for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-by comparing the pharmacokinetic parameters under fed and fasting conditions. When MEROS 60 mg was administered under fed conditions compared with fasting conditions, the exposure of methylphenidate (d enantiomer) was higher, with a mean area under the plasma concentration-vs-time curve (AUC) 0-t of 160.2 ng·h/mL vs 140.4 ng·h/mL, and a mean AUC 0-inf of 163.2 ng·h/mL vs 143.7 ng·h/mL, respectively. The ratios of the ln-transformed geometric means for methylphenidate for AUC 0-t and AUC 0-inf were 119.5% (90%CI, 115.7% to 123.5%) and 119.0% (90%CI, 115.2% to 122.8%), respectively, within the standard 80% to 125% bioequivalence acceptance range indicating no food effect on the overall exposure (rate and extent). There was a small increase in the peak plasma concentration (127.6% [90%CI, 119.9% to 135.8%]). However, this effect was small and not likely to be clinically significant. Overall, MEROS 60 mg was safe in both the fed and fasting condition when administered to healthy volunteers in this study. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. [Usefulness of peristalsis, flatulence and evacuation for predicting oral route tolerance in patients subjected to major abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Betsabé; Figueroa-Gallaga, Luis; Sánchez-Castrillo, Christian; Belmonte-Montes, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    to evaluate the usefulness of bowel sounds, flatus and bowel movement presence to predict tolerance of oral intake in patients following major abdominal surgery. nutrition is one of the most important factors in the management of postoperative care. The early oral intake has shown to contribute to a faster recovery. Traditionally the beginning of postoperative feeding after major abdominal surgery is delayed until bowel sounds, flatus and/or bowel movement are present although there is no enough medical evidence for their usefulness. We studied 88 patients following major abdominal surgery. We registered the presence of bowel sounds, flatus and bowel movement each 24 hours in the postoperative period. We analized the relationship between the presence of these signs and the ability to tolerate oral intake. Predictive values, sensitivity, specificity and ROC curves were calculated. results shown that bowel sounds have an acCeptable sensibility but a very low specificity to predict the ability to tolerate oral intake. Unlike bowel sounds, bowel movements shown a low sensibility and a high specificity. Flatus turned out to have and intermediate sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of tolerance of oral feeding. in this study any of these signs were shown as a reliable indicator for beginning oral feeding because they have a moderate to low usefulness.

  10. German adjuvant intergroup node-positive study: a phase III trial to compare oral ibandronate versus observation in patients with high-risk early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; Möbus, Volker; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Huober, Jens; Thomssen, Christoph; Untch, Michael; Jackisch, Christian; Diel, Ingo J; Elling, Dirk; Conrad, Bettina; Kreienberg, Rolf; Müller, Volkmar; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Bauerfeind, Ingo; Clemens, Michael; Schmidt, Marcus; Noeding, Stefanie; Forstbauer, Helmut; Barinoff, Jana; Belau, Antje; Nekljudova, Valentina; Harbeck, Nadia; Loibl, Sibylle

    2013-10-01

    Bisphosphonates prevent skeletal-related events in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Their effect in early breast cancer is controversial. Ibandronate is an orally and intravenously available amino-bisphosphonate with a favorable toxicity profile. It therefore qualifies as potential agent for adjuvant use. The GAIN (German Adjuvant Intergroup Node-Positive) study was an open-label, randomized, controlled phase III trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. Patients with node-positive early breast cancer were randomly assigned 1:1 to two different dose-dense chemotherapy regimens and 2:1 to ibandronate 50 mg per day orally for 2 years or observation. In all, 2,640 patients and 728 events were estimated to be required to demonstrate an increase in disease-free survival (DFS) by ibandronate from 75% to 79.5% by using a two-sided α = .05 and 1-β of 80%. We report here the efficacy analysis for ibandronate, which was released by the independent data monitoring committee because the futility boundary was not crossed after 50% of the required DFS events were observed. Between June 2004 and August 2008, 2,015 patients were randomly assigned to ibandronate and 1,008 to observation. Patients randomly assigned to ibandronate showed no superior DFS or overall survival (OS) compared with patients randomly assigned to observation (DFS: hazard ratio, 0.945; 95% CI, 0.768 to 1.161; P = .589; OS: HR, 1.040; 95% CI, 0.763 to 1.419; P = .803). DFS was numerically longer if ibandronate was used in patients younger than 40 years or older than 60 years compared with patients age 40 to 59 years (test for interaction P = .093). Adjuvant treatment with oral ibandronate did not improve outcome of patients with high-risk early breast cancer who received dose-dense chemotherapy.

