Despite the recent recommendation by the American Association of Orthodontists and Dentofacial Orthopedics that orthodontists begin screening patients by age 7, it is the author's experience that the majority of orthodontists do not treat children prior to the eruption of permanent teeth and do not use functional appliances. This leads many general dentists to provide orthodontic services to their younger patients because local orthodontists do not or will not treat them. This article seeks to encourage all general dentists, pediatric dentists, and orthodontists to learn how to use functional appliances to significantly improve the health and appearance of younger patients.
Dugoni, Steven A; Aubert, Maryse M
The age at which children should start orthodontic treatment has been debated amongst orthodontists for many decades. Orthodontists can agree on what is a quality orthodontic result, but disagree as to how and when to best obtain this result Some orthodontists contend that starting treatment in the primary dentition is the most effective means of orthodontic care. Other orthodontists would prefer to begin in the early or late mixed dentition. Still others would rather postpone treatment until the permanent dentition at approximately age 12. This article will evaluate the pros and cons of initiating treatment at different ages.
Tzemach, M; Aizenbud, D; Einy, S
The optimal timing for commencement of orthodontic treatment has been controversial. Initial early orthodontic treatment usually begins at the deciduous dentition or early mixed dentition stage and continues for 12-18 months. In most cases, a second treatment phase will be required in the permanent dentition stage to achieve the treatment goals and a stable occlusion. One of the main purposes of the early treatment phase is to affect the growth pattern of the jaw and consequently correct skeletal imbalance and prevent future severe malocclusion by means of growth modification. Some clinicians strongly believe that early intervention with functional appliances improves facial harmony and simplifies as well as shortens the second orthodontic treatment phase. In contrast others advocate that it is unnecessary as the early treatment results will be eliminated by future growth and a recurrent treatment phase is essential in the permanent dentition stage in any case. Thus it is merely a waste of time and resources, and all treatment goals could be reached by a comprehensive single continued treatment phase in the late mixed dentition stage. This article summarizes the scientific literature on the different concepts of early functional orthodontic treatment of Skeletal Class II malocclusion correction vs. a single comprehensive orthodontic treatment process in the late mixed dentition stage. The indications and benefits of each of the approaches are discussed in detail. In conclusion, most of the researchers recommend early orthodontic intervention in children suffering psychological and social problems associated with their malocclusion. Prevention of traumatic injury in cases of maxillary incisor protrusive inclination is also considered an indication for early orthodontic treatment.
daCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Aikins, Elfleda Angelina; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Adediran, Virginia Efunyemi
Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of dental features that indicate a need for early intervention and to ascertain the prevalence of different methods of early treatment among a population of Nigerian children in mixed dentition. Methods: Occlusal relationships were evaluated in 101 children in mixed dentition between the ages of 6 and 12 years who presented at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 2 years period. The need for different modes of early orthodontic treatment was also recorded. Results: Anterior tooth rotations (61.4%) and increased overjet (44.6%) were the most prevalent occlusal anomalies. Others included deep bite (31.7%), reverse overjet (13.9%), and anterior open bite (14.8%). Severe maxillary spacing and crowding were exhibited in 12.0% and 5.0%, respectively. About a third (35.7%) of the subjects presented with crossbite while lip incompetence was observed in 43.6% of the subjects. About 44% of the subjects also presented with various oral habits with digit (15.8%) and lip sucking (9.9%) being the most prevalent. Subjects were recommended for treatment with 2 by 4 fixed orthodontic appliances (22.3%), habit breakers (20.7%), removable orthodontic appliances (16.5%), and extractions (15.7%). Conclusions: Increased overjet and anterior tooth rotation were the majority of occlusal anomalies seen, which are not only esthetically displeasing but may also cause an increased susceptibility to trauma to these teeth. Treatment options varied from extractions only to the use of appliance therapy. PMID:27556019
Kuitert, R B
The number of adults undergoing orthodontic treatment has increased strongly and the average age that adult patients undergo orthodontic treatment increased steadily although 3/4 is still younger than 27 years. In adults the facial skeletal pattern can only be changed in a very confined way, consequently in case of an abnormal skeletal pattern one has to choose between a combined orthodontic-surgical approach (which is the case in 18% of the patients) and a compromised orthodontic treatment, if necessary combined with other disciplines. It is still controversial whether tooth movement in adults is slower and more difficult than in adolescents. The same holds true for the risk for loss of periodontal support, for root resorption, for gnathologic problems and for relapse. As related to these variables there appears to be a large individual variation. Many adults show one or more problems in their dentition that may influence their orthodontic treatment. About 60% of the adult patients need a multidisciplinary approach. The development of implantology and of bone regeneration and bone grafting has lead to more combined treatments. The risks of such complex treatment plans are generally larger than those for more simple kinds of treatment. A very careful treatment planning and good communication between the different specialists is essential. Moreover the treatment plan with all its (dis)advantages has to be extensively discussed with the patient.
Krausz, E; Einy, S; Aizenbud, D; Levin, L
Orthodontic treatment poses a significant challenge in patients suffering from periodontal disease. Providing orthodontic treatment to periodontal patients should be carefully planned and performed in a tight collaboration between the orthodontist and periodontist. Resolution and stabilization of the periodontal condition is a pre-requisite for orthodontic treatment initiation. Careful oral hygiene performance and highly frequent recall periodontal visits are also crucial. Pre- or post- orthodontic periodontal surgery might help providing better treatment outcomes.
Woon, See Choong; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri
Class III malocclusion affects between 5% and 15% of our population. The 2 most common dilemmas surrounding Class III treatment are the timing of treatment and the type of appliance. A number of appliances have been used to correct a Class III skeletal discrepancy, but there is little evidence available on their effectiveness in the long term. Similarly, early treatment of Class III malocclusion has been practiced with increasing interest. However, there has been no solid evidence on the benefits in the long term. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of orthodontic/orthopedic methods used in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion in the short and long terms. Several sources were used to identify all relevant studies independently of language. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase (Ovid), and MEDLINE (Ovid) were searched to June 2016. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of children between the ages of 7 and 12 years on early treatment with any type of orthodontic/orthopedic appliance compared with another appliance to correct Class III malocclusion or with an untreated control group. The primary outcome measure was correction of reverse overjet, and the secondary outcomes included skeletal changes, soft tissue changes, quality of life, patient compliance, adverse effect, Peer Assessment Rating score, and treatment time. The search results were screened for inclusion, and the data extracted by 2 independent authors. The data were analyzed using software (version 5.1, Review Manager; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration; Copenhagen, Denmark). The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were expressed for the continuous data. Random effects were carried out with high levels of clinical or statistical heterogeneity and fixed affects when the heterogeneity was low
Even the general dental practitioners consider the orthodontic therapeutical interventions carried out with removable appliances as a harmful procedure. It is much less known how the lack of adequate orthodontic treatment endangers the peridontium. Clinical data show a cause related correlation between the maxillary incisor protrusion, mandibular frontal jammed dentition, deep vertical overbite, openbite, crossbite early deciduous tooth extractions and the periodontal pathological happenings. So it is very important to start an early orthodontic treatment to avoid the periodontal consequences of malocclusion before it has become irreversible.
Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga
Most supernumerary teeth are impacted and asymptomatic. Objective. The aim of this paper is to describe two cases of sequential development of supernumerary teeth in the mandibular premolar region, identified during orthodontic treatment. Reports. The first case describes the radiographic follow-up of a female patient that presented a supernumerary tooth at the age of 9 years and 10 months in the right mandibular premolar region, followed by a further supernumerary tooth in the left mandibular premolar region identified at the age of 11 years and 3 months. In the second case, the radiographic follow-up of a male patient demonstrated 3 supernumerary teeth in the premolar region at the age of 16 years. During orthognathic surgery planning at the age of 20 years and 5 months, a supplemental supernumerary tooth was found in the left mandibular region. Conclusion. Considering the late developing of supernumerary premolars, appropriate follow-up with panoramic radiographs of patients with previous experience of supernumerary teeth is essential for early diagnosis of supplemental premolars to prevent possible complications. PMID:27313911
Anterior crossbite with functional shift also called pseudo Class III is a malocclusion in which the incisal edges of one or more maxillary incisors occlude with the incisal edges of the mandibular incisors in centric relationship: the mandible and mandibular incisors are then guided anteriorly in central occlusion resulting in an anterior crossbite. Early correction, at the mixed dentition stage, is recommended, in order to avoid a compromising dentofacial condition which could result in the development of a true Class III malocclusion and temporomandibular symptoms. Various treatment options are available. The method of choice for orthodontic correction of this condition should not only be clinically effective, with long-term stability, but also cost-effective and have high patient acceptance, i.e. minimal perceived pain and discomfort. At the mixed dentition stage, the condition may be treated by fixed (FA) or removable appliance (RA). To date there is insufficient evidence to determine the preferred method. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to compare and evaluate the use of FA and RA for correcting anterior crossbite with functional shift in the mixed dentition, with special reference to clinical effectiveness, stability, cost-effectiveness and patient perceptions. Evidence-based, randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology was used, in order to generate a high level of evidence. The thesis is based on the following studies: The material comprised 64 patients, consecutively recruited from the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden and from one Public Dental Health Service Clinic in Malmö, Skane County Council, Sweden. The patients were no syndrome and no cleft patients. The following inclusion criteria were applied: early to late mixed dentition, anterior crossbite affecting one or more incisors with functional shift, moderate space deficiency in the maxilla, no inherent skeletal Class III discrepancy, ANB
OSAHS or snoring is an important condition within our community with the potential of being a significant health burden. Although the precise pathogenesis of upper airway obstruction during sleep remains uncertain in OSAHS and snoring patients, craniofacial risk factors are said to be associated with OSAHS and snoring. Since a high number of OSAHS and snoring patients consist of skeletal Class II malocclusion patients characterized by deficient mandible, then we can make the hypotheses that early orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion patients to improve such discrepancies during the growth period may be effective to prevent the potential for OSAHS and snoring.
Javaheri, Homan H
The side effects of orthodontic mechanics at each tissue level (alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, gingiva, pulp, cementum, and enamel) are addressed, along with the issue of pain following orthodontic appointments, and psychobehavioral alterations observed in orthodontic patients. It is necessary to know how orthodontic treatment affects enamel health, including methods to manage these side effects, which are still a dilemma for orthodontic clinicians. It is interesting to note that the dental pulp, which lies deep in the tooth core, also reacts to orthodontic force. The way the periodontal ligament responds to light and heavy forces, in young and adult patients, with or without periodontal disease, should be considered. Root resorption is a well-recognized phenomenon following orthodontic treatment. Advances made in this area of research to identify the parameters and genes associated with this process are developing.
Lawson, Robert B
Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.
Robinson, S N
Many children are learning to play musical instruments at the same time as they are undergoing orthodontic treatment. If a patient or parent enquires about how orthodontic treatment might affect their child's playing, what advice could you give them?
Hassan, Ali H.; Al-Saeed, Samar H.; Al-Maghlouth, Basma A.; Bahammam, Maha A.; Linjawi, Amal I.; El-Bialy, Tarek H.
Objectives: To systematically review the literature to assess the quality of evidence related to corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment (CAOT) as adjunctive treatment in orthodontics. Methods: The study was conducted in the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2013 and 2014. Various electronic databases were searched and abstracts were retrieved. Defined inclusion criteria were then applied to the obtained original articles for further evaluation by 2 examiners independently. The criteria of selection included human, or animal studies, which assessed some aspects of CAOT and/or the biological principles behind it. Case reports and series were excluded. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the methodological score for clinical trials developed. Results: Fourteen articles were retrieved initially, but only 12 articles were finally selected for the study. The CAOT was found to accelerate tooth movement by 2-2.5 folds when compared with conventional orthodontic tooth movement. The CAOT was found safe on periodontal health and exhibits no or little risk of root resorption. A localized turnover of alveolar spongiosa and the absence of a hyalinized zone was the acceptable biological explanation of CAOT. There is no evidence to support that CAOT enhances the movement of ankylosed teeth, closing old extraction sites, post-orthodontic stability, or transverse expansion. Conclusions: Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment should be considered with caution. Long term randomized clinical trials are still needed. PMID:26108582
Mártha, Krisztina; Lőrinczi, Lilla; Bică, Cristina; Gyergyay, Réka; Petcu, Blanka; Lazăr, Luminița
To assess the prevalence and occurrence of eleven periodontopathogens in subgingival biofilm of banded and bonded molars during the first period of fixed orthodontic treatment. Subjects were selected from patients referred to orthodontic treatment and were divided in two groups: group A comprised fifteen patients (14.4±2.45 years of age) who received orthodontic bands on first permanent molars and group B of ten patients (15.7±1.87 years of age) with directly bonded tubes on the labial surface of the same teeth. Subgingival sample collection was performed before bands and tubes application and 4-7 weeks after attachment placement. DNA-strip tehnique was used to assess the presence of eleven putative periodontopathogens at each time point. Fusobacterium nucleatum, Eikenella corrodens and Capnocytophaga spp. were found in a large number of samples, other periodontopathogens were present in a smaller rate. The 4-7 weeks after attachment placement a slight increase of putative species was observed in both groups. The presence of orthodontic tubes and bands influence the accumulation and composition of subgingival microbiota. Higher level of oral hygiene should be achieved before and during orthodontic treatment in order to prevent any side effects on periodontal tissues.
Straub, B; Bouletreau, P; Breton, P
Orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery requires correcting mal-occlusions and coordination of arcades. In addition to improving the aesthetics, these treatments can ensure the achievement and sustainability of prosthetics and/or implants. Nevertheless, periodontal structures are easily damaged. Orthodontic displacement can only be applied in the absence of inflammation or weakened periodontal structure. An early detection of periodontal risk should be achievable by prescribers of a surgical-orthodontic treatment. Simplified periodontal examination, with easily detectable warning signs, will help to identify the periodontal risk. Although periodontal treatment follows current "non invasive" trend, some procedures remain necessary to prevent and/or remedy periodontal defects or diseases, such as mineral periodontal reinforcement corticotomy. It is essential that the patient meets all the practitioners to plan and assess the extent of the constraints necessary to optimize results, before starting orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery. Any periodontal complication (even minor) will be considered as a failure, regardless of good aesthetic and functional results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won
Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients.
From the beginning, orthodontists have been faced with the decision of when to start treatment. Until the late 20th century, this decision was based on clinical observation, the influence of strong leaders, and (after midcentury) the results obtained by what Europeans called "functional jaw orthopedics." Recent findings questioning the efficacy of early treatment have forced orthodontists to ask themselves whether their decision to "start now" is being influenced too heavily by practice-management considerations. Our concept of occlusion has evolved from a static to a dynamic one. Emulating their prosthodontist brethren, orthodontists have attempted to reproduce jaw movements with the use of articulators, but the popularity of these devices has been declining in recent years.
Hiemstra, Renske; Bos, Annemieke; Hoogstraten, Johan
To investigate the expectations of children and their primary care-givers towards orthodontic treatment and to compare the results with those of a UK sample. A questionnaire survey of children and their primary care-givers attending for their first consultation. The Department of Orthodontics at the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), the Netherlands. A total of 168 subjects (84 patients and 84 parents) completed the questionnaire. The children were aged 10 to 14 years. The responses of the children and parents and differences between boys and girls were examined using parametric statistical methods. The data from the Dutch sample were compared with a similar UK sample. Patients and parents shared similar expectations of orthodontic treatment, with the exception of expectations of having a brace fitted at the first appointment, orthodontic treatment involving headgear, any problems with orthodontic treatment, duration of orthodontic treatment and concerning reactions from the public. Among the child participants, boys and girls only differed in their expectations of orthodontic treatment involving jaw surgery. Differences between Dutch and English participants were found regarding the first visit, type of orthodontic treatment, reactions from the public, and pain and problems with orthodontic treatment. Since the expectations of patients and their parents differ on several aspects, effective communication between the orthodontist, patient and parent is considered to be essential. Our hypothesis that Dutch patients' and parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment differ from the expectations of English patients and parents was supported.
Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Łoboda, Magdalena; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Durka-Zajac, Magdalena; Pawłowska, Elzbieta
The progress in oncological treatment has led to the current increase of childhood cancer survival rate to 80%. That is why orthodontists more and more frequently consult patients who had completed a successful anti-cancer therapy in childhood. Oncological treatments such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy or supportive immunosuppressive therapy cause numerous side effects in growing patients, connected i.a. with growth, the development of teeth or the viscerocranium. This is a special group of patients that needs an optimised plan of orthodontic treatment and often has to accept a compromise result. The purpose of the current work is to discuss the results of orthodontic treatment in patients after an anti-cancer therapy. Time of treatment was 12,5 months. In 6 patients (from 40 undergoing orthodontic therapy) we haven't reached a normocclusion, in 9 patients we should have stopped the therapy because of the recurrence. In 11 patients we found mucosa inflammation and in 1 patient the therapy stopped before the end because of very low oral hygiene level. Bearing in mind the limited number of original works on the above topic in Polish medical literature, the study has been carried out in order to make Polish orthodontists more acquainted with the topic and the standards of dealing with an oncological patient.
Abed Al Jawad, Feras; Cunningham, Susan J; Croft, Nick; Johal, Ama
The aim of this research was to assess the effects of fixed orthodontic treatment on dietary intake and behaviour. The study adopted a qualitative approach by conducting semi-structured one-to-one interviews, with 10 adolescent patients (four males; six females) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment with a mean age of 13.21 (SD 0.71) years. The interviews were transcribed and analysed, by two independent investigators, using framework principles in which emerging themes and ideas were identified. These emerging themes were characterized and compared between patients until no new themes or ideas were identified. Framework analysis identified the following two main themes arising in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment: pain experience and dietary change. All patients reported varying degrees of pain during the first few days of treatment, after which it was seen to reduce. All patients reported that their diet had changed in response to pain, inability to bite and chew, and in response to dietary instructions given to them by their orthodontist. Patients felt that their eating habits had become healthier during treatment. The study highlights the need to explore dietary changes in a larger population base.
Atwan, S M; Turner, D; Khalid, A
Recognition of dental anomalies is essential in determining appropriate treatment for each patient. Diagnosis and assessment of mesiodens are critical in avoiding complications such as blocking the eruption of the maxillary central incisors, cyst formation, and dilaceration of the permanent incisors. Collecting data for diagnostic criteria, utilizing diagnostic radiographs, and determining when to refer to a specialist are important steps in the treatment of mesiodens. Early diagnosis and timely intervention could reduce or eliminate the need for orthodontic treatment and prevent serious complications.
van Beek, H
The first part of this article is an edited Dutch summary of the paper "Oral-health-related benefits of orthodontic treatment" by Donald J. Burden in the special issue''Orthodontics: quality of care, quality of life'' in Seminars in Orthodontics (June 2007). Burden carried out a systematic review of the literature on some, historically claimed, beneficial influences of orthodontic treatment, such as reduced susceptibility to dental caries, periodontal disease, temporomandibular dysfunction, and traumatic injury. Based on the results of this review, Burden concludes that the oral health benefits of orthodontic intervention have not been demonstrated. The second part is a critical and balanced commentary on the content of the paper and on Burden's conclusions.
Hemrend, Bernard; Altuna, Gurkan; Tompson, Bryan
The authors of this article offer an introduction to the field of orthodontics. They present the latest advances in orthodontic appliances and some of the possible consequences of orthodontic treatment. They discuss a number of cases and offer examples of some of the more common problems that the orthodontist is asked to treat. Such cases include severe Class II, division 1 malocclusion, surgical orthodontics, “long-face” syndrome, adult orthodontics-TMJ-periodontics, late adult growth, and post-retention changes. Practical information useful to the physician who encounters patient with these disorders is balanced with good research data to support the various claims. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:21249042
Over the last ten years there has been a steady increase in the volume of private dental treatment and numerous finance schemes have been developed to help both patients and dentists. Private orthodontic treatment is increasing and the purpose of this article is to summarise the main features of the schemes currently available to fund private orthodontic treatment and to provide a source of reference.
Liao, Yu-Fang; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Huang, Chiung-Shing; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Chen, Yu-Ray
It has long been claimed that presurgical orthodontics is crucial to the outcome of surgical-orthodontic treatment for dentofacial deformity. However, in the literature, the effect of presurgical orthodontics on the treatment outcome remains controversial. The purpose of the study was therefore to investigate the effect of presurgical orthodontics on the treatment outcome in terms of facial aesthetics, occlusion, stability, and efficiency. Thirty-three adult patients with skeletal class III open bite corrected by Le Fort I posterior impaction and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were included. The patients were divided into two groups: 13 received presurgical orthodontics, and 20 did not. Cephalometric radiographs and study models were used to evaluate the treatment outcome. There were no between-group differences in facial aesthetics, overbite, or Peer Assessment Rating score. Overjet was larger in the no-presurgical orthodontics group than in the presurgical orthodontics group, but both were within normal limits. Both groups had similar maxillary and horizontal mandibular stability. Although the vertical mandibular stability was worse in the no-presurgical orthodontics group than in the presurgical orthodontics group, the direction of instability was favorable for open bite correction. Finally, longer treatment time was required in the presurgical orthodontics group compared with the no-presurgical orthodontics group (512±103 days versus 342±127 days; p<0.001). The results suggest that in surgical-orthodontic correction of skeletal class III open bite, presurgical orthodontics has no clinically significant effects on facial aesthetics, occlusion, or stability. However, presurgical orthodontics has a significant adverse effect on efficiency. Patients receiving presurgical orthodontics undergo longer treatment time than those receiving no presurgical orthodontics.
Maruchi, N; Miyajima, K; Iizuka, T; Inagaki, K; Noguchi, T; Sakai, M
Adults with untreated malocclusions suffer from more periodontal disease than if their malocclusion had been corrected orthodontically. What orthodontists can offer in the management of patients with periodontal disease, how they can help the periodontists and the patients, and how the periodontists can help the orthodontist make treatment safe and purposefully are widely discussed. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to discuss how orthodontic patients with severe periodontitis could be treated and what we should do for these patients during the treatment as well as at their initial visit. One case is presented as an example of treatment for malocclusion with sever periodontitis: The patient was a 23 years 8 months female with a chief complaint of protrusion of upper incisors. Since clinical examination revealed severe periodontitis, periodontal treatment was undertaken for one year prior to orthodontic treatment. From these observations, we are conviced of the importance again of the global approach and the team treatment method in treating malocclusions with periodontitis.
Zharmagambetova, A; Tuleutayeva, S; Akhmetova, S; Zharmagambetov, A
An orthodontic appliance in the mouth worsens conditions for its self-cleaning, complicates the teeth care and makes an environment favorable to the soft tooth deposit, in turn, leads to the teeth enamel demineralization. In literature, the majority of works are devoted to the study of the microbial landscape with fixed orthodontic treatment. Despite the obvious relevance, the formation problem of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms when treating dentoalveolar anomalies with a removable orthodontic appliance remains understudied. The research aim was to investigate the influence of the removable type of orthodontic treatment of patients aged 12 with dentoalveolar anomalies on the mouth microbiocenosis. The dental examination and microbiological study was conducted to 100 children aged 12 with dentoalveolar anomalies. The dental examination included assessment of the oral hygiene state by the OHI-S index. The microbiological research was conducted in the following sequence: the bacterioscopy smear of plaque, stained by the Gram and Burri method with the assessment of morphological and tinctorial properties of microorganisms. The statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS v22.0 forWindows program. The dental examination showed that the oral hygiene state varied according to the orthodontic treatment stage. During the orthodontic treatment the OHI-S Index was 2.1 score, indicating a satisfactory oral hygiene level. The microbiological study showed that persistent contaminants were lactobacilli, streptococci, staphylococci, and yeast-like fungi. However, the treatment showed a decrease of normal flora level and the increase in number of Candidaalbicans, Staphylococcusaureus and Streptococcusmutans, that was a trigger in the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. During the orthodontic treatment, children with dentoalveolar anomalies are at high risk of dental caries and periodontal disease.
Salehi, P; Danaie, S Momene
This study assessed the effect of extraction and preservation of the 1st premolar on lower 3rd molar eruption. Orthodontic clinic records from 1993 to 1995 were evaluated before and after treatment and 8-9 years after treatment for 3 groups of patients: 32 with extraction of 1st premolars in both jaws, 32 with no extraction but orthodontic treatment and 48 controls with no extraction but orthodontic treatment in the upper jaws only. Successful eruption of 3rd molars was evaluated. There was a significant difference in the rates of successful eruptions in the extraction (42%), non-extraction (12%) and control (20%) groups. The findings indicate that 1st premolar extraction may increase the chance of 3rd molar eruption, leading to a lower incidence of health and economic complications.
Piyapattamin, Thosapol; Soma, Kunimichi; Hisano, Masataka
This report presents the case of a 25-year-old male patient who sought orthodontic treatment. Oral examination revealed an Angle Class I relation, with a bimaxillary dento-alveolar protrusion, evidence of anterior crowding, and a large overbite and overjet. Radiographic examination revealed a skeletal Class I occlusion. During the distal movement of the canines, occlusal interferences between the canines occurred and the commencement of a tongue thrust was observed. After correction of the applied forces, the canine movement was completed and the habit was no longer detectable. The incident indicates that an unusual oral habit suspiciously occurring during treatment should lead to an immediate reconsideration of the orthodontic treatment strategy.
Slater, Robert D
The increased use of lingual appliances has meant a continued evolution in the design of lingual brackets. These changes in appliance and bracket design have tended to focus on reducing bracket thickness, with the aim of making appliances more comfortable. A thinner bracket design appears to have had some positive effects on the quality of speech, as well as comfort whilst appliances are in place. However, despite these improvements, some patients do struggle with their speech during treatment, far more than others. It is important therefore, when consenting patients for lingual orthodontic treatment, to ensure that they are made aware of the potential for speech to be disturbed, particularly in the early stages of treatment. The purpose of this article is to outline some of the issues associated with speech problems and discomfort during lingual appliance treatment, so that practitioners are able to advise patients who may be considering this kind of treatment. Advice given during the consent process, including appliance selection, procedures for maintaining oral comfort and management of individual speech issues, will all help lingual patients cope with any speech problems they may experience during their treatment.
Vizitiu, Theodor-Cristian; Giuca, Mihaela Cristina; Ionescu, Ecaterina
Objective of this study is to evaluate the changes of the oral microbial flora, concentrating on the oral streptococci, after the first 3 and 6 months of orthodontic treatment. 40 patients, aged 7-17, that presented for orthodontic treatment between April and September 2010 in the Department of Orthodontics and Dento-Facial Orthopedics of "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest have been selected. According to the protocol, coronary and subgingival plaque was collected from the dental surface before starting any orthodontic treatment (T0), 3 months after wearing orthodontic appliances (T1) and 6 months after wearing orthodontic appliances (T2). The samples were studied in Cantacuzino National Institute of Research-Development for Microbiology and Immunology [isolation on Columbia agar with 5% sheep blood, identification on morphotinctorial, growth and biochemical characteristics using API 20 STREP (BioMerieux)]. Bacterial concentration (colony-forming units/sample = CFU/sample) for the aerobic and anaerobic flora was calculated by the serial dilution method of counting bacteria. 106 strains of oral streptococci were isolated from dental plaque, belonging to 6 species (Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus acidominimus), 37 strains of oral streptococci in patients from group I (T0), 40 strains from group II (T1) and 29 strains of oral streptococci from group III (T2). After 3 months (T1) the aerobic bacteria percentage, detected at a concentration between 10(5) and 10(6), increased from 30 to 38.2%. The percentage of patients with a bacterial concentration higher than 10(6) CFU/sample increased from 5% to 8.8%. The samples colected at T2 (patients examined after 6 months of orthodonic treatment) presented a lower bacterial concentration, as compared to group II (T1). The most common isolated species of streptococci were S. salivarius, S. oralis and S
Glenn, F B
This is the case report of a 10 year-old female Caucasian with a mixed dentition Class I right and Class II left side malocclusion and unerupted maxillary central incisors. It was necessary for the oral surgeon to remove twin supernumerary mesiodens prior to the placement of orthodontic appliances. Space was created to accommodate the customary, also unerupted central incisors, which were rotated 90 degrees to the midline.
Ikegami, Tomio; Wong, Ricky Wing-Kit; Hägg, Urban; Lee, Wilson; Hibino, Kyoko
This paper describes the Hybrid Orthodontic Treatment System (HOTS), an innovative method used in first premolar extraction cases. It comprises the following three components: (1) a miniscrew, (2) dual-dimension wires, and (3) multiloop edgewise archwires. HOTS consists of four clearly defined treatment steps: (1) setup, (2) leveling, (3) separate but simultaneous anterior and canine teeth retraction, and (4) final adjustment. HOTS achieves a predictable treatment outcome with a shorter treatment time.
Shaw, W C; O'Brien, K D; Richmond, S
The factors which influence the uptake of orthodontic treatment are reviewed with respect to the features and aspirations of the consumers (patients and parents) and the providers (dentists, orthodontists and health system). It appears that the assessment of orthodontic treatment need is influenced by many variables relating to opportunity and demand for treatment; this results in a marked lack of uniformity in treatment uptake.
Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept). The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3 years, SD 2.1 years). After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy = 37, control = 40); 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2). The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1 years (SD 0.2 years). Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test). Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study). This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:22906114
Ispas, Dana Catrinel; Eftene, Oana Alexandra; Temelcea, Anca; Pădure, Hariclea
Orthodontic treatment as a help is the teeth movement made in order to facilitate the odontal,prosthetic and periodontal proceedures which are needed in the dentomaxilar and/or facial reabilitation. The aim of the study was to follow for 5 years which is the percentage of patients who asked for orthodontic treatment in the Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedie Clinic from UMF 'Carol Davila'. We also followed the frequency related to the etiology of the loss of some teeth and also the relationship between the loss of the teeth and periodontal disease. In our country, the number of patients who ask for preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is lower comparing with Western and Northtern Europe, but the percentage is increasing due to the dentists calification. We can conclude by saying that the frequency of losing teeth by cavities is increased by age because all patients from the study group aged 35 and above lost their teeth from cavity etiology and the patients aged 18 and lower had genetic etiology in losing their teeth.
Yoshpe, Margarita; Kaufman, Arieh; Lin, Shaul; Gabay, Eran; Einy, Shmuel
Invasive cervical resorption (ICR), a destructive form of external root resorption, is characterized by invasion of the fibrovascular tissue. This phenomenon is very rare and appears in 0.02% of the general population where the leading factors are orthodontics in addition to trauma, restorations, and bleaching. Heavy orthodontic force may increase the incidence to 1%. One of the main concerns regarding ICR is that it is often misdiagnosed with conventional diagnostic tools. In recent decades, a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging technique has become more common and can lead to a more accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. This case report describes a possible association between orthodontic treatment and ICR of a 14-year-old male, 18 months post orthodontic treatment. ICR in the mandibular right canine was diagnosed and verified by CBCT, and underwent combined endodontic-periodontal treatment. However, after orthodontic forced eruption was performed on this tooth to improve the bone defect, ICR was diagnosed on the mandibular right second premolar. The possible association between orthodontic treatment and ICR is discussed, as ICR was noted following orthodontic treatment on both occasions. This case report stresses the importance of ICR early detection by close attention to periodic radiographic checkups during orthodontic treatment. The use of modern diagnostic tools is highly recommended in suspicious cases.
Kazancı, Fatih; Aydoğan, Cihan; Alkan, Özer
Patients' and parents' expectations are important in orthodontic treatment decision making. The literature generally demonstrates the perceived benefits of orthodontic treatment, but patients' and their parents' concerns about orthodontic treatment have not been investigated comprehensively. The aim of this study was to identify patients' and parents' concerns about orthodontic treatment and compare them according to sex, age, and treatment demand level. One hundred and eighty-nine children and their parents were interviewed about concerns related to orthodontic treatment. Patients and parents were asked about orthodontic treatment decisions. Answers were recorded as "yes," "no," or "don't know." Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare concerns between age groups, sexes, and treatment demand levels. Kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between patients and their parents. Concerns about orthodontic treatment were gathered under 10 items as follows: "feeling pain," "the appearance of braces," "being teased," "avoiding smiling," "speech problems," "dietary changes," "problems with transportation," "economic problems," "long treatment duration," and "missing school." There was no statistically significant difference in concerns between the sexes or age groups. Some concern items and treatment demand were inversely related in patients. The results of this study demonstrate patients' and parents' concerns about orthodontic treatment. Differences between the concerns of patients with different treatment demands imply that children might reject orthodontic treatment because of their concerns. Appropriate consultation of patients addressing their concerns may help reduce anxiety and improve the acceptance of treatment.
Aydoğan, Cihan; Alkan, Özer
Objective Patients' and parents' expectations are important in orthodontic treatment decision making. The literature generally demonstrates the perceived benefits of orthodontic treatment, but patients' and their parents' concerns about orthodontic treatment have not been investigated comprehensively. The aim of this study was to identify patients' and parents' concerns about orthodontic treatment and compare them according to sex, age, and treatment demand level. Methods One hundred and eighty-nine children and their parents were interviewed about concerns related to orthodontic treatment. Patients and parents were asked about orthodontic treatment decisions. Answers were recorded as "yes," "no," or "don't know." Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare concerns between age groups, sexes, and treatment demand levels. Kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between patients and their parents. Results Concerns about orthodontic treatment were gathered under 10 items as follows: "feeling pain," "the appearance of braces," "being teased," "avoiding smiling," "speech problems," "dietary changes," "problems with transportation," "economic problems," "long treatment duration," and "missing school." There was no statistically significant difference in concerns between the sexes or age groups. Some concern items and treatment demand were inversely related in patients. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate patients' and parents' concerns about orthodontic treatment. Differences between the concerns of patients with different treatment demands imply that children might reject orthodontic treatment because of their concerns. Appropriate consultation of patients addressing their concerns may help reduce anxiety and improve the acceptance of treatment. PMID:26877979
Simonnet Garcia, Marie-Hélène
Hypnosis is making a comeback in all of the medical disciplines. But in a world where everyone wants to control everything and manage everything, it's helpful to know that hypnosis is a dynamic process that cannot be forced on anyone, a psychic reality, clearly demonstrated today by brain imaging. Hypnosis does not take any power over the individual. It is just one more tool to help ease patient's discomfort. It is also useful to avoid professional burnout to provide care without depleting our energy and without wasting our valuable time. Medical hypnosis is a real asset for providing comfortable orthodontic treatment and creating a serene atmosphere. It can be done simply and rapidly to take high quality impressions, to place braces comfortably on a patient who is sitting quietly. Orthodontic treatment requires cooperation and motivation, so let's give our patients a new sense of confidence and a willingness to cooperate.
Choi, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Tae-Woo
Alveolar augmented corticotomy is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, but the effect only lasts for a relatively short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biology of the immediate periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement after a corticotomy with alloplastic bone grafts. The results demonstrated that measurable tooth movement began as early as 3 days after the intervention in beagle dogs. Based on the results and histological findings, augmented corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement might enhance the condition of the periodontal tissue and the stability of the outcomes of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25276787
Uzuner, F. Deniz; Darendeliler, Nilufer
Surgery on the dentoalveolar process combined with orthodontic treatment was emphasized as an alternative method for reducing the treatment time and improving the orthodontic treatment on post-adolescent and adult patients. This combined treatment facilitates and accelerates orthodontic tooth movement. This article reviews the clinical practice in surgery-assisted orthodontic treatment in relation to historical perspective, indications and biological principles, as well as limitations and risks of dento-osseous surgical techniques, including dento-osseous osteotomy and/or ostectomy, dento-osseous microfracture, dento-osseous corticotomy, and/or corticoectomy, and dental distraction. PMID:24883038
Nasri, Farah Amirah Mohd; Wahab, Rohaya Megat Abdul; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal
Mechanical forces in orthodontic treatment used to treat malocclusion can cause inflamed gingival tissue and the process of tooth movement may resorb dental root. Root resorption is an iatrogenic effect of orthodontic treatment but it can be monitored using protein biomarker. This study aims to investigate the differences of protein profile before and after orthodontic treatment using different staining methods. Human gingival crevicular fluid and saliva were collected from orthodontic patients before and after treatment. Protein profile were observed using SDS-PAGE. Our study shows down regulation of proteins after 3 months of treatment. Hence, there are potential values from this study to aid in investigation for specific biomarkers for root resorption.
Early in the last century, 3 events put Colorado in the orthodontic spotlight: the discovery-by an orthodontist-of the caries-preventive powers of fluoridated water, the formation of dentistry's first specialty board, and the founding of a supply company by and for orthodontists. Meanwhile, inventive practitioners were giving the profession more choices of treatment modalities, and stainless steel was making its feeble debut.
Nakas, Enita; Tiro, Alisa; Vrazalica, Lejla Redzepagic; Hadzihasanovic, Dzana; Dzemidzic, Vildana
Aim: The aim of our study is to compare incidence of orthodontic malocclusion based on occlusal indices and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), and to evaluate the most commonly used method among the dentists for orthodontic treatment in Sarajevo. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 110 (31 female and 79 male)subjects older than 16 years with complete permanent dentition. Subjects were examined according to Occlusal Index (Angle classification of malocclusion, overjet, overbite, dental arch crowding and tooth rotation) and IOTN index. We conduct survey regarding which indexes are used in deciding on orthodontic treatment need, among primary health care and Orthodontist. Results: The present study show differences between the presence of malocclusion and treatment need as assessed by these two used indices. Based on the survey that we conduct all primary health care doctors use Occlusal Index to decide need for orthodontic treatment, more than 95% of orthodontic specialist use Occlusal Index for treatment need estimation. Conclusion: When measuring and grading treatment needs we should rely on Index of orthodontic treatment need. In such high demand for orthodontic treatment need it is necessary to establish need for the orthodontic treatment as fundamental, so that individuals with greatest treatment need can be assigned priority. PMID:27147922
Pietilä, I; Pietilä, T; Svedström-Oristo, A-L; Varrela, J; Alanen, P
The objectives of the study were to compare the costs and outcome of orthodontic treatment in eight municipal health centres in Finland. A random sample of the age groups of 16- and 18-year-olds (n = 1109) living in these municipalities was clinically examined by two calibrated orthodontists. The acceptability of the morphology and function of the occlusion were assessed with the Occlusal Morphology and Function Index (OMFI). The data concerning previous orthodontic treatment were collected from the patient records of all subjects (n = 608) who reported previous or ongoing orthodontic treatment or who could not recall if they had received orthodontic treatment. The health centres were grouped into an early and a late timing group according to the mean age of starting the treatment. The mean age for starting orthodontic treatment was 8.0 years (SD 1.9) in the early group and 10.7 years (SD 2.3) in the late group. The visit costs and the costs of orthodontic appliances without overheads comprised the operating costs. The cost-effectiveness of orthodontic services was measured by estimating how much each health centre had to have paid for one per cent unit of acceptable morphology and acceptable function of occlusion. The mean appliance costs were higher in the late timing group and the mean visit costs higher in the early timing group. The mean operating costs per case were €720 in the early and €649 in the late timing group. However, there was a great variation within both groups. The cost of one per cent unit of acceptable morphology was the same in the two timing groups, while the cost of one per cent unit of acceptable function was lower in the early timing group. The low operating costs as such did not totally explain the better cost-effectiveness of orthodontic care. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness was not directly connected with the timing of treatment.
Cross, David L; Short, Laura J
Clinical experience has shown that angular cheilitis can occur during orthodontic treatment and may persist into retention, but the incidence of the condition is unknown. The purpose of this paper is to increase the awareness among clinicians of angular cheilitis occurring during orthodontic treatment. It also proposes a treatment regime which may be used.
Alkhatib, Mhd Nour; Bedi, Raman; Foster, Claire; Jopanputra, Pooja; Allan, Sue
Background The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in children from minority ethnic groups and compare the need to the white population. The second objective was to explore variations in agreement between subjective and objective treatment need in a multiethnic context using the aesthetic component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN AC). Methods A cross-sectional study in North West London, 14 schools were randomly selected from the 27 schools in the two boroughs of Harrow and Hillingdon. Comparison between objective and subjective treatment need was carried out using IOTN AC index. Clinical orthodontic treatment need was also recorded using the dental health component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN DHC). Results 2,788 children were examined and completed the questionnaire. 16% of the study population were already wearing appliances or had finished orthodontic treatment. Of the remaining children; 15% had definite need for treatment using the dental health component of the IOTN. There was no significant variation in the need for orthodontic treatment between different ethnic backgrounds (P > 0.05) whether using the AC or DHC components of the IOTN index. However, poor agreement was detected between professional and subjective assessment of ethnic minority of orthodontic treatment need using IOTN AC index. Conclusion Orthodontic treatment need in children of ethnic minorities does not differ significantly from the vast majority of white children. However treatment need based on aesthetic index continues to vary in all ethnic groups from the professional aesthetic assessment PMID:16188024
Fleming, Padhraig S; Strydom, Hardus; Katsaros, Christos; MacDonald, Lci; Curatolo, Michele; Fudalej, Piotr; Pandis, Nikolaos
Pain is prevalent during orthodontics, particularly during the early stages of treatment. To ensure patient comfort and compliance during treatment, the prevention or management of pain is of major importance. While pharmacological means are the first line of treatment for alleviation of orthodontic pain, a range of non-pharmacological approaches have been proposed recently as viable alternatives. To assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions to alleviate pain associated with orthodontic treatment. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 6 October 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 6 October 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 6 October 2016) and EThOS (to 6 October 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing a non-pharmacological orthodontic pain intervention to a placebo, no intervention or another non-pharmacological pain intervention were eligible for inclusion. We included any type of orthodontic treatment but excluded trials involving the use of pre-emptive analgesia or pain relief following orthognathic (jaw) surgery or dental extractions in combination with orthodontic treatment. We excluded split-mouth trials (in which each participant receives two or more treatments, each to a separate section of the mouth) and cross-over trials. At least two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We used the random-effects model and expressed results as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We investigated heterogeneity with reference to both clinical and methodological factors. We included 14
Cañigral, Aránzazu; López-Caballo, José L.; Brizuela, Aritza; Moreno-Hay, Isabel; del Río-Highsmith, Jaime; Vega, José A.
Objectives The aim of this literature systematic review was to evaluate the possible association between malocclusions, orthodontic treatment and development of temporomandibular disorders. Material and Methods: A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Results The search strategy resulted in 61 articles. After selection according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria 9 articles qualified for the final analysis. The articles which linked orthodontics and development of temporomandibular disorders showed very discrepant results. Some indicated that orthodontic treatment could improve signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, but none of them obtained statistically significant differences. Conclusions According to the authors examined, there is no evidence for a cause-effect relationship between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular disorders, or that such treatment might improve or prevent them. More longitudinal studies are needed to verify any possible interrelationship. Key words:Malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders, orthodontics and facial pain, orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular dysfunction. PMID:26155354
Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Al Yami, E A; van 't Hof, M A
Aim of this study was to assess long-term stability of orthodontic treatment in a sample of 1016 patients until 10 years postretention. Treatment outcome was measured with the PAR-index at 6 different stages. The mean age of the patients was 12.0 +/- 3.1 year at the start of treatment to 26.3 +/- 2.9 year 10 years postretention. The results show that 67% of the orthodontic treatment result, as measured with the PAR-index, was maintained 10 years postretention. The PAR-scores for the midline and the open bite remained about the same over the years. However, the scores for the lateral occlusion, overjet, reversed overjet, overbite, and contact point displacement of the upper and lower front teeth increased gradually over time. Nearly 50% of the total relapse took place the first two years after retention. The largest change was found for the position of the lower incisors. Ten years postretention their position was even worse than at the start of treatment.
Johal, Ama; Abed Al Jawad, Feras; Marcenes, Wagner; Croft, Nick
Despite the many courses of fixed orthodontic treatment being undertaken worldwide, the question of this treatment harming children's diets remains unanswered. A hospital-based prospective cohort design was adopted to investigate the effects of treatment on dietary intake and behaviour, body fat (BMI) and fat percentage in 124 patients (41.9% male) aged 11-14 (mean 13.1, SD 0.91) years, consecutively recruited to test and control groups. Both groups completed socio-demographic and food frequency questionnaires, body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage measures at baseline and follow-up. Test patients completed follow-up pain diaries and dietary questionnaires. Both groups were comparable at baseline, with a dropout rate of 12.1%. The impact on dietary behaviour was significantly higher at 6 weeks compared to 3 months (P<0.002). Pain (biological factor), analgesic consumption or professional dietary advice (behaviour modification) had no influence whilst, a high BMI status at baseline appeared to be the only significant moderator of change in fat percentage (P<0.05) and impacts on dietary behaviour (P<0.049) at follow-up. The findings show no significant detrimental effect on dietary intake or behaviour, BMI and fat percentage, during the first 3 months, of orthodontic treatment and may impart a beneficial/protective effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The etiology of malocclusions basically involves both congenital and environmental factors. Malocclusion is the result of the abnormal development of the orofacial complex (including tooth, dental alveolar bone, upper and lower jaws). Early orthodontic interceptive treatments involve the elimination of all congenital and environmental factors that contribute to the malformation of the orofacial complex, as well as interrupt the deviated development of the orofacial complex and the occlusion. Early orthodontic interceptive treatments mainly aim to use children's growth potential to correct abnormal developments of occlusions and orthodontically treat malocclusions more efficiently. The early orthodontic interceptive treatments include correcting the child's bad oral habits, training the abnormal functioned para-oral muscles, maintaining the normal eruptions of succeeding permanent teeth, applying interceptive treatments to the mal-developed teeth, and employing functional orthopedic treatments for abnormal growths of the upper and lower jaws. In orthodontics, correcting mal-positioned teeth is called orthodontic treatment, while rectifying the abnormal relationships of the upper and lower jaws is called functional orthopedic treatment. However, no clear definition is available as regards to the early orthodontic interceptive treatment of malocclusions caused by the deviated development of the dental alveolar bone. This new theory of "early dental alveolar bone and dental arch remodeling technique" was proposed by Professor Li Xiaobing of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics in West China Hospital of Stomatology through his clinical analyses and investigation of his early orthodontic interceptive treatments. He defined the early orthodontic corrections of abnormal growth of dental alveolar bone as "remodel". The "early dental alveolar bone and dental arch remodeling theory and technique" is proved useful in
Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan
In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.
Monini, André da Costa; Martins, Renato Parsekian; Martins, Isabela Parsekian; Martins, Lídia Parsekian
Paresthesia of the lower lip is uncommon during orthodontic treatment. In the present case, paresthesia occurred during orthodontic leveling of an extruded mandibular left second molar. It was decided to remove this tooth from the appliance and allow it to relapse. A reanatomization was then performed by grinding. The causes and treatment options of this rare disorder are reviewed and discussed. The main cause of paresthesia during orthodontic treatment may be associated with contact between the dental roots and inferior alveolar nerve, which may be well observed on tomography scans. Treatment usually involves tooth movement in the opposite direction of the cause of the disorder.
Yijia, Xie; Zhou, Hu; Qing, Zhao; Fuwei, Lin; Yang, Zeng; Xiaomei, Xu; Lin, Zeng; Pu, Yang
To discuss through retrospective study associated factors influencing orthodontists to develop orthodontic treatment plans and to calculate constituent ratio of a typical extraction in orthodontic treatment. Systematic sampling was performed among 7 344 orthodontic patients, who received orthodontic treatment from April 2012 to March 2014 in the Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University. The study included statistical data on factors that may influence development of treatment plans. Samples were used to calculate extraction-ratio and atypical-extraction-ratio. Research focused on associated factors influencing development of treatment plans while evaluating correlation significances of each factor. Finally, treatment outcomes of atypical-extraction were compared with those of typical-extraction. Among studied patients, 55.31% (406/734) received orthodontic extraction treatment. In orthodontic-extraction-treated patients, typical-extraction accounted for 59.11% (240/406), orthodontists-selected atypical-extraction accounted for 23.15% (94/406), and passive atypical-extraction accounted for 17.73% (72/406). With statistical analysis, we inferred associated factors influencing development of treatment plans as follows: sex and age of patients, sex of orthodontists, accurate condition of specific teeth, Angle's classification, and degree of midline deviation. Tooth loss before treatment also directly influences passive atypical-extraction. Statistically significant factors were not obtained. Significant difference of treatment outcome was not observed between atypical-extraction and typical-extraction-orthodontic treatment (P>0.05). Above mentioned factors may influence orthodontists to develop treatment plans. However, orthodontists should also consider expected results of treatment strategies to prepare individual treatment plans on the basis of comprehensive analysis. .
Martin, Chris A; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Ngan, Peter W; Weyant, Robert J; Heady, Hilda R; Marazita, Mary L
Significant oral health disparities affect people in West Virginia and elsewhere in Appalachia. Although oral diseases such as caries are a major problem, little is known about the occlusal status of this under-served group. Fifty-eight adolescents (ages 12-17 years) and 78 of their parents underwent an orthodontic examination as part of a larger study on oral health in two rural West Virginia counties. Two orthodontists used a standardized index to rate their need for orthodontic care. Participants were interviewed regarding their demand for and history of orthodontic care. The study results show that parents had a high rate of complete or partial edentulism, an infrequent history of orthodontic treatment, great unmet orthodontic need and less demand for orthodontic care than was suggested by their clinically determined need. The adolescents were similar to national norms with regard to orthodontic treatment history and need, but lower with regard to demand. The adolescents' similarity to general population norms with regard to previous orthodontic care and level of occlusal status is promising. Nevertheless, their lower recognition of a need for treatment suggests possible future oral health problems and a lower oral health quality of life. Their parents, however, were considerably worse off, in comparison with their adolescent children and adult comparison samples, with regard to orthodontic care and other oral health status measures. Culturally sensitive psychoeducational methods to promote recognition of oral health needs may be required among adolescents in Appalachia to have an impact on oral health values and to prevent oral health problems. Issues of orthodontic care utilization and, perhaps, access to care need to be addressed among adults in Appalachia.
Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah; Robin, Olivier; Messaoudi, Yassine; Aknin, Jean-Jacques
While considered for years to play the primary role in the etiology of temporo-mandibular joint disturbances (TMD), occlusal discrepancies are now considered to be just one causative factor among many. Recent studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, and longitudinal studies with follow-up of children treated for many years all conclude that there is no risk of orthodontic treatment giving rise to episodes of temporo-mandibular disorders. The signs of TMD appearing during the course of orthodontic treatment should be considered in the context of the epidemiology of the disorder, which is characterized by a strong increase in its occurrence during adolescence. In conclusion, it should be stated that if orthodontic treatment can no longer be considered as one of the etiopathogenic factors in the TMD complex, there are no scientific arguments to justify the converse, that there are indications for orthodontic treatment whose sole goal would be the treatment of TMD.
Lehman, J A; Tabbal, N; Haas, D G; Haas, A J
Patients with severe mandibular prognathism are best managed with a combined orthodontic-surgical approach. In our patients, the orthodontic treatment consisted of six to eighteen months of presurgical preparation, which in some patients may accentuate the dental deformity. This is done to provide two well-aligned dental arches that will fit accurately at surgery. The surgical procedure used was an oblique subcondylar osteotomy. This was followed by six to eight months of orthodontic treatment to complete dental alignment. Thirty patients were treated using this combined approach, with excellent results and few complications.
Boke, Fatma; Gazioglu, Cagri; Akkaya, Sevil; Akkaya, Murat
Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health. Materials and Methods: A total of 251 patients among whom 177 were girls and 74 were boys, recruited from the records pool of the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, were included in the study. Patients’ treatments have been completed by postgraduate students during the period between 2006 and 2012. Patients’ folders were analyzed according to their age, treatment time, and the type of orthodontic treatment. Intra-oral photographs were analyzed, and the presence or absence of visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession were recorded, and incisor inclinations analyzed on lateral cephalometric films, before and after orthodontic treatment. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in patients treated with functional appliances before and after treatment. In patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, visible plaque, visible inflammation, and gingival recession showed significant increases after treatment, gingival biotype did not show any significant difference. Positive correlation was found between lower incisor position and gingival recession in patients treated with fixed appliance and extraction. And also cuspids were the teeth with the highest prevalence of gingival recession. Conclusion: Considering the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival health, cooperation among patients, orthodontists, and periodontists is important. PMID:25202219
Pizzo, G; Licata, M E; Guiglia, R; Giuliana, G
The aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the literature on the root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment. Original papers on this subject, published in English from January 2000 until December 2005, were located in the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Other sources were taken from the references of the selected papers. Root resorption is the most common sequela of the orthodontic treatment. It is an inflammatory process that leads to an ischemic necrosis localized in the periodontal ligament when the orthodontic force is applied. The onset and progression of root resorption are associated with risk factors related to the orthodontic treatment such as the duration of treatment, the magnitude of the force applied, the direction of the tooth movement, the method of force application (continuous versus intermittent), the orthodontic movement. Patient-related risk factors are the individual susceptibility on a genetic basis, some systemic diseases, anomalies in root morphology, dental trauma, and previous endodontic treatment. The prevention of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment may be performed controlling the risk factors. The periodic radiographic control during the treatment is necessary in order to detect the occurrence of root damages and quickly reassess the treatment goals.
A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The patient's severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient's sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas. PMID:27668098
Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev K; Tariq, Mohd; Prabhat, K C; Kumar, Shailendra
As in the traditional combined surgical and orthodontic procedures, an Orthodontist can plays vital role in treatment planning and the orthodontic treatment of patient undergoing distraction osteogenesis. This role includes predistraction assessment of the craniofacial skeleton and occlusal function, pre-distraction, and post-distraction orthodontic care. Based on clinical evaluation, dental study models, photographic analysis, cephalometric evaluation, and three-dimensional computed tomographic analysis, the Orthodontist, in collaboration with the Surgeon, plans distraction device placement and the predicted vectors of distraction. Finally, as in other forms of orthognathic surgery, the practice of distraction osteogenesis depends on the cooperation and planning between orthodontist and surgeon as a team. Purpose of this paper is to review biomechanics and orthodontic treatment protocol of distraction osteogenesis in the maxillofacial region.
Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev K.; Tariq, Mohd.; Prabhat, K. C.; Kumar, Shailendra
As in the traditional combined surgical and orthodontic procedures, an Orthodontist can plays vital role in treatment planning and the orthodontic treatment of patient undergoing distraction osteogenesis. This role includes predistraction assessment of the craniofacial skeleton and occlusal function, pre-distraction, and post-distraction orthodontic care. Based on clinical evaluation, dental study models, photographic analysis, cephalometric evaluation, and three-dimensional computed tomographic analysis, the Orthodontist, in collaboration with the Surgeon, plans distraction device placement and the predicted vectors of distraction. Finally, as in other forms of orthognathic surgery, the practice of distraction osteogenesis depends on the cooperation and planning between orthodontist and surgeon as a team. Purpose of this paper is to review biomechanics and orthodontic treatment protocol of distraction osteogenesis in the maxillofacial region. PMID:22639497
Llewellyn, Stuart K; Hamdan, Ahmad M; Rock, William P
The aim of the present study was to develop an index specifically for the measurement of treatment complexity. Input factors were directly related to complexity, and the output was a score measuring the degree of treatment complexity. The sample comprised 120 sets of dental casts, 30 for each of the four main malocclusion classes. Sixteen orthodontists graded the study casts for perceived treatment complexity on a six-point scale and then listed, in order of importance, up to three occlusal features which they felt contributed to complexity from a pre-determined list. Multiple regression analysis was used to derive weightings for each occlusal feature, which would reflect the relevant treatment complexity. In order to obtain an overall treatment complexity score for each case, weightings were then multiplied by the corresponding occlusal feature scores and summed. The relationship between treatment complexity scores and perceived complexity was examined using Spearman's ranked correlation coefficient. The regression equation explained 49.5 per cent of the variance in treatment complexity of the whole sample. Regression analysis on the basis of malocclusion produced R (2) values of 90.7 per cent for Class I, 42.6 per cent for Class II division 1, 62.3 per cent for Class II division 2, and 79.5 per cent for Class III malocclusions. The index of orthodontic treatment complexity (IOTC) scores showed a moderate but highly significant association with the orthodontists' perceived complexity assessments (rho = 0.42, P = 0.000). The proposed IOTC shows sufficient promise to warrant further development.
Yip, Hilings H Y; Wong, Ricky W K; Hägg, Urban
Soft drink consumption has steadily increased in recent decades in both western and developing countries. The trend is most apparent among children and adolescents. This rise in soft drink consumption has raised concerns among health care professionals, including dental practitioners. Accordingly, the effects of soft drinks on dental health have been investigated. Several studies have shown that dental problems, such as caries, enamel erosion, and corrosion of dental materials, may be associated with soft drink consumption. Because orthodontic appliances restrict toothbrush access, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment need special oral care and advice. This article reviews the risks and implications of soft drink consumption for orthodontic patients.
McGuinness, Niall J P
As a result of recent innovations and improvements, orthodontic treatment has become easier and more efficient to carry out, allowing greater numbers of patients to receive treatment. The main result of orthodontic treatment is improved dental alignment and aesthetics. Treatment has no effect on caries or periodontal disease, and the dental health gain is modest, apart from a very small percentage of destructive malocclusions. Psychological improvements using different psychological parameters show differing results and it is not clear that any psychological gains are long lasting. Social gain (greater willingness to smile, feeling good about oneself, satisfaction with dental appearance, etc.), and reported improved quality of life (QoL measures), are now becoming more important as consumer-related outcomes and may, ultimately, contribute to psychosocial and psychological status. Stability of orthodontic treatment results cannot be guaranteed and all patients need to be informed of this, and of the need for long-term retention. Malocclusion has little or no relationship to temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction and orthodontic treatment neither causes nor cures such problems. Extractions as part of orthodontic treatment do not cause TMD, nor do they cause collapse of the vertical dimension. The major improvements in dental health in the last 40 years have been accompanied by a great increase in demand for treatment. In any public health service that is free at the point of use, demand for treatment invariably exceeds the ability of resources to supply this. Indices of treatment need are widely used to determine treatment need and eligibility for treatment in public health systems. Demand for orthodontic treatment among adolescents can be as high as 60% in the general population, while the professionally-assessed need for treatment is approximately half this figure. Age, sex, socio-economic status, perceived unattractiveness of dental appearance, and availability of
Coyne, R; Woods, M; Abrams, R
A professionally managed telephone survey was undertaken to assess community-perceived need and demand for orthodontic treatment, and to determine the proportion of the community with a history of having some form of orthodontic treatment. The sample included 505 respondents, aged eighteen and over, from metropolitan and non-metropolitan households across the state of Victoria in Australia. The sample distribution had a ninety-five per cent confidence limit with a five per cent margin of error, and closely matched the known population distributions for age, sex and geographical location. From the survey it can be concluded that apparently forty-four per cent of Victorian families include someone who has already received some form of orthodontic treatment. Twenty-five per cent of the survey respondents perceived some need for the treatment of a family member; only fifteen per cent of respondents, however, reported that someone in their family actually wanted treatment. This survey has established baseline values for community perceived need and demand for orthodontic treatment. Use of these values should assist in future resource management within both the public and private sectors.
Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting
Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment
Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting
Abstract Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment. Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20–22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans. From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant. During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the
Furquim, Bruna Alves; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; Simoneti, Luis Fernando; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore
The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion. She had significant anteroposterior and transverse discrepancies, a concave profile, and strained lip closure. Intraorally, she had a negative overjet of 5 mm and an overbite of 5 mm. The treatment objectives were to correct the malocclusion, and facial esthetic and also return the correct function. The surgical procedures included a Le Fort I osteotomy for expansion, advancement, impaction, and rotation of the maxilla to correct the occlusal plane inclination. There was 2 mm of impaction of the anterior portion of the maxilla and 5 mm of extrusion in the posterior region. A bilateral sagittal split osteotomy was performed in order to allow counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and anterior projection of the chin, accompanying the maxillary occlusal plane. Rigid internal fixation was used without any intermaxillary fixation. It was concluded that these procedures were very effective in producing a pleasing facial esthetic result, showing stability 7 years posttreatment. PMID:25431691
Jeong, Tae-Min; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Song, Seung-Il
Purpose: The efficiency of an anchor plate placed during orthognathic surgery via minimal presurgical orthodontic treatment was evaluated by analyzing the mandibular relapse rate and dental changes. Methods: The subjects included nine patients with Class III malocclusion who had bilateral sagittal split osteotomy at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry in Ajou University Hospital, after minimal presurgical orthodontic treatment. During orthognathic surgery, anchor plates were placed at both maxillary buttresses. The anchor plates were used to move maxillary teeth backward and for maximum anchorage of Class III elastics to minimize mandibular relapse during the postoperative orthodontic treatment. The lateral cephalometric X-ray was taken preoperatively (T0), postoperatively (T1), and one year after the surgery (T2). Seven measurements (distance from Pogonion to line Nasion-Nasion perpendicular [Pog-N Per.], angle of line B point-Nasion and Nasion-Sella [SNB], angle of line maxilla 1 root-maxilla 1 crown and Nasion-Sella [U1 to SN], distance from maxilla 1 crown to line A point-Nasion [U1 to NA], overbite, overjet, and interincisal angle) were taken. Measurements at T0 to T1 and T1 to T2 were compared and differences tested by standard statistical methods. Results: The mean skeletal change was posterior movement by 13.87±4.95 mm based on pogonion from T0 to T1, and anterior movement by 1.54±2.18 mm from T1 to T2, showing relapse of about 10.2%. There were significant changes from T0 to T1 for both Pog-N Per. and SNB (P <0.05). However, there were no statistically significant changes from T1 to T2 for both Pog-N Per. and SNB. U1 to NA that represents the anterior-posterior changes of maxillary incisor did not differ from T0 to T1, yet there was a significant change from T1 to T2 (P <0.05). Conclusion: This study found that the anchor plate minimizes mandibular relapse and moves the maxillary teeth backward during the postoperative
Zawawi, Khalid H.
Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852
Zawawi, Khalid H
Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding.
Sadowsky, C; BeGole, E A
The periodontal health of a group of ninety-six patients who had received comprehensive fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment during adolescence between 12 and 35 years previously was evaluated. Comparisons were made with a group of 103 adults who were similar with regard to race, sex, age, socioeconomic status, dental awareness, and oral hygiene status but had malocclusions that had not been orthodontically treated. There were no statistically significant differences in the general prevalence of periodontal disease between the two groups. However, more detailed analysis revealed that the orthodontic group had a greater prevalence of mild to moderate periodontal disease in the maxillary posterior and mandibular anterior regions of the mouth, as compared to the control group. The results suggested that orthodontic treatment in adolescence is not a major factor in determining the long-term periodontal health status. No significant amount of either damage or benefit to the periodontal structures could be directly attributed to orthodontic therapy. Conversely, the lack of orthodontic therapy in adolescence does not appear to influence subsequent development or nondevelopment of periodontal disease in adults.
McNamara, J A; Seligman, D A; Okeson, J P
A review of the current literature regarding the interaction of morphologic and functional occlusal factors relative to TMD indicates that there is a relatively low association of occlusal factors in characterizing TMD. Skeletal anterior open bite, overjets greater than 6 to 7 mm, retruded cuspal position/intercuspal position slides greater than 4 mm, unilateral lingual crossbite, and five or more missing posterior teeth are the five occlusal features that have been associated with specific diagnostic groups of TMD conditions. The first three factors often are associated with TMJ arthropathies and may be the result of osseous or ligamentous changes within the temporomandibular articulation. With regard to the relationship of orthodontic treatment to TMD, the current literature indicates that orthodontic treatment performed during adolescence generally does not increase or decrease the odds of developing TMD later in life. There is no elevated risk of TMD associated with any particular type of orthodontic mechanics or with extraction protocols. Although a stable occlusion is a reasonable orthodontic treatment goal, not achieving a specific gnathologically ideal occlusion does not result in TMD signs and symptoms. Thus, according to the existing literature, the relationship of TMD to occlusion and orthodontic treatment is minor. Signs and symptoms of TMD occur in healthy individuals and increase with age, particularly during adolescence; thus, TM disorders that originate during various types of dental treatment may not be related to the treatment but may be a naturally occurring phenomenon.
Pinto, Alice Souza; Alves, Luana Severo; Zenkner, Júlio Eduardo do Amaral; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Maltz, Marisa
In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of the duration of fixed orthodontic treatment on gingival enlargement (GE) in adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 260 subjects (ages, 10-30 years) divided into 4 groups: patients with no fixed orthodontic appliances (G0) and patients undergoing orthodontic treatment for 1 year (G1), 2 years (G2), or 3 years (G3). Participants completed a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits. Clinical examinations were conducted by a calibrated examiner and included the plaque index, the gingival index, and the Seymour index. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between group and GE. We observed increasing means of plaque, gingivitis, and GE in G0, G1, and G2. No significant differences were observed between G2 and G3. Adjusted Poisson regression analysis showed that patients undergoing orthodontic treatment had a 20 to 28-fold increased risk for GE than did those without orthodontic appliances (G1, rate ratio [RR] = 20.2, 95% CI = 9.0-45.3; G2, RR = 27.0, 95% CI = 12.1-60.3; G3 = 28.1; 95% CI = 12.6-62.5). The duration of orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the occurrence of GE. Oral hygiene instructions and motivational activities should target adolescents and young adults undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Špalj, Stjepan; Šlaj, Martina; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Žak, Irena; Šimunović, Martina; Šlaj, Mladen
The aim of this study was to explore the association between signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and orthodontic treatment need in orthodontically untreated children and adolescents. One thousand five hundred and ninety-seven subjects aged 11-19 years, without previous orthodontic history, from sixteen randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia, were examined. Malocclusion characteristics were assessed by using the criteria proposed by Bjork et al., the Dental Aesthetic Index, and the Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Data on TMD signs/symptoms and parafunctional behaviour were obtained by means of questionnaire and clinical examination, respectively. Multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Twenty-two percent of children and young adolescents had one or more signs of TMD, ranging from 17% in age of 11 years up to 24% in age of 19. There was poor correlation between presence of TMD and orthodontic treatment need. Multiple logistic regression models showed that Class III, crowding and spacing were related to mandibular deflection on opening. Ectopic eruption was related to TMJ clicking, and severely tipped teeth with reduced mouth opening. Headaches presented a positive relationship with reverse overjet and severe rotations, and tooth wear with crowding, spacing and lateral openbite. Age, female gender and parafunctional habits were related to several TMD signs. Although logistic regression models were statistically significant (p < 0.05) malocclusions, parafunctional behaviours, age and gender accounted for less than 20% of the variability in TMD signs/symptoms. TMD signs and symptoms seemed to be poorly related to malocclusions or treatment needs.
Jamilian, Abdolreza; Darnahal, Alireza; Damani, Elnaz; Talaeipour, Maziar; Kamali, Zinat
Background. Widespread use of the IOTN along with detailed study of occlusal traits is suitable for planning community dental health resources. Objectives. The aim of current study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment among school children of Tehran by means of the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and also to evaluate the occlusal traits of the subjects. Methods. 684 (343 boys and 341 girls) school children, 15 to 17 years of age, were selected at random from 12 schools to represent the four main areas of Tehran. The final sample who met the inclusion criteria comprised 643 subjects (322 males and 321 females). Malocclusion was determined with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The IOTN grades were statistically compared in the two genders using chi-square test. Results. Orthodontic treatment need, using the DHC, was found in only 9.0 per cent of the children. The prevalence of Angle Class I malocclusion in this study was higher than other malocclusions (65.2 per cent), followed by crowding in 62.7 per cent of the subjects. Conclusion. Orthodontic treatment need for Tehran high school students was relatively lower than that reported in most recent studies in Europe.
Giuca, Maria Rita; Pasini, Marco; Caruso, Silvia; Tecco, Simona; Necozione, Stefano; Gatto, Roberto
Aim. This case-control retrospective study is aimed at assessing if obese adolescents need more orthodontic treatment in comparison with normal-weight patients of the same age. Methods. The test group included 100 obese subjects (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.09 ± 1.19 years old) and the control group included 100 normal-weight patients matched for age and sex (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.07 ± 1.26 years old). Clinical examinations were conducted on dental casts to assess the need of orthodontic treatment, by using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) (DHC, dental health component; AC, aesthetic components). Results. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the two groups with regard to AC. Obese females showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of DHC 3 (32%) in comparison to the normal-weight girls (22%); for the other grades of DHC and for the single kind of malocclusion, no significant difference was found. Conclusions. Obese adolescents showed a similar need for orthodontic treatment compared to normal-weight patients of the same age. However, in obese females, a slightly greater need for orthodontic treatment was observed, compared to normal-weight patients.
Giuca, Maria Rita; Caruso, Silvia; Tecco, Simona; Necozione, Stefano; Gatto, Roberto
Aim. This case-control retrospective study is aimed at assessing if obese adolescents need more orthodontic treatment in comparison with normal-weight patients of the same age. Methods. The test group included 100 obese subjects (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.09 ± 1.19 years old) and the control group included 100 normal-weight patients matched for age and sex (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.07 ± 1.26 years old). Clinical examinations were conducted on dental casts to assess the need of orthodontic treatment, by using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) (DHC, dental health component; AC, aesthetic components). Results. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the two groups with regard to AC. Obese females showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of DHC 3 (32%) in comparison to the normal-weight girls (22%); for the other grades of DHC and for the single kind of malocclusion, no significant difference was found. Conclusions. Obese adolescents showed a similar need for orthodontic treatment compared to normal-weight patients of the same age. However, in obese females, a slightly greater need for orthodontic treatment was observed, compared to normal-weight patients. PMID:25945093
Jatania, Archana; Shivalinga, B M; Kiran, Jyothi
Root resorption that occurs in permanent teeth is an unwanted process and is considered pathologic. Although apical root resorption occurs in individuals who have never experienced orthodontic tooth movement, the incidence among treated individuals is seen to be significantly higher. Some resorption occurs in most orthodontic patients, but because of repair the changes are difficult to detect with radiographic examination and therefore are clinically insignificant. This article gives a review of the various types of root resorption, the etiological factors, the biology and the identification of root resorption.
McMullin, Ailbhe; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais
The aim of this second article of the three part series is to sum up the current developments in lingual orthodontics. This article attempts to review the development, advantages and disadvantages, bonding techniques, bracket mechanics, patient factors and types of lingual appliance systems available. In addition, the article shows examples of treated cases with lingual appliances. Lingual appliances are a useful addition to the armamentarium of invisible orthodontic appliances, with significant developments over the last few years. Clinicians need to be aware of the advances and predictable results achievable with lingual appliances.
Campbell, Charee L; Roberts, W Eugene; Hartsfield, James K; Qi, Rong
The American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) discrepancy index (DI) quantifies the severity of a malocclusion. The ABO objective grading system (OGS) assesses the quality of orthodontic finishing. Indiana University's comprehensive clinical assessment (CCA) supplements the OGS to provide an instrument to determine clinical outcomes. The purposes of this article were to (1) determine whether treatment outcome is related to the type of malocclusion as defined by the ABO classification, (2) determine the fraction of finished orthodontic cases in the graduate orthodontics clinic that are within the ABO standards for passing the phase III clinical examination, (3) evaluate the contribution of each component of the OGS and the CCA to the total OGS and CCA scores, (4) determine the percentage of finished cases that meet the ABO case category specifications, and (5) identify problem areas to improve the quality of treatment for challenging malocclusions. Three hundred eighty-two cases that satisfied requirements for 8 of the ABO's malocclusion categories were selected from 989 consecutively finished cases from 1998 through 2003. They were evaluated by using the OGS, the CCA, and the DI. The average OGS score was 32.64, the average CCA score was 5.62, and the average DI score was 20.94. There was no significant difference in the OGS and the CCA scores among the categories. Categories 2, 5, 7, and 8 had a DI score that was significantly higher than the average for the entire sample. The OGS and CCA scores were positively correlated with the DI score, meaning that complex malocclusions are challenging to finish well. The most points lost for the OGS and the CCA were for occlusal contacts and treatment efficiency (length of treatment relative to the result), respectively. The fewest points lost were for interproximal contacts and vertical control, respectively. Furthermore, prematurely terminated cases (early debonds) had longer treatment times and higher (worse) OGS and CCA
Heidary, Z; Mojra, A; Shirazi, M; Bazargan, M
The main objective of this paper is to propose a novel method that provides an opportunity to evaluate an orthodontic process at early phase of the treatment. This was accomplished by finding out a correlation between the applied orthodontic force and thermal variations in the tooth structure. To this end, geometry of the human tooth surrounded by the connective soft tissue called the periodontal ligament and the bone was constructed by employing dental CT scan images of a specific case. The periodontal ligament was modeled by finite strain viscoelastic model through a nonlinear stress-strain relation (hyperelasticity) and nonlinear stress-time relation (viscoelasticity). The tooth structure was loaded by a lateral force with 15 different quantities applied to 20 different locations, along the midedge of the tooth crown. The resultant compressive stress in the periodontal ligament was considered as the cause of elevated cell activity that was modeled by a transient heat flux in the thermal analysis. The heat flux value was estimated by conducting an experiment on a pair of rats. The numerical results showed that by applying an orthodontic force to the tooth structure, a significant temperature rise was observed. By measuring the temperature rise, the orthodontic process can be evaluated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Christensen, L; Luther, F
The growth in adult orthodontics presents new challenges to both the general dental practitioner and the orthodontist. Although many of the main objectives of orthodontic treatment are similar for adults, young adults and children, adult patients frequently bring significant challenges in several areas not often seen in the younger patient group. In areas such as planning realistic treatment outcomes, it is paramount that the patient's expectations are identified, respected and managed where appropriate. The adult patient's dental health often dictates deviation from the ideal treatment plan and periodontal problems are a common example. Based on current evidence, this paper presents an overview of some of the difficulties in the management of these issues, as well as highlighting developments with regard to pain conditions and their relevance to orthodontic treatment and its effects on temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) management.
Bennett, M E; Tulloch, J F; Vig, K W; Phillips, C L
The aims of this study were to develop a reliable self-report measure of consumer satisfaction with orthodontic treatment, and to preliminarily assess its validity. Transcripts of qualitative interviews with patients, their parents, and practicing orthodontists together with items from existing dental satisfaction questionnaires were used to develop a pool of 41 items assessing satisfaction with various aspects of orthodontic care. These items were paired with five-point Likert scales (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree) and were administered to 299 parents of children who had completed orthodontic treatment at two university-based clinics. Factor analyses and reliability analyses identified three main subscales with high reliabilities: 13 items assessing satisfaction with treatment process (Cronbach's alpha = .92), seven items assessing satisfaction with psychosocial effects of treatment (Cronbach's alpha = .87), and five items assessing satisfaction with overall treatment outcome (Cronbach's alpha = .79). Relationships among these three subscales and pre- and posttreatment variables were examined in a subset of 86 parents/patients. Forward stepwise regression with backward overlook revealed no significant relationships between any satisfaction subscale and demographic variables. Posttreatment overjet was inversely related to parental satisfaction with orthodontic treatment process (R2 = .13; P < .001), and parent satisfaction with treatment outcome (R2 = .28; P < .0001). Improvement in esthetics as measured by improvement in IOTN Aesthetic Component scores was positively related to satisfaction with psychosocial outcomes (R2 = .28; P < .0001). The present instrument is reliable and can be used to assess three dimensions of parental satisfaction with their child's orthodontic treatment. Relationships between visible orthodontic outcome variables and parent satisfaction provide preliminary validity support for the instrument.
Bennett, M. Elizabeth; Vig, Katherine W. L.; Phillips, Ceib L.
Objectives The aims of this study were to develop a reliable self-report measure of consumer satisfaction with orthodontic treatment, and to preliminarily assess its validity. Method Transcripts of qualitative interviews with patients, their parents, and practicing orthodontists together with items from existing dental satisfaction questionnaires were used to develop a pool of 41 items assessing satisfaction with various aspects of orthodontic care. These items were paired with five-point Likert scales (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree) and were administered to 299 parents of children who had completed orthodontic treatment at two university-based clinics. Results Factor analyses and reliability analyses identified three main subscales with high reliabilities: 13 items assessing satisfaction with treatment process (Cronbach’s alpha=.92), seven items assessing satisfaction with psychosocial effects of treatment (Cronbach’s alpha=.87), and five items assessing satisfaction with overall treatment outcome (Cronbach’s alpha=. 79). Relationships among these three subscales and pre- and posttreatment variables were examined in a subset of 86 parent/patients. Forward stepwise regression with backward overlook revealed no significant relationships between any satisfaction subscale and demographic variables. Posttreatment overjet was inversely related to parental satisfaction with orthodontic treatment process (R2=.13; P<.001), and parent satisfaction with treatment outcome (R2=.28; P<.0001). Improvement in esthetics as measured by improvement in IOTN Aesthetic Component scores was positively related to satisfaction with psychosocial outcomes (R2=.28; P<.0001). Conclusions The present instrument is reliable and can be used to assess three dimensions of parental satisfaction with their child‘s orthodontic treatment. Relationships between visible orthodontic outcome variables and parent satisfaction provide preliminary validity support for the instrument. PMID
Introduction. Physical, mental, and social consequences of malocclusion may impact the quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe main factors motivating parents for orthodontic treatment for their children. Methods. A systematic review study design was used to identify articles analyzing different motivational factors in orthodontic treatment appearing in Medline database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The search terms used were teasing, motivating factors, orthodontics, malocclusion, quality of life, smile attractiveness, and perception of malocclusion. Papers selected up to May 2013 included retrospective and prospective longitudinal studies, randomized control trials, cross-sectional studies, reviews, and meta-analyses. Results. 13 articles included in this review identified aesthetics as the main motivational factor in orthodontic treatment. Children mention teeth crowding, large overbite, missing teeth, and largest maxillary anterior irregularities also as motivational factors. Parents want their children to look nice and worry of being accused of neglecting parental duties. Conclusions. Dissatisfaction with one's appearance, dentist recommendation, interest and worries of parents, and the impact of peers who wear braces rank among the main motivation factors of seeking orthodontic treatment. Understanding these factors allows better planning of resources and better assessment of the requirements and priorities of treatment. PMID:24963296
Bai, Y X
Three-dimensional(3D)digital technology has been widely used in the field of orthodontics in clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment and curative effect evaluation. 3D digital technology greatly improves the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment, and provides effective means for personalized orthodontic treatment. This review focuses on the application of 3D digital technology in the field of orthodontics.
Spalj, Stjepan; Slaj, Martina; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Govorko, Danijela Kalibović; Slaj, Mladen
The purpose of this study was to estimate unmet orthodontic treatment needs of adolescents in Zagreb, Croatia, compare normative and self-perceived need and investigate factors influencing the reason why untreated subjects with severe malocclusions have not been treated before. One thousand and forty-two non-orthodontically treated subjects in age groups of 12 and 18 years, from sixteen randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia were examined. The Dental Aesthetic Index, Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and a questionnaire concerning self-perceived orthodontic treatment need, perception of aesthetics, function, behaviors and socioeconomic status were used. Around one third of untreated adolescent population had an objective need, less than 20 percent had aesthetic need, and self-perceived need was reported in one third of population. Associations and agreements between objective, aesthetic and self-perceived need were weak (r = 0.27-0.48; p < 0.001 and κ in range from 0.05 (p > 0.05) to 0.32 (p < 0.05), respectively). Satisfaction with personal dental appearance and awareness of malocclusion were better related in persons with no treatment need or minor need (r = 0.53-0.59) than in those with major need (r = 0.31-0.40). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed that objective, aesthetic and self-perceived needs were better related between themselves than to socio-economic status of subjects, function, activities of daily living and oral health-related behaviors. It appears that self-perceived treatment need has low role in predicting objective need, but relation between satisfaction and awareness of malocclusion could be one of basic factors in process of making decision to go for treatment and maybe could serve in predicting patient's compliance.
Tanaka, Eiji; Nishi-Sasaki, Akiko; Hasegawa, Takuro; Nishio, Clarice; Kawai, Nobuhiko; Tanne, Kazuo
The correction of a severe maxillary protrusion in an adult by distal movement of the maxillary molars has been one of the most difficult biomechanical problems in orthodontics. This article reports on the treatment of an adult case of severe maxillary protrusion and a large overjet treated with a skeletal anchorage system. A female patient, age 22 years and 3 months, complained of the difficulty of lip closure due to severe maxillary protrusion with a gummy smile. Overjet and overbite were +7.6 mm and -0.9 mm, respectively. She had a history of orthodontic treatment in which her maxillary first premolars were extracted. In order to conduct distal movement of the maxillary molars, anchor plates were placed in the zygomatic process. After achieving a Class I molar relationship, retraction and intrusion of the maxillary incisors were performed. After a 2-year treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved with a Class I molar relationship. Her convex facial profile with upper lip protrusion was considerably improved, and the lips showed less tension in lip closure. After a 2-year retention period, an acceptable occlusion was maintained without recurrence of maxillary protrusion, indicating a stability of the occlusion. The result of this treatment indicated that skeletal anchorage is of great importance as a remedy for achieving intrusion and retraction of the maxillary incisors in cases of severe maxillary protrusion with a patient who had previous orthodontic treatment.
Hackett, Paul M. W.; And Others
Motivation for receiving orthodontic treatment was studied among 109 young adults, and a multivariate model of the process is proposed. The combination of smallest scale analysis and Partial Order Scalogram Analysis by base Coordinates (POSAC) illustrates an interesting methodology for health treatment studies and explores motivation for dental…
Hackett, Paul M. W.; And Others
Motivation for receiving orthodontic treatment was studied among 109 young adults, and a multivariate model of the process is proposed. The combination of smallest scale analysis and Partial Order Scalogram Analysis by base Coordinates (POSAC) illustrates an interesting methodology for health treatment studies and explores motivation for dental…
Talic, Nabeel F.
Orthodontic treatment is associated with a number of adverse effects, such as root resorption, pain, pulpal changes, periodontal disease, and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Orthodontists should be aware of these effects and associated risk factors. Risk factors linked to root resorption include the duration of treatment, length, and shape of the root, trauma history, habits, and genetic predisposition. PMID:24151415
Sabatoski, Claudio Vinicius; Bueno, Regis Claret; Reyes Pacheco, Ariel Adriano; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro
A 41-year-old man had a significant loss of bone and supporting tissues with pathologic migration of several teeth and several missing teeth. He was treated with an interdisciplinary therapeutic protocol that included nonsurgical periodontal therapy based on strict control of supragingival plaque, subgingival periodontal therapy, orthodontic and endodontic treatment, and replacement of restorations. The orthodontic therapy was performed in a severely reduced bone support and the presence of pathological tooth migration after periodontal disease control. The interdisciplinary treatment protocol was the key to achieve a significant improvement in his facial and dental esthetics, masticatory function, and quality of life. PMID:26587295
Orthodontic studies over several decades have found generally inconsistent agreement among dentists when evaluating orthodontic treatment need. There... Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) is an occlusal index that has been found to be both reliable and valid in studies both in Europe and in the United...improve dental students’ ability to assess orthodontic treatment need. Fourth-year dental students were divided into three groups of twenty (control
Soldatova, L N; Horoshilkina, F Ya; Iordanishvili, A K
The aim of the study was to estimate dental health of servicemen of young and middle age using PMA index, Schiller-Pisarev assay, iodic number of Svrakov, OHI-S. Hundred and six servicemen were enrolled in the study: control group (n=35) with no orthodontic treatment and groups 2 (n=34) and 3 (n=37) group undergoing orthodontic treatment with bracket-systems. All patients had professional oral hygiene and received standard oral care recommendations. Group 3 participants additionally used dental foam (Splat, Russia) after meal. All patients were examined at baseline and 12 months later. In the presence of orthodontic appliances standard oral care products were not enough to maintain proper oral health. Dental foam improved both periodontal condition and OHI-S.
Poulton, Donald; Vlaskalic, Vicki; Baumrind, Sheldon
This study is a continuation of a previously published report on the outcome of orthodontic treatment provided in offices representing different modes of practice. The sample consisted of duplicate pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) dental casts of 348 patients from traditional private orthodontic practices (5 offices, 134 patients), company-owned practices (5 offices, 107 patients), offices associated with practice-management organizations (2 offices, 60 patients), and general dental practices (2 offices, 47 patients). Methods were used to obtain random, representative samples from each office, starting with lists of patients who were treated consecutively with full fixed orthodontic appliances. The dental casts were measured by 2 independent judges who used the unweighted PAR score. Good interjudge agreement was shown on the initial casts, but the agreement was not as strong on the final casts. The measurements showed that treatment outcomes were generally satisfactory, although some significant differences between offices and management modes were shown.
Kokai, Satoshi; Kanno, Zuisei; Koike, Sarina; Uesugi, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Yuzo; Ono, Takashi; Soma, Kunimichi
Autotransplantation has become a major therapeutic option for replacing missing teeth in adult orthodontic patients. However, little systematic information is available about the long-term stability of autotransplanted teeth with complete root formation after the application of an orthodontic force. The objective of this study was to investigate the outcomes of autotransplanted teeth with complete root formation that underwent orthodontic treatment. One hundred teeth, autotransplanted in 89 patients, were examined over a mean observation period of 5.8 years. Orthodontic force was applied with nickel-titanium wires 4 to 8 weeks after autotransplantation. Root resorption, ankylosis, mobility, pocket depth, and inflammation at the recipient site were investigated clinically and with radiographs. The survival rate of the autotransplanted teeth was 93.0%. Abnormal findings were found in 29 teeth, including 7 lost teeth, for a success rate of 71.0%. Donor tooth type and occlusal condition of the donor tooth before transplantation were associated with abnormal findings. The early application of orthodontic force may increase the success rate of autotransplanted teeth, and the type and presurgical occlusal condition of donor teeth affect the success rate. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pandian, Akshaya; Ranganathan, Sukanya; Padmanabhan, Sridevi
To evaluate and compare the effect of various orthodontic bonding systems and clean up procedures on quantitative enamel colour change. A literature search was done to identify the studies that assessed the quantitative enamel colour change associated with the various bonding systems and cleanup procedures. Electronic database (Pub Med, Cochrane and Google Scholar) were searched. First stage screening was performed and the abstracts were selected according to the initial selection criteria. Full text articles were retrieved and analyzed during second stage screening. The bibliographies were reviewed to identify additional relevant studies. Sixteen full text articles were retrieved. Six were rejected because the methodology was different. There was significant enamel colour change following orthodontic bonding, debonding and clean up procedures. Self-etching primers produce less enamel colour change compared to conventional etching. Resin Modified GIC produces least colour change compared to other light cure and chemical cure systems. Polishing following the clean-up procedure reduces the colour change of the enamel.
Meeran, Nazeer Ahmed
The benefits of orthodontic treatment are numerous and in most cases, the benefits outweigh the possible disadvantages. Orthodontic treatment can play an important role in enhancing esthetics, function, and self-esteem in patients. However, it carries with it the risks of enamel demineralization, tissue damage, root resorption, open gingival embrasures in the form of triangular spaces, allergic reactions to nickel, and treatment failure in the form of relapse. These potential complications are easily avoidable by undertaking certain precautions and timely interventions by both the orthodontist and the patient. The orthodontist must ensure that the patient is aware of the associated risks and stress the importance of the patient's role in preventing these untoward outcomes. The decision whether to proceed with the orthodontic treatment is essentially a risk-benefit analysis, where the perceived benefits of commencing treatment outweigh the potential risks. This article provides an overview of the iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and the role of the patient as well as the orthodontist in preventing the associated risks. PMID:24987646
Tillery, T J; Hembree, J H; Weber, F N
One hundred thirty-two extracted premolar teeth were selected and divided into four equal groups. The first group of thirty-three teeth received a topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride; the second group, a topical application of stannous fluoride; the third group, an application of a polymeric adhesive coating; the fourth group was left untreated to serve as a control. On each tooth a loosely fitted orthodontic band was cemented to place. After cementation, the band was broken to simulate a loose orthodontic band in vivo. The four groups of teeth were simultaneously immersed in a decalcifying gelatin and were left undisturbed for 11 weeks. The teeth were then removed and a record was made of the decalcification produced. A chi-square test was used to compare the teeth in each group to those in every other group. Compared to a control group of teeth, those teeth treated with polymeric adhesive coating, acidulated phosphate fluoride, or stannous fluoride produced a statistically significant reduction in decalcification of the tooth surfaces beneath loose orthodontic bands. For a one-application technique, the polymeric adhesive coating provided more protection against decalcification of teeth under loose orthondontic bands than did either acidulated phosphate fluoride or stannous flouride.
Uematsu, Setsuko; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi; Deguchi, Toshio; Kurihara, Saburo
The impacted incisor was moved into its proper position with surgical exposure and orthodontic traction. Although apicoectomy was performed during the orthodontic treatment, the incisor showed good stability after the long retention period.
This article indicates the origins and background of the current series of National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research-funded, university-based clinical studies of orthodontic treatment. It suggests that future studies should be less focused on refining our estimates of mean changes during treatment and concentrate research on the systematic analysis of individual differences among patients' responses to treatment, and study how skilled clinicians make in-course corrections in response to unexpected changes in treatment conditions. Finally, some suggestions are made concerning optimization of decision making in the presence of uncertainty.
Edwards, Daenya T; Shroff, Bhavna; Lindauer, Steven J; Fowler, Chad E; Tufekci, Eser
To determine the effect of media advertising on consumer perception of orthodontic treatment quality. A survey instrument was designed to evaluate factors influencing consumer selection of an orthodontist and consumer perception of different forms of media advertising (radio, television, newspaper, magazine, direct mail, and billboard) by orthodontic practices. The surveys were distributed by eight orthodontic offices in and around the Richmond, Virginia area. The survey return rate was 97%. Respondents most often cited dentist and patient referrals as how they learned of the orthodontic practices they visited (50% to 57%). A caring attitude and good practitioner reputation were the top reasons influencing actual selection of an orthodontist (53% and 49%, respectively). Of respondents, 14% to 24% felt that advertising orthodontists would offer a lower quality of care than nonadvertising orthodontists. Newspaper, magazine, and direct mail advertisements were viewed more favorably than radio, television, and billboard advertisements. Chi-square analyses revealed few statistically significant differences in perception between different income and education groups. The majority of patients do not perceive advertising to reflect poorly on the quality of orthodontic care. However, patients with different income and education levels perceive media advertising differently.
Sadr Haghighi, Hooman; Skandarinejad, Mahsa; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan
One common negative side effect of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is the development of incipient caries lesions around brackets, particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene. Different methods have been used to prevent demineralization such as fluoride therapy and application of sealant to prevent caries. The recent effort to improve the resistance against the demineralization is by the application of different types of lasers. The purpose of this review article is discussing the effects of laser in prevention of demineralization in orthodontic patients. PMID:25606317
Ribeiro, Gerson Luiz Ulema; Jacob, Helder B.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Space closure is one of the most challenging processes in Orthodontics and requires a solid comprehension of biomechanics in order to avoid undesirable side effects. Understanding the biomechanical basis of space closure better enables clinicians to determine anchorage and treatment options. In spite of the variety of appliance designs, space closure can be performed by means of friction or frictionless mechanics, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Friction mechanics or sliding mechanics is attractive because of its simplicity; the space site is closed by means of elastics or coil springs to provide force, and the brackets slide on the orthodontic archwire. On the other hand, frictionless mechanics uses loop bends to generate force to close the space site, allowing differential moments in the active and reactive units, leading to a less or more anchorage control, depending on the situation. Objective: This article will discuss various theoretical aspects and methods of space closure based on biomechanical concepts. PMID:27275623
Lopatiene, Kristina; Borisovaite, Marija; Lapenaite, Egle
The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15). Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs) (P < 0.05); fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05). Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots.
Lopatiene, Kristina; Lapenaite, Egle
ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. Results 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15). Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs) (P < 0.05); fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05). Conclusions Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots. PMID:27489605
Benoist, H M; Ngom, P I; Seck-Diallo, A; Diallo, P D
Gingival enlargement is a condition that commonly develops during orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic appliances are irritation and retention plaque factors holding up oral hygiene and control of gingival inflammation. Two cases of gingival hypertrophy in young Senegalese females undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances are described and treated by gingivectomy. This surgical procedure have led to morphological conditions of gingiva allowing better plaque control and the orthodontic treatment going on. Periodical controls in child and adolescent are required for healthy periodontium during orthodontic therapy. Collaboration between orthodontist and periodontist is one of the most important keys to successful treatment.
Slade, Gary D.; Diatchenko, Luda; Ohrbach, Richard; Maixner, William
Traditionally, four groups of factors have been identified in the etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD): anatomical variation in the masticatory system; psychosocial characteristics; pain in other body regions; and demographics. Orthodontic treatment has been variously cited both as a protective and harmful factor in TMD etiology. Recently, a search has begun for a genetic influence on TMD etiology. Genetic markers can be of additional value in identifying gene-environment interactions, that is, isolating population sub-groups, defined by genotype in which environmental influences play a relatively greater or lesser etiological role. This paper reviews concepts and study design requirements for epidemiological investigations into TMD etiology. Findings are presented from a prospective cohort study of 186 females that illustrate an example of gene-environment interaction in TMD onset. Among people with a variant of the gene encoding catechol-O-methyl-transferase, an enzyme associated with pain responsiveness, risk of developing TMD was significantly greater for subjects who reported a history of orthodontic treatment compared with subjects who did not (P=0.04). While further studies are needed to investigate TMD etiology, this genetic variant potentially could help to identify patients whose risk of developing TMD is heightened following orthodontic treatment, hence serving as a risk marker useful in planning orthodontic care. PMID:18663384
Bourzgui, Farid; Aghoutan, Hakima; Diouny, Samir
The aim of this paper is to bring into focus the literature on the choice of the mandibular reference position in orthodontic treatment; of a particular reference to this paper is intercuspal position, centric relation position, or therapeutic position. To give a comprehensive account of the literature review on craniomandibular disorders (CMD), we have relied on books and articles using both Google Scholar and PubMed. Selection criteria included a combination of Mesh and type of article. Article classification was made by two authors, using the following structure outline: prevalence of craniomandibular disorders, its etiology and pathophysiology, occlusion and craniomandibular disorders, orthodontic treatment and CMD, and the mandibular reference position in orthodontics. An important conclusion that emerged from the present literature review is that CMD do not seem to be directly related to orthodontic treatment, and their appearance cannot be predicted or prevented by any means. Therefore, orthodontists must adopt a mandibular reference suitable to their patients and which best respects the balance existing in the stomatognathic system. PMID:24101929
Eftene, Oana Alexandra; Ispas, Dana Catrinel; Temelcea, Anca Nicoleta; Stanciu, R P; Simion, Ileana Graţiela; Stanciu, D
If, not long time ago, the simple prosthetic rehabilitation of an edentulous patient--with or without additional maxillary teeth abnormalities--was the only therapeutic solution, presently, the pre-prosthetic orthodontic treatment enabling the dental restoration treatment meets the basic requirements of any dental treatment, i.e. the (re)set-up of the morphological and functional integrity and the functions of jaws, with minimum biological sacrifice.
Need--Dental Health Component" (IOTN-DHC) grades 4 and 5, ranged from 30 to 40 per cent, without any inter-group differences. There were strong associations between subjects perceiving a need for orthodontic treatment and IOTN-DHC grades 4 and 5, anterior crossbite and avoiding smiling because they were self-conscious about their teeth. At the age of 18-19 years, the frequency of malocclusion was similar in all groups. Subjects of Asian origin had a higher self-perceived orthodontic treatment need than their Swedish counterparts and a higher frequency of headache than those of Eastern/Southeastern European origin. Psychological wellbeing was reduced in nearly one quarter of the sample, more frequently in girls than boys. No association was found between self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and psychological wellbeing. The theory "Being under the pressure of social norms" was generated in Paper V, and it can be applied to improve our understanding of young adults who have adjusted to living with poor dental aesthetics and also aid to identify those who are not as well-adjusted and would probably benefit from treatment. Undisclosed dental fear is an important barrier to acceptance of orthodontic treatment in early adolescence. Despite demographic changes due to immigration, no major change in the prevalence of malocclusion and normative orthodontic treatment need has been disclosed. This does not apply to adolescents and adults who immigrated at an older age.
Дмитренко, Марина И; Писаренко, Елена А
Efficiency of dental treatment is necessary to provide optimal results with less outlay of clinical time and shorter duration of treatment and for stable and balanced occlusion. To compare duration of orthodontic treatment in children with dental crowding by authoring and traditional methods. Orthodontic treatment of 37 patients with dental crowding of severe degree in period of mixed dentition was carried out. The first (1) (basic) group consisted of 27 patients (mean age 11,93±0,73 years) who were treated with removable orthodontic appliances of our own design and additional application of own theoretical and practical developments. Control group (2) consisted of 10 patients (mean age 12,6±1,28 years). They were treated by traditional removable appliances with screws. Student's t-test was applied to reveal significanсe deference of the obtained results for different groups. Before treatment comparative analysis has not showed significant difference between groups depending on age, gender, sagittal, vertical and lateral malocclusion as well as localization and severity degree of dental crowding (P >0,05). It was found that treatment duration of malocclusion with dental crowding of the maxillary teeth for groups 1 and 2 was 11,95±0,85 and 18,75±2,61 months respectively (P >0,05) . Duration of treatment for groups 1 and 2 of mandibular teeth crowding was 12,47±1,09 and 17,86±1,81 months respectively (P >0,05). It was proved that the application of own theoretical and practical developments which were introduced in orthodontic treatment of malocclusion complicated by dental crowding, makes it possible to reduce period of treatment on the average in 1,45 times in comparison with conventional.
Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T
The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment.
Janson, Guilherme; de Souza, José Eduardo Prado; Barros, Sérgio Estelita Cavalcante; Andrade, Pedro; Nakamura, Alexandre Yudi
Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies. PMID:19668997
Spalj, Stjepan; Slaj, Martina; Varga, Suzana; Strujic, Mihovil; Slaj, Mladen
Patients' and parents' perception of malocclusion are important in determining orthodontic treatment demand, motivation, and cooperation. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in perception of treatment need in currently orthodontically treated, previously treated, and untreated subjects. The sample comprised 3196 children and adolescents (1593 males and 1603 females) aged 8-19 years (mean age 13.0 +/- 3.6 years) from 24 randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia. Objective treatment need was assessed clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Subjective treatment need was estimated separately by an orthodontic resident, the child/adolescent and his/her parent using the Standardized Continuum of Aesthetic Need (SCAN) procedure. The children/adolescents completed a questionnaire that had five questions with five-point Likert-type scale answers concerning satisfaction with dental appearance, importance of teeth for facial appearance, and malocclusion-related quality of life. Spearman correlation and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Associations between objective and subjective orthodontic treatment need were weak but statistically significant (Rho from 0.20 to 0.50; P < 0.05). Malocclusion-related quality of life was poorly associated with treatment need. Satisfaction with tooth appearance showed the most frequent statistically significant correlation (Rho from -0.14 to -0.35; P < 0.05), while importance of aligned teeth for facial appearance and social contacts had the weakest correlation with treatment need. Perception of treatment need was greater in previously treated subjects. Parents' perception had a low predictive value. The findings of this study show that malocclusion has more impact on emotional well-being than on function or social contacts.
Lim, Won Hee; Chun, Youn Sic
This article describes the use of indirect skeletal anchorage and autotransplantation in a patient who had an ameloblastoma removed. The mandibular left second and third molars were also extracted. Autogenous bone was grafted after surgical removal of the ameloblastoma, and the mandibular right third permanent molar was transplanted into the extraction space. Orthodontic treatment included a miniscrew to bring the transplanted tooth into good occlusion. Four years after treatment, the patient continued to show good results, with no recurrence of the ameloblastoma.
Kerosuo, Heidi; Abdulkarim, Ebrahim; Kerosuo, Eero
The aims of this study were to explore orthodontic treatment experience, subjective need for treatment, and perceptions of teeth and dental appearance in relation to background factors such as funding system, area of living, age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The subjects were 1076 randomly selected second-year high school students from a rural (Jahra) and an urban (Capital) area of Kuwait, with a mean age of 15.1 years. Kuwaiti citizens constituted 79% of the sample, and the rest were of other Arab origins. The data were collected using a questionnaire. Orthodontic treatment rate was significantly higher for Kuwaitis (10%) than for non-Kuwaitis (2%). Among Kuwaiti subjects, urban area of living and female gender increased the odds of receiving orthodontic treatment. Subjective treatment need was 36%, with no difference between Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti subjects, but Kuwaitis in the rural area expressed subjective treatment need less often than those in the urban area. The results suggest that access to free-of-cost orthodontic treatment was likely to affect treatment rate, whereas it did not seem to influence the self-perceived need for treatment. Gender and area of living may be significant for the distribution of free-of-cost orthodontic treatment.
Background Diagnostic orthodontic and prosthetic procedures commence with an initial examination, during which a number of individual findings on occlusion or malocclusion are clarified. Nowadays we try to replace standard plaster casts by scanned objects and digital models. Method Geometrically calibrated images aid in the comparison of several different steps of the treatment and show the variation of selected features belonging to individual biomedical objects. The methods used are based on geometric morphometrics, making a new approach to the evaluation of the variability of features. The study presents two different methods of measurement and shows their accuracy and reliability. Results The experimental part of the present paper is devoted to the analysis of the dental arch objects of 24 patients before and after the treatment using the distances between the canines and premolars as the features important for diagnostic purposes. Our work proved the advantage of measuring digitalized orthodontic models over manual measuring of plaster casts, with statistically significant results and accuracy sufficient for dental practice. Conclusion A new method of computer imaging and measurements of a dental stone cast provides information with the precision required for orthodontic treatment. The results obtained point to the reduction in the variance of the distances between the premolars and canines during the treatment, with a regression coefficient RC=0.7 and confidence intervals close enough for dental practice. The ratio of these distances pointed to the nearly constant value of this measure close to 0.84 for the given set of 24 individuals. PMID:24893983
Vu, Christy Q; Roberts, W Eugene; Hartsfield, James K; Ofner, Susan
Clinical cases completed by the Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) graduating orthodontic classes of 2004, 2005, and 2006 were assessed to determine factors that affect orthodontic treatment duration. The sample consisted of 455 consecutively finished patients who received comprehensive treatment in the full permanent dentition. They included optimally finished and prematurely terminated (early debond) patients. The American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) discrepancy index (DI) was used to evaluate the severity of the pretreatment malocclusion. A specifically designed treatment complexity index (TCI) was used to evaluate complexity based on treatment modalities. The ABO objective grading system (OGS) and the IUSD comprehensive clinical assessment (CCA) were used to evaluate the clinical outcome for all patients. The average treatment duration was 29 months. The mean DI, OGS, and CCA scores were 15.30, 23.34, and 4.48, respectively. Increased treatment length was associated with 0.022-in slot size brackets, percent of treatment spent in nickel-titanium wires, Class II malocclusion, increased DI score, and increased TCI score. In evaluating outcomes for 2004 through 2006, there was no significant relationship between treatment duration and clinical outcome as measured by the OGS and CCA scores. The DI and TCI are sensitive prospective indicators of treatment duration. After the introduction of a rigorous clinical protocol for controlling poor outcomes, because of patients exceeding predicted treatment times, the clinical results for this sample are independent of treatment duration.
Yang-Powers, Linda C; Sadowsky, Cyril; Rosenstein, Sheldon; BeGole, Ellen A
Since 1999, the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) has used the objective grading system (OGS) to grade clinical case reports; the ABO also encourages prospective candidates to use the system. Ninety-two cases that satisfied the specifications of 6 of the ABO's malocclusion categories were selected from the files of 500 consecutively completed patients in the graduate orthodontic clinic at the University of Illinois at Chicago; this was called the university group. A comparison group of 32 cases previously presented to the ABO was collected from 5 clinicians in the Chicago area who had passed the ABO examination and become board-certified between 1984 and 2000; this was called the ABO group. Fourteen of the 32 cases in the ABO group were presented to the ABO after implementation of the OGS; these were also analyzed separately. Overall, the ABO group lost fewer points (had lower OGS scores) than did the university group (P <.05); the ABO group comprised a highly selected sample. The university group had significantly (P <.05) better scores for root parallelism, whereas the ABO group had significantly better scores for occlusal contacts and overjet scores, possibly reflecting settling after appliance removal. Finishing in the anterior segment and the second molar region was better in the ABO group. Orthodontists are good at correcting spaces in the arch and are deficient in placing adequate torque in the buccal segments. No differences were found in OGS scores among the 6 malocclusion categories. This study suggests how university cases could be completed to a higher level of quality and how other samples could be evaluated to raise the level of orthodontic treatment outcome.
Burstone, C; Filleul, M P; Pigeot, V
A common finding in orthodontic patients is asymmetric occlusion. These asymmetries can be dental, skeletal, or functional in origin. Since many patients have typical posterior overjet the use of Class II-Class III and anterior crisscross elastics are contra-indicated. Even in skeletal discrepancies axial inclination compensation can produce relatively normal overjet in the arch. The best strategy for non-extraction therapy is to move teeth around the arch rather than an en-masse movement of the entire arch. A number of methods for unilateral distalization are discussed. Midline correction requires the determination of facial, apical base, and posterior midpoints. Differential mechanics between patients with apical base discrepancies and no apical base is presented. Although intermaxillary elastics can be indicated the undesirable effects of eruption and frontal occlusal plane tilt should be considered. Advantages in control and ease of occlusal correction rest with intra-arch mechanics. The use of intermaxillary elastics for the correction subdivision cases can lead to instability and or mandibular shifts.
Auconi, Pietro; Scazzocchio, Marco; Cozza, Paola; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo
To determine whether it is possible to predict Class III treatment outcomes on the basis of a model derived from a combination of computational analyses derived from complexity science, such as fuzzy clustering repartition and network analysis. Cephalometric data of 54 Class III patients (32 females, 22 males) taken before (T1, mean age 8.2 ± 1.6 years) and after (T2, mean age 14.6 ± 1.8 years) early rapid maxillary expansion and facemask therapy followed by fixed appliances were analysed. Patients were classified at T1 on the basis of high membership grade into three main dentoskeletal fuzzy cluster phenotypes: hyperdivergent (HD), hypermandibular (HM), and balanced (Bal) phenotypes. The prevalence rate of successful and unsuccessful cases at T2 was calculated for the three clusters and compared by means of Fisher's exact test corrected for multiple testing (Holm-Bonferroni method). Unsuccessful cases were 9 out of 54 patients (16.7%). Once patients were framed into their cluster membership, the individualized pre-treatment prediction of unsuccessful cases was largely differentiated: HD and HM patients showed a significantly greater prevalence rate of unsuccessful cases than Bal patients (0% in Bal cluster, 28.6% in HM cluster, and 33.3% in HD cluster). Network analysis captured some noticeable interdependencies of Class III patients, showing a more connected interactive structure of cephalometric data sets in HM and HD patients compared with Bal patients. The results were confirmed after minimizing the geometrical connections between cephalometric variables in the model. Fuzzy clustering repartition can be usefully used to estimate an individualized risk of unsuccessful treatment outcome in Class III patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nimeri, Ghada; Kau, Chung H; Abou-Kheir, Nadia S; Corona, Rachel
Nowadays, there is an increased tendency for researches to focus on accelerating methods for tooth movement due to the huge demand for adults for a shorter orthodontic treatment time. Unfortunately, long orthodontic treatment time poses several disadvantages like higher predisposition to caries, gingival recession, and root resorption. This increases the demand to find the best method to increase tooth movement with the least possible disadvantages. The purpose of this study is to view the successful approaches in tooth movement and to highlight the newest technique in tooth movement. A total of 74 articles were reviewed in tooth movement and related discipline from 1959 to 2013. There is a high amount of researches done on the biological method for tooth movement; unfortunately, the majority of them were done on animals. Cytokine, PTH, vitamin D, and RANKL/RANK/OPG show promising results; on the other hand, relaxin does not accelerate tooth movement, but increases the tooth mobility. Low-level laser therapy has shown positive outcome, but further investigation should be done for the best energy and duration to achieve the highest success rate. Surgical approach has the most predictable outcomes but with limited application due to its aggressiveness. Piezocision technique is considered one of the best surgical approaches because it poses good periodontal tissue response and excellent aesthetic outcome. Due to the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, further investigations should be done to determine the best method to accelerate tooth movement.
