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Sample records for early orthodontic treatment

  1. Oral health changes during early phase of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudarević, Karlo; Jurela, Antonija; Repić, Dario; Jokić, Dražen; Mikić, Ivana Medvedec; Pejda, Slavica

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of fixed orthodontic appliance on Streptococcus (S.) mutans and S. sobrinus counts in orthodontic patients with regard to their previous caries experience (Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index) during the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. Twenty-two patients that satisfied inclusion criteria (healthy systemic and periodontal condition, avoidance of antibiotic therapy and antiseptic mouthwashes in the past three months) were included. All clinical measurements took place prior to and 12 weeks after fixed orthodontic appliance placement, in the following order: 1) stimulated saliva flow (SS); 2) Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S); and 3) DMFT. The method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus at T1 and T2. T-test showed significant increase in DMFT index and SS between T1 and T2. Results also indicated significant improvement in OHI-S index. By use of the PCR method, S. mutans was detected in two patients at T1. At T2, two more patients had S. mutans, but the increase was not statistically significant. Using the same method, S. sobrinus was detected only in two patients at T2. In conclusion, fixed orthodontic appliances did not induce statistically significant changes in caries microflora even in the presence of enhanced oral hygiene habits.

  2. Malocclusion and early orthodontic treatment requirements in the mixed dentitions of a population of Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    daCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Aikins, Elfleda Angelina; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Adediran, Virginia Efunyemi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of dental features that indicate a need for early intervention and to ascertain the prevalence of different methods of early treatment among a population of Nigerian children in mixed dentition. Methods: Occlusal relationships were evaluated in 101 children in mixed dentition between the ages of 6 and 12 years who presented at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 2 years period. The need for different modes of early orthodontic treatment was also recorded. Results: Anterior tooth rotations (61.4%) and increased overjet (44.6%) were the most prevalent occlusal anomalies. Others included deep bite (31.7%), reverse overjet (13.9%), and anterior open bite (14.8%). Severe maxillary spacing and crowding were exhibited in 12.0% and 5.0%, respectively. About a third (35.7%) of the subjects presented with crossbite while lip incompetence was observed in 43.6% of the subjects. About 44% of the subjects also presented with various oral habits with digit (15.8%) and lip sucking (9.9%) being the most prevalent. Subjects were recommended for treatment with 2 by 4 fixed orthodontic appliances (22.3%), habit breakers (20.7%), removable orthodontic appliances (16.5%), and extractions (15.7%). Conclusions: Increased overjet and anterior tooth rotation were the majority of occlusal anomalies seen, which are not only esthetically displeasing but may also cause an increased susceptibility to trauma to these teeth. Treatment options varied from extractions only to the use of appliance therapy. PMID:27556019

  3. Italian Board of Orthodontics. Case Nr. 1: early treatment.

    PubMed

    Lupoli, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    The patient was a 9 year 3 month old female with a normodivergent skeleto-dental Class II malocclusion in the mixed dentition characterized by maxillary incisors which were both protrusive and spaced. There was by a deep Curve of Spee and a deep bite with palatal impingement. Facially, the profile was convex when compared to the esthetic line. The nasolabial angle was normal and the face was symmetrical (Figs. 1-8, Tab. I). The functional movements and T.M.J analysis were within normal limits. The periodontum and hygeine were good. Because of the patient's age, a 2 phase non extraction treatment approach was planned. In the first phase, the intent was to reduce the overbite and overjet for funtional reasons, reducing the possibility of trauma to the maxillary incisors, and control the Class II skeltodental relationships. In the second phase, Class I relationships would be obtained with a normal overjet and overbite and an improved profile. However, in reality, treatment became a 1 phase treatment because there was no interruption between the first and second phase of treatment.

  4. Orthodontics. Part 6: Risks in orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Travess, H; Roberts-Harry, D; Sandy, J

    2004-01-24

    Orthodontics has the potential to cause significant damage to hard and soft tissues. The most important aspect of orthodontic care is to have an extremely high standard of oral hygiene before and during orthodontic treatment. It is also essential that any carious lesions are dealt with before any active treatment starts. Root resorption is a common complication during orthodontic treatment but there is some evidence that once appliances are removed this resorption stops. Some of the risk pointers for root resorption are summarised. Soft tissue damage includes that caused by archwires but also the more harrowing potential for headgears to cause damage to eyes. It is essential that adequate safety measures are included with this type of treatment. PMID:14739957

  5. Orthodontics. Part 6: Risks in orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Travess, H; Roberts-Harry, D; Sandy, J

    2004-01-24

    Orthodontics has the potential to cause significant damage to hard and soft tissues. The most important aspect of orthodontic care is to have an extremely high standard of oral hygiene before and during orthodontic treatment. It is also essential that any carious lesions are dealt with before any active treatment starts. Root resorption is a common complication during orthodontic treatment but there is some evidence that once appliances are removed this resorption stops. Some of the risk pointers for root resorption are summarised. Soft tissue damage includes that caused by archwires but also the more harrowing potential for headgears to cause damage to eyes. It is essential that adequate safety measures are included with this type of treatment.

  6. Radiographic Follow-Up during Orthodontic Treatment for Early Diagnosis of Sequential Supernumerary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Uhana Seifert Guimarães; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga

    2016-01-01

    Most supernumerary teeth are impacted and asymptomatic. Objective. The aim of this paper is to describe two cases of sequential development of supernumerary teeth in the mandibular premolar region, identified during orthodontic treatment. Reports. The first case describes the radiographic follow-up of a female patient that presented a supernumerary tooth at the age of 9 years and 10 months in the right mandibular premolar region, followed by a further supernumerary tooth in the left mandibular premolar region identified at the age of 11 years and 3 months. In the second case, the radiographic follow-up of a male patient demonstrated 3 supernumerary teeth in the premolar region at the age of 16 years. During orthognathic surgery planning at the age of 20 years and 5 months, a supplemental supernumerary tooth was found in the left mandibular region. Conclusion. Considering the late developing of supernumerary premolars, appropriate follow-up with panoramic radiographs of patients with previous experience of supernumerary teeth is essential for early diagnosis of supplemental premolars to prevent possible complications. PMID:27313911

  7. FIXED OR REMOVABLE APPLIANCE FOR EARLY ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT OF FUNCTIONAL ANTERIOR CROSSBITE.

    PubMed

    Wiedel, Anna-Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Anterior crossbite with functional shift also called pseudo Class III is a malocclusion in which the incisal edges of one or more maxillary incisors occlude with the incisal edges of the mandibular incisors in centric relationship: the mandible and mandibular incisors are then guided anteriorly in central occlusion resulting in an anterior crossbite. Early correction, at the mixed dentition stage, is recommended, in order to avoid a compromising dentofacial condition which could result in the development of a true Class III malocclusion and temporomandibular symptoms. Various treatment options are available. The method of choice for orthodontic correction of this condition should not only be clinically effective, with long-term stability, but also cost-effective and have high patient acceptance, i.e. minimal perceived pain and discomfort. At the mixed dentition stage, the condition may be treated by fixed (FA) or removable appliance (RA). To date there is insufficient evidence to determine the preferred method. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to compare and evaluate the use of FA and RA for correcting anterior crossbite with functional shift in the mixed dentition, with special reference to clinical effectiveness, stability, cost-effectiveness and patient perceptions. Evidence-based, randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology was used, in order to generate a high level of evidence. The thesis is based on the following studies: The material comprised 64 patients, consecutively recruited from the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden and from one Public Dental Health Service Clinic in Malmö, Skane County Council, Sweden. The patients were no syndrome and no cleft patients. The following inclusion criteria were applied: early to late mixed dentition, anterior crossbite affecting one or more incisors with functional shift, moderate space deficiency in the maxilla, no inherent skeletal Class III discrepancy, ANB

  8. [Combined orthodontic and restorative treatment].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, M A R; Loomans, B

    2015-11-01

    In patients with agenesis or enamel anomalies in anterior teeth combined orthodontic and restorative treatment is often necessary to achieve an optimal aesthetic result. How both can best be achieved, but also how to maintain the result, requires communication between the dentist and the orthodontist. The orthodontic treatment plan needs to be established in cooperation with the dentist who will carry out the restorative treatment while the patient is at a young age. Since with these young patients, who are still growing craniofacially and whose teeth are still developing, possible future restorative and/or orthodontic treatment, as well as the means of orthodontic retention, need to be included in the treatment plan. In cleft palate patients, it is also important that methods of orthodontic retention of maxillary arch width are given timely attention in the restorative treatment plan because it is especially vulnerable to relapse. PMID:26568998

  9. Extraction treatment in lingual orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Robert B

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary lingual orthodontic appliances offer an aesthetic and accurate means of treating malocclusion. Managing extraction-based treatments with lingual appliances presents a number of challenges. This article discusses the specific biomechanical considerations associated with extraction treatment and outlines clinical techniques that can optimize treatment outcome in these cases.

  10. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ali H.; Al-Saeed, Samar H.; Al-Maghlouth, Basma A.; Bahammam, Maha A.; Linjawi, Amal I.; El-Bialy, Tarek H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature to assess the quality of evidence related to corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment (CAOT) as adjunctive treatment in orthodontics. Methods: The study was conducted in the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2013 and 2014. Various electronic databases were searched and abstracts were retrieved. Defined inclusion criteria were then applied to the obtained original articles for further evaluation by 2 examiners independently. The criteria of selection included human, or animal studies, which assessed some aspects of CAOT and/or the biological principles behind it. Case reports and series were excluded. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the methodological score for clinical trials developed. Results: Fourteen articles were retrieved initially, but only 12 articles were finally selected for the study. The CAOT was found to accelerate tooth movement by 2-2.5 folds when compared with conventional orthodontic tooth movement. The CAOT was found safe on periodontal health and exhibits no or little risk of root resorption. A localized turnover of alveolar spongiosa and the absence of a hyalinized zone was the acceptable biological explanation of CAOT. There is no evidence to support that CAOT enhances the movement of ankylosed teeth, closing old extraction sites, post-orthodontic stability, or transverse expansion. Conclusions: Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment should be considered with caution. Long term randomized clinical trials are still needed. PMID:26108582

  11. Evolution of Class III treatment in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won

    2015-07-01

    Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients.

  12. Early secondary osteoplastic closure of the residual alveolar cleft in combination with orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Freihofer, H P; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    1989-12-01

    In 84 early secondary bone graftings, rib and chin transplants were used. While good overall results are obtained, comparison of the two types of graft show that the cases with bone from the chin clearly do better.

  13. [Optimizing orthodontic treatment in patients taking bisphosphonates].

    PubMed

    Zahrowski, James J

    2011-09-01

    Bisphosphonates have unique pharmacological characteristics unlike those of any other drug group. Millions of adults take oral bisphosphonates for long-term treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia; some of these people will most likely also seek orthodontic treatment. Adverse dental effects from bisphosphonates have been reported, including decreased tooth movement, impaired bone healing, and osteonecrosis in the mandible and the maxilla. Osteonecrosis has been rarely observed after bisphosphonate use for osteoporosis. However, adverse drug effects might occur more frequently in orthodontic patients, and they would probably be noted before the end-stage pathology of osteonecrosis. Adverse effects during orthodontic treatment, including decreased tooth movement, could last for years after the drug therapy is stopped. Successful orthodontic treatment requires optimal bone healing to prevent excessive tooth mobility. Bisphosphonates appear to have two bone elimination rates - a fast elimination of weeks from the bone surface and a slow elimination of years after incorporation into the bone structure. This article presents methods to clinically and radiographically monitor orthodontic patients who are taking oral bisphosphonates. Efforts to minimize adverse effects and optimize orthodontic procedures with physician-approved drug holidays are discussed. The orthodontic treatment results of three patients who received bisphosphonate therapy are reported.

  14. Orthodontic treatment practices in Finnish municipal health centres with differing timing of treatment.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, I; Pietilä, T; Svedström-Oristo, A-L; Varrela, J; Alanen, P

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare orthodontic practices in eight Finnish municipal health centres selected on the basis of an earlier survey to represent early and late timing of treatment. The health centres were grouped according to the mean age of starting treatment; earlier versus later than 9 years of age. A random sample of 16 and 18 year olds (n = 2325) living in these municipalities were invited for a clinical examination, and 1109 adolescents participated. The participants reported on their previous or ongoing orthodontic treatment by means of a questionnaire. Data on orthodontic treatment received were collected from the dental files of the adolescents who reported a treatment history and for those who did not recall exactly whether or not they had received orthodontic treatment. Analysis of the non-respondents was made on the basis of their dental files. Differences between the features of orthodontic treatment in the early and late starting health centres were analysed using a two-tailed t-test. In the early group, 70 per cent, and in the late group 42 per cent, of adolescents had a history of orthodontic treatment. General dentists carried out 90 per cent of the treatment in the early group and specialists every third treatment in the late group. An early start resulted in more frequent visits (P = 0.004) and a longer treatment duration (P < 0.001), while later timing resulted in an increase in the number of appliances (P < 0.001).

  15. Extra-oral Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Alharbi, Fahad; McIntyre, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Extra-oral appliances are used in orthodontics to apply forces to the jaws, dentition or both and the popularity of these appliances is cyclical. Although the use of retraction headgear for the management of Class II malocclusion has declined over the last 20 years with the refinement of non-compliance approaches, including temporary anchorage devices, headgear still has a useful role in orthodontics. The use of protraction headgear has increased as more evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of Class lIl malocclusion has become available. This paper describes the mechanics and contemporary uses of headgear in orthodontics for primary care dentists and specialist orthodontists. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Extra-oral appliances have specific uses in orthodontic biomechanics. Clinicians using retraction headgear and protraction headgear should be familiar with their clinical indications, the potential problems and how these can be avoided.

  16. Orthodontic treatment and referral patterns: A survey of pediatric dentists, general practitioners, and orthodontists

    PubMed Central

    Aldrees, Abdullah M.; Tashkandi, Nada E.; AlWanis, Areej A.; AlSanouni, Munerah S.; Al-Hamlan, Nasir H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to assess the orthodontic diagnostic skills, referral patterns, and the perceptions of orthodontic benefits of pediatric and general dentists in comparison with orthodontists. Materials and methods Two online surveys were e-mailed to pediatric dentists, general dentistry practitioners, and orthodontists registered as members of the Saudi Dental Society and the Saudi Orthodontic Society. The surveys included questions about the type of orthodontic treatment provided, referral trends, and timing; presumed benefits associated with successful orthodontic treatment; and diagnosis and treatment plans of seven cases representing different malocclusions. Results In total, 25 orthodontists, 18 pediatric dentists, and 14 general practitioners completed the survey. Only 38.8% of pediatric dentists and 7.1% of general practitioners reported that they practiced orthodontics clinically. The perceptions of the three groups toward the benefits of orthodontic treatment were comparable in the psychosocial areas. However, the orthodontists perceived significantly lesser effects of orthodontic treatment on the amelioration of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms. Pediatric dentists tended to rate the need and urgency of treatment higher, while general practitioners tended to rate the need of treatment lower. The selected treatment plans for three early malocclusion cases showed the greatest discrepancies between the orthodontists and the other two groups. Conclusions The orthodontists consistently and significantly downplayed the perceived benefit of orthodontic treatment to reduce TMD symptoms. Also, while there was a similarity in the diagnosis, there were notable differences in the proposed treatment approaches, perceived treatment need, and timing of intervention between the three groups of practitioners. PMID:25544812

  17. Lower third molar eruption following orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Salehi, P; Danaie, S Momene

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of extraction and preservation of the 1st premolar on lower 3rd molar eruption. Orthodontic clinic records from 1993 to 1995 were evaluated before and after treatment and 8-9 years after treatment for 3 groups of patients: 32 with extraction of 1st premolars in both jaws, 32 with no extraction but orthodontic treatment and 48 controls with no extraction but orthodontic treatment in the upper jaws only. Successful eruption of 3rd molars was evaluated. There was a significant difference in the rates of successful eruptions in the extraction (42%), non-extraction (12%) and control (20%) groups. The findings indicate that 1st premolar extraction may increase the chance of 3rd molar eruption, leading to a lower incidence of health and economic complications.

  18. Lower third molar eruption following orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Salehi, P; Danaie, S Momene

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of extraction and preservation of the 1st premolar on lower 3rd molar eruption. Orthodontic clinic records from 1993 to 1995 were evaluated before and after treatment and 8-9 years after treatment for 3 groups of patients: 32 with extraction of 1st premolars in both jaws, 32 with no extraction but orthodontic treatment and 48 controls with no extraction but orthodontic treatment in the upper jaws only. Successful eruption of 3rd molars was evaluated. There was a significant difference in the rates of successful eruptions in the extraction (42%), non-extraction (12%) and control (20%) groups. The findings indicate that 1st premolar extraction may increase the chance of 3rd molar eruption, leading to a lower incidence of health and economic complications. PMID:19161121

  19. Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept). The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3 years, SD 2.1 years). After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy = 37, control = 40); 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2). The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1 years (SD 0.2 years). Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test). Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study). This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS PMID:22906114

  20. Influence of orthodontic treatment on temporomandibular disorders. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cañigral, Aránzazu; López-Caballo, José L.; Brizuela, Aritza; Moreno-Hay, Isabel; del Río-Highsmith, Jaime; Vega, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this literature systematic review was to evaluate the possible association between malocclusions, orthodontic treatment and development of temporomandibular disorders. Material and Methods: A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Results The search strategy resulted in 61 articles. After selection according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria 9 articles qualified for the final analysis. The articles which linked orthodontics and development of temporomandibular disorders showed very discrepant results. Some indicated that orthodontic treatment could improve signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, but none of them obtained statistically significant differences. Conclusions According to the authors examined, there is no evidence for a cause-effect relationship between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular disorders, or that such treatment might improve or prevent them. More longitudinal studies are needed to verify any possible interrelationship. Key words:Malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders, orthodontics and facial pain, orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular dysfunction. PMID:26155354

  1. Association of orthodontic treatment needs and oral health-related quality of life in Saudi children seeking orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ali H; Hassan, Mona HA; Linjawi, Amal I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to assess the effects of different orthodontic treatment needs on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of Saudi children seeking orthodontic treatment as perceived by the children and their parents. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation of orthodontic patients and their attending parents was conducted to assess the relationship between orthodontic treatment needs and the OHRQoL. The study sample comprised 120 young orthodontic patients (36 boys, 84 girls; age range, 12–15 years). Each participant was assessed for orthodontic treatment needs and OHRQoL using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Needs and the Michigan Oral Health-related Quality of Life Scales–Version C (child) and Version PG (parent/guardian), respectively. Results Orthodontic treatment needs significantly affected mouth aching, chewing and biting, going to school, and playing. Higher income and borderline index of orthodontic treatment needs are significantly related to oral health impact on quality of life perceived by the child, while younger age and high school education are related to oral health impact on quality of life as perceived by the parent/guardians. Conclusion These findings emphasize the impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL in children. PMID:25419119

  2. Orthodontic Treatment: Need and Demand in North Karnataka School Children

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Naveen; Reddy, Suga; Vanishree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the normative need, demand and knowledge of/for/on orthodontic treatment in Karnataka school children who were aged 12-16 years. Method: A simple random selection of a sample of 1000 students who were aged 12-16 years was made. Informed consents were obtained from each subject. The dental health component (DHC) and aesthetic component (AC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and the index of complexity, outcome and need (ICON) were assessed by using the index. The knowledge and demand on/for orthodontic treatment were assessed by using a questionnaire. Results: The survey population showed 49.3%, 44.4%, and 7.1% of samples needed definite orthodontic treatment need on basis of DHC, ICON, AC respectively. In terms of treatment need, boys were more likely to seek orthodontic treatment need than girls. There was fair agreement between operator and students. A high percentage of students clearly expressed a ‘definite need’ of orthodontic treatment. Only 40% of children had some knowledge on orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: The present study showed that the awareness, need and demand for orthodontic treatment were less among school children. So, we need to enlighten the students regarding aesthetics among children. PMID:24995242

  3. Traumatic ulcers and pain during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Kvam, E; Gjerdet, N R; Bondevik, O

    1987-04-01

    In the present investigation the frequency of oral ulcers and pain in 161 orthodontic patients was recorded. Of all patients, 95% had experienced pain, but 84.5% said that the pain lasted a few days only. About 11% maintained that the treatment was constantly painful. Significantly more patients coming from private clinics complained of pain than those attending treatment at the Department of Orthodontics. About 50% said that activating or changing archwire was most annoying, whereas 28.7% said ulceration and 21% said headgear was the most annoying part of the treatment. According to 75% of the patients, sleeping habits were not influenced. Only eight patients reported truancy, and seven of these had done this only once. Of all patients, 6.2% had requested interim visits. Small wounds caused by the fixed appliance were reported by 75.8% of the patients, and 2.5% had suffered badly from ulceration caused by the fixed appliances. More girls than boys reported ulceration. There was a significant sex difference as regards recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU). Increase in the frequency of RAU was reported by 23.1% of the girls and 9.6% of the boys while they had fixed appliances.

  4. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  5. Maxillary second molar extractions in orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wilson; Wong, Ricky Wing-Kit; Ikegami, Tomio; Hägg, Urban

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of the rationales, indications, methods, and effects of orthodontic treatment with maxillary second molar extractions. In addition to the patient's malocclusion, specific considerations about the status and position of the maxillary second and third molars should be taken into account. In recent years, the development of temporary anchorage devices, in addition to extraoral traction and intraoral distalization appliances, has become another armamentarium in the distalization of the maxillary posterior teeth, which may affect the selection of teeth to be extracted from second to third molars. In conclusion, extraction of maxillary second molars is a viable option in selected cases at present, but it is important to understand the indications and limitations of this treatment choice.

  6. Orthodontic treatment of a patient with Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; de Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; de Oliveira, Aluisio Martins; de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with Lowe syndrome. The objective of the treatment was to improve the patient's dental relationships and consequently his quality of life. This was achieved by maxillary expansion and extraction of the mandibular central incisors and maxillary deciduous canines. The teeth were aligned and leveled with a fixed orthodontic appliance. Satisfactory results were obtained at the end of treatment, with substantial improvement in dental esthetics, occlusal function, and facial profile.

  7. [Orthodontic treatment and gingival hyperplasia: a case report].

    PubMed

    Bellamine, M; Ousehal, L; Kissa, J

    2012-06-01

    Gingival hyperplasia is a relatively frequent pathologic condition during orthodontic treatment. Oral hygiene can be easily altered in such cases because of additive and irritative effects of orthodontics appliances. So, adequate control of the gingival inflammation is required. The present case reports on a 13-year-old boy who developed, during orthodontic treatment, a gingival hypertrophy that was successfully treated with periodontal surgery consisting on an apically positioned flap procedure. For this purpose, multidisciplinary approach involving orthodontist and periodontist was crucial in the perspective of optimal clinical issues.

  8. Idiopathic gingival hyperplasia and orthodontic treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Clocheret, K; Dekeyser, C; Carels, C; Willems, G

    2003-03-01

    There are many reasons for gingival hyperplasia. Mostly, proper oral hygiene is sufficient to achieve normal healthy gingiva. In some situations, however, gingival hyperplasia is drug-induced or can be a manifestation of a genetic disorder. In the latter, it may exist as an isolated abnormality or as part of a syndrome. If orthodontic treatment is needed in patients with gingival hyperplasia, both orthodontic and periodontal aspects need to be considered. Extreme hereditary gingival fibromatosis was periodontally treated, by removal of all gingival excess using flaps and gingivectomies. After a follow-up period, the orthodontic treatment started with fixed appliances. Monthly periodontal check-ups (scaling and polishing) were scheduled to control the gingival inflammation. After the orthodontic treatment, permanent retention was applied, once more followed by a complete gingivectomy in both maxilla and mandible. One of the most important keys to successful treatment of hyperplasia patients is the cooperation between the periodontist and the orthodontist.

  9. Orthodontic treatment need in a Spanish young adult population

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Manzanera-Pastor, David; Almerich-Silla, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Orthodontic treatment need has often been assessed in child populations, but few studies employing internationally-recognized indices have been conducted in adult or young adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the orthodontic treatment need of a young adult population in Spain by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the need perceived by the patients. Study design: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a broad, representative sample of 671 adults aged between 35 and 44 years using health centers in the Valencia Region of Spain, following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 31.3% of the sample according to the DAI and 19.2% according to the IOTN (DHC). The orthodontic treatment need perceived by the patients was 21.1%. On relating treatment need to different variables, significant differences in patient perception were encountered by gender, as women perceived a greater need (23.9%) than men (14.4%). Significant differences in previous orthodontic treatment history were found between middle/high (15%) and low (9%) social class and between secondary/tertiary (14%) and primary (3.3%) education. Conclusions: There was no agreement between the treatment need assessed objectively by the indices and that perceived by the patient, or between the indices themselves. The decision to undergo orthodontic treatment can depend on socioeconomic and psychological factors and on values and principles that do not easily lend themselves to objective measurement. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, adult, malocclusion. PMID:22322504

  10. Orthodontic and Orthognathic Surgical Treatment of a Pediatric OSA Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The patient's severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient's sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas. PMID:27668098

  11. Orthodontic and Orthognathic Surgical Treatment of a Pediatric OSA Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The patient's severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient's sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas.

  12. Orthodontic and Orthognathic Surgical Treatment of a Pediatric OSA Patient.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The patient's severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient's sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas. PMID:27668098

  13. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  14. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment. Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20–22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans. From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant. During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the

  15. Orthodontic treatment of a mandibular incisor extraction case with invisalign.

    PubMed

    Zawawi, Khalid H

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding.

  16. Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign

    PubMed Central

    Zawawi, Khalid H.

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852

  17. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  18. Prevalence of Orthodontic Treatment Need and Occlusal Traits in Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Darnahal, Alireza; Damani, Elnaz; Talaeipour, Maziar; Kamali, Zinat

    2014-01-01

    Background. Widespread use of the IOTN along with detailed study of occlusal traits is suitable for planning community dental health resources. Objectives. The aim of current study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment among school children of Tehran by means of the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and also to evaluate the occlusal traits of the subjects. Methods. 684 (343 boys and 341 girls) school children, 15 to 17 years of age, were selected at random from 12 schools to represent the four main areas of Tehran. The final sample who met the inclusion criteria comprised 643 subjects (322 males and 321 females). Malocclusion was determined with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The IOTN grades were statistically compared in the two genders using chi-square test. Results. Orthodontic treatment need, using the DHC, was found in only 9.0 per cent of the children. The prevalence of Angle Class I malocclusion in this study was higher than other malocclusions (65.2 per cent), followed by crowding in 62.7 per cent of the subjects. Conclusion. Orthodontic treatment need for Tehran high school students was relatively lower than that reported in most recent studies in Europe. PMID:27355049

  19. A Systematic Review of Individual Motivational Factors in Orthodontic Treatment: Facial Attractiveness as the Main Motivational Factor in Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Broukal, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Physical, mental, and social consequences of malocclusion may impact the quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe main factors motivating parents for orthodontic treatment for their children. Methods. A systematic review study design was used to identify articles analyzing different motivational factors in orthodontic treatment appearing in Medline database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The search terms used were teasing, motivating factors, orthodontics, malocclusion, quality of life, smile attractiveness, and perception of malocclusion. Papers selected up to May 2013 included retrospective and prospective longitudinal studies, randomized control trials, cross-sectional studies, reviews, and meta-analyses. Results. 13 articles included in this review identified aesthetics as the main motivational factor in orthodontic treatment. Children mention teeth crowding, large overbite, missing teeth, and largest maxillary anterior irregularities also as motivational factors. Parents want their children to look nice and worry of being accused of neglecting parental duties. Conclusions. Dissatisfaction with one's appearance, dentist recommendation, interest and worries of parents, and the impact of peers who wear braces rank among the main motivation factors of seeking orthodontic treatment. Understanding these factors allows better planning of resources and better assessment of the requirements and priorities of treatment. PMID:24963296

  20. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of Severe Skeletal Class II

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.; Al-Sebaei, Maisa O.; Afify, Ahmed R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an adult Saudi male patient who presented with a severe skeletal class II deformity. The case was managed with a combination of presurgical orthodontic treatment followed by a double jaw orthognathic surgery and then another phase of orthodontic treatment for final occlusal detailing. Extraction of the four first premolars was done during the presurgical orthodontic phase of treatment to decompensate upper and lower incisors and to give room for surgical setback of the maxillary anterior segment. Double jaw surgery was performed: bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for 8 mm mandibular advancement combined with three-piece Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, 6 mm setback of the anterior segment, 8 mm impaction of the maxilla, and 5 mm advancement genioplasty. Although the anteroposterior discrepancy and the facial convexity were so severe, highly acceptable results were obtained, both esthetically as well as occlusally. PMID:23573428

  1. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nimeri, Ghada; Kau, Chung H; Corona, Rachel; Shelly, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm2 continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little’s Irregularity Index (>2 mm) in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little’s Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little’s Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected. PMID:24470774

  2. A Multivariate Descriptive Model of Motivation for Orthodontic Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Paul M. W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Motivation for receiving orthodontic treatment was studied among 109 young adults, and a multivariate model of the process is proposed. The combination of smallest scale analysis and Partial Order Scalogram Analysis by base Coordinates (POSAC) illustrates an interesting methodology for health treatment studies and explores motivation for dental…

  3. Iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and modalities of prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meeran, Nazeer Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of orthodontic treatment are numerous and in most cases, the benefits outweigh the possible disadvantages. Orthodontic treatment can play an important role in enhancing esthetics, function, and self-esteem in patients. However, it carries with it the risks of enamel demineralization, tissue damage, root resorption, open gingival embrasures in the form of triangular spaces, allergic reactions to nickel, and treatment failure in the form of relapse. These potential complications are easily avoidable by undertaking certain precautions and timely interventions by both the orthodontist and the patient. The orthodontist must ensure that the patient is aware of the associated risks and stress the importance of the patient's role in preventing these untoward outcomes. The decision whether to proceed with the orthodontic treatment is essentially a risk-benefit analysis, where the perceived benefits of commencing treatment outweigh the potential risks. This article provides an overview of the iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and the role of the patient as well as the orthodontist in preventing the associated risks. PMID:24987646

  4. Some comments on clinical studies in orthodontics and their applications to orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S

    1999-06-01

    This article indicates the origins and background of the current series of National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research-funded, university-based clinical studies of orthodontic treatment. It suggests that future studies should be less focused on refining our estimates of mean changes during treatment and concentrate research on the systematic analysis of individual differences among patients' responses to treatment, and study how skilled clinicians make in-course corrections in response to unexpected changes in treatment conditions. Finally, some suggestions are made concerning optimization of decision making in the presence of uncertainty.

  5. Predictors of fixed orthodontic treatment in 15-year-old adolescents in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Allister, J H; Brennan, D S

    1995-12-01

    An understanding of the determinants of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment would be beneficial in the planning of any system aimed at rationalising supply. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine those factors which were predictive of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment in adolescents. Baseline data, at age 13 years, on oral health, the history of orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care, a dental appearance score (DAI), socio-demographic characteristics and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and need for fixed orthodontic treatment were obtained from 2793 adolescents under the care of the South Australian School Dental Service who had not undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Data on the orthodontic care provided to these adolescents in the ensuing 2 years were collected. At the end of the 24-month period 433 adolescents (15.5%) had undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Significant bivariate associations were found between the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment and the DAI score, sex of the adolescent, familial history of fixed orthodontic treatment, income, private insurance, orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and the need for fixed orthodontic treatment. Logistic regression was used to produce a predictive model of fixed orthodontic treatment. The model explained 30.2% of the variance, with a specificity of 0.94, a sensitivity of 0.49 and a hit rate of 0.84%. Odds ratios greater than one were found for the DAI score, private insurance, females, self and parental perception of need, higher incomes and orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years. PMID:8681517

  6. Psychological influences on the timing of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Tung, A W; Kiyak, H A

    1998-01-01

    Debates about the "ideal" timing of orthodontic treatment have focused on issues of biologic development and readiness. In this article we examine psychologic issues that should be considered in the decision to initiate orthodontics in the younger child or to wait until adolescence or later. Psychologic development during the preadolescent and adolescent stages may influence the child's motive for, understanding of, and adherence to treatment regimens. Results of a study of some personality characteristics, motives, and aesthetic values of young phase I patients are presented. Questionnaires were completed by 75 children (mean age 10.85 years, 52.1% female, 84% white) and their parents. Children's perceived reasons for treatment were consistent with their parents' reports (chi 2 = 76.08, p < .001); most were referred for crowded teeth (56%) and overbite (17.3%). Although body image and self-concept scores were within the normal range, both children and their parents expected the most improvement in self-image and oral function, with greater expectations by parents on self-image (p < .0001), oral function (p < .0001), and social life (p < .03) than children themselves. Although white and minority children were similar in their self-ratings and expectations from orthodontics, the former were more critical in their aesthetic judgments. They rated faces with crowded teeth (p < .02), overbite (p < .02), and diastema (p < .01) more negatively than did ethnic minorities. These results suggest that younger children are good candidates for Phase I orthodontics, have high self-esteem and body-image, and expect orthodontics to improve their lives. White children who have been referred for Phase I orthodontics appear to have a narrower range of aesthetic acceptability than minority children.

  7. Serial extraction or premolar extraction in the permanent dentition? Comparison of duration and outcome of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M; Berg, R

    2000-01-01

    Treatment outcome and duration of 2 different treatment approaches in 2 groups of comparable extraction cases were analyzed: Group I: serial extraction performed in the early mixed dentition followed by orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition; group II: extractions as well as orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. The following conclusions were reached: 1. The treatment period with fixed appliances was highly significantly shorter in group I; however, the number of appointments was significantly higher and the total duration of treatment/observation time significantly longer. 2. In both groups the reduction in PAR score was either improved or greatly improved in all cases.

  8. Understanding the basis of space closure in Orthodontics for a more efficient orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Gerson Luiz Ulema; Jacob, Helder B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Space closure is one of the most challenging processes in Orthodontics and requires a solid comprehension of biomechanics in order to avoid undesirable side effects. Understanding the biomechanical basis of space closure better enables clinicians to determine anchorage and treatment options. In spite of the variety of appliance designs, space closure can be performed by means of friction or frictionless mechanics, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. Friction mechanics or sliding mechanics is attractive because of its simplicity; the space site is closed by means of elastics or coil springs to provide force, and the brackets slide on the orthodontic archwire. On the other hand, frictionless mechanics uses loop bends to generate force to close the space site, allowing differential moments in the active and reactive units, leading to a less or more anchorage control, depending on the situation. Objective: This article will discuss various theoretical aspects and methods of space closure based on biomechanical concepts. PMID:27275623

  9. Laser Application in Prevention of Demineralization in Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadr Haghighi, Hooman; Skandarinejad, Mahsa; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan

    2013-01-01

    One common negative side effect of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is the development of incipient caries lesions around brackets, particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene. Different methods have been used to prevent demineralization such as fluoride therapy and application of sealant to prevent caries. The recent effort to improve the resistance against the demineralization is by the application of different types of lasers. The purpose of this review article is discussing the effects of laser in prevention of demineralization in orthodontic patients. PMID:25606317

  10. [Pain and discomfort in orthodontic treatments. Literature review].

    PubMed

    Koritsánszky, Nelli; Madléna, Melinda

    2011-12-01

    The experience of pain and discomfort during orthodontic treatment is common. Pain is a subjective response to noxious stimuli, but it is also influenced by age, gender, previous pain experience, emotional factors and stress. The ortodontic treatments such as separation, placement of the arch wire, activation of the fix or removable appliances and debonding cause some degree of pain for the patient. In a prospective study 95% of the patients reported pain experience during orthodontic treatment. The periodontal pain caused by the combination of pressure, ischemia, inflammation and oedema. The pain starts within 4 hours, increases over the next 24 hours, and decrease within 7 days, so it may not be identified by the orthodontist at recall visit. The most common method to measure the intensity of the pain is the NRS (numerical rating scale), where patients can rate their pain intensity from 1 to 10 or 1 to 100. There are many modalities to control orthodontic pain, we can use different analgesic agents, solf-laser irradiation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and hypnotherapy. The aim of this review to provide an overview on discomfort and pain reaction during orthodontic treatments and discussion of the possible measurement and alleviation of pain.

  11. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lopatiene, Kristina; Lapenaite, Egle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. Results 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15). Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs) (P < 0.05); fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05). Conclusions Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots. PMID:27489605

  12. Immigrant background and orthodontic treatment need. Quantitative and qualitative studies in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Need--Dental Health Component" (IOTN-DHC) grades 4 and 5, ranged from 30 to 40 per cent, without any inter-group differences. There were strong associations between subjects perceiving a need for orthodontic treatment and IOTN-DHC grades 4 and 5, anterior crossbite and avoiding smiling because they were self-conscious about their teeth. At the age of 18-19 years, the frequency of malocclusion was similar in all groups. Subjects of Asian origin had a higher self-perceived orthodontic treatment need than their Swedish counterparts and a higher frequency of headache than those of Eastern/Southeastern European origin. Psychological wellbeing was reduced in nearly one quarter of the sample, more frequently in girls than boys. No association was found between self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and psychological wellbeing. The theory "Being under the pressure of social norms" was generated in Paper V, and it can be applied to improve our understanding of young adults who have adjusted to living with poor dental aesthetics and also aid to identify those who are not as well-adjusted and would probably benefit from treatment. Undisclosed dental fear is an important barrier to acceptance of orthodontic treatment in early adolescence. Despite demographic changes due to immigration, no major change in the prevalence of malocclusion and normative orthodontic treatment need has been disclosed. This does not apply to adolescents and adults who immigrated at an older age.

  13. Evaluation of dental morphometrics during the orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnostic orthodontic and prosthetic procedures commence with an initial examination, during which a number of individual findings on occlusion or malocclusion are clarified. Nowadays we try to replace standard plaster casts by scanned objects and digital models. Method Geometrically calibrated images aid in the comparison of several different steps of the treatment and show the variation of selected features belonging to individual biomedical objects. The methods used are based on geometric morphometrics, making a new approach to the evaluation of the variability of features. The study presents two different methods of measurement and shows their accuracy and reliability. Results The experimental part of the present paper is devoted to the analysis of the dental arch objects of 24 patients before and after the treatment using the distances between the canines and premolars as the features important for diagnostic purposes. Our work proved the advantage of measuring digitalized orthodontic models over manual measuring of plaster casts, with statistically significant results and accuracy sufficient for dental practice. Conclusion A new method of computer imaging and measurements of a dental stone cast provides information with the precision required for orthodontic treatment. The results obtained point to the reduction in the variance of the distances between the premolars and canines during the treatment, with a regression coefficient RC=0.7 and confidence intervals close enough for dental practice. The ratio of these distances pointed to the nearly constant value of this measure close to 0.84 for the given set of 24 individuals. PMID:24893983

  14. Conservative orthodontic treatment of mandibular bilateral condyle fracture.

    PubMed

    Gašpar, Goran; Brakus, Ivan; Kovačić, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    Maxillofacial trauma is rare in children younger than the age of 5 years (range 0.6%-1.2%), and they can require different clinical treatment strategies compared with fractures in the adult population because of concerns regarding mandibular growth and development of dentition. A 5-year-old girl with a history of falling from a bicycle 7 hours earlier was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Multislice computed tomographic examination demonstrated a bilateral fracture of the mandibular condyle neck associated with minimal fracture of the alveolar ridge of the maxilla. The multislice computed tomographic scan also demonstrated dislocation on the right condyle neck and, on the left side, a medial inclination of approximately 45 degrees associated with greenstick fracture of the right parasymphysis region. In this particular case, orthodontic rubber elastics in combination with fixed orthodontic brackets provided good results in the treatment of bilateral condyle neck fractures associated with greenstick fracture of parasymphysis.

  15. Effects of chlorhexidine (gel) application on bacterial levels and orthodontic brackets during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Al-Bazi, Samar M; Abbassy, Mona A; Bakry, Ahmed S; Merdad, Leena A; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of applying 0.50% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel using the dental drug delivery system (3DS) on salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and on the surface topography of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. The study involved 20 orthodontic patients with high levels of salivary S. mutans. The patients were treated with professional mechanical tooth cleaning followed by application of 0.50% CHX using individual trays (3DS). Salivary S. mutans levels were repeatedly measured 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-treatment. In vitro study utilized forty ceramic and metallic brackets that were immersed in 0.50% CHX gel for 10 min, whereas another untreated forty brackets served as controls. The frictional resistances of stainless steel wires to the brackets before and after CHX treatment were recorded using a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in the surface topography of brackets. Statistical analyses were used to determine the effect of CHX on bacterial count and to evaluate the effect of CHX on frictional resistance. According to the results of this study, S. mutans levels were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the frictional resistance and surface topography of brackets before or after application of CHX. (J Oral Sci 58, 35-42, 2016). PMID:27021538

  16. Combined orthodontic and periodontic treatment in a child with Papillon Lefèvre syndrome

    PubMed Central

    AlSarheed, Maha A.; Al-Sehaibany, Fares S.

    2015-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) was treated orthodontically 24 months after the start of mechanical and antibiotic therapy in adjunct with periodontal treatment every 6 weeks. After achieving stable periodontal conditions, orthodontic treatment was commenced to correct the teeth position, facial profile, and maxillary protraction. Following the combination therapy and a failure to detect Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from any site in the oral cavity, orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance was performed aside from creating space for eruption of permanent teeth. We found that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment of PLS may be successful with a complex interdisciplinary regimen and close follow up. This is a 2-year follow-up case report of a girl with PLS. Orthodontic and periodontic therapy were offered using combined treatments of orthodontic and periodontal with the benefit of prosthodontic consultation, resulting in a treatment plan. PMID:26219452

  17. Combined orthodontic and periodontic treatment in a child with Papillon Lefèvre syndrome.

    PubMed

    AlSarheed, Maha A; Al-Sehaibany, Fares S

    2015-08-01

    A 9-year-old girl with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) was treated orthodontically 24 months after the start of mechanical and antibiotic therapy in adjunct with periodontal treatment every 6 weeks. After achieving stable periodontal conditions, orthodontic treatment was commenced to correct the teeth position, facial profile, and maxillary protraction. Following the combination therapy and a failure to detect Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from any site in the oral cavity, orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance was performed aside from creating space for eruption of permanent teeth. We found that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment of PLS may be successful with a complex interdisciplinary regimen and close follow up. This is a 2-year follow-up case report of a girl with PLS. Orthodontic and periodontic therapy were offered using combined treatments of orthodontic and periodontal with the benefit of prosthodontic consultation, resulting in a treatment plan. PMID:26219452

  18. [The relationship between the length of orthodontic treatment and patient compliance].

    PubMed

    Roykó, A; Dénes, Z; Razouk, G

    1999-03-01

    Based on the results of the psychological tests and their clinical experience, the authors conclude as follows: 1. At the beginning of the orthodontic treatment the fear of the unknown is dominating, but later on the aesthetic desires gain more importance than the first reaction. 2. The compliance and the length of the orthodontic treatment show an indirect proportional relationship. The compliance is stronger in case of a shorter and more successful orthodontic treatment.

  19. Evaluation of esthetic component of the index of orthodontic treatment need: The orthodontists’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Pooja; Singh, Harpreet

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The purpose was to assess orthodontic treatment need in a subpopulation as assessed by the orthodontists. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a sample population of 753 patients aged 20–25 years to assess the need for orthodontic treatment using the esthetic component (AC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN). Results: The AC revealed that 78.1% of the sample exhibited no or slight need for treatment, 13.2% demonstrated moderate to borderline need, and 8.7% proved to have a definite need for orthodontic treatment. Conclusions: The AC-IOTN can definitely be considered to be used as a powerful tool for prioritizing orthodontic triage, patient counseling, and planning desired orthodontic mechanotherapy. PMID:26752877

  20. Temporary Anchorage Device: An Epitome of Anchorage in Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, US Krishna; Hegde, Amitha M; Jacob, Mary

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important phases of oral health is the form and function of the oral mechanism. Recently, pediatric dentists are concerned with the obvious esthetic disabilities and the pathologic implications of the malposed teeth. Interceptive and functional orthodontic treatment is playing a major role in these discrepancies. Anchorage is an important consideration in orthodontics, particularly if force is applied entirely to the teeth. For many years, clinicians have searched for a form of anchorage that does not rely on patient cooperation. During the last few decades, a wealth of new information has accumulated to such an extent that the present authors thought it appropriate to let these advances make an impact by suggesting a revised definition and classification of anchorage. This paper also gives a brief insight on evolution of anchorage and its application in pediatric dentistry.

  1. Temporary Anchorage Device: An Epitome of Anchorage in Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, US Krishna; Hegde, Amitha M; Jacob, Mary

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important phases of oral health is the form and function of the oral mechanism. Recently, pediatric dentists are concerned with the obvious esthetic disabilities and the pathologic implications of the malposed teeth. Interceptive and functional orthodontic treatment is playing a major role in these discrepancies. Anchorage is an important consideration in orthodontics, particularly if force is applied entirely to the teeth. For many years, clinicians have searched for a form of anchorage that does not rely on patient cooperation. During the last few decades, a wealth of new information has accumulated to such an extent that the present authors thought it appropriate to let these advances make an impact by suggesting a revised definition and classification of anchorage. This paper also gives a brief insight on evolution of anchorage and its application in pediatric dentistry. PMID:27672255

  2. Oral tissues and orthodontic treatment: common side effects.

    PubMed

    Farronato, G; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Cannalire, P; Martinelli, G; Tubertini, I; Maspero, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a literature review about the problems that can occur during orthodontic treatment. Using the PubMed database we collected items that would provide information regarding the direct consequences of the placement of an orthodontic appliance: coming to the discussion of the following topics: candida infections, the effects on the soft tissues, the effects on periodontal tissues and effects on hard tissues. The presence of appliances in the oral cavity increases the prevalence of people with candida, specifically the species Candida Albicans is the most frequently isolated. The balance between the clearance of the microorganism, the colonization and the state of candidiasis depends both on the virulence of the fungus, and the competence of the host immune system. On soft tissues, cases of ulceration of the upper jaw by a rapid palatal expander and pyogenic granuloma due to quad helix appliance have been reported. The second one is mostly observed on vestibular gingiva. The first one was found, however, in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 because of the tissue modifications induced by this pathological condition. The more severe periodontic effects are those caused by incorrect use of orthodontic elastic separators. Finally, the White Spot Lesions are the direct consequences of a wrong conditioning of enamel when attaching the bracket. They represent a first stage of caries in the positioning area of the bracket. The orthodontist is required to intercept these issues not to affect the success of the treatment. PMID:24270203

  3. [Orthodontic treatment need in school-age children in the Leningrad region].

    PubMed

    Bagnenko, N M; Bagnenko, A S; Grebnev, G A; Madai, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of dentoalveolar anomalies is undoubtedly important, but in terms of the organization of orthodontic care, greater interest are data on the needs in this type of treatment. In a situation of limited manpower and resources for the provision of orthodontic care information about needs in orthodontic treatment allows you to define a group of patients with the primary need for orthodontic treatment, and to identify priorities to optimize the organization of orthodontic care in the region. Such data can be obtained by using the Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of various forms of dentoalveolar anomalies school-age children of Kirishi district of Leningrad region, as well as their needs in orthodontic treatment in accordance with objective evaluation indices. The study involved 734 pupils of Kirishi lyceum №1 of Leningrad region. Analysis of the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies, as well as needs in the orthodontic treatment was conducted in three age groups: I mixed dentition period (6-9 years), II mixed dentition period (10-13 years), and permanent dentition (14-17). To determine the needs in the orthodontic treatment were used two most common international index (DAI and IOTN). In Kirishi district of Leningrad region dentoalveolar anomalies were found in 88.8% of children of school age, which is in accordance with the indices and IOTN DAI needs in orthodontic treatment is 38.8% and 54.5%, respectively. In order to reduce unnecessarily high load volume medical institutions orthodontic profile, optimize utilization of financial resources, as well as reducing social tension it is recommended to introduce the practice of doctors-orthodontists methodology for determining the needs in orthodontic treatment by objective indices. PMID:27239997

  4. Orthodontists' views on indications for and timing of orthodontic treatment in Finnish public oral health care.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilpo; Pietilä, Terttu; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Varrela, Juha; Alanen, Pentti

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in the views of Finnish orthodontists on the indications for orthodontic treatment, timing of orthodontic assessment, and treatment methods used. The views were elicited by a questionnaire that was sent to all 146 specialist orthodontists under 65 years of age living in Finland in 2001. The response rate was 57 per cent. The association between an orthodontist's experience and timing of treatment was tested by Fisher's exact test. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the demographic characteristics of orthodontists and the tendency to start Class II division I treatment early. Most orthodontists recommended that the first assessment of occlusion should be carried out before 7 years of age. A crossbite was mentioned as the most frequent indication for treatment in the primary and early mixed dentition, and a severe Class II division I malocclusion with an increased overjet as the most frequent indication in the late mixed dentition. Most respondents preferred early treatment, but there was a wide variation in the choice of appliances and in the timing of treatment of malocclusions other than crossbite and Class II malocclusions. A quadhelix, headgear, and the eruption guidance appliance were the most frequently used appliances in early treatment, with fixed appliances being most frequently used during the late mixed and permanent dentition phase. Orthodontists working full time in municipal health centres tended to prefer early treatment more often than those working part-time or outside health centres. There was no statistically significant association between an orthodontist's experience and timing of Class II division I and Class III treatment (P = 0.142 and P = 0.296, respectively). The preference for an early start in Class II division I treatment might be related to differing professional decisions, but no explaining factors could be found in the regression

  5. Perception of the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment among orthodontists

    PubMed Central

    Coêlho, Thaís Gonzalez da Silveira; Caracas, Hugo Cesar Pinto Marques

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The consensus about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment has gone from a cause and effect association between TMD and orthodontic treatment to the idea that there is no reliable evidence supporting this statement. OBJECTIVE: To assess the beliefs, despite scientific evidence, of Brazilian orthodontists about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment with regards to treatment, prevention and etiology of TMD. METHODS: A survey about the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment was prepared and sent to Brazilian orthodontists by e-mail and social networks. Answers were treated by means of descriptive statistics and strong associations between variables were assessed by qui-square test. RESULTS: The majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment not only is not the best treatment option for TMD, but also is not able to prevent TMD. Nevertheless, the majority of orthodontists believe that orthodontic treatment can cause TMD symptoms. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that orthodontists' beliefs about the relationship between orthodontic treatment and TMD are in accordance with scientific evidence only when referring to treatment and prevention of TMD. The majority of orthodontists believe that, despite scientific evidence, orthodontic treatment can cause TMD. PMID:25741824

  6. Guidelines for periodontal care and follow-up during orthodontic treatment in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    LEVIN, Liran; EINY, Shmuel; ZIGDON, Hadar; AIZENBUD, Dror; MACHTEI, Eli E.

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by non-contributory medical history, rapid attachment loss and bone destruction and familial aggregation of cases. Aggressive periodontitis (both localized and generalized) is usually diagnosed in a young population. This is frequently the age that an orthodontic care is provided to this population. The aim of the present paper is to draw guidelines for periodontal evaluation and monitoring prior to and during active orthodontic treatment. Strict adherence to these guidelines as a routine protocol for periodontal examination prior, during and following orthodontic treatment may dramatically decrease the severity and improve the prognosis of patients with aggressive periodontitis in orthodontic clinics. PMID:23032199

  7. Effect of heat treatment on stainless steel orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido; Kasbergen, Geraldo Francisco; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos; Mendonça, Marcos Rogério de; Tondelli, Pedro Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of heat treatment on CrNi stainless steel orthodontic archwires. Half of forty archwires of each thickness - 0.014" (0.35 mm), 0.016" (0.40 mm), 0.018" (0.45 mm) and 0.020" (0.50 mm) (totalling 160 archwires) - were subjected to heat treatment while the remainder were not. All of the archwires had their individual thickness measured in the anterior and posterior regions using AutoCad 2000 software before and after compressive and tensile strength testing. The data was statistically analysed utilising multivariance ANOVA at a 5% significance level. All archwires without heat treatment that were subjected to tensile strength testing presented with anterior opening, which was more accentuated in the 0.020" archwires. In the posterior region, the opening produced by the tensile force was more accentuated in the archwires without heat treatment. There was greater stability in the thermally treated archwires, especially those subjected to tensile strength testing, which indicates that the heat treatment of orthodontic archwires establishes a favourable and indispensable condition to preserve the intercanine width. PMID:21359492

  8. The development of an index of orthodontic treatment priority.

    PubMed

    Brook, P H; Shaw, W C

    1989-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reproducible index of orthodontic treatment priority. After reviewing the available literature, it was felt that this could be best achieved by using two separate components to record firstly the dental health and functional indications for treatment, and secondly the aesthetic impairment caused by the malocclusion. A modification of the index used by the Swedish Dental Health Board was used to record the need for orthodontic treatment on dental health and functional grounds. This index was modified by defining five grades, with precise dividing lines between each grade. An illustrated 10-point scale was used to assess independently the aesthetic treatment need of the patients. This scale was constructed using dental photographs of 12-year-olds collected during a large multi-disciplinary survey. Six non-dental judges rated these photographs on a visual analogue scale, and at equal intervals along the judged range, representative photographs were chosen. To test the index in use, two sample populations were defined; a group of patients referred for treatment, and a random sample of 11-12-year-old schoolchildren. Both samples were examined using the index and satisfactory levels of intra- and inter-examiner agreement were obtained. PMID:2792220

  9. Orthodontic treatment need, outcome and residual treatment need in 15- and 20-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Bjerklin, Krister; Lindsten, Rune; Tunge, Jannicke Sagevik; Sjövall, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate orthodontic treatment need and the outcome of orthodontic treatment in 15-, and 20-year-olds in Jönköping, Sweden, with special reference to residual treatment need. An offer to participate in a clinical investigation was extended to random samples of 130 15-year-olds and 130 20-year-olds. Ninety-six of the 15-year-olds (73.3%; 45 boys and 51 girls) and 82 of the 20-year-olds (62.6%; 47 males and 35 females) accepted and presented for examination The participants filled in a questionnaire and impressions were taken for study models, which were graded according to the ICON index. In all, 39 (40.6%) of the 15-year-olds and 38 (46.3%) of the 20-year-olds had undergone or were currently undergoing orthodontic treatment. Ninety-one per cent of the 15-year-olds and 84% of the 20-year-olds considered that the orthodontic treatment goals had been fully or almost fully attained. Two of the 15-year-olds and two of the 20-year-olds currently wanted orthodontic treatment. This indicates a residual treatment demand of about 2%.

  10. Nickel hypersensitivity and orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gölz, Lina; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Jäger, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Nickel-containing alloys are widely used in orthodontic appliances, even though nickel is by far the most common contact allergen. However, the scientific evidence concerning allergic reactions to nickel in orthodontic patients has not been evaluated systematically. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the prevalence of nickel hypersensitivity is affected by orthodontic treatment. Unrestricted electronic and manual searches were performed until July 2013 for human clinical studies assessing orthodontic treatment and nickel hypersensitivity. Methodological limitations were evaluated with the Downs and Black tool. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from random-effects meta-analyses, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Thirty studies were included in the review, and 24 datasets with 10 184 patients in the meta-analyses. Orthodontic treatment had no significant effect on nickel hypersensitivity (n = 11; crude OR 0.99; 95%CI: 0.78-1.25; p = 0.914). However, when confounding from factors such as sex and piercings was taken into account, orthodontic treatment was associated with a lower risk of hypersensitivity (n = 1; adjusted OR 0.60; 95%CI: 0.40-0.80; p < 0.001). This was even more pronounced when orthodontic treatment was performed prior to piercing (n = 7; crude OR 0.35; 95%CI: 0.24-0.50; p < 0.001). Orthodontic treatment seems to have a protective role against nickel hypersensitivity, especially when it precedes piercings.