  11. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Rok; Schriefer, Johnhenry M; Gunnels, Trint A; Harvey, Innocence C; Bloomer, Richard J

    2013-10-21

    Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist-possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6-8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast. A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p < 0.0001) and kilocalorie expenditure (p = 0.001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo at 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion. No statistically significant effects were noted for glycerol or RER (p > 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo. Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine contributes little to the increase in these

  12. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist—possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6–8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast. Results A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p < 0.0001) and kilocalorie expenditure (p = 0.001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo at 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion. No statistically significant effects were noted for glycerol or RER (p > 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo. Conclusion Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine

  13. Cyclic variations of fuel-droplet distribution during the early intake stroke of a lean-burn stratified-charge spark-ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleiferis, P. G.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Ishii, K.; Urata, Y.

    2005-11-01

    Lean-burn spark-ignition engines exhibit higher efficiency and lower specific emissions in comparison with stoichiometrically charged engines. However, as the air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio of the mixture is made leaner than stoichiometric, cycle-by-cycle variations in the early stages of in-cylinder combustion, and subsequent indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), become more pronounced and limit the range of lean-burn operation. Viable lean-burn engines promote charge stratification, the mixture near the spark plug being richer than the cylinder volume averaged value. Recent work has shown that cycle-by-cycle variations in the early stages of combustion in a stratified-charge engine can be associated with variations in both the local value of A/F ratio near the spark plug around ignition timing, as well as in the volume averaged value of the A/F ratio. The objective of the current work was to identify possible sources of such variability in A/F ratio by studying the in-cylinder field of fuel-droplet distribution during the early intake stroke. This field was visualised in an optical single-cylinder 4-valve pentroof-type spark-ignition engine by means of laser-sheet illumination in planes parallel to the cylinder head gasket 6 and 10 mm below the spark plug. The engine was run with port-injected isooctane at 1500 rpm with 30% volumetric efficiency and air-to-fuel ratio corresponding to both stoichiometric firing (A/F=15, Φ =1.0) and mixture strength close to the lean limit of stable operation (A/F=22, Φ =0.68). Images of Mie intensity scattered by the cloud of fuel droplets were acquired on a cycle-by-cycle basis. These were studied in order to establish possible correlations between the cyclic variations in size, location and scattered-light intensity of the cloud of droplets with the respective variations in IMEP. Because of the low level of Mie intensity scattered by the droplets and because of problems related to elastic scattering on the walls of the combustion

  14. Oral intake of phenylbutyrate with or without vitamin D3 upregulates the cathelicidin LL-37 in human macrophages: a dose finding study for treatment of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We earlier showed that 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) can induce cathelicidin LL-37 expression synergistically with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in a lung epithelial cell line. We aimed to evaluate a therapeutic dose of PB alone or in combination with vitamin D3 for induction of LL-37 expression in immune cells and enhancement of antimycobacterial activity in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Methods Healthy volunteers were enrolled in an 8-days open trial with three doses of PB [250 mg (Group-I), 500 mg (Group-II) or 1000 mg (Group-III)] twice daily (b.d.) together with vitamin D3 {5000 IU once daily (o.d.)}, PB (500 mg b.d.) (Group-IV) or vitamin D3 (5000 IU o.d.) (Group-V), given orally for 4 days. Blood was collected on day-0, day-4 and day-8; plasma was separated, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), non-adherent lymphocytes (NAL) and MDM were cultured. LL-37 transcript in cells and peptide concentrations in supernatant were determined by qPCR and ELISA, respectively. In plasma, 25-hydorxyvitamin D3 levels were determined by ELISA. MDM-mediated killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) (H37Rv) was performed by conventional culture method. Results MDM from Group-II had increased concentration of LL-37 peptide and transcript at day-4, while Group-I showed increased transcript at day-4 and day-8 compared to day-0 (p < 0.05). Both Group-I and -II exhibited higher levels of transcript on day-4 compared to Group-III and Group-V (p < 0.035). Increased induction of peptide was observed in lymphocytes from Group-II on day-4 compared to Group-I and Group-IV (p < 0.05), while Group-IV showed increased levels on day-8 compared to Group-I and Group-III (p < 0.04). Intracellular killing of Mtb on day-4 was significantly increased compared to day-0 in Group-I, -II and -V (p < 0.05). Conclusion The results demonstrate that 500 mg b.d. PB with 5000 IU o.d. vitamin D3 is the optimal dose for the induction of LL-37 in macrophages and