Al-Bazi, Samar M; Abbassy, Mona A; Bakry, Ahmed S; Merdad, Leena A; Hassan, Ali H
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of applying 0.50% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel using the dental drug delivery system (3DS) on salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and on the surface topography of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. The study involved 20 orthodontic patients with high levels of salivary S. mutans. The patients were treated with professional mechanical tooth cleaning followed by application of 0.50% CHX using individual trays (3DS). Salivary S. mutans levels were repeatedly measured 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-treatment. In vitro study utilized forty ceramic and metallic brackets that were immersed in 0.50% CHX gel for 10 min, whereas another untreated forty brackets served as controls. The frictional resistances of stainless steel wires to the brackets before and after CHX treatment were recorded using a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in the surface topography of brackets. Statistical analyses were used to determine the effect of CHX on bacterial count and to evaluate the effect of CHX on frictional resistance. According to the results of this study, S. mutans levels were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the frictional resistance and surface topography of brackets before or after application of CHX. (J Oral Sci 58, 35-42, 2016).
Kaya, D; Taner, T; Aksu, M; Keser, E I; Tuncbilek, G; Mavili, M E
The aim of this case report was to present the combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a patient with Apert syndrome in an adult stage. A 15 years old male patient with Apert syndrome was concerned about the appearance of his face and malocclusion. His profile was concave with a retruded maxilla and prominent lower lip. He had an Angle class I molar relationship with a 9.5 mm anterior open bite. The amount of crowding was 20.4 mm in the maxilla and 6 mm in the mandible. Cephalometric analysis revealed a skeletal Class III relationship due to maxillary hypoplasia with a dolichofacial growth pattern. Orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery were planned for the patient. After 45 months of presurgical orthodontics, the patient underwent two surgeries sequentially. The first surgery was performed to advance the maxilla and the second surgery was performed to correct the mandibular rotation and increase the overbite at the time of removing halo device. The amount of maxillary advencement was 8 mm. Mandibula was moved 1.5 mm anteriorly and rotated 1° to 1.5° (SNB and facial depth) in a counterclockwise direction. After a relatively long treatment, an esthetically pleasing and functional occlusion and correction of the skeletal problem was achieved in this adult case.
Ierardo, Gaetano; Corridore, Denise; Di Carlo, Gabriele; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Leonardi, Emanuele; Campus, Guglielmo-Giuseppe; Vozza, Iole; Polimeni, Antonella; Bossù, Maurizio
Background Data from epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence and severity of malocclusions in children are of great relevance to public health programs aimed at orthodontic prevention. Previous epidemiological studies focused mainly on the adolescence age group and reported a prevalence of malocclusion with a high variability, going from 32% to 93%. Aim of our study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in a paediatric sample from Southern Italy in order to improve awareness among paediatricians about oral health preventive strategies in pediatric dentistry. Material and Methods The study used the IOTN-DHC index to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment for several malocclusions (overjet, reverse overjet, overbite, openbite, crossbite) in a sample of 579 children in the 2-9 years age range. Results The most frequently altered occlusal parameter was the overbite (prevalence: 24.5%), while the occlusal anomaly that most frequently presented a need for orthodontic treatment was the crossbite (8.8%). The overall prevalence of need for orthodontic treatment was of 19.3%, while 49% of the sample showed one or more altered occlusal parameters. No statistically significant difference was found between males and females. Conclusions Results from this study support the idea that the establishment of a malocclusion is a gradual process starting at an early age. Effective orthodontic prevention programs should therefore include preschool children being aware paediatricians of the importance of early first dental visit. Key words:Orthodontic treatment, malocclusion, oral health, pediatric dentistry. PMID:28936290
Kapoor, Pooja; Singh, Harpreet
Aim of the Study: The purpose was to assess orthodontic treatment need in a subpopulation as assessed by the orthodontists. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a sample population of 753 patients aged 20–25 years to assess the need for orthodontic treatment using the esthetic component (AC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN). Results: The AC revealed that 78.1% of the sample exhibited no or slight need for treatment, 13.2% demonstrated moderate to borderline need, and 8.7% proved to have a definite need for orthodontic treatment. Conclusions: The AC-IOTN can definitely be considered to be used as a powerful tool for prioritizing orthodontic triage, patient counseling, and planning desired orthodontic mechanotherapy. PMID:26752877
Monnet-Corti, Virginie; Barrin, Arnaud; Goubron, Cyril
The objective of this article is to review various unsightly periodontal defects and the treatments that have previously been used to eliminate them in order to establish guidelines for future therapy. The inter-relationship between orthodontic and periodontal disciplines is well established and needs no defense here. Periodontal tissues change throughout life and the same is true for the smile. The periodontium is an essential component of the appearance of the face as well as the lips. These are dynamic esthetic criteria while the gingiva and the static character of the dentition also contribute to the character of an individual's smile. In order to conduct orthodontic therapy most effectively it is essential that orthodontists and periodontists utilize a coordinated approach. From the beginning, they must establish an etiological diagnosis of any esthetic defects that will insure that their joint therapy is conducted appropriately and at the proper moment.
Farronato, G; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Cannalire, P; Martinelli, G; Tubertini, I; Maspero, C
The aim of this paper was to provide a literature review about the problems that can occur during orthodontic treatment. Using the PubMed database we collected items that would provide information regarding the direct consequences of the placement of an orthodontic appliance: coming to the discussion of the following topics: candida infections, the effects on the soft tissues, the effects on periodontal tissues and effects on hard tissues. The presence of appliances in the oral cavity increases the prevalence of people with candida, specifically the species Candida Albicans is the most frequently isolated. The balance between the clearance of the microorganism, the colonization and the state of candidiasis depends both on the virulence of the fungus, and the competence of the host immune system. On soft tissues, cases of ulceration of the upper jaw by a rapid palatal expander and pyogenic granuloma due to quad helix appliance have been reported. The second one is mostly observed on vestibular gingiva. The first one was found, however, in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 because of the tissue modifications induced by this pathological condition. The more severe periodontic effects are those caused by incorrect use of orthodontic elastic separators. Finally, the White Spot Lesions are the direct consequences of a wrong conditioning of enamel when attaching the bracket. They represent a first stage of caries in the positioning area of the bracket. The orthodontist is required to intercept these issues not to affect the success of the treatment.
Melo, Ana Camila Esteves de Oliveira; Carneiro, Lilianne Oliveira Thiers; Pontes, Luana Farias; Cecim, Rodolpho Lobão; de Mattos, José Nazareno Rufino; Normando, David
The length of time that it takes an orthodontist to treat adult patients varies widely. The aim of this study was to investigate how different variables influence treatment time. Seventy clinical case reports of successfully treated adult patients were examined. The patients were selected from 4,723 records held by three experienced orthodontists. The influence exerted by the following variables on treatment time was assessed: age, sex, facial pattern, severity of malocclusion (measured by the PAR index), sagittal relationship of canines, type of brackets (ceramic or metal), tooth extractions, missed appointments and orthodontic appliance issues/breakages, the latter being the dependent variable. Assessment was performed by multiple linear regression analysis, followed by the stepwise method with p < 0.05. The number of times a patient missed their appointment (no-show) (R² = 14.4%, p < 0.0001) and the number of appliance issues/breakages (R² = 29.71%, p = 0.0037) significantly affected variability in treatment time, and these two variables together can predict 43.75% (R² total) of the overall variability in treatment time. Other factors, such as canine relationship at the beginning of treatment, bracket type (metal or ceramic), tooth extractions, age at start of treatment, severity of the initial malocclusion, sex and facial pattern had no significant bearing on treatment time. The duration of orthodontic treatment in adults, when performed by experienced orthodontists, is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. However, several factors which were not included in this study may contribute to variability in orthodontic treatment time.
Chen, Weiting; Zhou, Yu
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between orthodontic and the development of dental caries in the same patients who received single jaw orthodontic treatment. Material and methods: A consecutive sample consisted of 60 subjects who required single upper jaw orthodontic were recruited consecutively from the Department of Orthodontic at the Stomatology Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. The dental examinations were routinely carried out by one dentists at the following stages: pre-treatment (T1); post-treatment (T2); more than 7 years after T1 (T3). The DMFS count which reflect the caries experience was recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the treated groups and untreated groups for the DMFS before received fixed orthodontic treatment. The same result was found after orthodontic treatment. However, the average number of DMFS in the treatment jaw after fixed orthodontic treatment was lower than in the without treatment jaw after long-term follow-up period. Conclusions: Fixed orthodontic appliances significant decrease the patients caries risk after orthodontic treatment. PMID:25932240
Pazzini, Camila A; Pereira, Luciano J; Peconick, Ana P; Marques, Leandro S; Paiva, Saul M
The aim of this study was to assess periodontal status and blood parameters in orthodontic patients with nickel allergy one month after removal of brackets. Ninety-six randomly selected patients were initially evaluated. Allergy to nickel was diagnosed using a patch test. After determining the prevalence of subjects allergic to nickel, two groups were formed: 16 allergic (experimental) and 16 non-allergic (control) patients. Their periodontal status was determined regularly by a single, blinded, duly calibrated examiner using the Löe Index (GI) and their blood was tested (complete blood test, including nickel and IgE levels) after nine months of orthodontic treatment and again one month after removing the orthodontic appliances. Statistical analyses included paired and non-paired t-tests, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, McNemar and linear trend chi-square tests (p≤0.05). Comparison of the values recorded during orthodontic treatment and one month after removing the appliances showed that in the allergic group there was significant increase in eosinophils (p=0.046), basophils (p=0.001) and monocytes (p=0.002), and decrease in number of bands (p=0.000), while in the control group, there was increase in lymphocytes (p=0.039) and decrease in segmented neutrophils (p=0.030) and IgE levels (p=0.001). In both groups, plasma nickel levels increased (p=0.010; p=0.039) and GI scores decreased. One month after removing the brackets, blood and periodontal parameters from patients with and without nickel allergy were similar.
Vasilakou, Nefeli; Araujo, Eustaquio A; Kim, Ki Beom; Oliver, Donald R
This retrospective study included a sample of 300 randomly selected patients from the archived records of Saint Louis University's graduate orthodontic clinic, St. Louis, Mo, from 1990 to 2012. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes obtained in phase 1 of orthodontic treatment and determine how much improvement, if any, has occurred before the initiation of the second phase. For the purpose of this study, prephase 1 and prephase 2 records of 300 subjects were gathered. All were measured using the American Board of Ortodontics Discrepancy Index (DI), and a score was given for each phase. The difference of the 2 scores indicated the quantitative change of the complexity of the treatment. Paired t tests were used to compare the scores. Additionally, the sample was categorized into 3 groups according to the Angle classifications, and the same statistics were used to identify significant changes between the 2 scores. Analysis of variance was applied to compare the 3 groups and determine which had the most change. Percentages of change were calculated for the significant scores. The total DI score overall and the scores of all 3 groups were significantly reduced from before to after phase 1. Overall, 42% improvement was observed. The Class I group showed 49.3% improvement, the Class II group 34.5% and the Class III group 58.5%. Most components of the DI improved significantly, but a few showed negative changes. Significant reductions of DI scores were observed in the total sample and in all Angle classification groups. This indicates that early treatment reduces the complexity of the malocclusions. Only 2 components of the DI showed statistically significant negative changes. Copyright Â© 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Melsen, B; Klemt, B
A patient who originally only required gnathologic and prosthetic treatment received orthodontic treatment, which led to a technically less complicated treatment. The removal of teeth with a dubious prognosis improved the long-term prognosis of the dentition. The space closure resolved the anterior protrusion and crowding and was mainly performed through anterior retraction reducing the dentoalveolar protrusion. The buccolingual root control made it possible to generate a better periodontal status in relation to the maxillary canines. A flat splint used as a retainer assisted the prosthodontist in establishing the structural position of the mandible and the intercuspation. The importance of a close interdisciplinary collaboration is stressed.
Bagnenko, N M; Bagnenko, A S; Grebnev, G A; Madai, D Y
Epidemiology of dentoalveolar anomalies is undoubtedly important, but in terms of the organization of orthodontic care, greater interest are data on the needs in this type of treatment. In a situation of limited manpower and resources for the provision of orthodontic care information about needs in orthodontic treatment allows you to define a group of patients with the primary need for orthodontic treatment, and to identify priorities to optimize the organization of orthodontic care in the region. Such data can be obtained by using the Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of various forms of dentoalveolar anomalies school-age children of Kirishi district of Leningrad region, as well as their needs in orthodontic treatment in accordance with objective evaluation indices. The study involved 734 pupils of Kirishi lyceum №1 of Leningrad region. Analysis of the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies, as well as needs in the orthodontic treatment was conducted in three age groups: I mixed dentition period (6-9 years), II mixed dentition period (10-13 years), and permanent dentition (14-17). To determine the needs in the orthodontic treatment were used two most common international index (DAI and IOTN). In Kirishi district of Leningrad region dentoalveolar anomalies were found in 88.8% of children of school age, which is in accordance with the indices and IOTN DAI needs in orthodontic treatment is 38.8% and 54.5%, respectively. In order to reduce unnecessarily high load volume medical institutions orthodontic profile, optimize utilization of financial resources, as well as reducing social tension it is recommended to introduce the practice of doctors-orthodontists methodology for determining the needs in orthodontic treatment by objective indices.
Ai, Dongqing; Xu, Hui; Bai, Ding
Contemporary orthodontic care should be a team approach to achieve health and esthetics of soft and hard tissue. It should be given enough attention that periodontal health provides the foundation for tooth movement, and that distinct esthetic results can be achieved by subtle changes in tooth alignment and gingival contours. Orthodontic treatment planning should include evaluation of gingival health and esthetics to anticipate the need for interdisciplinary approaches. Studies on the effect of orthodontic treatment on gingiva can provides basis for maintaining gingival health and esthetic. This article will focus primarily on the gingival health and esthetic care in orthodontic treatment.
Pietilä, Ilpo; Pietilä, Terttu; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Varrela, Juha; Alanen, Pentti
The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in the views of Finnish orthodontists on the indications for orthodontic treatment, timing of orthodontic assessment, and treatment methods used. The views were elicited by a questionnaire that was sent to all 146 specialist orthodontists under 65 years of age living in Finland in 2001. The response rate was 57 per cent. The association between an orthodontist's experience and timing of treatment was tested by Fisher's exact test. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the demographic characteristics of orthodontists and the tendency to start Class II division I treatment early. Most orthodontists recommended that the first assessment of occlusion should be carried out before 7 years of age. A crossbite was mentioned as the most frequent indication for treatment in the primary and early mixed dentition, and a severe Class II division I malocclusion with an increased overjet as the most frequent indication in the late mixed dentition. Most respondents preferred early treatment, but there was a wide variation in the choice of appliances and in the timing of treatment of malocclusions other than crossbite and Class II malocclusions. A quadhelix, headgear, and the eruption guidance appliance were the most frequently used appliances in early treatment, with fixed appliances being most frequently used during the late mixed and permanent dentition phase. Orthodontists working full time in municipal health centres tended to prefer early treatment more often than those working part-time or outside health centres. There was no statistically significant association between an orthodontist's experience and timing of Class II division I and Class III treatment (P = 0.142 and P = 0.296, respectively). The preference for an early start in Class II division I treatment might be related to differing professional decisions, but no explaining factors could be found in the regression
Al-Jobair, Asma M; Baidas, Laila F; Al-Hamid, Anfal A; Al-Qahtani, Sara G; Al-Najjar, Amani T; Al-Kawari, Huda M
Objective To assess and compare the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis receiving free treatment at public dental practices versus those paying for treatment at private practices. Materials and methods This retrospective study evaluated the records of 300 patients (179 females, 121 males; age 13–21 years) treated at orthodontic clinics from 2013 through 2015. The public sample was selected from orthodontic clinics at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University (KSU); the private sample was selected from five private orthodontic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records were examined for the severity of malocclusion and for orthodontic treatment need using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The prevalence of each occlusal discrepancy and the Dental Health Component grade were recorded. The severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need were compared between practice types, age groups, and sexes with the chi-square test. Results Displacement, increased overjet, and Class II and III malocclusion were the most common orthodontic problems in this study. Patients attending public clinics at KSU generally had more severe malocclusion than the patients attending private clinics. Seventy-seven percent of orthodontically treated patients at KSU clinics were in great need of treatment, compared with 58.5% of patients treated at private clinics (P=0.003). Among the patients with great treatment need, approximately 62% of male patients and 70% of patients ≤16 years of age were treated at KSU clinics, compared with 38% and 48%, respectively, treated at private clinics (P<0.0001). Conclusion Young Saudis receiving free orthodontic treatment at public clinics at KSU had more severe malocclusion with greater need of orthodontic treatment than the patients paying for treatment at private clinics. PMID:27843351
Coêlho, Thaís Gonzalez da Silveira; Caracas, Hugo Cesar Pinto Marques
INTRODUCTION: The consensus about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment has gone from a cause and effect association between TMD and orthodontic treatment to the idea that there is no reliable evidence supporting this statement. OBJECTIVE: To assess the beliefs, despite scientific evidence, of Brazilian orthodontists about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment with regards to treatment, prevention and etiology of TMD. METHODS: A survey about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment was prepared and sent to Brazilian orthodontists by e-mail and social networks. Answers were treated by means of descriptive statistics and strong associations between variables were assessed by qui-square test. RESULTS: The majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment not only is not the best treatment option for TMD, but also is not able to prevent TMD. Nevertheless, the majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment can cause TMD symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that orthodontists' beliefs about the relationship between orthodontic treatment and TMD are in accordance with scientific evidence only when referring to treatment and prevention of TMD. The majority of orthodontists believe that, despite scientific evidence, orthodontic treatment can cause TMD. PMID:25741824
Carpentier, S; Schoenaers, J; Carels, C; Verdonck, A
Apert syndrome is a severe developmental malformation, clinically characterised by craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, a cone-shaped calvarium, ocular manifestations, typical dental findings and syndactyly of the hands and feet. Early craniosynostosis of the coronal suture, the cranial base and agenesis of the sagittal suture are prodromal characteristics for the typical craniofacial appearance in patients with Apert syndrome. The aim of this report was to describe the maxillofacial and orthodontic management of three patients with Apert syndrome who attended the Craniofacial, Maxillofacial and Orthodontic clinics of the University Hospitals of the KU Leuven (Belgium). The typical clinical features, the general orthognathic treatment approach as well as individual approaches of three patients with Apert syndrome are being highlighted. The three patients with Apert syndrome have been followed up very closely by all involved specialised departments as well as by multidisciplinary teams from birth. This report demonstrated that a combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment plan could significantly improve the occlusal function as well as the facial and occlusal aesthetics in patients with Apert syndrome.
Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora; NiŢoi, Dan Florin; Preoteasa, Elena
Orthodontic treatment has, as any other medical intervention, in addition to its benefits, side effects, some of them being perceived as unavoidable. The aim of this case series was to microscopically evaluate the changes of the tooth surface in relation to fixed orthodontic treatment. A case series study was implemented by the usage of four extracted first maxillary premolars, from patients with previous orthodontic treatment, of 12 and 23 months. Analysis was performed using the high precision stereomicroscope (Axiovert, Carl Zeiss, Germany), at magnifications from 10× to 50×. The tooth surface corresponding to the bracket bonding area registered numerous disorderly grooves and cracks, with various directions and depths, and was flattened, having lower convexity compared to teeth surfaces where brackets were not bonded. Root resorption lacunae were more frequently observed in teeth under orthodontic treatment, these having various depths, and sizes considerably larger than those observed in teeth without orthodontic treatment. Following orthodontic treatment, teeth exhibit changes that can be perceived as being directly linked to this medical intervention. These teeth changes usually have low or moderate severity, which can be influenced at some degree by the clinical conduct of the orthodontic treatment. The stereomicroscope proved to be a high sensitivity tool for the analysis of morphological changes of teeth in relation to the fixed orthodontic treatment.
Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Sant'Ana, Eduardo; Simão, Tassiana Mesquita; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto
Despite the different orthodontic approaches to Class II subdivision malocclusions one has also to consider the skeletal components before undertaking any treatment protocol. Significant involvement of the skeletal structures may require a combined surgical orthodontic treatment, which has remained stable for more than four years, as illustrated in this case report.
Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Sant′ana, Eduardo; Simão, Tassiana Mesquita; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto
Despite the different orthodontic approaches to Class II subdivision malocclusions one has also to consider the skeletal components before undertaking any treatment protocol. Significant involvement of the skeletal structures may require a combined surgical orthodontic treatment, which has remained stable for more than four years, as illustrated in this case report. PMID:19466264
Brenkert, Dennis R
Orthodontic treatment for a patient who has had a displaced disk or disks and has been stabilized by anterior repositioning splint therapy presents the dentist with a difficult orthodontic problem. Frequently, there is a posterior open bite present, with the anterior teeth only occluding in the stabilized TMJ position upon removal of the splint. The current articles (Part I of II presented here) will present an organized TMJ/orthodontic diagnosis (Part I) and orthodontic treatment method (Part II, to be presented in the next journal) to properly treat these patients to a consistent stabilized occlusion compatible with the TMJ splint stabilized position.
Leone, A; Patel, Maheshchandra; Uzzo, M L; Buscemi, M; Gerbino, A
In the last few years our histology laboratory has worked in collaboration with Winchmore Hill Dental Practice in London in studying nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein expression by the use of immunohistochemistry in dental pulps following orthodontic treatment (A. Gerbino et al. 2000; A. Gerbino et al 2001; A. Gerbino et al 2001.) The study has been carried out on samples taken from orthodontically treated and non-orthodontically treated teeth. The results suggest a close correlation between the duration of the orthodontic traction and the expression of the above-mentioned neurotransmitter (NO).
Gölz, Lina; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Jäger, Andreas
Nickel-containing alloys are widely used in orthodontic appliances, even though nickel is by far the most common contact allergen. However, the scientific evidence concerning allergic reactions to nickel in orthodontic patients has not been evaluated systematically. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the prevalence of nickel hypersensitivity is affected by orthodontic treatment. Unrestricted electronic and manual searches were performed until July 2013 for human clinical studies assessing orthodontic treatment and nickel hypersensitivity. Methodological limitations were evaluated with the Downs and Black tool. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from random-effects meta-analyses, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Thirty studies were included in the review, and 24 datasets with 10 184 patients in the meta-analyses. Orthodontic treatment had no significant effect on nickel hypersensitivity (n = 11; crude OR 0.99; 95%CI: 0.78-1.25; p = 0.914). However, when confounding from factors such as sex and piercings was taken into account, orthodontic treatment was associated with a lower risk of hypersensitivity (n = 1; adjusted OR 0.60; 95%CI: 0.40-0.80; p < 0.001). This was even more pronounced when orthodontic treatment was performed prior to piercing (n = 7; crude OR 0.35; 95%CI: 0.24-0.50; p < 0.001). Orthodontic treatment seems to have a protective role against nickel hypersensitivity, especially when it precedes piercings.
Canevello, Carola; Laffi, Nicola
Introduction. “Dens invaginatus” is a dental anomaly which originates from the invagination of the ameloblastic epithelium into the lingual surface of the dental crown during the odontogenesis. It can cause early pulpal necrosis, abscesses, retention or dislocation of contiguous elements, cysts, and internal resorptions. It normally affects the upper lateral incisors. In the following study the authors will discuss the etiology, the physiopathology, and the surgical-orthodontic management of a rare case of impacted canine associated with dens invaginatus and follicular cyst, with the aim of highlighting the importance of taking any therapeutic decision based on the data available in the literature. Case Report. The present study describes a combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine associated with a lateral incisor (2.2) suffering from type III dens invaginatus with radicular cyst, in a 15-year-old patient. Discussion. When treating a dens invaginatus there are different therapeutic solutions: they depend on the gravity of the anomaly and on the association with the retention of a permanent tooth. The aesthetic and functional restoration becomes extremely important when performing a surgical-orthodontic repositioning. PMID:24963421
Yi, Song; Zhang, Chuqin; Ni, Chulei; Qian, Ying; Zhang, Jun
Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in undergraduate students in the People’s Republic of China and to investigate the association between normal orthodontic treatment needs, psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics, and desire for orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in two universities in a city of the People’s Republic of China with 374 young adults aged between 19 years and 24 years. The students answered a Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) and addressed their desire for orthodontic treatment. Objective malocclusion severity was assessed with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS software (Version 15.0). Results There was no statistical sex difference in relation to the dental health component of IOTN (P=0.893) and PIDAQ scores (P=0.06), but it was found that the desire for orthodontic treatment was significantly stronger among females. The total and subscale PIDAQ scores and malocclusion severity differed significantly among the five grades of desire (P<0.01). Significant positive correlation was found among desire for orthodontic treatment, IOTN-dental health component grades, and total or subscale PIDAQ scores (P<0.01). High correlation was found between desire and PIDAQ score (r=0.93). Conclusion The desire for orthodontic treatment is higher among female young adults who have the same orthodontic treatment needs compared to males. The desire for orthodontic treatment has high positive correlation with PIDAQ scores and increases with the increase in self-perceived psychosocial impacts of malocclusion and the needs for orthodontic treatment. PMID:27354773
The orthodontic situation in 2042 children in 4th to 8th schoolgrades was described by placing each child in one of five orthodontic categories (percentage refers to observed frequencies): I. No anomaly (25%), II. Malocclusion-under observation only (40%). III. Undergoing orthodontic treatment (20%). IV. Orthodontic treatment completed (12%) and V. Orthodontic treatment discontinued (3%). The socioeconomic status of the child's family, determined by the occupation of the father or mother, was described by one of the following five terms: A. Low, B lower middle, C. Middle, D. Upper middle and E. Upper socioeconomic group. The distribution of the orthodontic categories within the socioeconomic groups were found to be almost equal, but three trends could be noted: a slightly higher frequency of malocclusion in the low socioeconomic group; children from the middle socioeconomic group represented a relatively large part of the orthodontic treatment group and children in the two lowest socioeconomic groups showed a greater frequency of discontinued orthodontic treatment than the rest of the children.
Poulton, Donald R; Baumrind, Sheldon; Vlaskalic, Vicki
This study examined differences in pretreatment severity and treatment outcome among orthodontic patients treated in 3 different practice-management modes. Samples of pretreatment (T1) and end of treatment (T2) study casts were selected from traditional private practices (TPP, 3 offices, 81 cases), a dental corporation (COMP, 2 offices, 53 cases), and a dental management service organization (DMSO, 1 office, 36 cases). Orthodontic specialists had treated all patients. Cases were initially selected on a consecutive start basis. From each practice, the first 30 cases satisfying the study criteria were included in the sample. The T1 and T2 study casts were evaluated with the PAR and HLD indexes. The PAR and HLD indexes showed a high level of agreement on T1 cast scores but not on the T2 casts. Mean T1 scores were highest in the COMP cases, followed by the DMSO and the TPP cases. T2 scores were lowest in the TPP cases, followed by the DMSO and the COMP cases. The percentage of PAR score reduction showed that, in all 3 modes, patients were treated to a high standard.
Omer, Yassir Talal; Bouserhal, Joseph; Hawas, Nuha; Abdel Moneim El Sayed, Ahmed
The aims of this study were to investigate the association between normative and perceived orthodontic treatment need in a Lebanese population and the effect of sociodemographic status on orthodontic treatment need. A prospective cross-sectional clinical study was designed using a sample of 150 subjects (81 males and 69 females) aged 11-18years seeking dental treatment at Beirut Arab University. Normative orthodontic treatment need was scored using the two components of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), the Dental Health Component (DHC) and the Aesthetic Component (AC). Perceived need for orthodontic treatment was evaluated by scoring the AC of the IOTN. A total of 31.3% of the sample were in great need of orthodontic treatment according to the DHC of the IOTN. On the other hand, only 9% of the sample perceived their need to be definite. A significant positive but weak correlation was found between the normative and perceived need for orthodontic treatment. There was also a significant association between age and normative treatment need.
Breistein, B; Burden, D J
This epidemiological study investigated the reasons why children in Northern Ireland who need orthodontic treatment do not receive treatment even when it is provided free by the state. A total of 1584 15- and 16-year-olds were examined in 23 high schools with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The characteristics of the adolescents who had received orthodontic treatment were compared with those who had a definite need for treatment and yet did not receive treatment or advice. One in 10 of the adolescents examined had an unmet need for orthodontic treatment. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of 11 variables including socioeconomic status, religion, and standard of dental health on the uptake of orthodontic care. This analysis revealed that the only significant predictors of whether an adolescent received orthodontic treatment was the dental attendance pattern of the adolescent, the adolescent's dental health, and the dental attendance pattern of the adolescent's mother. Those adolescents who had good dental health, who regularly attended a dentist, and whose mother regularly attended a dentist were more likely to receive orthodontic treatment.
Lim, Bum-Soon; Cheng, Yanping; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Ahn, Sug-Joon
This study was designed to investigate the ability of orthodontic adhesives to adsorb and release chlorhexidine (CHX) after periodic treatment with 1% CHX solution. Composite and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RM-GIC) adhesive disks were incubated with whole saliva or distilled water for 2 h. Release of CHX was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography after 1, 2, and 5 d of incubation, 1 min after exposure to 1% CHX solution. The CHX measurements were performed in a 5-d cycle, which was repeated four consecutive times (n = 7). The amount of CHX adsorbed and the cumulative amounts of CHX released, with respect to type of adhesive and saliva-coating, were analyzed using repeated-measures anova. Chlorhexidine-adsorbed orthodontic adhesives demonstrated a short-term release of CHX, which rapidly returned to near-baseline levels within 3 d. Saliva-coating did not significantly influence CHX release from RM-GIC, but increased the amount of CHX released from the composite. The amount of CHX released from the composite was 20-fold higher than that released from the RM-GIC after saliva-coating. The composite adhesive showed a greater adsorption capacity for CHX than did the RM-GIC, which was more evident after saliva-coating. This study suggests that composite adhesives may be a significantly more effective CHX reservoir than RM-GICs in the oral cavity filled with saliva. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.
Polson, A M; Subtelny, J D; Meitner, S W; Polson, A P; Sommers, E W; Iker, H P; Reed, B E
This study evaluated the clinical periodontal status of persons who had completed orthodontic therapy at least 10 years previously (study) and compared the findings to those of adults with untreated malocclusions (control). Subjects in the study (n = 112; 63 female subjects, 49 male subjects; mean age 29.3 +/- 4.2 [SD] years) and control (n = 111; 62 female subjects, 49 male subjects; mean age 32.9 +/- 6.5 years) populations underwent a comprehensive periodontal examination that consisted of measurements taken at six points around the circumference of each tooth: (1) plaque, (2) visual inflammation, (3) bleeding after probing, (4) pocket depth, (5) gingival recession, and (6) loss of connective tissue attachment. Data from the individual measuring points were organized into 14 different combinations of either tooth types or surface locations; each was subjected to a four-way ANOVA partitioned on group (study vs. control), sex, socioeconomic status, and malocclusion type. The results showed that differences in age distribution within the groups were affecting the comparisons between the groups. Consequently, the groups were balanced for age and analyses were done to investigate group differences by means of multiple regression techniques. The comparisons showed no significant differences between the groups for any of the periodontal variables. It was concluded that orthodontic treatment during adolescence had no discernible effect upon later periodontal health.
Lin, Feiou; Ren, Manman; Yao, Linjie; He, Yan; Guo, Jing; Ye, Qingsong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics for adults seeking orthodontic treatment. The Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) was administered to 393 adults, aged 18 to 30 years. The participants were divided into 2 groups: an intervention group (received orthodontic treatment) and a control group (rejected orthodontic treatment). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The Wilcoxon signed rank test showed no statistically significant difference between the groups for the dental health component (DHC) of the IOTN (P = 0.134). Total and subscale PIDAQ scores of the intervention group were higher than those of the control group and differed significantly in each group among the 4 IOTN-DHC grades; self-confidence scores in the control group (F = 1.802; P >0.05) were the exception. Correlations between the PIDAQ scores and the IOTN-DHC grades were strong in each group. DHC grades, psychological impact, social impact, and aesthetic concern had significant impacts on patients accepting orthodontic treatment. The psychosocial impact of dental esthetics played an important role in the decision-making process of adults seeking orthodontic treatment. Importantly, participants with low self-awareness of the potential psychosocial impact rejected orthodontic treatment, despite the need for severe normative treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The presence of a gingival recession prior to orthodontic treatment is a real problem. Patients are concerned about losing their teeth but may also complain of their unpleasant appearance or root sensitivity in the exposed area. The orthodontist is not sure whether orthodontic treatment can be performed or whether the tooth movement will not aggravate the recession and whether periodontal surgery needs to be done before or after orthodontic treatment. The aim of this paper is to present recent data from the literature and several clinical situations in adults in order to submit a treatment sequence and clarify the role of different periodontal plastic surgery root coverage procedures.
Rana, Tarun Kumar; Sharma, Tarun; Prasad, Narayana; Singh, Shailendra
Many patients undergo orthodontic treatment for aesthetic improvement. It is well established that the patients who undergo orthodontic treatment have a high susceptibility to present plaque accumulation on their teeth because of the presence of brackets, wires and/or other orthodontic elements on the teeth surfaces with which the oral hygiene procedures might be more difficult. The orthodontic treatment is a double-action procedure regarding the periodontal tissues which may be very meaningful in increasing the periodontal health status and may be a harmful procedure which can be followed by several types of periodontal complications. There is a strong correlation between the severity and extent of gingival recessions and the orthodontic treatment suggesting that orthodontic tooth movement may lead to gingival recession. The principal objective in the treatment of gingival recession is to cover the exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics and to reduce hypersensitivity. Different soft tissue grafting procedures have been proposed in the treatment of gingival recessions. Subepithelial connective tissue graft is a reliable method for treatment of gingival recession. The purpose of this case report was to illustrate the relationship between orthodontic therapy and gingival recession and to describe the management of this case. PMID:25177647
Nayak, Prajna P; Prasad, KVV; Bhat, Y Manohar
Objectives: The aim was to assess and compare the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among various special health care needs (SHCN) schoolchildren and adolescents in Dharwad, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 492 subjects in age group of 12-19 years (mean age 14.02 ± 1.84 standard deviation [SD]) who were examined for occlusal anomalies using dental aesthetic index (DAI). They were classified into five groups as: Visual impairment, speech and hearing disability (SH), physical disability, mentally subnormal and multiple disabilities (MD). Chi-square test was used to compare the orthodontic treatment need among various SHCN groups. One-way ANOVA and ANCOVA were performed to test any significant differences in mean DAI scores among the SHCN groups. Results: None of the children were undergoing or had undergone orthodontic treatment for malocclusion. Mean DAI score was 28.81 ± 11.64 (SD). Orthodontic treatment was indicated in 50.2% of study population who had DAI scores of 26 and above. Mandatory orthodontic treatment (DAI >=36) was required in as high as 29% of MD individuals when compared to only 10% of SH individuals. Significant differences in DAI scores were found between the SHCN groups. Conclusions: The need for orthodontic treatment among SHCN individuals was found to be high. Yet, absence of any orthodontic treatment for any child points out to the fact that the dental services are highly needed in these individuals. PMID:26020038
Krieger, Elena; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Scheller, Herbert; Jacobs, Collin; Walter, Christian; Wehrbein, Heinrich
Bisphosphonates (BP) are an established medication, e.g., for the prevention/therapy of osteoporosis. The effects of the changed bone metabolism for orthodontic treatments are unknown. A 66-year-old woman underwent a total oral rehabilitation. The therapy included (1) tooth extractions, (2) periodontal treatment, (3) insertion of dental implants, (4) provisional implant restorations, (5) orthodontic treatment, and (6) definite implant restorations. The orthodontic tooth movements were in- and retrusion of the upper frontal teeth, intrusion of the lower front teeth, using the dental implants as skeletal anchorage. After implant insertion and one month before beginning the orthodontic treatment, osteoporosis was diagnosed in this patient and, without notification to our facility, BP treatment was initiated by her general practitioner (alendronate oral, 70 mg/week), with an overall duration of intake of 7 months. After 13 months, the orthodontic treatment was successfully accomplished; however enlarged periodontal gaps, sclerotic bone areas, and mild apical root resorptions of the upper frontal teeth were found in this patient. Currently, there are no recommendations for orthodontic patients undergoing BP therapy. Orthodontic tooth movement in this low-risk patient with a short duration of intake and a low-dose BP medication was possible. Because of the reduced bone metabolism and the higher amount of side effects, the treatment should be performed with extremely light forces and frequent monitoring.
Mahobia, Yogesh; Agarwal, Abhay Prem Prakash; Gupta, Akhil; Quaraishi, Dilshad; Khan, Kishwar Zahoor; Agrawal, Anil
Objective The study was done to determine the quantity of orthodontics and the type of appliance used for orthodontic treatment by general dentist. Materials and Methods A total of 410 dentists completely participated in the study. The study included questions to know the positive effects of orthodontic treatment done by general dentists and their opinions and qualities regarding the provision of treatment. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version of 16.0 was used at p ≤ 0.05. Results One forty six (35.6%) dentists answered that they practice orthodontic treatment to their patients, of which most were providing removable appliances (39.5%). There was a significant difference between the groups toward the benefits of orthodontic treatment according to experience of service and locality. General dentist were providing this treatment mainly in the mixed dentition period i.e. 96(65.8%). Most of the participants gave positive response regarding expansion of their syllabus related to orthodontics. Conclusion A significant difference in response to the benefits of the treatment were seen according to experience and are of practice and most of the participants showed positive response increasing their courses in orthodontics at undergraduate level. PMID:26266210
Tavares, Carlos Alberto Estevanell; Allgayer, Susiane; Calvete, Ernani da Silva; Polido, Waldemar Daudt
This case report demonstrates the interdisciplinary treatment of an adult patient with a Class II malocclusion, convex profile, incompetent lips, gummy smile, and advanced periodontal loss. Initial periodontal-endodontic treatment was followed by orthodontic and orthognathic surgical therapies. An esthetic facial profile, a pleasing smile, an appropriate occlusion, and overall good treatment outcomes, including the periodontal condition, remained stable 11 years after active orthodontic treatment.
Maeda, Sachiko; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Ono, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Kimio; Matsui, Tokuo
Patients with a compromised periodontal condition and a breakdown in occlusal support may require periodontal and prosthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic treatment of these patients is possible and would involve removal of inflammation and occlusal interference and provision of an environment for proper restorative rehabilitation. A different approach to the orthodontic treatment of these patients is required in terms of treatment manner, stabilizing anchorage systems, force systems, retention, and plaque control during treatment. This report describes the case of a 49-year-old woman with severely compromised periodontal tissues, multiple missing teeth, and malocclusion. Highly esthetic and functional results were achieved by treatment with orthodontics as well as periodontal therapy, including guided tissue regeneration and implant restoration with sinus lift.
Consolaro, Alberto; Consolaro, Renata Bianco; Francischone, Leda
With regard to the best moment for carrying out or recommending dental bleaching to orthodontic patients, some explanations and orientations are given in order to answers the following questions: 1) Why orthodontic treatment completion is considered the best opportunity for carrying out the procedure? 2) Why dental bleaching should not be performed immediately before orthodontic treatment? 3) If that would be possible at any special case, what would that be? 4) Why dental bleaching should not be performed during orthodontic treatment? 5) If that would be possible at any special case, what would that be? This article highlights why it is essential to protect both the mucosa and the cervical region, regardless of the moment when dental bleaching is performed, whether associated with orthodontic treatment or not. The "how", "why" and "if" it is or not convenient to perform dental bleaching before orthodontic treatment are still a matter of clinical suggestion, as it is a procedure that is under analysis, empirical knowledge waiting for scientific proof or disproof! Although tooth enamel has adamantine fluid flowing within it, providing a specific metabolism that is peculiar to its own and which could scientifically explain and base the option of carrying out teeth whitening before and during orthodontic treatment, we must still be very careful.
Abdelnaby, Yasser Lotfy; Al-Wakeel, Essam El Saeid
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of applying early orthodontic force on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with 4 adhesive systems. Eighty stainless steel brackets were bonded to the enamel surfaces of extracted premolars with 4 adhesive systems. For each adhesive, 10 brackets were bonded without application of force (groups 1, 3, 5, and 7), and another 10 were subjected to a 120-g force with a coil spring (groups 2, 4, 6, and 8). This force was applied 30 minutes after bonding and maintained for 24 hours. Groups 1 and 2 had Rely-a-bond primer and Rely-a-bond adhesive (Reliance Orthodontic Products, Itasca, Ill). Groups 3 and 4 had Transbond XT primer and Transbond XT adhesive (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). Groups 5 and 6 had Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer and Transbond XT adhesive (3M Unitek). Groups 7 and 8 had RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany). After thermocycling, SBS testing was performed by using a universal testing machine (Type 500, Lloyd Instruments Ltd, Fareham Hants, UK). The results of SBS testing for all adhesives were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and the Duncan test. The unpaired Student t test was used to compare the effect of force on the SBS of each adhesive. Transbond XT primer and its adhesive had the highest values (without force, 11.2 +/- 3.1 MPa; with force, 10.7 +/- 2.7 MPa), and RelyX Unicem had the lowest (without force, 5.8 +/- 1.5MPa; with force, 5.7 +/- 1.6 MPa). Application of force yielded nonsignificant reductions in SBS for all adhesives; this reduction was less pronounced with RelyX Unicem. For all studied adhesive systems, orthodontic force up to 120 g can be applied within the first hour after bonding with no deleterious effects on bond strength. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Fernandes, Leandra Sant'Anna Ferreira Parron
Skeletal Class III malocclusion, with its unpredictable and unfavorable nature, has been characterized by a growth pattern with doubtful prognosis regarding orthodontic mechanics, even when performed early. For a long time, Class III malocclusion was regarded as a synonym of mandibular prognathism, regardless of the affected skeletal structures. Mandibular growth, essentially determined by genetic factors, could barely be controlled by early orthodontic interventions. Therefore, the treatment choice was to wait for the patient to grow, and then make an orthodontic intervention associated with an orthognathic surgery. Maxillary involvement in the etiology of Class III malocclusion was conclusive to change orthodontic therapeutics. Maxillary intramembranous growth has a better response to orthopedic treatment, based on growth control and redirection, thus contributing for early intervention success. In several cases, excellent results have been achieved with rapid maxillary expansion and protraction. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the treatment of a patient with Class III malocclusion, whose treatment planning comprised two phases: interceptive (mechanical orthopedic appliances) and comprehensive (fixed orthodontic appliance). The results of this case showed that Class III malocclusion should be intercepted as early as possible to permit growth redirection, mainly when the maxilla is the primary etiologic factor or dental and/or functional factors are involved. Diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis depend on patient age, growth potential and severity of malocclusion. Early intervention, adequate indication of appliances, and patient compliance are key factors for good outcomes.
Einy, Shmuel; Horwitz, Jacob; Aizenbud, Dror
Adult orthodontics poses a challenge for practitioners as it involves unique biomechanical considerations due to biologic age related changes and lack of skeletal growth potential. Dental risks in adult orthodontics include, amongst others, root resorption and periodontal complications. As modern life calls for quick and efficient orthodontic treatments, a novel orthodontic modality was developed utilizing adjunctive periodontal surgery that includes bone corticotomy combined with bone augmentation. This multidisciplinary team approach: Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (PAOO) or Wilckodontics seems to be promising not only for reducing orthodontic treatment duration, but also for biological aspects during and after orthodontic treatment. PAOO enhances bone remodeling and augmentation, accelerates tooth movement and significantly reduces the duration of treatment. The presented cases manifest the biologic benefit of profound enlargement in the envelope of motion reducing the need for extraction and eliminating the need for aggressive intervention of surgically-assisted rapid maxillary expansion. PAOO serves as a reasonable and safe option for the growing demand of shortened treatment duration of adult teeth movement in three dimensions. Further research is recommended for an in depth evaluation of the long-term stability claimed to be advantageous in this modality.
de Almeida, Anderson Barbosa; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Marques, Leandro Silva
Objective This study aims at assessing the normative need for orthodontic treatment and the factors that determine the subjective impact of malocclusion on 12-year-old Brazilian school children. Methods A total of 451 subjects (215 males and 236 females) were randomly selected from private and public schools of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. The collected data included sociodemographic information and occlusal conditions. The esthetic subjective impact of malocclusion was assessed by means of the Orthodontic Aesthetic Subjective Impact Score - OASIS, whereas the malocclusion and the need for orthodontic treatment were assessed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need-Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC). Results Prevalence of normative need for orthodontic treatment was 65.6% (n = 155), and prevalence of orthodontic esthetic subjective impact was 14.9%. The following variables showed significant association with esthetic subjective impact of malocclusion: female (p = 0.042; OR = 0.5; CI = 0.2-0.9), public school student (p = 0.002; OR = 6.8; CI = 1.9-23.8), maxillary overjet ≥ 4 mm (p = 0.037; OR = 1.7; CI = 1-3) and gingival smile ≥ 4 mm (p = 0.008; OR = 3.4; CI = 1.3-8.8). Conclusion The normative need for orthodontic treatment overestimated the perceived need. Occlusal and sociocultural factors influenced the dissatisfaction of schoolchildren with their dentofacial appearance. PMID:25162576
Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero
The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times.
Balakrishna, A.; Vamsi, Ch. Raghu; Rao, V. D. Prasad; Swamy, Ch. Kishore; Kuladeep, B.
Orthodontic Treatment is being widely practiced around the world for teeth straightening and extraction to improve alignment of remaining teeth. Here, forces are applied to correct the position of teeth. The force applied on the teeth isn't calibrated and applied arbitrarily based on the recommendations from scientific research and experience of the orthodontist. The number of settings and the total time required for the completion of treatment also remains arbitrary. So, there is a need for determining the force which is actually acting on the teeth and determining the optimal force required for the treatment of each and every individual case. In this paper a mathematical relation is derived between the force applied on the tooth and tooth displacement by considering a 2nd order non-homogeneous linear differential equation. As the tooth displacement is not a direct function of force applied, Biomechanical parameters like mass of tooth, stiffness and damping coefficient of periodontal ligament & alveolar bone are involved in the differential equation. By solving the equation, tooth displacement thereby, tooth velocity can be obtained for a particular force. On the other hand, based on the dimensions of the model, orthodontist could determine the total tooth displacement required for each setting of the treatment, so that, the total displacement is covered. The orthodontist uses the data and applies the required force on to the teeth, based on which the orthodontist can plan his treatment procedure and reduce the number of settings, total treatment time and also increases the success rate of the treatment.
SPUNTARELLI, M.; CECCHETTI, F.; ARCURI, L.; TESTI, D.; MELONE, P.; BIGELLI, E.; GERMANO, F.
SUMMARY Impaction of maxillary canine is a relatively frequent orthodontic anomaly which could represent fuctional and aesthetic problems for patients. Nowadays, the conventional technique to impacted canines consists of a combined orthodontic and surgical approach, aimed to guide cuspids at the center of the alveolar ridge in a stable position and surrounded by healthy hard and soft tissues. This article presents three cases studies with different combined surgical-orthodontic approaches for the treatment of infraosseous impacted canines. An impacted maxillary canine could be guided, after adequate space is created orthodontically, to the center of the ridge through an orthodontic traction directly applied to the crown of impacted cuspid. Several surgical techniques have been proposed to expose the crown of impacted tooth. Location (buccal or palatal side) of impactation and depth influence surgical approach in order to obtain best aesthetic and functional results. PMID:27555906
Milling Tania, S. D.; Sathiasekar, Cynthia; Anison, Job Jacob; Samyukta Reddy, B. V.
Since the introduction of lasers in dentistry in the mid-1990's, research in laser supported dental therapies is progressing at a rapid pace. Orthodontics is no exception. In orthodontics, lasers have many diagnostic, therapeutic, and biomodulating applications. To update the various applications of lasers in orthodontics. Lasers work by delivering energy in the form of light. Laser, striking the biological tissues can either get reflected, absorbed or scattered depending on several factors. Depending on the fate of the emitted laser, it can be applied for different diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical procedures. The knowledge and understanding of different types of lasers and its specific applications is a prerequisite before it can be applied beneficially. In Orthodontics, the versatility of laser has expanded into bonding, curing, debonding, imaging, growth modification, pain reduction, etc. Definitely laser has extended its tentacles from diagnosis to treatment in orthodontics. PMID:26538884
Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Kobayashi, Fernanda Yukie; Montes, Ana Bheatriz Marangoni; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Castelo, Paula Midori
Few studies have evaluated the relationship between morphological and functional characteristics of the masticatory apparatus in young subjects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate masticatory performance (MP), maximal bite force (BF), orthodontic treatment need and orofacial dysfunction in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 316 subjects of both genders, with an age range 6-16years divided into 4 groups: early mixed, intermediate mixed, late mixed and permanent dentition. MP was evaluated by the individual's ability to comminute a chewable test material in order to determine median particle size (X(50)) and distribution of particles in different sieves ("b"). BF was determined using a digital gnatodynamometer with fork strength of 10mm. Orofacial function and orthodontic treatment need were screened using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) protocol and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), respectively. The results were submitted to descriptive statistics, normality test, analysis of variance and stepwise multiple linear regression to test relationship between MP and studied independent variables. Variance of X(50) and b between groups was statistically significant. But evaluation of variables that significantly contributed to MP variation showed that age, body mass index (BMI), BF and the presence of sleep bruxism were negatively related to X(50) and the NOT-S clinical exam scores showed a positive relationship with X(50). In the studied sample, age, BMI, BF and the presence of sleep bruxism were related to better MP; but the increase in NOT-S scores was significantly related to poorer MP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rusanen, Jaana; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Tervonen, Osmo; Raustia, Aune
The aim of this study was to evaluate temporomandibular joints (TMJ) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients who had undergone surgical/orthodontic or orthodontic treatment in a three-year follow-up study. Subjects consisted of 20 patients (40 TMJ), 16 females and four males (mean age 33.7 years, range 19-53 years), with severe temporomandibular disorders (TMD) referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Department at Oulu University Hospital due to skeletal jaw discrepancy. All patients underwent extensive surgical/orthodontic or orthodontic treatment between 1996 and 2003. Clinical stomatognathic examination and MRI examinations were performed before the surgical/orthodontic or orthodontic treatment and one year after the completion of the treatment. The average treatment time was 23 months (range 12-34 months). MRI revealed a marked decrease, especially in the number of TMJ with joint effusion after the treatment. There were only a few changes in the number of diagnosed disk dislocations before and after the treatment. In five joints with anterior disk dislocation with reduction (r-ADD), a change to anterior disk dislocation without reduction (nr-ADD) was found. In 25 of the 40 condyles, the condylar configuration was normal on MRI before the treatment and in 19 condyles one year after the treatment. TMD signs and symptoms according to the Helkimo dysfunction index showed a statistically significant decrease after the treatment.
Patients can significantly affect the outcome of their orthodontic treatment. A practice committed to developing the right systems, scripts, and educational materials will experience a more satisfied patient, increased efficiencies, and higher profits. Educating and motivating patients to maintain their oral health and providing recommendations or dispensing of home care tools such as a power toothbrush increases patient compliance, positively impacts treatment outcomes, enhances customer service, and generates a new revenue stream for the practice. In a tight economy and a highly competitive orthodontic market, a power toothbrush can positively impact your marketing and case close rate. Treatment and fees being relatively equal, patients will tend to accept treatment from a practice that can demonstrate concern for the patients' overall oral health and greater value-added components to the orthodontic case. Power toothbrushes as part of a comprehensive orthodontic treatment provide a great differentiating marketing strategy.