  11. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics and desire for orthodontic treatment among Chinese undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Song; Zhang, Chuqin; Ni, Chulei; Qian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in undergraduate students in the People’s Republic of China and to investigate the association between normal orthodontic treatment needs, psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics, and desire for orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in two universities in a city of the People’s Republic of China with 374 young adults aged between 19 years and 24 years. The students answered a Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) and addressed their desire for orthodontic treatment. Objective malocclusion severity was assessed with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS software (Version 15.0). Results There was no statistical sex difference in relation to the dental health component of IOTN (P=0.893) and PIDAQ scores (P=0.06), but it was found that the desire for orthodontic treatment was significantly stronger among females. The total and subscale PIDAQ scores and malocclusion severity differed significantly among the five grades of desire (P<0.01). Significant positive correlation was found among desire for orthodontic treatment, IOTN-dental health component grades, and total or subscale PIDAQ scores (P<0.01). High correlation was found between desire and PIDAQ score (r=0.93). Conclusion The desire for orthodontic treatment is higher among female young adults who have the same orthodontic treatment needs compared to males. The desire for orthodontic treatment has high positive correlation with PIDAQ scores and increases with the increase in self-perceived psychosocial impacts of malocclusion and the needs for orthodontic treatment. PMID:27354773

  12. Tip Edge/Controlled Arch System: total orthodontic/orthopedic treatment.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T E

    2000-01-01

    In recent years orthodontic therapy has improved dramatically thanks to perceptive orthodontic practitioners willing to optimize various combination of treatment modalities to effect enhanced results for their patients. Advances in metallurgy, appliance design and mechanics influence the scope of orthodontic practice on almost a daily basis. Incorporating these advancements with a new understanding of facial esthetics creates many opportunities for orthodontic practitioners to refine their treatment philosophy. This article is intended to introduce the tip edge practitioner to a system which blends the uniqueness of Tip Edge "fixed functional" bracket with the principal advantages of straightwire mechanics and treatment philosophy. This complete orthodontic system focuses on arch development, of harmonious, well-supported facial features and maintaining complete case control throughout treatment. The full utilization of Tip Edge bracket prescription is accomplished through the appropriate sequencing of thermal nickel titanium archwires and stainless steel rectangular archwires. PMID:12442721

  13. Treatment outcomes in 3 modes of orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Donald R; Baumrind, Sheldon; Vlaskalic, Vicki

    2002-02-01

    This study examined differences in pretreatment severity and treatment outcome among orthodontic patients treated in 3 different practice-management modes. Samples of pretreatment (T1) and end of treatment (T2) study casts were selected from traditional private practices (TPP, 3 offices, 81 cases), a dental corporation (COMP, 2 offices, 53 cases), and a dental management service organization (DMSO, 1 office, 36 cases). Orthodontic specialists had treated all patients. Cases were initially selected on a consecutive start basis. From each practice, the first 30 cases satisfying the study criteria were included in the sample. The T1 and T2 study casts were evaluated with the PAR and HLD indexes. The PAR and HLD indexes showed a high level of agreement on T1 cast scores but not on the T2 casts. Mean T1 scores were highest in the COMP cases, followed by the DMSO and the TPP cases. T2 scores were lowest in the TPP cases, followed by the DMSO and the COMP cases. The percentage of PAR score reduction showed that, in all 3 modes, patients were treated to a high standard.

  14. Dental visits, oral hygiene behaviour, and orthodontic treatment in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Pascale; Zemp, Elisabeth; Weiss, Carine; Weiger, Roland; Menghini, Giorgio; Zitzmann, Nicola U

    2012-01-01

    Since the first survey in 1992/93, the Swiss Health Survey (SHS) has been repeated every 5 years (1997, 2002 and 2007). In the present study, dental visits (dental care utilisation within the last 12 months), oral hygiene measures and the frequency of orthodontic treatments in the Swiss population in 2002 were examined and dental visits were compared with the years 1992/93, 1997 and 2007. Weighted data were analysed regarding different sociodemographic factors. From 1992 to 2002, dental visits among the 15-74-year-old declined continuously (1992/93: 70%, 1997: 66%, 2002: 63%), whereas in 2007 a slight increase (66%) was documented. In the survey from 2002, a large proportion (74%) of the population stated to clean their teeth or prostheses several times a day, predominantly with a manual toothbrush, whereas 28% applied an electric toothbrush and almost half of the respondents also used dental floss or toothpicks. Fewer visits and less intensive oral hygiene measures were observed among the elderly, men, weak social strata, smokers, persons with more than 8 missing teeth and in the group with removable dentures. Almost a quarter of the population had orthodontic treatment with the highest proportion among the 15-24-year-old (56%).

  15. Effect of Fixed Orthodontic Treatment on Salivary Flow, pH and Microbial Count

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Sepideh; Abouei Mehrizi, Ehsan; Ebrahimi Khanghah, Anita; Naseh, Roya; Imani, Mohammad Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the changes in saliva properties and oral microbial flora in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Two important saliva properties namely the salivary flow rate and pH as well as oral microbial flora were assessed in 30 orthodontic patients before starting fixed orthodontic treatment and after six, 12 and 18 weeks of treatment. Selective media, Sabouraud dextrose agar, Mitis salivarius agar and Rogosa agar were used for isolation of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using Friedman and Dunn’s tests. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: After six, 12 and 18 weeks of commencing fixed orthodontic treatment, the total colony counts of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus showed a significant increase. The saliva pH decreased during the orthodontic treatment (P< 0.05) while the salivary flow did not change significantly. Conclusions: Fixed orthodontic treatment causes major changes in the saliva properties. The changes in oral microflora and saliva properties show the importance of caries preventive measures during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27536324

  16. Treatment of Bignathic Malocclusions With Multistage Active Force Orthodontic Movements in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Lothamer, Chad W; Soukup, Jason W

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Untreated malocclusions may lead to negative oral health sequelae including, but not limited to, pain, dental trauma, periodontal disease, and endodontic disease. Thus, orthodontic treatments of malocclusion in companion animals are often pursued for reasons other than cosmesis. Treatment may provide a pain-free, functional occlusion with the opportunity for the best possible long-term oral health. This report describes the multistage orthodontic treatment of a bignathic malocclusion in a cat, highlighting the complexities and complications that may arise with orthodontic movement of multiple teeth. PMID:27487651

  17. Treatment of Bignathic Malocclusions With Multistage Active Force Orthodontic Movements in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Lothamer, Chad W; Soukup, Jason W

    2016-03-01

    Abstract Untreated malocclusions may lead to negative oral health sequelae including, but not limited to, pain, dental trauma, periodontal disease, and endodontic disease. Thus, orthodontic treatments of malocclusion in companion animals are often pursued for reasons other than cosmesis. Treatment may provide a pain-free, functional occlusion with the opportunity for the best possible long-term oral health. This report describes the multistage orthodontic treatment of a bignathic malocclusion in a cat, highlighting the complexities and complications that may arise with orthodontic movement of multiple teeth.

  18. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    PubMed

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-01

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times. PMID:25281203

  19. The extended tentacles of laser - From diagnosis to treatment in orthodontics: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Milling Tania, S. D.; Sathiasekar, Cynthia; Anison, Job Jacob; Samyukta Reddy, B. V.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of lasers in dentistry in the mid-1990's, research in laser supported dental therapies is progressing at a rapid pace. Orthodontics is no exception. In orthodontics, lasers have many diagnostic, therapeutic, and biomodulating applications. To update the various applications of lasers in orthodontics. Lasers work by delivering energy in the form of light. Laser, striking the biological tissues can either get reflected, absorbed or scattered depending on several factors. Depending on the fate of the emitted laser, it can be applied for different diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical procedures. The knowledge and understanding of different types of lasers and its specific applications is a prerequisite before it can be applied beneficially. In Orthodontics, the versatility of laser has expanded into bonding, curing, debonding, imaging, growth modification, pain reduction, etc. Definitely laser has extended its tentacles from diagnosis to treatment in orthodontics. PMID:26538884

  20. Combined orthodontic-surgical approach in the treatment of impacted maxillary canines: three clinical cases

    PubMed Central

    SPUNTARELLI, M.; CECCHETTI, F.; ARCURI, L.; TESTI, D.; MELONE, P.; BIGELLI, E.; GERMANO, F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaction of maxillary canine is a relatively frequent orthodontic anomaly which could represent fuctional and aesthetic problems for patients. Nowadays, the conventional technique to impacted canines consists of a combined orthodontic and surgical approach, aimed to guide cuspids at the center of the alveolar ridge in a stable position and surrounded by healthy hard and soft tissues. This article presents three cases studies with different combined surgical-orthodontic approaches for the treatment of infraosseous impacted canines. An impacted maxillary canine could be guided, after adequate space is created orthodontically, to the center of the ridge through an orthodontic traction directly applied to the crown of impacted cuspid. Several surgical techniques have been proposed to expose the crown of impacted tooth. Location (buccal or palatal side) of impactation and depth influence surgical approach in order to obtain best aesthetic and functional results. PMID:27555906

  1. Mathematical formulation of biomechanical parameters used in orthodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishna, A.; Vamsi, Ch. Raghu; Rao, V. D. Prasad; Swamy, Ch. Kishore; Kuladeep, B.

    2015-05-01

    Orthodontic Treatment is being widely practiced around the world for teeth straightening and extraction to improve alignment of remaining teeth. Here, forces are applied to correct the position of teeth. The force applied on the teeth isn't calibrated and applied arbitrarily based on the recommendations from scientific research and experience of the orthodontist. The number of settings and the total time required for the completion of treatment also remains arbitrary. So, there is a need for determining the force which is actually acting on the teeth and determining the optimal force required for the treatment of each and every individual case. In this paper a mathematical relation is derived between the force applied on the tooth and tooth displacement by considering a 2nd order non-homogeneous linear differential equation. As the tooth displacement is not a direct function of force applied, Biomechanical parameters like mass of tooth, stiffness and damping coefficient of periodontal ligament & alveolar bone are involved in the differential equation. By solving the equation, tooth displacement thereby, tooth velocity can be obtained for a particular force. On the other hand, based on the dimensions of the model, orthodontist could determine the total tooth displacement required for each setting of the treatment, so that, the total displacement is covered. The orthodontist uses the data and applies the required force on to the teeth, based on which the orthodontist can plan his treatment procedure and reduce the number of settings, total treatment time and also increases the success rate of the treatment.

  2. How home care is essential to ensuring successful orthodontic treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2004-09-01

    Patients can significantly affect the outcome of their orthodontic treatment. A practice committed to developing the right systems, scripts, and educational materials will experience a more satisfied patient, increased efficiencies, and higher profits. Educating and motivating patients to maintain their oral health and providing recommendations or dispensing of home care tools such as a power toothbrush increases patient compliance, positively impacts treatment outcomes, enhances customer service, and generates a new revenue stream for the practice. In a tight economy and a highly competitive orthodontic market, a power toothbrush can positively impact your marketing and case close rate. Treatment and fees being relatively equal, patients will tend to accept treatment from a practice that can demonstrate concern for the patients' overall oral health and greater value-added components to the orthodontic case. Power toothbrushes as part of a comprehensive orthodontic treatment provide a great differentiating marketing strategy. PMID:15495447

  3. Implementation of post treatment critical evaluation improved the quality of orthodontic care in postgraduate orthodontic clinic: A 10 years comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rashmi; Utreja, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of post- treatment critical evaluation on the quality of orthodontic care in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Materials and Methods: Orthodontic treatment outcome of 109 consecutively treated cases was evaluated in Phase-I evaluation. Following Phase-I evaluation, PTCE of each case was made mandatory. After 6-years of implementation of compulsory PTCE for each case, orthodontic treatment outcome of all consecutively treated cases (n = 126) was evaluated (Phase-II). The treatment outcome was evaluated by American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO MGS) and Subjective evaluation (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS). Results: Based on the ABO scores, the cases were divided into three grades, that is, Grade-I, Grade-II, and Grade-III. The mean total ABO score was improved significantly in Phase-II evaluation (P < 0.01). The total number of cases in ABO Grade-II were increased significantly (P < 0.01) whereas cases in ABO Grade-I remained comparable. The VAS score was improved from 5.66 ± 0.77 at Phase-I to 6.02 ± 0.99 at Phase-II evaluation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The implementation of PTCE significantly improved the quality of orthodontic care in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Clinical Significance: Grading one's own treatment improves the quality of future treatment. PMID:26392728

  4. Early treatment protocol for skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Fernandes, Leandra Sant'Anna Ferreira Parron

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion, with its unpredictable and unfavorable nature, has been characterized by a growth pattern with doubtful prognosis regarding orthodontic mechanics, even when performed early. For a long time, Class III malocclusion was regarded as a synonym of mandibular prognathism, regardless of the affected skeletal structures. Mandibular growth, essentially determined by genetic factors, could barely be controlled by early orthodontic interventions. Therefore, the treatment choice was to wait for the patient to grow, and then make an orthodontic intervention associated with an orthognathic surgery. Maxillary involvement in the etiology of Class III malocclusion was conclusive to change orthodontic therapeutics. Maxillary intramembranous growth has a better response to orthopedic treatment, based on growth control and redirection, thus contributing for early intervention success. In several cases, excellent results have been achieved with rapid maxillary expansion and protraction. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the treatment of a patient with Class III malocclusion, whose treatment planning comprised two phases: interceptive (mechanical orthopedic appliances) and comprehensive (fixed orthodontic appliance). The results of this case showed that Class III malocclusion should be intercepted as early as possible to permit growth redirection, mainly when the maxilla is the primary etiologic factor or dental and/or functional factors are involved. Diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis depend on patient age, growth potential and severity of malocclusion. Early intervention, adequate indication of appliances, and patient compliance are key factors for good outcomes.

  5. Orthodontic treatment of a patient with cleidocranial dysplasia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi-Jian; Wang, Jun-Yan; Gao, Ming-Fei; Wu, Da-Lei; Chang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare autosomal dominant condition that affects ossification. The dental abnormalities associated with CCD present an obstacle to orthodontic treatment planning. Early diagnosis is crucial to provide the patient with different treatment modalities that will suit the particular patient. In the present case, combined surgical and orthodontic treatment were performed to guide multiple impacted teeth. A single nucleotide missense variation was identified in exon 3 of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) in this patient. The current results suggest a correlation between dental alterations and mutations in the runt domain of RUNX2 in CCD patients. Further clinical and genetic studies may required to confirm the association between phenotypes and genotypes in CCD and to identify other factors that may influence the clinical features of this disease. Patients with cleidocranial dysplasia require a team approach which demands good communication and cooperation from the patient. Timing of the intervention is critical, and numerous surgeries may be required. The patient in the present case report was treated by a team of practitioners, which involved several dental specialties to achieve an optimal result. PMID:27446262

  6. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Fixed with Remineralizing Adhesive Systems after Simulating One Year of Orthodontic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Gisele Lima; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 16): XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction) tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (p < 0.05). Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC) remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT) and self-etching (SEP) adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL) provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance. PMID:26380371

  7. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Fixed with Remineralizing Adhesive Systems after Simulating One Year of Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Gisele Lima; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 16): XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction) tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (p < 0.05). Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC) remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT) and self-etching (SEP) adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL) provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance. PMID:26380371

  8. Localized Piezoelectric Alveolar Decortication for Orthodontic Treatment in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Charavet, C; Lecloux, G; Bruwier, A; Rompen, E; Maes, N; Limme, M; Lambert, F

    2016-08-01

    This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the benefits and clinical outcomes of piezocision, which is a minimally invasive approach to corticotomy that is used in orthodontic treatments. Twenty-four adult patients presenting with mild overcrowdings were randomly allocated to either a control group that was treated with conventional orthodontics or a test group that received piezo-assisted orthodontics. The piezocisions were performed 1 wk week after the placement of the orthodontic appliances. Neither grafting material nor sutures were used. All patients were followed every 2 wk, and archwires were changed only when they were no longer active. The periods required for the completion of the overall orthodontic treatments were calculated, and the periodontal parameters were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the orthodontic treatment. Patient-centered outcomes were assessed with a visual analog scale; analgesic use following the procedures was also recorded. The patient characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. The overall treatment time was significantly reduced by 43% in the piezocision group as compared with the control group. In both groups, periodontal parameters (i.e., recession depth, pocket depth, plaque index, and papilla bleeding index) remained unchanged between the baseline and treatment completion time points. No increase in root resorption was observed in either group. Scars were observed in 50% of the patients in the piezocision group. Analgesic consumption was similar following orthodontic appliance placement and piezocision surgery. Patient satisfaction was significantly better in the piezocision group than in the control group. In these conditions, the piezocision technique seemed to be effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. No gingival recessions were observed. The risk of residual scars might limit the indications for piezocision in patients with a high smile line (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02590835). PMID

  9. Localized Piezoelectric Alveolar Decortication for Orthodontic Treatment in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Charavet, C; Lecloux, G; Bruwier, A; Rompen, E; Maes, N; Limme, M; Lambert, F

    2016-08-01

    This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the benefits and clinical outcomes of piezocision, which is a minimally invasive approach to corticotomy that is used in orthodontic treatments. Twenty-four adult patients presenting with mild overcrowdings were randomly allocated to either a control group that was treated with conventional orthodontics or a test group that received piezo-assisted orthodontics. The piezocisions were performed 1 wk week after the placement of the orthodontic appliances. Neither grafting material nor sutures were used. All patients were followed every 2 wk, and archwires were changed only when they were no longer active. The periods required for the completion of the overall orthodontic treatments were calculated, and the periodontal parameters were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the orthodontic treatment. Patient-centered outcomes were assessed with a visual analog scale; analgesic use following the procedures was also recorded. The patient characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. The overall treatment time was significantly reduced by 43% in the piezocision group as compared with the control group. In both groups, periodontal parameters (i.e., recession depth, pocket depth, plaque index, and papilla bleeding index) remained unchanged between the baseline and treatment completion time points. No increase in root resorption was observed in either group. Scars were observed in 50% of the patients in the piezocision group. Analgesic consumption was similar following orthodontic appliance placement and piezocision surgery. Patient satisfaction was significantly better in the piezocision group than in the control group. In these conditions, the piezocision technique seemed to be effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. No gingival recessions were observed. The risk of residual scars might limit the indications for piezocision in patients with a high smile line (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02590835).

  10. [Orthodontic treatment failure: the advice of a forensic expert].

    PubMed

    Tricot-Blestel, Marie-Claude

    2016-03-01

    If patients consider that their orthodontic treatment is a failure, they can claim compensation from their practitioner. Most often, discontented patients call on their third-party liability insurance when they are covered for "legal expenses protection". The patient's insurance company will then get in touch with the practitioner's insurance firm. Three-quarters of all claims are dealt with by the insurance companies. However, if an agreement cannot be reached or if the practitioner's insurance company manages to establish that he/she is not at fault, the patient can apply to the Tribunal de Grande Instance, the French Regional Court. The judge appoints a forensic expert who will examine the patient and follow a very precise procedure involving a dozen different questions. The advice of the forensic expert is therefore very valuable to orthodontists, in particular regarding their duty to inform patients and the importance of the medical file in order to avoid being held accountable following a course of treatment. PMID:27083226

  11. Tooth loss caused by displaced elastic during simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Dianiskova, Simona; Calzolari, Chiara; Migliorati, Marco; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Isola, Gaetano; Savoldi, Fabio; Dalessandri, Domenico; Paganelli, Corrado

    2016-09-16

    The use of elastics to close a diastema or correct tooth malpositions can create unintended consequences if not properly controlled. The American Association of Orthodontists recently issued a consumer alert, warning of "a substantial risk for irreparable damage" from a new trend called "do-it-yourself" orthodontics, consisting of patients autonomously using elastics to correct tooth position. The elastics can work their way below the gums and around the roots of the teeth, causing damage to the periodontium and even resulting in tooth loss. The cost of implants to replace these teeth would well exceed the cost of proper orthodontic care. This damage could also occur in a dental office, when a general dentist tries to perform a simplified orthodontic correction of a minor tooth malposition. The present case report describes a case of tooth loss caused by a displaced intraoral elastic, which occurred during a simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment. PMID:27672645

  12. Tooth loss caused by displaced elastic during simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Dianiskova, Simona; Calzolari, Chiara; Migliorati, Marco; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Isola, Gaetano; Savoldi, Fabio; Dalessandri, Domenico; Paganelli, Corrado

    2016-09-16

    The use of elastics to close a diastema or correct tooth malpositions can create unintended consequences if not properly controlled. The American Association of Orthodontists recently issued a consumer alert, warning of "a substantial risk for irreparable damage" from a new trend called "do-it-yourself" orthodontics, consisting of patients autonomously using elastics to correct tooth position. The elastics can work their way below the gums and around the roots of the teeth, causing damage to the periodontium and even resulting in tooth loss. The cost of implants to replace these teeth would well exceed the cost of proper orthodontic care. This damage could also occur in a dental office, when a general dentist tries to perform a simplified orthodontic correction of a minor tooth malposition. The present case report describes a case of tooth loss caused by a displaced intraoral elastic, which occurred during a simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment.

  13. Tooth loss caused by displaced elastic during simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dianiskova, Simona; Calzolari, Chiara; Migliorati, Marco; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Isola, Gaetano; Savoldi, Fabio; Dalessandri, Domenico; Paganelli, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The use of elastics to close a diastema or correct tooth malpositions can create unintended consequences if not properly controlled. The American Association of Orthodontists recently issued a consumer alert, warning of “a substantial risk for irreparable damage” from a new trend called “do-it-yourself” orthodontics, consisting of patients autonomously using elastics to correct tooth position. The elastics can work their way below the gums and around the roots of the teeth, causing damage to the periodontium and even resulting in tooth loss. The cost of implants to replace these teeth would well exceed the cost of proper orthodontic care. This damage could also occur in a dental office, when a general dentist tries to perform a simplified orthodontic correction of a minor tooth malposition. The present case report describes a case of tooth loss caused by a displaced intraoral elastic, which occurred during a simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment. PMID:27672645

  14. Tooth loss caused by displaced elastic during simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dianiskova, Simona; Calzolari, Chiara; Migliorati, Marco; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Isola, Gaetano; Savoldi, Fabio; Dalessandri, Domenico; Paganelli, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The use of elastics to close a diastema or correct tooth malpositions can create unintended consequences if not properly controlled. The American Association of Orthodontists recently issued a consumer alert, warning of “a substantial risk for irreparable damage” from a new trend called “do-it-yourself” orthodontics, consisting of patients autonomously using elastics to correct tooth position. The elastics can work their way below the gums and around the roots of the teeth, causing damage to the periodontium and even resulting in tooth loss. The cost of implants to replace these teeth would well exceed the cost of proper orthodontic care. This damage could also occur in a dental office, when a general dentist tries to perform a simplified orthodontic correction of a minor tooth malposition. The present case report describes a case of tooth loss caused by a displaced intraoral elastic, which occurred during a simple preprosthetic orthodontic treatment.

  15. Need for orthodontic treatment among Brazilian adolescents: evaluation based on public health

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Carolina Vieira; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Mendes, Danilo Cangussu; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and the severity of malocclusions and to analyze factors associated with the need for orthodontic treatment of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This exploratory, cross-sectional study was carried out based on secondary data from the national epidemiological survey on oral health in Brazil (2002-2003). Socio-demographic conditions, self-perception, and the existence and degree of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic Index, were evaluated in 16,833 adolescent Brazilians selected by probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The dependent variable need orthodontic treatment was estimated from the severity of malocclusion. The magnitude and direction of the association in bivariate and multivariate analyzes from a Robust Poisson regression was estimated. RESULTS: The majority of the adolescents needed orthodontic treatment (53.2%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of the need for orthodontic treatment was larger among females, non-whites, those that perceived a need for treatment, and those that perceived their appearance as normal, bad, or very bad. The need for orthodontic treatment was smaller among those that lived in the Northeast and Central West macro-regions compared to those living in Southeast Brazil and it was also smaller among those that perceived their chewing to be normal or their oral health to be bad or very bad. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of orthodontic treatment need among adolescents in Brazil and this need was associated with demographic and subjective issues. The high prevalence of orthodontic needs in adolescents is a challenge to the goals of Brazil's universal public health system. PMID:25769190

  16. [Diagnosis and treatment of temporo-mandibular disorders in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Bocquet, Emmanuelle; Moreau, Alexis; Danguy, Michel; Danguy, Chantal

    2010-03-01

    Orthodontists are fully prepared to treat the problems of occlusion that they are called upon to deal with every day. On the other hand temporo-mandibular joint disorders present more obscure difficulties from the point of view of detection and diagnosis as well the management of their treatment. That is why a profound understanding of the anatomical and physiological functioning of the temporo-mandibular joint has become indispensable for today's orthodontists who are now asked to detect and diagnose an assortment of TMJ disturbances whose etiology may vary greatly. By performing a rigorous diagnostic procedure, based on a thorough clinical examination supported by careful axiographic and radiological studies, of temporo-mandibular malfunctioning and its underlying etiological causes, which are primarily dento-alveolar and occlusal in nature, orthodontists will be able to adopt an appropriate therapeutic approach that might be purely orthodontic or multi-disciplinary and carried out with the collaboration of specialists in occlusion, oral surgery, and even osteopathy.

  17. The Need for Orthodontic Treatment among Vietnamese School Children and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Son Minh; Nguyen, Minh Khac; Saag, Mare; Jagomagi, Triin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment among 12-year-old school children and 18-year-olds from Da Nang, Vietnam. Basic Research Design. A random representative sample of 200 12-year-old children from primary schools in Da Nang city was gathered. In addition, 200 18-year-old students were randomly selected from among the 4000 students studying at Da Nang University of Medical Technology and Pharmacy, Vietnam. All the subjects were evaluated according to Angle's molar relationship, the presence of malocclusion, and the components of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (Dental Health Component, DHC, and Aesthetic Component, AC). Results. The DHC of index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) for 12-year-olds was in 60% of cases no or little, in 21% of cases moderate, and in 19% of cases definitive, while the prevalence of moderate and definitive need for treatment among the 18-year-olds was 24% and 30.5%, respectively. The prevalence of class III malocclusion, contact point displacement, and crossbite was higher in 18-year-olds than among the 12-year-olds, while the prevalence of increased overjet and increased overbite had decreased in 18-year-olds compared to the group of 12-year-olds. Conclusions. There is a strong need for orthodontic treatment in Vietnam's population. The need for orthodontic treatment was determined by contact point displacement, crossbite, increased overjet, and increased overbite. PMID:25136367

  18. Iatrogenic Damage to the Periodontium Caused by Orthodontic Treatment Procedures: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Rafiuddin, Syed; YG, Pradeep Kumar; Biswas, Shriparna; Prabhu, Sandeep S; BM, Chandrashekar; MP, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic treatment, teeth are moved in to new positions and relationships and the soft tissue and underlying bone are altered to accommodate changes in esthetics and function. Function is more important than esthetics. The speciality of orthodontics has in addition to its benefits, complications as well as risks associated with its procedures. However the benefits outweigh the risks & complications in most of the treatment cases. Few of the unwanted side effects associated with treatment are tooth discolorations, enamel decalcification, periodontal complications like open gingival embrasures, root resorption, allergic reactions to nickel & chromium as well as treatment failure in the form of relapse. PMID:26312093

  19. Comprehensive Orthodontic Treatment of Adult Patient with Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Leiva Villagra, Noemí; Muñoz Domon, Miguel; Véliz Méndez, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present full orthodontic treatment of an operated cleft lip adult patient. Case Report. An 18-year-old patient consulted for severe crowded teeth. He comes from a poor family. At that time he already had four operations (velum, palate, lip, and myringotomy). Treatment included maxillary expansion, tooth extraction, and fixed orthodontic, as well as kinesiology and speech therapy treatment. A multidisciplinary approach allowed us to achieve successfully an excellent result for this patient and gave him a harmonic smile and an optimal function without orthognathic surgery. Two years after treatment, occlusion remains stable. PMID:25544903

  20. Comprehensive orthodontic treatment of adult patient with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Leiva Villagra, Noemí; Muñoz Domon, Miguel; Véliz Méndez, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present full orthodontic treatment of an operated cleft lip adult patient. Case Report. An 18-year-old patient consulted for severe crowded teeth. He comes from a poor family. At that time he already had four operations (velum, palate, lip, and myringotomy). Treatment included maxillary expansion, tooth extraction, and fixed orthodontic, as well as kinesiology and speech therapy treatment. A multidisciplinary approach allowed us to achieve successfully an excellent result for this patient and gave him a harmonic smile and an optimal function without orthognathic surgery. Two years after treatment, occlusion remains stable.

  1. Evaluation of Patient’s Personal Reasons and Experience with Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sandeep; Narkhede, Sameer; Sonawane, Shushma; Gangurde, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study is to evaluate patient’s personal reasons and experience with orthodontic treatment. Also to find the problems faced during the orthodontic procedure. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using pretested questionnaire among 312 patients (178 – males and 134 – females) with a response rate of 85%. The overall mean age of the population was 21.34±62 years. The data was collected on excel sheet and analyzed by SPSS 15.0 software at p value 0.05 for the statistical significance. Results: Half of the participants (52.4%) had undergone orthodontic procedure for straightening the teeth as they think that teeth are the important features that affect the facial profile. Around fifty percent judged themselves that they require this procedure. Most common problem faced by the participants during treatment was its longer duration (29.3%). Still 86.4% of them were satisfied with the treatment. Conclusion: The study concluded most of the subjects themselves noted that they are in need of orthodontic treatment in them. There were many problems faced during the procedure by the participants but still most of them were satisfied after the results. How to cite this article: Sharma S, Narkhede S, Sonawane S, Gangurde P. Evaluation of Patient’s Personal Reasons and Experience with Orthodontic Treatment. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):78-81 . PMID:24453449

  2. Mechanobiology of the tooth movement during the orthodontic treatment: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Isola, Gaetano; Matarese, Giovanni; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Perillo, Letizia; Ramaglia, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement differs significantly from the physiological tooth movement, as it determines a biological response of the surrounding tissues of the teeth, resulting in a remodelling of the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone. The result is a biochemical adaptive response to the application of the orthodontic force with the reorganization of the intracellular and the extracellular matrix, in addition to a change of the local vascularization. This in turn leads to the synthesis and the release of arachidonic acid, growth factors, metabolites, cytokines and various enzymes. Biologically, not only the intensity of the force, but also its duration and the tissue response to the application of the same are important for tooth movement. Having these insights it will possible to examine the concept of optimal orthodontic force, a determining factor for the success of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this revision was to describe the biological processes and future perspective of the application of orthodontic force, by providing relevant information to understand the changes at the molecular and cellular level occurring when the tissues are subjected to such forces. Knowledge on the subject of mechanics and biology in orthodontics is constantly growing, producing an increasingly strong basis for clinical success.

  3. Mechanobiology of the tooth movement during the orthodontic treatment: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Isola, Gaetano; Matarese, Giovanni; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Perillo, Letizia; Ramaglia, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement differs significantly from the physiological tooth movement, as it determines a biological response of the surrounding tissues of the teeth, resulting in a remodelling of the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone. The result is a biochemical adaptive response to the application of the orthodontic force with the reorganization of the intracellular and the extracellular matrix, in addition to a change of the local vascularization. This in turn leads to the synthesis and the release of arachidonic acid, growth factors, metabolites, cytokines and various enzymes. Biologically, not only the intensity of the force, but also its duration and the tissue response to the application of the same are important for tooth movement. Having these insights it will possible to examine the concept of optimal orthodontic force, a determining factor for the success of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this revision was to describe the biological processes and future perspective of the application of orthodontic force, by providing relevant information to understand the changes at the molecular and cellular level occurring when the tissues are subjected to such forces. Knowledge on the subject of mechanics and biology in orthodontics is constantly growing, producing an increasingly strong basis for clinical success. PMID:27580655

  4. An evaluation of preoperative ibuprofen for treatment of pain associated with orthodontic separator placement.

    PubMed

    Steen Law, S L; Southard, K A; Law, A S; Logan, H L; Jakobsen, J R

    2000-12-01

    Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment can experience significant levels of pain. This study assessed the effectiveness of preoperative ibuprofen in reducing the incidence and the severity of pain after orthodontic separator placement. Sixty-three adolescent patients (mean age, 13 years) were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective study. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions: (1) 400 mg of ibuprofen taken orally 1 hour before separator placement and a lactose placebo taken orally immediately after the appointment, (2) a lactose placebo taken orally 1 hour before separator placement and 400 mg of ibuprofen taken orally immediately after the appointment, or (3) a lactose placebo taken orally 1 hour before separator placement and again immediately after the appointment. The patient's level of discomfort was assessed with a visual analog scale at 2, 6, and 24 hours, as well as at 2, 3, and 7 days after placement of the orthodontic separators. An analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test revealed that 2 hours after their orthodontic appointment the patients who had taken ibuprofen 1 hour before separator placement had significantly less pain with chewing than did the patients who received either ibuprofen postoperatively or a placebo. Additional measures suggest a trend for less pain for this group of patients. These results support the use of pretreatment ibuprofen for patients requiring analgesics for orthodontic discomfort. Future study of the use of preemptive analgesics in orthodontics is warranted.

  5. Gingival recession: its causes and types, and the importance of orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jati, Ana Suzy; Furquim, Laurindo Zanco; Consolaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    abstract Gingival recession has direct causes and predisposing factors. Orthodontic treatment is able to prevent recession and even contribute to its treatment, with or without periodontal approach, depending on the type and severity of gingival tissue damage. There is no evidence on the fact that orthodontic treatment alone might induce gingival recession, although it might lead the affected teeth (usually mandibular incisors or maxillary canines) to be involved in situations that act as predisposing factors, allowing direct causes to act and, therefore, trigger recession, especially when the buccal bone plate is very thin or presents with dehiscence. Several aspects regarding the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival recession have been addressed, and so has the importance of the periosteum to the mechanism of gingival recession formation. Clinical as well as experimental trials on the subject would help to clarify this matter, of which understanding is not very deep in the related literature. PMID:27409650

  6. Impact of different orthodontic treatment modalities on Airway: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Qahtani, Nasser D. Al

    2016-01-01

    This review focused on airway dysfunctions and orthodontic treatment modalities. A systematic search of the dental literature was performed using PubMed and Web of Science library database. Different combinations of search terms related to airway and orthodontic treatment were used. Any Non-English articles were excluded. Among titles found, abstract and full articles were reviewed. References from all the relevant articles were hand-searched to include more articles. Forty articles which were found relevant were included in the review. Surgical, orthopedic and fixed appliance therapy has been advocated by clinicians to treat patients with airway dysfunctions. These treatment modalities differ from patient to patient and have to be considered based on lot of criterion. The reviewed studies were not convincing in providing information about the orthodontic treatment modalities; further research regarding the same could be encouraging. PMID:27022385

  7. Gingival recession: its causes and types, and the importance of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Jati, Ana Suzy; Furquim, Laurindo Zanco; Consolaro, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Gingival recession has direct causes and predisposing factors. Orthodontic treatment is able to prevent recession and even contribute to its treatment, with or without periodontal approach, depending on the type and severity of gingival tissue damage. There is no evidence on the fact that orthodontic treatment alone might induce gingival recession, although it might lead the affected teeth (usually mandibular incisors or maxillary canines) to be involved in situations that act as predisposing factors, allowing direct causes to act and, therefore, trigger recession, especially when the buccal bone plate is very thin or presents with dehiscence. Several aspects regarding the relationship between orthodontic treatment and gingival recession have been addressed, and so has the importance of the periosteum to the mechanism of gingival recession formation. Clinical as well as experimental trials on the subject would help to clarify this matter, of which understanding is not very deep in the related literature. PMID:27409650

  8. Orthodontic treatment effects on inflammatory marker profiles in saliva before and after 2 archwire changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Zulham; Jaafar, Ikmal Mohamad; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Ariffin, Zaidah Zainal; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal

    2013-11-01

    Periodontal tissue changes exerted by external forces in orthodontic treatment allow tooth movement. The changes in periodontal tissues i.e. inflammation can be monitored using gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). GCF is a component of saliva. Saliva could be used to monitor periodontal disease progression. The use of saliva to monitor periodontal tissues changes during orthodontic treatment is still unknown. Therefore, we observed the profiles of inflammatory markers namely creatine kinase ('CK), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in saliva of orthodontic patients to evaluate their importance in orthodontic treatment. A total of 21 subjects (13 female and 8 male) participated in this study. Samples were collected from gingival crevicular fluid at three period of archwire changes: baseline (M0), 2 weeks after 0.014" NiTi archwire (M1), and 2 weeks after 0.018" NiTi archwire (M2). All enzyme activities i.e. CK, LDH and AST were measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. Griess assay was used to measure nitric oxide level. CK activity, NO level, LDH activity and AST activity in saliva samples did not show significant differences among period of archwire changes. The use of inflammatory marker profiles in saliva may not represent the changes in periodontal tissues during orthodontic treatment.

  9. Quality of Life Following Early Orthodontic Therapy for Anterior Crossbite: Report of Cases in Twin Boys

    PubMed Central

    Piassi, Eluza; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Andrade, Marcia Rejane Thomas Canabarro

    2016-01-01

    Anterior crossbite (AC) refers to a condition in which the maxillary anterior teeth are placed lingually in their relationship with the mandibular anterior teeth. This dental condition results in visible incisor differences that are associated with higher levels of dissatisfaction with appearance and have potential to negatively impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of the children. The aim of this paper was to report two cases of interceptive orthodontic treatment of twin children with anterior crossbite and its impact on OHRQoL of these children. Although AC affects negatively psychosocial aspects of OHRQoL of the children, the interceptive orthodontic treatment of children with AC was essential to improve their OHRQoL. PMID:27738533

  10. Records Needed for Orthodontic Diagnosis and Treatment Planning: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rischen, Robine J.; Breuning, K. Hero; Bronkhorst, Ewald M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditionally, dental models, facial and intra-oral photographs and a set of two-dimensional radiographs are used for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. As evidence is lacking, the discussion is ongoing which specific records are needed for the process of making an orthodontic treatment plan. Objective To estimate the contribution and importance of different diagnostic records for making an orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan. Data sources An electronic search in PubMed (1948–July 2012), EMBASE Excerpta Medica (1980–July 2012), CINAHL (1982–July 2012), Web of Science (1945–July 2012), Scopus (1996–July 2012), and Cochrane Library (1993–July 2012) was performed. Additionally, a hand search of the reference lists of included studies was performed to identify potentially eligible studies. There was no language restriction. Study selection The patient, intervention, comparator, outcome (PICO) question formulated for this study was as follows: for patients who need orthodontic treatment (P), will the use of record set X (I) compared with record set Y (C) change the treatment plan (O)? Only primary publications were included. Data extraction Independent extraction of data and quality assessment was performed by two observers. Results Of the 1041 publications retrieved, 17 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 4 studies were of high quality. Because of the limited number of high quality studies and the differences in study designs, patient characteristics, and reference standard or index test, a meta-analysis was not possible. Conclusion Cephalograms are not routinely needed for orthodontic treatment planning in Class II malocclusions, digital models can be used to replace plaster casts, and cone-beam computed tomography radiographs can be indicated for impacted canines. Based on the findings of this review, the minimum record set required for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning could not be defined. Systematic review

  11. Condylar and occlusal changes after high condylectomy and orthodontic treatment for condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    El mozen, Loaye A; Meng, Qing-gong; Li, Ying-jie; Long, Xing; Chen, Guo-xin

    2015-04-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) of human temporomandibular joint (TMJ) often occurs unilaterally, and causes occlusal disturbance and facial asymmetry. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high condylectomy with and without postsurgical orthodontic treatment. Forty patients were diagnosed as having active CH and treated with high condylectomy. Patients in group A (n=24) took the postsurgical orthodontic therapy immediately after surgery, and those in group B (n=16) did not take orthodontic therapy. For both groups, the mandibular ramus height on the affected side was decreased significantly after surgery. Orthodontic treatment promoted maxillary alveolar remodeling significantly by depressing alveolar bone of the affected side and increasing alveolar bone of the nonaffected side. Better improvement for facial midline deviations was observed in group A than in group B. In both groups, the condylar remodeling was observed and manifested by the smoothening of condylar surface and returning of condyle to normal position in glenoid fossa. It was concluded that high condylectomy in the treatment of active CH of TMJ improved the functional occlusion and facial aesthetic. Postsurgical orthodontic therapy could more effectively enhance maxillary alveolar and condylar remodeling, and more rapidly and meticulously establish the stable occlusal and normal position of condyle than the spontaneous remodeling. PMID:25877363

  12. Aesthetic Rehabilitation of a Complicated Crown-Root Fracture of the Maxillary Incisor: Combination of Orthodontic and Implant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Avila, Érica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Campos Velo, Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo; Mollo, Francisco de Assis; Borelli Barros, Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a complex rehabilitation, of fractured tooth, with implants in anterior region considering the orthodontics extrusion to clinical success. At 7 years old, the patient fractured the maxillary left central incisor and the dentist did a crown with the fragment. Twenty years later, the patient was referred to a dental clinic for orthodontic treatment, with the chief complaint related to an accentuated deep bite, and a professional started an orthodontic treatment. After sixteen months of orthodontic treatment, tooth 21 fractured. The treatment plan included an orthodontic extrusion of tooth 21 and implant placement. This case has been followed up and the clinical and radiographic examinations show excellence esthetic results and satisfaction of patient. The forced extrusion can be a viable treatment option in the management of crown root fracture of an anterior tooth to gain bone in a vertical direction. This case emphasizes that to achieve the esthetic result a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. PMID:24872900

  13. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; de Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To improve orthodontic treatment efficiency, orthodontists must know which variables could interfere with orthodontic treatment time. Objective: To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients’ records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p<0.05. The sample was also divided into two groups: Group 0-2 (patients who had missed two clinical appointments or less) and Group >2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments), to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2). Results: Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345) and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596) are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients. PMID:27812612

  14. Orthopedic and orthodontic treatment in central giant cell granuloma treated with calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Romero, Martín; Romance, Ana; Garcia-Recuero, José Ismael; Fernández, Álvaro

    2011-09-01

    Central giant cell granuloma of the jaw is a benign lesion of unknown etiology that occurs with very low frequency. It mainly occurs in children and young adults and is more common in the mandible. The most common treatment is surgical removal; however, alternative therapies (intralesional injections of corticosteroids, interferon alpha, and calcitonin) have been used in order to avoid undesirable damage to the jaws and teeth. The lesion may cause root resorption, tooth germ displacement, and other dental problems, as well as malocclusion that must be treated orthodontically. The orthodontic, orthopedic, and calcitonin-based treatments of one of these cases is presented.

  15. A combined surgical and orthodontic treatment of Class III furcations. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Mayer, T; Basdra, E K

    1997-04-01

    Oral hygiene in furcation defects of upper molars is difficult to achieve. In this case report, a combined surgical and orthodontic treatment procedure is presented to facilitate access and plaque control in furcation areas of upper molars with class-III furcation defects. After endodontic treatment and root resection in an upper 1st molar, the remaining mesiobuccal and palatal roots were separated and aligned orthodontically within the dental arch, as one-rooted teeth. The new morphological position of the roots greatly facilitated oral hygiene and may offer a better long-term prognosis. PMID:9144045

  16. Orthopedic and orthodontic treatment in central giant cell granuloma treated with calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Romero, Martín; Romance, Ana; Garcia-Recuero, José Ismael; Fernández, Álvaro

    2011-09-01

    Central giant cell granuloma of the jaw is a benign lesion of unknown etiology that occurs with very low frequency. It mainly occurs in children and young adults and is more common in the mandible. The most common treatment is surgical removal; however, alternative therapies (intralesional injections of corticosteroids, interferon alpha, and calcitonin) have been used in order to avoid undesirable damage to the jaws and teeth. The lesion may cause root resorption, tooth germ displacement, and other dental problems, as well as malocclusion that must be treated orthodontically. The orthodontic, orthopedic, and calcitonin-based treatments of one of these cases is presented. PMID:20815718

  17. Esthetic restorations of maxillary anterior teeth with orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sung-Hun; Han, Jung-Suk; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2010-01-01

    If orthodontists and restorative dentists establish the interdisciplinary approach to esthetic dentistry, the esthetic and functional outcome of their combined efforts will be greatly enhanced. This article describes satisfying esthetic results obtained by the distribution of space for restoration by orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers in uneven space between maxillary anterior teeth. It is proposed that the use of orthodontic treatment for re-distribution of the space and the use of porcelain laminate veneers to alter crown anatomy provide maximum esthetic and functional correction for patients with irregular interdental spacing. PMID:21165191

  18. Impact of Orthodontic Treatment on Periodontal Tissues: A Narrative Review of Multidisciplinary Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunkova, Angelina; Pagni, Giorgio; Brizhak, Anna; Farronato, Giampietro; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the most commonly observed changes in periodontium caused by orthodontic treatment in order to facilitate specialists' collaboration and communication. An electronic database search was carried out using PubMed abstract and citation database and bibliographic material was then used in order to find other appropriate sources. Soft and hard periodontal tissues changes during orthodontic treatment and maintenance of the patients are discussed in order to provide an exhaustive picture of the possible interactions between these two interwoven disciplines. PMID:26904120

  19. A comparative study of combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and clear aligners in patients with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose With the increasing prevalence of orthodontic treatment in adults, clear aligner treatments are becoming more popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic treatment on periodontal tissue and to compare orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (FA) to clear aligner treatment (CAT) in periodontitis patients. Methods A total of 35 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment in the Department of Periodontology were included in this study. After periodontal treatment with meticulous oral hygiene education, patients underwent treatment with FA or CAT, and this study analyzed patient outcomes depending on the treatment strategy. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after orthodontic treatment, and the duration of treatment was compared between these two groups. Results The overall plaque index, the gingival index, and probing depth improved after orthodontic treatment (P<0.01). The overall bone level also improved (P=0.045). However, the bone level changes in the FA and CAT groups were not significantly different. Significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups in probing depth, change in probing depth, and duration of treatment (P<0.05). However, no significant differences were found between the FA and CAT groups regarding the plaque index, changes in the plaque index, the gingival index, changes in the gingival index, or changes in the alveolar bone level. The percentage of females in the CAT group (88%) was significantly greater than in the FA group (37%) (P<0.01). Conclusions After orthodontic treatment, clinical parameters were improved in the FA and CAT groups with meticulous oral hygiene education and plaque control. Regarding plaque index and gingival index, no significant differences were found between these two groups. We suggest that combined periodontal and orthodontic treatment can improve patients’ periodontal health irrespective of orthodontic techniques. PMID:26734489

  20. Skeletal and dental considerations in orthodontic treatment mechanics: a contemporary view.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Ravindra; Upadhyay, Madhur

    2013-10-01

    Orthodontics has undergone a paradigm shift in the last 40 years. There have been both technical and philosophical changes ushered by the development of new appliances, techniques, and by the explosion in the amount of research being conducted all around the world. However, the application of any new concept requires a firm understanding of the fundamentals of orthodontics. This paper presents a broad review of some fundamental concepts of treatment mechanics that enable us to bring about skeletal and dental correction of the presenting malocclusion. The basic concepts of facemask therapy, mechanics, and biology of tooth movement will be discussed with an insight into the challenges facing us in the future.

  1. Mechanical and Histological Effects of Resorbable Blasting Media Surface Treatment on the Initial Stability of Orthodontic Mini-Implants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of resorbable blasting media (RBM) treatment on early stability of orthodontic mini-implants by mechanical, histomorphometric, and histological analyses. Methods. Ninety-six (64 for mechanical study and 32 for histological study and histomorphometric analysis) titanium orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) with machined (machined group) or RBM-treated (CaP) surface (RBM group) were implanted in the tibiae of 24 rabbits. Maximum initial torque (MIT) was measured during insertion, and maximum removal torque (MRT) and removal angular momentum (RAM) were measured at 2 and 4 weeks after implantation. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area (BA) were analyzed at 4 weeks after implantation. Results. RBM group exhibited significantly lower MIT and significantly higher MRT and RAM at 2 weeks than machined group. No significant difference in MRT, RAM, and BIC between the two groups was noted at 4 weeks, although BA was significantly higher in RBM group than in machined group. RBM group showed little bone resorption, whereas machined group showed new bone formation after bone resorption. Conclusions. RBM surface treatment can provide early stability of OMIs around 2 weeks after insertion, whereas stability of machined surface OMIs may decrease in early stages because of bone resorption, although it can subsequently recover by new bone apposition. PMID:26942200

  2. Pain and discomfort perceived during the initial stage of active fixed orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshan, Hamid; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives As the most common complication of orthodontic treatment, pain can negatively impact quality of life and cause patients to discontinue treatment. However, few studies have evaluated pain during orthodontic treatment, with controversial findings. This study assessed the intensity and duration of pain and discomfort caused by active orthodontic treatment. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study examined 67 patients (22 men, 45 females; age range: 18–32 years) undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Patients were interviewed after the active treatment stage to assess their perceived pain and discomfort at different sites during different activities by a visual analogue scale. Frequency and duration of pain in different areas were analyzed by the chi-squared and chi-squared goodness-of-fit tests (α = 0.05). Results Among the 67 patients, 65.7% experienced general dentogingival pain or discomfort and 34.3% had localized dentogingival pain or discomfort (p = 0.010, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Masticating soft foods reduced discomfort (p = 0.000, chi-squared) in the tongue, cheeks, and in or around the teeth and gingivae. Pain and discomfort were mostly moderate while masticating sticky, fibrous, and firm foods. Mild pains were mostly reported during tooth brushing and while consuming soft foods (p < 0.05, chi-squared). Pain and discomfort tended to last for more than 4 weeks, except in the tongue, where pain and discomfort lasted less than 4 weeks (p < 0.05, chi-squared goodness-of-fit test). Conclusions Pain and discomfort occur for more than 4 weeks after beginning fixed orthodontic treatment. Changing diets to incorporate softer foods is recommended to alleviate pain. PMID:26082574

  3. Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Pinto, Tatiana Militz Perrone; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE), periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. Results The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03) were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. Conclusion Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment. PMID:25162567

  4. The hydrochloric acid-pumice microabrasion technique in the treatment of post-orthodontic decalcification.

    PubMed

    Welbury, R R; Carter, N E

    1993-08-01

    A significant number of patients exhibit white spots of enamel decalcification after orthodontic treatment, despite the use of preventive regimes. The hydrochloric acid-pumice micro-abrasion technique offers a method for improving the appearance of these lesions where they are cosmetically unacceptable. The clinical procedure is described and the effects of the technique upon the dental structures are discussed.

  5. Factors Influencing Subjective Orthodontic Treatment Need and Culture-related Differences among Chinese Natives and Foreign Inhabitants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-ting; Tang, Yin; Huang, Xue-lian; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yang-xi

    2010-01-01

    Aim The aim of this survey was to compare Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants in Chengdu, China, with respect to: (1) attitudes towards dental appearance, (2) subjective orthodontic treatment need, and (3) the main factors influencing orthodontic treatment need. Methodology A total of 522 subjects, including 227 foreign inhabitants and 295 Chinese natives in Chengdu participated in the survey. A simple random sampling method was adopted and a face-to-face interview was conducted at some public sites using a questionnaire. Data was entered by two persons synchronously using Epidata 3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze these data. Results 89.0% of foreign inhabitants were satisfied with their teeth compared to only 46.8% of Chinese natives. Females were more dissatisfied with their teeth than males. Chinese natives put improving appearance as the top priority (55.9%) for seeking orthodontic treatment; however, in foreign inhabitants, the main reason for seeking treatment was to improve masticatory function (44.1%), followed by ”to be pretty“ (35.2%). The importance of well-aligned teeth and self-perception of psycho-social impact of malocclusion were the same two main factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need (P<0.05) in foreign inhabitants and Chinese natives. Subjective orthodontic treatment need between the two target groups was significantly different (P<0.05). Conclusion (1) It was very common that Chinese natives were dissatisfied with their dental appearance, and their subjective orthodontic treatment needs were high. (2) There were some differences in orthodontic treatment motives between the two target groups. (3) There were differences in subjective orthodontic treatment needs between foreign inhabitants and Chinese natives. However, the prominent influential factors were almost the same. There may be benefit to understanding subjective orthodontic needs of different races. PMID:21125793

  6. Interdisciplinary treatment of a nonsyndromic oligodontia patient with implant-anchored orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shingo; Iwata, Mitsuhiro; Tamamura, Nagato; Ganzorig, Khaliunaa; Hichijo, Natsuko; Tomita, Yuko; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-04-01

    We successfully treated a nonsyndromic oligodontia patient with implant-anchored orthodontics and prosthetic restorations. A woman, age 18 years 11 months, had a straight profile and a skeletal Class I jaw-base relationship but had spaced arches because of 7 congenitally missing teeth. After leveling and alignment of the dentition, a titanium miniscrew was temporarily placed at the distal alveolus of the mandibular right first premolar, and the posterior teeth were mesialized to reduce the restorative spaces. After determination of the incisor positions, 3 dental implants were respectively inserted at the sites of the maxillary canines and the mandibular left lateral incisor with guided bone regeneration procedures. Then, screw-retained temporary prostheses were delivered after subepithelial connective tissue grafting and used for molar mesialization as absolute anchorage. After 36 months of active orthodontic treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved, both functionally and esthetically, with the 3 dental implants. The maxillary and mandibular molars were mesialized, but the changes of incisor position were minimal. As a result, a proper facial profile was maintained, and an attractive smile was achieved. The resultant occlusion was stable throughout a 3-year retention period. In conclusion, interdisciplinary treatment combined with orthodontics, implant surgery, and prosthodontics was useful for a nonsyndromic oligodontia patient. Especially, the new strategy-implant-anchored orthodontics-can facilitate the treatment more simply with greater predictability. PMID:24680022

  7. Orthodontic treatment outcomes obtained by application of a finishing protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Flórez, Alvaro; Barbosa-Lis, Diana María; Zapata-Noreña, Oscar Arturo; Marín-Velásquez, Julissa Andrea; Afanador-Bayona, Sergio Andrés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of a finishing protocol implemented in patients treated in the Orthodontics graduate program at Universidad de Antioquia. Evaluation was carried out by means of the criteria set by the Objective Grading System (OGS) of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO). Methods: Cast models and panoramic radiographs of 34 patients were evaluated. The intervention group (IG) consisted of 17 patients (19.88 ± 4.4 years old) treated under a finishing protocol. This protocol included training in finishing, application of a finishing guide, brackets repositioning and patient's follow-up. Results of the IG were compared to a control group of 17 patients (21.88 ± 7.0 years old) selected by stratified randomization without finishing intervention (CG). Results: The scores for both CG and IG were 38.00 ± 9.0 and 31.41 ± 9.6 (p = 0.048), respectively. The score improved significantly in the IG group, mainly regarding marginal ridges (CG: 5.59 ± 2.2; IG: 3.65 ± 1.8) (p = 0.009) and root angulation (CG: 7.59 ± 2.8; IG: 4.88 ± 2.6) (p = 0.007). Criteria that did not improve, but had the highest scores were: alignment (CG: 6.35 ± 2.7; IG: 6.82 ± 2.8) (p = 0.62) and buccolingual inclination (CG: 3.6 ± 5.88; IG: 5.29 ± 3.9) (p = 0.65). Conclusions: Standardization and implementation of a finishing protocol contributed to improve clinical performance in the Orthodontics graduate program, as expressed by occlusal outcomes. Greater emphasis should be given on the finishing phase to achieve lower scores in the ABO grading system. PMID:27275620

  8. Overview of non-invasive factors (low level laser and low intensity pulsed ultrasound) accelerating tooth movement during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed Mahmood; Husein, Adam; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Hassan, Rozita; Shaari, Rumaizi

    2014-01-01

    The need for orthodontic treatment is increasing all the time. As the treatment is time consuming ranging from a year to several years, any method of reducing the period of treatment and increasing the quality of the tissue will be beneficial to patients. The use of non-invasive techniques such as low level laser therapy and low intensity pulsed ultasound in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement are promising. Thus, this overview study will help to generate more understanding about the background information and the possible applications of them in daily orthodontics, depending on previous literature searching for reviews and original research articles.