  15. Characteristics of Oral Problems and Effects of Oral Care in Terminally Ill Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-01

    Various distresses appear in the terminal stage of cancer. Oral problems including dry mouth, stomatitis and candidiasis are one of the important problems which should be resolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate oral problems in this stage and improvement of dry mouth by oral care. The study subjects were consecutive terminally ill cancer patients admitted over the past 2 years. Patients were divided based on the status of oral food intake into good oral food intake group (≥30%) and poor oral food intake group. The following 3 items were retrospectively investigated: 1) The incidences of these oral problems, 2) Severity of dry mouth and complication with other oral problems, 3) Improvement of dry mouth using standard oral care by nursing staff and specialist oral care including dentists as needed. There were 115 and 158 patients in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively. 1) The incidences of dry mouth, stomatitis, and candidiasis were significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p < 0.001). 2) Severe cases of dry mouth (Grade-2&3) were noted in 20.0% and 64.8% in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively ( p < 0.0001). Candidiasis complication rate was significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p = 0.0002). 3) The rate of dry mouth improvement by oral care was 100% in Grade-1, 86% in Grade-2 and 81% in Grade-3. Oral problems occur in many of terminally ill cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of oral problems and corresponding appropriate interventions are important for improving quality of end-of-life care.

  16. Oral rehabilitation of a 4-year-old child with early childhood caries under general anaesthesia: a case report on long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Cuadros Fernández, C; Armengol Olivares, A; Guinot Jimeno, F; Lorente Rodríguez, A I

    2014-07-01

    Young patients with early childhood caries (ECC) commonly undergo oral rehabilitation under general anaesthesia (GA), often because of problems with behaviour management. Children with a history of ECC are highly susceptible to the development of new caries, even after comprehensive oral rehabilitation. The present paper reports the case of a female patient, aged 4.1 years, with ECC who was referred for treatment to the Department of Paediatric Dentistry of the Universitat Internacional de Catalunya. On account of the requirement for extensive dental treatment, and because of behaviour management problems, her dentition was restored under GA. A combination of restorative approaches and techniques was used, including the placement of composite resins, preformed metal crown restorations, extractions, and space maintainers. The patient was followed for 24 months, both clinically and radiographically. Conclusion This case reflects the need to provide adequate support to children at high risk for ECC, together with their families by developing more acceptable and effective biological and behavioural interventions in order to reduce caries relapse after oral rehabilitation under GA.

  17. A porin-like protein from oral secretions of Spodoptera littoralis larvae induces defense-related early events in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huijuan; Wielsch, Natalie; Hafke, Jens B; Svatoš, Aleš; Mithöfer, Axel; Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-09-01

    Insect herbivory on plants is a complex incident consisting of at least two different aspects, namely mechanical damage and chemical challenge, as feeding insects introduce oral secretions (OS) into the wounded tissue of the attacked plant. Mechanical wounding alone is sufficient to induce a set of defense-related reactions in host plants, but some early events such as membrane potential (Vm) changes and cytosolic Ca²⁺-elevations can be triggered only by herbivores suggesting that OS-derived molecules are involved in those processes. Following an assay-guided purification based on planar lipid bilayer membrane technique in combination with proteomic analysis, a porin-like protein (PLP) of most likely bacterial origin was determined from collected OS of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. PLP exhibited channel-forming activity. Further, early defense-related events in plant-insect interaction were evaluated by using a purified fraction and α-hemolysin (α-HL) as a commercial pore-forming compound. Both up-regulated the calmodulin-like CML42 in Arabidopsis thaliana, which only responds to oral secretion and not to wounding. An elevation of in vivo [Ca²⁺](cyt) was not observed. Because membrane channel formation is a widespread phenomenon in plant-insect interactions, this PLP might represent an example for microbial compounds from the insect gut which are initially involved in plant-insect interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CP7_E2alf oral vaccination confers partial protection against early classical swine fever virus challenge and interferes with pathogeny-related cytokine responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The conventional C-strain vaccine induces early protection against classical swine fever (CSF), but infected animals cannot be distinguished from vaccinated animals. The CP7_E2alf marker vaccine, a pestivirus chimera, could be a suitable substitute for C-strain vaccine to control CSF outbreaks. In this study, single oral applications of CP7_E2alf and C-strain vaccines were compared for their efficacy to induce protection against a CSF virus (CSFV) challenge with the moderately virulent Bas-Rhin isolate, in pigs as early as two days post-immunization. This work emphasizes the powerful potential of CP7_E2alf vaccine administered orally by a rapid onset of partial protection similar to that induced by the C-strain vaccine. Furthermore, our results revealed that both vaccinations attenuated the effects induced by CSFV on production of the pig major acute phase protein (PigMAP), IFN-α, IL-12, IL-10, and TGF-β1 cytokines. By this interference, several cytokines that may play a role in the pathogeny induced by moderately virulent CSFV strains were revealed. New hypotheses concerning the role of each of these cytokines in CSFV pathogeny are discussed. Our results also show that oral vaccination with either vaccine (CP7_E2alf or C-strain) enhanced CSFV–specific IgG2 production, compared to infection alone. Interestingly, despite the similar antibody profiles displayed by both vaccines post-challenge, the production of CSFV-specific IgG1 and neutralizing antibodies without challenge was lower with CP7_E2alf vaccination than with C-strain vaccination, suggesting a slight difference in the balance of adaptive immune responses between these vaccines. PMID:23398967