Verma, Rashmi; Utreja, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of post- treatment critical evaluation on the quality of orthodontic care in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Materials and Methods: Orthodontic treatment outcome of 109 consecutively treated cases was evaluated in Phase-I evaluation. Following Phase-I evaluation, PTCE of each case was made mandatory. After 6-years of implementation of compulsory PTCE for each case, orthodontic treatment outcome of all consecutively treated cases (n = 126) was evaluated (Phase-II). The treatment outcome was evaluated by American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO MGS) and Subjective evaluation (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS). Results: Based on the ABO scores, the cases were divided into three grades, that is, Grade-I, Grade-II, and Grade-III. The mean total ABO score was improved significantly in Phase-II evaluation (P < 0.01). The total number of cases in ABO Grade-II were increased significantly (P < 0.01) whereas cases in ABO Grade-I remained comparable. The VAS score was improved from 5.66 ± 0.77 at Phase-I to 6.02 ± 0.99 at Phase-II evaluation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The implementation of PTCE significantly improved the quality of orthodontic care in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Clinical Significance: Grading one's own treatment improves the quality of future treatment. PMID:26392728
Souki, Marcelo Quiroga
ABSTRACT The present case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a young adult patient (18y / 1m), Class III skeletal malocclusion, with mandibular prognathism and significant dental compensation. The canine relation was Class III, incisors with tendency to crossbite and open bite, moderate inferior crowding, and concave profile. Skeletal correction of malocclusion, facial profile harmony with satisfactory labial relationship, correction of tooth compensation and normal occlusal relationship were obtained with orthodontic treatment associated to orthognathic surgery. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO), as part of the requirements to become a BBO diplomate. PMID:28125146
Li, Zi-Jian; Wang, Jun-Yan; Gao, Ming-Fei; Wu, Da-Lei; Chang, Xin
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare autosomal dominant condition that affects ossification. The dental abnormalities associated with CCD present an obstacle to orthodontic treatment planning. Early diagnosis is crucial to provide the patient with different treatment modalities that will suit the particular patient. In the present case, combined surgical and orthodontic treatment were performed to guide multiple impacted teeth. A single nucleotide missense variation was identified in exon 3 of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in this patient. The current results suggest a correlation between dental alterations and mutations in the runt domain of RUNX2 in CCD patients. Further clinical and genetic studies may required to confirm the association between phenotypes and genotypes in CCD and to identify other factors that may influence the clinical features of this disease. Patients with cleidocranial dysplasia require a team approach which demands good communication and cooperation from the patient. Timing of the intervention is critical, and numerous surgeries may be required. The patient in the present case report was treated by a team of practitioners, which involved several dental specialties to achieve an optimal result. PMID:27446262
Derton, Nicola; Gracco, Antonio; Procopio, Olindo
Anterior cross-bite is a difficult malocclusion to treat in adult patients, especially if compounded by skeletal discrepancy. The present study describes a dentoskeletal Class III case and aims to provide the clinician with rational guidelines for presurgical orthodontic preparation and postsurgical finishing. In this case, a 20-year-old male patient, R.M, was treated for severe dental and skeletal Class III malocclusion on both the transversal and anteroposterior planes via combined orthodontics and surgery. Initially, the treatment involved surgically-assisted expansion of the upper jaw (total 1 month), followed by a fixed-orthodontics phase to decompensate for the malocclusion in preparation for movement of the osseous bases with the aim of achieving maximum coordination of the dental arches. After 19 months of orthodontic preparation, the patient underwent combined orthognathic surgery (upper and lower jaws). In the subsequent 4 months, orthodontic stabilization and finishing were performed, and debonding was carried out 24 months after the start of active treatment. The combined orthodontic and surgical treatment adequately corrected the severe Class III over a period of 2 years, leading to a satisfactory occlusal, functional and aesthetic result. Thorough diagnosis and close communication between the orthodontist and maxillofacial surgeon, operating as an interdisciplinary team, ensures good outcomes, even in complex orthodontic and surgical cases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Feng, Yi-miao; Fang, Bing; Xia, Yun hui; Shu, Rong; Hans, Mark Guenther
In contemporary dental care, an increasing number of adult patients with periodontal disease are seeking orthodontic treatment. Achieving optimal results in such adult patients is difficult because decreased posterior tooth anchorage is risky. This case report demonstrates the use of miniscrew implant anchorage (MIA) in a Chinese male 21 years 5 months of age with maxillary and mandibular anterior dental spacing, bimaxillary protrusion, and severe bone loss caused by periodontal disease. Prior to orthodontic treatment, the patient underwent treatment to control his periodontitis. The patient was treated with 0.022-in straight-wire orthodontic appliances. After 17 months of active orthodontic treatment, the patient had healthier periodontal tissue with increased bone support, as well as improved facial esthetics and a functional occlusion. The results demonstrate that MIA is useful in enhancing anchorage in patients with bone loss associated with severe periodontal disease.
Bezerra, Gisele Lima; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo
The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 16): XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction) tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (p < 0.05). Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC) remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT) and self-etching (SEP) adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL) provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance.
Bezerra, Gisele Lima; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo
The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 16): XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction) tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (p < 0.05). Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC) remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT) and self-etching (SEP) adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL) provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance. PMID:26380371
Kuroki, Hiroo; Miyagawa, Yukio; Shimomura-Kuroki, Junko; Endo, Toshiya; Shimomura, Hiromi
Orthodontic medical treatment is performed to move a tooth to the optimal position to obtain optimal occlusion. Orthodontic treatment is accompanied by mechanical stress due to orthodontic force and by psychological stress that is experienced as pain or displeasure. The purpose of this study was to identify stress marker proteins during orthodontic treatment. Levels of receptor activator of NFκB (RANKL) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were analyzed as markers of mechanical stress, and levels of chromogranin A (CgA) and amylase in whole saliva were analyzed as markers of psychological stress. GCF was collected from control and experimental teeth at initiation of treatment and 24 h after treatment. Whole saliva was collected before treatment, at initiation of treatment and 24 h after treatment. RANKL was expressed at 24 h after treatment in the experimental GCF, but not in the control GCF. HSP70 appeared to be constitutively expressed in GCF, and its levels showed no major change between the control and experimental groups from initiation of treatment to 24 h after treatment. Amylase activity in whole saliva was enhanced at 24 h after treatment compared to control, but CgA levels showed little change between the groups. These results indicated that RANKL and amylase may be the candidate markers for mechanical and psychological stress, respectively, during orthodontic treatment, even though the total protein concentration and amylase activity displayed a large standard deviation among subjects. Further studies are therefore required to establish these markers for clinical use.
Rey, Diego; Smit, Rosana Martínez; Gamboa, Liliana
Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is a rare pathological condition usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. External root resorption of permanent teeth is a multifactorial process related to several local and systemic factors. If an etiological factor cannot be identified for root resorption, the term "idiopathic" is applied. This report presents a case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption. The condition was found in a young female patient seeking orthodontic treatment due to malocclusion. This kind of resorption starts apically and progresses coronally, causing a gradual shortening and rounding of the remaining root. Patients with this condition are not the ideal candidates for orthodontic treatment; however, the aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of idiopathic root resorption involving the entire dentition, and to present the orthodontic treatment of this patient. It describes the progress and completion of orthodontic therapy with satisfactory end results. PMID:25741832
Klages, Ulrich; Bruckner, Aladàr; Guld, Yvette; Zentner, Andrej
The aim of this study was to investigate whether young adults with varying dental esthetics and histories of orthodontic treatment also differ in oral-health attitudes, preventive behaviors, and self-perceived oral health. The sample comprised 298 young adults, 18 to 30 years old, with at least 13 years of primary and secondary school education. The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires dealing with various measures related to oral-health attitudes, preventive behaviors, and perceptions of oral health. Dental esthetics were assessed by means of the aesthetic component of the index of orthodontic treatment need. Dental plaque accumulation was assessed in a subsample of respondents. Subjects with high dental-esthetics scores reported more favorable oral-health attitudes, such as internal control, dental awareness, value of occlusion, and preventive behavior expectations than subjects with lower scores. Subjects with previous orthodontic treatment showed greater internal control and dental awareness than those who had not previously been treated. Subjects ranking high in dental esthetics and those with previous orthodontic treatment reported stricter oral-hygiene adherence than others. Self-perceived oral health was better in high scorers on dental esthetics. Less plaque accumulation was found in subjects with higher dental esthetic scores and in those with previous orthodontic treatment. These findings suggest that favorable dental esthetics and previous orthodontic treatment might be important variables in explaining individual differences in oral-health attitudes and behaviors.
Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Mink van der Molen, A B; Bierenbroodspot, F; Borstlap, W A
Cleft lip and palate is a common congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1:600 newborns. Children with orofacial clefts are treated by an interdisciplinary team of specialists while parents and child play a key role in their own care process. The orthodontic and facial orthopedic treatment of a child with a cleft takes many years. Children often get bored of the long treatment and this can cause problems with compliance and oral hygiene. Therefore it is advisable to distinguish 5 well-defined stages in the orthodontic treatment and to attempt to have some 'orthodontics free' time in between. The 3 orthodontic treatment phases between the age of 9 and 20 years consist of orthodontic treatment concerning the closing of the cleft with a bone transplant, the treatment of the permanent dentition and, finally, a possible combined orthodontic surgical treatment at the end of the period of growth. Good interdisciplinary collaboration among the different dental disciplines is essential in this regard.
Chu, Yong-Ming; Bergeron, Léonard; Chen, Yu-Ray
Bimaxillary protrusion is a commonly seen deformity in Asian populations. This condition is characterized by protrusive and proclined upper and lower incisors and an increased procumbency of the lips. It is usually combined with lip incompetence, gummy smile, mentalis strain, and anterior open bite. Facial aesthetics is the primary concern of these patients. Successful treatment depends on a thorough evaluation and understanding of this dentofacial deformity. Typical orthodontic treatment includes retraction and retroclination of maxillary and mandibular incisors after extraction of the four first premolars. Orthognathic surgery is required to correct significant skeletal problems. Anterior subapical osteotomies and extraction of premolars can correct sagittal excess of the jaw bones and relieve dental crowding. Segmental maxillary osteotomies are performed to treat patients with an associated exaggerated curve of Spee and vertical maxillary excess. Differential intrusion of anterior and posterior maxilla/maxillary segments with clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane is a useful technique for treatment of anterior open bite and creation of a consonant smile arc. Le Fort I osteotomy with setback sometimes provides an alternative to segmental maxillary osteotomies. Meticulous planning and execution of osteotomies in accordance with surgical planning are essential for aesthetic and functional outcome.
Kumar, Prasanna; Londhe, S.M.; Kotwal, Atul; Mitra, Rajat
Background To ascertain the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in schoolchildren dependent on armed forces personnel. To review the overall oral health using DMFT index and to evaluate any relation between increased DMFT index to existing orthodontic problems. Method Five schools were randomly selected among Army/KV/AF schools and a random sample of 1200 children aged 10–15 years old attending these schools dependant on armed forces personnel were selected. A survey form was filled up after the examination of children by the principal worker and need for orthodontic treatment was assessed using index for orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and overall oral health status by DMFT index and totaled. Frontal intra oral photograph in centric occlusion were taken. Dental Health Component (DHC) of IOTN for all the patients was marked by one set of orthodontists. The most severe occlusal trait was identified by the examiner for any particular patient and the patient was then categorized according to this most severe trait. AC of the IOTN was assessed by second orthodontist, individual and a layperson. Results It was observed that prevalence of malocclusion in the sample was 53.7%. 32.8% (239 males & 154 females) of samples are in need of orthodontic treatment. 55.1% of samples shown no caries risk, 38.1% had moderate caries risk and 6.8% had high caries risk. Conclusion Significant percentage of the samples are in need for orthodontic treatment. There is significant relation between higher DMFT index and orthodontic treatment need. It was found that IOTN is a reliable and user-friendly index, which can be used for orthodontic surveys. PMID:24600146
Thilander, Birgit; Bjerklin, Krister
The aim of this work was to update the bibliography regarding the concept of 'temporomandibular disorder (TMD)' and 'posterior crossbite' and try to find out if there is any association between some special signs/symptoms of TMD and type of posterior crossbite. A literature search from 1970 to 2009, due to specified criterion, resulted in 14 publications that were found to be relevant for the present systematic review. An association between TMD and posterior crossbite (Yes-group) was reported as often as absence of such a relationship (No-group). The samples in the two groups showed similarities as well as differences with respect to number, gender, and age. Most articles reported only on 'presence' or 'absence' of crossbite and only few on type of crossbite opposite to a thorough account of clinical signs and symptoms of TMD. This review seems, however, to state that a functional posterior crossbite (mandibular guidance with midline deviation) is associated with headache, temporomandibular joint and muscular pain, and clicking. As evident from the discussion, such type needs orthodontic treatment to rehabilitate the asymmetric muscular activity between the crossbite and non-crossbite sides and the changed condyle/temporal relationship caused by mandibular deviation. Whether this treatment also will avoid future TMD problems can be answered only after clinical follow-up studies have been performed.
Смаглюк, Любовь В; Белоус, Алевтина Н
In planning of orthodontic treatment, as well as the alleged end of the treatment of orthodontic patients with transversal malocclusion should first pay attention to the treatment of opportunistic diseases that can affect the outcome of treatment of orthodontic patients (for example, rehabilitation of the nasopharynx, the treatment of rickets, the treatment of scoliosis posture, scoliosis ). definition of related factors affecting the volume and timing of the treatment of patients with transversal malocclusion. There were examined 32 patients with transversal malocclusion, and studied their medical history (Form 043). Patients were examined by standard algorithm survey. Two groups of patients by sex: Group 1: girls - 16 people and 2-th group: boys- 16 people. The material collected from 2010 to 2015. Patient age - 12-17 years. Subjective attitude to the disease formed on the basis of a number of factors that can be grouped into the following categories: social and constitutional and individual psychological. Since incorrect posture and malocclusion are the cause and effect of each other, in such cases should be treated at the same time and bite and pathology of the musculoskeletal system (10, 11). It is clear that in the planning of orthodontic treatment should be part and treatment of posture and a close and fruitful collaboration with the doctor traumatologist orthopaedist. The sex of the patient, especially temperament, the doctor-patient relationship, as well as the presence of somatic diseases have a significant impact on the length and complexity of the orthodontic treatment.
Káldy, Adrienn; Balaton, Gergely
Our study is aimed to focus on severe hypodontia, the absence of multiple teeth in permanent dentition. Examining the variation of the number of teeth agenesis of permanent teeth is relatively common but real oligodontia is rarely encountered during our daily work. At a number of patients recently attending the Pedodontics and Orthodontics Department of the Dental Faculty of Semmelweis University oligodontia, the absence of at least six or more permanent teeth was found. Examining the aetiology of oligodontia it can be determined that both endogen and exogenous environmental factors may contribute to the cause of the anomaly. In its pathology genetics is considered as the dominant factor what is also proved by familiar inheritance aggregation however it is hard to determine the aetiology in most cases. Severe oligodontia most often is part of certain syndromes. The anomaly causes not only aesthetical and functional problems but also may lead to several complications so early recognition and referral is considered essential. Therapy often involves multidisciplinary approach with individual assessment and planning. We would like to present the possibilities of orthodontic pre-treatment for prosthetic and implant replacement through our cases.
Chin, Mervyn Y H; Busscher, Henk J; Evans, Robert; Noar, Joseph; Pratten, Jonathan
Decalcification is a commonly recognized complication of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A technology, based on a parallel plate flow chamber, was developed to investigate early biofilm formation of a strain of Streptococcus sanguis on the surface of four orthodontic bonding materials: glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC), chemically-cured composite resin (Concise) and light-cured composite resin (Transbond XT). S. sanguis was used as it is one of the primary colonizers of dental hard surfaces. Artificial saliva was supplied as a source of nutrients for the biofilms. The effects of two commercially available mouthrinses (i.e. a fluoride containing rinse and chlorhexidine) were evaluated. Initial colonization of the bacterium was assessed after 6 hours of growth by the percentage surface coverage (PSC) of the biofilm on the disc surfaces. There were statistically significant differences in bacterial accumulation between different bonding materials (P < 0.05), Concise being the least colonized and Transbond XT being the most colonized by S. sanguis biofilms. All materials pre-treated with 0.05 per cent sodium fluoride mouthrinse showed more than 50 per cent reduction in biofilm formation. The 0.2 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse caused significant reduction of biofilm formation on all materials except Ketac Cem. This in vitro study showed that the use of a chemically-cured composite resin (Concise) reduced early S. sanguis biofilm formation. Also, fluoride had a greater effect in reducing the PSC by S. sanguis biofilms than chlorhexidine. Rinsing with 0.05 per cent sodium fluoride prior to placement of orthodontic appliances is effective in reducing early biofilm formation.
Paulus, C; Hartmann, C
Orthodontic treatments apply forces on teeth to move them. Since there is no fixed anatomic anchorage, every orthodontic action will cause a counter-action of equal force. This is usually unwanted and strong bone anchorage is used to prevent this counter-action. These anchorages provide the fixed point required for orthodontic effectiveness. We describe some devices, their implantation site, placement, and removal. Our experience is essentially based on the Lomas® and Orthocorrect® devices manufactured by Mondeal® (Germany) and on screwed anchorage devices manufactured by Stryker® (USA). These screwed anchorage systems allow for previously impossible treatments, especially for orthodontics applied to adults and for preprosthetic orthodontics. But these screws can induce apical migration of teeth; so it may be necessary to provide several anchorage sites. Complications are rare and usually present as root perforation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Horinuki, E; Yamamoto, K; Shimizu, N; Koshikawa, N; Kobayashi, M
. The time course of the facilitated cortical responses is comparable to that of pain and discomfort induced by clinical orthodontic treatments. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.
Lim, Hoi-Jeong; Eun, Chun-Sun; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Lee, Ki-Heon; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik
The purpose of this study was to investigate various factors associated with initial miniscrew stability for the prediction of the success rate. A total of 378 miniscrews in 154 patients were examined by reviewing their charts. Potential confounding variables examined were age, sex, jaw (maxilla or mandible), placement site, tissue mobility (firm or movable tissue), type, length, and diameter of the miniscrew, and the number of previous operations. The outcome variable of this study was initial stability, defined as the stability of the miniscrew from placement to orthodontic force application. We used the generalized estimating equations method to estimate the influence of each factor on stability for the correlated outcomes of each patient. The overall success rate was 83.6% for all miniscrews (316 of 378). After adjusting for the type of miniscrew, the relative success rate in the mandible was 0.48 times that in the maxilla but without statistical significance (crude odds ratio = 0.52, P = 0.13; adjusted odds ratio = 0.48, P = 0.09). There was no statistically significant association of any factors in this model with respect to initial stability. These results suggest that initial stability cannot be guaranteed or predicted. For this reason, any treatment plan should consider the possibility of failure.
Bocquet, Emmanuelle; Moreau, Alexis; Danguy, Michel; Danguy, Chantal
Orthodontists are fully prepared to treat the problems of occlusion that they are called upon to deal with every day. On the other hand temporo-mandibular joint disorders present more obscure difficulties from the point of view of detection and diagnosis as well the management of their treatment. That is why a profound understanding of the anatomical and physiological functioning of the temporo-mandibular joint has become indispensable for today's orthodontists who are now asked to detect and diagnose an assortment of TMJ disturbances whose etiology may vary greatly. By performing a rigorous diagnostic procedure, based on a thorough clinical examination supported by careful axiographic and radiological studies, of temporo-mandibular malfunctioning and its underlying etiological causes, which are primarily dento-alveolar and occlusal in nature, orthodontists will be able to adopt an appropriate therapeutic approach that might be purely orthodontic or multi-disciplinary and carried out with the collaboration of specialists in occlusion, oral surgery, and even osteopathy.
de Freitas, Carolina Vieira; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Danilo Cangussu; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and the severity of malocclusions and to analyze factors associated with the need for orthodontic treatment of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This exploratory, cross-sectional study was carried out based on secondary data from the national epidemiological survey on oral health in Brazil (2002-2003). Socio-demographic conditions, self-perception, and the existence and degree of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic Index, were evaluated in 16,833 adolescent Brazilians selected by probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The dependent variable need orthodontic treatment was estimated from the severity of malocclusion. The magnitude and direction of the association in bivariate and multivariate analyzes from a Robust Poisson regression was estimated. RESULTS: The majority of the adolescents needed orthodontic treatment (53.2%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of the need for orthodontic treatment was larger among females, non-whites, those that perceived a need for treatment, and those that perceived their appearance as normal, bad, or very bad. The need for orthodontic treatment was smaller among those that lived in the Northeast and Central West macro-regions compared to those living in Southeast Brazil and it was also smaller among those that perceived their chewing to be normal or their oral health to be bad or very bad. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Brazil and this need was associated with demographic and subjective issues. The high prevalence of orthodontic needs in adolescents is a challenge to the goals of Brazil's universal public health system. PMID:25769190
Dianiskova, Simona; Calzolari, Chiara; Migliorati, Marco; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Isola, Gaetano; Savoldi, Fabio; Dalessandri, Domenico; Paganelli, Corrado
The use of elastics to close a diastema or correct tooth malpositions can create unintended consequences if not properly controlled. The American Association of Orthodontists recently issued a consumer alert, warning of “a substantial risk for irreparable damage” from a new trend called “do-it-yourself” orthodontics, consisting of patients autonomously using elastics to correct tooth position. The elastics can work their way below the gums and around the roots of the teeth, causing damage to the periodontium and even resulting in tooth loss. The cost of implants to replace these teeth would well exceed the cost of proper orthodontic care. This damage could also occur in a dental office, when a general dentist tries to perform a simplified orthodontic correction of a minor tooth malposition. The present case report describes a case of tooth loss caused by a displaced intraoral elastic, which occurred during a simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment. PMID:27672645
de Almeida, Anderson Barbosa; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves
To determine the normative orthodontic treatment need among 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and compare with the need as perceived by the children themselves and their parents or caregivers, assessing putative associated sociodemographic factors. Four hundred and fifty one children without a previous history of orthodontic treatment were randomly selected from a population of 7,993 schoolchildren regularly attending the public and private educational sectors of the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of normative orthodontic treatment need in 12-year-old children, assessed with the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) was 65.6% (n = 155). The need perceived by the caregivers was 85.6%, and by the children was 83.8%. Only the perception by the caregivers maintained a significant correlation with the normative need of treatment when adjusted to the parents' schooling and economical level (p = 0.023). There is a high prevalence (65.6%) of malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment in 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren. The most prevalent malocclusions in the study were: Crowding, Class II molar relationship and increased overjet. There was no significant correlation between the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need - Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC) related to dental aesthetic perception and the normative treatment need assessed with the DAI.
Shargill, I; Nandra, S; Day, P; Houghton, N
To survey patient and parent satisfaction with premolar transplantation and the associated orthodontic treatment. A postal service evaluation questionnaire was used to survey patient and parent satisfaction for children who had completed treatment involving premolar transplantation and the associated orthodontics. Patients and parents each completed separate questionnaires. For some questions a Likert scale from 1 to 10 was used. Questionnaires were sent to 41 patients and their parents who had premolar transplants and orthodontic treatment. Following repeat mailing of the questionnaires: 20 of the patient and 25 parent questionnaires were completed and returned. Patients and parents felt there was a large improvement in dental appearance (median scores 8 and 10) and were highly satisfied with the final appearance (median scores 8 and 9). Both groups felt that treatment transition between departments was very good (median scores 9 and 9). Patients experienced moderate discomfort during their premolar transplant surgery and during their orthodontic treatment (scores 6 and 5, respectively). Most patients and parents would recommend this type of treatment (92 and 88%, respectively). Overall, patients and parents report high levels of satisfaction with all aspects of their premolar transplant and their associated orthodontic treatment.
Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350
Gyawali, Rajesh; Bhattarai, Bhagabat
Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.
Leiva Villagra, Noemí; Muñoz Domon, Miguel; Véliz Méndez, Sebastian
The aim of the paper is to present full orthodontic treatment of an operated cleft lip adult patient. Case Report. An 18-year-old patient consulted for severe crowded teeth. He comes from a poor family. At that time he already had four operations (velum, palate, lip, and myringotomy). Treatment included maxillary expansion, tooth extraction, and fixed orthodontic, as well as kinesiology and speech therapy treatment. A multidisciplinary approach allowed us to achieve successfully an excellent result for this patient and gave him a harmonic smile and an optimal function without orthognathic surgery. Two years after treatment, occlusion remains stable. PMID:25544903
Leiva Villagra, Noemí; Muñoz Domon, Miguel; Véliz Méndez, Sebastian
The aim of the paper is to present full orthodontic treatment of an operated cleft lip adult patient. Case Report. An 18-year-old patient consulted for severe crowded teeth. He comes from a poor family. At that time he already had four operations (velum, palate, lip, and myringotomy). Treatment included maxillary expansion, tooth extraction, and fixed orthodontic, as well as kinesiology and speech therapy treatment. A multidisciplinary approach allowed us to achieve successfully an excellent result for this patient and gave him a harmonic smile and an optimal function without orthognathic surgery. Two years after treatment, occlusion remains stable.
Rafiuddin, Syed; YG, Pradeep Kumar; Biswas, Shriparna; Prabhu, Sandeep S; BM, Chandrashekar; MP, Rakesh
In orthodontic treatment, teeth are moved in to new positions and relationships and the soft tissue and underlying bone are altered to accommodate changes in esthetics and function. Function is more important than esthetics. The speciality of orthodontics has in addition to its benefits, complications as well as risks associated with its procedures. However the benefits outweigh the risks & complications in most of the treatment cases. Few of the unwanted side effects associated with treatment are tooth discolorations, enamel decalcification, periodontal complications like open gingival embrasures, root resorption, allergic reactions to nickel & chromium as well as treatment failure in the form of relapse. PMID:26312093
Sastri, Murlidhar R; Tanpure, Vijaysinh Ramchandra; Palagi, Firoz Babu; Shinde, Sagar Kundlik; Ladhe, Kapil; Polepalle, Tejaswin
Background: General dental practitioners and non-orthodontic specialty can play an essential role of education and motivation of their patients about the principles and practice of orthodontic treatment; which can be very beneficial to the patient’s lifestyle. It is, therefore, important to identify their level of knowledge and attitude toward orthodontic treatment. This study was planned to study this aspect in the form of comparative analysis in general dental practitioners and other specialties (except orthodontia) in dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 78 dentists, which was divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 46 general dental practitioners and Group II consisted of 32 non-orthodontic specialties. The study was carried out with the help of 21 questionnaires, which consisted of 13 questions of orthodontic knowledge and 08 questions about the attitude toward orthodontic practice. The scores were calculated, and statistical analysis was done with the help of IBM SPSS statistics 20, using Student’s t-test. Results: The comparative analysis showed highly significant difference of knowledge and attitude score between general dental practitioners and non-orthodontic specialties (Student’s t-test, P < 0.001). Also the comparison was made between male and female practitioners, who showed more scores in case of male practitioners; but the difference was not significant statistically (Student’s t-test, P > 0.01). Conclusion: The results of the study were moderately satisfactory, and it showed the need for increased clinically oriented education of practice and concepts of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25878478
Rivera Circuns, A L; Tulloch, J F
Incomplete adaptation of supporting structures during orthodontic closure of extraction spaces may result in invagination of the gingiva in this area. This study was undertaken to determine the incidence and possible association of these structural changes with gingival health and stability of extraction-space closure. Three groups of twenty-four orthodontic patients who had first premolars removed were examined at different stages of treatment: space closure complete, in retention, and postretention. The location, and severity of invaginations were recorded. The overall and extraction area gingival health, width of attached gingiva, and tightness of contacts in that area were assessed. The canine inclination at the various stages of treatment was measured from panoramic radiographs. The data were analyzed via comparison of means, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and ANOVA. Results indicated a very high incidence of invaginations forming during extraction-space closure. Invaginations were more frequent, complex, and severe in the mandibular arch than in the maxillary arch (p less than 0.001). The width of attached gingiva, overall gingival health, and canine inclination were not consistently related to their formation. The general trend was toward some resolution of these defects with time, but many persisted years after retention was discontinued. There was no evidence of an association with reopening of extraction space (p greater than 0.05). The presence and severity of gingival invaginations were consistently related to a reduction in gingival health in that area (p less than 0.001), regardless of the phase of treatment.
Lenz, B E; Harris, E F
This study reports on evaluation of the occlusion in 16 young adults who had been treated orthodontically an average of 10 years previously. Cases were from among dental students who, we assume, have high dental "IQs" and greater than average concern for stability of their orthodontic correction. Relapse of the orthodontic correction was substantial; both dental and skeletal dimensions relapsed--returned toward pretreatment conditions--to statistically and clinically obvious extents. Relapse is greater here than some other studies because of our longer recall period. Results focus attention on the importance of prolonged posttreatment retention and greater awareness on the patient's part of the role of posttreatment facial growth on relapse from adolescence into adulthood.
Puertes-Fernández, Neus; Montiel-Company, José María; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Manzanera, David
The aim of this study was to establish orthodontic treatment need according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Aesthetic Component (AC) and Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine its association with gender among Saharan schoolchildren. The study was carried out in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for oral health surveys at 12 years of age. The sample comprised 248 Sahrawi children (135 girls and 113 boys) living in refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria. None of the children had previously received any orthodontic treatment. A chi-square test was used to analyse the IOTN results by gender, and a Student's t-test was employed for the DAI results. The mean DAI was 23.32 with a standard deviation of 6.05, 4 percent with a very severe and 9.2 per cent with severe malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment need was 16.1 and 2.0 percent, respectively, according to grades 4 and 5 of the IOTN DHC, 13.7 percent according to the IOTN AC, and 28.6 percent according to the modified IOTN (IOTN DHC grades 4-5 and/or IOTN AC grades 8-10). There were no statistically significant differences by gender. The orthodontic treatment need of Western Saharan schoolchildren is similar to that reported by many recent studies in European and in Sub-Saharan countries.
Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Hirsch, Christian
Orthodontic treatment is a common dental procedure in developed countries. However, the frequency and factors associated with treatment demand are different between countries. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of orthodontic treatment in German children and adolescents and to analyse the influence of age, gender, and socio-economic status (SES; education and region) on the frequency of treatment. Subjects in a random population sample of 1538 German children and adolescents, aged 11-14 years, were interviewed at home in the autumn of 2008 regarding current orthodontic treatment and associated factors. Approximately one-third (33.5 per cent) of the subjects interviewed were undergoing orthodontic treatment at that time. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the likelihood of receiving orthodontic treatment was higher for girls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.65], for high school pupils (OR = 1.19, 95 per cent CI: 1.06-1.34), and for children and adolescents living in the western part of Germany (OR = 1.45, 95 per cent CI: 1.00-2.08) and increased with age (OR = 1.13 per year, 95 per cent CI: 1.02-1.25). Subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment more often received prophylactic measures (OR = 2.06, 95 per cent CI: 1.63-2.59) compared with those not currently receiving orthodontic treatment. The frequency of orthodontic treatment in Germany largely depends on gender and SES.
Tuzuner, Tamer; Ozel, Mehmet B.; Bostanoglu, Ozge
Objective: To evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish alone, its combination with chlorhexidine-fluoride containing dentifrice and fluoride varnish on oral hygiene and caries prevention in orthodontic patients. Study design: Sixty patients, aged 12-18, with orthodontic fixed appliances were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: Group 1 (n=20): 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol varnish (Cervitec®Plus); Group 2 (n=20): Cervitec®Plus+ 0.2% chlorhexidine and 0.2% sodium fluoride (900 ppm fluoride) (Cervitec®Gel)); and Group 3 (n=20): 0.1% fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector®). Mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacilli (LB) levels, buffering capacity (BC), visible plaque index (VPI), and gingival bleeding index (GBI) scores were evaluated at four stages: T0, before orthodontic bonding; T1, one week after orthodontic bonding; T2, one week; and T3, four weeks after the first application, respectively. Inter and intra group comparisons were made by the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests with Bonferroni step-down correction (P<0.017). Results: Significantly lower MS and LB levels were found in Group 2 than Group 1 (T2) and 3 (T2, T3) (P<0.017). Groups 1-2 (T2) showed significantly higher BC (P<0.017) and lower VPI and GBI (P<0.017) scores compared with Group 3. Decreased MS levels at T2 (P<0.017) and T3 (P>0.017) were found in Group1-2 compared with T0. Significantly lower LB levels were recorded in Group 2 at T2 compared with T0 (P<0.017) while no significant differences were seen in Group 1 and 3 (P>0.017). Conclusions: Addition of Cervitec®Plus+Cervitec®Gel combination to the standard oral hygiene regimen may be beneficial for orthodontic patients for maintaining oral health by reducing bacterial colonisation and gingivitis. Key words:Chlorhexidine, flouride, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, antibacterial effect, plaque, gingivitis, orthodontic treatment. PMID:23385499
Al-Azemi, Rashed; Artun, Jon
Our purpose was to determine the orthodontic treatment need in adolescent Kuwaitis, adjusting for treatment experience and acquired need due to mesial migration or loss of the first molars, and to assess the orthodontic manpower requirements. A population-based sample of 753 boys and 728 girls, representing about 7% of all 13- to 14-year-old Kuwaitis, was examined in a classroom setting. Orthodontic treatment need was graded according to the Dental Health Component (DHC) and the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Subjects with treatment experience were scored on initial study models. The DHC and AC grades were categorized in 3 groups and aggregated to 3 IOTN groups according to the highest DHC or AC group. Group 1 was labeled as 'no need', 2 as 'moderate need', and 3 as 'definite need for orthodontic treatment'. According to the IOTN, 31.1% of the subjects demonstrated a definite need and 40.2% no need for treatment. Excluding DHC group 3 categories attributed to mesial migration and/or loss of first molars, definite need was reduced to 23.9%. Definite treatment need was more prevalent when estimated according to the DHC than according to the AC, while moderate and no need were more prevalent according to the AC (p < 0.001). No gender differences were detected (p > 0.05). About 30% of adolescent Kuwaitis have definite need for orthodontic treatment. The prevalence may be reduced towards 25%, provided loss or mesial migration of the first molars can be prevented. About 50-60 orthodontists are needed to meet the severe need in adolescent Kuwaitis. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Qahtani, Nasser D Al
This review focused on airway dysfunctions and orthodontic treatment modalities. A systematic search of the dental literature was performed using PubMed and Web of Science library database. Different combinations of search terms related to airway and orthodontic treatment were used. Any Non-English articles were excluded. Among titles found, abstract and full articles were reviewed. References from all the relevant articles were hand-searched to include more articles. Forty articles which were found relevant were included in the review. Surgical, orthopedic and fixed appliance therapy has been advocated by clinicians to treat patients with airway dysfunctions. These treatment modalities differ from patient to patient and have to be considered based on lot of criterion. The reviewed studies were not convincing in providing information about the orthodontic treatment modalities; further research regarding the same could be encouraging.
Jati, Ana Suzy; Furquim, Laurindo Zanco; Consolaro, Alberto
abstract Gingival recession has direct causes and predisposing factors. Orthodontic treatment is able to prevent recession and even contribute to its treatment, with or without periodontal approach, depending on the type and severity of gingival tissue damage. There is no evidence on the fact that orthodontic treatment alone might induce gingival recession, although it might lead the affected teeth (usually mandibular incisors or maxillary canines) to be involved in situations that act as predisposing factors, allowing direct causes to act and, therefore, trigger recession, especially when the buccal bone plate is very thin or presents with dehiscence. Several aspects regarding the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival recession have been addressed, and so has the importance of the periosteum to the mechanism of gingival recession formation. Clinical as well as experimental trials on the subject would help to clarify this matter, of which understanding is not very deep in the related literature. PMID:27409650
Teresa, Dinoi Maria; Stefano, Mummolo; Annalisa, Monaco; Enrico, Marchetti; Vincenzo, Campanella; Giuseppe, Marzo
Transposition is an anomaly of tooth position, the most frequent of which involves the canine and the first maxillary premolar. We describe the orthodontic treatment of a unilateral transposition of an upper canine and an upper right first premolar in the permanent dentition. A 12-year-old Caucasian boy presented with transposition of his upper right canine and upper right first premolar. He had combined surgical-orthodontic treatment to correct the transposition and to obtain a Class I relationship between the molar and canine. This treatment resolved the dental crowding and achieved good functional and aesthetic results. In transposition, the choice of the most suitable treatment depends on the occlusion, level of dental crowding, aesthetics, position of the radicular apices, and the specific needs of the patient. In this case, orthodontic alignment of the transposed teeth into their physiological position achieved all of our objectives and our patient was satisfied with the aesthetic results obtained.
Qahtani, Nasser D. Al
This review focused on airway dysfunctions and orthodontic treatment modalities. A systematic search of the dental literature was performed using PubMed and Web of Science library database. Different combinations of search terms related to airway and orthodontic treatment were used. Any Non-English articles were excluded. Among titles found, abstract and full articles were reviewed. References from all the relevant articles were hand-searched to include more articles. Forty articles which were found relevant were included in the review. Surgical, orthopedic and fixed appliance therapy has been advocated by clinicians to treat patients with airway dysfunctions. These treatment modalities differ from patient to patient and have to be considered based on lot of criterion. The reviewed studies were not convincing in providing information about the orthodontic treatment modalities; further research regarding the same could be encouraging. PMID:27022385
Piassi, Eluza; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Andrade, Marcia Rejane Thomas Canabarro
Anterior crossbite (AC) refers to a condition in which the maxillary anterior teeth are placed lingually in their relationship with the mandibular anterior teeth. This dental condition results in visible incisor differences that are associated with higher levels of dissatisfaction with appearance and have potential to negatively impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the children. The aim of this paper was to report two cases of interceptive orthodontic treatment of twin children with anterior crossbite and its impact on OHRQoL of these children. Although AC affects negatively psychosocial aspects of OHRQoL of the children, the interceptive orthodontic treatment of children with AC was essential to improve their OHRQoL. PMID:27738533
Gandhi, Vaibhav; Mehta, Falguni; Joshi, Hrishabh
Twin Block appliance has been widely used for the treatment of Class II malocclusions in growing subjects, due to its versatility and its highly compliance nature. There are certain clinical indications where functional appliances can be used successfully in Class II malocclusion as in a growing patient. In using these appliances, the main concern is compliance of patients. This appliance simplifies the progression of treatment with fixed orthodontic braces later on. In this case, a 14-year-old adolescent was treated with Twin Block appliance followed by fixed appliances for finishing and detailing. The design and treatment effects are demonstrated in this case report. PMID:28566872
Slutzkey, Shimshon; Levin, Liran
Gingival recession can be localized or generalized and associated with at least 1 tooth surface. As a result, gingival recession leads to root surface exposure, often causing esthetic impairment, fear of tooth loss, increased susceptibility for root caries, and dentin hypersensitivity. The prevalence, extent, and severity of gingival recession in a young adult Israeli population were evaluated, and the relationship between orthodontic therapy and other potential risk indicators and gingival recession was assessed. Our cohort included 303 consecutive healthy patients who had routine dental examinations at a military dental center. Information was collected regarding age, smoking habits, oral piercing, oral hygiene habits, and past orthodontic treatment. Clinical examination included visible gingival inflammation, visible dental plaque, and gingival recession on the facial aspects of all teeth. Gingival recession was found in 14.6% of the subjects and in 1.6% of all examined teeth. The prevalence, extent, and severity of recession correlated with past orthodontic treatment. A negative correlation was found between plaque on the buccal tooth aspect and gingival recession. There was no correlation between gingivitis or smoking habits and recession. Prevalence was related to oral piercing. Gingival recession is not uncommon in young adults and is related to past orthodontic treatment and oral piercing. Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment or about to pierce the tongue or lips should be advised regarding these findings.
Yamamoto, Zulham; Jaafar, Ikmal Mohamad; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Ariffin, Zaidah Zainal; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal
Periodontal tissue changes exerted by external forces in orthodontic treatment allow tooth movement. The changes in periodontal tissues i.e. inflammation can be monitored using gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). GCF is a component of saliva. Saliva could be used to monitor periodontal disease progression. The use of saliva to monitor periodontal tissues changes during orthodontic treatment is still unknown. Therefore, we observed the profiles of inflammatory markers namely creatine kinase ('CK), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in saliva of orthodontic patients to evaluate their importance in orthodontic treatment. A total of 21 subjects (13 female and 8 male) participated in this study. Samples were collected from gingival crevicular fluid at three period of archwire changes: baseline (M0), 2 weeks after 0.014" NiTi archwire (M1), and 2 weeks after 0.018" NiTi archwire (M2). All enzyme activities i.e. CK, LDH and AST were measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. Griess assay was used to measure nitric oxide level. CK activity, NO level, LDH activity and AST activity in saliva samples did not show significant differences among period of archwire changes. The use of inflammatory marker profiles in saliva may not represent the changes in periodontal tissues during orthodontic treatment.
Maganzini, Anthony L; Schroetter, Sarah B; Freeman, Kathy
To quantify smile esthetics following orthodontic treatment and determine whether these changes are correlated to the severity of the initial malocclusion. A standardized smile mesh analysis that evaluated nine lip-tooth characteristics was applied to two groups of successfully treated patients: group 1 (initial American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index [DI] score<20) and group 2 (initial DI score>20). T-tests were used to detect significant differences between the low-DI and high-DI groups for baseline pretreatment measurements, baseline posttreatment measurements, and changes from pre- to posttreatment. A Spearman correlation test compared the initial DI values with the changes in the nine smile measurements. Five of the smile measurements were improved in both groups following orthodontic treatment. Both groups demonstrated improved incisor exposure, an improved gingival smile line, an increase in smile width, a decreased buccal corridor space, and an improvement in smile consonance. Spearman correlation tests showed that initial DI value was not correlated to changes in any of the individual smile measurements. Smile esthetics is improved by orthodontic treatment regardless of the initial severity of the malocclusion. In other words, patients with more complex orthodontic issues and their counterparts with minor malocclusions benefitted equally from treatment in terms of their smile esthetics.
Shen, X; Shi, J; Xu, L; Jiao, J; Lu, R F; Meng, H X
To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of periodontal-orthodontic treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and malocclusion. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 25 AgP patients, who had received periodontal-orthodontic treatment in Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. Clinical indexes, including probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI) and percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP%) were evaluated at three time points: Baseline (T0); active periodontal treatment finished and before orthodontic treatment (T1); and after orthodontic treatment (T2). Also changes of ratio of the residual alveolar bone height (RBH) and the occurrence of root resorption were evaluated by periapical radiographs. (1) Compared with T0, all the clinical parameters including PD, BI, BOP% and percentage of sites with PD>3 mm were significantly improved (P<0.001). (2) Significant difference was observed in the average RBH between T0 (68.37%±15.60% and T2 (70.27%±14.23%). RBH in upper incisors [(58.79%±16.71% at T0, 65.54% (55.74%, 78.13%) at T2], upper canines [77.62% (66.06%, 87.17%) at T0, 79.57% (69.75%, 86.52%) at T2] and upper molars [74.30% (61.69%, 84.45%) at T0, 76.76% (68.12%, 85.09%) at T2] showed significant increase (P<0.05). (3) After orthodontic treatment, varying degrees of root resorption occurred in (23.94%±13.45%) of teeth per capita, among which the lower and upper incisors showed the highest incidence (68.48% and 65.31% in homogeneous teeth, respectively). After active periodontal treatment, orthodontic treatment in AgP patients had not aggravated inflammation and alveolar bone resorption; root resorption occurred in two-thirds of incisors approximately.
Richardson, G; Russell, K A
Implant restorations have become a primary treatment option for the replacement of congenitally missing lateral incisors. The central incisor and canine often erupt in less than optimal positions adjacent to the edentulous lateral incisor space, and therefore preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is frequently required. Derotation of the central incisor and canine, space closure and correction of root proximities may be required to create appropriate space in which to place the implant and achieve an esthetic restoration. This paper discusses aspects of preprosthetic orthodontic diagnosis and treatment that need to be considered with implant restorations.
Maués, Caroline Pelagio Raick; do Nascimento, Rizomar Ramos; Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular), treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed), root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9%) presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset. PMID:25741825
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. Materials and Methods This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Results Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. Conclusion These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth. PMID:21977469
Eslamipour, Faezeh; Riahi, Farnaz Tajmir; Etemadi, Milad; Riahi, Alireza
To determine patient orthodontic treatment need, appropriate self-perceived indices are required. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of esthetic component (AC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN), oral esthetic subjective index scale (OASIS), and visual analog scale (VAS) through dental health component (DHC) IOTN as a normative index to determine the more appropriate self-perceived index among young adults. In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 993 was randomly selected from freshman students of Isfahan University. Those with a history of orthodontic treatment or current treatment were excluded. DHC was evaluated by two inter- and intra-calibrated examiners. Data for AC, OASIS, and VAS were collected through a questionnaire completed by students. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman correlation test, were used for data analyses. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of self-perceived indices were calculated through DHC. Sensitivity of AC, OASIS, and VAS for evaluating definite orthodontic treatment need was calculated at 15.4%, 22.3%, and 44.6%, respectively. Specificity of these indices for evaluating definite orthodontic treatment need was calculated at 92.7%, 90.5%, and 76.2% percent, respectively. All self-perceived indices had a significant correlation with together and with DHC (P < 0.01). Among demographic factors, there was weak but significant correlation only between mother's educational level and VAS (P < 0.01). Due to the sensitivity and specificity of the three self-perceived indices, these indices are not recommended for population screening and should be used as adjuncts to a normative index for decision-making in orthodontic treatment planning.
Eslamipour, Faezeh; Riahi, Farnaz Tajmir; Etemadi, Milad; Riahi, Alireza
Background: To determine patient orthodontic treatment need, appropriate self-perceived indices are required. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of esthetic component (AC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN), oral esthetic subjective index scale (OASIS), and visual analog scale (VAS) through dental health component (DHC) IOTN as a normative index to determine the more appropriate self-perceived index among young adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 993 was randomly selected from freshman students of Isfahan University. Those with a history of orthodontic treatment or current treatment were excluded. DHC was evaluated by two inter- and intra-calibrated examiners. Data for AC, OASIS, and VAS were collected through a questionnaire completed by students. Descriptive statistics, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Spearman correlation test, were used for data analyses. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of self-perceived indices were calculated through DHC. Results: Sensitivity of AC, OASIS, and VAS for evaluating definite orthodontic treatment need was calculated at 15.4%, 22.3%, and 44.6%, respectively. Specificity of these indices for evaluating definite orthodontic treatment need was calculated at 92.7%, 90.5%, and 76.2% percent, respectively. All self-perceived indices had a significant correlation with together and with DHC (P < 0.01). Among demographic factors, there was weak but significant correlation only between mother's educational level and VAS (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Due to the sensitivity and specificity of the three self-perceived indices, these indices are not recommended for population screening and should be used as adjuncts to a normative index for decision-making in orthodontic treatment planning. PMID:28348616
Rischen, Robine J.; Breuning, K. Hero; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie
Background Traditionally, dental models, facial and intra-oral photographs and a set of two-dimensional radiographs are used for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. As evidence is lacking, the discussion is ongoing which specific records are needed for the process of making an orthodontic treatment plan. Objective To estimate the contribution and importance of different diagnostic records for making an orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan. Data sources An electronic search in PubMed (1948–July 2012), EMBASE Excerpta Medica (1980–July 2012), CINAHL (1982–July 2012), Web of Science (1945–July 2012), Scopus (1996–July 2012), and Cochrane Library (1993–July 2012) was performed. Additionally, a hand search of the reference lists of included studies was performed to identify potentially eligible studies. There was no language restriction. Study selection The patient, intervention, comparator, outcome (PICO) question formulated for this study was as follows: for patients who need orthodontic treatment (P), will the use of record set X (I) compared with record set Y (C) change the treatment plan (O)? Only primary publications were included. Data extraction Independent extraction of data and quality assessment was performed by two observers. Results Of the 1041 publications retrieved, 17 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 4 studies were of high quality. Because of the limited number of high quality studies and the differences in study designs, patient characteristics, and reference standard or index test, a meta-analysis was not possible. Conclusion Cephalograms are not routinely needed for orthodontic treatment planning in Class II malocclusions, digital models can be used to replace plaster casts, and cone-beam computed tomography radiographs can be indicated for impacted canines. Based on the findings of this review, the minimum record set required for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning could not be defined. Systematic review
Sebaoun, Jean-David M; Surmenian, Jérôme; Dibart, Serge
An increasing number of adult patients are seeking orthodontic treatment and a short treatment time has become a recurring request. To meet their expectations, a number of surgical techniques have been developed to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. However, these have been found to be quite invasive. We are introducing here a new, minimally invasive flapless procedure, combining micro incisions, piezoelectric incisions and selective tunneling that allows for hard- or soft-tissue grafting. Combined with a proper treatment planning and a good understanding of the biological events involved, this novel technique can locally manipulate alveolar bone metabolism in order to obtain rapid and stable orthodontic results. Piezocision allows for rapid correction of severe malocclusions without the drawbacks of traumatic conventional corticotomy procedures.
Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina
The aim of this work was to investigate the published evidence on the comparison of self-perception and diagnosis of orthodontic treatment need. A search of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Scopus databases, and archives of two orthodontic journals was carried out from January 1966 to August 2011 by the two authors using Medical Subject Heading terms. Studies that investigated solely either self-perception of orthodontic need by laypersons or assessment of orthodontic need by professionals were excluded from the data analysis. The methodological soundness of each study and the aggregate level of evidence were evaluated according to predetermined criteria. Moderate level of evidence, the relatively highest grade, was assigned to 9.1 per cent of the 22 studies, finally included in the data analysis. The overall evidence level provided by the evaluated publications was rated as limited. However, the existing body of evidence indicated a highly variable association between self-perception of orthodontic treatment need and orthodontist's assessment. Future controlled studies with well-defined samples and common assessment methodology will clarify further the relationship between perception of treatment need by laypersons and orthodontists and enhance international comparison and development of health care strategies.
Background Electromyographic analysis of the masticatory muscles provides useful data on the behavior of these muscles during stomatognathic system functioning and allows a functional assessment of orthodontic treatments. This study was undertaken to verify if achieving an Angle Class I bite through orthodontic treatment can lead to neuromuscular balance. Methods This study enrolled 30 patients (20 females, 10 males, mean age: 15.78 years) with an Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion that was orthodontically treated. A group of 30 subjects (19 females, 11 males; mean age: 16.15 years), randomly selected among subjects with an Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion that had not been orthodontically treated served as the Control group. Both groups were subjected to electromyography to study their neuromuscular characteristics. The Shapiro-Wilk's test revealed a non normal distribution, therefore we used a Friedman two way ANOVA by ranks test to compare differences of surface electromyography values between treated and untreated subjects at closed and open eyes condition. Results A statistically significant interaction between orthodontic treatment and open eyes conditions was detected for anterior temporal muscles. A significant imbalance of the anterior temporal muscles, which is indicative of an asymmetric electromyographic pattern, was also found. Conclusions The present data indicate that achieving a correct occlusal target does not necessarily correspond to a neuromuscular balance. PMID:24152806
Tsichlaki, A; O'Brien, K; Johal, A; Fleming, P S
The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the outcomes measured in orthodontic studies of children with cleft lip and/or palate. The objectives were to categorize the outcomes into pre-determined domains and to explore whether any domains were under-represented. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched until December 2016 to identify all studies of orthodontic treatment interventions in children and adolescents with cleft lip and palate. Abstracts and subsequently eligible full-text articles were screened independently and in duplicate by two reviewers. All reported outcome measures were identified and categorized into six predetermined outcome domains. The search identified 833 abstracts. The majority of studies did not assess orthodontic interventions and were therefore not eligible for inclusion. Consequently, following screening 71 eligible articles were retrieved in full, of which 40 met the inclusion criteria. Morphological features of malocclusion were measured in 27 studies (68%) and adverse effects of orthodontic treatment in 10 (25%). Functional status (n=4; 10%), physical consequences of malocclusion (n=3; 7.5%), quality of life (n=3; 7.5%) and health resource utilization (n=2; 5%) were rarely considered. Relatively few studies concerning patients with cleft lip and palate focused on orthodontic interventions. Most of the identified outcomes were concerned with measuring morphological treatment-related changes and do not reflect patient perspectives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vaillard-Jiménez, Esther; García-Rocha, Araceli; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa
Background Third molars present more problems than other teeth because they are the last teeth to erupt, and so it is important to assess their development when designing an orthodontic treatment plan. The aim of this study was to compare the angulation of the mandibular third molar and retromolar space before and after orthodontic treatment in cases involving first premolar extraction. Material and Methods 76 patients, 59 women (77.63%) and 17 men (22.36%), were recruited from the Orthodontics Clinic at Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (Mexico). Panoramic radiographs were analyzed before and after orthodontic treatment that included first premolar extractions, measuring retromolar space (RS) and the angles formed by the intersection of the axes of the third and second molar (α) and the intersection of the axis of the mandibular plane and third molar (β). Results The data obtained underwent statistical analysis. The angle α and β showed statistically significant differences on the left side in women. In men, only the right side α angle showed significant differences. Retromolar space increased significantly on both sides for both sexes. Conclusions Third molar angulation presents different behaviors between men and women, with greater verticalization in women. Key words:Third molar, retromolar space, orthodontics. PMID:28298970
Krooks, Laura; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kanavakis, Georgios; Lähdesmäki, Raija
Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of malocclusion traits and the extent of orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population. Materials and methods The study population comprised subjects (n = 1964) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 living in the city of Oulu and within 100 km of it. A clinical oral and dental examination with registration of occlusion was carried out in 2012 in connection with a 46-year follow-up survey. Data on previous orthodontic treatment were collected based on a questionnaire. Results In the clinical examination, 39.5% of the subjects had at least one malocclusion trait. The most common malocclusion traits were lateral crossbite (17.9%), overbite ≥ 6 mm (11.7%) and overjet ≥ 6 mm (9.7%). Crossbite on the left premolars, negative overjet and increased overbite were found more frequently in men. The prevalence of malocclusion traits was at the same level in treated and untreated groups. Overall, 18.6% of the subjects had undergone orthodontic treatment. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions The most common malocclusion trait in the present study was lateral crossbite. Significant male dominance in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed, which has not been reported earlier in Finland. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion traits was more common among females in Northern Finland. This study indicates that orthodontic treatment provided in childhood was, on average, adequate in reducing malocclusion traits to the level observed in the general population.