  9. Clinical factors correlated with the success rate of miniscrews in orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Topouzelis, Nikolaos; Tsaousoglou, Phoebus

    2012-01-01

    Miniscrews offer a reliable alternative for anchorage during orthodontic treatment, particularly for non-cooperative patients or periodontal patients with alveolar bone loss. The study aims at assessing the correlation of various clinical indicators with the success or failure of miniscrews used for anchorage during orthodontic treatment. Thirty-four consecutive patients with a cumulative total of 82 miniscrews implanted participated in the study. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to assess the correlation of various factors with success rates. The miniscrew was considered the unit of analysis clustered within site and within patient. The overall success rate of miniscrews was 90.2%. For every additional miniscrew used in a patient's oral cavity, the success rate was reduced by 67%. Retromandibular triangle and palatal placement and in movable mucosa resulted in lower success rate. The miniscrew length and diameter were found to correlate with success rates. Orthodontic force applied on miniscrews for uprighting purposes showed a lower success rate than that used for retraction. This study revealed that miniscrews present high success rates. The number of miniscrews used per patient, the miniscrew site placement, the soft tissue type of placement, the miniscrew length and diameter as well as the orthodontic force applied on the miniscrew showed significant correlation with success rates. PMID:22241373

  10. Orthodontic and surgical treatment of unilateral condylar hyperplasia during growth--a case report.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, G; Linder-Aronson, S; Rindler, A; Söderström, U

    1991-04-01

    A 9-year-old boy was diagnosed as having an unilateral cross-bite with mandibular deviation. This was later found to be due to unilateral hyperplasia of the right condyle. The increased growth activity subsequently led to an extreme facial asymmetry and a serious psychological condition began to develop. Consequently, surgery was performed at the age of 11 years 8 months when removal of the enlarged condyle and an oblique ramus osteotomy on the opposite side was performed. In this way the facial asymmetry was eliminated. No effort during the surgery was made, however, to restore normal occlusion. The post-operative orthodontic treatment was successful in allowing growth to bring about a normalization of the occlusal relationships. Two years after surgery, complete aesthetic and function rehabilitation has been achieved. This has also led to an improvement in the patient's psychological condition. The result was still stable 11 years post-operatively. The case illustrates the value of early treatment and co-operation between orthodontists and oral surgeons. PMID:2055253

  11. Advanced system for 3D dental anatomy reconstruction and 3D tooth movement simulation during orthodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Carlos; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Albalat, Salvador E.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for 3D orthodontics treatment simulation developed for an orthodontics planning system (MAGALLANES). We develop an original system for 3D capturing and reconstruction of dental anatomy that avoid use of dental casts in orthodontic treatments. Two original techniques are presented, one direct in which data are acquired directly form patient's mouth by mean of low cost 3D digitizers, and one mixed in which data are obtained by 3D digitizing of hydrocollids molds. FOr this purpose we have designed and manufactured an optimized optical measuring system based on laser structured light. We apply these 3D dental models to simulate 3D movement of teeth, including rotations, during orthodontic treatment. The proposed algorithms enable to quantify the effect of orthodontic appliance on tooth movement. The developed techniques has been integrated in a system named MAGALLANES. This original system present several tools for 3D simulation and planning of orthodontic treatments. The prototype system has been tested in several orthodontic clinic with very good results.

  12. [Early treatment of Class III malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philip, Camille; Salvadori, André

    2011-09-01

    Optimum treatment timing for orthodontic problems continues to be one of the more controversial topics in orthodontics. Especially regarding the correction of Class III malocclusion, there is little consensus as to proper timing or methods for correcting these problems. The orthopedic approach for growth modification is usually limited to children with growth remaining subjected to non hereditary pattern. If the skeletal malocclusion is within the range of an orthodontic treatment, fixed orthodontic appliances with dentoalveolar compensation mechanism can achieve a normal occlusion. Otherwise in patients with a severe skeletal discrepancy, it will be necessary to consider a combined surgical and orthodontic approach. The purpose of this study was to describe treatment planning according to the age and to the initial diagnosis. The management of skeletal Class III malocclusion is still a challenge to orthodontists especially because of relapse due to the late growth of the mandible.

  13. The prognosis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) during a fixed orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Tecco, Simona; Marzo, Giuseppe; Crincoli, Vito; Di Bisceglie, Beatrice; Tetè, Stefano; Festa, Felice

    2012-01-01

    Among treatments in the literature for myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), the most reliable therapies in dentistry are spray and stretch, and, although less frequently used, anesthetic injection. Adult MPS subjects are often treated using fixed orthodontic therapy for resolution of malocclusion. There is no clarity in the literature on the prognosis of MPS during orthodontic therapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognosis of MPS during orthodontic treatment of subjects with malocclusion, initially diagnosed as having MPS. The analysis covered the medical records of 91 young adult Caucasians scheduled for orthodontic treatment for various malocclusions. Thirty-seven of the patients were initially diagnosed as also having MPS (T0). Thirty patients began the orthodontic treatment and were recalled for a re-evaluation of MPS after dental alignment and dental class correction was achieved (T1). A wait-and-see strategy was applied in seven subjects who were included as the control subjects. They received no treatment for MPS. At T1, a statistically significant decrease was observed in the study group in the presence of any clicking or creaking noises from the jaw joint, a significant jaw joint and jaw muscle pain reduction, and a quality of life improvement. Among patients who were depressed at the beginning of treatment, the majority felt better at the follow-up evaluation. On muscular palpation, a statistically significant decrease was found on the visual analogic scale value of the middle fibers of the temporalis muscle, temporalis tendon, clavicular and sternal division of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, masseter muscles, and posterior cervical muscles. The temporalis and the masseter muscles showed a significant decrease in the number of subjects with trigger points (TrPs) in all areas in the study group, after treatment. The digastric and sternocleidomastoid muscles also showed a significant reduction in the number of subjects with TrPs. Subjects with

  14. Orthodontic treatment of a mandibular incisor fenestration resulting from a broken retainer.

    PubMed

    Farret, Marcel M; Farret, Milton M B; da Luz Vieira, Gustavo; Assaf, Jamal Hassan; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the orthodontic relapse with mandibular incisor fenestration in a 36-year-old man who had undergone orthodontic treatment 21 years previously. The patient reported that his mandibular 3 × 3 bonded retainer had been partially debonded and broken 4 years earlier. The mandibular left lateral incisor remained bonded to the retainer and received the entire load of the incisors; consequently, there was extreme labial movement of the root, resulting in dental avulsion. As part of the treatment, the root was repositioned lingually using a titanium-molybdenum segmented archwire for 8 months, followed by endodontic treatment, an apicoectomy, and 4 months of alignment and leveling of both arches. The treatment outcomes were excellent, and the tooth remained stable, with good integrity of the mesial, distal, and lingual alveolar bones and periodontal ligament. The 1-year follow-up showed good stability of the results. PMID:26232842

  15. Autotransplantation of Immature Third Molars and Orthodontic Treatment After En Bloc Resection of Conventional Ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Osterne, Rafael Lima Verde; Moreira Neto, José Jeová Siebra; de Araújo Lima, Augusto Darwin Moreira; Nogueira, Renato Luiz Maia

    2015-09-01

    Ameloblastoma treatment can lead to significant bone defects; consequently, oral rehabilitation can be challenging. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl diagnosed with a conventional ameloblastoma in the mandible who was treated using en bloc resection and rehabilitated with autotransplantation of the immature third molars and orthodontic treatment. The lesion was in the region of the lower left canine and premolars, and en bloc resection resulted in a significant alveolar bone defect. Autotransplantation of the lower third molars to the site of the lower left premolars was performed. After 2 years, the upper left third molar was transplanted to the site of the lower left canine. During the orthodontic treatment period, considerable alveolar bone formation was observed in the region of the transplanted teeth, and roots developed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of alveolar bone formation induction caused by tooth transplantation after ameloblastoma treatment. PMID:26044604

  16. Periodontal parameters following orthodontic treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis: A before-after clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Paknejad, Mojgan; Yaghobee, Siamak; Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza Rasouli; Bashizadefakhar, Hourieh; Khatami, Masoomeh; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The success of combined periodontal and orthodontic approach in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis patients with the pathologic extruded anterior teeth is a main concern and stability of the treatment results is an important factor to evaluate the treatment. The present study investigated the periodontal parameters at the end of the orthodontic treatment in patients with the aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with an aggressive periodontal disease, extruded maxillary incisors, infrabony defects and probing depth of ≥5 mm were enrolled in this clinical trial (before, after). After periodontal therapy, orthodontic treatment was carried out for intrusion and alignment of teeth. Plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), distance between incisal edge and interdental papilla, root length (RL), and defect dimensions (depth and width) were examined at the end of treatment and three as well as 6 months afterward. The data were subjected to repeated measure ANOVA test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was statistically significant decrease in PPD, PI, and depth of the defects during T0, T3 and T6 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the RL and distance between incisal edge and interdental papilla (P = 0.95). Furthermore, width of the defects demonstrated significant decrease up to T3 (P = 0.042) while no significant changes from 3 months to 6 months were noted (P = 0.59). Conclusion: The results showed that combined periodontal and orthodontic approach would be a successful treatment with acceptable stability in the case of regular follow-up visits and controlled oral hygiene habits. PMID:24379862

  17. Orthodontic Treatment of Malocclusion and its Impact on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Kiaee, Bita; Sanayei, Shabnam; Khosravi, Saeed; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Malocclusion, though not life-threatening, has vast impact on individual’s social interactions and self-esteem. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess whether orthodontic treatment of adolescents with malocclusion had any association with their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods: The subjects for this study were recruited at a state-funded university clinic. Data were collected from 100 participants aged 17 to 21 with moderate to severe malocclusion. Experimental group comprised of 50 subjects who were in the retention phase of their orthodontic treatment and the control group comprised of 50 untreated subjects. The shortened version of the Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP-14) as used to assess the subjects’ oral health-related impact. T-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann Whitney tests were used to analyze the data and p-value was set at P < 0.05. Results: In general, oral health-related quality of life of all subjects significantly improved after orthodontic treatment. (p<0.001) Subjects with moderate malocclusion showed better improvement than severe malocclusion subjects. (P<0.001) Conclusion: This study showed that oral health-related quality of life improves with the treatment of malocclusion. PMID:27386009

  18. Orthodontic treatment for a mandibular prognathic girl of short stature under growth hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chin-Yun; Lan, Ting-Hung; Chou, Szu-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Chang, Hong-Po

    2013-12-01

    This report presents a case of a 12-year-old girl with maxillary deficiency, mandibular prognathism, and facial asymmetry, undergoing growth hormone (GH) therapy due to idiopathic short stature. Children of short stature with or without GH deficiency have a deviating craniofacial morphology with overall smaller dimensions; facial retrognathism, especially mandibular retrognathism; and increased facial convexity. However, a complete opposite craniofacial pattern was presented in our case of a skeletal Class III girl with idiopathic short stature. The orthodontic treatment goal was to inhibit or change the direction of mandibular growth and stimulate the maxillary growth of the girl during a course of GH therapy. Maxillary protraction and mandibular retraction were achieved using occipitomental anchorage (OMA) orthopedic appliance in the first stage of treatment. In the second stage, the patient was treated with a fixed orthodontic appliance using a modified multiple-loop edgewise archwire technique of asymmetric mechanics and an active retainer of vertical chin-cup. The treatment led to an acceptable facial profile and obvious facial asymmetry improvement. Class I dental occlusion and coincident dental midline were also achieved. A 3½-year follow-up of the girl at age 18 showed a stable result of the orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic treatment. Our case shows that the OMA orthopedic appliance of maxillary protraction combined with mandibular retraction is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with midface deficiency and mandibular prognathism in growing children with idiopathic short stature undergoing GH therapy.

  19. Fully-customized lingual appliances: how lingual orthodontics became a viable treatment option.

    PubMed

    George, Richard D; Hirani, Sunil

    2013-09-01

    Despite being available for over 30 years, it is perhaps only over the past decade or so that lingual therapy has entered into the mainstream and become a viable treatment option. This paper outlines the problems encountered with traditional lingual techniques and describes how fully-customized lingual appliances have been designed to overcome many of the issues that had risked confining lingual orthodontics to the margins of clinical practice.

  20. Condylar hyperplasia causing progressive facial asymmetry during orthodontic treatment--a case report.

    PubMed

    Eales, E; Jones, M L; Sugar, A W

    1993-09-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is defined and its aetiology and prevalence are briefly reviewed. A case is presented to illustrate how the progressive nature of the condition can create problems for the clinician, particularly during orthodontic treatment of a child or adolescent patient. The benefits of interceptive surgery are illustrated, although such an approach does not necessarily mean that further surgery is avoided at the completion of growth. PMID:8260463

  1. Influence of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Zeng, Jishan; Wang, Shaoan; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Qian; Chen, Pixiu; Zhou, Shujuan; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various surface treatments after different storage time and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to the feldspathic porcelain surfaces. 128 disc-shaped porcelain specimens were randomly assigned to the following surface treatments: 9.6% HFA, 9.6% HFA combined with silane, 50 μ aluminum trioxide sandblasting followed by silane and application of silane after 37% phosphoric acid. Metal or ceramic brackets were bonded onto each treated porcelain facet with light cured resin. The samples were stored in 37 °C water 1 day or 7 days, thermocycled 500 times from 5 to 55 °C. The shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min), and statistically analyzed. The bond failure sites were classified according to ARI system. The surface of the glazed, sandblasted, hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid etched porcelain were examined with SEM. All groups achieved reasonable bond strengths to withstand the application of orthodontic forces. Water storage for 7 days caused lower shear bond strength than that of 1 day. But there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean shear bond strength provided by ceramic bracket with mechanical retention had no statistical difference with that of metal bracket. Therefore, the optimal treatment for orthodontic brackets bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid combined with silane.

  2. Effects of CO-CR discrepancy in daily orthodontic treatment planning

    PubMed Central

    COSTEA, CARMEN MARIA; BADEA, MÎNDRA EUGENIA; VASILACHE, SORIN; MESAROŞ, MICHAELA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Nowadays centric relation is defined as a musculoskeletal stable position, with the condyles forward, as far upward as possible, centered transversely and with the articular disc properly interposed. On the other hand, centric occlusion or maximum intercuspidation is a dental determined position. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the direction, frequency and magnitude of the discrepancy between centric occlusion and centric relation in all three axial directions, in a muscular non-deprogrammed population, before the beginning of orthodontic treatment. Methods The study group was represented by 40 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients seeking orthodontic treatment in a private dental office in Cluj-Napoca, Romania between 2014 and 2015. All patients had full records and articulator mounted models. All measurements were analyzed three-dimensionally. Results 85% of the patients had vertical and 87.5% had horizontal CO-CR discrepancy for both condyles. 87.5% of the cases have had a significant condylar displacement in at least one of the three planes. Conclusions We should be aware of the dental occlusion determined by the dental contacts and the occlusion dictated by the musculoskeletal stable position of the condyles. The bigger the discrepancy between these two positions at the level of the condyles, the greater the chances to have either a patient who will develop a form of TMD before/during or after the orthodontic or prosthetic treatment, or a patient suffering already, but poorly diagnosed. PMID:27152081

  3. Comparison of the effects produced by headgear and pendulum appliances followed by fixed orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Janson, Guilherme; Castanha Henriques, José Fernando; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2008-12-01

    This study compared the effects produced by two different molar distalizers, namely cervical headgear (CHG) and the intraoral pendulum appliance, associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The headgear group comprised 30 patients (19 females, 11 males), with an initial age of 13.07 years [standard deviation (SD) = 1.3], treated with CHG and fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 3.28 years, and the pendulum group 22 patients (15 females, 7 males), with initial age of 13.75 years (SD = 1.86), treated with the pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 4.12 years. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the start (T1) and on completion (T2) of orthodontic treatment. The pendulum and CHG groups were similar as to initial age, severity of the Class II malocclusion, gender distribution, initial cephalometric characteristics, and initial and final treatment priority index (TPI). Only treatment time was not similar between the groups, with a need for annualization for data for the pendulum group. The data were compared with independent t-tests. There was significantly greater restriction of maxillary forward growth and improvement of the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship in the CHG group (P < 0.05). The maxillary molars were more mesially tipped and extruded and the mandibular molars more uprighted in the CHG group compared with the pendulum group (P < 0.05). There was more labial tipping of the mandibular incisors and greater overbite reduction in the pendulum group. The pendulum appliance produced only dentoalveolar effects, different from the CHG appliance, which restricted maxillary forward displacement, thus improving the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship.

  4. [Contribution of immediate orthopedic-orthodontic treatment in maxillo-palatine-labial clefts].

    PubMed

    Boboc, G; Tolea, M; Oltean, D; Găucan, C; Tănăsescu, D; Drăgoi, E; Gavrilescu, G; Enescu, S; Alexandrescu, M; Soiman, A

    1988-01-01

    Labio-maxillo-palatine clefts are pathological conditions accompanied by severe handicaps, congenital malformations of particular interest for medical assistance because of several reasons, including the following: they are the most frequent congenital malformations of the bucco-maxillo-facil region: in certain cases there are other teratologic conditions in other parts of the organism that are associated to these clefts; there are no disturbances from the intellectual viewpoint; there are efficient possibilities for therapy as a result of a multidisciplinary approach, and the progress achieved in each of the fields involved may contribute to continuous improvement of the therapeutical prognosis; because of the therapeutical problems that these pathological conditions may raise, and because of the long duration of the treatment, the pathology involved in labio-maxillo-palatine clefts has a special social character which renders necessary the support of extra-medical factors (special schooling, special conditions for work, etc.). All these aspects explain the world-wide interest for this type of pathology, as it is also reflected in the large number of scientific manifestations dedicated exclusively, or in association to this problem, aimed at achieving a permanent therapeutic progress in this field. In the period between 1986 and 1987 the authors have selected 60 patients out of those hospitalized for this defect in the Clinic. The patients were aged between 2 and 43 years. Orthodontal therapy is the type of therapy which takes the longest time in these patients. This is achieved by the successive application of orthodontal devices, which necessitate a long-term therapeutic strategy. In the course of this therapy a permanent cooperation is necessary between the specialist in orthodontics and the maxillofacial surgeon. A common approach is beneficial for both specialties. The number of specialists in orthodontics involved in the orthodontal therapy of labio

  5. (Super)hydrophobic coating of orthodontic dental devices and reduction of early oral biofilm retention.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adauê S; Kaizer, Marina R; Azevedo, Marina S; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Cenci, Maximiliano S; Moraes, Rafael R

    2015-11-03

    This study was designed to apply (super)hydrophobic crosslinked coatings by means of a sol-gel process on the surface of orthodontic devices and investigate the potential effect of these coatings in reducing the early retention of oral biofilm. Two organosilane-based hydrophobic solutions (HSs) were prepared containing hexadecyltrimethoxysilane diluted in ethanol (HS1) or 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (HS2). Stainless steel plates and ceramic discs were coated with HS1 or HS2 and heated at 150 °C for 2 h for condensation of a crosslinked SiO x network. Organosilane coatings were applied after previous, or no, surface sandblasting. Commercial stainless steel and ceramic brackets were used to evaluate oral biofilm retention after 12 h or 24 h of biofilm growth, using a microcosm model with human saliva as the inoculum. Surface roughness analysis (Ra, μm) indicated that sandblasting associated with organosilane coatings increased roughness for stainless steel brackets only. Analysis of the water contact angle showed that the stainless steel surface treated with HS1 was hydrophobic (~123°), while the ceramic surface treated with HS2 was superhydrophobic (~155°). Biofilm retention after 24 h was significantly lower in groups treated with hydrophobic coatings. An exponential reduction in biofilm accumulation was associated with increased water contact angle for both stainless steel and ceramic at 24 h. Application of (super)hydrophobic coatings on the surface of stainless steel and ceramic orthodontic devices might reduce the retention of oral biofilm.

  6. (Super)hydrophobic coating of orthodontic dental devices and reduction of early oral biofilm retention.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adauê S; Kaizer, Marina R; Azevedo, Marina S; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Cenci, Maximiliano S; Moraes, Rafael R

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to apply (super)hydrophobic crosslinked coatings by means of a sol-gel process on the surface of orthodontic devices and investigate the potential effect of these coatings in reducing the early retention of oral biofilm. Two organosilane-based hydrophobic solutions (HSs) were prepared containing hexadecyltrimethoxysilane diluted in ethanol (HS1) or 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (HS2). Stainless steel plates and ceramic discs were coated with HS1 or HS2 and heated at 150 °C for 2 h for condensation of a crosslinked SiO x network. Organosilane coatings were applied after previous, or no, surface sandblasting. Commercial stainless steel and ceramic brackets were used to evaluate oral biofilm retention after 12 h or 24 h of biofilm growth, using a microcosm model with human saliva as the inoculum. Surface roughness analysis (Ra, μm) indicated that sandblasting associated with organosilane coatings increased roughness for stainless steel brackets only. Analysis of the water contact angle showed that the stainless steel surface treated with HS1 was hydrophobic (~123°), while the ceramic surface treated with HS2 was superhydrophobic (~155°). Biofilm retention after 24 h was significantly lower in groups treated with hydrophobic coatings. An exponential reduction in biofilm accumulation was associated with increased water contact angle for both stainless steel and ceramic at 24 h. Application of (super)hydrophobic coatings on the surface of stainless steel and ceramic orthodontic devices might reduce the retention of oral biofilm. PMID:26526491

  7. Orthodontic force accelerates dentine mineralization during tooth development in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangwei; Cao, Meng; Ye, Ruidong; Ding, Yin

    2010-08-01

    Malocclusion, the improper positioning of the teeth and jaws, is among the most important global oral health burdens. People with malocclusion may require orthodontic treatment to correct the problem. Orthodontic treatment is a way of straightening or moving teeth, to improve the appearance of the teeth and how they work. It is generally best carried out in children aged 9 to 12 years, whose teeth are mainly young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation. However, the relationship between orthodontic force and tooth development has not been fully understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the effects of orthodontic force on dentine formation and mineralization during the development of young permanent teeth. Standardized orthodontic tooth movement was performed with the orthodontic appliance in five-week-old rats. To obtain longitudinal assessment of dentine formation, tetracycline was administered on the operation day and 1, 3, 7, 14 or 21 days afterward. We found that the distance between two tetracycline stripes, which indicates the amount of dentine formation during orthodontic treatment, increased with time. Importantly, no significant difference was detected in dentine formation between treated and control rats. In contrast, immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression of dentin sialoprotein, a marker of odontoblast differentiation and mineral apposition, was significantly elevated in crown and root dentine after orthodontic treatment. In conclusion, orthodontic treatment does not affect the dentine formation of young permanent teeth, but it promotes the activation of odontoblasts and accelerates the dentine mineralization. These results suggest the safety of early orthodontic treatment.

  8. Periodontal implications of orthodontic treatment in adults with reduced or normal periodontal tissues versus those of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P J; Quinn, R S; Eakle, W S; Chambers, D

    1989-09-01

    This longitudinal study monitored periodontal status in 20 adults and 20 adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Ten adults had generalized periodontitis and received periodontal treatment, including periodontal surgery, before orthodontic treatment. They also received periodontal maintenance at 3-month intervals during orthodontic treatment. The other 10 adults had normal periodontal tissues. Neither these latter adults nor the adolescents received periodontal maintenance during orthodontic treatment. Periodontal status was determined (1) at six standard sites before fixed appliances were placed (baseline), (2) at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after appliances had been placed, and (3) 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after appliances had been removed. At each of these visits, these sites were assessed for plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, and pocket depth. Loss of attachment between baseline and 3 months after appliances were removed and tooth loss were also determined. Complete data were obtained for 15 adolescents and 14 adults. During orthodontic treatment the adolescent group showed significantly more (p less than 0.05) periodontal inflammation and supragingival plaque than the adults; after appliances were removed, this pattern was no longer statistically significant. For loss of attachment, there were no significant differences among adolescents, adults with normal periodontal tissues, or adults with reduced but healthy periodontal tissues who had undergone treatment for periodontal disease. For tooth loss, three nonstudy site teeth with pockets deeper than 6 mm and/or furcation involvements were lost because of periodontal abscesses in the adult group treated for periodontal disease. PMID:2773862

  9. The Improvement and Completion of Outcome index: A new assessment system for quality of orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mihee; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Myeng-Ki; Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Hong-Gee

    2016-01-01

    Objective Given the considerable disagreement between the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation, we aimed to develop a novel assessment system―the Improvement and Completion of Outcome (ICO) index―to evaluate the outcome of orthodontic treatment. Methods Sixteen criteria from 4 major categories were established to represent the pretreatment malocclusion status, as well as the degree of improvement and level of completion of outcome during/after treatment: dental relationship (arch length discrepancy, irregularity, U1-SN, and IMPA); anteroposterior relationship (overjet, right and left molar position, ANB); vertical relationship (anterior overbite, anterior open-bite, lateral open-bite, SN-MP); and transverse relationship (dental midline discrepancy, chin point deviation, posterior cross-bite, occlusal plane cant). The score for each criterion was defined from 0 or −1 (worst) to 5 (ideal value or normal occlusion) in gradations of 1. The sum of the scores in each category indicates the area and extent of the problems. Improvement and completion percentages were estimated based on the pre- and post-treatment total scores and the maximum total score. If the completion percentage exceeded 80%, treatment outcome was considered successful. Results Two cases, Class I malocclusion and skeletal Class III malocclusion, are presented to represent the assessment procedure using the ICO index. The difference in the level of improvement and completion of treatment outcome can be clearly explained by using 2 percentage values. Conclusions Thus, the ICO index enables the evaluation of the quality of orthodontic treatment objectively and consecutively throughout the entire treatment process. PMID:27478797

  10. Motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment: an application of Q-methodology

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xia; Cai, Jiaxin; Lin, Beibei; Yao, Linjie; Lin, Feiou

    2015-01-01

    Background Motivation is the impetus for patients to seek orthodontic treatment, affecting adherence, treatment outcomes, and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment, and classify the patients according to their motivations. Methods This study used Q-methodology as the main tool. Q-samples were collected and categorized (35 items). Forty-two adult female patients were interviewed before treatment as the P-sample, and their responses were categorized into the Q-methodology grid. Participants were asked to rank-order a set of 35 statements (Q-sample) from “agree most” to “disagree most” (Q-sorting). The finished Q-grids were analyzed using PQ method 2.35. Results Four main factors were identified based on how adult female patients ranked statements: factor 1, patients who focus on their self-perception of their appearance; factor 2, patients who are concerned about the esthetics and function of their teeth; factor 3, patients who are easily influenced by others; factor 4, patients who want to improve their confidence and avoid negative thoughts caused by their teeth. The remaining patients who had other views did not match any of the above four groups. Conclusion The motivations of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. This study found that most adult female patients fell into one of four typical factor groups. Our findings may improve the adherence of adult female patients by developing a more ideal treatment program. PMID:25709410

  11. Reliability assessment and correlation analysis of evaluating orthodontic treatment outcome in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guang-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Baumrind, Sheldon; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the reliability of experienced Chinese orthodontists in evaluating treatment outcome and to determine the correlations between three diagnostic information sources. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontic specialists each evaluated the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 108 Chinese patients. Three different information sources: study casts (SC), lateral cephalometric X-ray images (LX) and facial photographs (PH) were generated at the end of treatment for 108 patients selected randomly from six orthodontic treatment centers throughout China. Six different assessments of treatment outcome were made by each orthodontist using data from the three information sources separately and in combination. Each assessment included both ranking and grading for each patient. The rankings of each of the 69 judges for the 108 patients were correlated with the rankings of each of the other judges yielding 13 873 Spearman rs values, ranging from –0.08 to +0.85. Of these, 90% were greater than 0.4, showing moderate-to-high consistency among the 69 orthodontists. In the combined evaluations, study casts were the most significant predictive component (R2=0.86, P<0.000 1), while the inclusion of lateral cephalometric films and facial photographs also contributed to a more comprehensive assessment (R2=0.96, P<0.000 1). Grading scores for SC+LX and SC+PH were highly significantly correlated with those for SC+LX+PH (r(SC+LX)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.96, r(SC+PH)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.97), showing that either SC+LX or SC+PH is an excellent substitute for all three combined assessment. PMID:24136673

  12. Reliability assessment and correlation analysis of evaluating orthodontic treatment outcome in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Guang-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Baumrind, Sheldon; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the reliability of experienced Chinese orthodontists in evaluating treatment outcome and to determine the correlations between three diagnostic information sources. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontic specialists each evaluated the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 108 Chinese patients. Three different information sources: study casts (SC), lateral cephalometric X-ray images (LX) and facial photographs (PH) were generated at the end of treatment for 108 patients selected randomly from six orthodontic treatment centers throughout China. Six different assessments of treatment outcome were made by each orthodontist using data from the three information sources separately and in combination. Each assessment included both ranking and grading for each patient. The rankings of each of the 69 judges for the 108 patients were correlated with the rankings of each of the other judges yielding 13 873 Spearman rs values, ranging from -0.08 to +0.85. Of these, 90% were greater than 0.4, showing moderate-to-high consistency among the 69 orthodontists. In the combined evaluations, study casts were the most significant predictive component (R(2)=0.86, P<0.000 1), while the inclusion of lateral cephalometric films and facial photographs also contributed to a more comprehensive assessment (R(2)=0.96, P<0.000 1). Grading scores for SC+LX and SC+PH were highly significantly correlated with those for SC+LX+PH (r(SC+LX)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.96, r(SC+PH)vs.(SC+LX+PH)=0.97), showing that either SC+LX or SC+PH is an excellent substitute for all three combined assessment.

  13. CBCT in orthodontics: assessment of treatment outcomes and indications for its use

    PubMed Central

    Nervina, J M

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction into dentistry in 1998, CBCT has become increasingly utilized for orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning and research. The utilization of CBCT for these purposes has been facilitated by the relative advantages of three-dimensional (3D) over two-dimensional radiography. Despite many suggested indications of CBCT, scientific evidence that its utilization improves diagnosis and treatment plans or outcomes has only recently begun to emerge for some of these applications. This article provides a comprehensive and current review of key studies on the applications of CBCT in orthodontic therapy and for research to decipher treatment outcomes and 3D craniofacial anatomy. The current diagnostic and treatment planning indications for CBCT include impacted teeth, cleft lip and palate and skeletal discrepancies requiring surgical intervention. The use of CBCT in these and other situations such as root resorption, supernumerary teeth, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pathology, asymmetries and alveolar boundary conditions should be justified on the basis of the merits relative to risks of imaging. CBCT has also been used to assess 3D craniofacial anatomy in health and disease and of treatment outcomes including that of root morphology and angulation; alveolar boundary conditions; maxillary transverse dimensions and maxillary expansion; airway morphology, vertical malocclusion and obstructive sleep apnoea; TMJ morphology and pathology contributing to malocclusion; and temporary anchorage devices. Finally, this article utilizes findings of these studies and current voids in knowledge to provide ideas for future research that could be beneficial for further optimizing the use of CBCT in research and the clinical practice of orthodontics. PMID:25358833

  14. Emergency orthodontic care.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances or parts of orthodontic appliances have caused problems from less severe like discomfort, ulcers and irritation of lips or cheeks to most severe problems like swallowing or aspiration of appliances or its parts. The type of appliances that have caused problems and their clinical management are discussed. Suggestions are made to try and avoid the problems that were encountered in the literature in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

  15. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment on hair nickel and chromium levels: a 6-month prospective preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mollaei, Mobina; Harandi, Saghar; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. This prospective preliminary study was conducted to evaluate hair nickel and chromium levels in fixed orthodontic patients. Scalp hair nickel/chromium concentrations of 12 female and 12 male fixed orthodontic patients were measured before treatment and 6 months later, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, gender, and age on hair ions were analyzed statistically (α = 0.05). The patients' mean age was 18.38 ± 3.98 years. The mean nickel levels were 0.1380 ± 0.0570 and 0.6715 ± 0.1785 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively, in the baseline and sixth month of treatment. Chromium concentrations were 0.1455 ± 0.0769 and 0.1683 ± 0.0707 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively. After 6 months, nickel increased for 387 % (paired t test P = 0.0000) and chromium increased for 16 % (P = 0.0002). No significant correlations were observed between any ion levels with age or gender (Spearman P > 0.2). Within the limitations of this preliminary study, it seems that 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment might increase levels of hair nickel and chromium. Future larger studies are necessary to validate these results.

  16. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment on hair nickel and chromium levels: a 6-month prospective preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mollaei, Mobina; Harandi, Saghar; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. This prospective preliminary study was conducted to evaluate hair nickel and chromium levels in fixed orthodontic patients. Scalp hair nickel/chromium concentrations of 12 female and 12 male fixed orthodontic patients were measured before treatment and 6 months later, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, gender, and age on hair ions were analyzed statistically (α = 0.05). The patients' mean age was 18.38 ± 3.98 years. The mean nickel levels were 0.1380 ± 0.0570 and 0.6715 ± 0.1785 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively, in the baseline and sixth month of treatment. Chromium concentrations were 0.1455 ± 0.0769 and 0.1683 ± 0.0707 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively. After 6 months, nickel increased for 387 % (paired t test P = 0.0000) and chromium increased for 16 % (P = 0.0002). No significant correlations were observed between any ion levels with age or gender (Spearman P > 0.2). Within the limitations of this preliminary study, it seems that 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment might increase levels of hair nickel and chromium. Future larger studies are necessary to validate these results. PMID:25503776

  17. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    MedlinePlus

    Premature menopause; Primary ovarian insufficiency; POI ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  18. Critical evaluation of incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaj, Dhinahar; Venkatachalapathy, Sudhakar; Tandon, Akshay; Pereira, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Development of dental caries, specifically, white spot lesions (WSLs), continues to be a well-recognized and troubling side effect of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy, despite vast improvement in preventive dental techniques and procedures. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate, determine, and summarize the incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs during orthodontic treatment that have been published in the literature. Materials and Methods: According to predetermined criteria, databases were searched for appropriate studies. References of the selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications. Results: In the 14 studies evaluated for WSLs, the incidence of new carious lesions formed during orthodontic treatment in patients was 45.8% and the prevalence of lesions in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was 68.4%. Conclusion: The incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment are quite high and significant. This widespread problem of WSL development is an alarming challenge and warrants significant attention from both patients and providers, which should result in greatly increased emphasis on effective caries prevention. PMID:26759794

  19. Orthodontic treatment in a patient with unilateral open-bite and Becker muscular dystrophy. A 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Aristizabal, Juan Fernando; Smit, Rosana Martínez

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-chromosomal linked anomaly characterized by progressive muscle wear and weakness. This case report shows the orthodontic treatment of a Becker muscular dystrophy patient with unilateral open bite. METHODS: To correct patient's malocclusion, general anesthesia and orthognathic surgery were not considered as an option. Conventional orthodontic treatment with intermaxillary elastics and muscular functional therapy were employed instead. RESULTS: After 36 months, open bite was corrected. The case remains stable after a 5-year post-treatment retention period. PMID:25628078

  20. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  1. Long-term stability of conservative orthodontic treatment in a patient with temporomandibular joint disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Kuroda, Shingo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the orthodontic treatment of a 20-year-old patient with dental crowding and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). The patient presented moderate anterior crowding with a Class I molar relationship and masticatory disturbance in the mandibular position induced by previous splint therapy. Orthodontic treatment with multi-bracket appliance was initiated to correct the anterior crowding in both dental arches, after the extraction of first premolars and third molars, and also to maintain the splint-induced position of the condyles. After 26 months of treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved without any TMD symptoms. After 18-month retention, flattening on the right condyle was observed, possibly as an adaptative remodeling. After 16-year retention period, the occlusion was maintained without recurrence of any TMD symptoms, indicating a long-term stability of occlusion and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components. Our results suggest the possibility of compromised treatment in patients with TMD to achieve a long-term stability in occlusion and TMJ function. PMID:27556023

  2. Long-term stability of conservative orthodontic treatment in a patient with temporomandibular joint disorder.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Kuroda, Shingo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the orthodontic treatment of a 20-year-old patient with dental crowding and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs). The patient presented moderate anterior crowding with a Class I molar relationship and masticatory disturbance in the mandibular position induced by previous splint therapy. Orthodontic treatment with multi-bracket appliance was initiated to correct the anterior crowding in both dental arches, after the extraction of first premolars and third molars, and also to maintain the splint-induced position of the condyles. After 26 months of treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved without any TMD symptoms. After 18-month retention, flattening on the right condyle was observed, possibly as an adaptative remodeling. After 16-year retention period, the occlusion was maintained without recurrence of any TMD symptoms, indicating a long-term stability of occlusion and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) components. Our results suggest the possibility of compromised treatment in patients with TMD to achieve a long-term stability in occlusion and TMJ function. PMID:27556023

  3. Determinants of successful treatment of bimaxillary protrusion: orthodontic treatment versus anterior segmental osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hak; Kim, Byoung-Ho

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in initial skeletal, dental, and soft tissue characteristics of bimaxillary protrusion (BP) patients to determine poor or good results with orthodontic treatment (OT) or anterior segmental osteotomy (ASO) with extraction of four first premolars. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 46 adult Korean females with BP were analyzed before treatment (T0) and after treatment (T1). According to the measurements at T1, patients were classified into group 1 (poor result with OT, n = 12), group 2 (good result with OT, n = 11), group 3 (poor result with ASO, n = 5), and group 4 (good result with ASO, n = 18). Sagittal, vertical, dental, and soft tissue variables were measured. The differences at T0 among the four groups were compared by one way analysis of variance test and verified by Scheffe's multiple comparison test. Stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to find decisive predictors. Skeletal class II malocclusion tendency, less developed chin, and vertical facial growth pattern were related with group 1. Overly uprighted and less protrusive upper and lower incisor, near normal interincisal angle (IIA), less protrusive upper lip, and more obtuse lower nasolabial angle (NLA) were related with group 3. IIA, U1-NA distance, combination factor, interlabial gap, lower NLA, pterygomaxillary fissure-N, and posterior nasal spine-anterior nasal spine were selected as significant variables for discriminating the four groups. The percentage of correctly classified cases was 91.3%. In particular, the discriminant function showed the highest accuracy in the prediction of group 4. These variables and discriminant functions contributed to the differential diagnosis on BP to make a procedural decision between OT and ASO.

  4. Orthodontic treatment in the severely compromised periodontal patient.

    PubMed

    Feu, Daniela; Menezes, Fernanda Catharino; Augusto Mendes Miguel, José; Cardoso Abdo Quintão, Catia

    2012-12-01

    We describe the diagnosis and treatment of a class II division 1 malocclusion complicated by severe periodontal disease, tooth loss, dentoalveolar protrusion associated with tipping and extrusion of the maxillary incisors, and a traumatic occlusion. Treatment involved the use of a modified palatal arch to intrude and retract the maxillary incisors and high-pull headgear to enhance anchorage and correct the Class II relationship. After active treatment for 19 months, a good anterior occlusion was achieved, with 17° of lingual retroclination and 3 mm of intrusion at the apex of the maxillary incisors. An acceptable occlusion and periodontal status was maintained over a retention period of 2 years. With the patient's cooperation, a successful outcome was achieved with this approach.

  5. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. Materials and methods The sample comprised 100 patients (17–75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengths of a total of 1600 teeth were measured twice in pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, relative changes of the root length during treatment were calculated by a root-crown-ratio taking pre- and post-treatment root and crown lengths into consideration. A reduction of this ratio was considered as a shortening of the initial root length. Additionally, tooth movements of the front teeth were assessed by lateral cephalograms and the 3-dimensonal set up of each patient. Results All patients had a reduction of the pre-treatment root length with a minimum of two teeth. On average 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. 54% of 1600 measured teeth showed no measurable root reduction. A reduction of >0%-10% of the pre-treatment root length was found in 27.75%, a distinct reduction of >10%-20% in 11.94%. 6.31% of all teeth were affected with a considerable reduction of >20%. We found no statistically significant correlation between relative root length changes and the individual tooth, gender, age or sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement; except for extrusion of upper front teeth, which was considered as not clinical relevant due to the small amount of mean 4% ARR. Conclusions The present study is the first analyzing ARR in patients with a fully implemented orthodontic treatment with aligners (i.e. resolving anterior crowding). The variety was high and no clinical relevant influence factor could be detected. A minimum of two teeth with a root length

  6. Orthodontic-surgical treatment after posttraumatic bilateral condylectomy of the mandible in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Belli, Evaristo; Matteini, Claudio; Incisivo, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    A posttraumatic open bite associated with a bird face is reported. Condylectomy was indicated in relation to the plurifragmentary fracture of the condyles with limitation of mandibular movement. Condylectomies were mandatory as a result of delayed maxillofacial surgical treatment, which was related to the poor general condition of the patient after trauma. Functional disorder recovery and aesthetic deformity correction were planned by a team approach between orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons with the support of a logopedist for the postural-related muscle problems. The main practical and theoretical problems presented by the clinical case were a result of the need to restore the occlusal relations and to avoid recurrence of open bite in this patient. The patient presented a wide alteration of muscular function and a strength fibrotic retraction with alteration in the relationship between upper and lower jaws and retrusion of the mandible associated to open bite. Orthodontic treatment was carried with no impact on the upper and lower axis, avoiding orthodontic correction of the open bite. Surgery corrected both the open bite and the bird face by means of bilateral sagittal split osteotomies. Wiring of the mandibular osteotomies and intermaxillary fixation allowed positioning of the mandibular ramus bilaterally because of the fibrosis and muscular action-related forces without resulting in a similar rotation of the mandible with the risk of recurrence. Myotherapy and logopedic support minimized the risk of recurrence, improved reduction of muscular tension with the resolution of the lip incompetence, and allowed functional recovery of mandibular movements. PMID:12544222

  7. Harmonization of free mandibular movements by orthodontic-surgical treatment of patients with mandibular retrognathism.

    PubMed

    Schwestka-Polly, R; Kubein-Meesenburg, D; Nägerl, H

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the following study was to investigate whether adult patients with mandibular retrognathism combined with a dental Class II relationship without craniomandibular pain show a characteristic structure of free mandibular movements caused by the neuromuscular system compared to patients with neutral skeletal and dental relationships. The authors also analyzed whether these characteristic structures changed following orthodontic-surgical treatment. To record the spatial movement of the mandible, an ultrasound measurement system was chosen and diagnostic software was developed for computer analysis of the recorded movements based on physical and biomechanical concepts. Clinically complaint-free, adult patients with mandibular retrognathism and distal bite exhibited a structure of mandibular movement that was markedly displaced as compared to patients with neutral skeletal and dental alignment. After completion of orthodontic and surgical treatment, it is apparent that the entire neuromuscular system of movement was transformed from one characterized by massive dysco-ordination to one of harmonized, coordinated motion, as is seen in patients with nonpathologic, neutral relation.

  8. Orthodontics: computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Wei, Suyuan; Deng, Fanglin; Yao, Sen

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the outline of our newly developed computer-aided 3D dental cast analyzing system with laser scanning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system is composed of a scanning device and a personal computer as a scanning controller and post processor. The scanning device is composed of a laser beam emitter, two sets of linear CCD cameras and a table which is rotatable by two-degree-of-freedom. The rotating is controlled precisely by a personal computer. The dental cast is projected and scanned with a laser beam. Triangulation is applied to determine the location of each point. Generation of 3D graphics of the dental cast takes approximately 40 minutes. About 170,000 sets of X,Y,Z coordinates are store for one dental cast. Besides the conventional linear and angular measurements of the dental cast, we are also able to demonstrate the size of the top surface area of each molar. The advantage of this system is that it facilitates the otherwise complicated and time- consuming mock surgery necessary for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  9. Do customized orthodontic appliances and vibration devices provide more efficient treatment than conventional methods?

    PubMed

    Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of technological advances in the field of clinical orthodontics to increase treatment efficiency has led to the development of customized appliances (Insignia®), archwires (Suresmile®), and the production of devices to enhance tooth movement (Acceledent®). This review presents a comprehensive study of the literature concerning these products, and analyzes the available evidence of their efficiency. To date, one pilot study has evaluated the efficiency of the Insignia® system, three retrospective studies have assessed the efficiency of the Suresmile® system, and a few Acceledent® reports have described its effect on treatment time. Critical appraisal of the reviewed papers revealed that the efficiency of the Insignia® system cannot be confirmed based on the available evidence, while the use of Suresmile® can reduce overall treatment time in simple cases. The acceleration of tooth movement by Acceledent® devices has not yet been confirmed.

  10. Do customized orthodontic appliances and vibration devices provide more efficient treatment than conventional methods?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of technological advances in the field of clinical orthodontics to increase treatment efficiency has led to the development of customized appliances (Insignia®), archwires (Suresmile®), and the production of devices to enhance tooth movement (Acceledent®). This review presents a comprehensive study of the literature concerning these products, and analyzes the available evidence of their efficiency. To date, one pilot study has evaluated the efficiency of the Insignia® system, three retrospective studies have assessed the efficiency of the Suresmile® system, and a few Acceledent® reports have described its effect on treatment time. Critical appraisal of the reviewed papers revealed that the efficiency of the Insignia® system cannot be confirmed based on the available evidence, while the use of Suresmile® can reduce overall treatment time in simple cases. The acceleration of tooth movement by Acceledent® devices has not yet been confirmed. PMID:27226964

  11. Advances in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Susan J; Jones, Steven P; Hodges, Samantha J; Horrocks, Elisabeth N; Hunt, Nigel P; Moseley, Howard C; Noar, Joseph H

    2002-01-01

    There has been tremendous progress in orthodontics since Edward Angle first popularised the fixed orthodontic appliance at the turn of the century. Recent years have seen an increased demand for orthodontic treatment from both adolescents and adults and, in addition, patient and clinician expectations of treatment outcomes continue to rise. A desire for more aesthetic materials has resulted in both smaller and 'tooth-coloured' appliances. Improvements in technology, often outside orthodontics, have also led to the development of new materials. The best example of this was the development of nickel titanium alloy by the NASA space programme, which was subsequently adapted for use in nickel titanium archwires. Other technological advances adopted for use in orthodontics include magnets, computerised imaging systems and distraction osteogenesis. This review paper looks at some of the innovations in the fields of materials as well as in techniques and appliance systems.

  12. Orthodontic treatment of an adult male after bilateral condylectomy of the mandible for injuries sustained in a traffic accident.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, O; Nakamura, T; Satoh, Y; Nakano, Y; Nagano, H; Imamura, R; Yamashita, T

    1998-03-01

    In recent years there have been many reports on studies related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in orthodontic treatment, but an adequate system of diagnosis and treatment has yet to be established, and they often cause considerable difficulty clinically. The patient in this case report sustained generalized contusions, a cerebral concussion, a midline fracture of the mandibular corpus, and bilateral fractures of the condylar process of the mandible when he fell asleep while driving a car and collided with a truck. Because non-surgical reduction was impossible, mandibular condylectomy was performed, and when orthodontic treatment was attempted to improve the open bite that persisted as a sequela of the accident, the favorable results were obtained, as described below. 1. The open bite was corrected by the orthodontic treatment, and the impairment that remained as a sequela resolved. 2. The mandibular condyles were removed during surgical reduction, and the mouth opening disturbance, the TMJ pain, and the TMJ noise resolved. The patient was able to go about his everyday life unimpaired, with hardly any awareness of limitation of jaw movement, and this situation remained unchanged even after the orthodontic treatment was performed. PMID:9663977

  13. SEM-EDS-Based Elemental Identification on the Enamel Surface after the Completion of Orthodontic Treatment: In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, Julia; Lipski, Mariusz; Wójcicka, Anna; Gedrange, Tomasz; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Braces as foreign bodies in the mouth carry a risk of side effects and toxicity to the human body. This article presents the results indicating the possible toxic effects of tools used for cleaning the enamel after the completion of orthodontic treatment. The studies were carried out in vitro. The procedure of enamel etching, bonding orthodontic metal brackets, and enamel cleaning after their removal was performed under laboratory conditions. The enamel microstructure and elements present on its surface were evaluated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Silicon and aluminium were found in addition to the tooth building elements. PMID:27766265

  14. Tooth model reconstruction based upon data fusion for orthodontic treatment simulation.

    PubMed

    Yau, Hong-Tzong; Yang, Tsan-Jui; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a full tooth reconstruction method by integrating 3D scanner data and computed tomography (CT) image sets. In traditional dental treatment, plaster models are used to record patient׳s oral information and assist dentists for diagnoses. However, plaster models only save surface information, and are therefore unable to provide further information for clinical treatment. With the rapid development of medical imaging technology, computed tomography images have become very popular in dental treatment. Computed tomography images with complete internal information can assist the clinical diagnosis for dental implants or orthodontic treatment, and a digital dental model can be used to simulate and predict results before treatment. However, a method of producing a high quality and precise dental model has yet to be developed. To this end, this paper presents a tooth reconstruction method based on the data fusion concept via integrating external scanned data and CT-based medical images. First, a plaster model is digitized with a 3D scanner. Then, each crown can be separated from the base according to the characteristics of tooth. CT images must be processed for feature enhancement and noise reduction, and to define the tooth axis direction which will be used for root slicing. The outline of each slice of dental root can then be determined by the level set algorithm, and converted to point cloud data. Finally, the crown and root data can be registered by the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. With this information, a complete digital dental model can be reconstructed by the Delaunay-based region-growing (DBRG) algorithm. The main contribution of this paper is to reconstruct a high quality customized dental model with root information that can offer significant help to the planning of dental implant and orthodontic treatment. PMID:24631784

  15. Presurgical orthodontic planning: predictability.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Giampietro; Giannini, Lucia; Galbiati, Guido; Mortellaro, Carmen; Maspero, Cinzia

    2013-03-01

    The success of orthognathic surgery depends upon the anatomical details of the patient, the direction and extent of the necessary displacement, the experience of the surgical and orthodontic team, and the precision of presurgical orthodontic planning. The authors describe an experimental protocol to optimize presurgical orthodontic planning by the study of linear and rotational discrepancies of skeletal structures. Rotational changes of the skeletal structures can result in an overestimation or underestimation of linear discrepancies. Moreover, teeth can interfere with rotational movements, complicating presurgical planning.The study sample was a group of 20 adult patients, 7 males and 13 females. The inclusion criterion was adult patients who required correction of skeletal asymmetric class II or III malocclusion by osteotomy. Movements in the horizontal, frontal, and midsagittal planes can be simulated and measured through model surgery after diagnostic wax-up of the orthodontic treatment objective. Orthodontic presurgical preparation can be verified through the use of an occlusal splint, which represents a reliable guide during orthodontic preparation. The presurgical orthodontic phase can be obtained in less time and with more accuracy using this treatment planning method and indirect bonding of the orthodontic appliances.

  16. Modelling of Cr and Ni ions release during orthodontic treatment: in vitro and in vivo methods.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Mikulewicz, Marcin

    2014-11-01

    The kinetics of metal ions release from orthodontic appliances in in vitro, in in vivo on pigs, and in vivo trials on patients (where hair samples were taken) was discussed. We have evaluated (by means of ICP-OES and ISO 17025) and compared the mass of Cr and Ni ions released. Not all the metal ions released from the appliance were transferred to hair tissue. The transfer factor was expressed as coefficient ω and evaluated as: ωCr(patients) 33.0%, ωCr(pigs) 17.2%, ωNi(patients) 49.8%, ωNi(pigs) 0.553%. The kinetics was described by a power function. Coefficient ω was used to combine the models: the in vitro and in vivo on animals on the one hand and the in vitro and in vivo on human on the other, which enabled the extrapolation of in vitro and translation of the results into in vivo conditions. The dose of metal ions released during orthodontic treatment was estimated. PMID:25461553

  17. A radiographic comparison of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment with the edgewise and Speed appliances.

    PubMed

    Blake, M; Woodside, D G; Pharoah, M J

    1995-07-01

    Apical root resorption is a serious iatrogenic problem sometimes associated with orthodontic treatment. The Speed appliance (Strite Industries, Ltd., Ontario, Canada) provides a continuous rotatory and torque action through its spring clip mechanism, in contrast with the edgewise appliance that may provide an interrupted force. The effect of continuous action on root resorption compared with the interrupted action of the edgewise system has not been investigated previously. The purpose of the present investigation is to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the apical root resorption seen after orthodontic treatment with the edgewise straight wire and the Speed appliance systems. Pretreatment and posttreatment periapical radiographs of 63 patients, (30 treated with the Speed 0.018 bracket and 33 with the 0.018 edgewise bracket) were studied. The long cone paralleling technique was used for all the radiographs. Any image distortion between the pretreatment and posttreatment radiograph was calculated and compensated for by using the crown length measurements, on the assumption that the crown length remains unaltered during the treatment period. Quantitative measurements of crown and root lengths for the maxillary and the mandibular central and lateral incisors were compared. Means and standard deviations for the percentage root resorption per tooth group were calculated. A three-factor analysis for variance (ANOVA test) was performed to determine whether there was an appliance, treatment, or gender effect on the amount of root resorption seen after treatment. No statistically significant difference in root resorption between the two appliance systems was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The Effect of Awareness of American Board of Orthodontics Criteria on Treatment Outcomes in a Postgraduate Dental Clinic.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Rahime Burcu Nur; Nalbantgil, Didem; Ozdemir, Fulya

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the posttreatment outcomes in a postgraduate orthodontic clinic following a course on American Board of Orthodontics Cast and Radiograph Evaluation (ABO-CRE); to compare the outcomes of postgraduate students who took the course before and after finishing treatment of their cases; and to assess if the need for orthodontic treatment as determined by the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) at the beginning of treatment affected students' final scores. A course on ABO-CRE was given to second- (group A), third- (group B), and fourth- (group C) year postgraduate students at Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey, in 2012. Pre- and posttreatment plaster models of 253 cases (group A) were treated by students in 2011-12. An additional 251 (group B, 2012-13) and 341 (group C, 2013-14) cases were evaluated in the first and second years after the course, respectively. The models were graded retrospectively using the ABO-CRE and IOTN. The results showed that the total mean scores on the posttreatment plaster models were significantly higher in the pre-course group than the first- and second-year post-course group (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). The borderline cases (grade 3) received a lower score on the ABO-CRE than the cases with need (grade 4) (p<0.01) and severe need (grade 5) (p<0.01) for orthodontic treatment. Increasing awareness by giving information about the ABO-CRE significantly improved the posttreatment success of these postgraduate students. After the course, treatment outcomes in the following year were better than two years later, suggesting it may be useful to teach the course annually to refresh students' knowledge. PMID:27587576

  19. Orthodontics in antiquity: myth or reality.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2016-08-12

    Malocclusion, although a common finding in today's world, appears to have been less frequent in antiquity. There are references to overcrowding, delayed exfoliation of deciduous teeth and basic orthodontic treatment in the writings of classical authors such as Hippocrates, Celsus and Galen. However, early authentic archaeological finds of dental appliances are extremely rare. Considerable attention has focussed on gold banded devices excavated from ancient Etruscan sites in central Italy which have been dated to around the seventh to the fourth centuries BC, with a number of authors suggesting an orthodontic function for these appliances. This paper reviews the evidence for the possible treatment of malocclusions in antiquity and concludes that the use of orthodontic appliances to facilitate tooth movement is not supported by the available evidence. PMID:27514349

  20. Effect of honey in preventing gingivitis and dental caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Atwa, AL-Dany A.; AbuShahba, Ramadan Y.; Mostafa, Marwa; Hashem, Mohamed I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the following: (1) the effects of chewing honey on plaque formation in orthodontic patients, (2) the effect of chewing honey on dental plaque bacterial counts, (3) determine if honey possesses antibacterial effects on bacteria recovered from plaques. Methods Female orthodontic patients (n = 20, 12–18 years of age) participated in this randomized controlled study. The effects of honey were compared to treatment with either 10% sucrose or 10% sorbitol that served as positive and negative controls, respectively. The pH of plaque was measured using a digital pH meter prior to baseline and at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min after chewing honey or rinsing with control solutions and the numbers of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and Prophymonas gingivalis in respective plaques were determined. The antibacterial activity of honey was tested against commonly used antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. Results Significant differences in pH were observed in the honey and sucrose groups compared to the pH observed in the sorbitol group (p ⩽ 0.001). The maximum pH drop occurred at 5 min in both the honey and sucrose groups; however the pH in the honey group rapidly recovered 10–20 min after exposure and did not drop below the critical decalcification pH of 5.5. On the other hand, the pH following sucrose exposure fell <5.5 and was associated with a 30 min recovery time. The pH observed for the sorbitol group did not change over time. Bacterial counts were significantly reduced in the honey group compared to the other treatment groups (p ⩽ 0.001) and honey significantly inhibited the growth of all studied strains compared to inhibition observed with antibiotics (p ⩽ 0.001). Conclusions Honey can be used as an alternative to traditional remedies for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis following orthodontic treatment. PMID:25057231

  1. Orthodontically guided bone transport in the treatment of alveolar cleft: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. Case Report We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. Conclusions The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Key words:Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft. PMID:26855699

  2. Radiographic evaluation of orthodontic treatment by means of four different cephalometric superimposition methods

    PubMed Central

    Lenza, Marcos Augusto; de Carvalho, Adilson Alves; Lenza, Eduardo Beaton; Lenza, Mauricio Guilherme; de Torres, Hianne Miranda; de Souza, João Batista

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite discussion on the merit of various cephalometric superimposition methods, there remains a need to assess which one can be used in daily practice with reasonably accuracy and less working time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate four methods of cephalometric superimposition by means of assessing the longitudinal changes in craniofacial morphology caused by growth and response of adolescents with Class I malocclusion to orthodontic treatment involving first premolar extraction. METHODS: Pretreatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs of 31 adolescents (20 females and 11 males), with Angle Class I malocclusion and indication of premolar extraction, participated in this study. Radiographs were digitized, traced and had structures identified by means of a cephalometric software. Four superimposition methods were used: Björk structural method, Steiner/Tweed SN line, Ricketts N-Ba line at N-point and Ricketts N-Ba line at CC-point. Positional changes were quantified by horizontal and vertical linear changes in the following cephalometric landmarks: anterior/posterior nasal spine (ANS and PNS), gnathion (Gn), Gonion (Go), Pogonion (Pog), A-point and B-point. Differences between T1 and T2 in horizontal and vertical positional changes for all superimposition methods were assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences among the cephalometric superimposition methods or when patients' sex was considered. CONCLUSION: Björk structural method, Steiner/Tweed SN line, Ricketts N-Ba line at N-point and Ricketts N-Ba line at CC-point methods were reliable and presented similar precision when the overall facial changes due to active growth and/or orthodontic treatment were examined. PMID:26154453

  3. Prevalence and type of pain during conventional and self-ligating orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Tecco, Simona; D'Attilio, Michele; Tetè, Stefano; Festa, Felice

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of pain experienced during orthodontic treatment in 30 subjects (12 males, 18 females, aged 12-18 years) with crowding. Fifteen patients were treated with conventional brackets (Victory Series) and 15 with self-ligating brackets (Damon SL II). The first archwire for all patients was a 0.014 inch nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire with a force of approximately 100 g. Conventional brackets were ligated with elastomeric modules. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used daily to assess the intensity of pain; the use of pain medication was also reported in a specially designed daybook for a total period of 3 months. Pearson's chi-square was used to investigate the difference between groups in the frequency of pain experience, its nature, and the use of analgesia. Non-parametric statistics (Mann-Whitney U-test) were computed to compare pain intensity between the groups. To investigate reported pain assessments, Friedman's two-way analysis of variance was used and the differences were estimated using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. The results showed that pain was reported for a period of 9 days after archwire insertion. Patients treated with self-ligating brackets reported the highest pain intensity on the day following placement of the first archwire (VAS mean = 42.6), while those treated with conventional brackets experienced the greatest pain intensity at placement of the first archwire (VAS mean = 52) and after the second orthodontic appointment (VAS mean = 59.6). Analgesics were used by 16.5 per cent of patients treated with self-ligating brackets and by 10 per cent of those treated with conventional brackets, most often during the first 2 days after archwire placement. Patients treated with conventional brackets reported significantly more 'constant' pain than those treated with self-ligating brackets who complained of 'chewing/biting' pain. Pain appears to be common during orthodontic treatment but perhaps less intense when

  4. Development of lingual brachet technique. (Esthetic and hygienic approach to orthodontic treatment) (Part 1) Background and design.