  19. Early effects of Lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablets on intragastric pH in CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Hatsushi; Koike, Tomoyuki; Ohara, Shuichi; Horii, Toru; Kikuchi, Ryousuke; Kobayashi, Shigeyuki; Abe, Yasuhiko; Iijima, Katsunori; Imatani, Akira; Suzuki, Kaori; Hishinuma, Takanori; Goto, Junichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare rabeprazole (RPZ; 10 mg) with Lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablets (LPZ; 30 mg OD) in terms of antisecretory activity and blood drug concentration after a single dose. METHODS: Eight H pylori-negative cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 extensive metabolizers were assigned to receive a single oral dose of RPZ 10 mg or LPZ 30 mg OD. Twelve hour intragastric pH monitoring was performed on the day of treatment. Blood samples were also collected after the administration of each drug. RESULTS: LPZ 30 mg OD induced a significantly earlier rise in blood drug concentration than RPZ 10 mg; consequently, LPZ 30 mg OD induced a significantly earlier rise in median pH in the third and fourth hours of the study. CONCLUSION: In H pylori-negative CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers, LPZ 30 mg OD induced a significantly faster inhibition of gastric acid secretion than RPZ 10 mg. PMID:18395905

  20. Rope-based oral fluid sampling for early detection of classical swine fever in domestic pigs at group level.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Klaas; Tucakov, Anna; Engel, Tatjana; Wirtz, Sabine; Depner, Klaus; Globig, Anja; Kammerer, Robert; Mouchantat, Susan

    2017-01-05

    Non-invasive sampling techniques based on the analysis of oral fluid specimen have gained substantial importance in the field of swine herd management. Methodological advances have a focus on endemic viral diseases in commercial pig production. More recently, these approaches have been adapted to non-invasive sampling of wild boar for transboundary animal disease detection for which these effective population level sampling methods have not been available. In this study, a rope-in-a-bait based oral fluid sampling technique was tested to detect classical swine fever virus nucleic acid shedding from experimentally infected domestic pigs. Separated in two groups treated identically, the course of the infection was slightly differing in terms of onset of the clinical signs and levels of viral ribonucleic acid detection in the blood and oral fluid. The technique was capable of detecting classical swine fever virus nucleic acid as of day 7 post infection coinciding with the first detection in conventional oropharyngeal swab samples from some individual animals. Except for day 7 post infection in the "slower onset group", the chances of classical swine fever virus nucleic acid detection in ropes were identical or higher as compared to the individual sampling. With the provided evidence, non-invasive oral fluid sampling at group level can be considered as additional cost-effective detection tool in classical swine fever prevention and control strategies. The proposed methodology is of particular use in production systems with reduced access to veterinary services such as backyard or scavenging pig production where it can be integrated in feeding or baiting practices.