Millett, D T; Cunningham, S J; O'Brien, K D; Benson, P; Williams, A; de Oliveira, C M
Correction of the type of dental problem where the bite is deep and the upper front teeth are retroclined (Class II division 2 malocclusion) may be carried out using different types of orthodontic treatment. However, in severe cases, surgery to the jaws in combination with orthodontics may be required. In growing children, treatment may sometimes be carried out using special upper and lower dental braces (functional appliances) that can be removed from the mouth. In many cases this treatment does not involve taking out any permanent teeth. Often, however, further treatment is needed with fixed braces to get the best result. In other cases, treatment aims to move the upper first permanent molars backwards to provide space for the correction of the front teeth. This may be carried out by applying a force to the teeth and jaws from the back of the head using a head brace (headgear) and transmitting this force to a part of a fixed or removable dental brace. This treatment may or may not involve the removal of permanent teeth. In some cases, neither functional appliances nor headgear are required and treatment may be carried out without extraction of any permanent teeth. Instead of using a headgear, in certain cases, the back teeth are held back in other ways such as with an arch across or in contact with the front of the roof of the mouth which links two bands glued to the back teeth. Often in these cases, two permanent teeth are taken out from the middle of the upper arch (one on each side) to provide room to correct the upper front teeth. It is important for orthodontists to find out whether orthodontic treatment only, carried out without the removal of permanent teeth, in children with a Class II division 2 malocclusion produces a result which is any different from no orthodontic treatment or orthodontic treatment only involving extraction of permanent teeth. To establish whether orthodontic treatment, carried out without the removal of permanent teeth, in children
Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; de Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Normando, David
ABSTRACT To improve orthodontic treatment efficiency, orthodontists must know which variables could interfere with orthodontic treatment time. Objective: To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients’ records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p<0.05. The sample was also divided into two groups: Group 0-2 (patients who had missed two clinical appointments or less) and Group >2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments), to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2). Results: Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345) and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596) are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients. PMID:27812612
de Avila, Érica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Campos Velo, Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo; Mollo, Francisco de Assis; Borelli Barros, Luiz Antonio
The aim of this paper is to present a complex rehabilitation, of fractured tooth, with implants in anterior region considering the orthodontics extrusion to clinical success. At 7 years old, the patient fractured the maxillary left central incisor and the dentist did a crown with the fragment. Twenty years later, the patient was referred to a dental clinic for orthodontic treatment, with the chief complaint related to an accentuated deep bite, and a professional started an orthodontic treatment. After sixteen months of orthodontic treatment, tooth 21 fractured. The treatment plan included an orthodontic extrusion of tooth 21 and implant placement. This case has been followed up and the clinical and radiographic examinations show excellence esthetic results and satisfaction of patient. The forced extrusion can be a viable treatment option in the management of crown root fracture of an anterior tooth to gain bone in a vertical direction. This case emphasizes that to achieve the esthetic result a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. PMID:24872900
Yang, Yun; Bai, Yuxing; Li, Song; Li, Jiangning; Gao, Weimin; Ru, Nan
Masticatory stimulation during the healing period may promote periodontal ligament healing. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of orthodontic force on the periodontal healing of autotransplanted teeth. A total of 30 teeth from four dogs were endodontically treated to prevent subsequent inflammatory root resorption. The teeth were atraumatically extracted and autotransplanted to the other side of the same jaw. A continuous 50-g orthodontic force was applied during the first, second, and fourth weeks after autotransplantation. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed using vital perfusion fixation, and the teeth were histologically prepared and evaluated following the Andreasen method. The application of force in the first, second, and fourth weeks after autotransplantation resulted in a lower occurrence of ankylosis. The first- and second-week loading groups differed significantly from the control group (P <0.05); however, significantly more resorption and less complete healing were observed in the first-week loading group than in the other groups (P <0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that orthodontic force promotes periodontal ligament healing and that early force loading may prevent dentoalveolar ankylosis; however, a period of rest of ≥2 weeks is recommended for the autotransplants before loading.
Previous studies carried out using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) have reported that the Aesthetic Component (AC) has limited use in schoolchildren. The purpose of this study was to estimate whether dental concern expressed by the grade of the AC chosen by subjects is reliable and whether it may be predictive for potential co-operation. Such a correlation would indicate if the AC of the IOTN may help to identify individuals interested in orthodontic treatment who would co-operate well, and consequently who might derive the greatest benefits. The investigation was carried out in north-west Poland among 84 schoolchildren (42 girls and 42 boys) aged 12 years and was based on a questionnaire and clinical examination. The questionnaire contained items relating to the subjective assessment of dental appearance, demand for orthodontic treatment, the influence of the dentition on the general appearance, and any functional disorders (speech, mastication, muscular pain, etc.). Clinical examination was carried out at the schools each time by the same dentist. For statistical analysis chi-square (Yates corrected) and McNemar tests were used. A probability at the 5 per cent level or less (P < 0.05) was considered statistically significant. The outcome shows that the AC of the IOTN moderately reflects the subjective perception of dental aesthetics and demand for orthodontic treatment. The results indicate that using professional rating the AC scale does not seem to be more precise or reliable than self-evaluation. The correlation between dental concern and the AC would be higher if the 'no treatment need' category was split into two parts (e.g. 1-2 'no need', 3-4 'slight need') or the 'borderline need' category was moved two grades lower. The AC would then help to identify patients interested in treatment who would potentially be co-operative.
Clijmans, Maïté; Lemiere, Jurgen; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy
The aim of this study was to investigate whether an association exists between orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and whether this association is moderated by self-esteem (SE) and/or personality traits. In this cross-sectional study comprising 189 adults (55 males and 134 females) aged 17 or older (mean age 31.3 years), the OHRQoL was scored by the use of the shortened version of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used to evaluate SE, and the Dutch adaptation of the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five-Factor Inventory was used to assess personality profiles. Need for treatment was defined by the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Spearman correlations, Mann-Whitney U-tests, and regression models were used to analyse the data. There is a modest to weak association between treatment need (Dental Health Component and aesthetic component) and OHRQoL as measured by the total OHIP-14 score (ρ = 0.21, P = 0.01216; ρ = 0.18, P = 0.02960, respectively). A significant, yet modest to weak, association between SE and the total OHIP-14 score was found (ρ = -0.34, P = 0.00057). Moreover, significant associations were found for the total OHIP-14 score and neuroticism and extraversion. Significant associations can be found between SE and all personality traits. There was a significant association between orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL. Moreover, a significant association can be found between SE and OHRQoL, as well as certain personality traits and OHRQoL. No evidence was found that SE or personality traits moderate the association between OHRQoL and treatment need. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Chung, Chooryung J; Choi, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, In-Sil; Huh, Jong-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Kyung-Ho
This case report describes the successful treatment of an adult patient with skeletal Class II open-bite malocclusion secondary to idiopathic condylar resorption. Total alloplastic joint reconstruction and counterclockwise rotation of the maxillomandibular complex combined with orthodontic treatment provided a satisfying outcome with maximum functional and esthetic improvement.
Chung, Chooryung J; Choi, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, In-Sil; Huh, Jong-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Kyung-Ho
This case report describes the successful treatment of an adult patient with skeletal Class II open-bite malocclusion secondary to idiopathic condylar resorption. Total alloplastic joint reconstruction and counterclockwise rotation of the maxillomandibular complex combined with orthodontic treatment provided a satisfying outcome with maximum functional and esthetic improvement.
Motta, Alexandre; Louro, Rafael Seabra; Medeiros, Paulo José D'Albuquerque; Capelli, Jonas
This article describes the surgical and orthodontic treatment of a girl with facial deformities and functional involvement. The left temporomandibular joint was ankylosed, and the lower third of the face was markedly deficient, with mandibular retrusion and severe laterognathism to the left side. Mouth-opening was limited, and the patient had problems speaking and chewing. Two surgical procedures had been performed previously at another institution. We treated the patient with condylar surgery while she was still growing, followed by orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery after growth was complete. Twelve-year follow-up records are presented.
Park, Jae Hyun; Tai, Kiyoshi; Sato, Yasumori
A 15-year-old girl who had a unilateral condylar fracture with severe crowding in both arches was treated with 4 premolar extractions followed by orthodontic therapy with a temporary skeletal anchorage device in the maxillary arch. The total active treatment time was 21 months. Her occlusion was significantly improved by orthodontic treatment, and the range of condylar movement was also improved. Posttreatment records after 30 months showed excellent results with a good stable occlusion. The remodeling process of the condyle was confirmed with cone-beam computed tomography images.
Gorbunkova, Angelina; Pagni, Giorgio; Brizhak, Anna; Farronato, Giampietro; Rasperini, Giulio
The aim of this review is to describe the most commonly observed changes in periodontium caused by orthodontic treatment in order to facilitate specialists' collaboration and communication. An electronic database search was carried out using PubMed abstract and citation database and bibliographic material was then used in order to find other appropriate sources. Soft and hard periodontal tissues changes during orthodontic treatment and maintenance of the patients are discussed in order to provide an exhaustive picture of the possible interactions between these two interwoven disciplines. PMID:26904120
Kiran, Jyothi; Isaac, Anish; Shanthraj, Ravis; Madannagowda, Shivalinga
This article describes the treatment of an adult male with vertical maxillary excess, excessive gingival display on smiling, a convex profile, proclined upper and lower incisors, and crowded lower anteriors with severe lip incompetence. The therapy included stages: (1) Pre surgical orthodontics- leveling and aligning of the maxillary and mandibular arch with closure of all extraction spaces. (2) Surgical phase-Lefort I osteotomy for superior maxillary impaction, 5 mm of anterior and 3 mm of posterior impaction ofmaxilla was done. (3) Post surgical orthodontics for finishing and detailing. The treatment lasted 16 months; improved facial esthetics significantly; and resulted in a normal occlusion, overjet, and overbite.
Kocadereli, Ilken; Turgut, Melek D
This case report presented a combined surgical/orthodontic treatment of an impacted permanent incisor of a 10-year-old boy. Trauma to the primary dentition caused the impaction of the maxillary left permanent central incisor. Application of push coil spring between the adjacent teeth created space for the impacted tooth. A button with an extension of ligature wire was bonded to the maxillary left permanent central incisor to bring it into the arch. The maxillary left permanent central incisor was brought to its proper position after 16 months of active orthodontic treatment.
Moon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sung-Hun; Han, Jung-Suk; Yang, Jae-Ho
If orthodontists and restorative dentists establish the interdisciplinary approach to esthetic dentistry, the esthetic and functional outcome of their combined efforts will be greatly enhanced. This article describes satisfying esthetic results obtained by the distribution of space for restoration by orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers in uneven space between maxillary anterior teeth. It is proposed that the use of orthodontic treatment for re-distribution of the space and the use of porcelain laminate veneers to alter crown anatomy provide maximum esthetic and functional correction for patients with irregular interdental spacing. PMID:21165191
Background Although a great number of specific quality of life measures have been developed to analyze the impact of wearing fixed appliances, there is still a paucity of systematic appraisal of the consequences of orthodontics on quality of life. To assess the current evidence of the relationship between orthodontic treatment and quality of life. Methods Four electronic databases were searched for articles concerning the impact of orthodontic treatment on quality of life published between January 1960 and December 2013. Electronic searches were supplemented by manual searches and reference linkages. Eligible literature was reviewed and assessed by methodologic quality as well as by analytic results. Results From 204 reviewed articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria and used standardized health related quality of life and orthodontic assessment measures. The majority of studies (7/11) were conducted among child/adolescent populations. Eight of the papers were categorized as level 1 or 2 evidence based on the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. An observed association between quality of life and orthodontic treatment was generally detected irrespective of how they were assessed. However, the strength of the association could be described as modest at best. Key findings and future research considerations are described in the review. Conclusions Findings of this review suggest that there is an association (albeit modest) between orthodontic treatment and quality of life. There is a need for further studies of their relationship, particularly studies that employ standardized assessment methods so that outcomes are uniform and thus amenable to meta-analysis. PMID:24913619
Bernabé, Eduardo; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios; Messias de Oliveira, Cesar
The aim of this case-controlled study was to assess the effect of orthodontic treatment on the quality of life of Brazilian adolescents. Two hundred and seventy-nine 'cases' (106 males and 173 females) and 558 controls (246 males and 312 females) were randomly selected from 15- to 16-year-old adolescents attending all secondary schools in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. A case was defined as having at least one condition-specific impact (CSI) attributed to malocclusion during the previous 6 months, based on the Oral Impact on Daily Performances index. Conversely, a control was defined as having no CSI attributed to malocclusion during the same period. Adolescents were also clinically examined for orthodontic treatment need using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and asked about previous orthodontic treatment. Binary logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Females and adolescents with a definite normative orthodontic treatment need were more likely to report CSI than males and adolescents with no normative need [odds ratio (OR) = 1.48, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-2.02 and OR = 2.02, 95 per cent CI = 2.09-4.47, respectively], whereas adolescents with a history of orthodontic treatment were less likely to report CSI than their counterparts (OR = 0.15, 95 per cent CI = 0.07-0.31). Furthermore, there was an interaction between a history of orthodontic treatment and the current level of normative need. Brazilian adolescents with a history of orthodontic treatment were less likely to have physical, psychological, and social impacts on their daily performances associated with malocclusion than those with no history of orthodontics. Gender was a confounding factor, whereas current level of normative orthodontic treatment need was an effect modifier. Prospective studies are needed to corroborate the present findings.
Steinmassl, Otto; Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca; Schwarz, Anna; Crismani, Adriano
Malocclusal traits can impair dental health and aesthetical appearance. The index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) identifies the patients who benefit the most from orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the malocclusion frequencies and the orthodontic treatment need among Austrian children in the mixed dentition stage, since there is no pre-existing data from Austria. In the present study, 157 children aged between 8 and 10 years were examined. Following an anamnesis questionnaire, which included a question about the parents perceived treatment need, the children were examined clinically and dental impressions were taken. The sagittal molar relationship, overjet, overbite and the presence of cross- or scissor bite were registered. The treatment need was assessed using the dental health component (DHC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN). 64.3% (95% CI [56.8, 71.8]) of the children showed Angle class I molar relation, 33.1% (95% CI [25.8, 40.5]) class II and 2.5% (95% CI [0.1, 5.0]) Angle class III relation. Crossbite was found in 36.3% (95% CI [28.8, 43.8]) of the participants. A treatment need for medical reasons (IOTN 4 or 5) was found in 30.6% (95% CI [23.4, 37.8]). There was no statistically significant relationship between objective treatment need and the parents perception. The malocclusion frequencies and the treatment need assessed in the present study appeared to be comparable to those assessed in other countries. The data supports the opinion that orthodontic screening is important and necessary at this stage of dental development, also due to the discordance between objective and perceived treatment need.
Purpose With the increasing prevalence of orthodontic treatment in adults, clear aligner treatments are becoming more popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic treatment on periodontal tissue and to compare orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (FA) to clear aligner treatment (CAT) in periodontitis patients. Methods A total of 35 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment in the Department of Periodontology were included in this study. After periodontal treatment with meticulous oral hygiene education, patients underwent treatment with FA or CAT, and this study analyzed patient outcomes depending on the treatment strategy. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after orthodontic treatment, and the duration of treatment was compared between these two groups. Results The overall plaque index, the gingival index, and probing depth improved after orthodontic treatment (P<0.01). The overall bone level also improved (P=0.045). However, the bone level changes in the FA and CAT groups were not significantly different. Significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups in probing depth, change in probing depth, and duration of treatment (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups regarding the plaque index, changes in the plaque index, the gingival index, changes in the gingival index, or changes in the alveolar bone level. The percentage of females in the CAT group (88%) was significantly greater than in the FA group (37%) (P<0.01). Conclusions After orthodontic treatment, clinical parameters were improved in the FA and CAT groups with meticulous oral hygiene education and plaque control. Regarding plaque index and gingival index, no significant differences were found between these two groups. We suggest that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment can improve patients’ periodontal health irrespective of orthodontic techniques. PMID:26734489
Yıldırım, Ersin; Karacay, Seniz
To determine the changes in dental anxiety, state anxiety, and trait anxiety levels of patients and their parents after 3 months of active orthodontic treatment. We evaluated 120 patients and one parent of each patient. State Anxiety (STAI-S), Trait Anxiety (STAI-T), and Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) were administered before orthodontic treatment (T1) and after 3 months of treatment (T2). Differences in scores between T1 and T2 were compared using paired-sample t-tests and the relationship between the scores of the DAS and the STAI were analyzed using a bivariate two-tailed Pearson correlation test. Dental anxiety and state anxiety levels decreased among the patients after adjustment to orthodontic treatment (p < 0.001). However, 3 months of treatment was not sufficient to decrease the anxiety levels of parents (p > 0.05). Patient trait anxiety affected patient state anxiety and dental anxiety (p < 0.01). Additionally, a significant correlation was found between patient dental anxiety and parent dental anxiety (p < 0.05). Dental anxiety and state anxiety levels decrease after patients become familiar with their orthodontist and they became accustomed to orthodontic treatment. However, 3 months is not a sufficient length of time to decrease parental anxiety levels.
Al-Balbeesi, Hana O.; Bin Huraib, Sahar M.; AlNahas, Nadia W.; AlKawari, Huda M.; Abu-Amara, Abdulrahman B.; Vellappally, Sajith; Anil, Sukumaran
Aims and Objectives: The objective of the present investigation is to evaluate patients’ pain perception and discomfort, the duration of pain and the level of self-medication over time during tooth separation, and the effectiveness of elastomeric and spring types of orthodontic separators in Saudi population. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 30 female adolescent patients who had elastomeric/spring separators as part of their orthodontic treatment. A self-administrated questionnaire comprising 16 multiple choice questions and another with visual analog scale were used to record the patient's pain perceptions at 4 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days from the time of insertion. The level of pain and discomfort during these time periods were assessed by a visual analog scale. After a separation period of 7 days, the amount of separation was measured with a leaf gauge. Type and frequency of analgesic consumption was also recorded. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (IBM SPSS -Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.,) was used for statistical analysis. Results: The data showed significant increase in the level of pain at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 3 days from separator placement. The elastomeric separators produced significantly more separation than the spring separators and also caused maximum pain during the first 3 days after insertion. However, there was no significant difference between the score of pain between two separators at all time intervals. Conclusion: Both elastomeric and spring separators showed comparative levels of pain and discomfort during the early phase of separation. Elastomeric separators were found to be more effective in tooth separation than spring separators. However, further studies are necessary to substantiate this preliminary observation. PMID:28032047
Al-Balbeesi, Hana O; Bin Huraib, Sahar M; AlNahas, Nadia W; AlKawari, Huda M; Abu-Amara, Abdulrahman B; Vellappally, Sajith; Anil, Sukumaran
The objective of the present investigation is to evaluate patients' pain perception and discomfort, the duration of pain and the level of self-medication over time during tooth separation, and the effectiveness of elastomeric and spring types of orthodontic separators in Saudi population. The study group consisted of 30 female adolescent patients who had elastomeric/spring separators as part of their orthodontic treatment. A self-administrated questionnaire comprising 16 multiple choice questions and another with visual analog scale were used to record the patient's pain perceptions at 4 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days from the time of insertion. The level of pain and discomfort during these time periods were assessed by a visual analog scale. After a separation period of 7 days, the amount of separation was measured with a leaf gauge. Type and frequency of analgesic consumption was also recorded. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (IBM SPSS -Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.,) was used for statistical analysis. The data showed significant increase in the level of pain at 4 hours, 24 hours, and 3 days from separator placement. The elastomeric separators produced significantly more separation than the spring separators and also caused maximum pain during the first 3 days after insertion. However, there was no significant difference between the score of pain between two separators at all time intervals. Both elastomeric and spring separators showed comparative levels of pain and discomfort during the early phase of separation. Elastomeric separators were found to be more effective in tooth separation than spring separators. However, further studies are necessary to substantiate this preliminary observation.
The author gives an overview of orthodontic profession among the dental specialties. Educational problems of orthodontics in the new age are also discussed as well as treatment quality assurance possibilities and conditions. Future treatment possibilities of retrospectively rehabilitative adult orthodontics and interceptively prospective early treatment of children are referred. The article also cover the 3D imaging of the human face, animation of the craniofacial complex, and Cephalometric 3D analysis as areas of scientific research and realities. The need for restandardizing of orthodontic slot size to simplify and to minimize changeover problems in orthodontics basic hardware--the wires and brackets--are also addressed.
Alarcón, José Antonio; Linde, Dolores; Barbieri, Germán; Solano, Patricia; Caba, Octavio; Rios-Lugo, María Judith; Sanz, Mariano; Martin, Conchita
To investigate the previously unreported presence of calcitonin (CT) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), its variations during initial orthodontic tooth movement in both tension and compression sites, and its possible association with the experienced dental pain. Fifteen children (mean age: 12.6 years) requiring orthodontic closure of the upper midline diastema were included. We collected GCF from the compression and tension sites of the upper right central incisor (experimental) and first bicuspid (control), before and after (1h, 24h, 7d, 15d) beginning of treatment. Calcitonin levels were determined by Western blot. Pain intensity was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Calcitonin levels were higher in the compression site versus the control site at 7d (p=0.014). Intragroup comparisons showed an increment of CT between 1h and 7d (680.81±1672.60pg/30s, p=0.010) in the compression site. No significant changes were found in the tension and control sites. Calcitonin levels and pain intensity were negatively associated during the period from 24h to 15d (r=-0.54, p=0.05). CT levels in the GCF significantly increased in the compression site after the short term after application of orthodontic forces. These changes were negatively associated with the perceived patient's dental pain during the period from 24h to 15d. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Castroflorio, Tommaso; Gamerro, Eugenio F; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Deregibus, Andrea
To evaluate the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of teeth subjected to orthodontic forces released by aligners. A total of 10 healthy, adult patients were selected to participate in this split-mouth study. The treatment plan was designed to obtain only one movement with the first aligner: distalization of a second molar. GCF samples were obtained from pressure and tension sites of the test tooth and from the mesiobuccal and distobuccal sites of the control tooth. The GCF sample volumes were measured using a Periotron 8000. Levels of TGF-β, IL-1β, RANKL, OPG, and OPN were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-1β showed a significant increase at the pressure sites after 1 week and 3 weeks with respect to baseline (P < .05) compared with control sites. The kinetics of TGF-1β and OPN were characterized by a significant increase at the tension sites of the test teeth (P < .05) after 3 weeks from the application of orthodontic force. The RANKL level was significantly increased at pressure and tension sites after 1 hour and after 1 week from the application of the orthodontic forces (P = .023 and P = .043, respectively). An increased concentration of bone modeling and remodeling mediators at the pressure sites (IL-1β, RANKL) and tension sites (TGF-1β, OPN) was observed. These scenarios are compatible with previous in vivo and in vitro studies investigating the biological effects of orthodontic tooth movement.
Gameiro, Gustavo Hauber; Schultz, Christian; Trein, Marcos Porto; Mundstock, Karina Santos; Weidlich, Patrícia; Goularte, Jéferson Ferraz
Orthodontic patients usually complain about masticatory limitations associated with the activation of fixed appliances. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether orthodontic pain reflects differences in the objective evaluation of mastication and in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the crevicular fluid of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Twenty patients with malocclusions requiring orthodontic treatment were included in this prospective study. Their pain experience, masticatory performance, and levels of interleukin 1-beta and prostaglandin E2 in crevicular fluid were evaluated at 3 times: before bracket placement, 24 hours after archwire placement, and 30 days after the initial appointment. All variables were compared with those of a control group of 25 subjects with normal occlusion. The masticatory performance of the patients was significantly reduced at 24 hours after bracket placement, the period in which they reported higher values of pain and had higher levels of interleukin 1-beta. The levels of prostaglandin E2 did not change in the periods evaluated, and there were no correlations between the levels of cytokines and the functional limitations observed. The only significant correlation was between pain and decreased masticatory performance. The masticatory performance of orthodontic patients is significantly reduced only during the period of greatest pain. However, these alterations did not correlate with any measurement of interleukin 1-beta or prostaglandin E2 in the crevicular fluid, suggesting that these solitary measurements are inadequate to predict the temporary pain and masticatory limitations experienced by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoseini, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Seyed Morteza Saadat; Rezaei, Navid; Boluri, Ehsan Javadzadeh
Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Shaping and replacing these wires in oral cavity are the major assignments of orthodontist on appointments. Therefore, we can say that orthodontic treatment requires working with dangerous tools in a sensitive place like oral cavity which is the entrance of respiratory and digestive systems. In this paper, a case of ingesting a broken orthodontic wire during eating is reported, and also necessary remedial measures at the time of encountering foreign body ingestion or aspiration are provided. PMID:23853727
Hoseini, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Seyed Morteza Saadat; Rezaei, Navid; Boluri, Ehsan Javadzadeh
Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Shaping and replacing these wires in oral cavity are the major assignments of orthodontist on appointments. Therefore, we can say that orthodontic treatment requires working with dangerous tools in a sensitive place like oral cavity which is the entrance of respiratory and digestive systems. In this paper, a case of ingesting a broken orthodontic wire during eating is reported, and also necessary remedial measures at the time of encountering foreign body ingestion or aspiration are provided.
Fadiga, Mohamed Siddick; Diouf, Joseph Samba; Diop Ba, Khady; Gueye, Idrissa; Ngom, Papa Ibrahima; Diagne, Falou
In the context of this study, a clinical audit of cases treated by a single orthodontist was carried out to illustrate one practical application of the PAR index. Fifty pairs of dental casts taken from the patient group before and at the end of orthodontic treatment were evaluated by an orthodontist trained in the use of the PAR index. This evaluation shows that the average overall PAR score for the subjects included in the study fell from an initial value of 25.64 ± 11.73 points to 1.78 ± 2.79 points at the end of orthodontic treatment. The average reduction attributable to orthodontic treatment was 23.86 ± 0.95 points, for an average percentage reduction of 93.36 ± 9.02%. When cases were classified according to the degree of improvement suggested by the nomogram of the PAR index, 23 (46%) were in the "Improved" category after treatment, and 27 cases (54%) in the "Greatly improved" category. This adds up to a total of 100% in these two categories, with none in the "No better" or "Worse" categories. It should be recalled that a high standard of orthodontic treatment is considered to be reached when the average percentage reduction of the PAR score exceeds 70% and when the number of cases in the "Worse or no better" category is below 5%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Alexander, R G; Sinclair, P M; Goates, L J
Increasing numbers of adult patients are seeking orthodontic care and some, despite significant skeletal malocclusions, elect not to have combined orthodontic-surgical treatment. The purpose of this article is to outline some of the diagnostic and therapeutic principles that can be used in the adult nonsurgical orthodontic patient. The importance of realistic goal setting in the face of compromised occlusions is emphasized. Diagnosis should include evaluation of all three dimensions and recognize the limitations of therapy in each dimension for the nongrowing patient. Periodontal considerations, extraction decisions, and retention regimens are of vital importance to the achievement and maintenance of an optimum result. Clinical records will demonstrate four commonly seen problems and their resolution.
There has been remarkable progress in the field of orthodontics with the advent of CAD/CAM technology since the beginning of the 21st century. In lingual orthodontics, brackets designed and manufactured with a CAD/CAM system  are now available to produce more efficient tooth movement with reduced frictional resistance. The use of implant anchors for absolute anchorage has eliminated the need for excessive tipping of the molars with anchorage bends, which compromises periodontal health, as well as the need for application of heavy extraoral forces, thus providing more reasonable treatment options for both the patient and orthodontist.
Rakhshan, Hamid; Rakhshan, Vahid
As the most common complication of orthodontic treatment, pain can negatively impact quality of life and cause patients to discontinue treatment. However, few studies have evaluated pain during orthodontic treatment, with controversial findings. This study assessed the intensity and duration of pain and discomfort caused by active orthodontic treatment. This descriptive cross-sectional study examined 67 patients (22 men, 45 females; age range: 18-32 years) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Patients were interviewed after the active treatment stage to assess their perceived pain and discomfort at different sites during different activities by a visual analogue scale. Frequency and duration of pain in different areas were analyzed by the chi-squared and chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests (α = 0.05). Among the 67 patients, 65.7% experienced general dentogingival pain or discomfort and 34.3% had localized dentogingival pain or discomfort (p = 0.010, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Masticating soft foods reduced discomfort (p = 0.000, chi-squared) in the tongue, cheeks, and in or around the teeth and gingivae. Pain and discomfort were mostly moderate while masticating sticky, fibrous, and firm foods. Mild pains were mostly reported during tooth brushing and while consuming soft foods (p < 0.05, chi-squared). Pain and discomfort tended to last for more than 4 weeks, except in the tongue, where pain and discomfort lasted less than 4 weeks (p < 0.05, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Pain and discomfort occur for more than 4 weeks after beginning fixed orthodontic treatment. Changing diets to incorporate softer foods is recommended to alleviate pain.
Rakhshan, Hamid; Rakhshan, Vahid
Background and objectives As the most common complication of orthodontic treatment, pain can negatively impact quality of life and cause patients to discontinue treatment. However, few studies have evaluated pain during orthodontic treatment, with controversial findings. This study assessed the intensity and duration of pain and discomfort caused by active orthodontic treatment. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study examined 67 patients (22 men, 45 females; age range: 18–32 years) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Patients were interviewed after the active treatment stage to assess their perceived pain and discomfort at different sites during different activities by a visual analogue scale. Frequency and duration of pain in different areas were analyzed by the chi-squared and chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests (α = 0.05). Results Among the 67 patients, 65.7% experienced general dentogingival pain or discomfort and 34.3% had localized dentogingival pain or discomfort (p = 0.010, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Masticating soft foods reduced discomfort (p = 0.000, chi-squared) in the tongue, cheeks, and in or around the teeth and gingivae. Pain and discomfort were mostly moderate while masticating sticky, fibrous, and firm foods. Mild pains were mostly reported during tooth brushing and while consuming soft foods (p < 0.05, chi-squared). Pain and discomfort tended to last for more than 4 weeks, except in the tongue, where pain and discomfort lasted less than 4 weeks (p < 0.05, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Conclusions Pain and discomfort occur for more than 4 weeks after beginning fixed orthodontic treatment. Changing diets to incorporate softer foods is recommended to alleviate pain. PMID:26082574
Thomson, W M
The aim of this study was to use a health services research (HSR) approach to examine the longer-term outcomes of orthodontic treatment. Participants in a longstanding population-based New Zealand cohort study (the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study) were allocated to one of four malocclusion severity categories on the basis of orthodontic data collected at age 12. The outcome of that care by age 26 was evaluated using the key indicators of equity (was it fair?); efficacy (did it work?); effectiveness (did it work in the longer term?); and safety (was it associated with a greater subsequent experience of caries, periodontal disease, or tooth loss?). Data were available for 452 Study members, of whom 56.2% were in the minor/none category, 29.0% were in the definite category, 10.2% were in the severe category, and 4.6% were in the handicapping treatment-need category. No clear differences in treatment uptake by socioeconomic status were apparent, and the proportion treated increased across the malocclusion severity categories, as did the proportion that showed an improvement following treatment. By age 26 a difference between those who had and those who had not been treated was evident, with the percentage of those rating their dental appearance as above average increasing with increasing severity of the age-12 orthodontic treatment need. This was also true for the percentage that considered their orthodontic treatment to have been successful. There were no significant differences in caries experience, periodontal disease occurrence, or tooth loss between those who had and had not been treated by age 26. This study has found the equity, efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of orthodontic treatment in the Dunedin cohort to be acceptable.
McSwiney, Timothy P; Millett, Declan T; McIntyre, Grant T; Barry, Mark K; Cronin, Michael S
To compare mean anterior (AR) and mean overall (OR) tooth size ratios, prevalence of clinically significant tooth size discrepancies (TSDs) and correlation between AR and OR in subjects with Class II division 1 and Class III malocclusion treated by surgical-orthodontic or orthodontic means. Retrospective, cross-sectional. State-funded and private clinics. From pre-treatment cohorts of 770 surgical and 610 non-surgical subjects, Class II division 1 and Class III malocclusion groups were identified with 60 surgical and 60 non-surgical subjects, comprising 30 males and 30 females, in each. AR and OR were calculated by landmarking digital models. Differences in AR and OR and their relationship were analysed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a correlation coefficient, respectively. The proportions of the surgical and non-surgical groups with a TSD were assessed using logistic regression. Intra-examiner reproducibility involved re-landmarking 30 randomly selected image sets and differences in ARs and ORs were compared using a paired t-test. Random error was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Analyses were performed using SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) at the 5% level of significance. There were no statistically significant differences associated with the measurement of either the mean AR (P = 0·913) or the mean OR (P = 0·874). ICC values were very high (AR = 0·95; OR = 0·90). Differences existed between both Class II and Class III surgical (AR: P<0·001; OR: P<0·001) and non-surgical groups (AR: P = 0·012; OR: P = 0·003). The AR and OR relationship was strong (correlation coefficient = 0·72). The highest percentage of clinically significant TSDs was seen in the AR of both Class II and Class III surgical groups (23·3%). In the cohort examined: AR and OR differed significantly for malocclusion groups. The prevalence of clinically significant TSDs did not differ significantly between
Haddad, Stéphanie; Kerbrat, Jean-Baptiste; Schouman, Thomas; Goudot, Patrick
A possible relation between an upper airway space decrease and the development of obstructive sleep apnea syndrom explains the importance to know the effect of the modification of dental arch length on the upper airway during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this article is to expose recent knowledge about upper airway development and dental arch length decrease factors, to determine the influence of this decrease on upper airway development. A review was done to determine the upper airway normal development, to define dental arch to specify if an ideal position of dental arch on apical base exists. All of the length dental arch decrease factors during orthodontic treatment (dental extraction, dental agenesis and dental malpositions) and their upper airway resounding were searched. Some authors found a diminution of upper airway space after premolars extractions while others didn't found this diminution after extractions premolars when incisor retraction is finished. A decrease of transversal maxillary diameter and nasal cavity may be due to absence of permanent teeth. The effect of dental arch length decrease during orthodontic treatment in the upper airway development was not scientifically proved. However we had to be vigilant and adapt our orthodontic treatment case by case to avoid an upper airway modification. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.
Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Pinto, Tatiana Militz Perrone; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE), periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. Results The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03) were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. Conclusion Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment. PMID:25162567
Barcia, Jorge M.; Portolés, Sandra; Portolés, Laura; Urdaneta, Alba C.; Ausina, Verónica; Pérez-Pastor, Gema M. A.; Romero, Francisco J.; Villar, Vincent M.
HIGHLIGHTS Ethanol, Periodontal ligament, Extracellular matrix, Orthodontic movement. Alcohol is a legal drug present in several drinks commonly used worldwide (chemically known as ethyl alcohol or ethanol). Alcohol consumption is associated with several disease conditions, ranging from mental disorders to organic alterations. One of the most deleterious effects of ethanol metabolism is related to oxidative stress. This promotes cellular alterations associated with inflammatory processes that eventually lead to cell death or cell cycle arrest, among others. Alcohol intake leads to bone destruction and modifies the expression of interleukins, metalloproteinases and other pro-inflammatory signals involving GSKβ, Rho, and ERK pathways. Orthodontic treatment implicates mechanical forces on teeth. Interestingly, the extra- and intra-cellular responses of periodontal cells to mechanical movement show a suggestive similarity with the effects induced by ethanol metabolism on bone and other cell types. Several clinical traits such as age, presence of systemic diseases or pharmacological treatments, are taken into account when planning orthodontic treatments. However, little is known about the potential role of the oxidative conditions induced by ethanol intake as a possible setback for orthodontic treatment in adults. PMID:28179886
Georgaklis, Clifton C
Even in the most stable types of orthodontic treatment, any relapse at all may be unacceptable cosmetically. Through the placement of a reinforced composite splint, the teeth can be held in position and more significantly recontoured, thus augmenting the final result. Subsequent splint removal can be done incrementally 3 to 5 years after placement as the patient desires.
Ajayi, Emmanuel O
The availability of information on the individual perception of own's dental appearance and desire to uptake orthodontic treatment is of importance in the planning of orthodontic care within a population. The subjective assessment of personal dental appearance and desire for orthodontic treatment was appraised among Nigerian children. The study was conducted among 91 school children (33 boys, 58 girls) aged 12 years old in Benin City, south-southern region of Nigeria. The satisfaction of the subjects with the arrangement of their anterior teeth and desire to straighten their teeth was determined using a questionnaire. The subjects were further asked to rank their dental attractiveness in relation to the photographs in the Aesthetic component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The need for orthodontic treatment among the subjects was also assessed by the examiner with the Aesthetic component of IOTN. Chi-square tests were used for data analysis. The result revealed that more than three-quarters (76.9%) of the subjects were satisfied with their dental aesthetics while 23.1% desired to have orthodontic treatment. The boys expressed significantly higher level of dissatisfaction with their dental aesthetics and a greater desire to have orthodontic treatment (P < 0.05). Most subjects (92.3%) rated their dental attractiveness in the "little to no need" orthodontic treatment grade on the AC scale. The normative borderline treatment need was higher than subjective borderline need but there was consistency in distribution of 4.4% in definite need treatment grade by the subjects and examiner. The majority of the children rated their teeth as aesthetically satisfactory but there were gender differences in perception of dental aesthetics and desire for orthodontic treatment among this sample of Nigerian children.
Hohoff, Ariane; Joos, Ulrich; Meyer, Ulrich; Ehmer, Ulrike; Stamm, Thomas
In the PubMed accessible literature, information on the characteristics of interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment of patients with Apert syndrome is rare. The aim of the present article is threefold: (1) to show the spectrum of the phenotype, in order (2) to elucidate the scope of hindrances to orthodontic treatment, and (3) to demonstrate the problems of surgery and interdisciplinary approach.Children and adolescents who were born in 1985 or later, who were diagnosed with Apert syndrome, and who sought consultation or treatment at the Departments of Orthodontics or Craniomaxillofacial Surgery at the Dental School of the University Hospital of Münster (n = 22; 9 male, 13 female) were screened. Exemplarily, three of these patients (2 male, 1 female), seeking interdisciplinary (both orthodontic and surgical treatment) are presented. Orthodontic treatment before surgery was performed by one experienced orthodontist (AH), and orthognathic surgery was performed by one experienced surgeon (UJ), who diagnosed the syndrome according to the criteria listed in OMIM. In the sagittal plane, the patients suffered from a mild to a very severe Angle Class III malocclusion, which was sometimes compensated by the inclination of the lower incisors; in the vertical dimension from an open bite; and transversally from a single tooth in crossbite to a circular crossbite. All patients showed dentitio tarda, some impaction, partial eruption, idopathic root resorption, transposition or other aberrations in the position of the tooth germs, and severe crowding, with sometimes parallel molar tooth buds in each quarter of the upper jaw.Because of the severity of malocclusion, orthodontic treatment needed to be performed with fixed appliances, and mainly with superelastic wires. The therapy was hampered with respect to positioning of bands and brackets because of incomplete tooth eruption, dense gingiva, and mucopolysaccharide ridges. Some teeth did not move, or moved
Hohoff, Ariane; Joos, Ulrich; Meyer, Ulrich; Ehmer, Ulrike; Stamm, Thomas
In the PubMed accessible literature, information on the characteristics of interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment of patients with Apert syndrome is rare. The aim of the present article is threefold: (1) to show the spectrum of the phenotype, in order (2) to elucidate the scope of hindrances to orthodontic treatment, and (3) to demonstrate the problems of surgery and interdisciplinary approach. Children and adolescents who were born in 1985 or later, who were diagnosed with Apert syndrome, and who sought consultation or treatment at the Departments of Orthodontics or Craniomaxillofacial Surgery at the Dental School of the University Hospital of Münster (n = 22; 9 male, 13 female) were screened. Exemplarily, three of these patients (2 male, 1 female), seeking interdisciplinary (both orthodontic and surgical treatment) are presented. Orthodontic treatment before surgery was performed by one experienced orthodontist (AH), and orthognathic surgery was performed by one experienced surgeon (UJ), who diagnosed the syndrome according to the criteria listed in OMIM™. In the sagittal plane, the patients suffered from a mild to a very severe Angle Class III malocclusion, which was sometimes compensated by the inclination of the lower incisors; in the vertical dimension from an open bite; and transversally from a single tooth in crossbite to a circular crossbite. All patients showed dentitio tarda, some impaction, partial eruption, idopathic root resorption, transposition or other aberrations in the position of the tooth germs, and severe crowding, with sometimes parallel molar tooth buds in each quarter of the upper jaw. Because of the severity of malocclusion, orthodontic treatment needed to be performed with fixed appliances, and mainly with superelastic wires. The therapy was hampered with respect to positioning of bands and brackets because of incomplete tooth eruption, dense gingiva, and mucopolysaccharide ridges. Some teeth did not move, or moved
Sugawara, Yasuyo; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi; Kamioka, Hiroshi
The orofacial muscle is an important factor in the harmony of the occlusion, and its dysfunction significantly influences a patient's occlusion after craniofacial growth and development. In this case report, we describe the successful orthodontic treatment of a patient with unilateral orofacial muscle dysfunction. A boy, 10 years 0 months of age, with a chief complaint of anterior open bite, was diagnosed with a Class III malocclusion with facial musculoskeletal asymmetry. His maxillomandibular relationships were unstable, and he was unable to lift the right corner of his mouth upon smiling because of weak right orofacial muscles. A satisfactory occlusion and a balanced smile were achieved after orthodontic treatment combined with orofacial myofunctional therapy, including muscle exercises. An acceptable occlusion and facial proportion were maintained after a 2-year retention period. These results suggest that orthodontic treatment with orofacial myofunctional therapy is an effective option for a patient with orofacial muscle dysfunction.
Background The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment in contrast to normal growth effects for functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition by means of three-dimensional digital model analysis. Methods This randomised clinical trial was assessed to analyse the orthodontic treatment effects for patients with functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using a two-step procedure: initial maxillary expansion followed by a U-bow activator therapy. In the treatment group 31 patients and in the control group 35 patients with a mean age of 7.3 years (SD 2.1) were monitored. The time between the initial assessment (T1) and the follow-up (T2) was one year. The orthodontic analysis was done by a three-dimensional digital model analysis. Using the ‘Digimodel’ software, the orthodontic measurements in the maxilla and mandible and for the midline deviation, the overjet and overbite were recorded. Results Significant differences between the control and the therapy group at T2 were detected for the anterior, median and posterior transversal dimensions of the maxilla, the palatal depth, the palatal base arch length, the maxillary arch length and inclination, the midline deviation, the overjet and the overbite. Conclusions Orthodontic treatment of a functional unilateral posterior crossbite with a bonded maxillary expansion device followed by U-bow activator therapy in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition is an effective therapeutic method, as evidenced by the results of this RCT. It leads to three-dimensional therapeutically induced maxillary growth effects. Dental occlusion is significantly improved, and the prognosis for normal craniofacial growth is enhanced. Trial registration Registration trial DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:23339736
Carvajal-Flórez, Alvaro; Barbosa-Lis, Diana María; Zapata-Noreña, Oscar Arturo; Marín-Velásquez, Julissa Andrea; Afanador-Bayona, Sergio Andrés
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of a finishing protocol implemented in patients treated in the Orthodontics graduate program at Universidad de Antioquia. Evaluation was carried out by means of the criteria set by the Objective Grading System (OGS) of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO). Methods: Cast models and panoramic radiographs of 34 patients were evaluated. The intervention group (IG) consisted of 17 patients (19.88 ± 4.4 years old) treated under a finishing protocol. This protocol included training in finishing, application of a finishing guide, brackets repositioning and patient's follow-up. Results of the IG were compared to a control group of 17 patients (21.88 ± 7.0 years old) selected by stratified randomization without finishing intervention (CG). Results: The scores for both CG and IG were 38.00 ± 9.0 and 31.41 ± 9.6 (p = 0.048), respectively. The score improved significantly in the IG group, mainly regarding marginal ridges (CG: 5.59 ± 2.2; IG: 3.65 ± 1.8) (p = 0.009) and root angulation (CG: 7.59 ± 2.8; IG: 4.88 ± 2.6) (p = 0.007). Criteria that did not improve, but had the highest scores were: alignment (CG: 6.35 ± 2.7; IG: 6.82 ± 2.8) (p = 0.62) and buccolingual inclination (CG: 3.6 ± 5.88; IG: 5.29 ± 3.9) (p = 0.65). Conclusions: Standardization and implementation of a finishing protocol contributed to improve clinical performance in the Orthodontics graduate program, as expressed by occlusal outcomes. Greater emphasis should be given on the finishing phase to achieve lower scores in the ABO grading system. PMID:27275620
Куроедова, Вера Д; Чикор, Татьяна А; Макарова, Александра Н; Ким, Анна А
during the period of child growth airways and facial skeleton are developing in close relationship. Patients with upper dental arch narrowing and high gothic palet, tend to have narrowed nasal passages and are more vulnerable to violations of breathing during sleep - so-called obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, Obstructive Sleep Apnea), the occurrence of which is explained by a decrease of anteroposterior sizes of throat. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic treatment in the period of mixed dentition on the state of the upper respiratory tract. there were examined 64 children (7-12 years) with class I malocclusion. Clinical examination was carried out according to the protocols of providing orthodontic care with assessment of the functional state of the maxillofacial region. Orthodontic correction had been carried with apparatus of Biobloc system. Before treatment and after its completion there had been performed morphometric analysis of dentition and assess patency of the upper airway by McNamara method. prior to the beginning of orthodontic treatment in all patients had been found a significant decrease of upper and lower pharyngeal spaces 5.95±0.75mm, 8.1 8.}0.74 mm respectively (normal - 15-20mm and 11-14mm). After orthodontic treatment with Biobloc system the upper pharyngeal space increased in 2.5 times (P<0,01), lower pharyngeal space increased in 1.6 (p<0,01) times, and in average amounted to 13,3 ± 0,86 mm. thus found that after orthodontic treatment with Biobloc apparatus along with the expansion of the alveolar arches of both jaws there is a significant positive effect of increasing the volume of the upper respiratory tract. Consequently, orthodontic treatment in the period of mixed dentition, stimulates the growth not only of the dental arches, but also greatly improves the development nazomaxillary complex and prevents apnea syndrome, that increases the level patient's health and life quality.
Conti, Ana; Freitas, Marcos; Conti, Paulo; Henriques, José; Janson, Guilherme
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in individuals before and after orthodontic treatment. The sample comprised 200 individuals divided into four groups according to the type of malocclusion (class I or II) and the orthodontic treatment accomplished. An anamnestic questionnaire, comprising questions regarding the most frequent symptoms of TMD, was used to classify the sample according to the TMD presence and severity. A clinical examination, including TMJ and muscle palpation, mandibular range of motion, and joint noise analysis was performed. Based on the anamnestic questionnaire, 34% of the sample was considered as having mild TMD, whereas 3.5% had moderate TMD. A higher TMD prevalence was found in females. Joint noises (15.5%) followed by headache (13%) constituted the most frequent reported symptoms. The presence and severity of TMD have not shown any relationship with either the type of orthodontic mechanics or extraction protocols. On the other hand, a positive association was found between TMD and parafunctional habits and reported emotional tension. Orthodontic treatment is not associated with the presence of signs and symptoms of TMD.
Rerhrhaye, W; Zaoui, F; Aalloula, E
In the mixed dentition, lower incisor crowding can exist. He may be transitory or increase with dental arch evolution because of reduction of arch length by loss of leeway space. Early diagnosis allows the instauration of interceptive therapy, to ovoid extractions. Preserve or loss leeway space will depend of orthodontic space management. The clinical case presented in this article shows the interest of early treatment of incisor crowding to preserve arch length and make the leeway space available to resolve the crowding.
Bronson, James M; Bronson, James Alexander
The aim of this study is to report five cases of children treated with an interceptive technique utilizing ALF (Advanced Light Force) functional orthodontic appliances in anterior and/or posterior cross bites in primary and early mixed dentition.
Tai, K; Park, J H; Kanao, A
It can be difficult to formulate a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan for patients with hypodontia while dental development is still in progress. Proper radiographs should be used periodically to check for the possibility of delayed tooth development to reduce the potential of misdiagnosis and improper treatment. This article presents a case with orthodontic treatment of hypodontia and delayed development of a maxillary second premolar.
Berlin-Broner, Y; Levin, L; Ashkenazi, M
The aim of the present study was orthodontist's awareness for maintenance of several home and professional prevention measures during active orthodontic treatment according to patients' report. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 122 patients undergoing active orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Patients were treated by 38 different orthodontists. The questionnaire accessed information regarding instructions patients received from their orthodontist concerning maintenance of their oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. Most of the patients (94%) reported that their orthodontists informed them at least once about the importance of tooth-brushing, and 74.5% received instructions for correct performance of tooth brushing or alternatively were referred to dental hygienist. However, only 24.5% of the patients reported that their orthodontist instructed them to use the correct fluoride concentration in their toothpaste, to use daily fluoride mouthwash (31.5%) and to brush their teeth once a week with high concentration of fluoride gel (Elmex gel; 10.2%). Only 13.8% received application of high concentration of fluoride gel or varnish at the dental office, and 52% of the patients reported that their orthodontist verified that they attend regular check-ups by their dentist. A significant positive correlation was found between explaining the patients the importance of tooth brushing and the following variables: instructing them on how to brush their teeth correctly (p<0.0001), explaining them which type of toothbrush is recommended for orthodontic patients (p=0.002), recommending to perform daily fluoride oral rinse (p=0.036) and referring them to periodic check-ups (p=0.024). Orthodontists should increase their awareness and commitment for instructing their patient on how to maintain good oral hygiene in order to prevent caries and periodontal disease during orthodontic treatment.
Bahadure, Rakesh N; Thosar, Nilima; Khubchandani, Monika
Traumatic injury to a primary tooth can affect the underlying permanent tooth germ, and may result in a malformed, hypoplastic crown or root. The degree and nature of malformation depends on the injury. Most trauma cases can be diagnosed using conventional 2-dimensional radiographs, but some cases may benefit from more advanced 3-dimensional imaging such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). This report describes the use of CBCT in the diagnosis and treatment planning of a case in which a 10-year-old girl reported with an impacted, recessed central incisor. The tooth was deformed due to trauma at an early age. Conventional 2-dimensional occlusal and periapical radiographs seemed to indicate that the root had almost completely resorbed. This implied that the optimal treatment plan would be the extraction of the central incisor and, later, the placement of an implant with a crown or bridge. However, a 3-dimensional CBCT radiographic examination showed that the tooth root was long and had enough of a crown-to-root ratio to anchor the tooth. The CBCT examination compelled the treating dentists to maintain the central incisor by orthodontically extruding the tooth and then rebuilding it with a bonded composite restoration.
Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos
This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (<4 mm and <1/3 original root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes.
Squire, Douglas; Best, Al M; Lindauer, Steven J; Laskin, Daniel M
Because of the severity of some malocclusions, it is not always possible to treat them without a combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. However, many insurance carriers have difficulty in deciding whether such treatment should be covered. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method that can be used by insurance carriers to determine when a malocclusion is not correctable by orthodontics alone. Twenty-eight orthodontists independently evaluated 30 sets of pretreatment dental models (10 with overjet from -6 to 12 mm, 10 with overbite from 60% to 100%, and 10 with transverse discrepancies from single tooth to total arch crossbite) to determine whether the conditions were orthodontically treatable. They were instructed to assume that growth was complete and that the treatment would not seriously compromise facial esthetics. It was the opinion of the orthodontists that a positive overjet greater than 8 mm, a negative overjet of -4 mm or greater, and a transverse discrepancy greater than 3 mm were not orthodontically treatable. However, most orthodontists believed that they could treat all overbite patients without surgery. These data can serve as a simple guideline for helping insurance carriers determine the need for orthognathic surgery.
Topouzelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousoglou, Phoebus
Miniscrews offer a reliable alternative for anchorage during orthodontic treatment, particularly for non-cooperative patients or periodontal patients with alveolar bone loss. The study aims at assessing the correlation of various clinical indicators with the success or failure of miniscrews used for anchorage during orthodontic treatment. Thirty-four consecutive patients with a cumulative total of 82 miniscrews implanted participated in the study. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to assess the correlation of various factors with success rates. The miniscrew was considered the unit of analysis clustered within site and within patient. The overall success rate of miniscrews was 90.2%. For every additional miniscrew used in a patient's oral cavity, the success rate was reduced by 67%. Retromandibular triangle and palatal placement and in movable mucosa resulted in lower success rate. The miniscrew length and diameter were found to correlate with success rates. Orthodontic force applied on miniscrews for uprighting purposes showed a lower success rate than that used for retraction. This study revealed that miniscrews present high success rates. The number of miniscrews used per patient, the miniscrew site placement, the soft tissue type of placement, the miniscrew length and diameter as well as the orthodontic force applied on the miniscrew showed significant correlation with success rates.
Jensen, Ute; Ruf, Sabine
The aim was to evaluate the short-term success rate of combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical correction of anterior open bite. Fifteen patients (ages, 15-28 years) with open bite treated with a combined orthodontic-surgical approach were examined. Lateral cephalograms from before treatment, after treatment, and after an average of 18 months (range, 10-26 months) of retention were evaluated. Overbite was classified as normal (2-3.5 mm), borderline (0-1.5 mm), or relapse (<0 mm), and overjet as normal (2-3.5 mm) or relapse (≥4 and ≤1.5 mm). The average overbite was -3.2 mm before treatment, 1.8 mm after treatment, and 1.3 mm after retention. During active treatment, overbite and overjet were normalized in 53.3% and 66.7% of the subjects, respectively. After the retention period, 1 patient (6.7%) showed a negative overbite, whereas a borderline overbite was found in 53.3% of the subjects. Overjet relapsed in 40% of the subjects. Only 40% of the patients had a completely successful treatment with incisal contact and normal overjet and overbite. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of anterior open bite improves the overbite, but an excellent treatment outcome with normal overjet and overbite and proper incisal contact was achieved in only 40% of the subjects. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Monserrat, Carlos; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Albalat, Salvador E.