    PubMed

    Fujita, K

    1978-04-01

    The present study relates to a development of the new technique and the new appliances, for the treatment of malocclusion and minor tooth movement. The primary purpose of the present study consists in to reduce mental burden of the patients receiving orthodontic treatment and to improve effect of the treatment further by making the appliance invisible when mouth is opened. The second purpose of the study is in orthodontic treatment carried out from lingual side, to control all teeth movement in oral cavity in three dimensions so that the normal occlusion may be operated. The third purpose of the present study is to make the exchange of wire readily when the wire with bigger elasticity is exchanged by turns during the process of the treatment. The background and the design of appliances for the lingual-bracker technique(lingual-bracket mushroom arch wire technique) is found out in this report.

  5. Orthodontic treatment need for adolescents in the Campania region: the malocclusion impact on self-concept

    PubMed Central

    Perillo, Letizia; Esposito, Maria; Caprioglio, Alberto; Attanasio, Stefania; Santini, Annamaria Chiara; Carotenuto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental malocclusions can be considered not only as an oral health problem, because they are linked to quality of life perception. Many factors related to malocclusion have strong influences on the perception of facial esthetics (eg, anterior tooth alignment, tooth shape and position, lip thickness, symmetric gingival or tooth contour, lip profile, and overjet). Many reports have shown that the perception of facial esthetics can influence psychological development from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dental malocclusion on self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. Materials and methods The study population was composed of 516 orthodontically untreated subjects (256 males) mean ages 13.75±1.977 years recruited from schools in the Campania region of Italy between January 2011 and July 2011. To evaluate the self-esteem grade in our population, all subjects filled out the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire and attended an orthodontic clinical evaluation to estimate dental occlusal aspects. Results Pearson’s analysis shows the relationship in our sample between some occlusal characteristics (crossbite and dental crowding) and aspects of self-concept evaluation (social, competence, academic, physical, and global score) of the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale questionnaire. Moreover, logistic regression analysis shows the potential role of dental crowding (odds ratio 5.359; 95% confidence interval 3.492–8.225) and crossbite (odds ratio 6.153; 95% confidence interval 3.545–10.678) as risk factors for development of global self-concept score abnormalities. Conclusion Our findings confirm the relationship between psychosocial well-being, self-esteem, and dental malocclusion among adolescents. PMID:24672229

  6. Effect of Four Methods of Surface Treatment on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Zirconium

    PubMed Central

    Yassaei, Soghra; Aghili, Hossein Agha; Davari, Abdolrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Providing reliable attachment between bracket base and zirconia surface is a prerequisite for exertion of orthodontic force. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of four zirconium surface treatment methods on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: One block of zirconium was trimmed into four zirconium surfaces, which served as our four study groups and each had 18 metal brackets bonded to them. Once the glazed layer was removed, the first group was etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HF), and the remaining three groups were prepared by means of sandblasting and 1W, and 2W Er: YAG laser, respectively. After application of silane, central incisor brackets were bonded to the zirconium surfaces. The SBS values were measured by a Dartec testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD for multiple comparisons. Results: The highest SBS was achieved in the sandblasted group (7.81±1.02 MPa) followed in a descending order by 2W laser group (6.95±0.87 MPa), 1W laser group (6.87±0.92 MPa) and HF acid etched group (5.84±0.78 MPa). The differences between the study groups were statistically significant except between the laser groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: In terms of higher bond strength and safety, sandblasting and Er: YAG laser irradiation with power output of 1W and 2W can be considered more appropriate alternatives to HF acid etching for zirconium surface treatment prior to bracket bonding. PMID:26622283

  7. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Tooth Enamel After Treatment With Different Tooth Bleaching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Khaloo, Negar; Mojahedi, Seyed Masoud; Azarsina, Mohadese

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bleaching treatments decrease shear bond strength between orthodontic brackets and teeth; although definite results have not been reported in this regard. Objectives: This study determined the effects of different bleaching protocols on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to teeth. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in Iran. Forty-eight extracted human premolars were randomly assigned into four groups. In the control group, no bleaching treatment was performed. In groups 2 - 4, the bleaching procedures were performed using carbamide peroxide 45%, carbamide peroxide 20% and diode laser, respectively. Two weeks later, brackets were bonded to teeth and thermocycled. The shear bond strengths of the brackets to the teeth were measured. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post-hoc test. Results: Shear bond strength of the brackets to the teeth were 10.54 ± 1.51, 6.37 ± 0.92, 7.67 ± 1.01 and 7.49 ± 1.19 MPa, in groups 1 - 4, respectively. Significant differences were found between control group and all other groups (P < 0.001); and also between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the other groups. Conclusions: The bleaching procedures using 20% carbamide peroxide and 45% carbamide peroxide and diode laser significantly decreased shear bond strength of brackets to the teeth. 45% carbamide peroxide had a more significant effect on bond strength compared to 20% carbamide peroxide. The difference in bond strength was not significant between laser group and either carbamide peroxide groups. PMID:26734481

  8. Oral health-related quality of life of children seeking orthodontic treatment based on child oral health impact profile: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G.; Asokan, Sharath; John, J. Baby; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Prathiba, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using short form (SF) of child oral health impact profile (COHIP) in children aged 11–15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11–15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group) and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049). No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000). In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037) more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Conclusion: Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment. PMID:26321842

  9. Autotransplantation combined with orthodontic treatment: a case involving the maxillary central incisors with root resorption after traumatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Hugo M.; Botelho, Filomena; Carrilho, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dental injury can result in avulsion of anterior teeth. In young patients, it is a challenge to the dental professional because after replantation, late complications such as ankylosis require tooth extraction. Although prosthetic and orthodontic treatment, and implant placement have been described as the options for intervention, autogenous tooth transplantation could be an effective procedure in growing patients if there is a suitable donor tooth available. This case presents the treatment of a patient who suffered a traumatic injury at 9 years old with avulsion of tooth 21, which had been replanted, and intrusion of tooth 11. Both teeth ankylosed; thus they were removed and autotransplantation of premolars was carried out. After transplantation, the tooth underwent root canal treatment because of pulpal necrosis. Orthodontic treatment began 3 months after transplantation and during 7 years' follow-up the aesthetics and function were maintained without signs of resorption. PMID:26295028

  10. [INVESTIATION OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY OF TEMPORAL AND MASSETER MUSCLES AFTER ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT OF MALOCCLUSION COMPLICATED BY DENTAL CROWDING].

    PubMed

    Dmitrenko, M I

    2014-01-01

    The results of investigation showed that it is necessary to use complex methods of orthodontic treatment in patients with malocclusion complicated by dental crowding. Orthodontic appliance therapy should be accompanied by differentiated massage and mioymnastics to improve functional state of masseter and temporal muscles. It was found that after the treatment electromyographic potential amplitude of temporal muscles is on the average in 1.5 times lower as compared with pretreatment records (P < 0.05). It was observed increase on the average in 1.5 times in electromyographic potential oscillation amplitude of masseter muscles during clenching after the treatment of maxillary and mandibular dental crowding (P < 0.05). Treatment of dental crowding resulted in restoration of masseter muscles functional symmetry. During clenching index MASI(MM) significantly decreased in all groups in comparison with pretreatment indices (P < 0.05).

  11. Long-term changes in arch form after orthodontic treatment and retention.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, A; Sampson, P; Little, R M; Artun, J; Shapiro, P A

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term stability of orthodontically induced changes in maxillary and mandibular arch form. Dental casts were evaluated before treatment, after treatment, and a minimum of 10 years after retention for 45 patients with Class I and 42 Class II, Division 1 malocclusions who received four first premolar extraction treatment. Computer generated arch forms were used to assess changes in arch shape over time. Buccal cusp tips of first molars, premolars, and canines plus mesial, distal, and central incisal aspects of incisors were marked, photocopied, and digitized in a standardized manner. An algorithm was used to fit conic sections to the digitized points. The shape of the fitted conics at each time period was described by calculating the parameter eccentricity; a small value represented a more rounded shape and a larger value represented a more tapered shape. Findings demonstrated a rounding of arch form during treatment followed by a change to more tapered. Arch form tended to return toward the pretreatment shape after retention. The greater the treatment change, the greater the tendency for postretention change. However, individual variation was considerable. The patient's pretreatment arch form appeared to be the best guide to future arch form stability, but minimizing treatment change was no guarantee of postretention stability.

  12. The community and orthodontic care. Part II: Community-perceived importance of correcting various dentofacial anomalies. Part III: Community perception of the importance of orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Coyne, R; Woods, M; Abrams, R

    1999-11-01

    Part II. A professionally-managed telephone survey was undertaken to assess the community-perceived importance of correcting various dentofacial anomalies. The sample included 505 respondents, aged eighteen and over, from metropolitan and non-metropolitan households across the state of Victoria. The sample distribution had a 95 per cent confidence limit with a 5 per cent margin of error and closely matched the known population distributions for age, sex and geographical location. This article forms part two of a series. It was found that the correction of functional problems such as "difficulty chewing or speaking" was considered to be very important, regardless of age, sex or geographical area. The correction of other factors such as "top teeth which stick out in front", "bottom teeth which stick out in front" or "crooked or crowded front teeth" was also considered to be important. "Spaced front teeth" was the factor considered least important for correction within all groups. It is interesting to note that, for all factors, correction seemed to be considered more important by females and non-metropolitan respondents than by males and metropolitan respondents, In contrast to previous studies in which it has been suggested that patients seek treatment mainly for reasons of aesthetics, the results of this study have shown a definite community recognition of the importance of functional problems as well. Part III. A professionally-managed telephone survey was undertaken to assess the community's perceptions of the importance of having "straight teeth and a nice smile", to assess if a Medicare (the Australian government health benefit scheme) rebate should be provided for orthodontic treatment and to assess whether respondents had any private health insurance that would help cover the cost of orthodontic treatment. The sample included 505 respondents, aged eighteen and over,, from metropolitan and non-metropolitan households across the state of Victoria. The sample

  13. Esthetic orthodontic treatment using the invisalign appliance for moderate to complex malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Robert L

    2008-08-01

    In this report, three patients were treated with a new treatment protocol for Invisalign to demonstrate that a variety of complex malocclusions can be successfully treated using this protocol, including correction of moderate crowding, correction of moderate Class II division 1, and deep overbite. Previous studies of Invisalign showed significant limitations for more complex orthodontic treatment, although a few recent case reports have shown successfully completed moderate to difficult orthodontic malocclusions. One reason for the discrepancy is that the earlier studies were done during the first four years of the appliance development (now ten years of clinical use), when significant problems existed with accomplishing bodily movement, torquing of roots, extrusions, and rotations of premolars and canines. The new protocol included new methods for anterior/posterior corrections, showing on the computer the effect of elastics for Class II treatment simulated as a one-stage anterior/posterior movement at the end of treatment. Staging for interproximal reduction (IPR) is now automatically staged when there is better access to interproximal contacts to avoid IPR where significant overlap between teeth is present to avoid performing IPR on surfaces that may be damaged by instruments such as burs, strips, and disks when cut on a sharp angle. Staging for tooth movements is now also done to enable combination movements to occur simultaneously for each tooth with the tooth that needs to move the most (the lead tooth) determining the minimum number of stages required. All other teeth move at a slower rate than the lead tooth throughout the duration of treatment. Attachments are now placed in the middle of the crown automatically for rotation and automatically sized in proportion to the clinical crown. Use of 1 mm thick (buccal-lingual dimension) horizontal beveled rectangular attachments is standard on premolars for retention of aligners during intrusive movements, such as

  14. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  15. Orthodontics treatments for managing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nelly T; Desplats, Eve; Almeida, Fernanda R

    2016-02-01

    A small maxilla and/or mandible may predispose children to sleep-disordered breathing, which is a continuum of severity from snoring to obstructive sleep apnea. Preliminary studies have suggested that orthodontic treatments, such as orthopedic mandibular advancement or rapid maxillary expansion, may be effective treatments. The aim is to investigate the efficacy of orthopedic mandibular advancement and/or rapid maxillary expansion in the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Internet were searched for eligible studies published until April 2014. Articles with adequate data were selected for the meta-analysis; other articles were reported in the qualitative assessment. Data extraction was conducted by two independent authors. A total of 58 studies were identified. Only eight studies were included in the review; of these, six were included in the meta-analysis. The research yielded only a small number of studies. Consequently, any conclusions from the pooled diagnostic parameters and their interpretation should be treated carefully. Although the included studies were limited, these orthodontic treatments may be effective in managing pediatric snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. Other related health outcomes, such as neurocognitive and cardiovascular functions have not yet been systematically addressed. More studies are needed with larger sample size, specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and standardized data reporting to help establish guidelines for the orthodontic treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:26164371

  16. Facial and occlusal esthetic improvements of an adult skeletal Class III malocclusion using surgical, orthodontic, and implant treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Cardoso, Mauricio; de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Battilani Filho, Valter Antonio Ban; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Correa, Marcio Aurelio; Nary Filho, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical report is to describe the complex treatment of an adult Class III malocclusion patient who was disappointed with the outcome of a previous oral rehabilitation. Interdisciplinary treatment planning was performed with a primary indication for implant removal because of marginal bone loss and gingival recession, followed by orthodontic and surgical procedures to correct the esthetics and skeletal malocclusion. The comprehensive treatment approach included: (1) implant removal in the area of the central incisors; (2) combined orthodontic decompensation with mesial displacement and forced extrusion of the lateral incisors; (3) extraction of the lateral incisors and placement of new implants corresponding to the central incisors, which received provisional crowns; (4) orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement to improve occlusal and facial relationships; and finally, (5) orthodontic refinement followed by definitive prosthetic rehabilitation of the maxillary central incisors and reshaping of the adjacent teeth. At the three-year follow-up, clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful replacement of the central incisors and improved skeletal and esthetic appearances. Moreover, a Class II molar relationship was obtained with an ideal overbite, overjet, and intercuspation. In conclusion, we report the successful esthetic anterior rehabilitation of a complex case in which interdisciplinary treatment planning improved facial harmony, provided gingival architecture with sufficient width and thickness, and improved smile esthetics, resulting in enhanced patient comfort and satisfaction. This clinical case report might be useful to improve facial esthetics and occlusion in patients with dentoalveolar and skeletal defects. PMID:26877982

  17. [THE EFFECT OF DURATION OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ON MICRO-BIOCENOSIS OF BACK OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF TONGUE].

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, O A; Chervinets, I M; Chervinets, Yu V; Matlaeva, A S; Troshin, A V; Mironov A Yu

    2015-06-01

    The article presents analysis of results of studying spectrum, rate of occurrence and amount of microorganisms on mucous membrane of back of tongue before orthodontic treatment of dentoalveolar anomalies and deformations and on different stages of fixation. It is established that in all patients the dominant microorganisms of analyzed biotope were bacteria of genus of Streptococcus and Peptostreptococcus released in number of 5-6 Ig CFU/cm2. The gender and quantitative characteristics of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms varied during all year of monitoring. However, their prevalence and number either returned to initial indicators or had no exceeding over allowed values. The results testify necessity of development of standards of follow-up of orthodontic patients over whole period of treatment with purpose of implementation of adjusting measures preventing development of complications. PMID:26466456

  18. Difference in the Surgical Outcome of Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients with and without Pre-Alveolar Bone Graft Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Shin; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chiu, Yu-Ting; Pai, Betty Chien-Jung; Chen, I-Ju; Liao, Yu-Fang; Liou, Eric Jen-Wein; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Noordhoff, M. Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Presurgical orthodontic treatment before secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) is widely performed for cleft lip/palate patients. However, no randomized controlled trial has been published comparing SABG outcomes in patients with, and without, presurgical orthodontic treatment. This randomized, prospective, single-blinded trial was conducted between January 2012 and April 2015 to compare ABG volumes 6 months postoperatively between patients with and without presurgical orthodontic treatment. Twenty-four patients were enrolled and randomized and 22 patients completed follow-up. Patients who had presurgical orthodontics before SABG had significantly improved inclination (p < 0.001) and rotation (p < 0.001) of the central incisor adjacent to the defect, significantly improved ABG fill volume (0.81 ± 0.26 cm3 at 6 months compared to 0.59 ± 0.22 cm3; p < 0.05) and less residual alveolar bone defect (0.31 ± 0.08 cm3 at 6 months compared to s 0.55 ± 0.14 cm3; p < 0.001) compared to patients who did not have presurgical orthodontic treatment. In conclusion, orthodontic treatment combined with SABG results in superior bone volume when compared with conventional SABG alone. PMID:27041697

  19. Early treatment of an ectopic premolar to prevent molar-premolar transposition.

    PubMed

    Cannavale, Rosangela; Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Grassia, Vincenzo; Perillo, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    Orthodontic treatment is planned on an individual, case-by-case basis after thoroughly considering the patient's overall facial and dental characteristics, the expected duration of treatment, costs, patient preferences, and the orthodontist's experience. This article reports the treatment of a patient with a maxillary premolar-molar transposition in the permanent dentition that was successfully managed with orthodontic treatment. A girl, aged 10 years 2 months, came for treatment with an ectopic maxillary left premolar. Radiographic analysis indicated a developing complete transposition of the maxillary left premolar. The patient was treated with extraction of the deciduous molar and surgical exposure and ligation of the premolar. Eruption was properly guided, and the correct order of the 2 teeth was restored in the arch. This challenging treatment approach is described in detail, including the mechanics used to align the ectopic premolar. Early treatment can, in many cases, prevent a molar-premolar transposition.

  20. Osteoclastogenesis in Local Alveolar Bone in Early Decortication-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Jiang, Yu-Xi; Qu, Hong; Li, Cui-Ying; Jiang, Jiu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of alveolar decortication on local bone remodeling, and to explore the possible mechanism by which decortication facilitates tooth movement. Materials and Methods Forty rabbits were included in the experiment. The left mandible was subjected to decortication-facilitated orthodontics, and the right mandible underwent traditional orthodontics as a control. The animals were sacrificed on the days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14, after undergoing orthodontic procedures. Tooth movement was measured by Micro-CT, and the local periodontal tissues were investigated using H&E, Masson's trichrome and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to bone remodeling in the alveolar bone were analyzed using real-time PCR. Result On days 3, 5, 7 and 14, tooth movement was statistically accelerated by decortication (P < 0.05) and was accompanied by increased hyperemia. Despite the lack of new bone formation in both groups, more osteoclasts were noted in the decorticated group, with two peak counts (P < 0.05). The first peak count was consistent with the maximum values of ctsk and TRAP expression, and the second peak counts accompanied the maximum nfatc1 and jdp2 expression. The increased fra2 expression and the ratio of rankl/opg also accompanied the second peak counts. Conclusions Following alveolar decortication, osteoclastogenesis was initially induced to a greater degree than the new bone formation which was thought to have caused a regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP). The amount of steoclastogenesis in the decorticated alveolar bone was found to have two peaks, perhaps due to attenuated local resistance. The first peak count in osteoclasts may have been due to previously existing osteoclast precursors, whereas the second may represent the differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells which came from circulation as the result of hyperemia. PMID:27096621

  1. Modified SARME (Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion) in Conjunction with Orthodontic Treatment-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chitra, Prasad; Rao, Sadam Srinivas; Bindra, Sukhvinder

    2015-01-01

    Transverse maxillary hypoplasia or maxillary constriction in conjunction with unilateral or bilateral posterior cross bites is a common finding in cleft palate patients. These situations are also commonly encountered in adults who have not had recourse to orthodontic treatment in childhood. In adults, after ossification of the mid palatal suture is complete, the accepted means of correcting transverse skeletal discrepancies is by Surgically Assisted Rapid Maxillary Expansion (SARME). The disadvantage of this technique in the Indian scenario is reduced patient acceptance and increased treatment costs. Le Fort-I down fracture and mid palatal suture sectioning requires hospitalization and increases morbidity. A case of a 21-year-old non-cleft male who presented with Class I malocclusion with transverse skeletal discrepancy and bilateral posterior cross bites is presented. A modified SAARME technique was performed without pterygomaxillary disjunction, as an outpatient procedure. The results obtained were satisfactory and the desired amount of transverse skeletal correction was achieved. The patient was discharged the same day. The technique can be used to successfully treat a large number of patients in India with maxillary skeletal transverse problems with increased predictability, reduced costs and morbidity and higher rates of acceptance. PMID:26557630

  2. Parent-assessed quality of life among adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment: a 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess parents' and caregivers' view of the first twelve months of adolescents' orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and to assess the evaluative properties of the Brazilian version of the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) in the orthodontic setting. Methods: Data from a sample of 96 parents and caregivers of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were collected by means of P-CPQ. Assessments were performed before banding and bracket bonding (T1) and 12 months after placement of fixed appliances (T2). Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the overall P-CPQ score and Bonferroni correction for P-CPQ subscales. The evaluative properties of the P-CPQ were assessed through responsiveness calculation and the minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results: Among the 96 participants, 76 were mothers of patients, 16 were fathers, and four were other family members. Adolescents' mean age was 11.49 ± 0.50 years. Most families earned equal to or less than three times the Brazilian monthly minimum wage. There was significant improvement in the emotional and social well-being subscales (p < 0.001), which contributed to improve patient's overall quality of life (p< 0.001). Reductions in scores were associated with clinically meaningful moderate changes in the overall score as well as in the emotional and social well-being subscales. The MCID was 6.16 for the P-CPQ overall score. Conclusion: Parents and caregivers reported significant improvement in the quality of life of adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. PMID:26560827

  3. Alterations in plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation promoted by treatment with self-ligating and conventional orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Saraiva, Patrícia Pinto; Maltagliati, Liliana Ávila; Rhoden, Fernando Kleinübing; Costa, Carla Cristina Alvarenga; Normando, David; Capelozza, Leopoldino

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate, comparatively, the periodontal response during orthodontic treatment performed with self-ligating and conventional brackets. METHODS: Sixteen Caucasian individuals of both sexes, aged between 12 and 16 years old and in permanent dentition were selected. Eight individuals were treated with conventional brackets installed on the lower dental arch and self-ligating brackets on the upper arch. Another eight individuals received self-ligating brackets in the lower arch and conventional brackets in the upper arch. The subjects received material and instructions for oral hygiene. Visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were evaluated just after installation of orthodontic appliances, and 30, 60 and 180 days later. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare differences between groups (self-ligating and conventional), two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used to assess CAL at each site of each tooth. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: No significant changes were found with regard to the assessed parameters (VPI, GBI and CAL) in either one of the systems. CONCLUSION: No significant changes were found with regard to the periodontal response to orthodontic treatment for the variables assessed and between subjects receiving passive self-ligating and conventional brackets. All individuals had received oral hygiene instructions and had their periodontal conditions monitored. PMID:25992985

  4. Orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Larson, Brent E

    2014-11-01

    Orthodontic preparation is critical to the success of orthognathic surgery. Recognition and correction of existing dental compensations allows full correction of skeletal discrepancies. Presurgical orthodontic goals are important to define at the start of treatment and may not always include complete arch leveling or space closure, or ideal interdigitation. Orthodontic preparation dictates the skeletal movements that are possible at the time of surgery. Different malocclusion types have characteristic dental compensations that can be identified and described. Proper planning, monitoring, and communication between surgeon and orthodontist are critical to avoid potential pitfalls in the orthodontic preparation.

  5. Orthodontic First Aid for General Dental Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sodipo, Ibukunoluwa; Birdsall, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Orthodontic emergencies occasionally arise and although they can cause discomfort to the patient, they can usually be stabilized by a general dentist and then followed up by the orthodontist. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment may initially present to their general dental practitioner with an orthodontic emergency as opposed to their orthodontist. It is therefore important that general dental practitioners are aware of common orthodontic emergencies and their management. PMID:27529914

  6. Implant interactions with orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Celenza, Frank

    2012-09-01

    Many situations arise in which orthodontic therapy in conjunction with implant modalities is beneficial, relevant or necessary. These situations might entail orthodontic treatment preparatory to the placement of an implant, such as in the site preparation for implant placement. Traditionally, this has been somewhat well understood, but there are certain guidelines that must be adhered to as well as diagnostic steps that must be followed. Provision of adequate space for implant placement is of paramount importance, but there is also the consideration of tissue manipulation and remodeling which orthodontic therapy can achieve very predictably and orthodontists should be well versed in harnessing and employing this modality of site preparation. In this way, hopeless teeth that are slated for extraction can still be utilized by orthodontic extraction to augment tissues, both hard and soft, thereby facilitating site development. On the corollary, and representing a significant shift in treatment sequencing, there are many situations in which orthodontic mechanotherapy can be simplified, expedited, and facilitated by the placement of an implant and utilization as an integral part of the mechanotherapy. Implants have proven to provide excellent anchorage, and have resulted in a new class of anchorage known as "absolute anchorage". Implants can be harnessed as anchors both in a direct and indirect sense, depending upon the dictates of the case. Further, this has led to the development of orthodontic miniscrew systems and techniques, which can have added features such as flexibility in location and placement, as well as ease of use and removal. As orthodontic appliances evolve, the advent of aligner therapy has become mainstream and well accepted, and many of the aforementioned combined treatment modalities can and should be incorporated into this relatively new treatment modality as well. PMID:23040348

  7. Can dental registrants use the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need accurately? Part 1: Knowledge of IOTN among dental registrants.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Z; Bates, C; Hodge, T

    2016-05-27

    Aim To determine whether dental registrants can use the dental health component (DHC) and aesthetic component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) 'accurately' to an acceptable level of agreement and diagnostic validity.Method Participants from six different registrant groups were asked to score the IOTN for 14 cases based on study models and photographs as well as completing a short questionnaire. Participants in the study were all recruited at study days and annual conferences. The main outcome measures include the different registrant groups IOTN scores compared to expert panel scores using kappa statistics. To assess for diagnostic validity, individual participants sensitivity and specificity scores were calculated.Result Overall, 229 registrants took part in the study. For the DHC the specialist orthodontist (SO), postgraduate orthodontic student (PGOS) and the qualified orthodontic therapist (QOT) groups achieved a mean kappa ≥0.60 indicating 'acceptable' agreement with the expert panel scores. The dental foundation trainee (DFT) and general dental practitioner (GDP) group achieved a mean kappa of 0.20 and 0.22 respectively indicating poor and fair agreement. The student orthodontic therapist (SOT) group achieved a mean kappa of 0.55 indicating moderate agreement. For the AC none of the registrant groups achieved an acceptable level of agreement with the mean kappa scores for the different groups ranging from kappa 0.13-0.21, indicating poor to fair agreement.Conclusion Overall agreement for the DHC was varied for the different registrant groups ranging from fair to substantial agreement. Registrants were better at applying the DHC compared to the AC with agreement ranging from poor to fair. More needs to done to help registrants use the IOTN more 'accurately'.

  8. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  9. Orthodontics and Aligners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth-Colored Fillings Orthodontics and Aligners Straighten teeth for a healthier smile. Orthodontics When consumers think about orthodontics, braces are the ...

  10. Association between post-orthodontic treatment gingival margin alterations and symphysis dimensions.

    PubMed

    Closs, Luciane Q; Bortolini, Leonardo F; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Rösing, Cassiano K

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic therapy is known to be associated with the development of gingival recession. Several factors may be involved in the causal chain of this outcome, including anatomical and behavioral aspects. Among the anatomical aspects, the dimensions of the mandibular symphysis could play a predisposing role. This study evaluated the relationship between the mandibular symphysis dimensions prior to orthodontic therapy and the development of gingival recessions on the lower incisors and cuspids. Records from 189 orthodontically treated adolescents were evaluated, including radiographs, casts and intra-oral photographs. Symphysis dimensions were assessed by cephalograms. Gingival margin alterations were determined in photographs and cast models. Association between gingival margin alterations and symphysis dimensions was tested by chi-square (α=0.05). Occurrence of gingival recession increased after orthodontic therapy. No association was observed on average of symphysis dimensions and the occurrence of gingival recessions. It may be concluded that pretreatment symphysis dimensions may not be used as predictors of gingival recession after orthodontic therapy. PMID:25560691

  11. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method

    PubMed Central

    Zahed Zahedani, SM; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, SMM

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. Materials and Method: In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0. Results: In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT), mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise technique (p< .05). Male patients had higher rate of root resorption,statistically significant (p< .05). Age at onset of treatment, duration of treatment, type of dental occlusion, premolar extractions and the use of intermaxillary elastics had no significant effect on the root resorption in this study. Conclusion: Having more root resorption in the straight wire method and less in the standard edgewise technique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method. PMID:24724131

  12. Interactions of hard tissues, soft tissues, and growth over time, and their impact on orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Sarver, David M

    2015-09-01

    The approach to orthodontic diagnosis has changed gradually but steadily over the past 2 decades. The shift away from diagnosis based entirely on hard tissue evaluations has been a result of a broadened recognition of the importance of facial and smile appearance to our patients, and how they change over time. The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate the integration of the new soft tissue paradigm into long-term treatment planning, with a focus on the esthetic goals of treatment.

  13. The effect of different surface treatments of demineralised enamel on microleakage under metal orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of different treatments of demineralised enamel on microleakage under orthodontic brackets. Methods Seventy-five intact premolars were randomly assigned to five groups. The teeth in groups 2 through 5 were immersed in a demineralising solution for 16 weeks. In groups 1 (control) and 2 (demineralised/control), conventional acid etching was used. In group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was applied on the enamel surface for 1 min after acid etching, and in group 4, Transbond Plus (3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) self-etching primer (SEP) was used. The teeth in group 5 were treated with 2% sodium fluoride (NaF) for 4 min before etching. After bracket bonding, the specimens were thermocycled, sealed with nail varnish, immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine solution for 24 h and sectioned. Microleakage was measured under a stereomicroscope for the enamel-adhesive and adhesive-bracket interfaces of both occlusal and gingival sides. Results Demineralised teeth showed more microleakage at the enamel-adhesive interface on both occlusal and gingival sides compared to sound teeth, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.005). Treating the demineralised enamel with 5% NaOCl or Transbond Plus SEP was not effective in reducing microleakage. NaF treatment followed by acid etching of demineralised enamel resulted in significantly lower microleakage in most comparisons (P < 0.005). Conclusions The use of 2% NaF on hypomineralised enamel before the bracket bonding procedure is an effective way to decrease microleakage. PMID:24325863

  14. Effect of low-level laser therapy on dental pain induced by separator force in orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Seyed Mostafa; Mousavi, Seyed Amir; Shafaee, Hooman; Tanbakuchi, Behrad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment experience varying degrees of pain with separator insertion. A survey of patients’ attitude towards orthodontic treatment revealed that pain was the most discouraging factor related to their treatment. Moreover, it was the highest ranking reason for wanting to discontinue care. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of low-level laser irradiation on dental pain induced by forces from separators in orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: This study was an experimental clinical trial. Twenty-nine patients were recruited for this research. Low-level laser irradiation was applied on one half of the maxillary and mandibular arches for 5 days. The opposite half of the arches was considered the control group. Laser irradiation was applied for 30 seconds in the alveolar bone between the second premolars, first molars, and second molars. Pain perception was evaluated with a standardized questionnaire that was answered by patients before and after laser irradiation. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon and Friedman test. P value ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results: The highest pain level was reported at day 1 following separator placement and decreased gradually until day 5. At day 4 and 5, the pain intensity was lower in the laser group than in the control group; however, this finding was not statistically significant. At day 1 and 3, the pain intensity was higher in the laser group than in the control group; however, it was not statistically significant. At day 2, the pain intensity was lower in the laser group than in the control group and was statistically significant. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is no statistically significant difference in pain by using low-level laser irradiation. PMID:24348624

  15. Altered serum levels of the osteoclast-specific TRACP 5b isoform in Chinese children undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Stephanie J; Meikle, Murray C; MacLaine, James K; Wong, Ricky W K; Rabie, Bakr M

    2013-04-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement is dependent upon the ability of mechanical forces to induce remodelling activity within the tooth-supporting alveolar bone. In view of the importance of bone resorption in mediating tooth movement, the aim of this study was to establish if alterations in the osteoclast-specific bone marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) 5b could be detected in the sera of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 14 subjects (10 girls and 4 boys) aged 10.5-16.5 years (mean 12.6 years) being treated with fixed appliances and a distalizing headgear. Venous blood samples (3 ml) were collected from the cubital vein pre-treatment (T0) and 2, 4, and 6 months into treatment (T1-T3); serum TRACP 5b levels were quantified using a solid-phase immunofixed enzyme activity assay. When the data were pooled and treated cross-sectionally, a significant increase in immunoreactive TRACP 5b was detected at 2 months (T1) indicating increased bone resorptive activity. However, when the serum profiles of individual patients were recorded longitudinally, a very different pattern emerged, not all patients following the same trend. This is not surprising given normal anatomical variation and differences between the patients in age, gender, and mechanotherapy. Designed as a pilot to demonstrate 'proof of principle', this study is the first to show that the TRACP 5b isoform can be detected in the sera of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. It further suggests that serum bone marker measurements offer a simple and minimally invasive method for correlating the findings of laboratory and animal experimentation with clinical data.

  16. Incisal Apical Root Resorption Evaluation after Low-Friction Orthodontic Treatment Using Two-Dimensional Radiographic Imaging and Trigonometric Correction

    PubMed Central

    Bonetti, Stefano; Dalessandri, Domenico; Mandelli, Gualtiero; Paganelli, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Background Root resorption shall be taken into consideration during every orthodontic treatment, and it can be effected by the use of different techniques, such as the application of low friction mechanics. However, its routinely assessment on orthopantomography has limitations related to distortions and changes in dental inclination. Aim The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the severity of apical root resorption of maxillary and mandibular incisors after low-friction orthodontic treatment, using the combination of panoramic and lateral radiographs, and applying a trigonometric correction. Settings and Design A hospital based Retrospective study at the orthodontic Department (Dental School, University of Brescia, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia, Italy). Materials and Methods Ninety-three subjects (53 females and 40 males; mean age, 14 years) with mild teeth crowding were treated without extractions by the same operator using a low-friction fixed appliance following an integrated straight wire (ISW) protocol. The pre- and post-treatment tooth lengths of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were measured on panoramic radiographs. A trigonometric factor of correction for the pre-treatment length was calculated based on the difference between the pre and post-treatment incisal inclination on lateral cephalograms. Statistical Analysis The changes in lengths were investigated using the Student’s t-test for paired values (p<0.05). Results Maxillary central incisors showed no changes (0.3%, 0.6%), maxillary lateral incisors showed a small increase (1.4%, 1.8%) that was attributed to the completion of root development in younger patients, mandibular central and lateral incisors underwent slight resorption (-3.1%, -3.4%). A statistically significant difference was found for the mandibular incisors but not for the maxillary ones. Conclusion In patients with mild crowding and consequent low amount of root movement, a low-friction orthodontic treatment can lead

  17. Orthodontic treatment and management of limited mouth opening and oral lesions in a patient with congenital insensitivity to pain: case report.

    PubMed

    Paduano, S; Iodice, G; Farella, M; Silva, R; Michelotti, A

    2009-01-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by dramatic impairment of pain perception since birth and is generally caused by a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy with loss of the small-calibre, nociceptive nerve fibres. We report a 9-year-old case, with a generalized congenital insensitivity to pain. The patient was referred to our Department by a private orthodontist for severe limited mouth opening and multiple oral ulcers which greatly worsened after starting the orthodontic treatment. The management of his oral lesions of the limited mouth opening and of the orthodontic treatment are described. The management approach aimed to improve mandibular range of motion and associated stretching and a self-modeling mouthguard to avoid cheek self-biting. This protocol allowed continuing the orthodontic treatment to restore the occlusion. Finally, good occlusion, normal function and better quality of patient's life were achieved.

  18. Early Diagnosis, Timely Treatment

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... proper treatment and care to the point where vision loss is minimized. Your chances of going blind ... he's been able to keep about half his vision level. Kermit: Well, I can see everything here. ...

  19. Dental plaque associated with self-ligating brackets during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment: A 3-month preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anezi, Saud A

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare changes in the amount and distribution of dental plaque associated with placement of elastomeric modules over a self-ligating bracket during orthodontic treatment and to relate these changes to the periodontal inflammation. Materials and Methods: A cross-arch randomization trial was carried out at Bristol Dental School, United Kingdom. Clinical measurements of periodontal inflammation and plaque accumulation and microbiological test were done on 24 patients aged 11-14 years [Mean (SD) age = 12.6 (1.01) years] wearing fixed appliances (Damon 2 brackets, Ormco, Orange, CA, USA) at the start and 3 months into fixed orthodontic treatment. Results: In the first 3 months of treatment there was no statistically significant difference in bleeding on probing between incisors with and without elastomeric modules (P = 0.125 and 0.508, respectively). The difference in plaque accumulation was not statistically significant (P = 0.78). The difference in probing depths between the incisors was not statistically significant (P = 0.84). The microbiological analysis showed no difference. Conclusions: Based on this preliminary 3 months study, elastomeric modules were not significantly associated with any increased risk during treatment when compared to self-ligating brackets. The longer term studies are needed to further confirm the findings of the present study. PMID:24987657

  20. Using three-dimensional imaging to assess treatment outcomes in orthodontics: a progress report from the University of the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Carlson, S; Beers, A; Curry, S; Norris, K; Boyd, R L

    2003-01-01

    Past research in integrated three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial mapping at the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory (CRIL) of the University of the Pacific is summarized in narrative form. The advantages and limitations of recent commercial developments in the application of cone beam geometry volumetric X-ray scanners in dentistry and surface digital mapping of study casts are discussed. The rationale for methods currently in development at CRIL for merging longitudinal information from existing 3D study casts and two-dimensional lateral X-ray cephalograms in studies of orthodontic treatment outcome is presented.

  1. Evolving concepts of heredity and genetics in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Carlson, David S

    2015-12-01

    The field of genetics emerged from the study of heredity early in the 20th century. Since that time, genetics has progressed through a series of defined eras based on a number of major conceptual and technical advances. Orthodontics also progressed through a series of conceptual stages over the past 100 years based in part on the ongoing and often circular debate about the relative importance of heredity (nature) and the local environment (nurture) in the etiology and treatment of malocclusion and dentofacial deformities. During the past 20 years, significant advancements in understanding the genomic basis of craniofacial development and the gene variants associated with dentofacial deformities have resulted in a convergence of the principles and concepts in genetics and in orthodontics that will lead to significant advancement of orthodontic treatments. Fundamental concepts from genetics and applied translational research in orthodontics provide a foundation for a new emphasis on precision orthodontics, which will establish a modern genomic basis for major improvements in the treatment of malocclusion and dentofacial deformities as well as many other areas of concern to orthodontists through the assessment of gene variants on a patient-by-patient basis. PMID:26672698

  2. Evolving concepts of heredity and genetics in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Carlson, David S

    2015-12-01

    The field of genetics emerged from the study of heredity early in the 20th century. Since that time, genetics has progressed through a series of defined eras based on a number of major conceptual and technical advances. Orthodontics also progressed through a series of conceptual stages over the past 100 years based in part on the ongoing and often circular debate about the relative importance of heredity (nature) and the local environment (nurture) in the etiology and treatment of malocclusion and dentofacial deformities. During the past 20 years, significant advancements in understanding the genomic basis of craniofacial development and the gene variants associated with dentofacial deformities have resulted in a convergence of the principles and concepts in genetics and in orthodontics that will lead to significant advancement of orthodontic treatments. Fundamental concepts from genetics and applied translational research in orthodontics provide a foundation for a new emphasis on precision orthodontics, which will establish a modern genomic basis for major improvements in the treatment of malocclusion and dentofacial deformities as well as many other areas of concern to orthodontists through the assessment of gene variants on a patient-by-patient basis.

  3. Complete Maxillary Crossbite Correction with a Rapid Palatal Expansion in Mixed Dentition Followed by a Corrective Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Fornazari, Isabelle Adad; Parra, Ariane Ximenes Graciano; de Castilhos, Bruno Borges; Franco, Ademir

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents the interceptive orthodontic treatment of a boy, aged 8 years 4 months with a Class I malocclusion with severe transverse maxillary deficiency and complete maxillary crossbite and correction using Haas expansion and fixed appliance. The treatment goals were to correct the posterior crossbite and anterior crossbite and restore the normality of the dentition and occlusion. In phase I, the patient was treated with a modified Haas-type palatal expander, which provided a clinically significant palatal expansion and increased the maxillary arch perimeter with favorable conditions for orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in phase II. The optimization of E-space and the use of intermaxillary Class III elastics helped to maintain the mandibular incisors upright. A removable wraparound type appliance and a bonded lingual canine-to-canine retainer were used as retention. Although the literature has reported a high rate of relapse after palatal expansion, after 2 years 9 months of posttreatment follow-up, the occlusal result was stable and no skeletal reversals could be detected. PMID:27239351

  4. Orthodontic characteristics of maxillary arch deficiency in 5-year-old patients undergoing unilateral cleft lip and palate repair with and without early gingivoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wojtaszek-Slominska, Anna; Renkielska, Alicja; Dobke, Marek; Gosman, Amanda; Slominski, Wojciech

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the maxillary arch morphology in 5-year-old children treated for unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) with early gingivoplasty (EGP) and without this procedure (non-EGP). Three-dimensional (3-D) imaging was used to verify which measurements and to what degree specific orthodontic parameters differ in both groups. The study included 120 non-syndromic 4.5-5.5-year-old children treated surgically at the age of 6-18 months. Fifty-six children underwent EGP utilising a Skoog-type of technique. The (non-EGP) group consisted of 64 patients. Patients in both groups were treated without nasoalveolar moulding prior to cleft lip repair. The maxillary arch models were obtained and subjected to the 3-D computer-aided imaging procedure and metric analysis. Ten selected orthodontic measurements were calculated based on imaging landmarks. The computed data derived from models in both (EGP and non-EGP) groups were compared. The differences between groups were statistically analysed using Student's test. Five orthodontic measurements: the angle of the lesser segment inclination, dental arch radius of this segment, anterior palatal depth, palatal surface and length of dental arch demonstrate more severe maxillary underdevelopment in patients with previous EGP. The results reaffirm the negative impact of EGP with wide undermining of periosteal flaps on maxillary development and suggest that these five parameters may be the most sensitive early indicators of growth alteration.

  5. Exposure of Cleft Lip and Palate Patients to Toxic Elements Released during Orthodontic Treatment in the Study of Non-Invasive Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Kachniarz, Krzysztof; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The Objective The aim of the study was evaluation of metal ions (nickel and chromium) released from orthodontic appliances in cleft lip and palate patients and the usefulness of non-invasive matrices (saliva and hair). Materials and Methods The material studied consisted of 100 individuals, including 59 females and 41 males of 5 to 16 years of age, which were divided into 3 groups: experimental–patients with cleft lip and palate (36 individuals, the average treatment time 5.74 years); control group–patients without cleft lip and palate, during orthodontic treatment (32 individuals, the average treatment time 1.78 years) and the control group patients without cleft lip and palate, without any orthodontic appliances (32 individuals). Samples (saliva, hair) were collected and subjects underwent a survey by questionnaire. Multi-elemental analyses of the composition of non-invasive matrices was conducted in an accredited laboratory by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry technique ICP-OES. The results were reported as mean contents of particular elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si) in hair and in saliva. Results The concentration of Cr, Ni, Fe and Cu ions in saliva of cleft lip and palate patients were several times higher as compared with not treated orthodontically control groups and higher than in the group with orthodontic appliances. Among the assessed matrices, hair of cleft lip and palate patients seem to be not a meaningful biomarker. Conclusion It was found that orthodontic appliances used in long-term treatment of cleft lip and palate patients do not release toxic levels of Cr and Ni ions. PMID:26544176

  6. An update on periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships

    PubMed Central

    Dannan, Aous

    2010-01-01

    Talking about periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships is related primarily to the 1960s, where a generalized increase in salivary bacterial counts, especially Lactobacillus, had been shown after orthodontic band placement. The purpose of this article is to provide the dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics by means of representing classical studies, and, to give an update on this topic by demonstrating the most recent opinions concerning periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships. Specific areas reviewed are the ability of orthodontic treatment to afford some degree of protection against periodontal breakdown, short-term and long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium, and some mucogingival considerations. Topics considering orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised patients were not included in this review. While past studies have shown that orthodontic treatment can positively affect the periodontal health, recent reviews indicate an absence of reliable evidence for the positive effects of orthodontic therapy on patients’ periodontal status. Periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships are still controversial issues. However, a standard language between the periodontist and the orthodontist must always be established to eliminate the existing communications barrier, and to improve the outcomes of the whole treatment. PMID:20922083

  7. Prospect of relieving pain due to tooth movement during orthodontic treatment utilizing a Ga-Al-As diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Goseki, Takemi; Shibata, Yasuko; Takiguchi, Hisashi; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Iwasawa, Tadamasa

    1995-04-01

    The effects of low-power laser irradiation on prostaglandin (PG)E2 and interleukin(IL)-1(beta) production in stretched human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were assessed in vitro. PDL cells derived from healthy premolars were utilized for these experiments. Cells were seeded in flexible-bottom culture plates and elongated (18% increase) under a vacuum at 6 cycles per minute for 1 to 5 days. The stretched cells were irradiated with a Ga-Al-As low-power diode laser (60 mW) once a day for 3 to 10 minutes for 1 to 5 days. PGE2 and IL-1(beta) levels in the medium were measured by radio immunoassay. Human PDL cells showed a marked elevation in PGE2 and IL-1(beta) production in response to mechanical stretching. The increase in PGE2 production was significantly inhibited by laser irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in IL-1(beta) production was also inhibited by laser irradiation, although the inhibition was only partial under this irradiation condition. Since high levels of PGE2 and IL-1(beta) are found in the PDL when teeth are moved during orthodontic treatment and since both factors are involved with the induction of pain, the inhibitory effects of laser irradiation on PGE2 and IL-1(beta) production suggest that laser irradiation may have therapeutic benefits in relieving the pain that accompanies orthodontic treatment.

  8. Orthodontic treatment by general practitioners in consultation with orthodontists--a survey of appliances recommended by Swedish orthodontists.

    PubMed

    Petrén, Sofia; Bjerklin, Krister; Hedrén, Pontus; Ecorcheville, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to disclose the treatment procedures most frequently recommended by Swedish orthodontists for use by general practitioners and to determine whether these recommendations are reflected in the undergraduate dental program in orthodontics at Malmö University. Potential differences between the ortho- dontists' recommendations were also investigated. A questionnaire was sent to 169 consulting orthodontists, seeking their recommenda- tions for appliance therapy to be undertaken by general practitioners: 129 (63 males and 66 females) responded. The Quad Helix was the appliance most commonly recommended for correction of posterior crossbite, a plate with Z-springs for correction of anterior crossbite and the headgear activator for correction of Class II malocclusions. A significant gender difference was disclosed with respect to orthodontists' recommendations for treatment of Class II malocclusions by general practitioners, namely that female orthodontists recommended the headgear activator more frequently than males. However, this difference is most likely attributable to the gender distribution among orthodontists qualifying as specialists during the last five decades: more recently qualified orthodontists are predominantly female. The choice of appliances corresponded well with undergraduate training in orthodontics at the Faculty of Odontology in Malmö.

  9. Orthodontic treatment of a transposed maxillary canine and first premolar in a young patient with Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Siviero, Laura; Perri, Alessandro; Favero, Lorenzo; Stellini, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for evaluation of an unaesthetic dental appearance. All permanent teeth were erupted, while the deciduous maxillary right canine was retained. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed a complete transposition of the maxillary left canine and first premolar involving both the crowns and the roots. Initial cephalometric analysis showed a skeletal Class III pattern, with a slight maxillary retrusion and a compensated proclination of the upper incisors. The patient's teeth were considered to be in the correct position; therefore, we decided to attempt treatment by correcting the transposition and using only orthodontic compensation of the skeletal Class III malocclusion. After 25 months of active orthodontic treatment, the patient had a Class I molar and canine relationship on both sides, with ideal overbite and overjet values. Her profile was improved, her lips were competent, and cephalometric evaluation showed acceptable maxillary and mandibular incisor inclinations. The final panoramic radiograph showed that good root parallelism was achieved. Two-year follow-up intraoral photography showed stable results. PMID:26629478

  10. Changes in orthodontic treatment modalities in the past 20 years: exploring the link between technology and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Bradley, T Gerard

    2013-01-01

    STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE: Is there a link between the many perceived advances in orthodontic techniques/therapy and science in the past 20 years? The purpose of this paper is to take five topics and match the perceptions with the scientific evidence. The variety of appliances and the swings in treatment philosophy have been dramatic, including the swing from extraction to non-extraction therapy, the introduction of space-age wires, appliances that grow mandibles, the introduction and extraordinary growth of Invisalign, and reduced friction brackets to reduce treatment time, all with claims by manufacturers of better results than ever before. The focus is on faster treatment, reduced visits/appointments and superior results. Most of these 'advancements' represent what has been the 'juggernaut of technology'. Five questions are posed, and an evidence-based approach is used to critically examine the literature in these selected topics.

  11. Upper Airway Changes after Orthodontic Extraction Treatment in Adults: A Preliminary Study using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjing; Chen, Gui; Li, Weiran; Xu, Tianmin; Gao, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Whether the orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction and maximum anchorage in adults will lead to a narrowed upper airway remains under debated. The study aims to investigate the airway changes after orthodontic extraction treatment in adult patients with Class II and hyperdivergent skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 18 adults with Class II and hyperdivergent skeletal malocclusion (5 males and 13 females, 24.1 ± 3.8 years of age, BMI 20.33 ± 1.77 kg/m2). And 18 untreated controls were matched 1:1 with the treated patients for age, sex, BMI, and skeletal pattern. CBCT images before and after treatment were obtained. DOLPHIN 11.7 software was used to reconstruct and measure the airway size, hyoid position, and craniofacial structures. Changes in the airway and craniofacial parameters from pre to post treatment were assessed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Mann-Whitney U test was used in comparisons of the airway parameters between the treated patients and the untreated controls. Significant level was set at 0.05. Results The upper and lower incisors retracted 7.87 mm and 6.10 mm based on the measurement of U1-VRL and L1-VRL (P < 0.01), while the positions of the upper and lower molars (U6-VRL, and L6-VRL) remained stable. Volume, height, and cross-sectional area of the airway were not significantly changed after treatment, while the sagittal dimensions of SPP-SPPW, U-MPW, PAS, and V-LPW were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the morphology of the cross sections passing through SPP-SPPW, U-MPW, PAS, and V-LPW became anteroposteriorly compressed (P <0.001). No significant differences in the airway volume, height, and cross-sectional area were found between the treated patients and untreated controls. Conclusions The airway changes after orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction and maximum anchorage in adults are mainly morphological changes with anteroposterior dimension compressed in airway cross

  12. Root resorption, treatment time and extraction rate during orthodontic treatment with self-ligating and conventional brackets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study determined the amount and severity of EARR (external apical root resorption) after orthodontic treatment with self-ligating (SL) and conventional (Non-SL) brackets. Differences regarding rate of extraction cases, appointments and treatment time were evaluated. Material and methods 213 patients with a mean age of 12.4 ± 2.2 years were evaluated retrospectively. The treatments were performed with SL brackets (n = 139, Smartclip, 3 M Unitek, USA) or Non-SL brackets (n = 74, Victory Series, 3 M Unitek, USA). Measurements of the crown and root length of the incisors were taken using panoramic radiographs. Three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for an appliance effect. Results There was no difference between patients treated with Non-SL or SL brackets regarding the amount (in percentage) of EARR (Non-SL: 4.5 ± 6.6 vs. SL: 3.0 ± 5.6). Occurrence of severe EARR (sEARR) did also not differ between the two groups (Non-SL 0.5 vs. SL: 0.3). The percentage of patients with need of tooth extraction for treatment (Non SL: 8.1 vs. SL: 6.9) and the number of appointments (Non-SL: 12.4 ± 3.4 vs. SL: 13.9 ± 3.3) did not show any differences. The treatment time was shorter with Non-SL brackets (Non-SL: 18.1 ± 5.3 vs. SL: 20.7 ± 4.9 months). Conclusions This is the largest study showing that there is no difference in the amount of EARR, number of appointments and extraction rate between conventional and self-ligating brackets. For the first time we could demonstrate that occurrence of sEARR does not differ between the two types of brackets. PMID:24456620

  13. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N M; Sainath, M C

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results. PMID:27041912

  14. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N. M.; Sainath, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results. PMID:27041912

  15. Interceptive orthodontic treatment in bullied adolescents and its impact on self-esteem and oral-health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Seehra, Jadbinder; Newton, J T; Dibiase, Andrew T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to measure the self-reported frequency and severity of bullying in orthodontic patients previously identified as being bullied, who have commenced interceptive orthodontic treatment, and to investigate the effect on an individual's self-esteem and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Forty-three adolescents previously identified as being bullied due to the presence of a malocclusion were invited to take part in a follow-up study following commencement of orthodontic treatment at three UK Hospitals. Validated questionnaires were used to assess the self-reported frequency and severity of bullying, self-esteem and OHRQoL. The participation rate at follow-up was 63 per cent. Following commencement of orthodontic treatment, 21 (78 per cent) participants reported they were currently no longer being bullied due to the presence of their malocclusion. In comparison to their pre-treatment scores, participants reported fewer functional limitations (P = 0.013), decreased emotional (P < 0.001) and social impact (P < 0.001), and improved overall oral health (P = 0.03) and OHRQoL (P = 0.002). In addition, an improvement in functional limitations (P = 0.021), emotional (P = 0.008), social impact (P = 0.008) and OHRQoL (P = 0.02) was reported by participants who were no longer being bullied in comparison to those who continued to report bullying. There appears to be no effect on an individual's self-esteem. Orthodontic treatment may have a positive effect on adolescents experiencing bullying related to their malocclusion and their OHRQoL.