  1. Oral Effects and Early Implant Survival Results After Imatinib Discontinuation Therapy for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Douglas R; Yassin, Alaa

    2017-08-01

    Little is known regarding the success, failure, or complication rates of advanced implant procedures in patients after discontinuation therapy of long-term medications for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). This case report presents initial results of a case involving implant placement in the mandible and maxilla as well as reduction of palatal oral pigmentation in a patient discontinuing long-term tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for CML. A 57-year-old male was referred to the Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, for an assessment of edentulous areas (tooth sites #3 and #14) and failing tooth #19. Previous medical treatment included oral administration (>10 years) of TKI for the treatment of CML. Systemic complications arising from long-term TKI therapy were treated with discontinuation of this medication. Concurrently, after multispecialty dental and medical consultation, extraction of tooth #19 with immediate implant placement and bilateral sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement were successfully performed during three separate surgical appointments. Additionally, marked reduction of oral palatal pigmentation was observed during the surgical and restorative phases after TKI discontinuation. Patients with a history of long-term TKIs for CML are at risk for developing complications that result in discontinuation of therapy. Long-term benefits of therapy may allow these patients to enjoy remission with an extended and improved quality of life. Patients undergoing discontinuation therapy may seek dental care. Therefore, dental providers need to understand these systemic interactions and, with multispecialty consultation, may help effectively treat these individuals.

  2. Expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha in early-stage and in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maisa; Teixeira, Sarah R; Azevedo, Monarko N; Fraga, Ailton C; Gontijo, Antônio Pm; Vêncio, Eneida F

    2017-04-01

    To investigate hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression in distinct oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies and correlate with clinicopathological data. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 93 cases of OSCC. Clinical and histopathological data were reviewed from medical records. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha status was distinct according to tumor location, subtype and topography affect. In superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas, most tumor cells overexpressed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha, whereas hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha was restricted to the intratumoral region in conventional squamous cell carcinomas. All basaloid squamous cell carcinomas exhibited downregulation of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha. Interestingly, metastatic lymph nodes (91.7%, p = 0.001) and the intratumoral regions of corresponding primary tumors (58.3%, p = 0.142) showed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha-positive tumor cells. Overall survival was poor in patients with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha has distinct expression patterns in different oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies, suggesting that low oxygen tension promotes the growth pattern of superficial and conventional squamous cell carcinoma, but not basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, a hypoxic environment may facilitate regional metastasis, making it a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in primary tumors.

  3. Early pregnancy termination with intravaginally administered sodium chloride solution-moistened misoprostol tablets: historical comparison with mifepristone and oral misoprostol.

    PubMed

    Jain, J K; Meckstroth, K R; Mishell, D R

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the abortifacient effect of intravaginally administered moistened misoprostol tablets with that of the combination regimen of mifepristone and oral misoprostol. One hundred women at orally as part of a large multicenter American trial (group 2). Subjects were monitored for abortion success, adverse side effects, and bleeding characteristics. Abortion failure was defined as persistence of an intrauterine sac or the need to perform a surgical evacuation of the uterus for hemorrhage, for incomplete abortion, or at the subject's request. In 88 of the 100 women in group 1 and 94 of the 100 women in group 2, abortion occurred and a surgical procedure was not required. Abortion rates were not influenced by gestational age in either group. Prostaglandin-related side effects of fever and chills, vomiting, diarrhea, and uterine pain were all significantly higher in group 1. Excessive uterine bleeding was uncommon in both groups, and no subjects received blood transfusions. The abortion rate with intravaginally administered moistened misoprostol tablets is similar to that with the combination of mifepristone and oral misoprostol. However, intravaginal administration of misoprostol is associated with significantly more prostaglandin-related side effects.

  4. Artificial sweeteners and mixture of food additives cause to break oral tolerance and induce food allergy in murine oral tolerance model for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, H; Matsuhara, H; Miotani, S; Sako, Y; Matsui, T; Tanaka, H; Inagaki, N

    2017-09-01

    Processed foods are part of daily life. Almost all processed foods contain food additives such as sweeteners, preservatives and colourants. From childhood, it is difficult to avoid consuming food additives. It is thought that oral tolerance for food antigens is acquired during early life. If tolerance fails, adverse immune responses to food proteins may occur. We hypothesized that food additives prevent acquisition of oral tolerance and aimed to verify the safety of food additives. We induced experimental oral tolerance in mice for ovalbumin (OVA), a food antigen, by previous oral treatment with OVA before sensitization with OVA injections. Food additives were administered at the induction of oral tolerance, and food allergy was induced by repeated administration of OVA. Symptoms of food allergy were defined as a change in body temperature and allergic diarrhoea. Saccharin sodium and a mixture of food additives inhibited acquisition of oral tolerance. Hypothermia and allergic diarrhoea with elevation of OVA-specific IgE were induced in the murine model of oral tolerance. Analyses of antigen-presenting cells in mesenteric lymph nodes showed that food additives affected their manner of migration. Additionally, food additives decreased the proportion of CD25 hi regulatory T cells among CD4 + T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. A large amount of food additives may prevent acquisition of oral tolerance. Intake of food additives in early life may increase the risk of food allergies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early biomarker response and patient preferences to oral and intramuscular vitamin B12 substitution in primary care: a randomised parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Corina; Mathis, Deborah; Jeger, Cyrill; Hersberger, Kurt Eduard; Arnet, Isabelle; Walter, Philipp