This paper describes a new method for 3D orthodontics treatment simulation developed for an orthodontics planning system (MAGALLANES). We develop an original system for 3D capturing and reconstruction of dental anatomy that avoid use of dental casts in orthodontic treatments. Two original techniques are presented, one direct in which data are acquired directly form patient's mouth by mean of low cost 3D digitizers, and one mixed in which data are obtained by 3D digitizing of hydrocollids molds. FOr this purpose we have designed and manufactured an optimized optical measuring system based on laser structured light. We apply these 3D dental models to simulate 3D movement of teeth, including rotations, during orthodontic treatment. The proposed algorithms enable to quantify the effect of orthodontic appliance on tooth movement. The developed techniques has been integrated in a system named MAGALLANES. This original system present several tools for 3D simulation and planning of orthodontic treatments. The prototype system has been tested in several orthodontic clinic with very good results.
de Ruiter, Ad; van der Bilt, Andries; Meijer, Gert; Koole, Ronald
To analyze orthodontic treatment results following mandibular symphysis bone grafting and postoperative orthodontic treatment. Randomized selection of 75 patients out of 308 with unilateral cleft of lip, alveolus, and palate, operated upon according to protocol between 1990 and 2008 in the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Goslon Yardstick rating changes of dental arch relationship. Significant agreement (p < .001) was observed between the two assessments carried out with an interval of 3 months (Cohen's kappa = .963, p < .001). Following mandibular bone grafting and orthodontic treatment in 65.3% of the patients, the aim of treatment (Goslon Yardstick groups 1 and 2) had been achieved. The applied before/after Goslon allocations showed high improvement significance (p < .001). Postoperative orthodontic treatment in patients following grafting with mandibular symphysis bone showed excellent results.
Tecco, Simona; Marzo, Giuseppe; Crincoli, Vito; Di Bisceglie, Beatrice; Tetè, Stefano; Festa, Felice
Among treatments in the literature for myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), the most reliable therapies in dentistry are spray and stretch, and, although less frequently used, anesthetic injection. Adult MPS subjects are often treated using fixed orthodontic therapy for resolution of malocclusion. There is no clarity in the literature on the prognosis of MPS during orthodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognosis of MPS during orthodontic treatment of subjects with malocclusion, initially diagnosed as having MPS. The analysis covered the medical records of 91 young adult Caucasians scheduled for orthodontic treatment for various malocclusions. Thirty-seven of the patients were initially diagnosed as also having MPS (T0). Thirty patients began the orthodontic treatment and were recalled for a re-evaluation of MPS after dental alignment and dental class correction was achieved (T1). A wait-and-see strategy was applied in seven subjects who were included as the control subjects. They received no treatment for MPS. At T1, a statistically significant decrease was observed in the study group in the presence of any clicking or creaking noises from the jaw joint, a significant jaw joint and jaw muscle pain reduction, and a quality of life improvement. Among patients who were depressed at the beginning of treatment, the majority felt better at the follow-up evaluation. On muscular palpation, a statistically significant decrease was found on the visual analogic scale value of the middle fibers of the temporalis muscle, temporalis tendon, clavicular and sternal division of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, masseter muscles, and posterior cervical muscles. The temporalis and the masseter muscles showed a significant decrease in the number of subjects with trigger points (TrPs) in all areas in the study group, after treatment. The digastric and sternocleidomastoid muscles also showed a significant reduction in the number of subjects with TrPs. Subjects with
Farret, Marcel M; Farret, Milton M B; da Luz Vieira, Gustavo; Assaf, Jamal Hassan; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S
This article describes the orthodontic relapse with mandibular incisor fenestration in a 36-year-old man who had undergone orthodontic treatment 21 years previously. The patient reported that his mandibular 3 × 3 bonded retainer had been partially debonded and broken 4 years earlier. The mandibular left lateral incisor remained bonded to the retainer and received the entire load of the incisors; consequently, there was extreme labial movement of the root, resulting in dental avulsion. As part of the treatment, the root was repositioned lingually using a titanium-molybdenum segmented archwire for 8 months, followed by endodontic treatment, an apicoectomy, and 4 months of alignment and leveling of both arches. The treatment outcomes were excellent, and the tooth remained stable, with good integrity of the mesial, distal, and lingual alveolar bones and periodontal ligament. The 1-year follow-up showed good stability of the results. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Closs, Luciane Quadrado; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Bertoglio, Vivian
A combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment demands a detailed evaluation in both specialties, particularly when the periodontium is reduced. This is especially true for adult patients, but young patients can also suffer from advanced periodontitis. This article describes combined periodontal and orthodontic therapy in a young patient with severe localized and aggressive periodontitis, tooth crown abnormalities, and missing maxillary second premolars. Periodontal treatment was carried out. Once attachment gain and bone stability were confirmed, orthodontic therapy commenced. It lasted 32 months, during which segmented mechanics and only light forces were used. The result of this intervention was satisfactory, and long-term stability (9 years) with periodontal maintenance was achieved.
Johal, Ama; Alyaqoobi, Iman; Patel, Rachna; Cox, Shirley
To assess the impact of fixed orthodontic treatment on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and self-esteem in adults. A prospective study design was applied, within private practice. Sample size estimation revealed a minimum of 52 subjects, allowing for drop outs. All participants completed a set of validated questionnaires at baseline (T0), 1- (T1), 3- (T2), and 6-months (T3) and post-treatment (T4). These included the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and a socioeconomic status questionnaire. The Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) was used to assess malocclusion severity. Sixty-one subjects were recruited, with only one subject lost to follow-up. A statistically significant difference in OHRQoL scores was seen between: T0 and T1 (P = 0.001); T0 and T2 (P = 0.020). There was no statistical difference between T0 and T3 (P = 0.078) or T4 (P = 0.565), where OHRQoL improved to pre-treatment scores. A significant difference in self-esteem scores was observed between baseline and end of treatment (P = 0.002). Undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy had a negative impact on the overall OHRQoL, during the first 3 months of treatment, which then improved to pre-treatment scores, whilst a significant increase was observed in self-esteem as a result of treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Goursand, Daniela; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Leticia; de Oliveria, Gomes Carlos; Drummond, Alexandre Fortes; de Araujo, Zarzar Patricia Maria Pereira; Paiva, Saul Martins
This article reports a clinical case involving an 8-year-old boy with two mesiodentes. The supernumerary teeth caused both a functional alteration (malocclusion) and an esthetic one (interincisal diastema), both of which affected his quality of living. Surgical removal of the supernumerary teeth and orthodontic follow-up was proposed, in agreement with the treatment established in the literature. This treatment produced satisfactory results in terms of both esthetics and functionality.
Sandhu, Satpal S; Sandhu, Jasleen
To investigate the age and sex interaction effect on orthodontic pain in adolescence during the initial phase of fixed orthodontic treatment. Three hundred participants (mean age 13.85 ± 1.98 years; 152 female, 148 male) met all inclusion criteria and enrolled in the study designed as 2 × 2 factorial trial with two levels each for age (11-14 years; 14-17 years) and sex (male; female). A 0.16-inch superelastic NiTi wire was used in a 0.022-inch slot (Roth's prescription) preadjusted edgewise appliance for initial leveling and alignment of mandibular anterior dentition. The follow-up period was 7 days. Pain was assessed by using 100 mm visual analog scale for one baseline and nine follow-up repeated measurements at prespecified time points. Data were analyzed by using generalized linear mixed effect model analysis. Three participants were lost to follow-up, and 17 participants were not considered for analysis due to incomplete or improperly completed questionnaire. Therefore, 280 participants (mean age 13.96 ± 2.01 years; 138 female, 142 male) were analyzed for results. Results showed that age and sex interaction had statistically significant effect on pain (F = 3.56; P = .0151; df 3/218). In the 11-14 year age group, there was no significant difference for pain between male and female. In the 14-17 year age group, girls reported significantly greater pain compared to 14- to 17 year-old boys (t = 2.76; P = .0209). Pain reported by 14- to 17-year-old girls was also significantly greater compared to 11- to 14-year-old boys (t = 2.91; P = .0206). Age and sex interaction has significant effect on orthodontic pain during adolescence, and 14- to 17-year-old girls experienced maximum pain.
Swinnen, K; Politis, C; Willems, G; De Bruyne, I; Fieuws, S; Heidbuchel, K; van Erum, R; Verdonck, A; Carels, C
The aim of this investigation was to assess skeletal and dento-alveolar stability after surgical-orthodontic correction of skeletal anterior open bite treated by maxillary intrusion (group A) versus extrusion (group B). The cephalometric records of 49 adult anterior open bite patients (group A: n = 38, group B: n = 11), treated by the same maxillofacial surgeon, were examined at different timepoints, i.e. at the start of the orthodontic treatment (T1), before surgery (T2), immediately after surgery (T3), early post-operatively (+/- 20 weeks, T4) and one year post-operatively (T5). A bimaxillary operation was performed in 31 of the patients in group A and in six in group B. Rigid internal fixation was standard. If maxillary expansion was necessary, surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SRPE) was performed at least 9 months before the Le Fort I osteotomy. Forty-five patients received combined surgical and orthodontic treatment. The surgical open bite reduction (A, mean 3.9 mm; B, mean 7.7 mm) and the increase of overbite (A, mean 2.4 mm; B, mean 2.7 mm), remained stable one year post-operatively. SNA (T2-T3), showed a high tendency for relapse. The clockwise rotation of the palatal plane (1.7 degrees; T2-T3), relapsed completely within the first post-operative year. Anterior facial height reduction (A, mean -5.5 mm; B, mean -0.8 mm) occurred at the time of surgery. It can be concluded that open bite patients, treated by posterior Le Fort I impaction as well as with anterior extrusion, with or without an additional bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), one year post-surgery, exhibit relatively good clinical dental and skeletal stability.
Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos
To determine in which clinical scenarios digital models are valid as replacements for plaster models during orthodontic treatment decision-making process and treatment planning. An attempt to identify all pertinent published information was made. Retained articles were those where a decision-making process leading to differential orthodontic treatment plans based on either method were compared. The search was tailored for PubMed and adapted for EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, LILACS, and Web of Science. A partial grey literature search was conducted through Google Scholar. References lists of the included articles were screened for potential relevant studies. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS). Only two studies were finally selected for the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. QUADAS results scores from selected studies ranged from 61% to 83% of 11 items evaluated. In one, the overall treatment plan regarding orthognathic surgery for Class II malocclusion changed in 13% to 22% of the cases. In the other one, 6% of the orthodontic treatment plans changed. Digital models could be used to replace plaster models in Class II malocclusion treatment planning.
Wang, Xi; Cai, Bin; Cao, Yang; Zhou, Chen; Yang, Le; Liu, Runzhong; Long, Xiaojing; Wang, Weicai; Gao, Dingguo; Bao, Baicheng
Currently, few methods are available to measure orthodontic treatment need and treatment outcome from the lay perspective. The objective of this study was to explore the function of an eye-tracking method to evaluate orthodontic treatment need and treatment outcome from the lay perspective as a novel and objective way when compared with traditional assessments. The scanpaths of 88 laypersons observing the repose and smiling photographs of normal subjects and pretreatment and posttreatment malocclusion patients were recorded by an eye-tracking device. The total fixation time and the first fixation time on the areas of interest (eyes, nose, and mouth) for each group of faces were compared and analyzed using mixed-effects linear regression and a support vector machine. The aesthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need was used to categorize treatment need and outcome levels to determine the accuracy of the support vector machine in identifying these variables. Significant deviations in the scanpaths of laypersons viewing pretreatment smiling faces were noted, with less fixation time (P <0.05) and later attention capture (P <0.05) on the eyes, and more fixation time (P <0.05) and earlier attention capture (P <0.05) on the mouth than for the scanpaths of laypersons viewing normal smiling subjects. The same results were obtained when comparing posttreatment smiling patients, with less fixation time (P <0.05) and later attention capture on the eyes (P <0.05), and more fixation time (P <0.05) and earlier attention capture on the mouth (P <0.05). The pretreatment repose faces exhibited an earlier attention capture on the mouth than did the normal subjects (P <0.05) and posttreatment patients (P <0.05). Linear support vector machine classification showed accuracies of 97.2% and 93.4% in distinguishing pretreatment patients from normal subjects (treatment need), and pretreatment patients from posttreatment patients (treatment outcome), respectively
Carvalho Ferreira, Fernando Pedrin; de Paula, Eliana de Cássia Molina; Ferreira Conti, Ana Claudia de Castro; Valarelli, Danilo Pinelli; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues
Improving facial and dental appearance and social interaction are the main factors for special needs (SN) patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The cooperation of SN patients and their parents is crucial for treatment success. Objective. To show through a case report the satisfactory results, both functional and esthetic, in patients with intellectual disability, congenital nystagmus, and severe scoliosis. Materials Used. Pendulum device with mini-implants as anchorage unit. Results. Improvement of facial and dental esthetics, correction of Class II malocclusion, and no root resorption shown in the radiographic follow-up. Conclusion. Knowing the limitations of SN patients, having a trained team, motivating and counting on the cooperation of parents and patients, and employing quick and low-cost orthodontic therapy have been shown to be the essential factors for treatment success. PMID:27847652
Shen, Y H; Chen, Y K; Chuang, S Y
A 28-year-old female underwent orthodontic treatment for approximately 22 months. During the later stages of this treatment, the patient reported right shoulder and neck-muscle pain. In addition, temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) with a 'clicking' sound during mastication commenced 5 months prior to treatment completion. Specific medication to deal with these symptoms was suggested by medical specialists, as were some stress-relief methods, although the pain still progressed, and subsequent clinical and radiographical examinations were undertaken by another orthodontist. Right mandibular condylar resorption was observed from both the panorex and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) radiographs. No clinical signs of rheumatic disease were observed, although bruxism was noted. Following the termination of the orthodontic treatment by the second practitioner, the patient was treated with splint therapy 1 month subsequent to which, the previous symptoms of pain in the shoulder and neck, and the clicking sound during mastication had subsided. During the 14-month period of splint therapy and follow-up, new bone growth in the right condyle was observed from radiographs.
Kapila, S D; Nervina, J M
Since its introduction into dentistry in 1998, CBCT has become increasingly utilized for orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning and research. The utilization of CBCT for these purposes has been facilitated by the relative advantages of three-dimensional (3D) over two-dimensional radiography. Despite many suggested indications of CBCT, scientific evidence that its utilization improves diagnosis and treatment plans or outcomes has only recently begun to emerge for some of these applications. This article provides a comprehensive and current review of key studies on the applications of CBCT in orthodontic therapy and for research to decipher treatment outcomes and 3D craniofacial anatomy. The current diagnostic and treatment planning indications for CBCT include impacted teeth, cleft lip and palate and skeletal discrepancies requiring surgical intervention. The use of CBCT in these and other situations such as root resorption, supernumerary teeth, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology, asymmetries and alveolar boundary conditions should be justified on the basis of the merits relative to risks of imaging. CBCT has also been used to assess 3D craniofacial anatomy in health and disease and of treatment outcomes including that of root morphology and angulation; alveolar boundary conditions; maxillary transverse dimensions and maxillary expansion; airway morphology, vertical malocclusion and obstructive sleep apnoea; TMJ morphology and pathology contributing to malocclusion; and temporary anchorage devices. Finally, this article utilizes findings of these studies and current voids in knowledge to provide ideas for future research that could be beneficial for further optimizing the use of CBCT in research and the clinical practice of orthodontics.
Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; Pereira, José Roberto; Dick, Bruce D; Perez, Arnaldo; Flores-Mir, Carlos
Our objective was to identify factors associated with orthodontic treatment satisfaction of patients and their caregivers, when applicable. MEDLINE via Ovid, PubMed, EBM Reviews and EMBASE via OVIDSP, LILACS, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched electronically. Reference lists of included articles were also screened for potential relevant studies missed during the electronic searches. Studies evaluating the satisfaction levels of patients or caregivers after orthodontic treatment were considered. Methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Eighteen studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, representing 2891 patients and 464 parents. The risk of bias was moderate in 13 and low in 4 of the included articles. The studies used different questionnaires and timings to assess postorthodontic treatment satisfaction. Based on the available limited evidence, satisfaction was associated with perceived esthetic outcomes, psychological benefits, and quality of care. The latter was specifically linked to dentist-staff-patient interactions. Dissatisfaction was associated with treatment duration, pain levels and discomfort, and the use of retention appliances. When both assessments were available, the patient's and the parent's satisfaction levels were strongly correlated. Based on the limited available evidence with moderate risk of bias, we identified factors that appear to be more commonly associated with a high or low level of satisfaction. Consideration of these factors could be important for practitioners attempting to set realistic expectations of their patients and caregivers regarding orthodontic treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wan, Rong; Han, Ying-xing; Guo, Li; Guo, Jia-ping; Gao, Qun; Huang, Shi-hua
To explore the effect of military outpatients' psychological feelings on doctor-patient relationship in orthodontic treatment. A total of 95 clinic patients who were undergoing orthodontic treatment were asked to complete the questionnaire of dental visit satisfaction scale (DVSS) and orthodontist-patient relationship scale (OPRS). The results of different groups according to identity, gender, age and treatment time were compared. The data was analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software package for correlation analysis and stepwise regression. Except 6-18 months group, psychological feelings of patients had significant impact on doctor-patient relationship (P<0.01). The correlation coefficient was 0.610 between patients' satisfaction of outpatient treatment and doctor-patient relationship (P<0.001). Among 9 psychological feelings of orthodontic treatment, five kinds had significant effect on doctor-patient relationship, including three kinds of positive correlation and two kinds of negative correlation. The patients' psychological feelings are closely related to doctor-patient relationship. Doctors should try to improve medical quality, strengthen service level and pay much attention to the patients' psychological and social needs.
Akinci Cansunar, Hatice; Uysal, Tancan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of three different Class II treatment modalities followed by fixed orthodontic therapy, using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO-MGS). As a retrospective study, files of patients treated at postgraduate orthodontic clinics in different cities in Turkey was randomly selected. From 1684 posttreatment records, 669 patients were divided into three groups: 269 patients treated with extraction of two upper premolars, 198 patients treated with cervical headgear, and 202 patients treated with functional appliances. All the cases were evaluated by one researcher using ABO-MGS. The χ (2), Z test, and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical evaluation (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in buccolingual inclination, overjet, occlusal relationship, and root angulation. However, there were significant differences in alignment, marginal ridge height, occlusal contact, interproximal contact measurements, and overall MGS average scores. The mean treatment time between the extraction and functional appliance groups was significantly different (p = 0.017). According to total ABO-MGS scores, headgear treatment had better results than functional appliances. The headgear group had better tooth alignment than the extraction group. Headgear treatment resulted in better occlusal contacts than the functional appliances and had lower average scores for interproximal contact measurements. Functional appliances had the worst average scores for marginal ridge height. Finally, the functional appliance group had the longest treatment times.
Li, Weihong; Wang, Shimei; Zhang, Yanzhen
Background Few research projects have looked at patient satisfaction with treatment outcome and factors contributing to satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine treatment motivation and expectation associated with treatment-outcome satisfaction in a group of adolescent nonextraction orthodontic patients. We hypothesized that there would be significant correlations among treatment-outcome satisfaction, motivation, and expectations. Subjects and methods A sample of 120 patients who received orthodontic treatment at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine completed two questionnaires. Before treatment, questionnaire 1 was given to patients to assess treatment motivation and expectations. When treatment had been completed, questionnaire 2, concerning treatment satisfaction, was assessed. Spearman’s rank correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the relationships among treatment satisfaction, expectations, and motivation. Results A total of 110 patients completed the two questionnaires. There was a tendency toward significant correlations between treatment motivation and overall satisfaction with treatment (β-coefficient −0.264, 95% confidence interval −0.456 to 2.314; P<0.001). However, correlations among treatment motivation and satisfaction with changes made and satisfaction with one’s appearance posttreatment were more fragmented. No relationship between treatment expectation and satisfaction was found (β-coefficient −0.126; 95% confidence interval −0.024 to 0.524; P>0.05). Conclusion Motivation was correlated with satisfaction with treatment outcome. Patients’ expectations had no correlation with treatment satisfaction. PMID:27110100
Taghavi Bayat, Jari; Huggare, Jan; Mohlin, Bengt; Akrami, Nazar
To put forward a model predicting orthodontic treatment need and demand. Furthermore, to explore how much of the variance in treatment demand could be explained by a set of self-assessed measures, and how these measures relate to professionally assessed treatment need. One hundred and fifty adolescents, aged 13 years, completed a questionnaire which included a set of self-assessed measures dealing with self-esteem, such as dental and global self-esteem, various aspects of malocclusion, such as perceived malocclusion and perceived functional limitation, and treatment demand. Treatment need was assessed by Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need grading. Path analysis was used to examine the relations between the measures and if they could predict treatment need and demand. The measures proved to be reliable and inter-correlated. Path analysis revealed that the proposed model had good fit to the data, providing a test of the unique effect of all included measures on treatment need and demand. The model explained 33% of the variance in treatment demand and 22% of the variance in treatment need. The specific age group could affect the generalizability of the findings. Moreover, although showing good fit to data, the final model is based on a combination of theoretical reasoning and semi-explorative approach. The proposed model displays the unique effect of each included measure on treatment need and demand, explaining a large proportion of the variance in perceived treatment demand and professionally assessed treatment need. The model would hopefully lead to improved and more cost-efficient predictions of treatment need and demand. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Karamouzos, Andreas; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Kolokithas, George
Our aim was to prospectively assess in-vivo color alterations of natural teeth associated with fixed orthodontic treatment. Twenty-six consecutive patients were treated with fixed appliances bonded with a chemically cured or a light-cured resin with a split-mouth design. The spectrophotometric data of a standardized labial circular area of all teeth were recorded, before bracket bonding and after debonding and cleaning procedures. The color parameters of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage-L∗, a∗, and b∗ (lightness, red/green, and blue/yellow)-were measured for each adhesive and type of tooth, and the corresponding color differences (ΔE) between the interval groups were calculated. The effect of these parameters on color was assessed with 3-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni comparisons test (α <0.05). Orthodontic treatment was associated with changes in color parameters. The L∗ values decreased (P <0.001), whereas the a∗ and b∗ values increased (P <0.001) at the end of treatment. All measured types of teeth demonstrated significant color changes (ΔE); their mean differences ranged from 2.12 to 3.61 ΔE units. Chemically cured resin was associated with greater color changes than light-cured composite. The color of natural teeth is changed in various ways after fixed orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Rabie, A-Bakr M.; Wong, Ricky W.K.; Min, G.U.
Aims: To investigate the differences in morphological characteristics of borderline class III patients who had undergone camouflage orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery, and to compare the treatment effects between these two modalities. Materials and Methods: Cephalograms of 25 patients (13 orthodontic, 12 surgical) with class III malocclusion were analyzed. All had a pretreatment ANB angle greater than -5º. Results: Using discriminant analysis, only Holdaway angle was selected to differentiate patients in the pretreatment stage. Seventy-two per cent patients were correctly classified. In the orthodontic group, reverse overjet was corrected by retraction of the lower incisors and downward and backward rotation of the mandible. The surgical group was corrected by setback of the lower anterior dentoalveolus and uprighting of the lower incisors. No difference was found in posttreatment soft tissue measurements between the two groups. Conclusions: Twelve degree for the Holdaway angle can be a guideline in determining the treatment modalities for borderline class III patients, but the preferences of operators and patients are also important. (2) Both therapeutic options should highlight changes in the lower dentoalveolus and lower incisors. (3) Both treatment modalities can achieve satisfactory improvements to the people. PMID:19088881
Jamilian, Abdolreza; Kiaee, Bita; Sanayei, Shabnam; Khosravi, Saeed; Perillo, Letizia
Objectives: Malocclusion, though not life-threatening, has vast impact on individual’s social interactions and self-esteem. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess whether orthodontic treatment of adolescents with malocclusion had any association with their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods: The subjects for this study were recruited at a state-funded university clinic. Data were collected from 100 participants aged 17 to 21 with moderate to severe malocclusion. Experimental group comprised of 50 subjects who were in the retention phase of their orthodontic treatment and the control group comprised of 50 untreated subjects. The shortened version of the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP-14) as used to assess the subjects’ oral health-related impact. T-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney tests were used to analyze the data and p-value was set at P < 0.05. Results: In general, oral health-related quality of life of all subjects significantly improved after orthodontic treatment. (p<0.001) Subjects with moderate malocclusion showed better improvement than severe malocclusion subjects. (P<0.001) Conclusion: This study showed that oral health-related quality of life improves with the treatment of malocclusion. PMID:27386009
Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Todea, Carmen; Rominu, Roxana; Dodenciu, Dorin; Laissue, Philippe L.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.
Despite good diagnosis and treatment planning, orthodontic treatment can fail if bonding fails. It is now common practice to address the aesthetic appearance of patients using aesthetic brackets instead of metal ones. Therefore, bonding aesthetic brackets has become an issue for orthodontists today. Orthodontic bonding is mainly achieved using composite resin but can also be performed with glass ionomer or resin cements. For improving the quality of bonding, the enamel is acid etched for 30 seconds with 38% phosphoric acid and then a bonding agent is applied. In our study we investigated and compared the quality of bonding between ceramic brackets, polymeric brackets and enamel, respectively using a new investigation method-OCT. The aim of our study was to evaluate the resin layer at the bracket base-tooth interface.
Fernández-Ferrer, Laura; Montiel-Company, José-María; Candel-Martí, Eugenia; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel
Background One of the main aims of orthodontists is to reduce the treatment time as much as possible, particularly in view of the rise in demand for orthodontic treatment among adult patients. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of corticotomy as a surgical procedure that accelerates orthodontic tooth movement, together with its possible adverse effects. Material and Methods A systematic review of articles in 4 databases, Pubmed, Cochrane, Scopus and Embase, complemented by a manual search, identified 772 articles. The duplicates were eliminated and a critical reading of titles and abstracts led to the rejection of articles that did not meet the objectives of the review, leaving 69. After reading the full text of these articles, 49 were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. On applying the CONSORT criteria as a quality filter, a further 4 were eliminated due to low quality. Finally, 16 articles (4 systematic reviews and 12 controlled trials) were reviewed. Results All the studies agree that corticotomy prior to orthodontic treatment accelerates dental movement, reducing the treatment time. With regard to side-effects, no periodontal damage was found, although this was only studied in the short term. Conclusions The evidence regarding the results of corticotomy is limited, given the small number of quality clinical studies available. Before this procedure is included as a routine practice in dental surgeries, studies of higher methodological quality are required, studying a greater number of individuals and examining the possible long-term adverse effects and the cost/benefit of the procedure. Key words:Corticotomy, orthodontics, adults, accelerated tooth movement, osteotomy. PMID:27475698
Bergamo, Ana Zilda Nazar; Andrucioli, Marcela Cristina Damião; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane
Class III skeletal malocclusion may present several etiologies, among which maxillary deficiency is the most frequent. Bone discrepancy may have an unfavorable impact on esthetics, which is frequently aggravated by the presence of accentuated facial asymmetries. This type of malocclusion is usually treated with association of Orthodontics and orthognathic surgery for correction of occlusion and facial esthetics. This report presents the treatment of a patient aged 15 years and 1 month with Class III skeletal malocclusion, having narrow maxilla, posterior open bite on the left side, anterior crossbite and unilateral posterior crossbite, accentuated negative dentoalveolar discrepancy in the maxillary arch, and maxillary and mandibular midline shift. Clinical examination also revealed maxillary hypoplasia, increased lower one third of the face, concave bone and facial profiles and facial asymmetry with mandibular deviation to the left side. The treatment was performed in three phases: presurgical orthodontic preparation, orthognathic surgery and orthodontic finishing. In reviewing the patient's final records, the major goals set at the beginning of treatment were successfully achieved, providing the patient with adequate masticatory function and pleasant facial esthetics.
Wang, Cong; Zeng, Jishan; Wang, Shaoan; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Qian; Chen, Pixiu; Zhou, Shujuan; Liu, Xiaoqing
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various surface treatments after different storage time and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to the feldspathic porcelain surfaces. 128 disc-shaped porcelain specimens were randomly assigned to the following surface treatments: 9.6% HFA, 9.6% HFA combined with silane, 50 μ aluminum trioxide sandblasting followed by silane and application of silane after 37% phosphoric acid. Metal or ceramic brackets were bonded onto each treated porcelain facet with light cured resin. The samples were stored in 37 °C water 1 day or 7 days, thermocycled 500 times from 5 to 55 °C. The shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min), and statistically analyzed. The bond failure sites were classified according to ARI system. The surface of the glazed, sandblasted, hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid etched porcelain were examined with SEM. All groups achieved reasonable bond strengths to withstand the application of orthodontic forces. Water storage for 7 days caused lower shear bond strength than that of 1 day. But there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean shear bond strength provided by ceramic bracket with mechanical retention had no statistical difference with that of metal bracket. Therefore, the optimal treatment for orthodontic brackets bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid combined with silane.
Miyazaki, Haruyo; Katada, Hidenori; Ichinokawa, Yoshimi; Hirabayashi, Shinichi; Sueishi, Kenji
We report a case of an 11-year-old girl presenting with Apert syndrome characterized by midface concavity, protrusion of the eyeballs, and ocular hypertelorism. She had class III anterior crossbite, narrow upper and lower arches, and marked crowding. Based on cephalometric analysis, anterior crossbite associated with marked midfacial hypoplasia was diagnosed. Orthodontic treatment in combination with Le Fort II maxillary distraction was scheduled. The dentition was laterally extended using a Rapid palatal expander in the upper jaw and a Bihelix in the lower jaw. Multi-bracket appliances were simultaneously applied for leveling. Next, Le Fort II maxillary osteotomy was performed to distract the midface bone 16 mm anteroinferiorly using a rigid external distraction system. Orthodontic treatment was completed at 3.8 years after initiation. Bone distraction moved the upper jaw anteriorly downward, and the lower jaw subsequently rotated posteriorly downward, leading to a marked improvement in facial appearance and occlusion. Elongation of the dorsum of the nose, in particular, allowed esthetic improvement of the saddle nose. These improvements remain stable at 2 years after orthodontic treatment.
COSTEA, CARMEN MARIA; BADEA, MÎNDRA EUGENIA; VASILACHE, SORIN; MESAROŞ, MICHAELA
Background and aims Nowadays centric relation is defined as a musculoskeletal stable position, with the condyles forward, as far upward as possible, centered transversely and with the articular disc properly interposed. On the other hand, centric occlusion or maximum intercuspidation is a dental determined position. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the direction, frequency and magnitude of the discrepancy between centric occlusion and centric relation in all three axial directions, in a muscular non-deprogrammed population, before the beginning of orthodontic treatment. Methods The study group was represented by 40 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients seeking orthodontic treatment in a private dental office in Cluj-Napoca, Romania between 2014 and 2015. All patients had full records and articulator mounted models. All measurements were analyzed three-dimensionally. Results 85% of the patients had vertical and 87.5% had horizontal CO-CR discrepancy for both condyles. 87.5% of the cases have had a significant condylar displacement in at least one of the three planes. Conclusions We should be aware of the dental occlusion determined by the dental contacts and the occlusion dictated by the musculoskeletal stable position of the condyles. The bigger the discrepancy between these two positions at the level of the condyles, the greater the chances to have either a patient who will develop a form of TMD before/during or after the orthodontic or prosthetic treatment, or a patient suffering already, but poorly diagnosed. PMID:27152081
Sergl, H G; Klages, U; Zentner, A
During the course of treatment orthodontic patients frequently endure a number of functional complaints and are anxious about their appearance. The aims of this longitudinal study were to follow the progress of patients' adaptation to discomfort, to elucidate the putative relationship between the type of appliance worn and functional and social discomfort experienced, to study potential predictability by their attitude to treatment and to evaluate the effects of discomfort as predictors of patients' compliance. Eighty-four patients undergoing either removable, functional, or fixed appliance treatment monitored their complaints during the first 7 days of treatment and rated them retrospectively 14 days, and 3 and 6 months after appliance insertion. The most frequent complaints were impaired speech, impaired swallowing, feeling of oral constraint and lack of confidence in public. A significant reduction in the number of complaints was observed between 2 and 7 days after insertion of the appliance. No further differences were revealed after longer periods of appliance wear. The type of appliance had an effect on impaired speech and swallowing. Patients' expectations of favourable treatment performance and appreciation of dental aesthetics were predictive of reported feeling of oral constraint and lack of confidence in public. There was a relationship between the complaints and acceptance of the appliance, as well as between lack of confidence in public and compliance with treatment. The results of this study highlight the importance of patients' attitudes to treatment and of functional and social discomfort associated with appliance wear for the theory and practice of the management of orthodontic patients, and the necessity for early intervention by clinicians.
Peppers, Emily Caskey; Leggitt, V Leroy; Caruso, Joseph M; Neufeld, Roland; Green, James
To determine whether changes in primary attending (PA) doctor coverage frequency caused an increase in orthodontic treatment time or a decrease in the quality of treatment results in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic. The effect of T1 Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores on PA doctor coverage frequency, treatment times, and results was also evaluated. A sample of 191 postorthodontic subjects was divided into three groups based on PA doctor coverage (high, medium, or low). Treatment times, treatment results, and other variables were compared between the three PA coverage groups. Additionally, the sample was divided into three groups based on T1 PAR scores. Attending coverage frequency, treatment times, and results were compared between the T1 PAR groups. No statistically significant differences were found in treatment time (P = .128) or results (P = .052). There were no statistically significant differences in the mean scores for T1 PAR (P = .056), T2 PAR (P = .602), patient age at T1 (P = .747), total appointments (P = .128), missed appointments (P = .177), or cancelled appointments (P = .183). Statistically significant differences were found between the low T1 PAR group and the medium and high T1 PAR groups (attending coverage, P = .008; results, P < .001; treatment time, P = .001). Under the conditions of this study, variations in PA doctor coverage frequency did not lengthen orthodontic treatment or reduce the quality of treatment results. Low T1 PAR scores were associated with less PA coverage, less change in PAR, and shorter treatment times.
Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro de; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Normando, David
To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients' records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p<0.05. The sample was also divided into two groups: Group 0-2 (patients who had missed two clinical appointments or less) and Group >2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments), to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2). Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345) and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596) are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients.
Angelieri, Fernanda; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Janson, Guilherme; Castanha Henriques, José Fernando; Pinzan, Arnaldo
This study compared the effects produced by two different molar distalizers, namely cervical headgear (CHG) and the intraoral pendulum appliance, associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The headgear group comprised 30 patients (19 females, 11 males), with an initial age of 13.07 years [standard deviation (SD) = 1.3], treated with CHG and fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 3.28 years, and the pendulum group 22 patients (15 females, 7 males), with initial age of 13.75 years (SD = 1.86), treated with the pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 4.12 years. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the start (T1) and on completion (T2) of orthodontic treatment. The pendulum and CHG groups were similar as to initial age, severity of the Class II malocclusion, gender distribution, initial cephalometric characteristics, and initial and final treatment priority index (TPI). Only treatment time was not similar between the groups, with a need for annualization for data for the pendulum group. The data were compared with independent t-tests. There was significantly greater restriction of maxillary forward growth and improvement of the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship in the CHG group (P < 0.05). The maxillary molars were more mesially tipped and extruded and the mandibular molars more uprighted in the CHG group compared with the pendulum group (P < 0.05). There was more labial tipping of the mandibular incisors and greater overbite reduction in the pendulum group. The pendulum appliance produced only dentoalveolar effects, different from the CHG appliance, which restricted maxillary forward displacement, thus improving the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship.
Kenealy, Pamela M; Kingdon, Anne; Richmond, Stephen; Shaw, William C
Despite the widespread belief that orthodontics improves psychological well-being and self-esteem, there is little objective evidence to support this (Kenealy et al., 1989a; Shaw, O'Brien, Richmond, & Brook, 1991). A 20 year follow-up study compared the dental and psychosocial status of individuals who received, or did not receive, orthodontics as teenagers. A prospective longitudinal cohort design with four studies of the effect of orthodontic treatment. Secondary analysis of outcome data incorporated orthodontic need at baseline and treatment received in a 2 x 2 factorial design. A multidisciplinary research programme studied a cohort of 1,018, 11-12 year old participants in 1981. Extensive assessment of dental health and psychosocial well-being was conducted; facial and dental photographs and plaster casts of dentition were obtained and rated for attractiveness and pre-treatment need. No recommendations about orthodontic treatment were made, and an observational approach was adopted. At the third follow-up 337 (30-31 year olds) were re-examined in 2001. Participants with a prior need for orthodontic treatment as children who obtained treatment demonstrated better tooth alignment and satisfaction. However when self-esteem at baseline was controlled for, orthodontics had little positive impact on psychological health and quality of life in adulthood. Lack of orthodontic treatment where there was a prior need did not lead to psychological difficulties in later life. Dental status alone was a weak predictor of self-esteem at outcome explaining 8% of the variance. Self-esteem in adulthood was more strongly predicted (65% of the variance) by psychological variables at outcome: perception of quality of life, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, depression, social anxiety, emotional health, and by self-perception of attractiveness. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the observed effect of orthodontic treatment on self esteem at outcome was accounted for by self esteem at
Lim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Ji-Hoon; Park, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Shin-Jae
This paper describes changes in the characteristics of patients seeking orthodontic treatment over the past decade and the treatment they received, to identify any seasonal variations or trends. This single-center retrospective cohort study included all patients who presented to Seoul National University Dental Hospital for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015. The study analyzed a set of heterogeneous variables grouped into the following categories: demographic (age, gender, and address), clinical (Angle Classification, anomaly, mode of orthodontic treatment, removable appliances for Phase 1 treatment, fixed appliances for Phase 2 treatment, orthognathic surgery, extraction, mini-plate, mini-implant, and patient transfer) and time-related variables (date of first visit and orthodontic treatment time). Time series analysis was applied to each variable. The sample included 14,510 patients with a median age of 19.5 years. The number of patients and their ages demonstrated a clear seasonal variation, which peaked in the summer and winter. Increasing trends were observed for the proportion of male patients, use of non-extraction treatment modality, use of ceramic brackets, patients from provinces outside the Seoul region at large, patients transferred from private practitioners, and patients who underwent orthognathic surgery performed by university surgeons. Decreasing trends included the use of metal brackets and orthodontic treatment time. Time series analysis revealed a seasonal variation in some characteristics, and several variables showed changing trends over the past decade.
Seeliger, Julia; Machoy, Monika; Koprowski, Robert; Safranow, Krzysztof; Gedrange, Tomasz; Woźniak, Krzysztof
Despite the continuous development of materials and techniques of adhesive bonding, the basic procedure remains relatively constant. The technique is based on three components: etching substance, adhesive system, and composite material. The use of etchants during bonding orthodontic brackets carries the risk of damage to the enamel. Therefore, the article examines the effect of the manner of enamel etching on its thickness before and after orthodontic treatment. The study was carried out in vitro on a group of 80 teeth. It was divided into two subgroups of 40 teeth each. The procedure of enamel etching was performed under laboratory conditions. In the first subgroup, the classic method of enamel etching and the fifth-generation bonding system were used. In the second subgroup, the seventh-generation (self-etching) bonding system was used. In both groups, metal orthodontic brackets were fixed and the enamel was cleaned with a cutter fixed on the micromotor after their removal. Before and after the treatment, two-dimensional optical coherence tomography scans were performed. The enamel thickness was assessed on the two-dimensional scans. The average enamel thickness in both subgroups was not statistically significant.
Koprowski, Robert; Safranow, Krzysztof; Woźniak, Krzysztof
Despite the continuous development of materials and techniques of adhesive bonding, the basic procedure remains relatively constant. The technique is based on three components: etching substance, adhesive system, and composite material. The use of etchants during bonding orthodontic brackets carries the risk of damage to the enamel. Therefore, the article examines the effect of the manner of enamel etching on its thickness before and after orthodontic treatment. The study was carried out in vitro on a group of 80 teeth. It was divided into two subgroups of 40 teeth each. The procedure of enamel etching was performed under laboratory conditions. In the first subgroup, the classic method of enamel etching and the fifth-generation bonding system were used. In the second subgroup, the seventh-generation (self-etching) bonding system was used. In both groups, metal orthodontic brackets were fixed and the enamel was cleaned with a cutter fixed on the micromotor after their removal. Before and after the treatment, two-dimensional optical coherence tomography scans were performed. The enamel thickness was assessed on the two-dimensional scans. The average enamel thickness in both subgroups was not statistically significant. PMID:28243604
Wheeler, T T; McGorray, S P; Yurkiewicz, L; Keeling, S D; King, G J
There have been few reports worldwide addressing orthodontic need and demand in children and no recent reports in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine the orthodontic need and demand in third and fourth grade children (n = 3696). Data including age, sex, race, orthodontic status, socioeconomic status, availability of specialist treatment services, as well as thorough occlusal data, were collected. Orthodontic demand was significantly higher in girls (9.5%) than boys (6.8%), whereas need had the inverse relationship (41.8%, 44.2%, respectively). There were no meaningful differences in age among the demand, need, and no need groups. Demand was greater in white than in black children (11.8% versus 1.2%); however, need was observed to be less in black (35.3%) than in white children (47.2%). Demand was greater in the urban schools (8.9%) than in the rural schools (6.3%), whereas need was found to be similar. There was more demand in the higher socioeconomic groups (11.7%) than in the lower groups (1.8%), whereas need was similar in all the groups. The demand group had a significantly greater number of orthodontists within a radius of up to 5 miles of the school than the need and no need groups. Logistic regression models to examine factors that distinguish the groups show that when demand versus need/no need groups are compared, those students with an increased "risk" of previous treatment are more likely to have more orthodontists nearby, to be in higher socioeconomic groups, and to be female students.
Farsaii, Adrian; Al-Jewair, Thikriat
Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in accelerating tooth movement, preventing relapse and managing acute pain during orthodontic treatment in humans: A systematic review. Sonesson M, De Geer E, Subraian J, Petrén S. BMC Oral Health 2017;17:11. No funding was obtained for this study TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Results of transplanting developing third molars as part of orthodontics space management. Part 2: results following the orthodontic treatment of transplanted developing third molars in cases of aplasia and premature loss of teeth with atrophy of the alveolar process.
Bauss, Oskar; Sadat-Khonsari, Rezat; Engelke, Werner; Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of atrophy of the alveolar process and subsequent orthodontic treatment on the transplantation results of developing third molars. The material consisted of 35 teeth transplanted to an atrophied alveolar process. 19 of these teeth were treated orthodontically subsequent to transplantation. The control group consisted of 61 developing molars transplanted to a new extraction socket. The transplanted teeth were followed up clinically and radiographically for a mean period of 3.2 years. The success rate was 85% for transplants to new extraction sockets and 84% for transplants to atrophied jaw sections with subsequent orthodontic treatment. In contrast, transplants to atrophied jaw sections without subsequent orthodontic treatment showed a significantly (p < or = 0.001) lower success rate of only 37.5%. These poorer results were due to persistent infraocclusion and ankylosis. Even in cases with atrophy of the alveolar process, a transplantation with subsequent orthodontic treatment represents a promising treatment concept, whereas teeth without subsequent orthodontic treatment showed a lower success rate. Orthodontic tooth movement had no negative effect on the healing rates of transplanted developing third molars.
Prado, Renata França; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Marques, Leandro Silva; de Paiva, Saul Martins; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Pazzini, Camila Alessandra
To evaluate the psychosocial impact of the first 6 months of orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance among young adults and compare the results with those of a control group of patients awaiting treatment for malocclusion. A study was conducted with a sample of 120 patients on a waiting list for orthodontic treatment at a university. The participants were allocated to an experimental group submitted to treatment and a control group awaiting treatment. The groups were matched for sex and age. All participants were instructed to answer the Brazilian version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) at baseline and after 6 months. Statistical analysis involved the Wilcoxon test for the total PIDAQ score and the score of each subscale. All patients participated until the end of the study. Significant differences between baseline and the 6-month evaluation were found for the total PIDAQ score as well as the dental self-confidence and social impact subscales in both groups. No differences between baseline and the 6-month evaluation were found regarding the psychological impact or esthetic concern subscales in the control group. The patients in the experimental group reported greater esthetic impact 6 months after beginning treatment (P < .001). The first 6 months of orthodontic treatment seem to improve psychosocial impact. The first 6 months of orthodontic treatment seem to improve the psychosocial impact of malocclusion. The patients analyzed in the present study reported a greater esthetic impact and less psychological impact after 6 months of using an orthodontic appliance.
Bletsa, Athanasia; Berggreen, Ellen; Brudvik, Pongsri
Remodelling of the periodontium after application of mechanical forces constitutes the basis of clinical orthodontics and various immunoregulatory molecules are involved in this process. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the cytokines interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in dental tissues during the early phases of orthodontic tooth movement. Eightteen male Wistar rats were used. All maxillary right first molars were moved orthodontically, with a force of 0.5 N, for 3 h, 1 d, and 3 d. The contralateral sides served as untreated controls. Parasagittal sections of the maxillary molars and the surrounding tissues were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for IL-1alpha or TNF-alpha, and were evaluated with light microscopy. IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha were expressed in the bone and periodontal ligament (PDL) along the roots of the orthodontically moved molars and in the gingiva. Increased expression of both cytokines was observed in the aforementioned areas after 1 and 3 d of tooth movement. The pulp tissue exhibited only minor changes in cytokine expression during tooth movement. The results suggest that mechanical stress results in almost immediate inflammatory reactions in various dental tissues.
Hong, Mihee; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Myeng-Ki; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Hong-Gee; Baek, Seung-Hak
Given the considerable disagreement between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation, we aimed to develop a novel assessment system-the Improvement and Completion of Outcome (ICO) index-to evaluate the outcome of orthodontic treatment. Sixteen criteria from 4 major categories were established to represent the pretreatment malocclusion status, as well as the degree of improvement and level of completion of outcome during/after treatment: dental relationship (arch length discrepancy, irregularity, U1-SN, and IMPA); anteroposterior relationship (overjet, right and left molar position, ANB); vertical relationship (anterior overbite, anterior open-bite, lateral open-bite, SN-MP); and transverse relationship (dental midline discrepancy, chin point deviation, posterior cross-bite, occlusal plane cant). The score for each criterion was defined from 0 or -1 (worst) to 5 (ideal value or normal occlusion) in gradations of 1. The sum of the scores in each category indicates the area and extent of the problems. Improvement and completion percentages were estimated based on the pre- and post-treatment total scores and the maximum total score. If the completion percentage exceeded 80%, treatment outcome was considered successful. Two cases, Class I malocclusion and skeletal Class III malocclusion, are presented to represent the assessment procedure using the ICO index. The difference in the level of improvement and completion of treatment outcome can be clearly explained by using 2 percentage values. Thus, the ICO index enables the evaluation of the quality of orthodontic treatment objectively and consecutively throughout the entire treatment process.
Hong, Mihee; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Myeng-Ki; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Hong-Gee
Objective Given the considerable disagreement between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation, we aimed to develop a novel assessment system―the Improvement and Completion of Outcome (ICO) index―to evaluate the outcome of orthodontic treatment. Methods Sixteen criteria from 4 major categories were established to represent the pretreatment malocclusion status, as well as the degree of improvement and level of completion of outcome during/after treatment: dental relationship (arch length discrepancy, irregularity, U1-SN, and IMPA); anteroposterior relationship (overjet, right and left molar position, ANB); vertical relationship (anterior overbite, anterior open-bite, lateral open-bite, SN-MP); and transverse relationship (dental midline discrepancy, chin point deviation, posterior cross-bite, occlusal plane cant). The score for each criterion was defined from 0 or −1 (worst) to 5 (ideal value or normal occlusion) in gradations of 1. The sum of the scores in each category indicates the area and extent of the problems. Improvement and completion percentages were estimated based on the pre- and post-treatment total scores and the maximum total score. If the completion percentage exceeded 80%, treatment outcome was considered successful. Results Two cases, Class I malocclusion and skeletal Class III malocclusion, are presented to represent the assessment procedure using the ICO index. The difference in the level of improvement and completion of treatment outcome can be clearly explained by using 2 percentage values. Conclusions Thus, the ICO index enables the evaluation of the quality of orthodontic treatment objectively and consecutively throughout the entire treatment process. PMID:27478797
Hosseinzadeh-Nik, Tahereh; Eftekhari, Armin; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar; Kharrazifard, Mahammad Javad
Objectives: This study was designed to assess the changes of the mandible of patients who underwent orthodontic treatment with or without extraction of four premolars. Materials and Methods: Eighteen Class I bimaxillary protrusion patients treated with extraction of four first premolars and retraction of anterior teeth and 18 Class I non-extraction patients with a mean age of 16.38±0.4 years were selected. Cephalometric analysis was performed before and after treatment. Twenty-four variables for analyzing the hard and soft tissues of the mandible were compared between the two groups. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for the comparison of the two groups fallowed by paired t-test. The relationship between the soft and hard tissue variables was studied using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: In both groups, the mean value of angular measurements related to B point and Pogonion (Pog) decreased with treatment (P<0.05). Similarly, the symphysis depth of soft tissue decreased (P=0.008). The mean angular value of Y-axis increased in both groups after treatment (P=0.007). The mean changes in hard tissue symphysis depth after treatment were different in the two groups (P=0.021). Vertical, horizontal and rotational changes in soft tissue B point (B’) and Pogonion (pog’) followed their underlying hard tissue changes (P<0.05). Conclusions: Points B and Pog showed backward movement after orthodontic treatments in both extraction and non-extraction patients. Changes in B’ and Pog’ were directly influenced by the changes in the corresponding points of the underlying hard tissue. Orthodontic treatments with and without extraction of premolars produced insignificant changes in vertical facial dimension. PMID:28392817
Mencattelli, Margherita; Donati, Elisa; Spinelli, Pasqua; Cultrone, Massimo; Luzi, Cesare; Cantarella, Daniele; Stefanini, Cesare
The understanding of the phenomena at the base of tooth movement, due to orthodontic therapy, is an ambitious topic especially with regard to the "optimal forces" able to move teeth without causing irreversible tissue damages. To this aim, a measuring platform for detecting 3D orthodontic actions has been developed. It consists of customized load cells and dedicated acquisition electronics. The force sensors are able to detect, simultaneously and independently of each other, the six orthodontic components which a tooth is affected by. They have been calibrated and then applied on a clinical case that required NiTi closed coil springs and miniscrews for the treatment of upper post-extraction spaces closure. The tests have been conducted on teeth stumps belonging to a plaster cast of the patient's mouth. The load cells characteristics (sensor linearity and repeatability) have been analyzed (0.97 < R (2) < 1; 6.3*10 (-6) % < STD < 8.8 %) and, on the basis of calibration data, the actions exerted on teeth have been determined. The biomechanical behavior of the frontal group and clinical interpretation of the results are discussed.
Fuck, Lars-Michael; Drescher, Dieter
The determination of orthodontically-effective forces and moments places great demands on the technical equipment. Many patients report severe pain after fixed appliance insertion. Since it is assumed that pain from orthodontic appliances is associated with the force and moment levels applied to the teeth and since the occurrence of root resorption is a common therapeutic side effect, it would seem important to know the actual magnitudes of the components of the active orthodontic force systems. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure initial force systems produced by different leveling arch-wires in a complete multi-bracket appliance and to assess whether force and moment levels can be regarded as biologically acceptable or not. The actual bracket position in 42 patients was transferred onto a measurement model. Forces and moments produced by a super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire, a 6-strand stainless steel archwire, and a 7-strand super-elastic NiTi archwire were determined experimentally on different teeth. Average forces and moments produced by the super-elastic NiTi arch wires were found to be the highest. In spite if their larger diameter, the stranded arch wires' average force and moment levels were lower, especially that of the stranded super-elastic archwire. Nevertheless, maximum force levels sometimes exceeded recommended values in the literature and must be considered as too high. The measured arch wires' initial force systems differed significantly depending on the type of archwire and its material structure. Stranded arch wires produced lower force and moment levels, and we recommend their use in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment.
Kong, Xiangwei; Cao, Meng; Ye, Ruidong; Ding, Yin
Malocclusion, the improper positioning of the teeth and jaws, is among the most important global oral health burdens. People with malocclusion may require orthodontic treatment to correct the problem. Orthodontic treatment is a way of straightening or moving teeth, to improve the appearance of the teeth and how they work. It is generally best carried out in children aged 9 to 12 years, whose teeth are mainly young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation. However, the relationship between orthodontic force and tooth development has not been fully understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of orthodontic force on dentine formation and mineralization during the development of young permanent teeth. Standardized orthodontic tooth movement was performed with the orthodontic appliance in five-week-old rats. To obtain longitudinal assessment of dentine formation, tetracycline was administered on the operation day and 1, 3, 7, 14 or 21 days afterward. We found that the distance between two tetracycline stripes, which indicates the amount of dentine formation during orthodontic treatment, increased with time. Importantly, no significant difference was detected in dentine formation between treated and control rats. In contrast, immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of dentin sialoprotein, a marker of odontoblast differentiation and mineral apposition, was significantly elevated in crown and root dentine after orthodontic treatment. In conclusion, orthodontic treatment does not affect the dentine formation of young permanent teeth, but it promotes the activation of odontoblasts and accelerates the dentine mineralization. These results suggest the safety of early orthodontic treatment.