  16. Current advances in orthodontic pain

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hu; Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Liao, Li-Na; Yang, Xin; Lai, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic pain is an inflammatory pain that is initiated by orthodontic force-induced vascular occlusion followed by a cascade of inflammatory responses, including vascular changes, the recruitment of inflammatory and immune cells, and the release of neurogenic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Ultimately, endogenous analgesic mechanisms check the inflammatory response and the sensation of pain subsides. The orthodontic pain signal, once received by periodontal sensory endings, reaches the sensory cortex for pain perception through three-order neurons: the trigeminal neuron at the trigeminal ganglia, the trigeminal nucleus caudalis at the medulla oblongata and the ventroposterior nucleus at the thalamus. Many brain areas participate in the emotion, cognition and memory of orthodontic pain, including the insular cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, locus coeruleus and hypothalamus. A built-in analgesic neural pathway—periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe—has an important role in alleviating orthodontic pain. Currently, several treatment modalities have been applied for the relief of orthodontic pain, including pharmacological, mechanical and behavioural approaches and low-level laser therapy. The effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief has been validated, but its effects on tooth movement are controversial. However, more studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of other modalities. Furthermore, gene therapy is a novel, viable and promising modality for alleviating orthodontic pain in the future. PMID:27341389

  17. Current advances in orthodontic pain.

    PubMed

    Long, Hu; Wang, Yan; Jian, Fan; Liao, Li-Na; Yang, Xin; Lai, Wen-Li

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic pain is an inflammatory pain that is initiated by orthodontic force-induced vascular occlusion followed by a cascade of inflammatory responses, including vascular changes, the recruitment of inflammatory and immune cells, and the release of neurogenic and pro-inflammatory mediators. Ultimately, endogenous analgesic mechanisms check the inflammatory response and the sensation of pain subsides. The orthodontic pain signal, once received by periodontal sensory endings, reaches the sensory cortex for pain perception through three-order neurons: the trigeminal neuron at the trigeminal ganglia, the trigeminal nucleus caudalis at the medulla oblongata and the ventroposterior nucleus at the thalamus. Many brain areas participate in the emotion, cognition and memory of orthodontic pain, including the insular cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, locus coeruleus and hypothalamus. A built-in analgesic neural pathway-periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe-has an important role in alleviating orthodontic pain. Currently, several treatment modalities have been applied for the relief of orthodontic pain, including pharmacological, mechanical and behavioural approaches and low-level laser therapy. The effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief has been validated, but its effects on tooth movement are controversial. However, more studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of other modalities. Furthermore, gene therapy is a novel, viable and promising modality for alleviating orthodontic pain in the future. PMID:27341389

  18. Combined endodontic-orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment of fractured teeth. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kocadereli, I; Taşman, F; Güner, S B

    1998-02-01

    A case history of a 10 year old patient who accidentally injured his maxillary left central incisor is presented. The fracture of the crown extended about 4 mm below the crest of the alveolar bone. After pulpectomy and root canal therapy, a screw was cemented into the canal of the incisor. By means of a removable orthodontic appliance, the fractured tooth was extruded and the fracture line was brought above the level of the alveolar bone. The tooth was then restored with a veneer crown over a post core. A tooth that would have been extracted routinely was thus saved and restored through the use of a collaborative approach. PMID:9583222

  19. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment.

  20. Effects of short-term acetaminophen and celecoxib treatment on orthodontic tooth movement and neuronal activation in rat.

    PubMed

    Stabile, A C; Stuani, M B S; Leite-Panissi, C R A; Rocha, M J A

    2009-08-14

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used for pain relief in orthodontics, but clinical studies reported that they may reduce tooth movement (TM). By other side, TM seems to activate brain structures related to nociception, but the effects of NSAIDs in this activation have not been studied yet. We analyzed the effect of short-term treatment with acetaminophen or celecoxib in the separation of rat upper incisors, as well as in neuronal activation of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, following tooth movement. Thirty rats (400-420 g) were pretreated through oral gavage (1 ml/dose) with acetaminophen (200mg/kg), celecoxib (50mg/kg) or vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose 0.4%). After 30 min, they received an activated (30 g) orthodontic appliance for TM. In controls, this appliance was immediately removed after its introduction. Rats received ground food, and every 12h, one of the drugs or vehicle. After 48 h, they were anesthetized, maxilla was radiographed, and were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. Brains were further processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. TM induced incisor distalization (p<0.05) and neuronal activation of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Treatment with both drugs did not affect tooth movement, but reduced c-fos expression in the caudalis subnucleus. No changes in c-fos expression were seen in the oralis and interpolaris subnuclei. We conclude that neither celecoxib nor acetaminophen seems to affect tooth movement, when used for 2 days, but both drugs are able to reduce the activation of brain structures related to nociception. Short-term treatment with celecoxib, thus, may be a therapeutic alternative to acetaminophen when the latter is contraindicated.

  1. Impact of fixed orthodontic appliance or clear-aligner on daily performance, in adult patients with moderate need for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feiou; Yao, Linjie; Bhikoo, Chandradev; Guo, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA) or clear-aligner, on daily performance in adult patients. Methods The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) index was assessed in 152 adults aged 25–35 years at baseline (T0), 6 months after bonding (T1), and 12 months after bonding (T2). Participants were randomly divided into two groups: CA group (participants treated with clear-aligner) and a control group (FOA group; participants treated with FOA). Baseline malocclusion severity was assessed using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Results There were no significant differences in sociodemographic variables and OIDP scores at baseline between the two groups. Significant changes in OIDP total and subscale scores were observed while wearing FOA: OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation at T1 and T2 were significantly higher than at baseline (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, only OIDP total score was significantly increased at T1 compared to the baseline in the CA group. OIDP total score and subscale scores of eating, cleaning teeth, smiling, and social relation were significantly higher in patients wearing FOA than in patients wearing clear-aligner at T1 and T2 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Patients wearing clear-aligner have fewer impacts on daily life than those wearing FOA during treatment, and have no significant changes in OIPD subscale scores at 12 months. FOA therapy significantly impacts daily performance in adult patients during treatment. PMID:27616881

  2. Relationship between Orthodontic Treatment Plan and Goslon Yardstick Assessment in Japanese Patients with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: One-stage vs. Two-stage Palatoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takenobu; Sakamoto, Teruo; Ishikawa, Munetada; Yasumura, Toshihiko; Miyazaki, Haruyo; Sueishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The present study targeted patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) undergoing either one - (Wardill technique) or two-stage palatoplasty (Perko technique). Correlations between Goslon Yardstick scores and orthodontic appliances used and whether an osteotomy was performed were investigated. No differences were observed between the two types of palatoplasty in terms of Goslon Yardstick scores. A palatal expander and protraction facemask were used in Phase I of orthodontic treatment. The palatal expander was selected for most patients with UCLP in Phase I, regardless of the surgical technique used. A protraction facemask was used in patients undergoing the Wardill procedure who had a Goslon Yardstick score placing them in Group 3 or 4. In contrast, a protraction facemask was used in patients undergoing the Perko procedure who had a Goslon Yardstick score placing them in Group 4. No significant differences were observed in the Goslon Yardstick scores yielded by either type of procedure. The Goslon Yardstick score in relation to whether an osteotomy was performed in Phase II as part of orthodontic treatment was determined, focusing on the relationship between that score and the palatoplasty method used. A protraction facemask was used in patients undergoing the Perko procedure, which eliminated the need for an osteotomy at a future date. However, a protraction facemask was also used in patients undergoing the Wardill option, and those patients were likely to require an osteotomy. In other words, the results suggest that the type of palatoplasty selected will determine the effectiveness of any orthodontic appliances used. PMID:27665693

  3. Controversies in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Bramante, M A

    1990-01-01

    Three controversial interrelated aspects of orthodontics have been reviewed: retention, the effect of third molars on lower anterior crowding, and extraction and nonextraction orthodontic treatment. Recent studies have shown that unacceptable lower anterior crowding occurs in 90 per cent of well-treated extraction cases. The implication is that nonextraction cases should be 90 per cent or higher. In view of our present general inability to identify the 10 per cent that will remain acceptable, some form of indefinite retention is advised. A literature review of the effect of third molars on lower anterior crowding finds strong opinions on both sides of the issue. Similar studies often show dissimilar conclusions, particularly when observing cases of third molar extraction or agenesis. Certainly the problem is multifactorial; however, the vast bulk of the evidence indicates that the third molars play an insignificant role in lower anterior crowding. Extraction of teeth for orthodontic treatment prior to 1900 was prevalent and indiscriminate. From the turn of the century to the mid-thirties Angle moved the specialty away from extractions to a relatively rigid nonextraction treatment philosophy. Dissatisified with relapsing Class II cases, recurrence and aggravation of crowding, and what he felt were bimaxillary full faces, Tweed and others, circa 1935, redirected the profession back to extractions with a more disciplined approach to treatment by the removal of four first premolars. Fifty years later we have found that extraction treatment and uprighting lower incisors does not prevent long-term postretention crowding and that flattened profiles are not always esthetically desirable. Earlier treatment of maxillomandibular basal discrepancies by old and new treatment philosophies and mechanics have produced more stable nonextraction corrections. Better control of leeway space and a reduction in caries has helped reduce the amount of lower anterior flaring that was seen

  4. Underwater orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Jones, C M; Graham, J

    1990-11-01

    A report is presented of a scuba diver who was unable to dive using a normal commercial mouthpiece due to wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance. The situation was resolved with the provision of a customized mouthpiece of simple design and manufacture.

  5. Change of Mandibular Position during Two-Phase Orthodontic Treatment of Skeletal Class II in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Hägg, Urban; Wong, Ricky Wing Kit; Liao, Chongshan; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was 6.8±3.44 mm in phase I (T0-T1), 0.4±2.79 mm in phase II (T1-T2), and 7.2±4.61 mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism. PMID:25695103

  6. Orthodontics at a Pivotal Point of Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The profession of orthodontics is projected to face a multitude of challenges. Do cyclic forces accelerate the rate of tooth movement and hence the speed of orthodontic treatment? Would bioengineered cementum and dentine be a solution to root resorption? What would orthodontics be like when bioengineered periodontal ligament and alveolar bone become clinical practice, or one day, entire teeth are bioengineered? Would it be possible to selectively differentiate stem cells into osteoblasts or osteoclasts by either static or cyclic forces? What is the new demand on orthodontic expertise with increasingly automated appliances? What will be the impact of the next generation of dental implants or rapid prototyped crowns on orthodontics? A century ago, Edward Angle’s practice of fixed appliances, along with other seminal contributions, such as functional appliances, established the profession of orthodontics. Today, the biophysical principles of orthodontics remain largely unchanged from Angle’s era, despite incremental refinements of brackets and wires. The paucity of fundamental innovations in orthodontics for decades presents intrinsic risks for the profession. This review will identify challenges for contemporary orthodontics and delineate strategies for the profession to evolve in an era of unprecedented scientific and technological advances, and serve as a call to action for the orthodontic profession. PMID:25018618

  7. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1–3 M 0.016” NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016” NiTi, group 3–3 M 0.019” *0.025” SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics. PMID:25684911

  8. The use of sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation in prevention of dental caries during orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brulat, Nathalie; Milia, Giulia; Rockl, Andrea; Rocca, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This « in-vitro » study had two specific aims: the first, to test using a universal testing machine whether sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation prior to acid etching is effective in orthodontic bracket bonding and secondly using micro-hardness measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations to investigate the effectiveness of de-mineralization reduction in enamel treated with sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation followed by fluoride varnish application. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty bovine permanent maxillary incisors were selected for shear bond strength testing and microhardness measurements. Sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation was set at a power density of 2.5 J/cm2, a frequency of 7 Hz and air/water spray. Brackets were bonded with an auto-curing resin paste. The shear bond strength was measured comparing laser irradiated and non-irradiated enamel surface, followed by SEM observation of the bracket-resin-enamel interface. Microhardness measurements were made on enamel samples before treatment, after samples preparation, and after demineralization. Results: While the adhesion of orthodontic brackets to bovine enamel after sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation and acid etching is comparable to that obtained after conventional acid etching, the effect of laser irradiation associated with topical application of fluoride varnish increases the microhardness of enamel. Conclusion: Sub-ablative Er:YAG laser irradiation before the acid etching doesn't reduce the shear bond whereas when associated with fluoride application it may play a role in caries prevention. Further studies will be necessary to establish the mechanism by which the protective laser activated fluoride effect is achieved. PMID:25368443

  9. Perception of pain as a result of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Scheurer, P A; Firestone, A R; Bürgin, W B

    1996-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the intensity, location and duration of patients' discomfort following insertion of orthodontic appliances, and to examine for interactions between patient age, gender, appliance type and the perception of pain. After insertion of orthodontic appliances, 170 patients received eight questionnaires, one they completed and returned after 4 h, then one daily for 7 days. The respondents' ages ranged from 8-53 years (median age 13 years 7 months); 45 per cent were male and 55 per cent female. Of the patients, 65 per cent reported pain after 4 h and 95 per cent after 24 h. After 7 days, 25 per cent of the patients still reported discomfort. Patients' pain intensity scores were significantly higher for the anterior than for the posterior teeth. On day 1, 16 per cent took analgesics and 18 per cent reported being awakened the first night. Comparing a 2 x 4 appliance, a full appliance in one arch and in both arches, no statistical differences were found for reported pain frequency, general intensity of pain, pain at the teeth, discomfort when biting and chewing and analgesic consumption. The perception of general pain intensity, analgesic consumption, pain when eating and the influence of discomfort on daily life were all significantly greater in girls than in boys. Patients younger than 13 years reported pain significantly less frequently than the older patients. The highest frequency of pain was found in the group of 13-16 year olds. The pain intensity did not differ among the age groups.

  10. Self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and prevalence of malocclusion in 18- and 19-year-olds in Sweden with different geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Eva; Bjerklin, Krister; Lindsten, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment need and demand in 19-year-olds in Sweden has not previously been analysed in relation to geographic origin. The aim of this follow-up study was to examine the prevalence of self-perceived treatment need, malocclusion, earlier orthodontic treatment, self-perceived dental aesthetics and prevalence of symptoms indicative oftemporomandibular disorders in 18-19 year-olds and to analyze any differences between native born and immigrants. Body esteem and psychological wellbeing were also evaluated. The subjects, n=316, were grouped according to family origin: Group A: both parents born in Sweden (98 girls, 80 boys); Group B:the subject or at least one parent born in Eastern /South Eastern Europe (24 girls, 26 boys) and Group C: Asia (44 girls, 44 boys). Two hundered and sixty-eight participants presented for clinical examination and answered the full questionnaire, and 48 who rejected clinical examination,were interviewed by telephone using selected questions from a questionnaire. The results show that adolescents of Asian origin had a higher self-perceived treatment need than adolescents of Swedish origin. There were negligible inter-group differences with respect to frequency of malocclusion. Forty-four per cent of all participants had previously undergone orthodontic treatment, significantly more Swedish than Asian subjects. Dissatisfaction with dental aesthetics was attributed primarily to tooth colour (38 per cent) and irregular anterior teeth (34 per cent). Adolescents of Asian origin had a higher frequency of headache than those of Eastern/South Eastern European origin. Compared to boys, girls had a higher self-perceived treatment need, a higher frequency of headache and TMD and were more concerned about body appearance. Psychological wellbeing was reduced in nearly one quarter of the participants, predominantly girls: girls of Asian origin had the highest frequency. No association was found between self-perceived orthodontic treatment need

  11. Enhanced compatibility and initial stability of Ti6Al4V alloy orthodontic miniscrews subjected to anodization, cyclic precalcification, and heat treatment

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eun-Ju; Nguyen, Thuy-Duong T.; Lee, Seung-Youp; Jeon, Young-Mi; Bae, Tae-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the bioactivity, and the biomechanical and bone-regenerative properties of Ti6Al4V miniscrews subjected to anodization, cyclic precalcification, and heat treatment (APH treatment) and their potential clinical use. Methods The surfaces of Ti6Al4V alloys were modified by APH treatment. Bioactivity was assessed after immersion in simulated body fluid for 3 days. The hydrophilicity and the roughness of APH-treated surfaces were compared with those of untreated (UT) and anodized and heat-treated (AH) samples. For in vivo tests, 32 miniscrews (16 UT and 16 APH) were inserted into 16 Wistar rats, one UT and one APH-treated miniscrew in either tibia. The miniscrews were extracted after 3 and 6 weeks and their osseointegration (n = 8 for each time point and group) was investigated by surface and histological analyses and removal torque measurements. Results APH treatment formed a dense surface array of nanotubular TiO2 layer covered with a compact apatite-like film. APH-treated samples showed better bioactivity and biocompatibility compared with UT and AH samples. In vivo, APH-treated miniscrews showed higher removal torque and bone-to-implant contact than did UT miniscrews, after both 3 and 6 weeks (p < 0.05). Also, early deposition of densely mineralized bone around APH-treated miniscrews was observed, implying good bonding to the treated surface. Conclusions APH treatment enhanced the bioactivity, and the biomechanical and bone regenerative properties of the Ti6Al4V alloy miniscrews. The enhanced initial stability afforded should be valuable in orthodontic applications. PMID:25309864

  12. Early orthodontic intervention followed by fixed appliance therapy in a patient with a severe Class III malocclusion and cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Deng, Feng; Wang, Huaqiao; Huang, Qianqian; Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a girl, age 11 years 10 months, with a cleft lip and palate and a postsurgical scar. The clinical examination showed a concave profile, a retrusive maxilla, an asymmetric face, severe dental crowding, a Class III dental relationship, and a complete dental crossbite. Maxillary expansion and distraction, chincap, and high-pull headgear were used to moderate the skeletal discrepancy. These approaches, combined with tooth extraction and fixed orthodontic appliances, finally established a functional and esthetic occlusal relationship, normal overjet and overbite, and a well-balanced facial appearance.

  13. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need among 12- to 15-year-old students in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Salehi, Parisa

    2010-10-01

    Self-perception of dental attractiveness is an important factor affecting orthodontic treatment need. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and to evaluate the influence of gender and socioeconomic background such as family size, parental education and father's employment. The subjects were 900 male and female junior high school students (450 males, 450 females) aged 12-15 years, from four districts in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and then underwent a dental examination. Normative treatment need was assessed clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t- and chi-squared tests. There was no statistically significant correlation between DAI scores and demographics. The results showed a significant correlation between DAI scores and a subject's awareness of malocclusion and their satisfaction with dental appearance. There were no differences between genders concerning the questionnaire data. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment.

  14. Orthodontic Treatment of a Patient with Bilateral Congenitally Missing Maxillary Canines: The Effects of First Premolar Substitution on the Functional Outcome.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Kumi; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Komori, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Takashi; Kamioka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Permanent canines are thought to play a pivotal role in obtaining an ideal occlusion. Dentists occasionally encounter patients who lack canines and are therefore missing a key to harmonious guidance during functional mandibular excursions. This case report describes the substitution of maxillary first premolars for congenitally missing canines in the context of an orthodontic treatment plan. A boy, age 10 years and 11 months, with a chief complaint of crooked teeth was diagnosed with Class II division 2 malocclusion associated with a high mandibular plane angle and deep overbite. A stable occlusion with a satisfactory facial profile and functional excursions without interference were achieved after a comprehensive two-stage orthodontic treatment process. The resulting occlusion and satisfactory facial profile were maintained for 12 months. These results indicate that substituting the first premolars for the canines is an effective option in treating patients with missing canines while maintaining functional goals.

  15. Effect of surface treatment with sandblasting and Er,Cr:YSGG laser on bonding of stainless steel orthodontic brackets to silver amalgam

    PubMed Central

    Kachoei, Mojgan; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Fathalizadeh, Farzaneh; Navimipour, Elmira J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Satisfactory bonding of orthodontic attachments to amalgam is a challenge for orthodontists. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets to silver amalgam treated with sandblasting and Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Study Design: Fifty-four amalgam discs were prepared, polished and divided into three groups: In group 1 (the control group) the premolar brackets were bonded using Panavia F resin cement without any surface treatment; in groups 2 and 3, the specimens were subjected to sandblasting and Er,Cr:YSGG laser respectively, before bracket bonding. After immersing in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, all the specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Bond failure sites were evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test. Results: The highest and lowest shear bond strength values were recorded in the laser and control groups, respectively. There were significant differences in mean shear bond strength values between the laser and the other two groups (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the sandblast and control groups (p=0.5). Conclusions: Amalgam surface treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser increased shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets. Key words: Amalgam, surface treatment, shear bond strength, sandblasting, Er,Cr:YSGG laser. PMID:22143706

  16. A Review on Prevention and Treatment of Post-Orthodontic White Spot Lesions – Evidence-Based Methods and Emerging Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrand, Fredrik; Twetman, Svante

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper was to update the evidence for primary and secondary prevention (treatment) of white spot lesions (WSL) adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and methods: A search for relevant human clinical trials published in English between 2004 and March 2011 retrieved 25 publications that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The papers were assessed for prevented fraction and/or absolute risk reduction when possible. Results and conclusions: The findings consolidated the use of topical fluorides in addition to fluoride toothpaste as the best evidence-based way to avoid WSL. The mean prevented fraction based on 6 trials was 42.5% with a range from -4% to 73%. The recent papers provided the strongest support for regular professional applications of fluoride varnish around the bracket base during the course of orthodontic treatment. For the treatment of post-orthodontic WSL, home-care applications of a remineralizing cream, based on casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate, as adjunct to fluoride toothpaste could be beneficial but the findings were equivocal. For emerging technologies such as sugar alcohols and probiotics, still only studies with surrogate endpoints are available. Thus, further well-designed studies with standardized regimes and endpoints are needed before guidelines on the non-fluoride technologies can be recommended. PMID:21966335

  17. Risk factors and management of white spot lesions in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kamna; Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Sachan, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The formation of white spot lesions or enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic attachments is a common complication during and following fixed orthodontic treatment, which mars the result of a successfully completed case. This article is a contemporary review of the risk factors, preventive methods and fate of these orthodontics scars. The importance of excellent oral hygiene practice during fixed orthodontic treatment must be explained. Preventive programs must be emphasized to all orthodontic patients. Suggestions are offered in the literature for ways to prevent this condition from manifesting itself. PMID:24987641

  18. A 3D computer-aided design system applied to diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics and orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, N; Kuroda, T

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a newly developed 3D computer-aided design (CAD) system for the diagnostic set-up of casts in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, and its preliminary clinical applications. The system comprises a measuring unit which obtains 3D information from the dental model using laser scanning, and a personal computer to generate the 3D graphics. When measuring the 3D shape of the model, to minimize blind sectors, the model is scanned from two different directions with the slit-ray laser beam by rotating the mounting angle of the model on the measuring device. For computed simulation of tooth movement, the representative planes, defined by the anatomical reference points, are formed for each individual tooth and are arranged along a guideline descriptive of the individual arch form. Subsequently, the 3D shape is imparted to each of the teeth arranged on the representative plane to form an arrangement of the 3D profile. When necessary, orthognathic surgery can be simulated by moving the mandibular dental arch three-dimensionally to establish the optimum occlusal relationship. Compared with hand-made set-up models, the computed diagnostic cast has advantages such as high-speed processing and quantitative evaluation on the amount of 3D movement of the individual tooth relative to the craniofacial plane. Trial clinical applications demonstrated that the use of this system facilitated the otherwise complicated and time-consuming mock surgery for treatment planning in orthognathic surgery.

  19. Surgical orthodontic correction of mandibular laterognathism

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Kapoor, Pranav; Sharma, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of a patient with mandibular laterognathism and associated facial asymmetry with combined surgical orthodontic approach. After 7 months of presurgical orthodontic treatment, intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy, and straightening genioplasty were performed as two step surgeries to reposition the deviated mandible and chin, respectively. The total active treatment period was 14 months. After surgical orthodontic treatment, significant improvement in occlusion, masticatory function, and facial appearance was discernible. Posttreatment records at 3 years showed stable results with good occlusion. PMID:27127755

  20. Effect of heat treatment conditions on the mechanical properties of Ti-6Mo-4Sn alloy for orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Hida, Mayu; Miyazawa, Ken; Tsuruta, Shozo; Kurosawa, Masahiro; Hata, Yuki; Kawai, Tatsushi; Goto, Shigemi

    2013-01-01

    β-titanium alloy is frequently used in nickel-free orthodontic wires for patients with a metal allergy. However, the Young's modulus of β-titanium alloy wires is lower than that of Co-Cr-Ni alloys, causing loss of anchorage and failure to prevent unwanted tooth movements. To improve its mechanical properties for use in anchorage appliances such as transpalatal arches, Ti-6Mo-4Sn alloy wire was heat-treated at 300, 400, 500 and 600 °C for 5 min, 30 min, and 4 h in this study. Tensile testing revealed that the wire heated at 500 °C/30 min had a Young's modulus of 75 GPa and a tensile strength of 1,650 MPa - the highest among all the heat treatment groups. Therefore, Ti-6Mo-4Sn alloy wire heat-treated at 500 °C/30 min yielded mechanical properties approximating those of wires currently used for retainers and transpalatal arches. PMID:23719009

  1. Total recall: an update on orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Jyothikiran, H; Shantharaj, Ravi; Batra, Panchali; Subbiah, Pradeep; Lakshmi, Bhagya; Kudagi, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic therapy is a force management procedure largely based on use of arch wires for storing and distributing biologically tolerable forces by means of which position of teeth is altered. Advances in material science and technology has resulted in an array of newer arch wire materials, opening new vistas, in orthodontic treatment. Materials with widely diverging properties are in the market today and their usage has profound implications on appliance mechanics, and are very much different from stainless steel which is popular even today. The dentists who practise orthodontics have to therefore clearly outline the phases of treatment and select the arch wire most suited for attaining specific treatment goals.

  2. Evolution of esthetic considerations in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Turley, Patrick K

    2015-09-01

    The importance of facial esthetics to the practice of orthodontics has its origins at the beginning of our specialty. In 1900, Edward H. Angle believed that an esthetic or a "harmonious" face required a full complement of teeth, but many who came after him questioned this notion. In the 1930s, the development of cephalometrics laid the foundation for studying growth and development, treatment effects, facial forms, and esthetics. By the 1950s, the importance of diagnosing and planning treatment for an esthetic result was established, but the measurement of soft tissue variables was lacking, and this became an important area of research. In the 1970s, researchers were looking at the stability of hard tissue changes over time, and they were also interested in how the soft tissues change with age. Although the early studies of esthetics in orthodontic treatment focused on how clinicians viewed their patients, changing demographics and cultural attitudes led researchers to look more seriously at consumer preferences and the public's attitudes. Their findings--that consumers preferred fuller lips--led to a swing back toward nonextraction treatment. Expansion appliances and molar distalization techniques became popular, and surgical procedures to obtain more ideal esthetic results became more common. Since the 1990s, advances in computers and technology have allowed us to study, predict, and produce esthetic results previously thought unattainable. Today, more so than at any other time in our specialty, we have the ability to provide esthetic results to our patients. PMID:26321334

  3. Correlation between skeletal and dental changes after mandibular setback surgery-first orthodontic treatment: Cone-beam computed tomography-generated half-cephalograms

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Chang-Hoon; Choi, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate skeletal and dental changes after application of a mandibular setback surgery-first orthodontic treatment approach in cases of skeletal Class III malocclusion. Methods A retrospective study of 34 patients (23 men, 11 women; mean age, 26.2 ± 6.6 years) with skeletal Class III deformities, who underwent surgery-first orthodontic treatment, was conducted. Skeletal landmarks in the maxilla and mandible at three time points, pre-treatment (T0), immediate-postoperative (T1), and post-treatment (T2), were analyzed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-generated half-cephalograms. Results The significant T0 to T1 mandibular changes occurred -9.24 ± 3.97 mm horizontally. From T1 to T2, the mandible tended to move forward 1.22 ± 2.02 mm, while the condylar position (Cd to Po-perpendicular plane) shifted backward, and the coronoid process (Cp to FH plane) moved vertically. Between T1 and T2, the vertical dimension changed significantly (p < 0.05). Changes in the vertical dimension were significantly correlated to T1 to T2 changes in the Cd to Po-perpendicular plane (r = -0.671, p = 0.034), and in the Cp to FH plane (r = 0.733, p = 0.016), as well as to T0 to T1 changes in the Cp to Po-perpendicular plane (r = 0.758, p = 0.011). Conclusions Greater alterations in the vertical dimension caused larger post-treatment (T2) stage skeletal changes. Studying the mandibular position in relation to the post-surgical vertical dimension emphasized the integral importance of vertical dimension control and proximal segment management to the success of surgery-first orthodontic treatment. PMID:25798411

  4. Combined effects of different heat treatments and Cu element on transformation behavior of NiTi orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Seyyed Aghamiri, S M; Ahmadabadi, M Nili; Raygan, Sh

    2011-04-01

    The shape memory nickel-titanium alloy has been applied in many fields due to its unique thermal and mechanical performance. One of the successful applications of NiTi wires is in orthodontics because of its good characteristics such as low stiffness, high spring back, high stored energy, biocompatibility, superelasticity and shape memory effect. The mechanical properties of wires are paid special attention which results in achieving continuous optimal forces and eventually causing rapid tooth movement without any damage. The behavior of the alloy can be controlled by chemical composition and thermo-mechanical treatment during the manufacturing process. In this study two kinds of commercial superelastic NiTi archwires of 0.41 mm diameter were investigated: Copper NiTi and Highland Metal. The chemical analysis of both wires was estimated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was showed that Copper NiTi wire contained copper and chromium. The two types of wires were exposed to different heat treatment conditions at 400 and 500 °C for 10 and 60 min to compare the behavior of the wires at aged and as-received conditions. Phase transformation temperatures clarified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed B2 <--> R <--> B19 transformation in Highland Metal wire and B2 <--> B19(') transformation in Copper NiTi wire. Three point bending (TPB) tests in the certain designed fixture were performed at 37 °C to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the wires. The experimental results revealed the superelastic behavior of the Highland Metal wire after 60 min ageing at 400 and 500 °C and the plastic deformation of the Copper NiTi wire after annealing due to the effect of copper in the alloy composition. PMID:21316617

  5. Early mixed dentition treatment of bilateral impaction of permanent mandibular first molars.

    PubMed

    Wilson Machado, Adre; McComb, Ryan; Wu, Kimberley; Moon, Won

    2013-01-01

    Available scientific literature is scarce in covering cases involving impaction of permanent mandibular first molars treated in mixed dentition patients. The purpose of this report was to present the case of a 7-year-old patient with bilateral impaction of permanent mandibular first molars treated early using a simple and effective removable appliance. The proposed intervention involved the construction of a removable acrylic appliance with bilateral titanium-molybdenum alloy distalizing springs to disimpact and allow complete eruption of the molars. A button was bonded to the occlusal surface of each molar to be used as a leverage point for the distalizing springs. Following seven months of treatment, both the permanent mandibular right and left first molars were upright and in physiologic position. This case demonstrates that, when this problem is identified and treated early, pediatric dentists have the opportunity to minimize the complexity of future orthodontic treatment and limit the extent of malocclusion in the permanent dentition.

  6. [A call for qualitative research in Orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Yitschaky, O; Hofnung, T; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes and strategies for conducting inquiries that are aimed at discerning how human beings understand, experience, and interpret the social world. It is employed in many different academic disciplines most particularly in the social sciences and humanities, however recently more and more qualitative research is being conducted under the medical sciences including dentistry and orthodontics. This is due to its nature of in-depth investigation, which can provide answers to questions that cannot be satisfactorily answered using quantitative methods alone. The aims of this article are to discuss the characteristics of qualitative research, to review the orthodontic English literature, and to highlight the advantages of qualitative research in orthodontics. The literature review yielded several important conclusions regarding qualitative research in orthodontics: 1. most of the qualitative research done in orthodontics chose to use semi structured in-depth interviews for data collection; 2. qualitative research highlights aspects that are very important, and sometimes crucial to everyday practice and long term treatment; 3. there is a lack of qualitative studies in the field of orthodontics. Taking into account the nature of the orthodontic treatment, which is a prolonged one, demanding of a good orthodontist-patient rapport, and a wide perspective on behalf of the clinician, filling the gap in the discipline through conducting more qualitative studies aimed at understanding the point of view of the patient, as well as that of the clinician, may be beneficial for the improvement of the treatment.

  7. Evaluation of Nickel and Chromium Ion Release During Fixed Orthodontic Treatment Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer: An In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Rabindra S; Khanna, Bharti; Pasha, Azam; Vinay, K; Narayan, Anjali; Chaitra, K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fixed orthodontic appliances with the use of stainless steel brackets and archwires made of nitinol have a corrosive potential in the oral environment. Nickel and chromium ions released from these appliances act as allergens apart from being cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in smaller quantities in the range of nanograms. This study was done to evaluate the release of nickel and chromium ions from orthodontic appliances in the oral cavity using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Materials and Methods: Saliva samples from 30 orthodontic patients undergoing treatment with 0.022″ MBT mechanotherapy were collected prior to commencement of treatment, after initial aligning wires and after 10-12 months of treatment. Salivary nickel and chromium ion concentration was measured in parts per billion (ppb) using ICP-MS. Results: Mean, standard deviation and range were computed for the concentrations of ions obtained. Results analyzed using ANOVA indicated a statistically significant increase of 10.35 ppb in nickel ion concentration and 33.53 ppb in chromium ion concentration after initial alignment. The ionic concentration at the end of 10-12 months of treatment showed a statistically significant increase in of 17.92 ppb for chromium and a statistically insignificant decrease in nickel ion concentration by 1.58 ppb. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation for an increase in nickel concentration after aligning, but not at the end of 10-12 months. A positive correlation was seen for an increase in chromium ion concentration at both time intervals. Conclusion: Nickel and chromium ion concentration in saliva even though below the recommended daily allowance should not be ignored in light of the new knowledge regarding effects of these ions at the molecular level and the allergic potential. Careful and detailed medical history of allergy is essential. Nickel free alternatives should form an essential part of an

  8. Surgical orthodontic treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: evaluation with electromyography and 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kan; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Maki, Koutaro

    2009-09-01

    We report here the case of a woman with Class III malocclusion and advanced periodontal disease who was treated with surgical orthodontic correction. Functional recovery after orthodontic treatment is often monitored by serial electromyography of the masticatory muscles, whereas 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography can provide detailed structural information about, for example, periodontal bone defects. However, it is unclear whether the information obtained via these methods is sufficient to determine the treatment goal. It might be useful to address this issue for patients with advanced periodontal disease because of much variability between patients in the determination of treatment goals. We used detailed information obtained by 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography to identify periodontal bone defects and set appropriate treatment goals for inclination of the incisors and mandibular surgery. Results for this patient included stable occlusion and improved facial esthetics. This case report illustrates the benefits of establishing treatment goals acceptable to the patient, based on precise 3-dimensional assessment of dentoalveolar bone, and by using masticatory muscle activity to monitor the stability of occlusion.

  9. Current clinical research in orthodontics: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, Sheldon

    2006-10-01

    This essay explores briefly the approach of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory to the systematic and rigorous investigation of the usual outcome of orthodontic treatment in the practices of experienced clinicians. CRIL's goal is to produce a shareable electronic database of reliable, valid, and representative data on clinical practice as an aid in the production of an improved environment for truly evidence-based orthodontic treatment.

  10. [The prehistory of orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Philippe, Julien

    2015-06-01

    Orthodontics came into being in 1728. Previously, practitioners were at a loss when confronted with crooked teeth. A Latin philosopher had an ingenious flash of orthodontic inspiration. Other authors were content to either extract the malposed teeth or to modify their shape. However, interest in an approach to preventive orthodontics had now begun. PMID:26337097

  11. [Mini-implants: pushing the limits of traditional orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Ellouze, Skander

    2008-03-01

    With the introduction during the last years of new tools such as low friction braces, skeletal anchorage, and especially mini screws, the tremendous evolution of lingual orthodontics, orthodontic care has evolved at a rhythm never known before. Using various clinical examples, the author shows the tremendous impact of the use of mini screws in a great number of treatments, producing particularly favourable facial changes, often going beyond the usual limits of orthodontic treatments.

  12. The Use of Invisalign® System in the Management of the Orthodontic Treatment before and after Class III Surgical Approach.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Renato; Signorino, Fabrizio; Poli, Pier Paolo; Manzini, Pietro; Panisi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The approach to skeletal dysmorphisms in the maxillofacial area usually requires an orthodontic treatment by means of fixed appliances, both before and after the surgical phase. Since its introduction, Invisalign system has become a popular treatment choice for the clinicians because of the aesthetics and comfort of the removable clear aligners compared with the traditional appliances. Therefore, the aim of the present report was to illustrate the management of a malocclusion by means of Invisalign system associated with the traditional surgical technique. The present paper shows a case of a 23-year-old male patient characterized by a Class III malocclusion with lateral deviation of the mandible to the left side and cross-bite on teeth 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. Invisalign system was used during the pre- and postsurgical phases rather than fixed appliances. The posttreatment cephalometric analysis emphasized the stability of the dental and skeletal symmetry corrections, occlusion and functional balance, over a 6-year follow-up. The results achieved at the end of the treatment showed how Invisalign can be effective in the management of the orthodontic phases in orthognathic surgery. The follow-up after 6 years emphasizes the stability of the treatment over time.

  13. The Use of Invisalign® System in the Management of the Orthodontic Treatment before and after Class III Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The approach to skeletal dysmorphisms in the maxillofacial area usually requires an orthodontic treatment by means of fixed appliances, both before and after the surgical phase. Since its introduction, Invisalign system has become a popular treatment choice for the clinicians because of the aesthetics and comfort of the removable clear aligners compared with the traditional appliances. Therefore, the aim of the present report was to illustrate the management of a malocclusion by means of Invisalign system associated with the traditional surgical technique. The present paper shows a case of a 23-year-old male patient characterized by a Class III malocclusion with lateral deviation of the mandible to the left side and cross-bite on teeth 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. Invisalign system was used during the pre- and postsurgical phases rather than fixed appliances. The posttreatment cephalometric analysis emphasized the stability of the dental and skeletal symmetry corrections, occlusion and functional balance, over a 6-year follow-up. The results achieved at the end of the treatment showed how Invisalign can be effective in the management of the orthodontic phases in orthognathic surgery. The follow-up after 6 years emphasizes the stability of the treatment over time. PMID:27429811

  14. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). Endoscopic resection (ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with “standard” criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet “expanded” criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer. PMID:26380052

  15. An American Board of Orthodontics case report. Treatment of an open bite malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Efstratiadis, S S

    1990-08-01

    The patient had a Class I (Angle) malocclusion characterized by an anterior open bite, bimaxillary dental protrusion, posterior and anterior crossbites, and mandibular midline deviation. A nonextraction treatment was followed for this patient. A Begg appliance (0.020 inch) and a posterior high-pull headgear were used. The prognosis was good because of the rather favorable skeletal pattern of the patient. The active treatment lasted 12 months. The patient was retained with a positioner. The occlusion was stable at 2 years posttreatment.

  16. Orthodontic treatment of a mildly crowded malocclusion using the Invisalign System.

    PubMed

    Vlaskalic, V; Boyd, R

    2001-03-01

    The 35-year-old male patient was treated at the University of the Pacific, San Francisco U.S.A., as part of an on-going study investigating the feasibility of the Invisalign System of tooth movement. The study called for 40 subjects, 10 with minor, 15 with moderate and 15 with severe tooth deviation. This patient fell into the "moderate" degree-of-difficulty category, due to the position of the maxillary incisors. Treatment time with the initial series of aligners was 14 months. Treatment objectives were met, with the exception of adequate anterior overbite.

  17. Comparison of the superelasticity of different nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires and the loss of their properties by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Humberto; Moyano, Javier; Gil, Javier; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and compare mechanical properties of eight widely used nickel-titanium orthodontic wires under uniform testing conditions and to determine the influence of the heat treatments on the loss of the superelasticity. Ten archwires from two batches from eight different manufacturers were evaluated. A three-point bending test was performed, in accordance with ISO 15841:2006, on 80 round nickel-titanium archwire segments of 0.016 inch. To obtain a load-deflection curve, the centre of each segment was deflected to 3.1 mm and then unloaded until force became zero. On the unloading curve, deflection at the end of the plateau and forces delivered at that point, and at 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm of deflection, were recorded. Plateau slopes were calculated from 3 and from 2 mm of deflection. Data obtained were statistically analysed to determine inter-brand, intra-brand and inter-batch differences (P < 0.05). The results show that at 2 mm of deflection, maximum differential force exerted among brands [Nitinol SuperElastic (1.999N)-Sentalloy M (1.001 N)] was 0.998 N (102 gf). The Nitinol SuperElastic plateau slope (0.353 N/mm) was the only one that was statistically different from 2 mm of deflection, as compared with the other brand values (0.129-0.155 N/mm). Damon Optimal Force described the gentlest slope from 3 mm of deflection (0.230 N/mm) and one of the longest plateaus. Titanol and Orthonol showed the most notable intra-brand differences, whereas inter-batch variability was significant for Nitinol (Henry Schein), Euro Ni-Ti and Orthonol. Superelasticity degree and exerted forces differed significantly among brands. Superelasticity of Nitinol SuperElastic was not observed, while Damon Optimal Force and Proclinic Ni-Ti Superelástico (G&H) showed the most superelastic curves. Intra-brand and inter-batch differences were observed in some brands. In all cases, the heat treatment at 600 °C produces precipitation in the

  18. Comparison of the superelasticity of different nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires and the loss of their properties by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Humberto; Moyano, Javier; Gil, Javier; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and compare mechanical properties of eight widely used nickel-titanium orthodontic wires under uniform testing conditions and to determine the influence of the heat treatments on the loss of the superelasticity. Ten archwires from two batches from eight different manufacturers were evaluated. A three-point bending test was performed, in accordance with ISO 15841:2006, on 80 round nickel-titanium archwire segments of 0.016 inch. To obtain a load-deflection curve, the centre of each segment was deflected to 3.1 mm and then unloaded until force became zero. On the unloading curve, deflection at the end of the plateau and forces delivered at that point, and at 3, 2, 1 and 0.5 mm of deflection, were recorded. Plateau slopes were calculated from 3 and from 2 mm of deflection. Data obtained were statistically analysed to determine inter-brand, intra-brand and inter-batch differences (P < 0.05). The results show that at 2 mm of deflection, maximum differential force exerted among brands [Nitinol SuperElastic (1.999N)-Sentalloy M (1.001 N)] was 0.998 N (102 gf). The Nitinol SuperElastic plateau slope (0.353 N/mm) was the only one that was statistically different from 2 mm of deflection, as compared with the other brand values (0.129-0.155 N/mm). Damon Optimal Force described the gentlest slope from 3 mm of deflection (0.230 N/mm) and one of the longest plateaus. Titanol and Orthonol showed the most notable intra-brand differences, whereas inter-batch variability was significant for Nitinol (Henry Schein), Euro Ni-Ti and Orthonol. Superelasticity degree and exerted forces differed significantly among brands. Superelasticity of Nitinol SuperElastic was not observed, while Damon Optimal Force and Proclinic Ni-Ti Superelástico (G&H) showed the most superelastic curves. Intra-brand and inter-batch differences were observed in some brands. In all cases, the heat treatment at 600 °C produces precipitation in the

  19. [Treatment options for early miscarriage; new insights].

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Marianne A C; Lemmers, Marike; Wekker, Malu Z; Ankum, W M Pim; Mol, B W J Ben Willem; Goddijn, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    Miscarriage is the most common complication during the first trimester of pregnancy. Three treatment options are available for women who experience early miscarriage: expectant management, curettage, or medical treatment. Curettage has traditionally been the usual treatment, but both expectant management and medical management with misoprostol are more cost-effective. Curettage increases the risk of surgical complications and intra-uterine adhesions (Asherman syndrome), and is associated with preterm birth. After adequate counselling, the woman's preference is a decisive factor; the choice of treatment for early miscarriage lends itself ideally to shared decision making. The Netherlands lacks a multidisciplinary guideline on the treatment of women following miscarriage. PMID:25406815

  20. Dental ethics case 6. Stalled payment for ongoing orthodontic treatment--balancing responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L; Naidoo, S

    2010-10-01

    It is not always easy for an orthodontist to strike the right balance between a caring, supportive and patient-centered approach, and the need to make a living and to run a profitable business in order to achieve this. Striving to act ethically and professionally at all times will help find this elusive balance and ultimately it will be more rewarding and professionally satisfying. Especially when dealing with children whose lives may be dramatically affected by the interruption or cessation of treatment, orthodontists have a duty to reassure themselves about the financial stability of their contractual relationships with patients or parents. Having consistent financial policies and flexible payment options may assist in this regard. Even in the face of non-payment of fees, treatments that have begun must in some form continue if their cessation would compromise the best interests of patients.

  1. Anterior open-bite orthodontic treatment in an adult patient: A clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Gracco, Antonio; Siviero, Laura; de Stefani, Alberto; Bruno, Giovanni; Stellini, Edoardo

    2016-06-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented with an anterior open-bite complaining chiefly of her unpleasant smile esthetics and masticatory and speech problems. Treatment included speech therapy initiated immediately after bonding. Lingual spurs were positioned on the mandibular incisors in order to help tongue rehabilitation. During the working phase, temporary anchorage devices (TADs) were used at the mandibular anterior segment to intrude the lower left premolars. A splint was used to ensure retention in the upper and lower arches; an enveloppe linguale nocturne (ELN) was provided. Non-surgical open-bite treatment could offer a valid alternative to orthognanthic surgery when cephalometric evaluation shows no vertical growth pattern; patient compliance is essential to prevent relapse. PMID:27080595

  2. Dental ethics case 6. Stalled payment for ongoing orthodontic treatment--balancing responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Doyal, L; Naidoo, S

    2010-10-01

    It is not always easy for an orthodontist to strike the right balance between a caring, supportive and patient-centered approach, and the need to make a living and to run a profitable business in order to achieve this. Striving to act ethically and professionally at all times will help find this elusive balance and ultimately it will be more rewarding and professionally satisfying. Especially when dealing with children whose lives may be dramatically affected by the interruption or cessation of treatment, orthodontists have a duty to reassure themselves about the financial stability of their contractual relationships with patients or parents. Having consistent financial policies and flexible payment options may assist in this regard. Even in the face of non-payment of fees, treatments that have begun must in some form continue if their cessation would compromise the best interests of patients. PMID:21180294

  3. Prevalence of dental anomalies in orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Thongudomporn, U; Freer, T J

    1998-12-01

    The prevalence of dental anomalies including agenesis, crown shape, tooth position, root shape, and invagination were examined in 111 orthodontic patients; 74.77 per cent of the patients exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Invagination was found to be the most prevalent anomaly, whereas supernumerary teeth and root dilaceration were the least frequent anomalies. Dental invagination and short or blunt roots were significantly more prevalent in females than in males. Implications for orthodontic treatment planning are discussed. PMID:9973708

  4. A system for the simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment using a low cost 3D laser scanner for dental anatomy capturing.

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, M; Grau, V; Monserrat, C; Juan, C; Albalat, S

    1999-01-01

    The detection and correction of malocclusions and other dental abnormalities is a significant area of work in orthodontic diagnosis. To assess the quality of occlusion between the teeth the orthodontist has to estimate distances between specific points located on the teeth of both arches. Distance measuring is based on the observation, by the orthodontist, of a plaster model of the mouth. Gathering of information required to make the diagnosis is a time consuming and costly operation. On the other hand, obtaining and manipulation of plaster casts constitute a huge problem in clinics, due to both the large space needed and high costs associated with plaster casts manufacturing. For this problem we present a new system for three-dimensional orthodontic treatment planning and movement of teeth. We describe a computer vision technique for the acquisition and processing of three-dimensional images of the profile of hydrocolloids dental imprints taken by mean of a own developed 3D laser scanner. Profile measurement is based on the triangulation method which detects deformation of the projection of a laser line on the dental imprints. The system is computer-controlled and designed to achieve depth and lateral resolutions of 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm, respectively, within a depth range of 40 mm. The developed diagnosis software system (named MAGALLANES) and the 3D laser scanner (named 3DENT) are both commercially available and have been designed to replace manual measurement methods, which use costly plaster models, with computer measurements methods and teeth movement simulation using cheap hydrocolloid dental wafers. This procedure will reduce the cost and acquisition time of orthodontic data and facilitate the conduct of epidemiological studies.

  5. Innovative biomechanics for orthodontic correction of torsiversion of maxillary central incisor caused by twin mesiodens

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Nitika; Kharbanda, Om Prakash; Duggal, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth found in the premaxilla between the two central incisors. Early and proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is critical in eluding the extent of treatment needed. This case report presents the successful orthodontic and esthetic management of an unusual case of Indian origin with twin mesiodens in the maxillary arch causing torsiversion and attrition of mandibular incisors due to occlusal trauma. PMID:24963264

  6. [Nasal respiratory stenosis and maxillary hypoplasia. Changes after orthodontic treatment with rapid palatal expansion].

    PubMed

    Piccini, A; Giorgetti, R; Fiorelli, G

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between hypoplasia of the upper maxillary bone and nasal respiratory insufficiency in a group of twenty infants with malocclusion being treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) were studied. Prior to treatment all patients presented endognatia with discrepancies of from -4 to -7 mm in the transverse basal skeleton. These were often associated with adenoid hypertrophy (70% of the cases), increased total nasal resistance (70%), oral respiration (80%) and middle ear diseases (30%). RME led to resolution of occlusion alterations in all cases and often also brought about a regression in adenoid hypertrophy (57% of the cases), normalization of the total nasal resistance (70%) and respiration (80%). These effects were achieved alone without association with any other form of medical or surgical E.N.T. treatment. The functional results confirmed by the radiological and clinical findings indicate an increase in the diameters of the nasal fossa and in the distance between the canines, between premolars and between molars as well as reduction in adenoid vegetation and in the diffuse hypertrophic tissues lining the naso-pharyngeal space. Nonetheless, hypoplasia of the upper maxillary bone and nasal respiratory insufficiency remain strictly linked and are bound to a variable, and at times uncertain, cause-effect relationship. Is nasal stenosis the moving force of maxillary-mandibular dysmorphism and gnatological dysfunction or does it result from an overall genetic conditioning of facial skeleton development? During their vast experience in adenoid and metadenoid pathologies in infancy the authors have, at times, observed significant maxillo-facial dysmorphisms. They have likewise found that "facies adenoidea" were not always associated with hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  8. The use of bisphosphonates does not contraindicate orthodontic and other types of treatment!

    PubMed

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been increasingly used not only to treat bone diseases as well as conditions such as osteopenia and osteoporosis, but also in oncotherapy. The use of bisphosphonates induces clinicians to fear and care. These reactions are associated with controversy resulting from lack of in-depth knowledge on the mechanisms of action as well as lack of a more accurate assessment of side effects. Scientific and clinical knowledge disclosure greatly contributes to professionals' discernment and inner balance, especially orthodontists. Fear does not lead to awareness. For these reasons, we present an article that focuses on that matter. This article was adapted from different journals of different dental specialties, as mentioned on footnote. There is no scientific evidence demonstrating that bisphosphonates are directly involved with etiopathogenic mechanisms of osteonecrosis and jaw osteomyelitis. Their use is contraindicated and limited in cases of dental treatment involving bone tissue. Nevertheless, such fact is based on professional opinion, case reports, and personal experience or trials with flaws in experimental methods. Additional studies will always be necessary; however, in-depth knowledge on bone biology is of paramount importance to offer an opinion about the clinical use of bisphosphonates and their further implications. Based on bone biopathology, this article aims at contributing to lay people the groundwork for this matter.

  9. The effect of two contrasting forms of orthodontic treatment on the facial profile.

    PubMed

    Looi, L K; Mills, J R

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare retrospectively the effect on the soft tissues of two contrasting forms of treatment for Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The first group of 30 persons exhibited uncrowded dentitions and were treated without extractions by means of the Andresen activator. No other appliance was used. The second group was also composed of 30 persons. These subjects were treated with the Begg appliance in its classical form. All of the Begg subjects showed varying amounts of crowding and were treated by extraction of four first premolars. It was believed that the Andresen appliance would maintain the incisors in the most labial position possible, while the Begg group with premolar extractions would involve the maximum lingual incisal movement. These groups were compared with a third group of 22 untreated persons who also exhibited Class II, Division 1 malocclusions. The overjets in the treated groups were successfully reduced in both cases by retraction of the upper incisors; in the Begg group only, retraction of lower incisors was also performed. The upper incisors were retracted substantially more in the Begg group than in the Andresen group, but there was only a slight difference within the two groups in the final position of the upper lip relative to a vertical reference line through sella. There was also a slight difference in the lengths of upper and lower lips within the two treated groups. The lower lip followed the lower incisors more closely in the Begg group. Both upper and lower lips "uncurled" in the treated groups and this probably allowed them to be held together with little strain. There was a wide variation in individual response in all three groups.