    2017-04-19

    Vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency can be treated with oral high-dose substitution or intramuscular (i.m.) injection of VB12. Whenever alternative routes of administration exist, patient preferences should be considered when choosing the treatment. We aimed to assess outpatient preferences towards oral or IM VB12 substitution and confirm noninferiority of early biomarker response with oral treatment, in a typical primary care population. Prospective randomised nonblinded parallel-group trial. Patients were recruited by their general practitioner and randomly assigned to oral or IM treatment. Group O-oral was given 28 tablets of 1000 µg cyanocobalamin in a monthly punch card fitted with an electronic monitoring system. Group I-IM received four, weekly injections of 1000 µg hydroxocobalamin. Blood samples were drawn before the first administration and after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, and analysed for VB12, holotranscobalamin (HoloTc), homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). For group O-oral, treatment adher-ence and percentage of days with 2 dosing events were calcu-lated. Before and after 28 days of treatment, patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire about their preference for the therapy options and associated factors. Between November 2013 and December 2015, 37 patients (age: 49.5 ± 18.5 years; women: 60.5%) were recruited for oral (19) or IM (18) treatment. Baseline values with 95% confidence intervals for serum VB12, HoloTc, Hcy and MMA were 158 pmol/l [145-172], 49.0 pmol/l [40.4-57.5], 14.8 µmol/l [12.0-17.7] and 304 nmol/l [219-390], respective-ly, in group O-oral and 164 pmol/l [154-174], 50.1 pmol/l [38.7-61.6], 13.0 µmol/l [11.0-15.1] and 321 nmol/l [215-427], respectively, in group I-IM (not significant). After 1 month of treatment, levels of VB12 and HoloTc showed a significant increase compared with baseline (group O-oral: VB12 354 pmol/l [298-410] and HoloTc 156 pmol/l [116-196]; group I-IM: VB12 2796 pmol/l [1277-4314] and

  6. Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (single dose) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Francesca; Smith, Valerie; Cleary, Brian J

    2016-07-14

    Many women experience perineal pain after childbirth, especially after having sustained perineal trauma. Perineal pain-management strategies are thus an important part of postnatal care. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a commonly used type of medication in the management of postpartum pain and their effectiveness and safety should be assessed. To determine the effectiveness of a single dose of an oral NSAID for relief of acute perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2016), OpenSIGLE, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, the ISRCTN Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov (31 March 2016). We also reviewed reference lists of retrieved papers and contacted experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a single dose of a NSAID versus a single dose of placebo, paracetamol or another NSAID for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over trials were excluded. Two review authors (FW and VS) independently assessed all identified papers for inclusion and risk of bias. Any discrepancies were resolved through discussion and consensus. Data extraction, including calculations of pain relief scores, was also conducted independently by two review authors and checked for accuracy. We included 28 studies that examined 13 different NSAIDs and involved 4181 women (none of whom were breastfeeding). Studies were published between 1967 and 2013, with the majority published in the 1980s. Of the 4181 women involved in the studies, 2642 received a NSAID and 1539 received placebo or paracetamol. Risk of bias was generally unclear due to poor reporting, but in most studies the participants and personnel were blinded, outcome data were complete and the outcomes that were specified in the methods section were reported.None of the included studies reported on any of this review's secondary outcomes: prolonged hospitalisation or re

  7. Effect of weight and adiposity at conception and wide variations in gestational dietary intake on pregnancy outcome and early postnatal performance in young adolescent sheep.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Aitken, Raymond P