Lim, Geeyoung; Kim, Kee-Deog; Park, Wonse; Jung, Bock-Young; Pang, Nan-Sim
Miniscrews are being increasingly used for anchorage control in orthodontics. Despite the concern over root damage caused by miniscrews, there are few reports of precise clinical evaluations and appropriate management of that damage. In the case presented herein, the root damage caused by the placement of miniscrews was repaired by root canal treatment and surgical intervention. A 44-year-old man received orthodontic treatment for intrusion of the left maxillary first molar with a miniscrew anchorage system. During that treatment, the miniscrews had fallen out and had to be reinserted more than 6 times in the same area. Two years later, the patient complained of a spontaneous pain in the maxillary left molar region. Although the patient received root canal treatment, intraoral sinus tracts could still be detected, and the patient's discomfort persisted. Periradicular surgery revealed that the persistent infection was related to root surface damage caused by orthodontic miniscrew placement. Healing was achieved by a combination of root canal treatment and surgical intervention. Scanning electron microscopy of the damaged distobuccal root apex revealed a mature biofilm consisting of a network of matrix that contained mostly rod-like and spherical bacteria. At a 12-month recall checkup, the patient was free of pain. A repeat periapical radiograph revealed reduction of the pretreatment radiolucent lesion. More careful planning of miniscrew placement is necessary to lessen the danger of root damage. Furthermore, a precise evaluation of both root and pulpal damage and careful consideration of the choice of optimal treatment modality are needed. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tecco, Simona; Teté, Stefano; Crincoli, Vito; Festa, Mario Armando; Festa, Felice
This study evaluated the use of a fixed orthodontic appliance in treatment of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) compared to the use of an intra-oral splint. Fifty (50) adult patients, with confirmed anterior disk displacement with reduction in at least one temporomandibular joint (TMJ), were divided into three groups: 20 patients treated with AR splint (Group I); 20 patients treated with a fixed orthodontic appliance (Group II) and 10 patients who underwent no treatment (Control Group). Joint pain, joint noise, muscle pain, and subjective relief were evaluated monthly before the treatment began (T0) and for six months thereafter. Subjects in Group I and Group II displayed a significant decrease in joint pain (p < 0.01) from T2 and in muscle pain from T1 (p < 0.01) to T6. Subjects in Group I showed a higher decrease in the frequency of joint noise (p < 0.05) from T1 to T6, compared with Group II. At T2 and T3, the patients in Group II reported a significantly lower discomfort level associated with the devices than subjects treated with the AR splint (p < 0.05). However, at T5 and T6, this observation was inverted. The use of a fixed orthodontic appliance seems to be as efficacious as the use of an AR maxillary splint in the treatment of joint pain and muscle pain, but not in the treatment of joint noise. These results are valid, at least for the short-term clinical results (first six months of treatment). Clinical implications for long-term use are not clarified by these results.
Ma, Zhi-Gui; Yang, Chi; Fang, Bing; Xia, Yun-Hui; Mao, Li-Xia; Feng, Yi-Miao
Objectives: The objective of this study was to radiographically quantify bone height and bone density in patients with periodontitis after fixed orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: A total of 81 patients including 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (group 1) and 41 patients with normal periodontal tissues (group 2) were selected. CBCT scanning for anterior teeth were taken before and after orthodontic treatment. Measurements of bone height and bone density were performed using CBCT software. Results: The group 1 presented a statistically lesser bone density and bone height when compared to group 2 before treatment. There was a significant loss of bone density for both groups after orthodontic treatment, but bone density loss was significantly greater in the group 1. There was no statistically significant bone height change in two groups after treatment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that orthodontic treatment can preserve bone height but not capable of maintaining bone density, especially for patients with periodontitis. It is indicated that the change of bone density may be more susceptible than that of bone height when radiographically evaluating bone status under this combined periodontal and orthodontic therapy. PMID:25932177
Tuncer, C; Canigur Bavbek, N; Balos Tuncer, B; Ayhan Bani, A; Çelik, B
To examine patients' and parents' perceptions and expectations from orthodontic treatment. 491 patients (274 female, 217 male) aged 14-22 years, and 399 parents (245 female, 154 male) completed a questionnaire about preferences, needs and expectations about orthodontic treatment, and scored the present problem. Continuous variables were compared by Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, whereas Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. Patients'(77.1%) and parents'(84.6%), decision about orthodontic treatments were influenced by suggestion of dentists. Patients who decided to attend to clinic by themselves were higher than parents (p=0.006). Dental aesthetics was the determinant factor for treatment demand for patients(61.0%) and parents(57.3%). Improvement in oral functions was more important for Class III patients than Class I patients (p=0.040). Adult patients/parents with higher education gave more importance to oral functions as well as dental aesthetics (p=0.031). There was no difference among Angle classifications regarding orthodontic problem scores. Parents found media sources valuable (p=0.018) but majority expected dentists for information about orthodontic treatments. Education degree of adult patients/parents effected this decision(p=0.002). Desire to have better dental aesthetics was the primary motivating factor for all participants. Clinicians should consider concerns of Class III patients about oral functions during treatment planning.
Bilgic, Fundagul; Gelgor, Ibrahim Erhan; Celebi, Ahmet Arif
Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in a large sample of Central Anatolian adolescents and compare them with European-other nations' adolescents. Methods: The sample included 1125 boys and 1204 girls aged between 12 and 16 years with no previous orthodontic treatment history. Occlusal variables examined were molar relationship, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, posterior crossbite, and scissors bite. The dental health (DHC) and aesthetic components (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were used as an assessment measure of the need for orthodontic treatment for the total sample. Results: The results indicated a high prevalence of Class I (34.9%) and Class II, Division 1 malocclusions (40.0%). Moreover, increased (18%) and reduced bites (14.%), and increased (25.1%) and reversed overjet (10.%) were present in the sample. Conclusion: Using the DHC of the IOTN, the proportion of subjects estimated to have great and very great treatment need (grades 4 and 5) was 28.%. However, only 16.7% of individuals were in need (grades 8-10) of orthodontic treatment according to the AC. PMID:26691973
da Silva Campos, Marcio José; de Albuquerque, Elisa Gomes; Pinto, Bernardo Caixeiro Hauck; Hungaro, Hélio Moreira; Gravina, Marco Abdo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo
Summary Background Orthodontic force application to the teeth is responsible for a series of biological responses in the bone and dentin, which lead to some alterations of the mineral density of the tissues. Our objective was determine, through cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the mineral density of the apical third of the roots of the upper central incisors and of the periapical bone portion surrounding these teeth, in patients submitted to orthodontic treated and untreated individuals. Material/Methods 30 untreated individuals and 15 treated ones (treatment cessation at least 1 year before the study) underwent CBCT. Mineral density was assessed in the apical third of the root of the upper central incisors and in the alveolar bone in the periapical region of these teeth. In order to reduce CBCT-related mineral density variability, we standardized the cone-beam tomography device, the image-acquisition settings and the field of view positioning and size. Student’s t test was used for the analyses. Results bone mineral density (BMD) and root mineral density (RMD), in Hounsfield Units, were 674.84 and 1282.26 for the untreated group and 630.28 and 1370.29 for the treated group, respectively. The differences between the group means were statistically significant for RMD (p<0.05). Conclusions untreated individuals had a significant lower mean RMD in comparison with those submitted to orthodontic treatment. PMID:23197239
The increasing use of technology is rapidly changing our personal and professional lives. Smartphones allow users to access information in ways previously not possible and our patients may be accessing apps to source information about orthodontics and help them through their treatment. To provide an overview of the orthodontic apps currently available on four of the main operating systems with emphasis on those apps targeted towards new and existing orthodontic patients as well as practising clinicians. Four mobile devices were used to search four mobile operating systems (Android, Apple, Blackberry and Windows) using the key words 'braces', 'orthodontist', 'orthodontic' and 'orthodontics'. Android and Apple operating systems derived all of the apps considered relevant to orthodontic clinicians and patients. Clinician apps (11) related to orthodontic meetings (3), publications (3), products (3) and tooth ratio calculators such as Bolton (2). Patient apps (8) related to reminding patients about elastic wear (2) and aligner wear (2), dealing with orthodontic emergencies (2), orthodontic products (1) and a progress tracker of treatment (1). Apps are available for both orthodontic clinicians and patients; however, much of the information contained within them is often not independent and even more often not validated. Patients are increasingly likely to access apps and clinicians should direct patients to those that are most appropriate and useful.
Salmerón-Valdés, Elías Nahúm; Lara-Carrillo, Edith; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio José; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Fernández Barrera, Miguel Ángel
Dental demineralization was determined in patients at three time points during fixed orthodontic treatment. A multiple cross-sectional study included 108 patients divided into three different groups: (1) beginning of orthodontic treatment; (2) one year into treatment; and (3) two years into treatment. Demineralization was estimated using a DIAGNOdent pen. We obtained data from multiple tooth-by-tooth demineralization readings combined with salivary pH and patients’ oral hygienic and dietary behaviors. A t-test for independent samples and Spearman´s correlation were performed. No demineralizations differences were found between the initial stage and one year into treatment. Between one and two years small differences were observed, but demineralization increased between the initial stage and second treatment year, predominating in upper right central incisors (p = 0.056), upper left lateral incisors (p = 0.040), both upper canines (p = 0.055 and p = 0.040, respectively) and first left premolars (p = 0.034 and p = 0.053, respectively). We did not find associations between oral hygiene and dietary behaviours or salivary pH. In conclusion, demineralization occurred in first year of treatment and increased during second year, predominating in the upper arch and the left side mainly in upper right central incisors, upper left lateral incisors, both upper canines, and first left premolars. PMID:27805027
Abrahamsson, C; Henrikson, T; Nilner, M; Sunzel, B; Bondemark, L; Ekberg, E C
The aims of the study were to investigate the alteration of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) after correction of dentofacial deformities by orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery; and to compare the frequency of TMD in patients with dentofacial deformities with an age and gender matched control group. TMD were evaluated in 121 consecutive patients (treatment group), referred for orthognathic surgery, by a questionnaire and a clinical examination. 18 months after treatment, 81% of the patients completed a follow-up examination. The control group comprised 56 age and gender matched subjects, of whom 68% presented for follow-up examination. TMD were diagnosed according to research diagnostic criteria for TMD. At baseline examination, the treatment group had a higher frequency of myofascial pain (P=.035) and arthralgia (P=.040) than the control group. At follow-up, the frequencies of myofascial pain, arthralgia and disc displacement had decreased in the treatment group (P=.050, P=.004, P=.041, respectively). The frequency of TMD was comparable in the two groups at follow-up. Patients with dentofacial deformities, corrected by orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery, seem to have a positive treatment outcome in respect of TMD pain.
Farret, Milton M B; Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Carlesso, Jhosué; Carlesso, Oscar
This article describes the treatment of a 61-year-old man who had a completely edentulous maxillary arch and partially edentulous mandibular arch. The patient was orthodontically treated to correct an anterior crossbite by distalization of the mandibular teeth using a removable prosthesis serving as an anchorage unit. Subsequently, the patient received two zygomatic implants, five conventional implants in the maxillary arch, and six conventional implants in the mandibular arch. By the end of treatment, the convexity of the facial profile improved, and esthetic and functional occlusion was established. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Tavares, Carlos Alberto Estevanell; Allgayer, Susiane
Trauma to the mandible often causes condylar fracture. This article reports the conservative treatment of a 10-year-old girl with a unilateral condylar fracture, highlighting the diagnostic aspects involved and the strategy used. The conservative approach used for this patient-bionator followed by full fixed orthodontic appliances-provided adequate esthetic and functional results. The outcomes throughout the 7-year follow-up and the remodeling process of the condyle observed in the panoramic radiographs proved the success of this treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Thilander, B; Pena, L; Infante, C; Parada, S S; de Mayorga, C
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion in a population of Bogotanian children and adolescents in terms of different degrees of severity in relation to sex and specific stages of dental development, in order to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment in this part of Colombia. A sample of 4724 children (5-17 years of age) was randomly selected from a population that attended the Dental Health Service; none had been orthodontically treated. Based on their dental stages the subjects were grouped into deciduous, early mixed, late mixed and permanent dentition. The registrations were performed according to a method by Björk et al. (1964). The need for orthodontic treatment was evaluated according to an index used by the Swedish National Board of Health. The results showed that 88 per cent of the subjects had some type of anomaly, from mild to severe, half of them recorded as occlusal anomalies, one-third as space discrepancies, and one-fifth as dental anomalies. No clear sex differences were noted, except for maxillary overjet, spacing, tooth size (all more frequent in boys), and crowding (more frequent in girls). Occlusal anomalies and space discrepancies varied in the different dental developmental periods, as did tipped and rotated teeth. Little need for orthodontic treatment was found in 35 per cent and moderate need in 30 per cent. A great need was estimated in 20 per cent, comprising children with prenormal occlusion, maxillary overjet, or overbite (> 6 mm), posterior unilateral crossbite with midline deviation (> 2 mm), severe crowding or spacing, congenitally missing maxillary incisors, impacted maxillary canines or anterior open bite (> 3 mm in the permanent dentition). Urgent need for treatment was estimated to be 3 per cent, comprising subjects with extreme post- and pre-normal occlusion, impacted maxillary incisors or extensive aplasia.
Choi, Jong Woo; Lee, Jang Yeol; Yang, Sung Joon; Koh, Kyung Suk
Orthognathic surgery with presurgical and postsurgical orthodontic treatment is the most widely accepted method for the correction of skeletal or dentoalveolar malocclusion. However, recent advancements in presurgical orthodontic simulations and postsurgical orthodontic treatments using miniscrews have shown remarkable stability and control of the occlusion after orthognathic surgery. Thus, we have adopted a surgery-first orthognathic approach without presurgical orthodontic treatment, based on a novel presurgical simulation process using a dental model. We hypothesized that this treatment modality will be feasible for skeletal class III dentofacial deformity patients. This prospective study investigated intervention outcomes in 24 standard and 32 surgery-first approaches for patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformity. The patients underwent orthognathic surgery between December 2007 and July 2010. In the surgery-first approach, a dental model was created and a novel preoperative orthodontic simulation of the standard presurgical orthodontic treatment was performed to determine the final occlusion between the maxilla and mandible. Changes in cephalometric landmarks were compared between the standard and surgery-first groups in the preoperative, immediate postoperative, and postoperative periods. The Student t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and a linear mixed model were used for statistical analysis. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 36 months (average, 20.5 months). The average age of the patients was 22.4 years, with 16 male and 40 female patients. We found that a surgery-first approach without presurgical orthodontic treatment is possible and can give similar results to standard orthognathic surgery. The statistical analysis showed that changes in skeletal cephalometric landmarks were similar between the surgery-first and standard approach groups, according to each period. However, the cephalometric landmarks relating to the dental component showed
Nervina, J M
Since its introduction into dentistry in 1998, CBCT has become increasingly utilized for orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning and research. The utilization of CBCT for these purposes has been facilitated by the relative advantages of three-dimensional (3D) over two-dimensional radiography. Despite many suggested indications of CBCT, scientific evidence that its utilization improves diagnosis and treatment plans or outcomes has only recently begun to emerge for some of these applications. This article provides a comprehensive and current review of key studies on the applications of CBCT in orthodontic therapy and for research to decipher treatment outcomes and 3D craniofacial anatomy. The current diagnostic and treatment planning indications for CBCT include impacted teeth, cleft lip and palate and skeletal discrepancies requiring surgical intervention. The use of CBCT in these and other situations such as root resorption, supernumerary teeth, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology, asymmetries and alveolar boundary conditions should be justified on the basis of the merits relative to risks of imaging. CBCT has also been used to assess 3D craniofacial anatomy in health and disease and of treatment outcomes including that of root morphology and angulation; alveolar boundary conditions; maxillary transverse dimensions and maxillary expansion; airway morphology, vertical malocclusion and obstructive sleep apnoea; TMJ morphology and pathology contributing to malocclusion; and temporary anchorage devices. Finally, this article utilizes findings of these studies and current voids in knowledge to provide ideas for future research that could be beneficial for further optimizing the use of CBCT in research and the clinical practice of orthodontics. PMID:25358833
Song, Guang-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Baumrind, Sheldon; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min
This study aimed to assess the reliability of experienced Chinese orthodontists in evaluating treatment outcome and to determine the correlations between three diagnostic information sources. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontic specialists each evaluated the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 108 Chinese patients. Three different information sources: study casts (SC), lateral cephalometric X-ray images (LX) and facial photographs (PH) were generated at the end of treatment for 108 patients selected randomly from six orthodontic treatment centers throughout China. Six different assessments of treatment outcome were made by each orthodontist using data from the three information sources separately and in combination. Each assessment included both ranking and grading for each patient. The rankings of each of the 69 judges for the 108 patients were correlated with the rankings of each of the other judges yielding 13 873 Spearman rs values, ranging from –0.08 to +0.85. Of these, 90% were greater than 0.4, showing moderate-to-high consistency among the 69 orthodontists. In the combined evaluations, study casts were the most significant predictive component (R2=0.86, P<0.000 1), while the inclusion of lateral cephalometric films and facial photographs also contributed to a more comprehensive assessment (R2=0.96, P<0.000 1). Grading scores for SC+LX and SC+PH were highly significantly correlated with those for SC+LX+PH (r(SC+LX)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.96, r(SC+PH)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.97), showing that either SC+LX or SC+PH is an excellent substitute for all three combined assessment. PMID:24136673
Song, Guang-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Baumrind, Sheldon; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min
This study aimed to assess the reliability of experienced Chinese orthodontists in evaluating treatment outcome and to determine the correlations between three diagnostic information sources. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontic specialists each evaluated the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 108 Chinese patients. Three different information sources: study casts (SC), lateral cephalometric X-ray images (LX) and facial photographs (PH) were generated at the end of treatment for 108 patients selected randomly from six orthodontic treatment centers throughout China. Six different assessments of treatment outcome were made by each orthodontist using data from the three information sources separately and in combination. Each assessment included both ranking and grading for each patient. The rankings of each of the 69 judges for the 108 patients were correlated with the rankings of each of the other judges yielding 13 873 Spearman rs values, ranging from -0.08 to +0.85. Of these, 90% were greater than 0.4, showing moderate-to-high consistency among the 69 orthodontists. In the combined evaluations, study casts were the most significant predictive component (R(2)=0.86, P<0.000 1), while the inclusion of lateral cephalometric films and facial photographs also contributed to a more comprehensive assessment (R(2)=0.96, P<0.000 1). Grading scores for SC+LX and SC+PH were highly significantly correlated with those for SC+LX+PH (r(SC+LX)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.96, r(SC+PH)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.97), showing that either SC+LX or SC+PH is an excellent substitute for all three combined assessment.
Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar; Kakatkar, Gauri
Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15 years old school children of Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 887 subjects aged 12-15 years. The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs was assessed using dental aesthetic index (World Health Organization, 1997). General information on demographic data was also recorded. Chi-square test, analysis of variance and Scheffe's test were employed for statistical analysis. Results: Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need was reported among 33.3% of the study subjects. A significant age and gender difference depicting preponderance among younger age group and a male proclivity was experiential. A significant improvement in anterior crowding and largest anterior maxillary irregularity with age was documented. Males had a significantly higher prevalence of anterior crowding, midline diastema and largest anterior maxillary irregularity than females. Conclusions: The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among school children of Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India was found to be 33.3%. A significant age and gender difference was observed in prevalence of malocclusion, crowding and largest anterior maxillary irregularity. Midline diastema showed a significant gender difference. The baseline information outlined in the present study can be appropriately utilized for the future planning to meet the orthodontic treatment need among the population. PMID:24966728
Amini, Fariborz; Mollaei, Mobina; Harandi, Saghar; Rakhshan, Vahid
Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. This prospective preliminary study was conducted to evaluate hair nickel and chromium levels in fixed orthodontic patients. Scalp hair nickel/chromium concentrations of 12 female and 12 male fixed orthodontic patients were measured before treatment and 6 months later, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, gender, and age on hair ions were analyzed statistically (α = 0.05). The patients' mean age was 18.38 ± 3.98 years. The mean nickel levels were 0.1380 ± 0.0570 and 0.6715 ± 0.1785 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively, in the baseline and sixth month of treatment. Chromium concentrations were 0.1455 ± 0.0769 and 0.1683 ± 0.0707 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively. After 6 months, nickel increased for 387 % (paired t test P = 0.0000) and chromium increased for 16 % (P = 0.0002). No significant correlations were observed between any ion levels with age or gender (Spearman P > 0.2). Within the limitations of this preliminary study, it seems that 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment might increase levels of hair nickel and chromium. Future larger studies are necessary to validate these results.
Cozzani, Mauro; Ragazzini, Giulia; Delucchi, Alessia; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Barreca, Carlo; Rinchuse, Daniel J; Servetto, Roberto; Piras, Vincenzo
Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients' compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30-40 days. Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of "zero." At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial's register.) RESULTS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr), 0.60) and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30), respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205). A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to increase oral hygiene compliance also over a short period.
Emerich, Katarzyna; Wojtaszek-Slominska, Anna
Primary preventive strategies for oral health are an essential public health priority. Paediatricians have frequent contact with families during routine preventive visits in the child's first few years of life and are in an ideal and unique position, to advise families about the prevention of oral diseases in their children. Primary prevention is always recommended in very young children, to promote positive outcomes during childhood and later adulthood. The knowledge paediatricians acquire about orofacial growth may enhance the implementation and eventual success of a preventive programme. In view of the widespread lack of any orthodontic knowledge amongst paediatricians, this paper describes most common and distinctive symptoms appearing frequently in the early stages of a child's development that are easily detectable by clinicians. It is difficult to define preventive strategies to prevent malocclusion owing to its multifactorial origin. There are some recognised behaviours, however, that should be discouraged to allow for ideal craniofacial development and some that require early referral to the orthodontist. The following disorders are easily diagnosed by the paediatrician or parents and represent conditions in which early intervention might be appropriate to prevent future possible orofacial dysfunction: different sucking habits persisting beyond 3 years of age, mouth breathing and significant deviations from established teeth eruption norms. It is suggested that early referral to a paediatric dentist or orthodontist is indicated when any of these conditions are observed. In general, measures to prevent malocclusion should be based on providing good incentives to promote normal growth and development of the face and the elimination of potential interferences that may harm these processes.
Vinod, K; Reddy, Y Giridhar; Reddy, Vinay P; Nandan, Hemant; Sharma, Meenakshi
In this present era, when a significant number of patients seeking orthodontic treatment are adults, importance of multidisciplinary treatment approach cannot be overemphasized. Higher susceptibility of plaque accumulation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment makes involvement of periodontist almost unavoidable. Also, orthodontic treatment frequently results in undesirable periodontal changes which require immediate attention. More recently, orthodontics has been used as an adjunct to periodontics to increase connective tissue support and alveolar bone height. The purpose of this article is to review the adverse effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal tissues and to discuss the mutually beneficial relationship shared between the two specialties.
Angerame, D; De Biasi, M; Marigo, L; Castagnola, R; Somma, F; Castaldo, A
External apical root resorption (EARR) is a common complication that may occur during and after orthodontic treatment. In case of need of endodontic therapy for a tooth with EARR, it has not been clarified yet which benefits can be derived by the use of electronic apex locators (EALs). The present study aimed to assess the accuracy of EALs on extracted teeth before and after simulation of EARR subsequent to orthodontic treatment. Standard access cavities were prepared on 64 single-rooted teeth. After working length (CWL) determination, specimens were embedded in an alginate mass, connected to two EALs (Apit, Osada, Tokyo, Japan; Root ZX, Morita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) and the electronic working length (EWL) was measured. The apical portion of the specimens was then modified to simulate EARR, and the EWL was determined again. The discrepancy between CWL and EWL was regarded as statistical unit. Collected data underwent statistical analysis by means of non-parametric tests (p < 0.05). Within a range of ± 0.5 and ± 1.0 mm from CWL, the accuracies were 79.7% and 98.4% (Apit/intact tooth); 82.8% and 96.9% (Apit/simulated EARR); 81.3% and 98.4% (Root ZX/intact tooth); 76.6% and 96.9% (Root ZX/simulated EARR). No statistically significant differences in relation to device or apical condition emerged (p > 0.05). The two considered EALs showed similar accuracy, which was not affected by the EARR simulation. The use of EALs in the treatment of teeth with EARR following orthodontic treatment may be useful.
Brenkert, Dennis R
Orthodontic treatment for a patient who has had a displaced disk or disks and has been stabilized by anterior repositioning splint therapy presents the dentist with a difficult orthodontic problem. Frequently, there is a posterior open bite present, with the anterior teeth only occluding in the stabilized TMJ position upon removal of the splint. The current articles (Part II of II presented here) will present an organized TMJ/orthodontic diagnosis [Part I, J Craniomandib Pract2010; 28(3):193-199] and orthodontic treatment method (Part II) to properly treat these patients to a consistent stabilized occlusion compatible with the TMJ splint stabilized position.
Moss, J P
The removal of economic barriers in Europe in 1992, began a new era in history and will have profound effects on orthodontics throughout Europe. In order to get an estimate of the orthodontic scene in each European country a questionnaire was sent to a well known orthodontist who was asked to fill in the form. The questionnaire consisted of enquiries into four areas of orthodontics. The first dealt with orthodontic specialization in the country and inquired into the numbers of orthodontists, where they practised, how they trained, and whether there was a specialist register. The second part dealt with the orthodontic societies, how many were there, how many members, and the frequency of the meetings. The third area asked about orthodontic practice, dealing with case load, types of appliances used, and the cost of treatment. The last section dealt with the future of orthodontics in their particular country. This related to the demand for orthodontics, the need for orthodontists and the changing patterns of orthodontic practice over the next decade. Twenty-three of the 26 countries in Europe when the questionnaire was sent out responded although some were unable to answer all the questions because orthodontics was not recognized in their country.
Sundararaj, Dhinahar; Venkatachalapathy, Sudhakar; Tandon, Akshay; Pereira, Aaron
Objective: Development of dental caries, specifically, white spot lesions (WSLs), continues to be a well-recognized and troubling side effect of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy, despite vast improvement in preventive dental techniques and procedures. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate, determine, and summarize the incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs during orthodontic treatment that have been published in the literature. Materials and Methods: According to predetermined criteria, databases were searched for appropriate studies. References of the selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications. Results: In the 14 studies evaluated for WSLs, the incidence of new carious lesions formed during orthodontic treatment in patients was 45.8% and the prevalence of lesions in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was 68.4%. Conclusion: The incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment are quite high and significant. This widespread problem of WSL development is an alarming challenge and warrants significant attention from both patients and providers, which should result in greatly increased emphasis on effective caries prevention. PMID:26759794
Çifter, Muhsin; Cura, Nil
This report describes the clinical orthodontic management of a patient with spastic quadriplegia and cerebral palsy. Guidelines to overcome difficulties encountered during the treatment period are suggested. A 13-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and spastic quadriplegia complained of an undesirable oral appearance because of his malocclusion. He had a Class II molar relationship, with severe maxillary and moderate mandibular anterior crowding. Enamel hypoplasia was apparent on all teeth. He had losses of body function and upper extremity function of 70% and 39%, respectively. His physical limitations necessitated a treatment approach that did not rely on patient-dependent appliances. The treatment plan called for maxillary first premolar extractions, mandibular incisor protrusion, and air rotor stripping. The patient's oral function and esthetic appearance were significantly improved. Aligned dental arches with good occlusion were obtained. The patient's self-confidence improved during the treatment period. Physical appearance can influence personality and social acceptability. Corrective orthodontic treatment for patients with physical handicaps can improve not only oral function, but also self-confidence and self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chesnokov, V A; Chesnokova, M G; Leontiev, V K; Mironov, A Yu; Lomiashvili, L M; Kriga, A S
The issues of pre-nosologic diagnostic and effectiveness of treatment of diseases of oral cavity is an actual issue in dentistry. The long- duration orthodontic treatment of patients with dentoalveolar anomalies using non-removable devices is followed by such negative consequences as development demineralization of enamel and caries registered during treatment and after remove ofdevices. The level of quantitative content of oral streptococci was analyzed and dental status in children with dentoalveolar anomalies was evaluated during treatment with non-removable devices was evaluated. The caries and inflammation of periodontium of oral cavity were most often detected in children with high level of content of streptococci. In different periods of study the firm tendency of increasing of concentration of Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguis of dental plaque of oral cavity is established. The established index indicators of dental status of patients testify intensity of caries damage, level of poor hygiene of oral cavity, development of average degree of severity of inflammation process of periodontium. The obtained results substantiate involvement ofstreptococci, associates of microbiota of dental plaque of oral cavity in children, in process of development of caries. The characteristics of micro-ecology of dental plaque to evaluate cariesgenic situation that can be used as a basis for constructing diagnostic algorithm under monitoring of patients with dentoalveolar anomalies with purpose of forthcoming planning and implementation of effective orthodontic treatment.
Silveira, Frank F; Nunes, Eduardo; Soares, Janir A; Ferreira, Cynthia L; Rotstein, Ilan
Advanced internal resorption affecting the crown of teeth may result in the appearance of a 'pink tooth', which, when located in the root canal, can perforate the external root surface. Therapeutically, this condition represents a clinical challenge and normally requires a combined endodontic and surgical focus. Presented herein are cases of double 'pink tooth' which appeared at different times after orthodontic treatment. In the most severe case, upon radiographic examination and computed tomography, the maxillary right central incisor presented an internal resorption, extending from the pulp chamber to the root middle third. After pulp removal, the debridement of the defect was performed using a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution, a #80 Kerr file, and an ultrasonic tip ST-17, aided by a surgical microscope. During the cleaning process, various sites of periodontal communication were identified. Upon controlling the hemorrhaging, the root canal was completely filled with White mineral trioxide aggregate. Within the 3-month follow-up treatment, a pink spot appeared on the maxillary left central incisor, which received conventional root canal therapy. Clinically and radiographically, over 18 months of follow up, both cases responded favorably to the proposed treatments. Therefore, it is important to monitor the patient due to the fact that pulp and periodontal sequelae can develop at varied moments after orthodontic treatment. Furthermore, with the current technology and biomaterials, it is possible to resolve cases with extensive internal perforating resorption through endodontic treatment.
Erbe, Christina; Klukowska, Malgorzata; Tsaknaki, Iris; Timm, Hans; Grender, Julie; Wehrbein, Heinrich
Good oral hygiene is a challenge for orthodontic patients because food readily becomes trapped around the brackets and under the archwires, and appliances are an obstruction to mechanical brushing. The purpose of this study was to compare plaque removal efficacy of 3 toothbrush treatments in orthodontic subjects. This was a replicate-use, single-brushing, 3-treatment, examiner-blind, randomized, 6-period crossover study with washout periods of approximately 24 hours between visits. Forty-six adolescent and young adult patients with fixed orthodontics from a university clinic in Germany were randomized, based on computer-generated randomization, to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) oscillating-rotating electric toothbrush with a specially designed orthodontic brush head (Oral-B Triumph, OD17; Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio); (2) the same electric toothbrush handle with a regular brush head (EB25; Procter & Gamble); and (3) a regular manual toothbrush (American Dental Association, Chicago, Ill). The primary outcome was the plaque score change from baseline, which we determined using digital plaque image analysis. Forty-five subjects completed the study. The differences in mean plaque removal (95% confidence interval) between the electric toothbrush with an orthodontic brush head (6% [4.4%-7.6%]) or a regular brush head (3.8% [2.2%-5.3%]) and the manual toothbrush were significant (P <0.001). Plaque removal with the electric toothbrush with the orthodontic brush head was superior (2.2%; P = 0.007) to the regular brush head. No adverse events were seen. The electric toothbrush, with either brush head, demonstrated significantly greater plaque removal over the manual brush. The orthodontic brush head was superior to the regular head. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Aristizabal, Juan Fernando; Smit, Rosana Martínez
INTRODUCTION: Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-chromosomal linked anomaly characterized by progressive muscle wear and weakness. This case report shows the orthodontic treatment of a Becker muscular dystrophy patient with unilateral open bite. METHODS: To correct patient's malocclusion, general anesthesia and orthognathic surgery were not considered as an option. Conventional orthodontic treatment with intermaxillary elastics and muscular functional therapy were employed instead. RESULTS: After 36 months, open bite was corrected. The case remains stable after a 5-year post-treatment retention period. PMID:25628078
Nurko, Carlos; Quinones, Rocio
Patients with Crouzon and Apert syndromes exhibit particular orofacial features in combination with the craniofacial skeletal discrepancy that requires reconstructive surgical maneuvers at various stages of development. To maximize positive surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction, an interdisciplinary approach, including pediatric dentistry and orthodontics, within a developmental context is needed. Routine dental care is provided in conjunction with ongoing surgical and orthodontic treatment during all phases of the reconstructive process. The goal of orthodontic treatment in the mixed dentition is to resolve issues related to the aberrant eruption of the permanent teeth and favorably influence the occlusion when early midface advancement is planned. Orthodontic treatment during adolescence always is needed to prepare these patients for orthognathic surgery, which usually involves extraction orthodontics within the maxillary arch. Postsurgical orthodontic management is an important component of the definitive occlusal correction after orthognathic surgical procedures.
Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722
Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Kuroda, Shingo; Tanaka, Eiji
This article reports the orthodontic treatment of a 20-year-old patient with dental crowding and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). The patient presented moderate anterior crowding with a Class I molar relationship and masticatory disturbance in the mandibular position induced by previous splint therapy. Orthodontic treatment with multi-bracket appliance was initiated to correct the anterior crowding in both dental arches, after the extraction of first premolars and third molars, and also to maintain the splint-induced position of the condyles. After 26 months of treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved without any TMD symptoms. After 18-month retention, flattening on the right condyle was observed, possibly as an adaptative remodeling. After 16-year retention period, the occlusion was maintained without recurrence of any TMD symptoms, indicating a long-term stability of occlusion and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components. Our results suggest the possibility of compromised treatment in patients with TMD to achieve a long-term stability in occlusion and TMJ function. PMID:27556023
Osterne, Rafael Lima Verde; Moreira Neto, José Jeová Siebra; de Araújo Lima, Augusto Darwin Moreira; Nogueira, Renato Luiz Maia
Ameloblastoma treatment can lead to significant bone defects; consequently, oral rehabilitation can be challenging. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with a conventional ameloblastoma in the mandible who was treated using en bloc resection and rehabilitated with autotransplantation of the immature third molars and orthodontic treatment. The lesion was in the region of the lower left canine and premolars, and en bloc resection resulted in a significant alveolar bone defect. Autotransplantation of the lower third molars to the site of the lower left premolars was performed. After 2 years, the upper left third molar was transplanted to the site of the lower left canine. During the orthodontic treatment period, considerable alveolar bone formation was observed in the region of the transplanted teeth, and roots developed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of alveolar bone formation induction caused by tooth transplantation after ameloblastoma treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xiaomo; Lin, Jiuxiang; Ding, Peng
In this study, we tested the surface roughness of bracket slots and the friction coefficient between the bracket and the stainless steel archwire before and after orthodontic treatment. There were four experimental groups: groups 1 and 2 were 3M new and retrieved brackets, respectively, and groups 3 and 4 were BioQuick new and retrieved brackets, respectively. All retrieved brackets were taken from patients with the first premolar extraction and using sliding mechanics to close the extraction space. The surface roughness of specimens was evaluated using an optical interferometry profilometer, which is faster and nondestructive compared with a stylus profilometer, and provided a larger field, needing no sample preparation, compared with atomic force microscopy. Orthodontic treatment resulted in significant increases in surface roughness and coefficient of friction for both brands of brackets. However, there was no significant difference by brand for new or retrieved brackets. These retrieval analysis results highlight the necessity of reevaluating the properties and clinical behavior of brackets during treatment to make appropriate treatment decisions. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Kuroda, Shingo; Tanaka, Eiji
This article reports the orthodontic treatment of a 20-year-old patient with dental crowding and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). The patient presented moderate anterior crowding with a Class I molar relationship and masticatory disturbance in the mandibular position induced by previous splint therapy. Orthodontic treatment with multi-bracket appliance was initiated to correct the anterior crowding in both dental arches, after the extraction of first premolars and third molars, and also to maintain the splint-induced position of the condyles. After 26 months of treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved without any TMD symptoms. After 18-month retention, flattening on the right condyle was observed, possibly as an adaptative remodeling. After 16-year retention period, the occlusion was maintained without recurrence of any TMD symptoms, indicating a long-term stability of occlusion and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components. Our results suggest the possibility of compromised treatment in patients with TMD to achieve a long-term stability in occlusion and TMJ function.
Jia, Ying; Chen, Bo; Cai, Shaoxiang; Hu, Tiehan
To observe the clinical efficacy of transcutanclus electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on prevention and treatment of orthodontic toothache and oral dysfunction. A total of 85 patients of malocclusions in the preliminary diagnosis were randomly divided into a control group (20 cases), a psychological intervention group (22 cases), a medication group (20 cases) and a TEAS group (23 cases). Orthodontics treatment was given in all the groups. Patients in the control group received no further treatment; patients in the psychological intervention group received comprehensive psychological intervention, including cognitive education and music therapy; patients in the medication group received oral administration of ibuprofen; patients in the TEAS group received TEAS at Juliao (ST 3), Jiachengjiang (Extra) and auricular point Ya (LO1). The treatment was given twice a day, one in morning and one at night, for 7 days. The pain scores of orthodontic toothache and changes of oral dysfunction were observed in all groups. (1) At 5 time points from the 12th hour to the 4th day, the scores of spontaneous pain in TEAS group were lower than those in the control group (all P < 0.01); during the time points, the scores in TEAS group were lower than those in the psychological intervention group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), which were similar to those in the medication group (all P > 0.05). (2) During the peak cycle of spontaneous toothache, the scores of irritation pain in TEAS group were significantly lower than those in the control group (all P < O.01), regardless of time-point statistics or general statistics; the scores of irritation pain in the TEAS group were also significantly lower than those in the psychological intervention group (all P < 0.01), which were similar to those in the medication group (all P > 0. 05). (3) Compared with control group, the grading of talking disorder in the remaining groups did not change significantly (P > 0.05). (4) Compared with control group, the
Pandey, Vijayendra; Chandra, Subhash; Dilip Kumar, H. P.; Gupta, Ashish; Bhandari, Poonam Preet; Rathod, Pankaj
Objective: Maintenance of meticulous oral health practices is critical for patients who are under orthodontic treatment as failure to do so can result in deterioration of periodontal health. Thus, the present study was commenced to assess dental negligence and oral health status among patients undergoing orthodontic treatment using dental neglect scale (DNS) questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was planned and carried out among the 40 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The study comprised of two questionnaires, one was close-ended questionnaire which consisted of questions regarding patient practice in maintenance of oral health and other questionnaire comprised of DNS followed by examination of oral hygiene status using Oral Hygiene Index Simplified. Data so obtained were subjected to analysis using SPSS version 20 and Chi-square test was used to statistically analyze data with P < 0.05 regarded as a statistically significant value. Results: The present study revealed that 63% among the studied orthodontic patients brushed once daily, 26% brushed twice daily, and 11% brushed thrice. About one-fourth was using brush with soft bristles and only 9% among the respondents used interdental aids. Data revealed positive correlation between DNS and oral hygiene index-simplified score with P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study found that less frequency of brushing, rinsing mouth, and eating sticky and hard food can be attributed to self-neglect of the orthodontic patients. PMID:27114950
Chibinski, Ana Cláudia; Coelho, Ulisses; Wambier, Letícia Stadler; Zedebski, Rosário de Arruda Moura; de Moraes, Mari Eli Leonelli; de Moraes, Luiz Cesar
Purpose This study employed a posteriori registration and subtraction of radiographic images to quantify the apical root resorption in maxillary permanent central incisors after orthodontic treatment, and assessed whether the external apical root resorption (EARR) was related to a range of parameters involved in the treatment. Materials and Methods A sample of 79 patients (mean age, 13.5±2.2 years) with no history of trauma or endodontic treatment of the maxillary permanent central incisors was selected. Periapical radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were digitized and imported to the Regeemy software. Based on an analysis of the posttreatment radiographs, the length of the incisors was measured using Image J software. The mean EARR was described in pixels and relative root resorption (%). The patient's age and gender, tooth extraction, use of elastics, and treatment duration were evaluated to identify possible correlations with EARR. Results The mean EARR observed was 15.44±12.1 pixels (5.1% resorption). No differences in the mean EARR were observed according to patient characteristics (gender, age) or treatment parameters (use of elastics, treatment duration). The only parameter that influenced the mean EARR of a patient was the need for tooth extraction. Conclusion A posteriori registration and subtraction of periapical radiographs was a suitable method to quantify EARR after orthodontic treatment, and the need for tooth extraction increased the extent of root resorption after orthodontic treatment. PMID:27051635
Huet, A P; Paulus, C
The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may affect children, especially those with dentofacial disharmonies. Dentofacial orthopedic (DFO) treatments carried out in those patients must take this condition into account and can, in selected cases, improve or even treat the OSAS. The goal of our work was to report our experience about DFO treatments of children affected by OSAS in the department of maxillofacial surgery of Femme-Mère-Enfant hospital of university hospitals of Lyon, France. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Valieri, Sidnei; Valieri, Matheus; Borges, Alvaro H; Mattos, Fernanda Zanol
The aim of this study was to report a clinical case of treatment of Class II division I malocclusion with facial aesthetic impairment, whose therapeutic approach comprised the association of orthodontic treatment with orthognathic surgery. The treatment for the present case consisted of decompensation oflower incisors and extraction oftwo lower premolars, in order to obtain horizontal discrepancy allowing the surgery for mandibular advancement. At the end of treatment, we could clinically observe a Class I molar/canine relationship, normal overbite and overjet, presence of lip seal, type I facial profile with considerable aesthetic improvement. We can conclude that the ortho-surgical treatment is a therapeutic alternative providing the best prognosis in terms of aesthetic correction in patients with unpleasant facial profile.
Georgalis, Katherine; Woods, Michael G
To evaluate the differences in pretreatment and post-treatment characteristics of Class III patients treated with orthodontic camouflage or orthognathic surgery, and to compare the range of skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes that are likely to occur with treatment, with particular reference to the influence of extractions on the resultant incisor angulations. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalograms of 31 Class III orthodontically-camouflaged patients and 36 Class III surgical patients (without genioplasty) were obtained from one specialist practice. From the surgical group, 26 pre-surgical lateral cephalograms were also obtained. Inclusion criteria for the two groups were at least three of the following: (1) an ANB angle of 1 degree or less, (2) a Wits appraisal less than -4 mm, (3) an incisal overjet ≤ 0 mm, and (14) a Class III molar relationship. All lateral cephalograms were traced and digitised and a number of skeletal, dental and soft tissue variables were measured. The camouflage and surgical groups were also divided into premolar extraction and non-extraction subgroups to allow for a specific analysis of extraction effects. Before treatment, the surgical group demonstrated, on average, a more severe skeletal discrepancy and increased dental compensations, compared with the orthodontically camouflaged group. After treatment, the mean SNA angle was greater, the ANB angle was more positive, the Wits appraisal was closer to ideal and the lower incisors were less retroclined in the surgery group. There was a small mean reduction in horizontal chin projection in the surgery group compared with a small increase in the camouflage group. The mentolabial fold and the lower lip curve were deeper, on average, and the lips less retrusive after surgery. There was a mean increase in upper incisor proclination during treatment in both the surgical and camouflage groups with a greater increase in the camouflage group. There was a significant reduction in upper
Zhang, Xiaowei; Liang, Jingping
The pathogenesis of pulpal and periapical diseases is related with not only bacterial infection but also physicochemical irritations such as trauma and thermal changes. During orthodontic therapy, the application of orthodontic forces on teeth may produce a series of changes in periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and pulpo-dentinal complex. This article reviewed the influences of orthodontic therapy on dental pulp and periapical tissues.
Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.
The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632
Crossman, Jacqueline; Hassan, Ali H; Saleem, Ali; Felemban, Nayef; Aldaghreer, Saleh; Fawzi, Elham; Farid, Mamdouh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled; Gargoum, Ausama; El-Bialy, Tarek
Objectives: To investigate the effect of using osteogenic induced gingival fibroblasts (OIGFs) and low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on root resorption lacunae volume and cementum thickness in beagle dogs that received orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Methods: Seven beagle dogs were used, from which gingival cells (GCs) were obtained and were induced osteogenically to produce OIGFs. Each third and fourth premolar was randomly assigned to one of the five groups, namely, LIPUS, OIGFs, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), OIGFs + LIPUS, and control. All groups received 4 weeks of bodily tooth movement, then LIPUS-treated groups received LIPUS for 20 min/day for 4 weeks, and OIGFs groups received an injection of OIGFs near the root apex. Microcomputed tomography analysis was used to calculate root resorption lacunae volume and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the cementum thickness of each root at 3 root levels on compression and tension sides. Results: There was no significant difference in resorption volume between the treatment groups. OIGFs + LIPUS increased cementum thickness (P > 0.05) in third premolars near the apex, and LIPUS increased cementum thickness (P > 0.05) in fourth premolars near the apex. Furthermore, BMP2 increased cementum thickness at the coronal third at the compression side. Conclusion: OIGFs, LIPUS, and BMP-2 can be potential treatments for orthodontically induced root resorption, however, improvements in experimental design and treatment parameters are required to further investigate these repair modalities. PMID:28197400
Nalcaci, Ruhi; Demirer, Serhat; Ozturk, Firat; Altan, Burcu A; Sokucu, Oral; Bostanci, Vildan
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic status. Our study population consisted of a sample of 836 school children (384 male and 452 female, aged 11-14 years). Four experienced orthodontists and two experienced periodontists performed the clinical examinations. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI), Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) scores, and a questionnaire that surveyed socio-demographic status of students were used. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between variables. TPI scores showed that 36.4% of the students had normal occlusion, while 41.2% had slight, 15.7% had definite, 4% had severe, and 2.7% had very severe malocclusion. TPI values did not show any significant differences between pupils in different age, gender, socioeconomic status groups, and CPITN scores, whereas there was a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores. The orthodontic treatment need was not significantly correlated with CPITN or socio-demographic status; however, the correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores.
Valério, R A; Scatena, C; Santos, F R R; Romano, F L; Queiroz, A M; Paula-Silva, F W G
Frontonasal dysplasia is a complex rare malformation, characterised by abnormalities involving the central portion of the face, especially the eyes, nose and forehead. It can manifest independently or associated with other abnormalities as part of some syndromes. The purpose of this case report was to describe a 5-year-old patient, diagnosed with frontonasal dysplasia. Among the abnormalities characterised with this disorder were ocular hypertelorism, broad nose tip with median notch, median facial cleft, bifid anterior skull, low set hairline, Poland's syndactyly and ankyloglossia. Consisted of behavioural management, oral hygiene instruction, prophylaxis, topical fluoride application, extraction of primary teeth, composite resin restorations and sealants in pits and fissures. Preformed metal crowns were also applied to the right and left primary maxillary second molars. Currently, the patient is 11 years-old in the permanent dentition and therefore was referred for corrective orthodontic and periodontal treatments due to the persistence of gingival retraction of the permanent mandibular right central incisor. The treatment in this case was directed to the promotion of oral health and orthodontic corrections, which are of fundamental importance due to medical, physical and social limitations of children affected by this syndrome, hindering healing and rehabilitative treatment. Paediatric dentists should be included in multidisciplinary teams providing care to patients with special needs, improving their quality of life.
Fau, Victor; Diep, Dany; Bader, Gérard; Brézulier, Damien; Sorel, Olivier
The number of scientific publications on accelerating orthodontic treatment, and especially surgical alveolar corticotomies techniques, has grown exponentially over the years. The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the effectiveness of these corticotomies basing on human studies. The review was conducted from Medline and Web of Science Core Collection to identify prospective controlled clinical trials with duration of orthodontic treatment or the tooth movement rate for primary endpoint. Eleven studies respected all inclusion criteria. Six investigated the duration of treatment and found shorter values in experimental group than in control group, with a gain of 8 to 34 weeks. Five investigated the tooth movement rate and found 2.3 times higher values on average during the first month in experimental groups, 1.9 times during the second and third months, and 1.3 times during the fourth month. The technique also seemed to decrease the risk of root resorption and improve molar anchorage. Moreover, it exhibited good periodontal tolerance. Current literature highlights the effectiveness of surgical decortications during the first three to four months after surgery. Longer prospective studies are needed to assess their long term effects. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.
Tai, Kiyoshi; Park, Jae Hyun; Tanino, Masahiro; Sato, Yasumori
Treatment of patients with a cleft lip and palate can be challenging. A boy, 15 years 11 months old, with a bilateral cleft lip and palate and a convex profile, transposed teeth and congenitally missing teeth was treated by orthodontic treatment. 3 year posttreatment records showed excellent results with good occlusion, facial balance and harmony, and long-term stability.
Imai, T; Okamoto, T; Kaneko, T; Umeda, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, S
Fifty-eight patients (mean age 18.4 years) who had received splint therapy for internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) were examined retrospectively to investigate the efficacy of occlusal reconstruction by orthodontic treatment. The subjects were divided into three groups: 18 patients (mean age 18.6 years) who underwent orthodontic treatment combined with the use of splints (ST group); 27 patients (mean age 18.2 years) who underwent orthodontic treatment without the use of splints (NST group); and 13 patients (mean age 17.9 years) who received only splint therapy for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD; control group). TMJ sound, pain on movement and restriction of mandibular movement were examined at the initial examination (T1), at the end of the splint therapy for TMD or beginning of orthodontic treatment (T2), at the end of orthodontic treatment (T3), and at recall or 1 year after orthodontic treatment (T4). The following results were found. (1) The percentage of patients with no joint sound at T2 was 20-30 per cent. The percentage of such patients in both the ST and NST groups increased to over 50 per cent at T3, but slightly decreased to 39-50 per cent at T4. There were no significant inter-group differences at any time point. (2) The number of patients who had no pain on movement at T2 was 60-80 per cent. The percentage of such patients in both the ST and NST groups increased to over 90 per cent at T3, but then slightly decreased to 80 per cent at T4. There were no significant inter-group differences at any time point. (3) None of the patients showed restriction of movement of the TMJ at T2 or T4. One patient in the ST group was found to have restriction at T3. There were no significant inter-group differences at any time point. (4) The most frequent type of malocclusion in both ST and NST groups was anterior open bite. These results suggest that TMD symptoms that have been eliminated by splint therapy are not likely to recur due to
Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Giuntini, Veronica; Masucci, Caterina; Vangelisti, Andrea; Defraia, Efisio
The objective of this prospective controlled study was to assess the outcomes of two-phase treatment of deepbite patients revaluated at the end of circumpubertal growth, 1 year after the end of a phase-2 treatment. A sample of 58 subjects with deepbite (mean age 9.7 years, overbite greater than 4.5 mm) was treated consecutively with a two-phase protocol. Lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment (T1), at the completion of phase 1 (T2), and 1 year after the completion of phase 2 with fixed appliances (T3, mean age 15.8 years). The T1-T2, T2-T3, and T1-T3 changes were compared with those of the 29 subjects (mean age at T1 = 9.1 years) with untreated deepbite (t-tests for independent samples). Prevalence rates for improved overbite during the T1-T3 interval and for corrected overbite at T3 were contrasted in the treated vs untreated groups (z tests on proportions). Overbite was reduced by 1.9 mm in the treated group as a result of overall treatment; this group also displayed a significant reduction in the interincisal angulation (-6.6°) due to a significant proclination of upper incisors (4.1°) and a significant increase in the projection of the lower incisors (2.0 mm). The average amount of deepbite correction 1 year into retention was modest, and it was mainly due to a significant proclination of the incisors. The prevalence rate of subjects with a corrected overbite in the treated sample at T3 (74%) was not significantly different from that of the untreated sample (52%).
de Aguiar, Mariana Caires Sobral; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Capelli, Jonas
Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a biological exudate and quantification of its constituents is a current method to identify specific biomarkers with reasonable sensitivity for several biological events. Studies are being performed to evaluate whether the GCF biomarkers in growing subjects reflect both the stages of individual skeletal maturation and the local tissue remodeling triggered by orthodontic force. Present evidence is still little regarding whether and which GCF biomarkers are correlated with the growth phase (mainly pubertal growth spurt), while huge investigations have been reported on several GCF biomarkers (for inflammation, tissue damage, bone deposition and resorption, and other biological processes) in relation to the orthodontic tooth movement. In spite of these investigations, the clinical applicability of the method is still limited with further data needed to reach a full diagnostic utility of specific GCF biomarkers in orthodontics. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the role of main GCF biomarkers and how they can be used to enhance functional treatment, optimize orthodontic force intensity, or prevent major tissue damage consequent to orthodontic treatment.
Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a biological exudate and quantification of its constituents is a current method to identify specific biomarkers with reasonable sensitivity for several biological events. Studies are being performed to evaluate whether the GCF biomarkers in growing subjects reflect both the stages of individual skeletal maturation and the local tissue remodeling triggered by orthodontic force. Present evidence is still little regarding whether and which GCF biomarkers are correlated with the growth phase (mainly pubertal growth spurt), while huge investigations have been reported on several GCF biomarkers (for inflammation, tissue damage, bone deposition and resorption, and other biological processes) in relation to the orthodontic tooth movement. In spite of these investigations, the clinical applicability of the method is still limited with further data needed to reach a full diagnostic utility of specific GCF biomarkers in orthodontics. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the role of main GCF biomarkers and how they can be used to enhance functional treatment, optimize orthodontic force intensity, or prevent major tissue damage consequent to orthodontic treatment. PMID:28232938
Sam, George; Seehan, Saad; Al-Shayea, Meshari
The objective of the study is to determine whether there is any correlation between demand and need for orthodontic treatment among patients in Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University (SAU) Dental College Clinic. This study also provides a baseline data on the demand and need for orthodontic treatment among a Saudi population, which is important for planning public orthodontic dental services in the Kingdom. An epidemiological descriptive survey was conducted using two sets of questionnaire in the orthodontic clinic of Prince SAU, Al-Kharj among Saudi subjects with angle's Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions, between the ages of 10 and 30 years for a period of 6 months with purposive sampling method. Using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient a significant correlation (0.482) was observed in male and female patients respectively with orthodontic demand (2) and treatment need (1) at 0.05 level of significance. A significant correlation (0.326) was observed for the study subjects (both males and females) with orthodontic demand (4) and treatment need (1) at 0.05 level of significance. A significant correlation (0.325) was observed in male patients with orthodontic demand (4) and treatment need (5) at 0.05 level of significance. Patients with the higher orthodontic demand required high treatment needs and vice versa.