  10. CBCT imaging – A boon to orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Genevive L.

    2014-01-01

    The application of innovative technologies in dentistry and orthodontics has been very interesting to observe. The development of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a preferred imaging procedure for comprehensive orthodontic treatment is of particular interest. The information obtained from CBCT imaging provides several substantial advantages. For example, CBCT imaging provides accurate measurements, improves localization of impacted teeth, provides visualization of airway abnormalities, it identifies and quantifies asymmetry, it can be used to assess periodontal structures, to identify endodontic problems, to plan placement sites for temporary skeletal anchorage devices, and to view condylar positions and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony structures according to the practitioner’s knowledge at the time of orthodontic diagnosis. Moreover, CBCT imaging involves only a minimal increase in radiation dose relative to combined diagnostic modern digital panoramic and cephalometric imaging. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of CBCT imaging, including its technique, advantages, and applications in orthodontics. PMID:25544810

  11. A study of patient facial expressivity in relation to orthodontic/surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Nafziger, Y J

    1994-09-01

    A dynamic analysis of the faces of patients seeking an aesthetic restoration of facial aberrations with orthognathic treatment requires (besides the routine static study, such as records, study models, photographs, and cephalometric tracings) the study of their facial expressions. To determine a classification method for the units of expressive facial behavior, the mobility of the face is studied with the aid of the facial action coding system (FACS) created by Ekman and Friesen. With video recordings of faces and photographic images taken from the video recordings, the authors have modified a technique of facial analysis structured on the visual observation of the anatomic basis of movement. The technique, itself, is based on the defining of individual facial expressions and then codifying such expressions through the use of minimal, anatomic action units. These action units actually combine to form facial expressions. With the help of FACS, the facial expressions of 18 patients before and after orthognathic surgery, and six control subjects without dentofacial deformation have been studied. I was able to register 6278 facial expressions and then further define 18,844 action units, from the 6278 facial expressions. A classification of the facial expressions made by subject groups and repeated in quantified time frames has allowed establishment of "rules" or "norms" relating to expression, thus further enabling the making of comparisons of facial expressiveness between patients and control subjects. This study indicates that the facial expressions of the patients were more similar to the facial expressions of the controls after orthognathic surgery. It was possible to distinguish changes in facial expressivity in patients after dentofacial surgery, the type and degree of change depended on the facial structure before surgery. Changes noted tended toward a functioning that is identical to that of subjects who do not suffer from dysmorphosis and toward greater lip

  12. Orthodontic Implants: Concepts for the Orthodontic Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Carlos Nelson; de Oliveira Ruellas, Antônio Carlos; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib

    2012-01-01

    Orthodontic implants have become a reliable method in orthodontic practice for providing temporary additional anchorage. These devices are useful to control skeletal anchorage in less compliant patients or in cases where absolute anchorage is necessary. There are a great number of advantages in this new approach which include easy insertion, decreased patient discomfort, low price, immediate loading, reduced diameter, versatility in the forces to be used, ease of cleaning, and ease of removal. However, a proper management of the screws by the practitioner is necessary in order to increase the success rate of the technique. The purpose of this paper is to update practitioners on the current concepts of orthodontic implants and orthodontic mechanics. PMID:23209470

  13. Effect of 0.12% chlorhexidine in reducing microorganisms found in aerosol used for dental prophylaxis of patients submitted to fixed orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Isis Rodrigues Menezes; Moreira, Ana Cristina Azevedo; Costa, Myrela Galvão Cardoso; Barbosa, Marcelo de Castellucci e

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at assessing, in vivo, whether the prior use of 0.12% chlorhexidine as mouthwash would decrease air contamination caused by aerosolized sodium bicarbonate during dental prophylaxis. The study was conducted with 23 patients aged between 10 and 40 years old who were randomly selected and undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods The study was divided into two phases (T1 and T2) with a 30-day interval in between. In both phases, dental prophylaxis was performed with aerosolized sodium bicarbonate jetted to the upper and lower arches for 4 minutes. In T1, 10 minutes before the prophylaxis procedure, the participants used distilled water as mouthwash for one minute; whereas in T2, mouthwash was performed with 0.12% chlorhexidine. Microbial samples were collected in BHI agar plates for microbiological analysis. Two dishes were positioned on the clinician (10 cm from the mouth) and a third one at 15 cm from the patient's mouth. The samples were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C. Results were expressed in colony-forming units (CFU). Results Statistical analysis carried out by means of Student's t test, as well as Wilconxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that the prior use of 0.12% chlorhexidine as mouthwash significantly reduced CFU in the three positions studied (P < 0.001). Conclusion The prior use of 0.12% chlorhexidine as mouthwash significantly reduced contamination caused by aerosolized sodium bicarbonate during dental prophylaxis in the orthodontic clinic. PMID:25162572

  14. Upgrading sterilization in the orthodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Mulick, J F

    1986-04-01

    In today's orthodontic practice, disease control must undergo major reevaluation and restructuring. The knowledge of the natural history and treatment of many highly transmissible diseases to which orthodontic personnel are at high risk is changing rapidly. Among these diseases are acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B virus, and the herpesvirus complex (currently five types). If barrier techniques are not in place, it is possible to cross-infect orthodontic personnel and patients alike. Clinical orthodontics, with its higher volume of patients (on a daily basis) than other dental practices, requires a custom-made sterilization schema tailored to each office. Proper organization of instruments to permit orderly processing, storing, and use is even more important than before. Turnaround time of processing instruments, corrosion control, and minimizing of dulling of cutting edges are critical. Treatment of surfaces and chair/unit facilities with improved disinfection techniques is a necessity. Protection of hands and eyes by appropriate means is discussed with practical guidelines for the use of gloves by chairside personnel. Many fomites (inanimate disease transmitters) lurk in the orthodontic office and must be eliminated. Finally, the most important ingredient to any change--the orthodontic office staff--must be enlightened, trained, and supervised by the orthodontist to effectively and efficiently switch from the old to the new.

  15. Congenital craniofacial asymmetry: early treatment.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, L A; Schut, L; Rosen, H M

    1981-01-01

    Congenital craniofacial asymmetry has two dominant causes: isolated synostosis and craniofacial clefts. Treatment considerations in these problems differ from those with isolated cranial or isolated facial defects. Isolated cranial defects are most frequently treated by the neurosurgeon with craniectomy alone. Isolated facial asymmetry when congenital in origin usually manifests as hemifacial microsomia and based on our experience with 40 such patients, is best treated in later childhood. Treatment timing of craniofacial asymmetry varies with the cause, but is best done in the first two years of life. Nasofrontal encephaloceles are usually best treated in the first few weeks of life; synostosis syndromes are treated at six months of age after the facial sutures have had time to stabilize sufficiently for adequate dissection and mobilization; and other craniofacial clefts at approximately two years of age following descent of the teeth and better homeostatic capability of the patient. Based on our series of 58 patients, 40 treated with isolated synostosis at less than one year of age, eight at more than one year of age, and ten patients with craniofacial clefts, the guidelines for timing and methods of treatment have evolved. Liberal use of craniectomy bone with expected regrowth is possible in the first year of life, and more limited use in the second year of life. This bone is used to hold the repositioned orbit, augment hypoplastic zygomas, and reconstruct noses, or for other uses. In isolated synostosis, repositioning provides a form of immediate catch-up growth then proceeds normally. In craniofacial clefts, repositioning puts structures into normal relations and growth likewise proceeds normally. The isolated synostosis syndromes treated at a later age are done with more difficulty, though may be effectively cared for. Complications other than incomplete structural correction have been nonexistent in the group two years of age and less.

  16. Selling orthodontic need: innocent business decision or guilty pleasure?

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Marc Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The principal objective for most patients seeking orthodontic services is a detectable improvement in their dentofacial appearance. Orthodontic treatment, in the mind of the patient, is something that makes you look better, feel better about yourself, and perhaps enhances your social possibilities, ie, to find a companion or make a positive impression during a job interview. Orthodontics, as a speciality, has collectively advanced the idea that enhanced occlusion (bite) improves the health and longevity of the dentition, and as a result many patients seeking orthodontic services affirm that their secondary goal of treatment is an oral health benefit. It would appear that there is some disparity between the end-user of orthodontic services and the orthodontic provider's perception of what constitutes orthodontic need. The aim of this paper is to examine two contrasting models that characterise how dentists 'sell' orthodontic services to patients and to discuss the conflict between professional ethics, practice management and evidence-based decision-making in orthodontic practice.

  17. Orthodontics in the "Art" of Aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mayuri

    2015-01-01

    Aesthetics in dentistry has of late become an awakening/actor among patients and often serves as a major reason for seeking dental treatment and care. Ever since the introduction of orthodontics as a separate specialty branch in dentistry, a variety of techniques have evolved, and methods developed both in the type of devices/instruments used and treatments planned. The discipline of orthodontic aesthetics involves micro and macro aesthetics, gingival, and facial aesthetics. This article helps focus on the artistic part of the orthodontic science. It brings out various important factors involved in customizing aesthetic orthodontic treatment planning according to the individual needs of the patient. Through this kind of treatment planning not only are the functional and biological needs of the patient met, they also provide a stable and durable results. Less invasive treatment planning makes it easier for the patient to select future treatment options as new technologies keep evolving. The review was selected by typing aesthetic orthodontics in the Google search engine, Pubmed, and Pubmed Central. Literature review of articles reflecting history, different analysis, factors responsible, and the latest technique was conducted.

  18. Orthodontics in the "Art" of Aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mayuri

    2015-01-01

    Aesthetics in dentistry has of late become an awakening/actor among patients and often serves as a major reason for seeking dental treatment and care. Ever since the introduction of orthodontics as a separate specialty branch in dentistry, a variety of techniques have evolved, and methods developed both in the type of devices/instruments used and treatments planned. The discipline of orthodontic aesthetics involves micro and macro aesthetics, gingival, and facial aesthetics. This article helps focus on the artistic part of the orthodontic science. It brings out various important factors involved in customizing aesthetic orthodontic treatment planning according to the individual needs of the patient. Through this kind of treatment planning not only are the functional and biological needs of the patient met, they also provide a stable and durable results. Less invasive treatment planning makes it easier for the patient to select future treatment options as new technologies keep evolving. The review was selected by typing aesthetic orthodontics in the Google search engine, Pubmed, and Pubmed Central. Literature review of articles reflecting history, different analysis, factors responsible, and the latest technique was conducted. PMID:27029088

  19. Correlates of the Orthodontic Aspects of the General Dentist's Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse, Robert J.; Dooley, Raynard J.

    1980-01-01

    A study undertaken to determine the extent of orthodontic referrals and treatment performed by general dentists is discussed. Results indicate that general practitioners who graduated after 1945 tend to make more referrals, and general practitioners who had treated patients orthodontically in their predoctoral training tend to continue in…

  20. Characteristics of Medial Depression of the Mandibular Ramus in Patients with Orthodontic Treatment Needs: A Panoramic Radiography Study

    PubMed Central

    B, Naveen Kumar; M.P.V., Prabhat; J., Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medial sigmoid depression or medial depression of the mandibular ramus (MDMR) is a known variant of the normal radiographic anatomy. The clinical importance of MDMR has been recognized, however, its prevalence and association with patients with orthodontic needs have been poorly documented. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of MDMR on panoramic radiographs of patients with different Angle’s molar relation. Materials and Methods: Three hundred panoramic radiographs of 100 each belonging to patients with Angle’s class I, II and III molar relationship was recruited from an orthodontic clinic. The radiographs were evaluated for presence of MDMR along with its characteristics such as site and shape. The data was entered in the proforma and subjected for statistical analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of MDMR in the present study was 23.2%. MDMR was found to be more prevalent in Class II – 28 (9.3%) followed by class III-23 (7.6%) and Class I- 19 (6.3%). There was equal distribution of MDMR with respect to site and the semilunar shape was the most common 36 (34%). All these findings were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Although MDMR is considered as a normal radiographic finding, the present study confirms the disparity in the prevalence of MDMR in patients with dentoskeletal deformities. Thus our findings suggest the importance of recognizing this entity prior to orthognathic surgery so as to avoid untoward sequelas. PMID:25584298

  1. Theory of orthodontic motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepe, S.; Pepe, W. D.; Strauss, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A general theory of orthodontic motion is developed that can be applied to determine the forces necessary to induce a given tooth to move to the predetermined desirable position. It is assumed that the natural (nonorthodontic) forces may be represented by a periodic function and the orthodontic forces may be superimposed upon the natural forces. A simple expression is derived for the applied stress.

  2. Evolution of occlusion and temporomandibular disorder in orthodontics: Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Jeffrey P

    2015-05-01

    Occlusion has been an important consideration in orthodontics since the beginning of the discipline. Early emphasis was placed on the alignment of the teeth, the stability of the intercuspal position, and the esthetic value of proper tooth positioning. These factors remain important to orthodontists, but orthopedic principles associated with masticatory functions must also be considered. Orthopedic stability in the masticatory structures should be a routine treatment goal to help reduce risk factors associated with developing temporomandibular disorders.

  3. REGISTRATION OF ORTHODONTIC DIGITAL MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Grauer, Dan; Cevidanes, Lucia H.; Tyndall, Donald; Styner, Martin A.; Flood, Patrick M.; Proffit, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Current methods to assess outcomes and change in orthodontics are comparison of photographs, cephalometric measurements and superimpositions, and comparisons/measurements on dental casts. Digital models are a relatively new records modality in orthodontics. They offer numerous advantages in terms of storage space, spatial registration and superimposition. The purpose of this chapter is to determine the reproducibility of: 1) establishing occlusion of independently scanned digital models; and 2) registering digital models obtained after treatment on their homologous digital model setups produced before treatment. Reliability of both procedures was assessed with two random samples of five patient’s models. In both experiments, three replicate positionings of the models per patient were created and variability in position was evaluated by the maximum surface difference between replicates, and the standard deviation of the surface distances between replicates respectively. Based on the data obtained, we concluded that it is reliable to register independently scanned models to a scanned surface of the models in occlusion. Surface-to-surface registration of final orthodontic digital models to planned setup models also is reproducible. PMID:26549917

  4. Dentinogenesis imperfecta: an early treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Sapir, S; Shapira, J

    2001-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) type 2 is a disease inherited in a simple autosomal dominant mode. As soon as the teeth erupt the parents may notice the problem and look for a pediatric dentist's advice and treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment of DI is recommended, as it may prevent or intercept deterioration of the teeth and occlusion and improve esthetics. The purpose of this article is to present the objectives, treatment options, and problems encountered in the treatment of DI in the early primary dentition. A two-stage treatment of a toddler under general anesthesia is described and discussed. This paper recommends for severe cases of DI two treatment stages performed under general anesthesia. Stage 1 is early (around age 18-20 months) and is directed to covering the incisors with composite restorations and the first primary molars with preformed crowns. Stage 2 (around age 28-30 months) seeks to protect the second primary molars with preformed crowns and cover the canines with composite restorations.

  5. [Early detection and treatment of strabismus].

    PubMed

    Mojon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An early diagnosis of strabismus is important in order to rule out treatable organic causes and in children, if indicated, to start as early as possible with an amblyopia treatment. Early detection will also decrease the risk for accidents secondary to diplopia, to the loss of binocular vision and to the restriction of the binocular visual field in case of esodeviations. The following therapeutic options exist: in some cases the prescription of the correct refraction will be sufficient, for small deviations a prismatic correction may allow a longstanding treatment, for larger or incomitant deviations strabismus surgery will be necessary, which nowadays can be performed using minimal-invasive technique on an outpatient base. PMID:26982644

  6. Preventive and interceptive orthodontic demand for malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Denloye, O O; Taiwo, J O

    2003-03-01

    Orthodontic unit, University College Hospital, Ibadan is young and in need of baseline data for effective planning. The main aim of this study was to determine the nature of orthodontic demands in the unit that could benefit from preventive and interceptive treatment so as to enhance treatment planning, teaching and further research. Consecutive patients who presented for treatment in the Unit between May 1997 and November 1999 were included in the study. The patients aged 5-19 years with mean age of 8.8 +/- 0.82 years. One hundred and twenty-one (60.5%) of the orthodontic cases that presented for treatment needed one form of preventive and interceptive treatment or the other such as extraction of retained primary teeth, use of upper removable orthodontic appliances to correct teeth in cross bite, extraction of erupted supernumerary teeth and fabrication of oral habit breaking appliances such as goal post appliance. Ninety-three (76.9%) of these children had retained primary anterior teeth while 9.1% had proclination of maxillary anterior teeth with moderate spacing. Based on dental history and clinical examination, nine (7.4%) children were involved with oral habits, seven (5.8%) and one (0.8%) had anterior crossbite and supernumerary teeth, respectively. The remaining 39.5% needed full-blown orthodontic treatments. No sex predilection was found in relation to the various needs (P > 0.05). We suggest a need for more emphasis on preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatment in our environment due to the relatively high prevalence ofthese presenting needs. PMID:15030057

  7. Treatment of early stage vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, G.

    1989-03-01

    The cure rates for early stage vocal cord cancer are excellent with primary radiotherapy. Voice quality remains as good or becomes better than prior to treatment. For the local failures that do occur, surgical salvage will yield ultimate cure rates of about 95% for T1 and 90% for T2 tumors.

  8. [Vitality loss: influence of orthodontic process].

    PubMed

    Bernard-Granger, Chloé; Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Vitality loss is an unusual event that can occur before, during or after an orthodontic treatment. It can lead to loss of sensitivity, color change or necrosis of the pulp tissue. Before starting the orthodontic treatment, we have to identify the tooth's risk (injured tooth, included occlusal trauma...). Knowing that, if an endodontic treatment has to be done, it is better to do it before starting orthodontic forces. Lamps do not provide problems except high intensity halogen ones. RPE on children, Le Fort I and mandibular osteotomies, corticotomies, genioplasties are responsible of a transitory ischemia without reaching a pathogen level. Mini-screws or mini-plates may be iatrogenic, if they impact the root. The repair options depend on the delay before removing the miniscrew and the nature of injured tissue.

  9. Early diagnosis to enable early treatment of pre-osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a prevalent and disabling disease affecting an increasingly large swathe of the world population. While clinical osteoarthritis is a late-stage condition for which disease-modifying opportunities are limited, osteoarthritis typically develops over decades, offering a long window of time to potentially alter its course. The etiology of osteoarthritis is multifactorial, showing strong associations with highly modifiable risk factors of mechanical overload, obesity and joint injury. As such, characterization of pre-osteoarthritic disease states will be critical to support a paradigm shift from palliation of late disease towards prevention, through early diagnosis and early treatment of joint injury and degeneration to reduce osteoarthritis risk. Joint trauma accelerates development of osteoarthritis from a known point in time. Human joint injury cohorts therefore provide a unique opportunity for evaluation of pre-osteoarthritic conditions and potential interventions from the earliest stages of degeneration. This review focuses on recent advances in imaging and biochemical biomarkers suitable for characterization of the pre-osteoarthritic joint as well as implications for development of effective early treatment strategies. PMID:22682469

  10. Miniscrew implant applications in contemporary orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Po; Tseng, Yu-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    The need for orthodontic treatment modalities that provide maximal anchorage control but with minimal patient compliance requirements has led to the development of implant-assisted orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Skeletal anchorage with miniscrew implants has no patient compliance requirements and has been widely incorporated in orthodontic practice. Miniscrew implants are now routinely used as anchorage devices in orthodontic treatment. This review summarizes recent data regarding the interpretation of bone data (i.e., bone quantity and quality) obtained by preoperative diagnostic computed tomography (CT) or by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) prior to miniscrew implant placement. Such data are essential when selecting appropriate sites for miniscrew implant placement. Bone characteristics that are indications and contraindications for treatment with miniscrew implants are discussed. Additionally, bicortical orthodontic skeletal anchorage, risks associated with miniscrew implant failure, and miniscrew implants for nonsurgical correction of occlusal cant or vertical excess are reviewed. Finally, implant stability is compared between titanium alloy and stainless steel miniscrew implants. PMID:24581210

  11. Occurrence and severity of enamel decalcification adjacent to bracket bases and sub-bracket lesions during orthodontic treatment with two different lingual appliances

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Elisabeth; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background: Using lingual enamel surfaces for bracket placement not only has esthetic advantages, but may also be suitable in terms of reducing frequencies of enamel decalcifications. Objective: To test the null-hypothesis that there is no significant difference in enamel decalcification or cavitation incidence adjacent to and beneath bracket bases between two lingual multi-bracket (MB) appliances that are different in terms of design, material composition, and manufacturing technology (group A: WIN, DW-LingualSystems; group B: Incognito, 3M-Unitek), taking into account patient- and treatment-related variables on white spot lesion (WSL) formation. Methods: Standardized, digital, top-view photographs of 630 consecutive subjects (16214 teeth; n Incognito = 237/6076 teeth; n WIN = 393/10138 teeth; mean age: 17.47±7.8; m/f 43.2/56.8%) with completed lingual MB treatment of the upper and lower permanent teeth 1–7 were screened for decalcification or cavitation adjacent to and beneath the bracket bases before and after treatment, scored from 0 to 7. Non-parametric ANOVA was used for main effects ‘appliance type’, ‘gender’, ‘treatment complexity’, ‘grouped age’ (≤16/>16 years), and ‘treatment duration’ as covariable, at an α-level of 5%. Results: About 2.57% [5.94%] of all teeth in group A [B] developed decalcifications. Subject-related incidence was 9.59% [16.17%] for upper incisors in group A [B], and 12.98% [25.74%] for all teeth 16–46. There were significant effects by gender, age, and treatment duration. Conclusion: The null-hypothesis was rejected: sub-bracket lesions were significantly less frequent in group A, while frequencies of WSL adjacent to brackets were not significantly affected by appliance type. In view of the overall low incidences of lingual post-orthodontic white-spot lesions, the use of lingual appliances is advocated as a valid strategy for a reduction of enamel decalcifications during orthodontic treatment. PMID

  12. [How to push the limits in the transverse dimension? Facial asymmetry, palatal volume and tongue posture in children with unilateral posterior cross bite: a three-dimensional evaluation of early treatment].

    PubMed

    Ovsenik, Maja; Primožič, Jasmina

    2014-06-01

    Unilateral posterior crossbites have been reported to be one of the most prevalent malocclusions of the primary dentition in Caucasian children. Facial asymmetry due to lateral mandibular displacement in unilateral posterior crossbite, if not treated in the primary dentition period, may lead to an undesirable growth modification which results in facial asymmetry of skeletal origin. Irregular tongue function and posture have also been diagnosed as important etiological factors. Early orthodontic treatment seems to be profitable and desirable to create conditions for normal dental, functional and skeletal development of the orofacial region. Treatment success after correction of unilateral posterior crossbite in the primary dentition is highly questionable, as it is very difficult to objectively assess correction of facial asymmetry and irregular tongue function and posture in small, growing children. Although facial photography is an important diagnostic tool in orthodontics, its main disadvantage is that it represents a three dimensional subject in two dimensions. Tongue posture and function during clinical examination are difficult to assess and is therefore unreliable. Contemporary 3D diagnostics in unilateral posterior crossbite enables uninvasive, valid and objective assessment of facial morphology, palatal volume, tongue function and posture. It can, therefore, become in the future an important part of morphological and functional diagnostics in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics before, during and after orthodontic treatment.

  13. Early Identification and Treatment of Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Severe and persistent antisocial behavior is a prevalent, serious, and costly mental health problem. Individuals who are most likely to show persistent antisocial behavior through adolescence and into adulthood often show patterns of severe and varied conduct problems early in childhood. Treatments that intervene early in the development of these problems are most effective and least costly. Furthermore, there appear to be several common causal pathways that differ in their genetic, emotional, cognitive, and contextual characteristics. These pathways are differentiated by the level of callous-unemotional traits displayed by the individual. PMID:27565364

  14. Minimally invasive corticotomy in orthodontics using a three-dimensional printed CAD/CAM surgical guide.

    PubMed

    Cassetta, M; Giansanti, M; Di Mambro, A; Calasso, S; Barbato, E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative, minimally invasive, flapless corticotomy procedure in orthodontics. The STROBE guidelines were followed. Ten patients with severe dental crowding and a class I molar relationship were selected to receive orthodontic treatment with clear aligners and corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics. The mean age of these patients was 21 years (range 17-28, standard deviation 6.08 years); the male to female ratio was 2:1. The main outcome was a reduction in the total treatment time to correct dental crowding. The secondary outcomes were periodontal index changes, the degree of root resorption, and patient perceptions of the method used, assessed using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The occurrence of early surgical complications or unexpected events was also recorded. All patients completed the treatment to correct dental crowding. The average treatment time was reduced by two-thirds. The procedure did not significantly modify the periodontal indices or oral health-related quality of life. No early surgical complications or unexpected events were observed. In short, the results indicate that this new procedure is safe and accelerates tooth movement without periodontal complications or discomfort. However, the efficacy of this procedure must be confirmed in controlled clinical trials. PMID:27178968

  15. Centennial inventory: the changing face of orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Joseph G

    2015-11-01

    The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics celebrates its centennial, safeguarded by the nearly 115-year-old American Association of Orthodontists. This journey witnessed the rise and demise of various developments, concepts, and procedures, while basic knowledge is still needed. Various periods can be defined in the past century, but the goals remain to obtain more accurate diagnosis through precise anatomic imaging, more controlled and faster tooth movement, more discreet appliances, and the balance of esthetics, function, and stability. The most recent technologic advances have buttressed these goals. Cone-beam computed tomography has brought 3-dimensional assessment to daily usage, albeit the original enthusiasm is tempered by the risk of additional radiation. Temporary anchorage devices or miniscrews have revolutionized orthodontic practice and loom as a solid cornerstone of orthodontic science. Decortication and microperforation promise to speed up tooth displacement by stimulating vascularization. The concept of the regional acceleratory phenomenon has touched upon even the timing of orthognathic surgery. The burden of esthetic appliances remains, with the demand for "cosmetic" appliances and clear aligners. Have these developments changed the face of orthodontics? Have we engaged in another turn wherein certain treatment modalities may fade, while others join mainstream applications? These questions are addressed in this essay on the challenges, promises, and limitations of current orthodontic technology, enhancement of biologic response, and personalized treatment approaches.

  16. 'Who does what' in the orthodontic workforce.

    PubMed

    Hodge, T; Parkin, N

    2015-02-16

    The contraction of the economy in the United Kingdom and constraints on the National Health Service (NHS) together with new opportunities for the delivery of orthodontic treatment has resulted in an increasing number of dental personnel across the different registrant groups. This article focuses on the changes that have taken place in the orthodontic workforce over the past decade. Although others help deliver orthodontic services such as material suppliers, treatment coordinators and those involved in marketing, this article will restrict itself to informing the reader specifically about which dental registrants are doing what at the clinical interface. How health professionals have developed their skills to undertake the role they play within the team and possible threats arising because of these changes are also discussed. PMID:25686442

  17. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treatment Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer treatment fact sheet ePublications Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet Print this fact sheet Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet (PDF, 943 KB) Related information ...

  18. The treatment of early stage ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, R C

    1995-10-01

    Approximately one third of women with ovarian cancer present with localized disease. A series of recent studies have identified a population of patients who require only comprehensive surgical staging for optimal results and another group that may benefit from adjuvant therapy. A series of national and international studies are evaluating a variety of adjuvant treatments in prospective randomized trials that may enhance long-term survival in poor-prognosis early ovarian cancer. PMID:7481865

  19. Longitudinal effect of curcumin-photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in adolescents during fixed orthodontic treatment: a single-blind randomized clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Marco Aurélio; Moura, Cíntia Maria Zanin; Jeremias, Fabiano; Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; Giusti, Juçaíra S M; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-11-01

    White spot lesions are one of the concerns during the fixed orthodontic treatment. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial/anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin-photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (c-PACT) and chlorhexidine varnish on the plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding in adolescents under fixed orthodontic treatment. A randomized clinical trial was performed with an initial number of 45 patients being distributed into three groups: group I-chlorhexidine varnish 2%, group II-placebo varnish, and group III-c-PACT (curcumin at 1.5 mg.mL(-1)) exposed to blue Light-emitting diode (LED) light at 450 nm (power density = 165 mW.cm(-2), fluency = 96 J.cm(-2), total dose = 150.7 J). The treatments were performed for four consecutive times with an interval of 1 week each. After the interventions, two calibrated examiners (Kappa value = 0.75) analyzed the dental plaque accumulation by plaque index (PI) and gingivitis condition by gingival bleeding index (GBI) with 1 and 3 months of follow-up after the treatments comprised a final sample of 35 patients. No significant difference was found to PI between the groups during baseline and 1-month period. Group III (1.52 ± 0.51) presented significance difference from group I (0.91 ± 0.75) and group II (1.03 ± 0.51) at 3 months of follow-up. In this same period, there was more plaque accumulation with significant statistical difference (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to the other periods to all studied groups. There was a GBI reduction statistically significant to groups I and III at 1-month follow-up in comparison to other periods. No effect was verified to dental plaque accumulation after the photodynamic application mediated with curcumin activated with a blue LED light.

  20. Longitudinal effect of curcumin-photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in adolescents during fixed orthodontic treatment: a single-blind randomized clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Marco Aurélio; Moura, Cíntia Maria Zanin; Jeremias, Fabiano; Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; Giusti, Juçaíra S M; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-11-01

    White spot lesions are one of the concerns during the fixed orthodontic treatment. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial/anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin-photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (c-PACT) and chlorhexidine varnish on the plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding in adolescents under fixed orthodontic treatment. A randomized clinical trial was performed with an initial number of 45 patients being distributed into three groups: group I-chlorhexidine varnish 2%, group II-placebo varnish, and group III-c-PACT (curcumin at 1.5 mg.mL(-1)) exposed to blue Light-emitting diode (LED) light at 450 nm (power density = 165 mW.cm(-2), fluency = 96 J.cm(-2), total dose = 150.7 J). The treatments were performed for four consecutive times with an interval of 1 week each. After the interventions, two calibrated examiners (Kappa value = 0.75) analyzed the dental plaque accumulation by plaque index (PI) and gingivitis condition by gingival bleeding index (GBI) with 1 and 3 months of follow-up after the treatments comprised a final sample of 35 patients. No significant difference was found to PI between the groups during baseline and 1-month period. Group III (1.52 ± 0.51) presented significance difference from group I (0.91 ± 0.75) and group II (1.03 ± 0.51) at 3 months of follow-up. In this same period, there was more plaque accumulation with significant statistical difference (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to the other periods to all studied groups. There was a GBI reduction statistically significant to groups I and III at 1-month follow-up in comparison to other periods. No effect was verified to dental plaque accumulation after the photodynamic application mediated with curcumin activated with a blue LED light. PMID:25543296

  1. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  2. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  3. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  4. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  5. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic...

  6. Laser diagnostics in orthodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkova, Anastasia V.; Lebedeva, Nina G.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Kharish, Natalia A.

    2003-10-01

    The results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra of intensity fluctuations of light, scattered from mucose membrane of oral cavity of healthy volunteers and patients, abused by the orthodontic diseases, are presented. Analysis of Doppler spectra, obtained from tooth pulp of patients, is carried out. New approach to monitoring of blood microcirculation in orthodontics is suggested. Influence of own noise of measuring system on formation of the speckle-interferometric signal is studied.

  7. Evaluation of stability after pre-orthodontic orthognathic surgery using cone-beam computed tomography: A comparison with conventional treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ann, Hye-Rim; Jung, Young-Soo; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes after intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) with and without presurgical orthodontics by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods This retrospective cohort study included 24 patients (mean age, 22.1 years) with skeletal Class III malocclusion who underwent bimaxillary surgery with IVRO. The patients were divided into the preorthodontic orthognathic surgery (POGS) group (n = 12) and conventional surgery (CS) group (n = 12). CBCT images acquired preoperatively, 1 month after surgery, and 1 year after surgery were analyzed to compare the intergroup differences in postoperative three-dimensional movements of the maxillary and mandibular landmarks and the changes in lateral cephalometric variables. Results Baseline demographics (sex and age) were similar between the two groups (6 men and 6 women in each group). During the postsurgical period, the POGS group showed more significant upward movement of the mandible (p < 0.05) than did the CS group. Neither group showed significant transverse movement of any of the skeletal landmarks. Moreover, none of the dental and skeletal variables showed significant intergroup differences 1 year after surgery. Conclusions Compared with CS, POGS with IVRO resulted in significantly different postsurgical skeletal movement in the mandible. Although both groups showed similar skeletal and dental outcomes at 1 year after surgery, upward movement of the mandible during the postsurgical period should be considered to ensure a more reliable outcome after POGS. PMID:27668193

  8. Evaluation of stability after pre-orthodontic orthognathic surgery using cone-beam computed tomography: A comparison with conventional treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ann, Hye-Rim; Jung, Young-Soo; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes after intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) with and without presurgical orthodontics by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods This retrospective cohort study included 24 patients (mean age, 22.1 years) with skeletal Class III malocclusion who underwent bimaxillary surgery with IVRO. The patients were divided into the preorthodontic orthognathic surgery (POGS) group (n = 12) and conventional surgery (CS) group (n = 12). CBCT images acquired preoperatively, 1 month after surgery, and 1 year after surgery were analyzed to compare the intergroup differences in postoperative three-dimensional movements of the maxillary and mandibular landmarks and the changes in lateral cephalometric variables. Results Baseline demographics (sex and age) were similar between the two groups (6 men and 6 women in each group). During the postsurgical period, the POGS group showed more significant upward movement of the mandible (p < 0.05) than did the CS group. Neither group showed significant transverse movement of any of the skeletal landmarks. Moreover, none of the dental and skeletal variables showed significant intergroup differences 1 year after surgery. Conclusions Compared with CS, POGS with IVRO resulted in significantly different postsurgical skeletal movement in the mandible. Although both groups showed similar skeletal and dental outcomes at 1 year after surgery, upward movement of the mandible during the postsurgical period should be considered to ensure a more reliable outcome after POGS.

  9. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  10. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  11. The effect of canine disimpaction performed with temporary anchorage devices (TADs) before comprehensive orthodontic treatment to avoid root resorption of adjacent teeth

    PubMed Central

    Heravi, Farzin; Shafaee, Hooman; Forouzanfar, Ali; Zarch, Seyed Hossein Hoseini; Merati, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of impacted canines away from the roots of neighboring teeth before full-mouth bracket placement, performed by means of TADs to decrease undesired side effects on adjacent teeth. Methods: The study sample consisted of 34 palatally impacted canines, being 19 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. In the experimental group, before placement of brackets, the impacted canine was erupted by means of miniscrews. In the control group, after initiation of comprehensive orthodontics, canine disimpaction was performed by means of a cantilever spring soldered to a palatal bar. At the end of treatment, volume of lateral incisors and canine root resorption were measured and compared by means of a CBCT-derived tridimensional model. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, bleeding on probing (BOP) and gingival index (GI) were recorded. Clinical success rate was also calculated. Results: The volume of root resorption of lateral teeth in the control group was significantly greater than in the experimental group (p < 0.001). At the end of treatment, VAS score, GI and BOP were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, it seems that disimpaction of canines and moving them to the arch can be done successfully carried out with minimal side effects by means of skeletal anchorage. PMID:27275617

  12. Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems Page Content Article Body Dental Health Twin ... color can be tinted to match the teeth. Orthodontic Problems Crooked teeth, overbites and underbites are best ...

  13. [Change and innovation in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wehrbein, H; Wriedt, S; Jung, B A

    2011-09-01

    Long-term prophylaxis achievements, demographic changes, scientific progress, patient requirements, and political regulations through social legislation will fundamentally change the future of orthodontics, i.e., a reduction in children and adolescent therapy as well as an increase in interdisciplinary complex treatments for adult patients mostly outside the social security system. Health care research at a high evidence level needs to be intensified due to social-political reasons. In addition to well-proven appliances, modern sometimes even invisible appliances (CAD-CAM) will be used in future orthodontic therapy. Three-dimensional diagnostics could improve treatment planning. Whether improved prenatal diagnosis will alter the number of newborns with dentofacial malformations (cleft lip and palate) or syndromes (e.g., Down syndrome), thus, changing treatment needs in the future, cannot be predicted today, due to the multiple influencing factors. A well-structured 4-year specialist training according to European guidelines will also be necessary in the future to comply with complex treatment needs be it within or outside the social security system (quality assurance).

  14. Association between gingival bleeding and gingival enlargement and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of subjects under fixed orthodontic treatment: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are scarce evidences that evaluated the impact of periodontal disease on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) taking marginal gingival alterations into consideration. Thus, this study aimed to verify the association between OHRQoL and gingival enlargement and gingival bleeding in subjects under fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT). Methods 330 participants under FOT for at least 6 months were examined by a single, calibrated examiner for periodontal variables and dental aesthetic index. Socio-economic background, body mass index, time with orthodontic appliances, and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. OHRQoL was evaluated using the oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. The assessment of associations used unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models. Results Higher impacts on the OHIP-14 overall were observed in subjects who presented higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement (RR 2.83; 95% CI 2.60-3.09), were non-whites (RR 1.29; 95% CI 1.15-1.45), had household income lower than five national minimum wages (RR 1.85; 95% CI 1.30-2.61), presented body mass index > 25 (RR 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.29), and showed a dental aesthetic index > 30 (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.20-1.46). Conclusions Anterior gingival enlargement seems to influence the OHRQoL in subjects receiving orthodontic treatment. PMID:23186371

  15. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion: 10-year clinical follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; OLTRAMARI-NAVARRO, Paula Vanessa Pedron; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; NAVARRO, Ricardo de Lima; CAMACHO, José Gustavo Dala Déa

    2011-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion has been a challenge for researchers concerning diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. It has a prevalence of 5% in the Brazilian population, and may have a genetic or environmental etiology. This malocclusion can be classified as dentoalveolar, skeletal or functional, which will determine the prognosis. Considering these topics, the aim of this study was to describe and discuss a clinical case with functional Class III malocclusion treated by a two-stage approach (interceptive and corrective), with a long-term follow-up. In this case, the patient was treated with a chincup and an Eschler arch, used simultaneously during 14 months, followed by corrective orthodontics. It should be noticed that, in this case, initial diagnosis at the centric relation allowed visualizing the anterior teeth in an edge-to-edge relationship, thereby favoring the prognosis. After completion of the treatment, the patient was followed for a 10-year period, and stability was observed. The clinical treatment results showed that it is possible to achieve favorable outcomes with early management in functional Class III malocclusion patients. PMID:21952927

  16. Report: Discussion on the development of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket and its antibacterial property and biocompatibility in orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ronghe; Zhang, Weiwei; Bai, Xueyan; Song, Xiaotong; Wang, Chunyan; Gao, Xinxin; Tian, Xubiao; Liu, Fengzhen

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to explore the antibacterial property of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket for the common bacteria in oral cavity, and discuss its biocompatibility. Micro morphology in the surface of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface roughness of ordinary mental bracket, nano TiO2 coating bracket and nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket were measured. First, antibacterial property of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket on the common bacteria in oral cavity was studied by sticking membrane method. Secondly, bonding strength of nano TiO2 coating and nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket in groups were detected by scratching test. The result showed that, the synthetic nano Ag/TiO2 coating was nanogranular films with rigorous organizational structure, presenting as smooth and clean surface, and antibacterial rate of nano Ag/TiO2 coating for the common bacteria in oral cavity for 20 min was more than 79% in the dark. All the findings suggested that, nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket not only has antibacterial effect but also has good biocompatibility, therefore, it can satisfy the clinical request of orthodontic treatment.

  17. Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Wise, G.E.; King, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth move through alveolar bone, whether through the normal process of tooth eruption or by strains generated by orthodontic appliances. Both eruption and orthodontics accomplish this feat through similar fundamental biological processes, osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis, but there are differences that make their mechanisms unique. A better appreciation of the molecular and cellular events that regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis in eruption and orthodontics is not only central to our understanding of how these processes occur, but also is needed for ultimate development of the means to control them. Possible future studies in these areas are also discussed, with particular emphasis on translation of fundamental knowledge to improve dental treatments. PMID:18434571

  18. A Mini-review on the Effect of Mini-implants on Contemporary Orthodontic Science

    PubMed Central

    Nosouhian, Saeid; Rismanchian, Mansour; Sabzian, Roya; Shadmehr, Elham; Badrian, Hamid; Davoudi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to screen the valuable published articles regarding to the impacts of mini-implants on orthodontic science, briefly. The searching category was performed on the Pubmed using MeSH words such as “dental (mini) implants, orthodontic anchorage procedures, and orthodontic appliances.” After preliminary sketch, they were grouped as follow: Those evaluating (a) common appliances for providing orthodontic anchorage, (b) biomechanical details of mini-implants and their insertion, (c) clinical application of mini-implants for orthognathic treatments, (d) limitations and possible complications. In conclusion, mini-implant evolved the orthodontic treatment plans and compromised the required orthognathic surgery. Malocclusion treatment and pure orthodontic or orthopedic movements in the three-dimensions have become recently possible by using mini-implant to provide skeletal anchorage. PMID:26225113

  19. Cone Beam Computed Tomography-Dawn of A New Imaging Modality in Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mamatha, J; Chaitra, K R; Paul, Renji K; George, Merin; Anitha, J; Khanna, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Today, we are in a world of innovations, and there are various diagnostics aids that help to take a decision regarding treatment in a well-planned way. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been a vital tool for imaging diagnostic tool in orthodontics. This article reviews case reports during orthodontic treatment and importance of CBCT during the treatment evaluation. PMID:26225116

  20. Cone Beam Computed Tomography-Dawn of A New Imaging Modality in Orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Mamatha, J; Chaitra, K R; Paul, Renji K; George, Merin; Anitha, J; Khanna, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Today, we are in a world of innovations, and there are various diagnostics aids that help to take a decision regarding treatment in a well-planned way. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been a vital tool for imaging diagnostic tool in orthodontics. This article reviews case reports during orthodontic treatment and importance of CBCT during the treatment evaluation.

  1. Long-term clinical evaluation of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract in controlling plaque, gingival inflammation, and sulcular bleeding during orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hannah, J J; Johnson, J D; Kuftinec, M M

    1989-09-01

    A sanguinaria-containing toothpaste and oral rinse regimen was evaluated during a 6-month period to determine its effectiveness in controlling plaque, gingival inflammation, and sulcular bleeding. Oral hygiene instructions and a 1-month prestudy brushing period failed to produce a significant improvement in health among the 24 subjects as determined by the three evaluation parameters. After the oral hygiene period, the subjects were randomly assigned to the active treatment (marketed Viadent toothpaste and oral rinse) or the placebo treatment (same base formulas without sanguinaria). Treatments were evaluated using the Löe and Silness gingival index, the Silness and Löe plaque index, and the Mühlemann and Son sulcular bleeding index at baseline and monthly through 6 months. The sanguinaria regimen reduced plaque by 57%, gingival inflammation by 60%, and sulcular bleeding by 45% from baseline compared with placebo group reductions of 27% (plaque) and 21% (gingival inflammation), and an increase of 30% in bleeding index. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance with baseline scores used as covariates showed statistically significant differences at 6 months for plaque (active 0.39; placebo 0.68, p less than 0.01), gingival inflammation (active 0.32; placebo 0.76, p less than 0.001), and sulcular bleeding (active 0.34; placebo 0.70, p less than 0.002). Results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of the sanguinaria-containing toothpaste and oral rinse controls and reduces plaque and gingival inflammation in an orthodontic population.

  2. Patient preferences in early glottic cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Michael L; Wilke, Derek R; Taylor, S Mark

    2016-07-01

    Patients with early-stage glottic cancer are primarily treated with one of three options: endoscopic laser excision, external-beam radiation, or open conservation surgery. We sought to determine patient preferences for treatment when presented with a choice between CO2 laser resection and radiation (open conservation surgery was not offered because the endoscopic approach is preferred at our institution). This prospective cohort study was conducted at the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine in Halifax, Canada. Our patient population was made up of 54 men and 10 women, aged 30 to 84 years (mean: 65.0 ± 11.2). Their disease were staged as follows: carcinoma in situ, n = 11; T1a = 21; T1b = 6; and T2 = 26. Patients were quoted identical cure rates for the two treatment modalities. The controversial issue of voice outcomes was discussed, but no leading information was given to the study cohort. All 64 patients chose CO2 laser resection as opposed to radiation therapy for definitive treatment. PMID:27434477

  3. Early systemic sclerosis-opportunities for treatment.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, Lazaros I; Simopoulou, Theodora; Katsiari, Christina; Bogdanos, Dimitrios; Chikanza, Ian C

    2015-08-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by microvasculopathy (Raynaud's phenomenon and fibrointimal proliferation), presence of autoantibodies and collagen deposition in skin (scleroderma) and internal organs. Microvasculopathy, detected by nailfold capillaroscopy, and disease-specific autoantibodies (anti-topoisomerase I, anti-centromere, anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies) usually appear earlier, even years before scleroderma. At that stage of the disease, immune activation with T cells and B cells promote fibrosis. Diagnosis of SSc has been relied on scleroderma, and by this time, internal organs may have developed fibrosis, a lethal feature with no available treatment. The new EULAR/ACR 2013 criteria for the classification of SSc will help identify SSc patients before fibrosis of internal organs. The early diagnosis of SSc, before the development of fibrosis in internal organs, will allow the introduction of immunosuppressive medications in these patients in a controlled setting (randomized trials). It is anticipated that this approach will change the hitherto grim prognosis of SSc for the better.

  4. Orthodontic surgery and professional liability: the homozygote twin case.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Cirulli, Nunzio

    2012-07-01

    A professional liability lawsuit of an orthodontic case is presented through its medico-legal assessment. The patient underwent an orthodontic treatment combined with several maxillo-facial surgical interventions. Several temporomandibular joint complications followed, plus he was unhappy with aesthetic results and modifications to his facial features. He wanted to verify from a medico-legal point of view the treatment received as he believed something was not done lege artis. The result of the orthodontic assessment was that there were no indications for such surgical interventions, along with other professional negligence: no psychological support given and no indications as to the aesthetic results postsurgery. It was decided to carry out an orthodontic assessment also on his homozygote twin brother, who was discovered to have the same malocclusion. His medico-legal assessment did not substitute the evidence obtained from the deceased, but gave added weight to the final technical conclusion. PMID:22390137

  5. Setting the stage for the AJO-DO: the haphazard times before orthodontic specialty journals.

    PubMed

    Peck, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    The professional distinction of "surgeon-dentist," created in France in the 18th century, stimulated dentistry's early advance as a learned profession. By 1841, Pierre-Joachim Lefoulon coined the term "orthodontosie," which was the root of "orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics" as a distinct academic field and a specialty. In 1907, the American Orthodontist became the first scientific journal in the world completely devoted to orthodontics. Its failure after 5 years of publication prompted former editor Martin Dewey to find a new publisher for an orthodontic specialty journal. In 1915, the International Journal of Orthodontia was created with Dewey as editor. After some years, its name was changed to the American Journal of Orthodontics, which later became the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, or AJO-DO. Today, the AJO-DO at 100 years is a mainstay of scientific advancement in orthodontics. PMID:25533055

  6. Localized sequential use of resilient lining to generate orthodontic force in thermoformed active removable appliances.

    PubMed

    Ng, E W H

    2005-12-01

    A new modality of orthodontic treatment based on the thermoformed appliance was developed and trialled clinically. A light-cured resilient lining material commonly used for denture relining was placed locally and sequentially in thermoformed appliances to generate orthodontic forces. The new method appeared to be effective. All the presented cases showed substantial improvement in dental alignment. A number of orthodontic movements were demonstrated. Localized use of resilient lining in thermoformed orthodontic appliances appeared to be a promising alternative to other thermoformed active removable appliance (TARA) treatments. Further studies are required to optimize the procedures and explore its full potential.

  7. The effects of early headgear treatment on dental arches and craniofacial morphology: an 8 year report of a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Mäntysaari, Raimo; Pykäläinen, Aila; Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Laitala, Timo; Karikko, Jaana

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of early headgear (HG) treatment on craniofacial structures. The total study group comprised 68 children (40 males and 28 females) aged 7.6 years (standard deviation 0.3 years). The children, who had a Class II tendency in occlusion and moderate crowding, were randomly divided into two groups of equal size. In the first group, HG treatment was initiated immediately. In the second group, which served as a control group, only minor interceptive procedures were performed during the first follow-up period of 2 years. During the 8 year follow-up, orthodontic therapy, including fixed appliances and possible extractions, was carried out when necessary. The results showed that the most evident difference between the groups was the wider and longer dental arches in the HG group, which could only partly be explained by the higher rate of extractions in the control group. For the cephalometric measurements, the most significant difference was in the maxillary plane orientation. The peer assessment rating (PAR) score, showing the general outcome of treatment, was at the same level in both groups at follow-up. The deficit of the early HG treatment was the longer mean total treatment time, resulting from the two-phase treatment.

  8. The management of premolar supernumeraries in three orthodontic cases.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C M; Foley, T F; Wright, G Z; Sandy, J R

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the incidence, etiology and location of supernumerary teeth with emphasis on premolar supernumeraries and examines the management of supernumerary premolars of three patients undergoing orthodontics. These cases demonstrate that the management of premolars is assessed individually and treatments based on potential complications, which may occur during the orthodontic and surgical management of the dentition. Progress and posttreatment radiographs are recommended for the assessment of late forming supernumerary teeth. PMID:9643197

  9. The American Orthodontics BOS MOrth Cases Prize 2005.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Nadine

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successfully entered for the 2005 American Orthodontics MOrth Cases Prize. The first case is that of a patient presenting with a Class II division 2 malocclusion treated with upper and lower fixed appliances plus headgear. The second case demonstrates the use of a twin-block appliance, followed by fixed appliances to correct a moderate Class II division 1 malocclusion.

  10. Orthodontic crown lengthening.

    PubMed

    Hohlt, W F

    1992-01-01

    As comprehensive dentistry becomes more complex, procedures must be developed to save teeth once considered unsuitable for crown restoration due to inaccessible finishing lines. Orthodontic crown lengthening is less invasive than a flap procedure and does not result in crestal bone reduction. The crown lengthening procedure is a simple and time-saving remedy for a difficult restorative problem.

  11. Diagnostic features and pedodontic-orthodontic management in dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: a case report.

    PubMed

    Huth, K Ch; Paschos, E; Sagner, T; Hickel, R

    2002-09-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II, also known as hereditary opalescent dentin, is an isolated inherited condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait affecting the primary and permanent dentition. The combined pedodontic-orthodontic management of a 4-year-old child is described. Following orthodontic analysis to encourage a favourable growth outcome, treatment comprised restoration of the primary teeth with stainless steel crowns and composite crowns. Differential diagnosis and alternative therapies, including orthodontic considerations, are discussed.

  12. History of imaging in orthodontics from Broadbent to cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hans, Mark G; Palomo, J Martin; Valiathan, Manish

    2015-12-01

    The history of imaging and orthodontics is a story of technology informing biology. Advances in imaging changed our thinking as our understanding of craniofacial growth and the impact of orthodontic treatment deepened. This article traces the history of imaging in orthodontics from the invention of the cephalometer by B. Holly Broadbent in 1930 to the introduction of low-cost, low-radiation-dose cone-beam computed tomography imaging in 2015. PMID:26672697

  13. History of imaging in orthodontics from Broadbent to cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hans, Mark G; Palomo, J Martin; Valiathan, Manish

    2015-12-01

    The history of imaging and orthodontics is a story of technology informing biology. Advances in imaging changed our thinking as our understanding of craniofacial growth and the impact of orthodontic treatment deepened. This article traces the history of imaging in orthodontics from the invention of the cephalometer by B. Holly Broadbent in 1930 to the introduction of low-cost, low-radiation-dose cone-beam computed tomography imaging in 2015.

  14. Orthodontic Camouflage Treatment in an Adult Patient with a Class II, Division 1 Malocclusion – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Naragond, Appasaheb; Kenganal, Smitha; Sagarkar, Roshan; Sugaradday

    2013-01-01

    Since so many decades, various treatment modalities have been presented for the treatment for the class II, div 1 malocclusions. In recent times, we have seen enormously increasing numbers of young adults who desire the shortest, cost effective and a non surgical correction of Class II malocclusions and they accept dental camouflage as a treatment option to mask the skeletal discrepancy. This case report presents one such case of a 22 year old non-growing female who had a skeletal Class II, division 1 malocclusion with an orthognathic maxilla, a retrognathic mandible, a negative VTO and an overjet of 12mm, who did not want a surgical treatment. We considered the camouflage treatment by extracting the upper first premolars. Following the treatment, a satisfactory result was achieved with an ideal, static and a functional occlusion, facial profile, smile and lip competence and stability of the treatment results. PMID:23543878

  15. Dental enamel around fixed orthodontic appliances after fluoride varnish application.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Leonardo; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida; Brandão, Paulo Roberto Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been considered one of the main problems routinely faced in the orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic appliance creates an environment that provides mineral loss from the dental enamel. Such condition is clinically seen as white spot lesions and cavitations in the most severe cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fluoride varnish application as a caries prevention method for clinical orthodontics. The experiment analyzed dental enamel adjacent to orthodontics accessories after treatment. In addition, it was observed the calcium, phosphorus and fluoride contents on enamel treated with a fluoride varnish. The results showed that fluoride varnish application is a simple and fast technique that could be useful in preventing enamel demineralization associated to orthodontic treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant amount of calcium fluoride-like material deposited on enamel and energy dispersive x-ray analysis demonstrated a large incorporation of calcium and fluoride to the enamel of the treated specimens. It was concluded that fluoride varnish could indeed be considered an efficient preventive method to enhance enamel resistance against the cariogenic challenges during orthodontic therapy.

  16. Alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the maxillary midline diastema: a retrospective longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations of papilla dimensions after orthodontic closure of the diastema between maxillary central incisors. Methods Sixty patients who had a visible diastema between maxillary central incisors that had been closed by orthodontic approximation were selected for this study. Various papilla dimensions were assessed on clinical photographs and study models before the orthodontic treatment and at the follow-up examination after closure of the diastema. Influences of the variables assessed before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of papilla height (PH) and papilla base thickness (PBT) were evaluated by univariate regression analysis. To analyze potential influences of the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment on the alterations of PH and PBT, a multiple regression model was formulated including the 3-dimensional papilla dimensions as predictor variables. Results On average, PH decreased by 0.80 mm and PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema (P<0.01). Univariate regression analysis revealed that the PH (P=0.002) and PBT (P=0.047) before orthodontic treatment influenced the alteration of PH. With respect to the alteration of PBT, the diastema width (P=0.045) and PBT (P=0.000) were found to be influential factors. PBT before the orthodontic treatment significantly influenced the alteration of PBT in the multiple regression model. Conclusions PH decreased but PBT increased after orthodontic closure of the diastema. The papilla dimensions before orthodontic treatment influenced the alterations of PH and PBT after closure of the diastema. The PBT increased more when the diastema width before the orthodontic treatment was larger. PMID:27382507

  17. [A study of mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension].

    PubMed

    Konstantellos, B; Lagoudakis, M; Toutountzakis, N

    1990-12-01

    Orthodontic forces are applied to the teeth basically by means of different types of orthodontic wires. Knowledge of the mechanical properties of such wires are very helpful to the clinician in design and application of optimal force systems during orthodontic treatment. The basic mechanical properties were studied for 17 types of orthodontic wires (all rectangular and of the same size), in tension. Modulus of elasticity (E), yield strength (YS) and maximum elastic strain (Springback) (YS/E) were calculated for each type of wires. Stainless steel wires have demonstrated higher modulus of elasticity (and yield strength) in comparison with wires of nickel-titanium and beta titanium alloys. B-titanium wires showed higher modulus of elasticity than nickel-titanium ones. In addition stainless steel wires were found to have higher values for springback than cobalt-chromium ones and lower values (for the same variable) than nickel-titanium and B-titanium wires. PMID:2129597

  18. Clinical applications of orthodontic microimplant anchorage in craniofacial patients.

    PubMed

    Vachiramon, Amornpong; Urata, Mark; Kyung, Hee Moon; Yamashita, Dennis-Duke; Yen, Stephen L-K

    2009-03-01

    Microimplant anchors, also known as temporary anchorage devices, mini- and micro-screws, have been used to enhance orthodontic anchorage for difficult tooth movements. Here, the authors describe how microimplants can be used to help treat craniofacial patients by supporting distraction osteogenesis procedures, maxillary protraction procedures, cleft segment expansion and stabilization, and tooth movement into narrow alveolar cleft sites. While most craniofacial patients are treated without microimplants, it would be worthwhile to identify which cases could benefit from microimplant anchorage. As an adjunct to orthodontic treatment, the microimplant offers a potential method for solving troublesome orthodontic and surgical problems such as guiding distraction procedures with orthodontics when primary teeth are exfoliating, addressing residual maxillary cants after vertical distraction osteogenesis of a ramus, stabilizing an edentulous premaxilla, and moving teeth into atrophic alveolar ridges. These cases are presented to open a dialogue on their possible uses in craniofacial patients.