    2010-02-01

    Nutritional backgrounds prior to pregnancy may interact with subsequent gestational intake to influence pregnancy outcome, particularly in young, growing adolescents. To investigate this interaction, singleton pregnancies were established in two groups of adolescent sheep of identical age but different initial weight and adiposity score, classified as good (G) and poor (P) body mass index (BMI). Thereafter, ewes were offered either an optimal control (C) intake to maintain adiposity throughout pregnancy, undernourished (UN) to maintain weight at conception but deplete maternal body reserves, or overnourished (ON) to promote rapid maternal growth and adiposity, resulting in a 2 x 3 factorial design. Gestation length was independent of BMI and reduced in ON dams. Average placental and lamb birth weights were influenced by initial BMI (G > P) and gestational intake (C > UN > ON), with the highest incidence of growth restriction in ON groups. Metabolic challenges at two thirds of gestation revealed enhanced insulin insensitivity in ON dams (higher glucose postinsulin challenge and higher insulin postglucose challenge), but nevertheless fetal growth was constrained. Initial colostrum yield, total IgG, and nutrient supply were reduced in ON groups, but these low-birth-weight lambs exhibited rapid catch-up growth to weaning. Thus, both maternal BMI at conception and gestational intake have a profound influence on pregnancy outcome in young, putatively growing adolescent sheep and may have implications for the nutritional management of pregnant adolescent humans.

  8. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-yun

    2016-01-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery. PMID:27812517

  9. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jimin; Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-Yun; Lee, Song Mi; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-10-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery.

  10. Diagnosis of Cognitive Impairment Compatible with Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease. A Bayesian Network Model based on the Analysis of Oral Definitions of Semantic Categories.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, J M; Martínez-Tomás, R; Rincón, M; Peraita, H

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become one of the principal focuses of research in medicine, particularly when the disease is incipient or even prodromic, because treatments are more effective in these stages. Lexical-semantic-conceptual deficit (LSCD) in the oral definitions of semantic categories for basic objects is an important early indicator in the evaluation of the cognitive state of patients. The objective of this research is to define an economic procedure for cognitive impairment (CI) diagnosis, which may be associated with early stages of AD, by analysing cognitive alterations affecting declarative semantic memory. Because of its low cost, it could be used for routine clinical evaluations or screenings, leading to more expensive and selective tests that confirm or rule out the disease accurately. It should necessarily be an explanatory procedure, which would allow us to study the evolution of the disease in relation to CI, the irregularities in different semantic categories, and other neurodegenerative diseases. On the basis of these requirements, we hypothesise that Bayesian networks (BNs) are the most appropriate tool for this purpose. We have developed a BN for CI diagnosis in mild and moderate AD patients by analysing the oral production of semantic features. The BN causal model represents LSCD in certain semantic categories, both of living things (dog, pine, and apple) and non-living things (chair, car, and trousers), as symptoms of CI. The model structure, the qualitative part of the model, uses domain knowledge obtained from psychology experts and epidemiological studies. Further, the model parameters, the quantitative part of the model, are learnt automatically from epidemiological studies and Peraita and Grasso's linguistic corpus of oral definitions. This corpus was prepared with an incidental sampling and included the analysis of the oral linguistic production of 81 participants (42 cognitively healthy elderly people and 39

  11. Early gene-diet interaction between glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) polymorphism, vegetable and fish intakes in modulating triglyceride levels in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tam, C H T; Wang, Y; Lee, H M; Luk, A O Y; Tong, P C Y; Chan, M H M; Ozaki, R; Kong, A P S; So, W Y; Chan, J C N; Ma, R C W

    2015-10-01

    The benefits of dietary vegetable and fish consumptions on improving glucose and lipid metabolism have been well established. Recently, the T-allele of a common genetic variant rs780094 at glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) was reported to be associated with elevated triglyceride (TG) levels but reduced fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and type 2 diabetes risk. However, the dietary modulation on genetic risk is not clearly understood. A cohort of 2095 Chinese adolescents (mean age 15.6 ± 2.0 years, 45.3% male) recruited from a population-based school survey for cardiovascular risk factor assessment, with dietary data including weekly vegetable and fish consumptions as well as clinical data were genotyped for the GCKR rs780094 polymorphism. In the linear regression analysis with adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, and socioeconomic status (school banding, paternal and maternal education levels), the frequency of vegetable intake per week was inversely associated with FPG (P = 0.044). Individuals with low fish intake generally had elevated TG levels but reduced TC, HDL-C and LDL-C (0.006 < P < 0.029). We also observed significant associations of the minor T-allele of GCKR rs780094 with decreased FPG (P = 0.013) and increased TG levels (P = 2.7 × 10(-8)). There were significant gene-diet interactions between rs780094 and vegetable consumption (P(interaction) = 0.009), and between rs780094 and fish consumption (P(interaction) = 0.031) in modulating TG levels. The T-allele of GCKR locus was associated with higher TG levels amongst individuals with ≥7 vegetable meals per week (P = 6.4 × 10(-9)), and among individuals with <7 fish meals per week (P = 0.020 and 7.0 × 10(-7) for 4-6 and ≤3 meals per week, respectively). High intake of vegetable exerted a reduction in TG levels only among CC genotype carriers (Ptrend = 0.020), while high intake of fish was associated with reduced TG levels only among TT genotype carriers (Ptrend = 0.026). In summary, our data