Sam, George; Seehan, Saad; Al-Shayea, Meshari
Background: The objective of the study is to determine whether there is any correlation between demand and need for orthodontic treatment among patients in Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University (SAU) Dental College Clinic. This study also provides a baseline data on the demand and need for orthodontic treatment among a Saudi population, which is important for planning public orthodontic dental services in the Kingdom. Materials and Methods: An epidemiological descriptive survey was conducted using two sets of questionnaire in the orthodontic clinic of Prince SAU, Al-Kharj among Saudi subjects with angle’s Class I, Class II, and Class III malocclusions, between the ages of 10 and 30 years for a period of 6 months with purposive sampling method. Results: Using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient a significant correlation (0.482) was observed in male and female patients respectively with orthodontic demand (2) and treatment need (1) at 0.05 level of significance. A significant correlation (0.326) was observed for the study subjects (both males and females) with orthodontic demand (4) and treatment need (1) at 0.05 level of significance. A significant correlation (0.325) was observed in male patients with orthodontic demand (4) and treatment need (5) at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Patients with the higher orthodontic demand required high treatment needs and vice versa. PMID:26668479
van Beek, H
Late in the last decade of the previous century, an orthodontic-surgical treatment was elected for a 31-years-old woman, who had severe malocclusion and temporomandibular complaints. The skeletal pattern (high angled mandibula) and degenerating joints were considered risk factors for relapse and condylar lysis. Nevertheless, the severity of the malocclusion justified the treatment. The goal was a stable occlusion and the creation ofa smooth articulation to eliminate dysfunction and facilitate later temporomandibular joint treatment with splints if necessary. In the 1990s this was considered state of the art treatment. Eliminating the scissors bite of 27 seemed instrumental in the elimination of the symptoms. Surgery brought the face and the occlusion further in harmony. The final occlusion features only one lower incisor.
Janson, Guilherme; Valarelli, Danilo Pinelli; Rizzo, Mayara; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli
In this study, we aimed to compare the amount and frequency of extraction space reopening after 2- and 4-premolar extraction treatments in Class II and 4-premolar extractions in Class I malocclusion patients. The sample comprised 105 subjects with full-cusp Class II and Class I malocclusions, divided into 3 groups. Group 1 consisted of 33 full-cusp Class II malocclusion patients treated with a 2-premolar extraction protocol. Group 2 had 34 full-cusp Class II malocclusion patients treated with 4-premolar extractions, and group 3 included 38 Class I malocclusion patients treated with 4-premolar extractions. The Peer Assessment Rating index was used to assess initial malocclusion severity and quality of the occlusal outcome, measured on dental casts. The amounts of extraction spaces were measured with a digital caliper on the final and long-term posttreatment dental casts, after an average of 9.79 years posttreatment. Intergroup comparisons were performed by analysis of variance, followed by Tukey tests and chi-square tests. There were no significant differences regarding the amount and frequency of extraction space reopening among the groups. Two- and 4-premolar extractions in Class II and 4-premolar extraction treatment in Class I malocclusion patients show similar reopening of extraction spaces in the long term. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El-Angbawi, Ahmed; McIntyre, Grant T; Fleming, Padhraig S; Bearn, David R
Accelerating the rate of tooth movement may help to reduce the duration of orthodontic treatment and associated unwanted effects including root resorption and enamel demineralisation. Several methods, including surgical and non-surgical adjuncts, have been advocated to accelerate the rate of tooth movement. Non-surgical techniques include low-intensity laser irradiation, resonance vibration, pulsed electromagnetic fields, electrical currents and pharmacological approaches. To assess the effect of non-surgical adjunctive interventions on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the overall duration of treatment. We searched the following databases on 25 November 2014: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to November 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to November 2014), LILACS via BIREME (1980 to November 2014), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (November 2014), the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov; November 2014) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (November 2014). We checked the reference lists of all trials identified for further studies. There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication in the searches of the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of people receiving orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances along with non-surgical adjunctive interventions to accelerate tooth movement. We excluded non-parallel design studies (for example, split-mouth) as we regarded them as inappropriate for assessment of the effects of this type of intervention. Two review authors were responsible for study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction; they carried out these tasks independently. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion amongst the review team to reach consensus. The review authors contacted
Introduction Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. Materials and methods The sample comprised 100 patients (17–75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengths of a total of 1600 teeth were measured twice in pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, relative changes of the root length during treatment were calculated by a root-crown-ratio taking pre- and post-treatment root and crown lengths into consideration. A reduction of this ratio was considered as a shortening of the initial root length. Additionally, tooth movements of the front teeth were assessed by lateral cephalograms and the 3-dimensonal set up of each patient. Results All patients had a reduction of the pre-treatment root length with a minimum of two teeth. On average 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. 54% of 1600 measured teeth showed no measurable root reduction. A reduction of >0%-10% of the pre-treatment root length was found in 27.75%, a distinct reduction of >10%-20% in 11.94%. 6.31% of all teeth were affected with a considerable reduction of >20%. We found no statistically significant correlation between relative root length changes and the individual tooth, gender, age or sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement; except for extrusion of upper front teeth, which was considered as not clinical relevant due to the small amount of mean 4% ARR. Conclusions The present study is the first analyzing ARR in patients with a fully implemented orthodontic treatment with aligners (i.e. resolving anterior crowding). The variety was high and no clinical relevant influence factor could be detected. A minimum of two teeth with a root length
Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins
The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement between Brazilian adolescents and their parents or caregivers regarding the adolescents' oral health-related quality of life during orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 102 adolescent-parent/caregiver pairs. Adolescents answered the short form of the child perceptions questionnaire, and the parents or caregivers answered the parental-caregiver perceptions questionnaire. These questionnaires have 14 items in common organized across 4 subscales: oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional well-being, and social well-being. Agreement on the overall score and the subscales was determined using comparison and correlation analysis. The former was performed through comparison of the mean directional and absolute differences. The latter was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The mean directional difference was significant for the oral symptoms subscale, with parents' reports lower than adolescents' reports (P = 0.012). However, it was not significant for the other 3 subscales and the overall score (P >0.05). The mean absolute difference for the overall score was 5.15, representing 9.2% of the maximum possible score. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.66, indicating substantial agreement. There was agreement between adolescents and their parents or caregivers in rating adolescents' oral health-related quality of life during orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Belli, Evaristo; Matteini, Claudio; Incisivo, Veronica
A posttraumatic open bite associated with a bird face is reported. Condylectomy was indicated in relation to the plurifragmentary fracture of the condyles with limitation of mandibular movement. Condylectomies were mandatory as a result of delayed maxillofacial surgical treatment, which was related to the poor general condition of the patient after trauma. Functional disorder recovery and aesthetic deformity correction were planned by a team approach between orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons with the support of a logopedist for the postural-related muscle problems. The main practical and theoretical problems presented by the clinical case were a result of the need to restore the occlusal relations and to avoid recurrence of open bite in this patient. The patient presented a wide alteration of muscular function and a strength fibrotic retraction with alteration in the relationship between upper and lower jaws and retrusion of the mandible associated to open bite. Orthodontic treatment was carried with no impact on the upper and lower axis, avoiding orthodontic correction of the open bite. Surgery corrected both the open bite and the bird face by means of bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. Wiring of the mandibular osteotomies and intermaxillary fixation allowed positioning of the mandibular ramus bilaterally because of the fibrosis and muscular action-related forces without resulting in a similar rotation of the mandible with the risk of recurrence. Myotherapy and logopedic support minimized the risk of recurrence, improved reduction of muscular tension with the resolution of the lip incompetence, and allowed functional recovery of mandibular movements.
Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen
The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.
Bondemark, L; Kurol, J
Proximal alveolar bone level changes were radiographically determined in 20 subjects (mean age 14.3 years, SD 2.00) a short time after rapid orthodontic treatment with magnets and superelastic nickel-titanium coils succeeded by straight-wire appliances. The findings were compared with a matched control group of 20 individuals (mean age 14.3 years, SD 1.99) who had no history of orthodontic treatment. Proximal alveolar bone level changes were determined on bitewing radiographs as the distance between the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the alveolar bone crest (AC). The observation period was 2.7 years (SD 0.65) for the treatment group and 2.8 years (SD 0.65) for the control group. In the treatment group, a small mean increase of 0.2 mm (SD 0.29) in the CEJ-AC distance was found a short time after treatment. In the control group the increase in CEJ-AC distance was 0.1 mm. The difference between the groups was significant (P < 0.001). In the treatment group, sites in the maxilla showed significantly greater CEJ-AC distances than in the mandible (P < 0.001), 0.3 mm (SD 0.33) versus 0.1 mm (SD 0.24). The mesial sites of the maxillary first molars in the treatment group showed the highest average increase in distance between CEJ and AC, mean 0.5 mm (SD 0.33). Neither group had any sites with bone loss, i.e., CEJ-AC distance exceeding 2 mm. No significant difference was found in CEJ-AC distance between teeth moved with magnets succeeded by straight-wire appliances and teeth moved with superelastic coils succeeded by straight-wire appliances.
Machuca, Guillermo; Martínez, Francisco; Machuca, Carmen; Bullón, Pedro
Some of the most difficult problems to resolve in daily clinical practice are those where there is interaction of various pathogenic factors, with consequent complication of the therapeutic solutions. Combined treatments based on sound diagnosis of the case and appropriate decision making to organize the therapeutic procedures in sequence are the best way of dealing with such situations. This article describes the case of a woman who was pregnant at the beginning of the treatment and had active periodontitis and angle Class II molar malocclusion because of loss of maxillary and mandibular teeth. She had had maxillofacial surgery years before with average results, had lost teeth because of caries, and was seeking a solution to her problems that would be both esthetically pleasing and functional. A system that combined odontologic decision making with phased periodontal, orthodontic, and prosthodontic treatment was adopted, leading to a stable, esthetic, and functional solution that fulfilled the patient's requirements.
The incorporation of technological advances in the field of clinical orthodontics to increase treatment efficiency has led to the development of customized appliances (Insignia®), archwires (Suresmile®), and the production of devices to enhance tooth movement (Acceledent®). This review presents a comprehensive study of the literature concerning these products, and analyzes the available evidence of their efficiency. To date, one pilot study has evaluated the efficiency of the Insignia® system, three retrospective studies have assessed the efficiency of the Suresmile® system, and a few Acceledent® reports have described its effect on treatment time. Critical appraisal of the reviewed papers revealed that the efficiency of the Insignia® system cannot be confirmed based on the available evidence, while the use of Suresmile® can reduce overall treatment time in simple cases. The acceleration of tooth movement by Acceledent® devices has not yet been confirmed. PMID:27226964
Baygin, Ozgul; Tuzuner, Tamer; Ozel, Mehmet-Birol; Bostanoglu, Ozge
To evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish alone, its combination with chlorhexidine-fluoride containing dentifrice and fluoride varnish on oral hygiene and caries prevention in orthodontic patients. Sixty patients, aged 12-18, with orthodontic fixed appliances were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: Group 1 (n=20): 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol varnish (CervitecPlus); Group 2 (n=20): CervitecPlus+ 0.2% chlorhexidine and 0.2% sodium fluoride (900 ppm fluoride) (CervitecGel)); and Group 3 (n=20): 0.1% fluoride varnish (Fluor Protector). Mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacilli (LB) levels, buffering capacity (BC), visible plaque index (VPI), and gingival bleeding index (GBI) scores were evaluated at four stages: T0, before orthodontic bonding; T₁, one week after orthodontic bonding; T₂, one week; and T₃, four weeks after the first application, respectively. Inter and intra group comparisons were made by the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests with Bonferroni step-down correction (P<0.017). Significantly lower MS and LB levels were found in Group 2 than Group 1 (T₂) and 3 (T₂, T₃) (P<0.017). Groups 1-2 (T₂) showed significantly higher BC (P<0.017) and lower VPI and GBI (P<0.017) scores compared with Group 3. Decreased MS levels at T₂ (P<0.017) and T₃ (P>0.017) were found in Group1-2 compared with T0. Significantly lower LB levels were recorded in Group 2 at T₂ compared with T₀ (P<0.017) while no significant differences were seen in Group 1 and 3 (P>0.017). Addition of CervitecPlus+CervitecGel combination to the standard oral hygiene regimen may be beneficial for orthodontic patients for maintaining oral health by reducing bacterial colonisation and gingivitis.
Seeliger, Julia; Lipski, Mariusz; Wójcicka, Anna; Gedrange, Tomasz; Woźniak, Krzysztof
Braces as foreign bodies in the mouth carry a risk of side effects and toxicity to the human body. This article presents the results indicating the possible toxic effects of tools used for cleaning the enamel after the completion of orthodontic treatment. The studies were carried out in vitro. The procedure of enamel etching, bonding orthodontic metal brackets, and enamel cleaning after their removal was performed under laboratory conditions. The enamel microstructure and elements present on its surface were evaluated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Silicon and aluminium were found in addition to the tooth building elements. PMID:27766265
Chen, Song; Chen, Yang-xi
There are three kinds of mechanisms regulating the growth and development of skeletal tissue: Bone growth, bone modeling and bone remodeling. However, in the current orthodontics literature, there continues to be substantial confusion regarding the usage of the term "bone remodeling". This article reviews the historical causes for this semantics problem and explains the difference between bone modeling and remodeling, as well as the detailed skeletal regulating mechanisms in the growth and development of cranial-facial bones and orthodontic treatment. At last, this article suggests Chinese orthodontists use the terms "bone modeling" and "bone remodeling" more precisely to avoid scientific confusion and barriers to scientific exchange with other biomedical disciplines.
Türp, Jens Christoph; Lünsch, Heinz; Radlanski, Ralf Johannes
The aim of this report is to examine clues of a suspected link between the artificial ingestion of human growth hormone (rh- GH) and resulting interdental spaces in adult athletes. We conducted an electronic search in the German-language versions of the search engines Google and Google Scholar as well as in the database PubMed. While no explicit articles could be identified in PubMed, the search in Google and Google Scholar produced 1370 and 6 hits, respectively. Original quotes from 20 sources show that in the media the wearing of orthodontic multibracket appliances among athletes is largely attributed to changes in tooth position as a consequence of the illegal ingestion of rhGH. On the other hand, there are few references to the possibility that orthodontic treatments with fixed appliances might be carried out for reasons unrelated to doping. A definitive assessment of this issue is not possible at present. In view of its major importance of the subject, the relationships depicted here should be investigated in greater depth.
Liu, J K; Tsai, M Y
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of functional malocclusion in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in untreated orthodontic patients. A total of 508 orthodontic patients were enrolled. All patients were evaluated for the presence of various types of functional malocclusion and clinical signs of TMD before treatment. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the association of functional malocclusion and TMD. The frequencies of TMD were 44.2% in patients with retruded position (RP) interference and 38.1% in those without such interference (p > 0.05). The frequency of TMD in patients with protrusive interference was greater than those without (32.2% vs. 18.4%; p < 0.005). Patients with balancing interference had a significantly higher frequency of TMD than those without (49.2% vs. 23.9%; p < 0.0001). We thus conclude that patients with functional malocclusion of balancing or protrusive interference type have an increased risk for developing TMD.
Cunningham, Susan J; Jones, Steven P; Hodges, Samantha J; Horrocks, Elisabeth N; Hunt, Nigel P; Moseley, Howard C; Noar, Joseph H
There has been tremendous progress in orthodontics since Edward Angle first popularised the fixed orthodontic appliance at the turn of the century. Recent years have seen an increased demand for orthodontic treatment from both adolescents and adults and, in addition, patient and clinician expectations of treatment outcomes continue to rise. A desire for more aesthetic materials has resulted in both smaller and 'tooth-coloured' appliances. Improvements in technology, often outside orthodontics, have also led to the development of new materials. The best example of this was the development of nickel titanium alloy by the NASA space programme, which was subsequently adapted for use in nickel titanium archwires. Other technological advances adopted for use in orthodontics include magnets, computerised imaging systems and distraction osteogenesis. This review paper looks at some of the innovations in the fields of materials as well as in techniques and appliance systems.
The condylar position was stabilized with a gnathologic splint designed to achieve a mutually protected occlusion in a patient with internally deranged joints whose symptoms had not been resolved with an anterior repositioning splint. A diagnosis was made in the stable condylar position from which hinge axis movement of the mandible could be performed. After preoperative orthodontic treatment, the mandibular position was restabilized with splint therapy; then, a sagittal split ramus osteotomy was performed, by using an overcorrection splint. As a result, the stable position of the condyles was in line with the centric occlusion of the teeth. Changes in the joint status are illustrated with magnetic resonance images. The occlusion was stable 2 years after active treatment without recurrence of joint symptoms.
Henrikson, T; Nilner, M; Kurol, J
The aim of this investigation was to prospectively and longitudinally study signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and occlusal changes in girls with Class II malocclusion receiving orthodontic treatment and to compare them with subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions and with normal occlusion subjects. Three groups of age-matched adolescent girls were examined for clinical signs of TMD and re-examined 2 years later. Sixty-five Class II subjects received orthodontic fixed straight-wire appliance treatment (Orthodontic group), 58 subjects were orthodontically untreated (Class II group), and 60 subjects had a normal occlusion (Normal group). In the Orthodontic group, the prevalence of muscular signs of TMD was significantly less common post-treatment. The Class II and the Normal groups showed minor changes during the 2-year period. Temporomandibular joint clicking increased in all three groups over the 2 years, but was less common in the Normal group. The Normal group also had a lower overall prevalence of signs of TMD than the Orthodontic and the Class II groups at both registrations. Functional occlusal interferences decreased in the Orthodontic group, but remained the same in the other groups over the 2 years. In conclusion, orthodontic treatment did not increase the risk for or worsen pretreatment signs of TMD. On the contrary, subjects with Class II malocclusions and signs of TMD of muscular origin seemed to benefit functionally from orthodontic treatment in a 2-year perspective. The Normal group had a lower prevalence of signs of TMD than the Orthodontic and the untreated Class II groups.
Deciduous teeth exfoliate as a result of apoptosis induced by cementoblasts, a process that reveals the mineralized portion of the root while attracting clasts. Root resorption in deciduous teeth is slow due to lack of mediators necessary to speed it up; however, it accelerates and spreads in one single direction whenever a permanent tooth pericoronal follicle, rich in epithelial growth factor (EGF), or other bone resorption mediators come near. The latter are responsible for bone resorption during eruption, and deciduous teeth root resorption and exfoliation. Should deciduous teeth be subjected to orthodontic movement or anchorage, mediators local levels will increase. Thus, one should be fully aware that root resorption in deciduous teeth will speed up and exfoliation will early occur. Treatment planning involving deciduous teeth orthodontic movement and/or anchorage should consider: Are clinical benefits relevant enough as to be worth the risk of undergoing early inconvenient root resorption?
Yilmaz, Rahime Burcu Nur; Nalbantgil, Didem; Ozdemir, Fulya
The aims of this study were to evaluate the posttreatment outcomes in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic following a course on American Board of Orthodontics Cast and Radiograph Evaluation (ABO-CRE); to compare the outcomes of postgraduate students who took the course before and after finishing treatment of their cases; and to assess if the need for orthodontic treatment as determined by the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) at the beginning of treatment affected students' final scores. A course on ABO-CRE was given to second- (group A), third- (group B), and fourth- (group C) year postgraduate students at Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey, in 2012. Pre- and posttreatment plaster models of 253 cases (group A) were treated by students in 2011-12. An additional 251 (group B, 2012-13) and 341 (group C, 2013-14) cases were evaluated in the first and second years after the course, respectively. The models were graded retrospectively using the ABO-CRE and IOTN. The results showed that the total mean scores on the posttreatment plaster models were significantly higher in the pre-course group than the first- and second-year post-course group (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). The borderline cases (grade 3) received a lower score on the ABO-CRE than the cases with need (grade 4) (p<0.01) and severe need (grade 5) (p<0.01) for orthodontic treatment. Increasing awareness by giving information about the ABO-CRE significantly improved the posttreatment success of these postgraduate students. After the course, treatment outcomes in the following year were better than two years later, suggesting it may be useful to teach the course annually to refresh students' knowledge.
Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Haerian, Alireza
Objectives: Proper diagnosis and prevention of malocclusion are superior to treatment. Discrepancy between arch length and tooth size in mixed dentition period is a condition requiring timely diagnosis. Estimating the mesiodistal width of unerupted teeth according to the size of erupted ones can lead to earlier diagnosis of malocclusion. On the other hand, the best timing for serial extractions is before the eruption of lateral incisors. The aim of this study was to present prediction formulas for mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population based on the width of erupted permanent mandibular central incisors and maxillary first molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dental models (60 males, 60 females) of orthodontic patients between 11–25 years were evaluated in Yazd city. The measurements were made by a digital caliper on the widest mesiodistal width of teeth at the interproximal contacts. Data were analyzed to calculate the prediction equation. Results: The prediction equation in the upper jaw was y=0.57x+10.82 for males, y=0.7x+6.37 for females and y=0.64x+8.46 for both sexes. The equation for the lower jaw was y=0.76x+2.86 for males, y=0.74x+3.53 for females and y=0.77x+2.7 for both sexes. Conclusions: The prediction equations suggested in this study can predict the mesiodistal width of unerupted lateral incisors, canines and premolars in an Iranian population in early mixed dentition period without taking radiographs. PMID:28243298
Restrepo, M; Bussaneli, D G; Jeremias, F; Cordeiro, R C L; Raveli, D B; Magalhães, A C; Candolo, C; Santos-Pinto, L
To compare the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and 2% chlorhexidine gel for controlling active white spot lesions (WSLs) adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Thirty-five orthodontic patients (17.2 ± 2.3 years old) presenting 60 WSLs adjacent to orthodontic brackets were enrolled in this randomized, blind, 3-armed and controlled clinical trial. The patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 arms: (1) two applications of 5% NaF varnish- F, with one-week interval, (2) two applications of 2% chlorhexidine gel-CHX, with one-week interval and (3) usual home care-control (CO). The WSLs were scored by using a DIAGNOdent pen. An independent examiner scored the surfaces using Nyvad criteria for caries assessment. A total of thirty patients presenting 51 lesions completed the study. All treatments reduced the fluorescence values during the experimental period; however, F induced faster remineralization than CHX. After 3 months, 70.58 % were inactive considering all groups. DIAGNOdent pen and Nyvad presented a significant correlation. After 3 months of treatment, F, CHX and CO were capable of controlling the WSLs adjacent to the orthodontic brackets. However, the treatment with F was capable of controlling the progression of the WSLs in a shorter period of time.
Sato, Shuichi; Nomura, Naoyuki; Kawashima, Hideyuki; Ito, Koichi
This case report describes the nonsurgical creation of an interdental papilla in orthodontic therapy of a patient with severe periodontal disease. A large diastema between the maxillary incisors was closed completely, and the lost interdental papilla was re-created by orthodontic therapy after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Radiographs showed improvement of the bone defect. Periodontal/orthodontic soft tissue manipulation is a nonsurgical technique that can lead to reformation of the interdental papilla, provided that periodontal health is maintained.
Alonso-Rodríguez, Estefanía; Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel
Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft.
Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel
Introduction Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. Case Report We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. Conclusions The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Key words:Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft. PMID:26855699
Kleber, C J; Milleman, J L; Davidson, K R; Putt, M S; Triol, C W; Winston, A E
This pilot study investigated the effect of a remineralizing fluoride dentifrice (Enamelon) on newly formed incipient carious lesions using two methods of application. Teenage orthodontic patients with obvious white spot lesions on their teeth were selected to begin treatment within 30 days after debanding. At baseline, the surface enamel of the test teeth was cleaned by air etching with 50 microns alumina at 150 psi. Lesion size (mm2) was measured using a calibrated periodontal probe and surface appearance was quantified as shiny (0), dull (1), or chalky (2). Twice daily for 3 months, one group with a total of 27 lesions brushed with the remineralizing dentifrice, while a second group with 41 total lesions brushed and used a mouth tray to apply the paste directly to the lesions for 5 min. In order to promote treatment compliance, test group assignment was based on subject and parental preference. After 1, 2, and 3 months, lesion size was reduced by 5% (ns), 10% (p < 0.05) and 22% (p < 0.01), respectively, for the brushing group, and 16% (p < 0.05), 37% (p < 0.01) and 30% (p < 0.01) for the combined brushing and tray group, respectively. The dull appearance of the lesions treated by brushing improved slightly over 3 months. However, the lesions receiving combined brushing and tray applications became significantly (p < 0.01) less dull by 28%, 44% and 61% after 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively, indicating the formation of a shiny, intact surface layer. In conclusion, brushing with a remineralizing dentifrice significantly reduced the size of new orthodontic white spots within 2 months, while brushing combined with topical tray applications reduced lesion size within 1 month with concomitant formation of a shiny enamel surface layer. Thus, the combined brushing and mouth tray treatment significantly accelerated the remineralization process.
Lenza, Marcos Augusto; de Carvalho, Adilson Alves; Lenza, Eduardo Beaton; Lenza, Mauricio Guilherme; de Torres, Hianne Miranda; de Souza, João Batista
INTRODUCTION: Despite discussion on the merit of various cephalometric superimposition methods, there remains a need to assess which one can be used in daily practice with reasonably accuracy and less working time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate four methods of cephalometric superimposition by means of assessing the longitudinal changes in craniofacial morphology caused by growth and response of adolescents with Class I malocclusion to orthodontic treatment involving first premolar extraction. METHODS: Pretreatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs of 31 adolescents (20 females and 11 males), with Angle Class I malocclusion and indication of premolar extraction, participated in this study. Radiographs were digitized, traced and had structures identified by means of a cephalometric software. Four superimposition methods were used: Björk structural method, Steiner/Tweed SN line, Ricketts N-Ba line at N-point and Ricketts N-Ba line at CC-point. Positional changes were quantified by horizontal and vertical linear changes in the following cephalometric landmarks: anterior/posterior nasal spine (ANS and PNS), gnathion (Gn), Gonion (Go), Pogonion (Pog), A-point and B-point. Differences between T1 and T2 in horizontal and vertical positional changes for all superimposition methods were assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences among the cephalometric superimposition methods or when patients' sex was considered. CONCLUSION: Björk structural method, Steiner/Tweed SN line, Ricketts N-Ba line at N-point and Ricketts N-Ba line at CC-point methods were reliable and presented similar precision when the overall facial changes due to active growth and/or orthodontic treatment were examined. PMID:26154453
Forshaw, R J
Malocclusion, although a common finding in today's world, appears to have been less frequent in antiquity. There are references to overcrowding, delayed exfoliation of deciduous teeth and basic orthodontic treatment in the writings of classical authors such as Hippocrates, Celsus and Galen. However, early authentic archaeological finds of dental appliances are extremely rare. Considerable attention has focussed on gold banded devices excavated from ancient Etruscan sites in central Italy which have been dated to around the seventh to the fourth centuries BC, with a number of authors suggesting an orthodontic function for these appliances. This paper reviews the evidence for the possible treatment of malocclusions in antiquity and concludes that the use of orthodontic appliances to facilitate tooth movement is not supported by the available evidence.
Atisook, Pitraporn; Chuacharoen, Rattiya
Orthodontic service is limited in Thailand and cannot meet the demand of the population. (1) To assess the need for orthodontic treatment (OT) using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) to analyze the relationship between demand and need for OT and (2) to compare the demand and need for OT between genders. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 450 students aged 12- to 14-years-old in three government high schools in Bangkok. A constructed questionnaire was used to assess demand for OT Clinical examination was done by two orthodontists to determine the needfor OT using the IOTN RESULTS: Most of the students (74.0%) wished to have OT while only one-third (37.5%) had severe need, and one-third (34.4%) had moderate need for OT as judge by the DHC of the IOTN. The AC of the IOTN indicated that most students (55.8%) had mild or no need for OT Females (79%) demanded OT more than males (66% p-value = 0.033) but the need was similar in both sexes. Most functional factors had strong relationships with the demand for OTexcept lower teeth bite on palate, but none was found to be associated with need for OT All of the aesthetic factors had strong relationships with demand for OT There were significant relationships with needs in five categories, 1) crooked, crowded, or spacing teeth, 2) worried when speaking or smiling, 3) had suggestedfor OT 4) breath smell and halitosis, and 5) wanted to put on braces to be like other people or for fashionable reasons. Most of the students requested OT but females had significantly higher demand for OT than males. Most of the samples needed to have OT The aesthetic factors that had strong relationships with the need for OT were 1) crooked, crowded, or spacing teeth, 2) worried when speaking or smiling, 3) had suggested for T07 4) breath smell and halitosis, and 5) wanted to put on braces to be like otherpeople orfor fashionable reasons.
El-Angbawi, Ahmed M F; Bearn, David R; McIntyre, Grant T
Edgewise fixed orthodontic appliances are available in two different bracket slot sizes (0.018 and 0.022 inch). Both systems are used by clinicians worldwide with some orthodontists claiming the superiority and clinical advantages of one system over the other. However, the scientific evidence supporting this area is scarce and weak. This leaves the clinician's choice of bracket slot system to clinical preference. We aim to compare the 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch pre-adjusted bracket slot systems in terms of the effectiveness of orthodontic treatment. This is a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial, undertaken in the secondary care hospital environment in the NHS Tayside region of Scotland (United Kingdom). A total of 216 orthodontic patients will be recruited in three centers in secondary care hospitals in NHS Tayside. The participants will be randomly allocated to treatment with either the 0.018-inch or 0.022-inch bracket slot systems (n = 108 for each group) using Victory series™ conventional pre-adjusted bracket systems (3 M Unitek, Monrovia, United States). Baseline records and outcome data collected during and at the end of orthodontic treatment will be assessed. The primary outcome measures will be the duration of orthodontic treatment in the maxillary and mandibular arches. The secondary outcome measures will be the number of scheduled appointments for orthodontic treatment in the maxillary and mandibular arches, treatment outcome using Peer Assessment Rating index (PAR), orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (as measured using periapical radiographs) and the patient's perception of wearing orthodontic appliances. The results from the current study will serve as evidence to guide the clinician in deciding whether the difference in bracket slot size has a significant impact on the effectiveness of orthodontic treatment. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov on 5 March 2014, registration number: NCT02080338.
Castroflorio, Tommaso; Titolo, Cristina; Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare; Bracco, Pietro
The aim of this work was to test the effects of the Function Generator Bite (FGB) on the masticatory muscles of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) subjects. Two groups were selected for the study. A group of 20 TMD patients (group F) requiring orthodontic treatment and treated with FGB and a group of 10 healthy subjects (group H) were considered. Both groups were evaluated before the therapy began (TO) and then after 18 months of therapy (T1). An electromyographic analysis of the masseter and temporalis anterior muscles and a clinical evaluation according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) were performed. A statistical difference between the two groups was observed at TO with respect to the activity index. TMD subjects showed a lower value of the index. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the utility of this EMG index as a diagnostic indicator.
Perillo, Letizia; Esposito, Maria; Caprioglio, Alberto; Attanasio, Stefania; Santini, Annamaria Chiara; Carotenuto, Marco
Dental malocclusions can be considered not only as an oral health problem, because they are linked to quality of life perception. Many factors related to malocclusion have strong influences on the perception of facial esthetics (eg, anterior tooth alignment, tooth shape and position, lip thickness, symmetric gingival or tooth contour, lip profile, and overjet). Many reports have shown that the perception of facial esthetics can influence psychological development from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dental malocclusion on self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. The study population was composed of 516 orthodontically untreated subjects (256 males) mean ages 13.75±1.977 years recruited from schools in the Campania region of Italy between January 2011 and July 2011. To evaluate the self-esteem grade in our population, all subjects filled out the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire and attended an orthodontic clinical evaluation to estimate dental occlusal aspects. Pearson's analysis shows the relationship in our sample between some occlusal characteristics (crossbite and dental crowding) and aspects of self-concept evaluation (social, competence, academic, physical, and global score) of the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire. Moreover, logistic regression analysis shows the potential role of dental crowding (odds ratio 5.359; 95% confidence interval 3.492-8.225) and crossbite (odds ratio 6.153; 95% confidence interval 3.545-10.678) as risk factors for development of global self-concept score abnormalities. Our findings confirm the relationship between psychosocial well-being, self-esteem, and dental malocclusion among adolescents.
Perillo, Letizia; Esposito, Maria; Caprioglio, Alberto; Attanasio, Stefania; Santini, Annamaria Chiara; Carotenuto, Marco
Background Dental malocclusions can be considered not only as an oral health problem, because they are linked to quality of life perception. Many factors related to malocclusion have strong influences on the perception of facial esthetics (eg, anterior tooth alignment, tooth shape and position, lip thickness, symmetric gingival or tooth contour, lip profile, and overjet). Many reports have shown that the perception of facial esthetics can influence psychological development from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dental malocclusion on self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. Materials and methods The study population was composed of 516 orthodontically untreated subjects (256 males) mean ages 13.75±1.977 years recruited from schools in the Campania region of Italy between January 2011 and July 2011. To evaluate the self-esteem grade in our population, all subjects filled out the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire and attended an orthodontic clinical evaluation to estimate dental occlusal aspects. Results Pearson’s analysis shows the relationship in our sample between some occlusal characteristics (crossbite and dental crowding) and aspects of self-concept evaluation (social, competence, academic, physical, and global score) of the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire. Moreover, logistic regression analysis shows the potential role of dental crowding (odds ratio 5.359; 95% confidence interval 3.492–8.225) and crossbite (odds ratio 6.153; 95% confidence interval 3.545–10.678) as risk factors for development of global self-concept score abnormalities. Conclusion Our findings confirm the relationship between psychosocial well-being, self-esteem, and dental malocclusion among adolescents. PMID:24672229
Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Bastos, Barbra Duque Costa; Araujo, Luana Fialho Ferro; Moyses-Braga, Wagner Fernando; Pantuzo, Mariele Garcia; Cheib, Paula Loureiro
The current concept for effective and efficient treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion prescribes that interceptive approach should be delivered during the pubertal growth stage. However, psychosocial issues and a greater risk of dental trauma are also factors that should be addressed when considering early Class II therapy. This paper reports a case of a patient that sought orthodontic treatment due to aesthetic discomfort with the incisors' protrusion. Two previous treatments failed because patient's collaboration with removable appliances was inadequate. Given his history of no collaboration and because the patient was in the prepubertal stage, it was decided to try a different approach in the third attempt of treatment. Traumatic injury protective devices were used during the prepubertal stage and followed by Herbst appliance and fixed multibrackets therapy during the pubertal stage, resulting in an adequate outcome and long-term stability. PMID:25861486
Campos, Marcio José da Silva; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo
Patients usually experience pain during orthodontic treatment. This fact can affect cooperation and the development of treatment. Reporting pain during treatment seems to be influenced by emotional aspects such as the patient's motivation. To assess the relationship between patient's motivation and the intensity of reported pain during two stages of treatment. Twenty males (11-37 years old) answered a questionnaire divided into five categories regarding their motivation towards treatment. The subjects were studied for 14 days (7 days with bonded brackets and 7 days with the initial arch inserted) and the intensity of pain was evaluated on a daily basis. All the issues, including the intensity of pain, were measured through the visual analog scale (VAS). The VAS-associated questionnaire proved to have good temporal reliability and reasonable internal consistency, being that the "perceived severity" domain had the greatest, although not significant (p = 0.196) correlation with pain intensity. Only the question asking the patients if they thought that their teeth were too uneven showed a positive correlation with pain intensity (p = 0.048). The results seem to indicate that the five categories related to treatment motivation cannot be used to predict discomfort during treatment. In addition, patients who think their teeth are too uneven may experience more severe pain due to greater force application after insertion of the initial arch.
Yassaei, Soghra; Aghili, Hossein Agha; Davari, Abdolrahim
Objectives: Providing reliable attachment between bracket base and zirconia surface is a prerequisite for exertion of orthodontic force. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four zirconium surface treatment methods on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: One block of zirconium was trimmed into four zirconium surfaces, which served as our four study groups and each had 18 metal brackets bonded to them. Once the glazed layer was removed, the first group was etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HF), and the remaining three groups were prepared by means of sandblasting and 1W, and 2W Er: YAG laser, respectively. After application of silane, central incisor brackets were bonded to the zirconium surfaces. The SBS values were measured by a Dartec testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD for multiple comparisons. Results: The highest SBS was achieved in the sandblasted group (7.81±1.02 MPa) followed in a descending order by 2W laser group (6.95±0.87 MPa), 1W laser group (6.87±0.92 MPa) and HF acid etched group (5.84±0.78 MPa). The differences between the study groups were statistically significant except between the laser groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: In terms of higher bond strength and safety, sandblasting and Er: YAG laser irradiation with power output of 1W and 2W can be considered more appropriate alternatives to HF acid etching for zirconium surface treatment prior to bracket bonding. PMID:26622283
Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Khaloo, Negar; Mojahedi, Seyed Masoud; Azarsina, Mohadese
Background: Bleaching treatments decrease shear bond strength between orthodontic brackets and teeth; although definite results have not been reported in this regard. Objectives: This study determined the effects of different bleaching protocols on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to teeth. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in Iran. Forty-eight extracted human premolars were randomly assigned into four groups. In the control group, no bleaching treatment was performed. In groups 2 - 4, the bleaching procedures were performed using carbamide peroxide 45%, carbamide peroxide 20% and diode laser, respectively. Two weeks later, brackets were bonded to teeth and thermocycled. The shear bond strengths of the brackets to the teeth were measured. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post-hoc test. Results: Shear bond strength of the brackets to the teeth were 10.54 ± 1.51, 6.37 ± 0.92, 7.67 ± 1.01 and 7.49 ± 1.19 MPa, in groups 1 - 4, respectively. Significant differences were found between control group and all other groups (P < 0.001); and also between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the other groups. Conclusions: The bleaching procedures using 20% carbamide peroxide and 45% carbamide peroxide and diode laser significantly decreased shear bond strength of brackets to the teeth. 45% carbamide peroxide had a more significant effect on bond strength compared to 20% carbamide peroxide. The difference in bond strength was not significant between laser group and either carbamide peroxide groups. PMID:26734481
Amarilla, Almudena; Espinar-Escalona, Eduardo; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; López-Frías, Francisco J.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare, in a split mouth design, the external apical root resorption (EARR) associated with orthodontic treatment in root-filled maxillary incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Methodology: The study sample consisted of 38 patients (14 males and 24 females), who had one root-filled incisor before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken before and after orthodontic treatment were used to determine the root resortion and the proportion of external root resorption (PRR), defined as the ratio between the root resorption in the endodontically treated incisor and that in its contralateral incisor with a vital pulp. The student’s t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to determine statistical significance. Results: There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between EARR in vital teeth (1.1 ± 1.0 mm) and endodontically treated incisors (1.1 ± 0.8 mm). Twenty-six patients (68.4%) showed greater resorption of the endodontically treated incisor than its homolog vital tooth (p > 0.05). The mean and standard deviation of PPR were 1.0 ± 0.2. Multivariate logistic regression suggested that PRR does not correlate with any of the variables analyzed. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in the amount or severity of external root resorption during orthodontic movement between root-filled incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Key words:Endodontics, orthodontics, root canal treatment, root resorption. PMID:22143731
Dai, Fanfan; Li, Yangjing; Chen, Gui; Chen, Si; Xu, Tianmin
Smile esthetics has become increasingly important for orthodontic patients, thus prediction of post-treatment smile is necessary for a perfect treatment plan. In this study, with a combination of three-dimensional craniofacial data from the cone beam computed tomography and color-encoded structured light system, a novel method for smile prediction was proposed based on facial expression transfer, in which dynamic facial expression was interpreted as a matrix of facial depth changes. Data extracted from the pre-treatment smile expression record were applied to the post-treatment static model to realize expression transfer. Therefore smile esthetics of the patient after treatment could be evaluated in pre-treatment planning procedure. The positive and negative mean values of error for prediction accuracy were 0.9 and - 1.1 mm respectively, with the standard deviation of ± 1.5 mm, which is clinically acceptable. Further studies would be conducted to reduce the prediction error from both the static and dynamic sides as well as to explore automatically combined prediction from the two sides.
Dmitrenko, M I
The results of investigation showed that it is necessary to use complex methods of orthodontic treatment in patients with malocclusion complicated by dental crowding. Orthodontic appliance therapy should be accompanied by differentiated massage and mioymnastics to improve functional state of masseter and temporal muscles. It was found that after the treatment electromyographic potential amplitude of temporal muscles is on the average in 1.5 times lower as compared with pretreatment records (P < 0.05). It was observed increase on the average in 1.5 times in electromyographic potential oscillation amplitude of masseter muscles during clenching after the treatment of maxillary and mandibular dental crowding (P < 0.05). Treatment of dental crowding resulted in restoration of masseter muscles functional symmetry. During clenching index MASI(MM) significantly decreased in all groups in comparison with pretreatment indices (P < 0.05).
Ferreira, Hugo M.; Botelho, Filomena; Carrilho, Eunice
Traumatic dental injury can result in avulsion of anterior teeth. In young patients, it is a challenge to the dental professional because after replantation, late complications such as ankylosis require tooth extraction. Although prosthetic and orthodontic treatment, and implant placement have been described as the options for intervention, autogenous tooth transplantation could be an effective procedure in growing patients if there is a suitable donor tooth available. This case presents the treatment of a patient who suffered a traumatic injury at 9 years old with avulsion of tooth 21, which had been replanted, and intrusion of tooth 11. Both teeth ankylosed; thus they were removed and autotransplantation of premolars was carried out. After transplantation, the tooth underwent root canal treatment because of pulpal necrosis. Orthodontic treatment began 3 months after transplantation and during 7 years' follow-up the aesthetics and function were maintained without signs of resorption. PMID:26295028
Thiruvenkadam, G.; Asokan, Sharath; John, J. Baby; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Prathiba, J.
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using short form (SF) of child oral health impact profile (COHIP) in children aged 11–15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11–15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group) and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049). No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000). In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037) more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Conclusion: Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment. PMID:26321842
Katzhendler, E; Steigman, S
This study evaluated the response of treated teeth to renewed orthodontic force. Thirty female rats (201 +/- 2.7 g) were divided into groups A and B. Linguointrusive loads (20.58 +/- 1.88 g) generated by springs were applied to the lower left incisor for 2 weeks and then removed to allow recovery during 27 weeks (group A). Identical loading was then repeated in group A and applied as primary treatment in group B. Five animals from each group were killed with the springs in situ (A-1 and B-1), while the remaining 20 animals were killed after a 3-month recovery (A-2, B-2). The decalcified incisors were cross-sectioned serially (2 microm), and the distance of each section from the apex was computed. Dental and periodontal injuries were evaluated by light microscopy and plotted according to their location on the tooth axis. The intrusion of the teeth in group A-1 was significantly greater, whereas recovery of the normal eruption rate in group A-2 was significantly slower compared with groups B-1 and B-2. The histopathologic lesions in groups A-1 and B-1 did not differ. However, group A-2 showed a higher frequency of injured enamel organ, tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells, necrotic areas, and dentin resorption than group B-2. Initial orthodontic loading had a detrimental effect on the ability of the periodontal and dental tissues to cope with, and to recover from, repeated stress, probably because of a decrease in the number of periodontal fibroblasts and damage to the dentin-protecting cementoblastic layer.
Egermark, Inger; Carlsson, Gunnar E; Magnusson, Tomas
This investigation analyzed the influence of orthodontic treatment performed in childhood on the long-term development of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). The original sample consisted of 50 consecutive patients (27 girls and 23 boys) with different morphological malocclusions, who were to receive orthodontic treatment. Their mean age at start of treatment was 12.9 years. Seventeen (range 15-18) years after completion of orthodontic treatment, 40 former patients (89% of the traced subjects) completed and returned a questionnaire, and 31 subjects (69% of the traced subjects) were also examined clinically. A great majority of the participants were pleased with the result of the orthodontic treatment. Relapses of morphological malocclusions were very uncommon. The prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD was low both before and after the active phase of orthodontic treatment, as well as at the long-term follow-up after 15 to 18 years. The incidence per year of manifest TMD requiring treatment was approximately 1%. The result of the present investigation supports the opinion that orthodontic treatment in childhood does not entail an increased risk to develop either signs or symptoms of TMD later in life.
Boyd, Robert L
In this report, three patients were treated with a new treatment protocol for Invisalign to demonstrate that a variety of complex malocclusions can be successfully treated using this protocol, including correction of moderate crowding, correction of moderate Class II division 1, and deep overbite. Previous studies of Invisalign showed significant limitations for more complex orthodontic treatment, although a few recent case reports have shown successfully completed moderate to difficult orthodontic malocclusions. One reason for the discrepancy is that the earlier studies were done during the first four years of the appliance development (now ten years of clinical use), when significant problems existed with accomplishing bodily movement, torquing of roots, extrusions, and rotations of premolars and canines. The new protocol included new methods for anterior/posterior corrections, showing on the computer the effect of elastics for Class II treatment simulated as a one-stage anterior/posterior movement at the end of treatment. Staging for interproximal reduction (IPR) is now automatically staged when there is better access to interproximal contacts to avoid IPR where significant overlap between teeth is present to avoid performing IPR on surfaces that may be damaged by instruments such as burs, strips, and disks when cut on a sharp angle. Staging for tooth movements is now also done to enable combination movements to occur simultaneously for each tooth with the tooth that needs to move the most (the lead tooth) determining the minimum number of stages required. All other teeth move at a slower rate than the lead tooth throughout the duration of treatment. Attachments are now placed in the middle of the crown automatically for rotation and automatically sized in proportion to the clinical crown. Use of 1 mm thick (buccal-lingual dimension) horizontal beveled rectangular attachments is standard on premolars for retention of aligners during intrusive movements, such as
de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Janson, Guilherme; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha
Objective: The present study was designed to retrospectively evaluate Class I malocclusion cases treated with extraction of the four first premolars, aiming to establish the relationship between the quality of orthodontic treatment outcomes and the long-term occlusal stability. Material and methods: The sample comprised 94 patients of both genders, presenting Class I malocclusion, treated with extractions of the four first premolars and Edgewise mechanics. All the patients selected were whites, being 50 males and 44 females. The mean pretreatment age was 13.46 years (s.d. 1.8). The mean treatment time was 2.09 years (s.d. 0.58), the mean retention time was 1.63 years (s.d. 0.73) and the mean time of postretention evaluation was 5.31 years (s.d. 1.61). The dental casts were measured at pretreatment (T1), posttreatment (T2) and postretention (T3), by the PAR index and by the Little irregularity index, and the correction due to treatment (T1-2) and the change at the postretention period (T3-2) were calculated. The descriptive statistics was performed and the Pearson correlation coefficient was applied for the PAR and the Little indices in the total sample, among the times evaluated. Results: The mean PAR reduction due to treatment was 78.54%, and 66.6%, at the postretention stage related to pretreatment stage. Significant correlations were found for the PAR index at the times evaluated, except between T1 and T2 and between T1-2 and T3. In other words, the higher the treatment correction (T1-2), the lower the posttreatment PAR index (PAR T2) will be, and the higher will be the PAR change at the postretention period (PAR T3-2). Also, the higher the posttreatment PAR score (PAR T2), the higher will be the postretention PAR score (PAR T3). Conclusion: It was concluded that the quality of orthodontic treatment outcomes is not related to the long-term occlusal stability. PMID:19089052
Kwak, Yoon-Young; Jang, Insan; Choi, Dong-Soon
An 8-years old boy with facial asymmetry and unilateral posterior crossbite on the left side received orthopedic and orthodontic treatment. During the first phase of treatment, the narrow maxillary arch was expanded using an acrylic plate. Then, the acrylic plate was used as a bite block with occlusal indentations from the construction bite that was obtained with the incisors in a coincident dental midline. After the position of the mandible was stabilized, the second phase of orthodontic treatment was initiated using fixed appliances for detailing of the occlusion. Skeletal symmetry, ideal occlusion, and coincident dental midlines were thus achieved. Functionally, occlusal force balance and masticatory muscle activity were improved, and the chewing patterns were normalized. PMID:24892028
Class II Division 2 malocclusion is often characterized by severe, traumatic deepbite with lingually inclined and overerupted incisors. Combined orthodontic-orthopedic treatment of this malocclusion is a challenging issue for orthodontists. This case report describes the combined orthodontic-orthopedic treatment of an adolescent Class II Division 2 patient with an extreme deepbite and a retrognathic mandible using the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huynh, Nelly T; Desplats, Eve; Almeida, Fernanda R
A small maxilla and/or mandible may predispose children to sleep-disordered breathing, which is a continuum of severity from snoring to obstructive sleep apnea. Preliminary studies have suggested that orthodontic treatments, such as orthopedic mandibular advancement or rapid maxillary expansion, may be effective treatments. The aim is to investigate the efficacy of orthopedic mandibular advancement and/or rapid maxillary expansion in the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Internet were searched for eligible studies published until April 2014. Articles with adequate data were selected for the meta-analysis; other articles were reported in the qualitative assessment. Data extraction was conducted by two independent authors. A total of 58 studies were identified. Only eight studies were included in the review; of these, six were included in the meta-analysis. The research yielded only a small number of studies. Consequently, any conclusions from the pooled diagnostic parameters and their interpretation should be treated carefully. Although the included studies were limited, these orthodontic treatments may be effective in managing pediatric snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Other related health outcomes, such as neurocognitive and cardiovascular functions have not yet been systematically addressed. More studies are needed with larger sample size, specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and standardized data reporting to help establish guidelines for the orthodontic treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Periodontics and orthodontics are correlated with one other in many ways. For instance, periodontal conditions have to be considered in the orthodontic treatment of adults, special orthodontic measures are taken to enhance a periodontal treatment, and when periodontal surgery is performed for the prevention of relapse or the disimpaction of teeth. Dental practitioners working in the field of orthodontics should have a sound understanding of the biology and pathology of the periodontium in order to avoid causing periodontal lesions, or when lesions are present, how best to determine prognosis and differential treatment.
Camilla Tulloch, J. F.; Lenz, Brent E.; Phillips, Ceib
Treatment options for Class II malocclusion include orthognathic surgery. Treatment choices are particularly difficult for young patients because of the uncertainty regarding future growth. Surgical treatment has generally been considered necessary for older patients with more severe Class II problems. The treatment records of more than 500 patients with Class II malocclusion were reviewed. Patients were grouped according to their initial treatment plan (surgery or orthodontics) and treatment outcome (overjet [OJ] reduced to <4 mm or not). Discriminant function analyses using data from the patient’s pretreatment cephalogram were used to determine whether age, in combination with malocclusion severity, could predict the choice of treatment, and whether a simple set of pretreatment variables could predict the success or failure of OJ reduction. The derived equations were tested in a similar group of growing Class II children. Although the data showed clinicians use patient’s age in determining treatment choice, age did not seem to be associated with treatment outcome. The majority of the variability that determined the success or failure of OJ reduction was not explained by patient’s age or malocclusion severity. These findings suggest other factors, including psychosocial variables, need to be explored if we are to gain a better understanding of why treatments succeed or fail. PMID:10860060
Takahashi, Ichiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko
This case report describes the treatment of a woman with severe mandibular retrusion and maxillomandibular transverse deficiency. Her malocclusion was characterized by a large overjet, a deep overbite, and a V-shaped dental arch, and she had a skeletal Class II profile. Treatement included combined maxillary and mandibular midline expansion, maxillary downward repositioning, and mandibular ramus lengthening with distraction osteogenesis with implants as orthodontic anchorage. During the postdistraction orthodontic treatment period, some skeletal relapse occurred. Implants provided absolute orthodontic anchorage to overcome the unexpected skeletal changes. Combined orthodontic treatment with implants for anchorage and distraction osteogenesis successfully expanded the maxilla and the mandible and corrected the mandibular deficiency. Two-year follow-up records show a morphologically and functionally stable result.
Rollings, Sam; Greene, Louise; Borrie, Felicity; Lamont, Thomas
Double blind randomised controlled trial Sixty patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were randomised to receive either MI Paste Plus (GC America, Alsip III) or a placebo paste (Tom's of Main, Salisbury, UK). To be included, the patients had to be 12 years of age or over, in the permanent dentition, and be considered to be compliant with using the paste. Patients were excluded if they; had been undergoing extensive fluoride regimes, had an impacting medical or dental condition, had been receiving fluoride treatment for white spots, be planning to move within 6 months, or have an allergy to IgE casein. The pastes were self-administered in a fluoride tray for 3 to 5 minutes each night after brushing, for a period of 3 months. Outcomes were measured at baseline, then at 4, 8, and 12 weeks into treatment) using 2 measures. Standardised photographic records were used to assess WSLs using Banks and Richmond's decalcification index score, from first premolar to first premolar in the maxilla and mandible. Three operators scored the photographs independently. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used for the labial surfaces of the teeth and the scores (0-6) for surfaces were added together to give an overall score. Five patients refused to participate before the trial began and out of the 60 patients randomised, 50 completed the study (26 MI Paste Plus group 24 in placebo group). There was a 53.5% in the enamel decalcification index score in the MI Paste Plus group but an increase of 91.1% in the placebo group at the end of the 12 week period; ICDAS scores were added together to give an overall score for all teeth; the MI Paste Plus group score was 145 at baseline and 80 after 12 weeks, a 44.8%reduction; in the placebo group, the scores were 116 and 166 respectively, an increase of 43%. MI Paste Plus prevented and decreased the number of WSLs during orthodontic treatment with the placebo paste group having an increase in the number of WSLs
Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas
Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762
Ishihara, Yoshihito; Tomikawa, Kazuya; Deguchi, Toru; Honjo, Tadashi; Suzuki, Koji; Kono, Takayuki; Kuboki, Takuo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo; Yamashiro, Takashi
Aggressive periodontitis is a great challenge to clinicians when providing orthodontic treatment because of the potential for progression of periodontal disease. In this article, we report the successful comprehensive orthodontic treatment of bimaxillary protrusion and severe crowding in an adult with generalized aggressive periodontitis. A woman, aged 22 years 7 months, with a chief complaint of incisal crowding was diagnosed with a skeletal Class I malocclusion associated with severe anterior crowding, possibly worsened by generalized aggres