  19. Comparison of Effectiveness of Manual Orthodontic, Powered and Sonic Toothbrushes on Oral Hygiene of Fixed Orthodontic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Trehan, Mridula; Sharma, Sunil; Jharwal, Vikas; Rathore, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Maintenance of good oral hygiene is important for patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a manual orthodontic toothbrush, powered toothbrush with oscillating head and sonic toothbrush in controlling plaque, gingivitis and interdental bleeding in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, and to compare their relative efficacy. Materials and methods: Sixty subjects, who were to receive orthodontic treatment with both upper and lower fixed appliances, were randomly divided into three study groups, with 20 patients in each group. Groups I to III were given manual orthodontic, powered and sonic toothbrushes, respectively. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and interdental bleeding index were scored to assess the level of plaque accumulation, gingival health and interdental bleeding at baseline; 4 and 8 weeks recall visits after fixed appliance bonding. Paired t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used for intragroup and intergroup comparisons. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: This study showed that a significant reduction in all the three indices scores was found from baseline to 4 and 8 weeks in group III. On intergroup comparison, no statistically significant differences were detected between the three groups for any of the parameters assessed. Conclusion: On intragroup comparison, sonic brushes performed superiorly in reducing gingivitis, plaque and interdental bleeding as compared to the manual orthodontic and powered brushes. On intergroup comparison, the relative comparative effectiveness was found to be similar for all the three brushes. How to cite this article: Sharma R, Trehan M, Sharma S, Jharwal V, Rathore N. Comparison of Effectiveness of Manual Orthodontic, Powered and Sonic Toothbrushes on Oral Hygiene of Fixed Orthodontic Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):181-189. PMID:26628852

  20. An American Board of Orthodontics case report. A combined face mask-orthognathic surgical approach in the treatment of skeletal open bite and maxillary deficiency.

    PubMed

    Paz, M E; Subtelny, J D; Iranpour, B

    1989-01-01

    This case report is presented following the specifications of the American Board of Orthodontics. The patient had a true skeletal open bite with maxillary and mandibular asymmetry. She was treated with an orthognathic surgical approach and face mask therapy to stabilize the postsurgical result.

  1. The pain management in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Nandita; Shetty, Siddarth; Ahmed, Junaid; Shenoy K, Ashok

    2013-06-01

    Pain and discomfort are the frequent side-effects of the orthodontic therapy with fixed appliances. The people who experience orthodontic pain are likely to self-medicate with nonprescription pain relievers before seeing the dentist. It is imperative for an orthodontist to address questions that might arise in a clinical setting from the viewpoint of the clinicians and the patients/parents. This article will provide an overview of the current management strategies which are employed for alleviating orthodontic pain.

  2. Dental extrusion with orthodontic miniscrew anchorage: a case report describing a modified method.

    PubMed

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich.

  3. Dental Extrusion with Orthodontic Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report Describing a Modified Method

    PubMed Central

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich. PMID:25713739

  4. Stress relaxation and recovery behaviour of composite orthodontic archwires in bending.

    PubMed

    Zufall, S W; Kusy, R P

    2000-02-01

    The viscoelastic behaviour of prototype composite orthodontic archwires was evaluated using a bend stress relaxation test. Archwires having 10 different volume fractions of reinforcement were subjected to constant bending radii in a water bath at 37 degrees C for time periods of up to 90 days. The wires were subsequently released and left unconstrained for the same testing conditions. Creep-induced changes in the unconstrained bending radii of the wires were measured at specific times during both phases (stress relaxation and recovery) of the test. The statistical analysis showed that stress relaxation behaviour was strongly correlated with the archwire reinforcement level. The final relaxation varied, with decreasing reinforcement, from 2 to 8 per cent. Archwire recovery was not correlated with reinforcement level, and revealed a final viscous loss of only 1 per cent. The relaxed elastic moduli in bending of the composite wires were similar to the elastic moduli in bending of several conventional orthodontic archwire materials. Losses that were associated with the viscoelastic behaviour varied with decreasing reinforcement level from 1.2 to 1.7 GPa. Because these modulus losses were minimal, each archwire retained sufficient resilience to be applicable to the early and intermediate stages of orthodontic treatment. PMID:10721240

  5. [The experience of complex treatment of children with bilateral cleft lip and palate].

    PubMed

    Supiev, T K; Mamedov, A A; Negametzianov, N G; Nurmaganov, S B; Utepov, D K; Katasonova, E S; Kozhabekov, E M

    2014-01-01

    Three grades of premaxilla deformation were revealed in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate. All patients with grade I and some children with grade II deformation received early orthopedic treatment by Sharova appliance while in patients with grade III deformation orthodontic devices with bone fixation with microimplants were used or microimplants alone for orthodontic anchorage. This approach allowed achieving full side contact of premaxilla and maxillary fragments in 1-2 months thus creating favorable conditions for surgical procedure.

  6. Lasers in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Cokakoglu, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Many types of dental lasers are currently available that can be efficiently used for soft and hard tissue applications in the field of orthodontics. For achieving the desired effects in the target tissue, knowledge of laser characteristics such as power, wavelength and timing, is necessary. Laser therapy is advantageous because it often avoids bleeding, can be pain free, is non-invasive and is relatively quick. The high cost is its primary disadvantage. It is very important to take the necessary precautions to prevent possible tissue damage when using laser dental systems. Here, we reviewed the main types and characteristics of laser systems used in dental practice and discuss the applications of lasers in orthodontics, harmful effects and laser system safety. PMID:24966719

  7. Occlusion: an orthodontic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kasrovi, P M; Meyer, M; Nelson, G D

    2000-10-01

    In recent years, orthodontists have examined their concepts of occlusion. In current literature, at professional meetings, and in continuing education courses, one hears an ongoing discussion of condylar position and mandibular border movements in relation to occlusion. There is a wide variation in opinion as to whether dental occlusion and TMJ function are interdependent. The authors have adopted a dynamic concept of dental function to replace the traditional static view of molar relationship and incisor overlap. This article discusses how occlusion has evolved in orthodontics and reviews Andrews' six keys to ideal static occlusion, the goals of ideal dynamic occlusion, and the six signs of developing malocclusions. The authors also review the literature on the relationship between orthodontics, occlusion, and TMD.

  8. The effect of orthodontic extrusion on traumatically intruded teeth.

    PubMed

    Turley, P K; Joiner, M W; Hellstrom, S

    1984-01-01

    The management of traumatically intruded permanent incisors is controversial. Some authors suggest a decreased incidence of ankylosis in cases treated with orthodontic extrusion. The purpose of this study was to examine two common management techniques for traumatic intrusion, orthodontic extrusion, and observation for re-eruption. The four first premolars of three shepherd dogs were traumatically intruded with a mallet while a holding device was used to prevent tooth fracture. Five to 7 days following the injury, orthodontic force was applied unilaterally while the contralateral tooth served as the untreated control. To facilitate serial periapical radiography, x-ray jigs were fabricated for each animal and tantalum implants were placed in the bone distal to the permanent canine and first and second premolars. Observations included radiographic measurement of tooth movement, clinical estimates of tooth mobility, and radiographic and histologic assessment of root resorption, ankylosis, and periapical pathosis. The amount of traumatic intrusion varied from less than 0.5 to 4.1 mm. Following 11 to 13 weeks of force activation, 10 of 12 traumatized teeth showed clinical, radiographic, and histologic evidence of ankylosis irrespective of orthodontic treatment. Whereas the ankylosed teeth did not move with orthodontic forces, the teeth used for force application were orthodontically intruded 1.7 to 6.5 mm. When the injury to the tooth was severe, orthodontic extrusion had little effect on repositioning of the injured tooth but resulted in undesirable movement of the anchorage teeth. When the injury was less severe, orthodontic forces facilitated repositioning of the affected tooth.

  9. Is there a consensus for CBCT use in Orthodontics?

    PubMed Central

    Garib, Daniela G.; Calil, Louise Resti; Leal, Claudia Resende; Janson, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to discuss current evidence and recommendations for cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in Orthodontics. In comparison to conventional radiograph, CBCT has higher radiation doses and, for this reason, is not a standard method of diagnosis in Orthodontics. Routine use of CBCT in substitution to conventional radiograph is considered an unaccepted practice. CBCT should be indicated with criteria only after clinical examination has been performed and when the benefits for diagnosis and treatment planning exceed the risks of a greater radiation dose. It should be requested only when there is a potential to provide new information not demonstrated by conventional scans, when it modifies treatment plan or favors treatment execution. The most frequent indication of CBCT in Orthodontics, with some evidence on its clinical efficacy, includes retained/impacted permanent teeth; severe craniofacial anomalies; severe facial discrepancies with indication of orthodontic-surgical treatment; and bone irregularities or malformation of TMJ accompanied by signs and symptoms. In exceptional cases of adult patients when critical tooth movement are planned in regions with deficient buccolingual thickness of the alveolar ridge, CBCT can be indicated provided that there is a perspective of changes in orthodontic treatment planning. PMID:25715727

  10. Cellular and Molecular Changes in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Yamamoto, Zulham; Zainol Abidin, lntan Zarina; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah

    2011-01-01

    Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue samples, and suitable sampling is important to accurately reflect biological processes. This paper covers the tissue changes that are involved during orthodontic tooth movement such as at compression region (involving osteoblasts), tension region (involving osteoclasts), dental root, and pulp tissues. Besides, the involvement of stem cells and their development towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts during orthodontic treatment have also been explained. Several possible biomarkers representing these biological changes during specific phenomenon, that is, bone remodelling (formation and resorption), inflammation, and root resorption have also been proposed. The knowledge of these biomarkers could be used in accelerating orthodontic treatment. PMID:22125437

  11. Orthodontic retreatment of a Class III patient with significant midline asymmetry and bilateral posterior crossbite

    PubMed Central

    Brunetto, Ademir R.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior crossbite might cause serious long-term functional problems if not early treated. Nevertheless, in older patients, treatment might include palatal expansion in order to correct such malocclusion. In view of the above, this article aims at reporting late correction of bilateral posterior crossbite associated with Angle Class III malocclusion, right subdivision, with consequent midline shift (good skeletal pattern). The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:25741833

  12. Early treatment of patient with Class III skeletal and dental patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Marcos Alan Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Class III skeletal pattern is characterized by disharmony between maxillary and mandibular basal bones anteroposteriorly, and might or might not be associated with dental changes. In general, facial esthetics is hindered significantly, which most of times is the reason why patients or patient's guardians seek treatment. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate recertification and revalidation. PMID:26691976

  13. Can orthodontic relapse be blamed on the temporomandibular joint?

    PubMed Central

    Wolford, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    There are many temporomandibular joint (TMJ) conditions that can cause orthodontic treatment instability and relapse. These conditions are often associated with dentofacial deformities, malocclusion, TMJ pain, headaches, myofascial pain, TMJ and jaw functional impairment, ear symptoms, etc., Many of these TMJ conditions can cause progressive and continuous changes in the occlusion and jaw relationships. Patients with these conditions may benefit from corrective orthodontic and surgical intervention. The difficulty for many clinicians may lie in identifying the presence of a TMJ condition, diagnosing the specific TMJ pathology, and selecting the proper treatment for that condition. This paper will discuss the most common TMJ pathologies that can adversely affect orthodontic stability and outcomes as well as present the treatment considerations to correct the specific TMJ conditions and associated jaw deformities to provide stable and predictable treatment results. PMID:25426452

  14. [Orthodontic extrusion preliminary to implantology in the -aesthetic zone].

    PubMed

    Oosterkamp, B C M; Polder, B J

    2015-11-01

    The replacement of a missing tooth in the aesthetic zone by a dental implant is, in many respects, a challenge. In order to restore and maintain bone and soft tissue, various procedures are used varying from the immediate placement of a front tooth implant with minimal tissue grafts to an extensive treatment programme with bone grafting, possibly in combination with connective tissue grafts. Another treatment option is orthodontic extrusion. This procedure makes it possible for bone and soft tissue to be created both horizontally and vertically, as a result of which loss of vertical binding can be compensated and the primary stability of the implant can be guaranteed. The procedure for orthodontic extrusion is described on the basis of a case study. In an interdisciplinary treatment plan, orthodontic extrusion is a viable treatment alternative, which can make the immediate placement of a dental implant in the frontal region possible. PMID:26568999

  15. [Orthodontic extrusion preliminary to implantology in the -aesthetic zone].

    PubMed

    Oosterkamp, B C M; Polder, B J

    2015-11-01

    The replacement of a missing tooth in the aesthetic zone by a dental implant is, in many respects, a challenge. In order to restore and maintain bone and soft tissue, various procedures are used varying from the immediate placement of a front tooth implant with minimal tissue grafts to an extensive treatment programme with bone grafting, possibly in combination with connective tissue grafts. Another treatment option is orthodontic extrusion. This procedure makes it possible for bone and soft tissue to be created both horizontally and vertically, as a result of which loss of vertical binding can be compensated and the primary stability of the implant can be guaranteed. The procedure for orthodontic extrusion is described on the basis of a case study. In an interdisciplinary treatment plan, orthodontic extrusion is a viable treatment alternative, which can make the immediate placement of a dental implant in the frontal region possible.

  16. A randomized controlled study of early headgear treatment on occlusal stability--a 13 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Krusinskiene, Viktorija; Kiuttu, Päivi; Julku, Johanna; Silvola, Anna-Sofia; Kantomaa, Tuomo; Pirttiniemi, Pertti

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the long-term occlusal stability in a group treated early with headgear (HG) compared with a control group. The total study group comprised 68 children (40 males and 28 females) aged 7.6 years (standard deviation 0.3), randomly divided into two groups of equal size. In the first group, HG treatment was initiated immediately, while in the control group only minor interceptive procedures were performed during the follow-up period. Fixed appliance treatment, if needed, including extraction of permanent teeth due to crowding, was undertaken after the completion of early treatment. The records were available from the start of the early treatment and at follow-up after 2, 4, 8, and 13 years. The US-weighted Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index, graded according to the severity of malocclusion, was used to evaluate occlusal stability. Little's Irregularity Index (LII)and intercanine distance in the lower arch were measured at all time periods. The Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) scores was used for evaluation of dental aesthetics at the last follow-up. Parametric tests were applied for statistical analyses, except for the evaluation of aesthetics, where a non-parametric test was used. No significant differences were found when long-term stability between the HG and control groups was evaluated at the 13 year follow-up. Lower PAR scores were observed in patients treated without extraction of teeth. A greater irregularity in lower incisor alignment before treatment was found in subjects later treated with extractions. The findings of this study seem to suggest that treatment timing has only a minor influence on stability.

  17. Analysis of effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on teeth and oral tissues during orthodontic treatment. Report based on literature review.

    PubMed

    Krasny, Marta; Zadurska, Małgorzata; Cessak, Grzegorz; Fiedor, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In view of high availability and diversity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on Polish market it is important for orthodontists to be aware of NSAID effect on the range of orthodontic tooth movement as well as the risk of root resorption in the moved teeth and other adverse effects, which might occur within oral cavity. The disadvantages of NSAID non-selective inhibition of COX include common oral inflammatory conditions, gingival bleeding, and disturbances of salivary secretion. Both, the selective and non-selective COX inhibitors, meloxicam excluded, used to alleviate the pain of orthodontic tooth movement, impede the movement of teeth. Paracetamol, explicitly indicated by most authors as the safest NSAID, seems to be the drug of choice in view of no influence on the range of tooth movement, the risk of root resorption or other adverse effects within oral cavity.

  18. A randomized clinical trial investigating pain associated with superelastic nickel–titanium and multistranded stainless steel archwires during the initial leveling and aligning phase of orthodontic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Satpal Singh; Sandhu, Jasleen

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate and compare the effects of superelastic nickel–titanium and multistranded stainless steel archwires on pain during the initial phase of orthodontic treatment. Design:A double-blind two-arm parallel design stratified randomized clinical trial. Setting:A single centre in India between December 2010 and June 2012. A total of 96 participants (48 male and 48 females; 14.1±2.1 years old) were randomized (stratified on age, sex and initial crowding) to superelastic nickel–titanium or multistranded stainless steel archwire groups using a computer-generated allocation sequence. Methods:We compared 0.016-inch superelastic nickel–titanium and 0.0175-inch multistranded stainless steel wires in 0.022-inch slot (Roth prescription) preadjusted edgewise appliances. The follow-up period was 14 days. Outcome was assessed with a visual analogue scale at baseline and 32 pre-specified follow-up points. Data was analyzed using mixed-effects model analysis. Results:One participant was lost to follow up and 10 were excluded from the analysis due to bond failure or incomplete questionnaire answers. Ultimately, 85 participants (42 males and 43 females; 14.1±2.0 years old) were analysed for the final results. No statistically significant difference was found for overall pain [F value = 2.65, degrees of freedom (df) = 92.6; P = 0.1071]. However, compared to multistranded stainless steel wires, pain in subjects with superelastic nickel–titanium archwires was significantly greater at 12 h (t = 2.34; P = 0.0193), as well as at day 1 in the morning (t = 2.21, P = 0.0273), afternoon (t = 2.11, P = 0.0346) and at bedtime (t = 2.03, P = 0.042). Conclusion:For overall pain, there was no statistically significant difference between the two wires. However, subjects with superelastic nickel–titanium archwires had a significantly higher pain at peak level. PMID:24297959

  19. [Diagnostics and planning of orthodontic treatment of patients with crowded teeth position with the use of elastomeric correcting splints].

    PubMed

    Arsenina, O I; Riakhovskiĭ, A N; Safarova, N M

    2011-01-01

    3D scanning of plaster jaw models and further processing of the received data in editing program for three dimensional models Rapid Form 2006 Basis is one of the used methods of diagnostics of patients with crowded teeth position (measurement of anthropometric parameters of jaw models, dental arches symmetry, sizes and forms of dentitions). On 3D jaw models with crowded teeth position there were planned trajectories of gradual single tooth displacement in such a way that to move them in new correct position. Prescribing determined step with which the tooth would be moved there was made a series of individual plastic jaw models corresponding to each stage of treatment by stereolithographic method. On the received models there was made a series of elastomeric correcting splints producing some pressure upon teeth and making for their displacement.

  20. [Brackets and friction in orthodontics: experimental study].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb Jdir, Saloua; Tobji, Samir; Turki, Wiem; Dallel, Ines; Khedher, Nedra; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-09-01

    Many authors have been involved in developing brackets in order to improve the quality, stability, speed and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. In order to reduce friction between bracket and archwire, new therapeutic approaches have been devised based on novel technologies. Among these innovative techniques, self-ligating brackets are increasingly popular. SLBs can be classified into several categories according to their mode of action and their materials. We performed an experimental study to compare the friction forces generated during the sliding of orthodontic archwires made from various alloys through conventional and self-ligating brackets. Results show the favorable influence of SLBs, compared to conventional systems using elastomeric or metal ligatures, on the level of friction, particularly when shape-memory Ni-Ti archwires are used. PMID:26370596

  1. [Brackets and friction in orthodontics: experimental study].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb Jdir, Saloua; Tobji, Samir; Turki, Wiem; Dallel, Ines; Khedher, Nedra; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-09-01

    Many authors have been involved in developing brackets in order to improve the quality, stability, speed and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. In order to reduce friction between bracket and archwire, new therapeutic approaches have been devised based on novel technologies. Among these innovative techniques, self-ligating brackets are increasingly popular. SLBs can be classified into several categories according to their mode of action and their materials. We performed an experimental study to compare the friction forces generated during the sliding of orthodontic archwires made from various alloys through conventional and self-ligating brackets. Results show the favorable influence of SLBs, compared to conventional systems using elastomeric or metal ligatures, on the level of friction, particularly when shape-memory Ni-Ti archwires are used.

  2. Pain control during fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    PubMed

    Polat, Omur; Karaman, Ali Ihya

    2005-03-01

    The control of pain during orthodontic treatment is of great interest to both clinicians and patients. However, there has been limited research into the control of this pain, and there is no standard of care for controlling this discomfort. This prospective study determines the pain sequelae in fixed orthodontic treatment and evaluates comparatively the analgesic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the control of this pain. One hundred and fifty orthodontic patients who were to have teeth bonded in at least one arch were randomly assigned to one of six groups: (1) placebo/placebo, (2) ibuprofen/ibuprofen, (3) flurbiprofen/flurbiprofen, (4) acetaminophen/acetaminophen, (5) naproxen sodium/naproxen sodium, and (6) aspirin/aspirin. The pain evaluations were made during chewing, biting, fitting the front teeth, and fitting the back teeth using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) for seven days. All the analgesics succeeded in decreasing the pain levels compared with the placebo group. However, naproxen sodium and aspirin groups showed the lowest pain values, and the acetaminophen group showed VAS results similar to those of the two analgesics.

  3. Modified grassline technique for orthodontic space closure.

    PubMed

    Lohmiller, Rose Marie

    2006-04-01

    Use of traditional orthodontic measures in the periodontally compromised dentition can be problematic. This article describes a variation of the Grassline technique, in which the author uses adhesive bonding to harmoniously re-align malpositioned teeth. In this simple, easy-to-learn technique, a cotton thread is used to achieve orthodontic tooth movement. Initial contact with the saliva causes shrinkage of the thread, exercising a minor force that moves the teeth while allowing enough time for the tissues to regenerate. With this moderate, intermittent force, successful treatment is achieved with minimal risk. Moreover, this orthodontic technique has been associated with an increase in bone volume. This article presents this new technique and details methods for maintaining treatment success. The technique also is compared with an approach described in the literature. Two case reports are presented; the technique is employed in the first to close a diastema in a periodontally compromised dentition and in the second to correct the migration of maxillary and mandibular incisors. Photographs and radiographs show the esthetic improvement achieved in both cases using this technique. PMID:19655474

  4. [Comparison of the effect of paracetamol and ibuprofen on orthodontic pain].

    PubMed

    Ousehal, Lahcen; Lakhdar, Amina; Elquars, Farid

    2009-06-01

    Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment can experience an unpleasant painful sensation. This has been proven by several studies. Controling pain during orthodontic treatment is in the interest of both practitioner and patient. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ibuprofen and paracetamol on orthodontic pain. To this end, a sample of 56 patients was divided into two groups: Pain levels were assessed using the visual analog scale at 2h, 6h, 24h, day 2, day 3 and day 7 after insertion of the first archwire. Results show that there is no significant difference between ibuprofen and paracetamol regarding control of orthodontic pain except during the first two hours after archwire insertion when paracetamol was observed to be slightly more effective than ibuprofen. Comparison by age and gender revealed no significant differences. Thus, we can conclude that paracetamol and ibuprofen are painkillers of choice in the relief of orthodontically-related pain.

  5. Invisalign in TMD treatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, David B

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of functional orthodontic treatment include creating a broad smile, pleasing facial profile, and healthy, functional occlusions and temporomandibular joints. Removable orthodontic appliances have long been used in the treatment of some temporomandibular disorders. Invisalign aligners are removable orthodontic appliances. Certain TMJ case types can be treated successfully with Invisalign.

  6. Emerging treatment options for early mycosis fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Guarino, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides is a candidate for skin-directed therapies in its initial stages. In recent years, therapeutic options outside of the normal treatment recommendations such as topical imiquimod, topical tazarotene, topical methotrexate, excimer light sources, and photodynamic therapy have been published with variable results. These alternatives have been useful in cases of localized mycosis fungoides that do not respond to routine treatments; nevertheless, more studies on these methods are still needed. This article summarizes the literature and data that are known so far about these treatments. PMID:23450851

  7. Magnets and orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Sandler, P J; Meghji, S; Murray, A M; Springate, S D; Sandy, J R; Crow, V; Reed, R T

    1989-11-01

    The first part of this paper is a literature review of magnets and their uses in orthodontics. The biological safety of magnets is considered and a report is given of experiments carried out on rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR-106. The second part of the paper describes a case where neodynium-iron-boron magnets were used to assist eruption of an unerupted, vertically impacted upper right canine. Previously, space was available for this tooth, but it failed to show signs of eruption. Following surgical attachment of a magnet, and the use of a second magnet attached to an upper removable appliance, rapid eruption occurred producing a favourable position for bonding. PMID:2684264

  8. Early treatment of acute migraine: new evidence of benefits.

    PubMed

    Valade, D

    2009-12-01

    The current management approach to migraine headaches advocates use of triptan medications early in the course of an attack while pain is still mild, rather than waiting to treat the pain when it has progressed to moderate-severe. Recently, strong new evidence for the benefits of early intervention has become available. The AEGIS, AIMS and AwM studies of almotriptan in patients with migraine indicate that earlier treatment initiation and lower pain intensity at the time of treatment are important predictors of enhanced therapeutic outcomes. The opportunity to treat early exists for about 50% of all migraine attacks, which offers considerable scope for improving migraine management. Importantly, treating pain early and before it has progressed beyond 'mild' meets many of the expectations patients have of their migraine treatment. It is believed that consistent, positive outcomes may assist in overcoming the various physician- and patient-perceived barriers to adoption of this beneficial treatment strategy. PMID:20017750

  9. NON-INVASIVE 3D FACIAL ANALYSIS AND SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY DURING FUNCTIONAL PRE-ORTHODONTIC THERAPY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Grandi, Gaia; Mian, Fabrizio; Sforza, Chiarella; Ferrario, Virgilio F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. Material and Methods: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears) were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. Results: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. Conclusions: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches) and extraoral (face) morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles. PMID:19936531

  10. Use of the 810 nm diode laser: soft tissue management and orthodontic applications of innovative technology.

    PubMed

    Sarver, David M

    2006-10-01

    Innovative technologies such as the diode laser have provided considerable benefit to dental patients and professionals. Facilitating efficient cutting of tissue and subsequent coagulation, the soft tissue laser enhances tissue healing and can reduce postsurgical complications. Due to the conservative nature of treatment accomplished with the laser this technology is very useful in orthodontic procedures. The diode laser is utilized in both esthetic enhancement of the smile, and treatment management of soft tissue issues that impede efficient orthodontic treatment. Its clinical application will be illustrated in a series of orthodontic cases.

  11. A comparative study of shear bond strength of orthodontic bracket after acid-etched and Er:YAG treatment on enamel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, Juliana C.; Mota, Cláudia C. B. O.; Cassimiro-silva, Patricia F.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of teeth prepared for orthodontic bracket bonding with 37% phosphoric acid and Er:YAG laser. Forty bovine incisors were divided into two groups. In Group I, the teeth were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid and brackets were bonded with Transbond XT; in Group II, the teeth were irradiated with Er:YAG and bonding with Transbond XT. After SBS test, the adhesive remnant index was determined. Adhesion to dental hard tissues after Er:YAG laser etching was inferior to that obtained after acid etching but exceeded what is believed to be clinically sufficient strength, and therefore can be used in patients.

  12. Dentinogenesis imperfecta: the importance of early treatment.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Antonio Carlos; Ruiz, Matilde; Alarcón, Jose Antonio; González, Encarnación

    2008-03-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta, also known as hereditary opalescent dentin, is a dentin development disorder with autosomal dominant transmission that affects both the primary and permanent dentition. A case is reported of a family in which the mother and her 6- and 20-year-old children were diagnosed with dentinogenesis imperfecta type II. The mouths of these patients illustrate the progressive deterioration of affected teeth if not adequately treated. The treatment of the 6-year-old son is described, and therapeutic approaches to this disorder in primary and permanent dentition are reviewed. This family exemplifies the need for the earliest possible diagnosis and treatment of dentinogenesis imperfecta to prevent extensive deterioration of the dentition and occlusion.

  13. Early Gastric Cancer: Current Advances of Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linlin; Qin, Jinyu; Wang, Jin; Guo, Tianjiao; Wang, Zijing; Yang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopy is a major method for early gastric cancer screening because of its high detection rate, but its diagnostic accuracy depends heavily on the availability of endoscopic instruments. Many novel endoscopic techniques have been shown to increase the diagnostic yield of early gastric cancer. With the improved detection rate of EGC, the endoscopic treatment has become widespread due to advances in the instruments available and endoscopist's experience. The aim of this review is to summarize frequently-used endoscopic diagnosis and treatment in early gastric cancer (EGC). PMID:26884753

  14. Altered Passive Eruption Complicating Optimal Orthodontic Bracket Placement: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chitra, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    An unusual case of altered passive eruption with gingival hyperpigmentation and a Class I malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl having no previous history of medication is presented. The patient reported with spacing in the upper arch, moderate crowding in the lower arch, anterior crossbite and excessive gingival tissue on the labial surfaces of teeth in both the arches. The inadequate crown lengths made placement of the orthodontic brackets difficult. Preadjusted orthodontic brackets have a very precise placement protocol which can affect tooth movement in all 3 planes of space if violated. The periodontal condition was diagnosed as altered passive eruption Type IA. Interdisciplinary treatment protocols including periodontal surgical and orthodontic procedures were used. The periodontal surgical procedures were carried out prior to orthodontic therapy and the results obtained were satisfactory. It is suggested that orthodontists should be aware of conditions like altered passive eruption and modalities of management. In most instances, orthodontic therapy is not hindered. PMID:26672498

  15. Altered Passive Eruption Complicating Optimal Orthodontic Bracket Placement: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Pulgaonkar, Rohan; Chitra, Prasad

    2015-11-01

    An unusual case of altered passive eruption with gingival hyperpigmentation and a Class I malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl having no previous history of medication is presented. The patient reported with spacing in the upper arch, moderate crowding in the lower arch, anterior crossbite and excessive gingival tissue on the labial surfaces of teeth in both the arches. The inadequate crown lengths made placement of the orthodontic brackets difficult. Preadjusted orthodontic brackets have a very precise placement protocol which can affect tooth movement in all 3 planes of space if violated. The periodontal condition was diagnosed as altered passive eruption Type IA. Interdisciplinary treatment protocols including periodontal surgical and orthodontic procedures were used. The periodontal surgical procedures were carried out prior to orthodontic therapy and the results obtained were satisfactory. It is suggested that orthodontists should be aware of conditions like altered passive eruption and modalities of management. In most instances, orthodontic therapy is not hindered. PMID:26672498

  16. Patient and parent understanding of informed consent in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Micah G; Kiyak, H Asuman; Omnell, Lena

    2003-11-01

    In both medical and dental settings, researchers have found that patients do not adequately comprehend the information given during informed consent discussions, especially the less educated, low-income patients. Because of the importance of patient compliance with orthodontic treatment regimens, this study examined patient and parent understanding of the child's Phase I orthodontic treatment in a public dental clinic with ethnically diverse, low-income patients. Interviews were conducted with 29 children (ages 6-12) and their parents or guardians at the orthodontic case presentation appointment. The orthodontist explained the reasons for treatment, the orthodontic procedures to be used, the risks, the alternatives, and patient and parent responsibilities during treatment; the session was audiotaped. Interviews were conducted immediately after this discussion and the results compared with the orthodontists' presentations. In general, both children and parents recalled significantly fewer reasons for treatment (1.10, 1.66, and 2.34 items, respectively), procedures (1.55, 1.59, and 2.45, respectively), risks associated with treatment (0.66, 1.48, and 4.66, respectively), and responsibilities of the child during treatment (2.21, 2.07, and 3.38, respectively) than what the orthodontist had told them. They were also less likely to recall the reasons, procedures, and risks that were most frequently cited by the orthodontist. These findings raise concerns about the effectiveness of current informed consent techniques with public health populations, especially the low recall rates within 30 minutes of the case presentations. Low recall of risks by children and their parents, particularly for critical risks such as relapse, caries, and periodontal problems, raises concerns about treatment compliance, success, and more importantly, the effectiveness of the informed consent process itself. Future research should focus on methods to improve the informed consent process among

  17. Early Controversies Over Athetosis: II. Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lanska, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Athetosis has been controversial since it was first described by William Hammond in 1871; many aspects of Hammond’s career were equally controversial. Methods Primary sources have been used to review treatment controversies in the 50-year period following the initial description of athetosis. Results The treatments used most commonly employed available pharmaceutical agents and modalities (e.g., galvanism). Initial anecdotal reports of success were seldom confirmed with subsequent experience. Several novel invasive therapies were also developed and promoted, all of which damaged or destroyed either upper or lower motor neuron pathways, and were also often associated with high mortality rates. In general, these therapies substituted paresis for abnormal spontaneous movements. These included peripheral nerve stretching, excision of a portion of the precentral gyrus, rhizotomy, nerve “transplantation” (i.e., neurotomy and nerve-to-nerve anastomoses), and “muscle group isolation” (i.e., alcohol neurolysis). There was no agreement on the appropriateness of such high-risk procedures, particularly given the intentional generation of further neurological morbidity. Discussion Pharmaceutical agents and modalities initially employed for athetosis had little a priori evidence-based justification and no biologically plausible theoretical framework to guide empiric treatment selection. Subsequently, all the invasive procedures employed were directed at lessening or removing the manifestations, rather than the underlying cause, of the abnormal central nervous system “irritation,” usually by imposing paresis or paralysis. Factors contributing to the disparity in outcomes between favorable initial reports and the often-disappointing results of later studies included reliance on anecdotal reports or small uncontrolled case series, placebo effects, biased observation, misdiagnosis, and biased reporting. PMID:23450199

  18. Evaluation of the performance of orthodontic devices using FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, L.; Roriz, P.; Frazão, O.; Marques, M. B.

    2015-04-01

    Cross-bite, as a malocclusion effect, is defined as a transversal changing of the upper dental arch, in relation to the lower arch, and may be classified as skeletal, dental or functional. As a consequence, the expansion of maxilla is an effective clinical treatment used to correct transversal maxillary discrepancy. The maxillary expansion is an ancient method used in orthodontics, for the correction of the maxillary athresia with posterior crossbite, through the opening of the midpalatal suture (disjunction), using orthodontic- orthopaedic devices. Same controversial discussion arises among the clinicians, about the effects of each orthodontic devices as also about the technique to be employed. The objective of this study was to compare the strain field induced by two different orthodontic devices, named disjunctor with and without a connecting bar, in an acrylic model jaw, using fiber Bragg grating sensors to measure the strain patterns. The orthodontic device disjunctor with the bar, in general, transmits higher forces and strain to teeth and maxillae, than with the disjunctor without bar. It was verified that the strain patterns were not symmetric between the left and the right sides as also between the posterior and anterior regions of the maxillae. For the two devices is also found that in addition a displacement in the horizontal plane, particularly in posterior teeth, also occurs a rotation corresponding to a vestibularization of the posterior teeth and their alveolar processes.

  19. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  20. Government urges early, aggressive treatment of HIV.

    PubMed

    1997-07-25

    June 19, 1997 marked the issuance of clinical guidelines for HIV treatment. The guidelines, issued by a panel convened by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Henry J. Kaiser Foundation, recommend treating the infection at an earlier stage and using a three-drug regimen that includes a protease inhibitor. Private insurers may be prompted to remove limits on the prescriptions patients may receive. The treatment guidelines are one of four documents released in June establishing a standard of care for HIV disease. Experts agreed that patients should have their viral loads and CD4+ T-cell counts measured immediately upon testing positive for HIV antibodies and triple-drug combinations should be given to everyone who meets the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) definition of AIDS. The four documents, Report of the NIH Panel to Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection, Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents, Guidelines for the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons with HIV, and Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in 1997: Updated Recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel are available on the Internet and through other sources. PMID:11364505

  1. Functional occlusion: II. The role of articulators in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Clark, J R; Hutchinson, I; Sandy, J R

    2001-06-01

    Opinion is divided on whether there is a place for the use of semi-adjustable dental articulators in orthodontics. In this review we explore the validity and reproducibility of the techniques involved in mounting study models on a semi-adjustable dental articulator. We also look at the role of articulated study models in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, in the finishing stages of orthodontics and in planning for orthognathic surgery. We report that each of the many stages involved in mounting study models on a semi-adjustable articulator is a potential source of error and that only if the technique is carried out with a high degree of accuracy is it worth the additional chairside time.

  2. Attracting orthodontic patients via the Internet: A 20-year evolution.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Greg

    2015-12-01

    A generation ago, attracting new patients to an orthodontic practice was often done simply by cultivating a few good referral sources. General dentists, including some who might have provided orthodontic treatment out of necessity, were generally glad to have a trusted specialist they could recommend to their patients. Although general dentists remain an important source of new patients today, many consumers now turn to the Internet for help selecting their own specialists. As orthodontists face more competition from various sources, successful clinicians will make it easy for search engines--and patients--to find their Web sites on the Internet.

  3. Attracting orthodontic patients via the Internet: A 20-year evolution.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Greg

    2015-12-01

    A generation ago, attracting new patients to an orthodontic practice was often done simply by cultivating a few good referral sources. General dentists, including some who might have provided orthodontic treatment out of necessity, were generally glad to have a trusted specialist they could recommend to their patients. Although general dentists remain an important source of new patients today, many consumers now turn to the Internet for help selecting their own specialists. As orthodontists face more competition from various sources, successful clinicians will make it easy for search engines--and patients--to find their Web sites on the Internet. PMID:26672699

  4. Enamel Reduction Techniques in Orthodontics: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Livas, Christos; Jongsma, Albert Cornelis; Ren, Yijin

    2013-01-01

    Artificial abrasion of interproximal surfaces has been described for almost seventy years as orthodontic intervention for achievement and maintenance of ideal treatment outcome. A variety of terms and approaches have been introduced throughout this period implying a growing clinicians’ interest. Nevertheless, the widespread recognition of enamel stripping technique was initiated by the advent of bonded orthodontic attachments and a 2-article series of Sheridan in the 80’s. Since then, experimental and clinical research has been focused on the investigation of instrumentation efficacy and potential iatrogenic sequelae related to interproximal stripping. This review discusses the evolution, technical aspects and trends of enamel reduction procedures as documented in the literature. PMID:24265652

  5. Orthodontic-associated localized gingival recession of lower incisors: who should treat it?

    PubMed

    Chaushu, Stella; Stabholz, Ayala

    2013-07-01

    Gingival recession of lower incisors in the young population has become more prevalent in association with the increased uptake of orthodontic treatment. The two main predisposing factors are thin gingival biotype and bone dehiscence caused by labially displaced roots. Management is sometimes challenging, and the achievement of a successful result requires close cooperation between the orthodontist and periodontist. This article proposes a decision tree, which includes both orthodontic and periodontal considerations, to help the clinician in making the correct diagnosis and choosing the most suitable treatment in post-orthodontic gingival recessions. PMID:24568245

  6. Post-traumatic impaction of maxillary incisors: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paoloni, Valeria; Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Bollero, Patrizio; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma. Methods We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement. Results The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment. Conclusions Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options. PMID:23991268

  7. Combined Orthodontic and Surgical Approach in the Correction of a Class III Skeletal Malocclusion with Mandibular Prognathism and Vertical Maxillary Excess Using Bimaxillary Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Jose Cherackal, George; Thomas, Eapen; Prathap, Akhilesh

    2013-01-01

    For patients whose orthodontic problems are so severe that neither growth modification nor camouflage offers a solution, surgery to realign the jaws or reposition dentoalveolar segments is the only possible treatment. Surgery is not a substitute for orthodontics in these patients. Instead, it must be properly coordinated with orthodontics and other dental treatments to achieve good overall results. Dramatic progress in recent years has made it possible for combined surgical orthodontic treatment to be carried out successfully for patients with a severe dentofacial problem of any type. This case report provides an overview of the current treatment methodology in managing a combination of asymmetrical mandibular prognathism and vertical maxillary excess. PMID:24455321

  8. Orthodontics as a risk factor for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). II.

    PubMed

    Kremenak, C R; Kinser, D D; Melcher, T J; Wright, G R; Harrison, S D; Ziaja, R R; Harman, H A; Ordahl, J N; Demro, J G; Menard, C C

    1992-01-01

    Debate about orthodontic treatment as a risk factor for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) led to this study. This report, the second in a series, concerns findings from a longitudinal study in which 30 new orthodontic patients have been enrolled annually since 1983. The method of Helkimo was used to collect TMD data before initiation of orthodontic treatment, and at annual intervals after debanding. Treatment was by fixed edgewise appliances. Data from a pretreatment and at least one posttreatment Helkimo examination were available for 109 patients. Follow-up data were available for 92 patients in the first year after debanding, with the corresponding sample sizes declining to 56, 33, 19, 11, and 7 for the second through the sixth posttreatment years, respectively. Primary analyses involved comparison of mean scores from the Helkimo 25-point dysfunction index scale. There were no significant differences between mean pretreatment and posttreatment Helkimo scores for any of the various groupings except for small, clinically unimportant improvements seen in the 12 to 24 month subgroup of 55 patients and in the 48 to 60 month subgroup of 11 patients. With average follow-up time of about 2 years for the 109 patients, 90% had Helkimo scores that stayed the same or improved, and 10% had scores that increased or worsened from 2 to 5 Helkimo points. We conclude that the orthodontic treatment experienced by our sample was not an important etiologic factor for TMD.

  9. A Case-Based Learning Model in Orthodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Francoise E.; Hendricson, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A case-based, student-centered instructional model designed to mimic orthodontic problem solving and decision making in dental general practice is described. Small groups of students analyze case data, then record and discuss their diagnoses and treatments. Students and instructors rated the seminars positively, and students reported improved…

  10. Curve of Spee - from orthodontic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a curve of Spee (COS) of variable depth is common finding in the occlusal arrangement and is sixth key of occlusion The understanding of COS in the field of orthodontics is very important as orthodontists deal with it in virtually every patient they treat. An excessive COS is a common form of malocclusion that may be addressed in many ways, including posterior extrusion, anterior intrusion, and incisor proclination. The specific approach to leveling of COS should be selected based on each patient's needs. Soft tissue, crown–gingival relations, occlusal plane, and skeletofacial concerns are among the special considerations for treatment planning for leveling of COS. PMID:26752075

  11. Palatally impacted maxillary canines: choice of surgical-orthodontic treatment method does not influence post-treatment periodontal status. A controlled prospective study.

    PubMed

    Smailiene, Dalia; Kavaliauskiene, Aiste; Pacauskiene, Ingrida; Zasciurinskiene, Egle; Bjerklin, Krister

    2013-12-01

    SUMMARY There is lack of consensus with respect to the preferred surgical procedure for the treatment of palatally impacted maxillary canines. The aim of this study was to evaluate post-treatment periodontal status of palatally impacted canines treated by open technique with free eruption and closed flap technique and compare it with naturally erupted canines. The subjects comprised 43 patients treated for unilateral palatally impacted maxillary canines and examined 4.19±1.44 months (3-6 months) after removal of the fixed appliance. The group 1 comprised subjects treated by open technique with free eruption (n = 22) and group 2 by closed technique (n = 21). Post-treatment examination comprised periodontal and radiographic examination. There were no significant intergroup differences with respect to periodontal pocket depth or bone support. However, compared with contralateral quadrants with normally erupted canines, quadrants with impacted canines exhibited significant bone loss at the distal contact point of the lateral incisor and the mesial contact point of the canine. The duration of treatment was 28.41±4.96 months for group 1 and 32.19±11.73 months for group 2 (P > 0.05). The mean treatment time required to achieve eruption/extrusion of the impacted canine was 3.05±1.07 months for group 1 and 6.86±4.53 months (P < 0.01) for group 2. It is concluded that choice of surgical method is not associated with any significant differences in post-treatment periodontal status of palatally impacted canines and adjacent teeth.

  12. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  13. General dental practitioners' opinions on orthodontics in primary and secondary care.

    PubMed

    McMichael, J A

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 232 general dental practitioners was undertaken by the purchasing authorities in Hereford and Worcester, England, in 1993, to establish local practitioners' views on primary and secondary care orthodontics. The response rate was 90.1%. The dentists overestimated their orthodontic case-load: 66.6% of contract holders submitted no claims for upper removable appliances (URA) treatment, but 70.8% claimed they undertook removable appliance therapy. Dentists believed orthodontics should be a feature of the General Dental Services (GDS) but did not seem inclined to commit themselves to providing it. A majority of GDPs (54.9%) felt orthodontics was uneconomic under the GDS. There was support for the treatment planning role of hospitals, but although this was available locally it did not appear to have stimulated primary care provision. Consultant outreach clinics were not generally supported but there was a desire for more opportunities for hospital clinical attachments in orthodontics. The implications for the policies of National Health Service (NHS) purchasers are considered: purchasing health authorities need to carry out systematic assessment of the views of their general dental practitioners and take account of their desired patterns of specialist provision. Policies encouraging the shift of orthodontics into primary care are called into question by this study. If demand for orthodontics is to be met, policy should concentrate on the development of hospital services and specialist practitioners.

  14. Orthodontic extrusion of horizontally impacted mandibular molars

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhigui; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shanyong; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Shen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and evaluate a novel approach in treating horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars. Materials and methods: An orthodontic technique was applied for treatment of horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars, which included a push-type spring for rotation first, and then a cantilever for extrusion. There were 8 mandibular third molars (M3s) and 2 second molars (M2s) in this study. Tooth mobility, extraction time, the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth, alveolar bone height of the adjacent tooth, and the relationship of impacted M3 and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) were evaluated. Results: Two horizontally impacted M2s could be upright in the arch and good occlusal relationships were obtained after treatment. All impacted M3s were successfully separated from the IAN, without any neurologic consequences. The average extraction time was 5 minutes. There was a significant change in the inclination and parallelism of the impacted tooth after treatment. A new bone apposition with the average height of 3.2 mm was noted distal to the adjacent tooth. Conclusions: This two-step orthodontic technique as presented here may be a safe and feasible alternative in management of severely horizontally impacted mandibular molars, which achieves a successful separation of M3s from the IAN and an excellent position for M2s. PMID:25419364

  15. Early Childhood Health--Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lawrence S.

    The Maimonides Early Childhood Health-Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program is described. The program provides a broad range of preventive services to children who are five years of age and younger. Services are organized into Post-Natal and Pre-School Programs. The Post-Natal Program offers group education and counseling, individual…

  16. Spinal epidural abscess: the importance of early diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, A; Laing, R; Smith, C; Kaar, G; Smith, F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To remind clinicians of the dangers of delayed diagnosis and the importance of early treatment of spinal epidural abscess.
METHODS—A review of the literature on spinal epidural abscess and a comparison of the published literature with local experience.
RESULTS—Imaging with MRI or CT enables early diagnosis of spinal epidural abcess and optimal therapy is surgical evacuation combined with 6-12 weeks (median 8 weeks) of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinical features are fever, pain, and focal neurological signs and may be associated with preceding and pre-existing bone or joint disease. The commonest aetiological organism is S aureus.
CONCLUSION—Early diagnosis and appropriate early antimicrobial chemotherapy with surgery is associated with an excellent prognosis.

 PMID:9703173

  17. Provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674

  18. Surgical Treatment of Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Sara Y; Ulrich, Uwe A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of cervical cancer has been a cornerstone in the management of this malignancy for more than 100 years. Today, for early-stage and low-risk cervical cancer, surgery is still considered the gold standard. If the preoperative assessment of the tumor reveals a situation prompting postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy, the latter should be planned as the primary treatment option, being preceded by staging laparoscopy including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection. As an alternative to the open approach, the definitive surgical treatment should be either performed laparoscopically, or be laparoscopic-assisted, or laparoscopically robotic-assisted. PMID:27614875

  19. Experimental evidence of pharmacological management of anchorage in Orthodontics: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Felipe José; Cañigral, Aránzazu; Balbontín-Ayala, Felipe; Gonzalo-Orden, José Manuel; de Carlos, Felix; Cobo, Teresa; Fernández-Vázquez, Jose Pedro; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Vega, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Orthodontic anchorage is one of the most challenging aspects of Orthodontics. Preventing undesired movement of teeth could result in safer and less complicated orthodontic treatment. Recently, several reviews have been published about the effects of different molecules on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in Orthodontics. However, the effects of local application of these substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been assessed. Objectives: The aim of this research was to analyze the scientific evidence published in the literature about the effects of different molecules on orthodontic anchorage. Methods: The literature was systematically reviewed using PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from 2000 up to July 31st, 2014. Articles were independently selected by two different researchers based on previously established inclusion and exclusion criteria, with a concordance Kappa index of 0.86. The methodological quality of the reviewed papers was performed. Results: Search strategy identified 270 articles. Twenty-five of them were selected after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, and only 11 qualified for final analysis. Molecules involved in orthodontic anchorage were divided into three main groups: osteoprotegerin (OPG), bisphosphonates (BPs) and other molecules (OMs). Conclusions: Different drugs are able to alter the bone remodeling cycle, influencing osteoclast function and, therefore, tooth movement. Thus, they could be used in order to provide maximal anchorage while preventing undesired movements. OPG was found the most effective molecule in blocking the action of osteoclasts, thereby reducing undesired movements. PMID:26560822

  20. Evidence-Based Comprehensive Treatments for Early Autism

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sally J.; Vismara, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    Early intervention for children with autism is currently a politically and scientifically complex topic. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated positive effects in both short-term and longer term studies. The evidence suggests that early intervention programs are indeed beneficial for children with autism, often improving developmental functioning and decreasing maladaptive behaviors and symptom severity at the level of group analysis. Whether such changes lead to significant improvements in terms of greater independence and vocational and social functioning in adulthood is also unknown. Given the few randomized controlled treatment trials that have been carried out, the few models that have been tested, and the large differences in interventions that are being published, it is clear that the field is still very early in the process of determining (a) what kinds of interventions are most efficacious in early autism, (b) what variables moderate and mediate treatment gains and improved outcomes following intervention, and (c) the degree of both short-term and long-term improvements that can reasonably be expected. To examine these current research needs, the empirical studies of comprehensive treatments for young children with autism published since 1998 were reviewed. Lovaas's treatment meet Chambless and colleague's (Chambless et al., 1998; Chambless et al., 1996) criteria for “well-established” and no treatment meets the “probably efficacious” criteria, though three treatments meet criteria for “possibly efficacious” (Chambless & Hollon, 1998). Most studies were either Type 2 or 3 in terms of their methodological rigor based on Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria. Implications of these findings are also discussed in relation to practice guidelines as well as critical areas of research that have yet to be answered PMID:18444052

  1. [The effects of functional diagnostic measures on orthodontic planning and therapy].

    PubMed

    Weissenberg, J; Schrems, H T; Schrems-Adam, G

    1989-02-01

    Patients with significant functional disorders were pretreated with a relaxation splint before planning orthodontic treatment. The orthodontic diagnostic procedures were completed with extensive clinical and instrumental examinations of function (articular diagnosis and axiography) before and after the pretreatment. The studies show that the pretreatment for patients with TMJ disorders is necessary for the differential diagnosis. Furthermore, this may become necessary in order to determine the individual acceptable therapeutic mandibular position. In most cases, the axiography was found to be of minor relevance for the orthodontic therapeutic plan. If the functional improvement is intended to have a stable and causal basis, then an extensive clinical and instrumental functional examination (for the determination of a reproducible mandibular reference position) is crucial at least in TMJ-disordered patients for planning and carrying out orthodontic treatment.

  2. Conservative reconstruction of the smile by orthodontic, bleaching, and restorative procedures

    PubMed Central

    Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Machado, Lucas Silveira; de Oliveira, Fernanda Garcia; Santos, Eduardo Almada; Lugato, Isabel Cristina Prado Torres; Sundfeld Neto, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The following is a clinical case report of a patient whose chief complaint was the presence of generalized spacing in the maxillary anterior segment following orthodontic treatment. After meticulous clinical analyses and discussions of the clinical procedures to be adopted, dental bleaching was performed in both arches with 10% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Trèswhite Supreme 10% Hydrogen Peroxide - Ultradent Products, Inc., South Jordan, USA) after the conclusion and stabilization of orthodontic treatment. Then, the orthodontic appliance was removed and the diastemas in the maxillary anterior teeth were closed with Amelogen Plus (Ultradent Products, Inc., South Jordan, USA) resin composite. It was observed that the association of orthodontic, bleaching, and restorative procedures was capable of restoring dental shape, function, and esthetics, allowing the patient to smile without hesitation. PMID:22229015

  3. Neuromuscular evaluation of post-orthodontic stability: an experimental protocol.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Marciandi, Paolo V; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Dellavia, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella

    2002-01-01

    To prevent relapse after orthodontic treatment, retention is often considered indispensable. Soft tissues are thought to have a significant influence on dental movements. To quantify the influence of masticatory muscles on post-treatment relapse, and in an attempt to avoid unnecessary procedures, 2 male orthodontic patients (13 and 30 years old at debonding) were followed up. The patients completed 2 years of fixed orthodontic treatment and received no post-orthodontic retention. After 1 week and again after 6 months, alginate impressions of dental arches and a surface electromyographic (EMG) assessment of the masseter and temporalis muscles during maximum voluntary clenching were performed. The younger patient received surface EMG monitoring once a month for the first 6 months and at the 1-year follow-up appointment. Arch dimensions and the 3-dimensional inclination of the facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC) were measured using a computerized digitizer. Symmetry in muscular contraction was measured by the percentage overlapping coefficient (POC), and potential lateral displacing components were assessed by the torque coefficient (TC). At the 6-month follow-up, no clinical modifications were observed. Quantitative evaluation assessed that arch dimensions had changed slightly (up to 1 mm). While the adolescent patient had no modifications in FACC inclinations, the 30-year-old patient showed significant alterations (up to 18 degrees). In all examinations of the adolescent patient, POC was higher than 86% and TC was lower than 10%. In the adult, POC was inside the normal range, while all TCs were higher than 10.5%. The larger TC measured in the adult may explain the larger modifications in the 3-dimensional position of his dental crowns. In conclusion, a surface EMG assessment may help in the detection of patients who might need post-orthodontic retention.

  4. Orthodontic management of a borderline case with ectopic maxillary canine by unilateral premolar extractions

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Mohd. Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Management of orthodontic cases often requires extraction of permanent teeth. The decision making regarding extractions depends upon the arch length tooth material discrepancies, the growth pattern, general profile, and arch asymmetries. Unique orthodontic problems may command special treatment lines to be taken. The present report describes a case with unilateral buccally blocked out canine and bilateral posterior crossbite, for which unilateral premolar extractions were performed achieve esthetic and functionally stable occlusion. PMID:27041913

  5. Patterns of early change and their relationship to outcome and early treatment termination in patients with panic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Rubel, Julian; Boswell, James F.; Shear, M. Katherine; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.; Barlow, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recently, innovative statistical tools have been used to model patterns of change in psychological treatments. These tools can detect patterns of change in patient progress early in treatment and allow for the prediction of treatment outcomes and treatment length. Method We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify different latent classes of early change in patients with panic disorder (N = 326) who underwent a manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment. Results Four latent subgroups were identified, showing clusters of change trajectories over the first five sessions. One of the subgroups consisted of patients whose symptoms rapidly decreased and also showed the best outcomes. This information improved treatment prediction by 16.1% over patient intake characteristics. Early change patterns also significantly predicted patients’ early treatment termination. Patient intake characteristics that significantly predicted class membership included functional impairment and separation anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest that early treatment changes are uniquely predictive of treatment outcome. PMID:24447004

  6. Detection of fusobacterium nucleatum and fadA adhesin gene in patients with orthodontic gingivitis and non-orthodontic periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jianning; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Yujie; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most abundant gram-negative bacilli colonizing the subgingival plaque and closely associated with periodontal disease. However it is unclear whether F. nucleatum is involved in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. A novel adhesin, FadA, which is unique to oral Fusobacteria, is required for F. nucleatum binding and invasion to epithelial cells and thus may play an important role in colonization of Fusobacterium in the host. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of F. nucleatum and its virulence factor FadA adhesion gene (fadA) in 169 subgingival biofilm samples from 55 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 49 cases of gingivitis patients without orthodontic treatment, 35 cases of periodontitis patients and 30 cases of periodontally healthy people via PCR. The correlations between the F. nucleatum/fadA and gingivitis index(GI)was also analyzed. The detection rate of F. nucleatum/fadA in periodontitis group and non-orthodontic gingivitis group was higher than the other two groups (p<0.01) while it was higher in orthodontic gingivitis group than in health people (p<0.05). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of F. nucleatum/fadA and GI. F. nucleatum carrying fadA may be more closely related to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease compared with orthodontic gingivitis.