  12. Communication outcomes for groups of children using cochlear implants enrolled in auditory-verbal, aural-oral, and bilingual-bicultural early intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Dettman, Shani; Wall, Elizabeth; Constantinescu, Gabriella; Dowell, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The relative impact of early intervention approach on speech perception and language skills was examined in these 3 well-matched groups of children using cochlear implants. Eight children from an auditory verbal intervention program were identified. From a pediatric database, researchers blind to the outcome data, identified 23 children from auditory oral programs and 8 children from bilingual-bicultural programs with the same inclusion criteria and equivalent demographic factors. All child participants were male, had congenital profound hearing loss (pure tone average >80 dBHL), no additional disabilities, were within the normal IQ range, were monolingual English speakers, had no unusual findings on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, and received hearing aids and cochlear implants at a similar age and before 4 years of age. Open-set speech perception (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC] words and Bamford-Kowal-Bench [BKB] sentences) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) were administered. The mean age at cochlear implant was 1.7 years (range, 0.8-3.9; SD, 0.7), mean test age was 5.4 years (range, 2.5-10.1; SD, 1.7), and mean device experience was 3.7 years (range, 0.7-7.9; SD, 1.8). Results indicate mean CNC scores of 60%, 43%, and 24% and BKB scores of 77%, 77%, and 56% for the auditory-verbal (AV), aural-oral (AO), and bilingual-bicultural (BB) groups, respectively. The mean PPVT delay was 13, 19, and 26 months for AV, AO, and BB groups, respectively. Despite equivalent child demographic characteristics at the outset of this study, by 3 years postimplant, there were significant differences in AV, AO, and BB groups. Results support consistent emphasis on oral/aural input to achieve optimum spoken communication outcomes for children using cochlear implants.

  13. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Orally Administered Botanical Composition, UP446-Part III: Effects on Fertility and Early Embryonic Development to Implantation in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jia, Qi

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, high prevalence of adverse effects associated to the use of traditional medicines during pregnancy is becoming alarming due to the self-medication of oral supplements by expecting mothers without supervision. Many expectant mothers use alternative and complementary medicines as a supplement to conventional pregnancy management with an inherent belief of considering herbal remedies as harmless. To the contrary, herbal remedies could incur a potential teratogenic risk both to the child bearing mother and the developing fetuses when consumed before or at the time of gestation. Here, we describe the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, on fertility and early embryonic development to implantation in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg. Besides body weight and food consumption, reproductive functions, sperm motility and morphology, estrus cycle, and fertility rate were monitored. There were no statistically significant differences in reproductive function in all UP446 treated groups in both genders. Test substance impacts on reproductive parameters were very minimal. Neither sperm motility nor morphology was affected as a result of oral UP446 administrations in males. There were no treatment-related effects on estrus cycle stages in females. No significant changes in necropsy or histopathology were observed for all the groups. Therefore, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 1000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, in both genders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of oral health care in prevention of early childhood caries among parents of children in Belagavi city: A Questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Suma Sogi, H P; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of "oral health care" in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of "good" practices and "bad" practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.

  15. The role of lymphoscintigraphy, sentinel mode biopsy and positron emission tomography in the staging of the neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Nicholas Charles

    This thesis explores the limitations of current imaging modalities in the evaluation of the clinically node negative (N0) neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma and evaluates the utility of two new interventions. It will become evident that the use of clinical parameters and conventional imaging to detect clinically occult cervical lymph node metastases is an imprecise science. The presence of metastases in the neck is the single most important determinant of survival. Hitherto the lack of timely intervention in this regard may have been contributory in amplifying their effect upon survival. There is an obvious requirem