  7. Detection of fusobacterium nucleatum and fadA adhesin gene in patients with orthodontic gingivitis and non-orthodontic periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jianning; Guo, Yang; Zhang, Yujie; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most abundant gram-negative bacilli colonizing the subgingival plaque and closely associated with periodontal disease. However it is unclear whether F. nucleatum is involved in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. A novel adhesin, FadA, which is unique to oral Fusobacteria, is required for F. nucleatum binding and invasion to epithelial cells and thus may play an important role in colonization of Fusobacterium in the host. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of F. nucleatum and its virulence factor FadA adhesion gene (fadA) in 169 subgingival biofilm samples from 55 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 49 cases of gingivitis patients without orthodontic treatment, 35 cases of periodontitis patients and 30 cases of periodontally healthy people via PCR. The correlations between the F. nucleatum/fadA and gingivitis index(GI)was also analyzed. The detection rate of F. nucleatum/fadA in periodontitis group and non-orthodontic gingivitis group was higher than the other two groups (p<0.01) while it was higher in orthodontic gingivitis group than in health people (p<0.05). An obviously positive correlation was observed between the prevalence of F. nucleatum/fadA and GI. F. nucleatum carrying fadA may be more closely related to the development of gingivitis and periodontal disease compared with orthodontic gingivitis. PMID:24416378

  8. Clinical evaluation of immediate loading of titanium orthodontic implants

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, S.S.; Chakranarayan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Skeletal anchorage using dental implants, miniplates, miniscrews and microscrews provides an absolute anchorage for tooth movement. Miniscrew and microscrew implants have many benefits such as ease of placement and removal and immediate orthodontic force application. Methods Fifteen subjects in the permanent dentition with an overjet ≥6 mm received treatment with the 0.018-inch pre-adjusted edgewise appliance system (Roth prescription) and extraction of all first premolars. Titanium orthodontic implants were placed in both the upper quadrants and were immediately loaded with elastic chain from the implant head to the sectional arch wire. Result The overall success rate of immediate loaded titanium orthodontic micro implants (OMI) in the present study was 83.33%, with a mean chairside time of 15.33 min of placing two implants in each patient. Peri-implant inflammation was the only complication observed. Most failures were in the initial part of the study. There was no significant difference in the success rate of implants based on sex, side of placement (right or left) and type of malocclusion. Conclusion The OMIs used in the present study proved to be effective and well tolerated in producing immediate orthodontic anchorage for the retraction. PMID:25859080

  9. Finite element modeling of superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Naceur, Ines Ben; Charfi, Amin; Bouraoui, Tarak; Elleuch, Khaled

    2014-11-28

    Thanks to its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, superelastic Ni–Ti wire alloys have been successfully used in orthodontic treatment. Therefore, it is important to quantify and evaluate the level of orthodontic force applied to the bracket and teeth in order to achieve tooth movement. In this study, three dimensional finite element models with a Gibbs-potential-based-formulation and thermodynamic principles were used. The aim was to evaluate the influence of possible intraoral temperature differences on the forces exerted by NiTi orthodontic arch wires with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. The prediction made by this phenomenological model, for superelastic tensile and bending tests, shows good agreement with the experimental data. A bending test is simulated to study the force variation of an orthodontic NiTi arch wire when it loaded up to the deflection of 3 mm, for this task one half of the arch wire and the 3 adjacent brackets were modeled. The results showed that the stress required for the martensite transformation increases with the increase of cross-sectional dimensions and temperature. Associated with this increase in stress, the plateau of this transformation becomes steeper. In addition, the area of the mechanical hysteresis, measured as the difference between the forces of the upper and lower plateau, increases.

  10. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement. PMID:22928114

  11. Early treatment outcomes of class II malocclusion with twin-block facial profile and cephalometric changes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mousumi Goswami; Vashisth, Pallavi; Chaudhary, Seema; Sinha, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Esthetic improvement is highly valued by patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Subjects with a class II malocclusion are a good example of patients who seek treatment primarily for esthetic improvement. A young growing child with convex profile due to a small, retropositioned mandible, normal midface and lower tip trap is more suitable for functional appliance treatment. Functional appliances encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position for a sufficient period of time to allow adaptive skeletal changes to occur in response to a functional stimulus. The aim of this article is to describe two cases of class II malocclusion in late mixed dentition period treated with twin-block. The cephalometric and facial profile changes have been discussed PMID:25756036

  12. Instrument sterilization in orthodontic offices.

    PubMed

    Matlack, R E

    1979-07-01

    1. Three different quaternary ammonium compound solutions remained bactericidal against specific vegetative bacteria in three orthodontic offices over a ten day working period. However, no spore formers or viruses were tested. 2. Bacterial contaminants were cultured on pliers and scalers at the chair at least once in each of three orthodontic offices sampled twice a day for ten working days. 3. Sampled chairside instruments wiped with an alcohol sponge only, between patients, were contaminated an excessive 32.5% of the time, too frequently to be seriously considered for routine disinfection of pliers. 4. Chairside instruments, sampled regardless of other means of disinfection or sterilization used, were contaminated from 3.5 to 15% of the time. Therefore, storage and handling of orthodontic instruments must be evaluated and upgraded to prevent recontamination of previously sterilized instruments. 5. Staff personnel need courses in sterilization and disinfection procedures to prevent cross contamination from patient to patient and to protect themselves. These courses should be related specifically to orthodontic practice procedures.

  13. Learning styles of orthodontic residents.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Janeen M; Fallis, Drew W; Peel, Jennifer L; Murchison, David F

    2009-03-01

    Significant challenges face many orthodontic residency programs, particularly a shortage of full-time experienced faculty members. Due to this shortage, it is critical that program directors design comprehensive curricula that incorporate the most effective and efficient teaching methods. It is theorized that teaching effectiveness and efficiency are optimized when the course design and content closely match students' learning preferences. This survey study was designed to distinguish the learning preferences of orthodontic residents utilizing Felder and Soloman's Index of Learning Styles, which assesses student learning preferences in four dimensions using dichotomous scales, thereby providing insight into how teaching strategies can best be structured. As a secondary focus, additional questions on the survey were asked to gain information about residents' access to the Internet and comfort level with online learning so as to address acceptance of web-based courses in response to the shortage of full-time faculty members. Orthodontic residents, contacted via email, were requested to complete an online survey; 261 responses were collected. The results indicate that orthodontic residents are highly visual learners and show a preference for sensing and sequential learning strategies. In terms of information technology, the residents are comfortable with and have adequate access to current technological assets; therefore, they may be well suited for inclusion of computer-based teaching modules and other multimedia devices in their residency curriculum.

  14. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage. PMID:26062010

  15. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage.

  16. Systemic treatment of early breast cancer--a biological perspective.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Sally; Stopeck, Alison; Rugo, Hope S

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer affecting women worldwide. In the United States, over 90% of tumors are diagnosed as either in situ or localized to the breast or regional lymph nodes. Surgical treatment and adjuvant radiotherapy play an important role in loco-regional treatment of early stage breast cancer. Systemic adjuvant therapy is targeted towards isolated circulating and/or disseminated tumor cells to prevent systemic recurrence. This review will describe the diverse tumor biology of human breast cancer and how it influences decisions with regard to the use of adjuvant therapies. PMID:21480257

  17. Endoscopic Treatment of Early Barrett's Neoplasia: Expanding Indications, New Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pech, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy of early Barrett's neoplasia is nowadays the treatment of choice and recommended over surgery in most current guidelines. Recent data suggest radiofrequency ablation of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia when confirmed by an expert pathologist. Endoscopic therapy of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and mucosal Barrett's adenocarcinoma consists of two steps: first endoscopic resection of all visible lesions, and second ablation of the remaining flat Barrett's mucosa to reduce the rate of recurrences and metachronous neoplasia. The preferred ablation method is radiofrequency ablation. In case of Barrett's adenocarcinoma with incipient submucosal invasion, endoscopic treatment can be considered curative when there are no further risk factors present. PMID:27573769

  18. Surgical treatment of early breast cancer in day surgery.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Riili, Ignazio; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Casà, Luigi; Noto, Antonio; Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2007-01-01

    Quadrantectomy and associated sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is currently employed in most breast surgery centres as the gold standard in the treatment of early breast cancer. This approach has a modest morbidity and can usually be performed in a day-surgery regimen, leading to best acceptance by the patients. This reports outlines the experience of our Breast Unit with quadrantectomy and SLNB in day surgery for early breast cancer. One hundred patients presenting to our institution with primary invasive breast cancer measuring less than 3 cm and clinically negative axillary nodes underwent quadrantectomy and SLNB in day surgery. For 60 women with breast cancer the sentinel node was negative, so the only definitive surgical treatment was performed in the day-surgery regimen; 40 patients with positive sentinel nodes were hospitalised a second time for axillary dissection. In these patients that needed clearance of the axilla, SLNB was performed on the only positive node in 22 cases (55%). None of the patients admitted for quadrantectomy and SLNB in day surgery required re-hospitalisation after discharge. All patients proved to be fully satisfied with early discharge from hospital when questioned on the occasion of subsequent monitoring. Short-stay surgical programs in early invasive breast cancer treatment are feasible today owing to the availability of less invasive approaches such as quadrantectomy and SLNB. There are two main pointers to a distinct advantage for this kind of approach, i.e. recovery and psychological adjustment. Recovery from surgery is faster and the patient tends to play down the seriousness of the operation and to have a better mental attitude to neoplastic disease. Moreover, when performing quadrantectomy with SLNB in day surgery fewer than 50% of breast cancer patients (40% in our experience) require another surgical treatment, concluding the surgery in a single session. PMID:18019641

  19. Treatment Moderators and Predictors of Outcome in the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Riddle, Mark A.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Axelson, David A.; Wagner, Karen D.; Joshi, Paramjit; Walkup, John T.; Luby, Joan; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal D.; Emslie, Graham; Robb, Adelaide; Tillman, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Both the diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youth remain the subject of debate. In the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study, risperidone was more effective than lithium or divalproex in children diagnosed with bipolar mania and highly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We searched for…

  20. Misoprostol for the treatment of early pregnancy failure.

    PubMed

    Doggrell, Sheila A

    2007-01-01

    Nearly 20% of all pregnancies end in early pregnancy failure, and surgical evacuation of retained products of conception is often used to manage this failure. Misoprostol is an inexpensive, stable analog of prostaglandin E(1), and is powerful at contracting the uterus. With intravaginal misoprostol, the peak plasma levels are lower, but the levels after 4 hours are higher, than after oral or sublingual administration. With oral misoprostol, the evacuation rates in early pregnancy varied from about 50% up to 96%. Similar variation in evacuation rates were obtained from small trials with intravaginal misoprostol. To date, only small studies have used sublingual misoprostol, and there has been no direct comparison to oral or intravaginal misoprostol. A recent large clinical trial has shown, that with intravaginal misoprostol 800 microg, an expulsion rate of 84% can be achieved by 8 days. This large trial also established that women prefer misoprostol to surgical evacuation. Two economic evaluations have shown that misoprostol treatment is less costly than surgical intervention. On the basis of recent findings, it seems likely that misoprostol treatment will become a standard or preferred treatment for early pregnancy failure.

  1. [The importance of periodontal evaluation in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Pré, P

    1998-01-01

    The orthodontist is in fact a periodontal-therapist since his aim is to move the teeth with and through the periodontal tissues. It is most important for the orthodontist to be able to determine at the initial clinical examination what are the various periodontal risk factors. When the pathology is obvious with inflammation, periodontal pockets, gingival hyperplasia, edema of the papillae, gingival recessions, the need for periodontal treatment is manifest. But many times, the periodontal evaluation is complicated by the presence of slight variations of the quality of the marginal tissue that represent a risk of developing periodontal defects during the orthodontic treatment. The aim of this presentation is to put forward the importance of the periodontal evaluation during the initial examination of the patient so that, if necessary, an adequate periodontal therapy can be initiated to stabilize the periodontal tissues and thus improves the esthetical outcome.

  2. Mini-Implants in the Anchorage Armamentarium: New Paradigms in the Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Inami, Toshihiro; Ito, Ko; Kasai, Kazutaka; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Paradigms have started to shift in the orthodontic world since the introduction of mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium. Various forms of skeletal anchorage, including miniscrews and miniplates, have been reported in the literature. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the miniscrew type of temporary anchorage device (TAD). These devices are small, are implanted with a relatively simple surgical procedure, and increase the potential for better orthodontic results. Therefore, miniscrews not only free orthodontists from anchorage-demanding cases, but they also enable clinicians to have good control over tooth movement in 3 dimensions. The miniplate type also produces significant improvements in treatment outcomes and has widened the spectrum of orthodontics. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians on the current concepts and versatile uses and clinical applications of skeletal anchorage in orthodontics. PMID:22719763

  3. Mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium: new paradigms in the orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Inami, Toshihiro; Ito, Ko; Kasai, Kazutaka; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Paradigms have started to shift in the orthodontic world since the introduction of mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium. Various forms of skeletal anchorage, including miniscrews and miniplates, have been reported in the literature. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the miniscrew type of temporary anchorage device (TAD). These devices are small, are implanted with a relatively simple surgical procedure, and increase the potential for better orthodontic results. Therefore, miniscrews not only free orthodontists from anchorage-demanding cases, but they also enable clinicians to have good control over tooth movement in 3 dimensions. The miniplate type also produces significant improvements in treatment outcomes and has widened the spectrum of orthodontics. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians on the current concepts and versatile uses and clinical applications of skeletal anchorage in orthodontics. PMID:22719763

  4. Periodontal and prosthetic treatment of a cleft lip and palate patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Santi, E; Weinberg, M A; Abitbol, T E

    1995-07-01

    Although cleft lip and palate patients are usually treated by a multidisciplinary team involving physicians and dentists, their periodontal condition may be over-looked. Crowded or malpositioned teeth, hypertrophic gingiva, orthodontic appliances, and prosthetic replacements can impede proper plaque removal and thus perpetuate periodontal disease. It is important to incorporate periodontal treatment into the comprehensive treatment as early as possible. This case report discusses the periodontal surgical procedures involved in eliminating a residual ridge defect and the fitting of the final prosthetic reconstruction. Also, the importance of the identification and management of periodontal conditions characteristic of cleft lip and palate patients before and after surgical, orthodontic, and prosthetic rehabilitation will be emphasized.

  5. The role of early detection and treatment in malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Landier, Jordi; Parker, Daniel M; Thu, Aung Myint; Carrara, Verena I; Lwin, Khin Maung; Bonnington, Craig A; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Delmas, Gilles; Nosten, François H

    2016-01-01

    Falciparum malaria persists in hard-to-reach areas or demographic groups that are missed by conventional healthcare systems but could be reached by trained community members in a malaria post (MP). The main focus of a MP is to provide uninterrupted and rapid access to rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) too all inhabitants of a village. RDTs allow trained community members to perform malaria diagnosis accurately and prescribe appropriate treatment, reducing as much as possible any delay between the onset of fever and treatment. Early treatment with ACT and with a low-dose of primaquine prevents further transmission from human to mosquito. A functioning MP represents an essential component of any malaria elimination strategy. Implementing large-scale, high-coverage, community-based early diagnosis and treatment through MPs requires few technological innovations but relies on a very well structured organization able to train, supervise and supply MPs, to monitor activity and to perform strict malaria surveillance. PMID:27421656

  6. Training and use of lasers in postgraduate orthodontic programs in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Dansie, Chase O; Park, Jae Hyun; Makin, Inder Raj S

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to determine if orthodontic residents are being trained to use lasers in the postgraduate orthodontic residency programs of the United States and Canada. An anonymous electronic survey was sent to the program director/chair of each of the seventy orthodontic residency programs, and thirty-seven (53 percent) of the programs responded. Of these thirty-seven programs, twenty-eight (76 percent) reported providing patient treatment with lasers in the orthodontic graduate program, eight (22 percent) said they do not provide treatment in the orthodontic graduate program, and one program (3 percent) reported providing laser training but not using lasers on patients. Gingivectomy and canine exposure were reported as the most common procedures that residents perform with a laser, while debonding of orthodontic brackets was the least common procedure performed with a laser. A diode laser was the most common type of laser used. Of the eight programs (22 percent) not offering laser training, four indicated having no plans to begin using lasers or training on their use. The other four indicated that they have plans to incorporate laser use in the future. PMID:23740914

  7. Training and use of lasers in postgraduate orthodontic programs in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Dansie, Chase O; Park, Jae Hyun; Makin, Inder Raj S

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to determine if orthodontic residents are being trained to use lasers in the postgraduate orthodontic residency programs of the United States and Canada. An anonymous electronic survey was sent to the program director/chair of each of the seventy orthodontic residency programs, and thirty-seven (53 percent) of the programs responded. Of these thirty-seven programs, twenty-eight (76 percent) reported providing patient treatment with lasers in the orthodontic graduate program, eight (22 percent) said they do not provide treatment in the orthodontic graduate program, and one program (3 percent) reported providing laser training but not using lasers on patients. Gingivectomy and canine exposure were reported as the most common procedures that residents perform with a laser, while debonding of orthodontic brackets was the least common procedure performed with a laser. A diode laser was the most common type of laser used. Of the eight programs (22 percent) not offering laser training, four indicated having no plans to begin using lasers or training on their use. The other four indicated that they have plans to incorporate laser use in the future.

  8. Multidisciplinary management including periodontics, orthodontics, implants, and prosthetics for an adult.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Teresa; Neves, Manuel; Alves, Célia

    2012-08-01

    This article describes the complex dental treatment of an adult patient with multiple missing teeth, mild chronic periodontitis, and a malocclusion with a cant of the occlusal plane. After periodontal treatment, titanium implants and a miniscrew were placed to correct the occlusal plane canting with orthodontic treatment. Prosthodontic treatment was completed by using osseointegrated implants to replace the missing teeth. PMID:22858334

  9. Meta-Analyses and Orthodontic Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Moschos A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Aim of this systematic review was to assess the orthodontic related issues which currently provide the best evidence as documented by meta-analyses, by critically evaluating and discussing the methodology used in these studies. Material and Methods: Several electronic databases were searched and handsearching was also performed in order to identify the corresponding meta-analyses investigating orthodontic related subjects. In total, 197 studies were retrieved initially. After applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 articles were identified as meta-analyses treating orthodontic-related subjects. Results: Many of these 27 papers presented sufficient quality and followed appropriate meta-analytic approaches to quantitatively synthesize data and presented adequately supported evidence. However, the methodology used in some of them presented weaknesses, limitations or deficiencies. Consequently, the topics in orthodontics which currently provide the best evidence, include some issues related to Class II or Class III treatment, treatment of transverse problems, external apical root resorption, dental anomalies, such as congenital missing teeth and tooth transposition, frequency of severe occlusal problems, nickel hypersensitivity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and computer-assisted learning in orthodontic education. Conclusions: Only a few orthodontic related issues have been so far investigated by means of MAs. In addition, for some of these issues investigated in the corresponding MAs no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to significant methodological deficiencies of these studies. According to this investigation, it can be concluded that at the begin of the 21st century there is evidence for only a few orthodontic related issues as documented by meta-analyses, and more well-conducted high quality research studies are needed to produce strong evidence in order to support evidence-based clinical practice in orthodontics. PMID

  10. Factors Related to Successful Misoprostol Treatment for Early Pregnancy Failure

    PubMed Central

    Creinin, Mitchell D.; Huang, Xiangke; Westhoff, Carolyn; Barnhart, Kurt; Gilles, Jerry M.; Zhang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify potential predictors for treatment success in medical management with misoprostol for early pregnancy failure. METHODS We conducted a planned secondary analysis of data from a multicenter trial that compared medical and surgical management of early pregnancy failure. Medical management consisted of misoprostol 800 μg vaginally on study day 1, with a repeat dose if indicated on day 3. Women returned on days 3 and 15, and a telephone interview was conducted on day 30. Failure was defined as suction aspiration for any reason within 30 days. Demographic, historical, and outcome variables were included in univariable analyses of success. Multivariable analyses were conducted using clinical site, gestational age, and variables for which the univariable analysis resulted in a P < .1 to determine predictors of overall treatment success and first-dose success. RESULTS Of the 491 women who received misoprostol, 485 met the criteria for this secondary analysis. Lower abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding within the last 24 hours, Rh-negative blood type, and nulliparity were predictive of overall success. However, only vaginal bleeding within the last 24 hours and parity of 0 or 1 were predictive of first-dose success. Overall success exceeds 92% in women who have localized abdominal pain within the last 24 hours, Rh-negative blood type, or the combination of vaginal bleeding in the past 24 hours and nulliparity. CONCLUSION Misoprostol treatment for early pregnancy failure is highly successful in select women, primarily those with active bleeding and nulliparity. Clinicians and patients should be aware of these differences when considering misoprostol treatment. PMID:16582130

  11. Use of laser in orthodontics: applications and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, C; Merigo, E; Vescovi, P; Lagori, G; Rocca, JP

    2013-01-01

    Laser technology got in these years a more and more important role in modern dentistry and, recently, also in orthodontics was proposed the utilization of laser devices. The aim of this work is to describe the utilization of this technology both in soft and hard oral tissues to improve orthodontic treatment. Several cases, with different wavelengths (532, 810, 980, 1064, 2940 and 10600 nm) and in different times of the treatment (before, during and after) are presented. All the cases reported showed, according to the literature, that the use of the laser related to orthodontic treatment offers several advantages when compared with conventional methods. In the soft tissues surgery it allows to reduce or eliminate the use of anesthetic injection, to avoid use of sutures and to bond bracket in dry enamel; associated with orthophosphoric acid, it gives a stronger adhesion of the brackets to the enamel and, in the case of porcelain brackets, it detaches them without damages; at low power (LLLT) it permits to control the pain of the first period after bonding and, by increasing the speed of teeth movement in the bone, reduces the time of the treatment. PMID:24155556

  12. Early Vascular Aging: A New Target for Hypertension Treatment.

    PubMed

    Papakatsika, Sofia; Stabouli, Stella; Antza, Christina; Kotsis, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging represents a progressive procedure involving biochemical, enzymatic, and cellular changes of the vascular tree. Early vascular aging (EVA), is defined as the inappropriate for age of vascular damage. Increased for age arterial stiffness is a biomarker that should be considered as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that can be manipulated. EVA is a new tool for guidance in everyday clinical praxis for patients at increased CV risk or a positive family history of early onset of cardiovascular events, such as stroke or coronary artery disease. Understanding the mechanisms promoting or protecting from EVA, a process that is in close relationship with CV diseases. The role of hypertension treatment against the development of vascular damage is important and different strategies could have a considerable impact on future vascular health. PMID:26548304

  13. Early Vascular Aging: A New Target for Hypertension Treatment.

    PubMed

    Papakatsika, Sofia; Stabouli, Stella; Antza, Christina; Kotsis, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Vascular aging represents a progressive procedure involving biochemical, enzymatic, and cellular changes of the vascular tree. Early vascular aging (EVA), is defined as the inappropriate for age of vascular damage. Increased for age arterial stiffness is a biomarker that should be considered as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that can be manipulated. EVA is a new tool for guidance in everyday clinical praxis for patients at increased CV risk or a positive family history of early onset of cardiovascular events, such as stroke or coronary artery disease. Understanding the mechanisms promoting or protecting from EVA, a process that is in close relationship with CV diseases. The role of hypertension treatment against the development of vascular damage is important and different strategies could have a considerable impact on future vascular health.

  14. Making the case for early treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2010-01-01

    Early acne can be defined as the occurrence of acne at its onset, primarily in preteens, or as acne at its earliest severity (ie, mild to moderate). Although the majority of patients with acne are treated by dermatologists, most, particularly mild to moderate cases, could be successfully managed by primary care physicians. Therefore, it is important for physicians to understand the benefits of treating all types of acne, not just the most severe. Awareness of the emotional impact of acne, particularly in adolescence, as well as recognition of possible scarring are important considerations. To achieve optimal results, physicians should be familiar with classification and severity grading of acne. Also, in-depth knowledge of available acne medications will streamline and optimize treatment regimens. Recognizing, treating, and monitoring the progress of early acne may lead to quicker, better clinical outcomes and improved quality of life.

  15. Making the case for early treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2010-01-01

    Early acne can be defined as the occurrence of acne at its onset, primarily in preteens, or as acne at its earliest severity (ie, mild to moderate). Although the majority of patients with acne are treated by dermatologists, most, particularly mild to moderate cases, could be successfully managed by primary care physicians. Therefore, it is important for physicians to understand the benefits of treating all types of acne, not just the most severe. Awareness of the emotional impact of acne, particularly in adolescence, as well as recognition of possible scarring are important considerations. To achieve optimal results, physicians should be familiar with classification and severity grading of acne. Also, in-depth knowledge of available acne medications will streamline and optimize treatment regimens. Recognizing, treating, and monitoring the progress of early acne may lead to quicker, better clinical outcomes and improved quality of life. PMID:19738184

  16. Opportunity Cost for Early Treatment of Chagas Disease in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Janine M.; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions/Significance In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life. PMID:24743112

  17. Regenerative approaches for the treatment of early OA.

    PubMed

    de Girolamo, L; Kon, E; Filardo, G; Marmotti, A G; Soler, F; Peretti, G M; Vannini, F; Madry, H; Chubinskaya, S

    2016-06-01

    The diagnosis and the prompt treatment of early osteoarthritis (OA) represent vital steps for delaying the onset and progression of fully blown OA, which is the most common form of arthritis, involving more than 10 % of the world's population older than 60 years of age. Nonsurgical treatments such as physiotherapy, anti-inflammatory medications, and other disease-modifying drugs all have modest and short-lasting effect. In this context, the biological approaches have recently gained more and more attention. Growth factors, blood derivatives, such as platelet concentrates, and mesenchymal adult stem cells, either expanded or freshly isolated, are advocated amongst the most promising tool for the treatment of OA, especially in the early phases. Primarily targeted towards focal cartilage defects, these biological agents have indeed recently showed promising results to relieve pain and reduce inflammation in patients with more advanced OA as well, with the final aim to halt the progression of the disease and the need for joint replacement. However, despite of a number of satisfactory in vitro and pre-clinical studies, the evidences are still limited to support their clinical efficacy in OA setting. PMID:27120191

  18. Stability of Palatal Rugae as a Forensic Marker in Orthodontically Treated Cases.

    PubMed

    Ali, Batool; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2016-09-01

    The palatal rugae have been used as a reference landmark and identification marker by orthodontists and forensic analysts. However, the reliability of palatal rugae as a forensic marker remains questionable once an individual is subjected to orthodontic treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the changes in the rugae pattern after nonextraction, extraction, and maxillary expansion orthodontic treatment. The lengths and shapes of palatal rugae were evaluated on the pretreatment and post-treatment dental casts of 168 subjects using the Thomas and Kotze classification. Extraction treatment significantly reduced the second and third rugae lengths (p < 0.05), whereas the third rugae length was significantly increased after palatal expansion (p < 0.05). The shape of rugae remained consistent in all the study groups which may be used as a reliable forensic marker in subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment. However, the use of the lengths of palatal rugae in forensic odontology must be made with caution.

  19. Orthodontics. Part 9: anchorage control and distal movement.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Harry, D; Sandy, J

    2004-03-13

    Anchorage is an important consideration when planning orthodontic tooth movement. Unwanted tooth movement known as loss of anchorage can have a detrimental effect on the treatment outcome. Anchorage can be sourced from the teeth, the oral mucosa and underlying bone, implants and extra orally. If extra-oral anchorage is used, particularly with a facebow then the use of at least two safety devices is mandatory.

  20. History and current use of clinical photography in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Galante, Donna L

    2009-03-01

    The history of dentistry and photography began in 1840 when the first dental school was opened, and the world's first photographic gallery was opened and operated by a dentist turned photographer. Since that time, photography and dentistry have been partners as photography has become an integral part of a patient's record and treatment plan. The specialty of orthodontics has led the way in this model of recording patient data.

  1. Early treatment with eculizumab in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garjau, Maria; Azancot, María; Ramos, Rosa; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Montero, Maria Angeles; Serón, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare and life-threatening disease caused by complement system dysregulation leading to uncontrolled complement activation and thrombotic microangiopathy. We report the case of an adult patient with plasmaphaeresis-resistant aHUS and hypertension treated with the complement inhibitor eculizumab. Eculizumab was shown to completely inhibit haemolysis, normalize thrombocyte levels and increase diuresis. Full recovery of renal function was not possible due to irreversible renal damage prior to eculizumab initiation. These findings highlight the importance of early treatment with eculizumab in patients with poor response to standard therapy, in order to avoid irreversible renal damage.

  2. Early treatment with eculizumab in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Garjau, Maria; Azancot, María; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; Montero, Maria Angeles; Serón, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare and life-threatening disease caused by complement system dysregulation leading to uncontrolled complement activation and thrombotic microangiopathy. We report the case of an adult patient with plasmaphaeresis-resistant aHUS and hypertension treated with the complement inhibitor eculizumab. Eculizumab was shown to completely inhibit haemolysis, normalize thrombocyte levels and increase diuresis. Full recovery of renal function was not possible due to irreversible renal damage prior to eculizumab initiation. These findings highlight the importance of early treatment with eculizumab in patients with poor response to standard therapy, in order to avoid irreversible renal damage. PMID:26069743

  3. Orthodontic microsurgery: a new surgically guided technique for dental movement.

    PubMed

    Vercellotti, Tomaso; Podesta, Andrea

    2007-08-01

    Eight patients with malocclusions were treated with a new orthodontic-surgical technique that reduces the duration of treatment compared to conventional techniques. The monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament distraction (MTDLD) technique combines two different dental movements that work separately but simultaneously on opposite root surfaces. On the root surface corresponding to the direction of movement, vertical and horizontal microsurgical corticotomies are performed around each tooth root with a piezosurgical microsaw to eliminate cortical bone resistance. The immediate application of strong biomechanical forces produces rapid dislocation of the root and the cortical bone together. On the root surface opposite the direction of movement, the force of dislocation produces rapid distraction of ligament fibers. During the osteogenic process that follows, application of normal orthodontic biomechanics achieves the final tooth movement. All eight patients underwent periodontal and radiologic examinations for more than 1 year after treatment. No periodontal defects were observed in any of the patients, including one with a severe malocclusion and a thin periodontal tissue biotype. Compared to traditional orthodontic therapy, the average treatment time with the MTDLD technique in the mandible and maxilla was reduced by 60% and 70%, respectively.

  4. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For inoperable patients, argon plasma coagulation can be used as an alternative endoscopic treatment. Immediately after the incomplete resection or residual tumor has been confirmed by the pathologist, clinicians should also decide upon any additional treatment to be carried out during the follow-up period. PMID:27435699

  5. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For inoperable patients, argon plasma coagulation can be used as an alternative endoscopic treatment. Immediately after the incomplete resection or residual tumor has been confirmed by the pathologist, clinicians should also decide upon any additional treatment to be carried out during the follow-up period. PMID:27435699

  6. Adjusting dento-alveolar morphology with orthodontic mini-implants (miniscrews). A clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Bratu, Cristina Dana; Pop, R V; Pop, Silvia-Izabella; Bratu, Em A

    2011-01-01

    Mini-implants are increasingly popular for creating skeletal anchorage in clinical orthodontics. The aim of this article is to present and discuss the clinical uses, benefits and drawbacks of the miniscrew implants used to reorder and adjust the dento-alveolar morphology of the overerupted maxillary molars. The loss of the lower premolars and molars very often leads to overeruption of the opposing maxillary teeth, combined with insufficient space for prosthetic restorations. The available treatment options are either a significant reduction of the maxillary teeth, often associated with endodontic treatment, or a complex orthodontic treatment. In the previous years, different cases of orthodontic intrusion with mini-implants were described. In this report, the authors describe a case of a young patient who needed a maxillary molar intrusion in order to get sufficient prosthetic space for an implant supported fixed restoration in the third quadrant. This treatment type preserved maximum tooth structures and allowed a successful mandibular restoration. PMID:22119837

  7. Genetic predisposition to external apical root resorption in orthodontic patients: linkage of chromosome-18 marker.

    PubMed

    Al-Qawasmi, R A; Hartsfield, J K; Everett, E T; Flury, L; Liu, L; Foroud, T M; Macri, J V; Roberts, W E

    2003-05-01

    External apical root resorption (EARR) is a common orthodontic treatment sequela. Previous studies implicate a substantial genetic component for EARR. Using a candidate gene approach, we investigated possible linkage of EARR associated with orthodontic treatment with the TNSALP, TNFalpha, and TNFRSF11A gene loci. The sample was comprised of 38 American Caucasian families with a total of 79 siblings who completed comprehensive orthodontic treatment. EARR was assessed by means of pre- and post-treatment radiographs. Buccal swab cells were collected for extraction and analysis of DNA. No evidence of linkage was found with EARR and the TNFalpha and TNSALP genes. Non-parametric sibling pair linkage analysis identified evidence of linkage (LOD = 2.5; p = 0.02) of EARR affecting the maxillary central incisor with the microsatellite marker D18S64 (tightly linked to TNFRSF11A). This indicates that the TNFRSF11A locus, or another tightly linked gene, is associated with EARR.

  8. Early Dexamethasone Treatment Induces Placental Apoptosis in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wenbin; Shang, Hongkai; Li, Shaofu; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Ehrlich, Loreen; Lange, Karolin; Xu, Huaisheng; Henrich, Wolfgang; Dudenhausen, Joachim W.; Plagemann, Andreas; Newnham, John P.; Challis, John R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid treatment given in late pregnancy in sheep resulted in altered placental development and function. An imbalance of placental survival and apoptotic factors resulting in an increased rate of apoptosis may be involved. We have now investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on binucleate cells (BNCs), placental apoptosis, and fetal sex as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 105) were randomized to control (n = 56, 2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX treatment (n = 49, intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours over 48 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placentomes were collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. At 100 dG, DEX in females reduced BNC numbers, placental antiapoptotic (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), and increased proapoptotic factors (Bax, p53), associated with a temporarily decrease in fetal growth. At 125 dG, BNC numbers and apoptotic markers were restored to normal. In males, ovine placental lactogen-protein levels after DEX were increased at 50 dG, but at 100 and 140 dG significantly decreased compared to controls. In contrast to females, these changes were independent of altered BNC numbers or apoptotic markers. Early DEX was associated with sex-specific, transient alterations in BNC numbers, which may contribute to changes in placental and fetal development. Furthermore, in females, altered placental apoptosis markers may be involved. PMID:25063551

  9. Orthodontic-orthognathic interventions in orthognathic surgical cases: "Paper surgery" and "model surgery" concepts in surgical orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Gandedkar, Narayan H; Chng, Chai Kiat; Yeow, Vincent Kok Leng

    2016-01-01

    Thorough planning and execution is the key for successful treatment of dentofacial deformity involving surgical orthodontics. Presurgical planning (paper surgery and model surgery) are the most essential prerequisites of orthognathic surgery, and orthodontist is the one who carries out this procedure by evaluating diagnostic aids such as crucial clinical findings and radiographic assessments. However, literature pertaining to step-by-step orthognathic surgical guidelines is limited. Hence, this article makes an attempt to provide an insight and nuances involved in the planning and execution. The diagnostic information revealed from clinical findings and radiographic assessments is integrated in the "paper surgery" to establish "surgical-plan." Furthermore, the "paper surgery" is emulated in "model surgery" such that surgical bite-wafers are created, which aid surgeon to preview the final outcome and make surgical movements that are deemed essential for the desired skeletal and dental outcomes. Skeletal complexities are corrected by performing "paper surgery" and an occlusion is set up during "model surgery" for the fabrication of surgical bite-wafers. Further, orthodontics is carried out for the proper settling and finishing of occlusion. Article describes the nuances involved in the treatment of Class III skeletal deformity individuals treated with orthognathic surgical approach and illustrates orthodontic-orthognathic step-by-step procedures from "treatment planning" to "execution" for successful management of aforementioned dentofacial deformity.

  10. Orthodontic-orthognathic interventions in orthognathic surgical cases: "Paper surgery" and "model surgery" concepts in surgical orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Gandedkar, Narayan H; Chng, Chai Kiat; Yeow, Vincent Kok Leng

    2016-01-01

    Thorough planning and execution is the key for successful treatment of dentofacial deformity involving surgical orthodontics. Presurgical planning (paper surgery and model surgery) are the most essential prerequisites of orthognathic surgery, and orthodontist is the one who carries out this procedure by evaluating diagnostic aids such as crucial clinical findings and radiographic assessments. However, literature pertaining to step-by-step orthognathic surgical guidelines is limited. Hence, this article makes an attempt to provide an insight and nuances involved in the planning and execution. The diagnostic information revealed from clinical findings and radiographic assessments is integrated in the "paper surgery" to establish "surgical-plan." Furthermore, the "paper surgery" is emulated in "model surgery" such that surgical bite-wafers are created, which aid surgeon to preview the final outcome and make surgical movements that are deemed essential for the desired skeletal and dental outcomes. Skeletal complexities are corrected by performing "paper surgery" and an occlusion is set up during "model surgery" for the fabrication of surgical bite-wafers. Further, orthodontics is carried out for the proper settling and finishing of occlusion. Article describes the nuances involved in the treatment of Class III skeletal deformity individuals treated with orthognathic surgical approach and illustrates orthodontic-orthognathic step-by-step procedures from "treatment planning" to "execution" for successful management of aforementioned dentofacial deformity. PMID:27630506

  11. Removable orthodontic appliance with nickel-titanium spring to reposition the upper incisors in an autistic patient.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kan; Jang, Insan; Kubota, Kazumi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Fujiwara, Taku

    2013-01-01

    A newly designed removable appliance with a shape-memory wire was used for the orthodontic treatment of the anterior teeth in an 11-year-old child who had autism and intellectual disability. The device was designed to reduce the lateral incisor crossbite and the central incisors' labial rotation. The child was treated for 1 year with this removable appliance. Tooth movement was analyzed using cephalograms and surface data were derived from study models. This device proved to be very durable. The lateral incisor crossbite was corrected, and the inclination of the upper central incisors and the interincisal angle were improved. This appliance exerts light and continuous orthodontic force, without requiring any adjustments of the spring wire. The appliance also facilitated orthodontic treatment in a child with intellectual disability in whom treatment with a standard orthodontic device would be unsuitable.

  12. Orthodontics-surgical combination therapy for Class III skeletal malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, M. S.; Shetty, Nillan K.; Prasad, Rajendra B.

    2012-01-01

    The correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with severe mandibular prognathism in an adult individual requires surgical and Othodontic combination therapy. The inter disciplinary approach is the treatment of choice in most of the skeletal malocclusions. A case report of an adult individual with Class III malocclusion, having mandibular excess in sagittal and vertical plane and treated with orthodontics,, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and Le – Forte I osteotomy for the correction of skeletal, dental and soft tissue discrepancies is herewith presented. The surgical–orthodontic combination therapy has resulted in near–normal skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationship, with marked improvement in the facial esthetics in turn, has helped the patient to improve the self-confidence level. PMID:22557903

  13. [Neon-colored plastics for orthodontic appliances. Biocompatibility studies].

    PubMed

    Schendel, K U; Erdinger, L; Komposch, G; Sonntag, H G

    1995-01-01

    Public concern and issues of liability have made product safety a major concern throughout the medical field including orthodontics. The purpose of this study was to test the biocompatibility of the new neon colored plastic materials to be used for removable orthodontic appliances before they reach the market and are used in patient treatment. In addition, eight modifications of this synthetic material, which has been used in appliances for many years, were examined without neon color. The procedures established tested for: 1. mutagenicity, 2. toxicity, and 3. irritation of the mucous membrane. As alternatives to using animals the Ames Test, the Agar Overlay Assay, and the HET-CAM Test were employed to test for these properties. The tests revealed that, when the manufacturer's instructions are followed, neither the polymerized materials as used in patient appliances nor the shavings resulting from the orthodontist or the technician grinding the appliance exhibit mutagenic, toxic, or irritating properties.

  14. Comparative Study of Clinically Used NiTi Orthodontic Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Hao, Fengyu; Yang, Ke; Tan, Lili

    The purpose of the study was to comparatively investigate two NiTi orthodontic wires. It is valuable to determine the phase transformation temperature and corrosion characteristics of the orthodontic wires to further study the shape memory effect and corrosion resistance properties. Optical microscope and EDX analysis were used for microstructure characteristics and composition analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was carried out to identify the phase transformation behavior of the two wires. Electrochemical tests in artificial saliva at 37 ±1°C including polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to assess the corrosion resistance and corrosion mechanism of the wires. It was found that the transformation temperature range of A-wire (imported) is narrower while the As and Af are close to the body temperature, which is more suitable in the orthodontic operation at early stage. The corrosion current density of A-wire is lower than that of B-wire (domestically made) while the corrosion potential is higher. EIS test results indicated that the corrosion mechanism was the same. However, the oxide layer formed on the surface of A-wire is more protective.

  15. Orthodontic risk factors for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). I: Premolar extractions.

    PubMed

    Kremenak, C R; Kinser, D D; Harman, H A; Menard, C C; Jakobsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    Concern about claims that premolar extractions may put patients at risk for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) led to this study. We report first findings from a longitudinal study of orthodontic patients begun in 1983. By using the methods of Helkimo, we collected TMD data before initiation of orthodontic treatment, between 0 and 12 months after debanding, and 12 to 24 months after debanding. Analyses related Helkimo scores with premolar extractions in 65 patients for whom orthodontic treatment had been completed. Twenty-six patients were treated without premolar extractions, 25 had four premolars extracted, and 14 had two upper premolars extracted. Tests for significance of differences between mean Helkimo scores were conducted for the nonextraction group compared with the extraction groups, and between pretreatment and posttreatment Helkimo scores for each group. Results included: (1) no significant intergroup differences between mean pretreatment or posttreatment scores, and (2) small but statistically significant (p less than 0.05) differences (in the direction of improvement) between mean pretreatment and posttreatment scores for both the nonextraction group and for the four premolar extraction group.

  16. Biomedicine in orthodontics: from tooth movement to facial growth.

    PubMed

    King, G

    2009-05-01

    Biomedicine has the potential to improve orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic treatment significantly. The importance of biomedicine has grown as the result of three trends that have experienced rapid development in recent years: the increased molecularization of biology; the rise of computer modeling; and the greater application of experimentation to clinical settings. Despite this, the translation of new biologic knowledge to clinical practice in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics has been slow. Notably promising areas of orthodontic biomedical research can be recognized in diagnosis, treatment rationales, therapeutics, and monitoring. Despite facing significant challenges in all of these areas, some innovations have been rapidly adopted with minimal understanding of their biologic fundamentals while others are slow to be implemented in clinical settings. Issues related to this disparity can be identified but solutions are often less clear. Two future challenges will be highlighted: 1) the inadequacy of infrastructure and systems organization to support translation of bench science to the clinic; and 2) the inherent differences in the logic and assumptions of efficacy vs. effectiveness research.

  17. New therapeutic modalities to modulate orthodontic tooth movement

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Ildeu; Sousa, Ana Beatriz dos Santos; da Silva, Gabriela Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is desirable not only to patients because it shortens treatment time, but also to orthodontists, since treatment duration is associated with increased risk of gingival inflammation, decalcification, dental caries, and root resorption. The increased focus on the biological basis of tooth movement has rendered Orthodontics a more comprehensive specialty that incorporates facets of all fields of medicine. Current knowledge raises the possibility of using new therapeutic modalities for modulation of OTM, such as corticotomy, laser therapy, vibration (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound), local injections of biomodulators and gene therapy; with the latter being applicable in the near future. They are intended to enhance or inhibit recruitment, differentiation and/or activation of bone cells, accelerate or reduce OTM, increase stability of orthodontic results, as well as assist with the prevention of root resorption. This article summarizes recent studies on each one of these therapeutic modalities, provides readers with information about how they affect OTM and points out future clinical perspectives. PMID:25628089

  18. Early alcoholism treatment: the Emmanuel Movement and Richard Peabody.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, K

    1984-01-01

    The history of alcoholism treatment in the early twentieth century is outlined. The methods of the Emmanuel Movement and of Richard Peabody are described, biographical details of their main practitioners are given, the populations treated are described, and the predecessors and successors of the two methods are discussed. In addition, the two methods are compared with each other and with the methods of Alcoholics Anonymous and Freudian psychoanalysis. The founder of the E. Movement was a clergyman, Dr. Elwood Worcester, whose method was designed to treat a variety of neurotic disorders. He felt that all diseases, including alcoholism, had physical, mental and spiritual components. His principal techniques of relaxation therapy and suggestion (including autosuggestion) were used to reach the unconscious. Worcester felt that alcoholics could be helped by redirecting their attention away from their problems to a life of service and spirituality. Prayer, group support and self-help were important. Worcester tried to reduce patients' guilt and rejected temperance preaching. He felt that recovery must come from surrender to external forces and to the healing capacities of the unconscious. One patient of his, Courtenay Baylor, began to work with him at the E. Church. Like Worcester, Baylor believed that alcohol, and not one's life history, caused alcoholism. Baylor believed that alcoholism resulted from mental and physical "tenseness" and, like Worcester, he used relaxation therapy. He believed in giving a longer period of treatment than did Worcester and in providing more treatment for the families of alcoholics. One of Baylor's most famous patients was Peabody. Peabody had no credentials but he refined and professionalized the E. treatment method. He was a strong believer in the control of one's feelings and in increased efficiency--his patients were told to follow detailed time plans. He believed that early family history caused alcoholism. Like the E. Movement, he

  19. Mechanical properties and clinical applications of orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Kapila, S; Sachdeva, R

    1989-08-01

    This review article describes the mechanical properties and clinical applications of stainless steel, cobalt-chromium, nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and multistranded wires. The consolidation of this literature will provide the clinician with the basic working knowledge on orthodontic wire characteristics and usage. Mechanical properties of these wires are generally assessed by tensile, bending, and torsional tests. Although wire characteristics determined by these tests do not necessarily reflect the behavior of the wires under clinical conditions, they provide a basis for comparison of these wires. The characteristics desirable in an orthodontic wire are a large springback, low stiffness, good formability, high stored energy, biocompatibility and environmental stability, low surface friction, and the capability to be welded or soldered to auxiliaries. Stainless steel wires have remained popular since their introduction to orthodontics because of their formability, biocompatibility and environmental stability, stiffness, resilience, and low cost. Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) wires can be manipulated in a softened state and then subjected to heat treatment. Heat treatment of Co-Cr wires results in a wire with properties similar to those of stainless steel. Nitinol wires have a good springback and low stiffness. This alloy, however, has poor formability and joinability. Beta-titanium wires provide a combination of adequate springback, average stiffness, good formability, and can be welded to auxiliaries. Multistranded wires have a high springback and low stiffness when compared with solid stainless steel wires. Optimal use of these orthodontic wires can be made by carefully selecting the appropriate wire type and size to meet the demands of a particular clinical situation. PMID:2667330

  20. Northcroft lecture: how has the spectrum of orthodontics changed over the past decades?

    PubMed

    Melsen, Birte

    2011-06-01

    Three aspects have had a significant impact on orthodontics during the last few decades: the appliances being used, the anchorage being used and finally the distribution of patients being treated. Firstly, the marketing of appliances is increasingly leading the orthodontist to outsource important aspects of treatment such as wirebending and bracket positioning. Brackets and wires are being presented as the solution to all problems and metaphysical terms such as 'intelligent design,' 'working brackets' and 'intelligent wires' are dominating advertising and reducing the impact of evidence-based treatment approaches. Secondly, the introduction of skeletal anchorage has potentially widened the spectrum of orthodontics, allowing for treatments that could not be done with conventional appliances. Biomechanical knowledge is, however, mandatory if we agree that the system should not be abused. Thirdly, the orthodontic population comprises an increasing number of adult patients, many of whom are characterized by a degenerated dentition. The treatment of these patients requires a thorough knowledge not only of biomechanics but also of the reaction of the periodontal tissues to various types of loading. They can be treated only with custom-made appliances adapting the force systems and magnitude to the patient-specific treatment goal. In summary, the orthodontic world is being split between 'appliance-driven fast-food orthodontics' where the results to a large extent are dependent on both growth and function and 'orthodontist-driven' 'slow-food' treatments attempting to push the limits of the possible in relation to complicated problems and reversal of degeneration in adult patients. The latter treatments are performed with individualized appliances adapting the force system to the patient. This paper will attempt to summarize the bearing of these factors on present orthodontics.

  1. Northcroft lecture: how has the spectrum of orthodontics changed over the past decades?

    PubMed

    Melsen, Birte

    2011-06-01

    Three aspects have had a significant impact on orthodontics during the last few decades: the appliances being used, the anchorage being used and finally the distribution of patients being treated. Firstly, the marketing of appliances is increasingly leading the orthodontist to outsource important aspects of treatment such as wirebending and bracket positioning. Brackets and wires are being presented as the solution to all problems and metaphysical terms such as 'intelligent design,' 'working brackets' and 'intelligent wires' are dominating advertising and reducing the impact of evidence-based treatment approaches. Secondly, the introduction of skeletal anchorage has potentially widened the spectrum of orthodontics, allowing for treatments that could not be done with conventional appliances. Biomechanical knowledge is, however, mandatory if we agree that the system should not be abused. Thirdly, the orthodontic population comprises an increasing number of adult patients, many of whom are characterized by a degenerated dentition. The treatment of these patients requires a thorough knowledge not only of biomechanics but also of the reaction of the periodontal tissues to various types of loading. They can be treated only with custom-made appliances adapting the force systems and magnitude to the patient-specific treatment goal. In summary, the orthodontic world is being split between 'appliance-driven fast-food orthodontics' where the results to a large extent are dependent on both growth and function and 'orthodontist-driven' 'slow-food' treatments attempting to push the limits of the possible in relation to complicated problems and reversal of degeneration in adult patients. The latter treatments are performed with individualized appliances adapting the force system to the patient. This paper will attempt to summarize the bearing of these factors on present orthodontics. PMID:21677105

  2. Case studies on local orthodontic traction by minis-implants before implant rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pei; Xu, Wei-Feng; Ma, Zhi-Gui; Zhang, Shan-Yong; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Dentition defect with malocclusion is a common occurrence in the clinical work. To restore proper occlusion, preprosthetic corrections of these malposed teeth are often indispensible. The use of orthodontic mini-implants as temporary anchorage devices provides a plausible treatment for those patients with local problems. The aim of this study was to present two cases using local orthodontic traction in conjunction with mini-implants to provide necessary conditions for implant rehabilitation in three dimensional space. Clinical consideration: Two cases who had dentition defect with malocclusion were included in the present study. As both of them rejected crown reduction or orthodontics treatment, local orthodontic traction by mini-implants was used to restore normal space for implant rehabilitation in three dimensions. Careful mechanics analysis and personalized mechanical device were under consideration. The results showed that the biological responses of the corrected teeth and the surrounding bony structures appeared normal and acceptable. Moreover the patients achieved an ideal local occlusion with a short treatment time. Conclusion: In conclusion local orthodontic traction by mini-implants was a less-invasive and short-term method with favorable effects and less necessary occlusal adjustments. PMID:26221389

  3. Orthodontic principles and guidelines for the surgery-first approach to orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, C S; Chen, Y-R

    2015-12-01

    The surgery-first approach has become a new paradigm in orthognathic surgery. With the surgery-first approach, most of the patient's teeth are in their original positions and have not undergone orthodontic treatment prior to the patient undergoing orthognathic surgery. A 'treatable' malocclusion should be attained following orthognathic surgery. Orthodontists must ensure that they can manage the 'treatable' malocclusion by actively participating in the patient's surgical plan. Therefore, orthodontic principles and guidelines must be established. Three-dimensional computed tomography should be used to construct the midfacial plane and then to assess discrepancies in the midfacial structures as well as yaw and roll of the bilateral facial structures. Orthognathic surgery should be performed to improve the alignment of such discrepancies to attain a skeletal class I relationship and to attain an aesthetically pleasing face. The surgery-first approach uses osteotomy to solve most of the skeletal and dental problems and to simplify postoperative orthodontic treatment by providing a treatable malocclusion for which mostly only anteroposterior orthodontic movement is required, with minimal transverse or vertical orthodontic movements. Numerous studies have documented the efficacy and long-term stability. Patients undergoing the surgery-first approach benefit from an immediate improvement in facial aesthetics, oral function, and self-confidence, with a shorter total treatment period.

  4. Australian women's prediagnostic decision-making styles, relating to treatment choices for early breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Budden, Lea M; Pierce, Penny F; Hayes, Barbara A; Buettner, Petra G

    2003-01-01

    Women diagnosed with early breast cancer are now asked by their doctors to choose from a range of options for their preferred medical treatment plan. Little information is known about women's treatment decision-making and therefore nurses do not have evidence to guide this decision support. The aim of this descriptive survey was to investigate the prediagnostic decision-making behavior of a sample (N = 377) of Australian women, regarding their treatment choices for early breast cancer. The data were collected using the Pre-Decision Portfolio Questionnaire (PDPQ) by Pierce (1996), which includes the Michigan Assessment of Decision Styles (MADS). Of 366 participating women, 19.9% strongly agreed to all three items of the MADS factor Deferring Responsibility; 0.3% strongly agreed to all four factors of Avoidance; 32.7% strongly agreed on all four items of Information Seeking; and 63.4% strongly agreed to all five items of Deliberation. Women showed a variety of preferred decision styles, depending on age, education, occupation and employment status. Only 36% of women indicated it was critically important to "get the treatment over as soon as possible;" 55% to "participate in selecting treatment;" and 53% to "read a lot of information:" The understanding of factors that are important to women when they are making decisions for medical treatment is a mandatory step in designing customized evidence-based decision support, which can be delivered by nurses to help women during this distressing experience.

  5. The Effects of Chlorhexidine and Persica Mouthwashes on Colonization of Streptococcus mutans on Fixed Orthodontics O-rings

    PubMed Central

    Saffari, Fereshteh; Danesh Ardakani, Mohammad; Zandi, Hengameh; Heidarzadeh, Hamed; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Fixed orthodontic appliances predispose patients to dental caries. Use of mouthrinses has been introduced as the effective way for reducing dental plaque accumulation. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Persica mouthwash and Chlorhexidine (CHX) on colonization of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on fixed orthodontic O-rings. Materials and Method Thirty patients with fixed orthodontic appliances and proper oral hygiene were randomly provided by CHX and Persica and trained to use these mouthwashes according to the manufacturer’s instruction. Sampling was carried out right before and 4 weeks after mouthrinsing treatment. The mean amounts of S. mutans colonies in these groups were compared. Results Comparison of S. mutans colonization within each group revealed both mouthrinses to be efficient. However, this difference was found to be significant only in CHX group. Conclusion Persica cannot be a good alternative mouthwash and patients on orthodontic treatment are still recommended to use CHX. PMID:25759859

  6. Harvey Cushing's Early Operative Treatment of Skull Base Fractures.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Courtney; Raza, Shaan M; Gallia, Gary L; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    Objectives To review Dr. Harvey Cushing's early surgical cases at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, revealing details of his operative approaches to fractures of the skull base. Design Following institutional review board approval and through the courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Archives, we reviewed the Johns Hopkins Hospital surgical files. Setting The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1896 to 1912. Participants A total of 24 patients underwent operative treatment for suspected fractures of the skull base. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measure was operative approach, postoperative mortality, and condition recorded at the time of discharge. Results Overall, 23 patients underwent operative treatment for suspected skull base fractures. The mechanisms of injury were known for 22 patients and included work-related injuries (41%), falls (23%), vehicle injuries (32%), and other trauma (5%). One patient had no mechanism of injury specified in the file. The outcome at the time of discharge from the hospital was "well" or "improved" in 12 patients (52%). The remaining 11 patients died during their admission. Conclusions Although Cushing's experience with selected skull base pathology has been previously reported, the breadth of his contributions to operative approaches to the skull base has been neglected. PMID:24498586

  7. Adjunctive Orthodontic Applications in Dental Implantology.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Ali; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    2015-08-01

    Implant placement is often necessitated for replacement of teeth with pathologically damaged alveolar bone due to periodontitis or traumatic injury. Surgical augmentation of resorbed bone has many limitations, including lower efficacy of vertical augmentation than horizontal augmentation, as well as morbidity associated with grafting procedure. Orthodontic therapy has been proposed as a useful method for augmenting the resorbed alveolar bone and reforming aesthetically appealing gingival margin, prior to implant placement. This narrative review summarizes the available evidence for the application of orthodontic strategies that can be used as adjunct in selected cases to augment bone volume for the future implant site and maintain space for the prosthetic parts of the implant. These are (1) orthodontic extrusion of compromised teeth to generate vertical bone volume and enhance gingival architecture, (2) tooth preservation and postponing orthodontic space opening to maintain bone volume in future implant site, (3) orthodontic implant site switching to eliminate the deficient bone volume or risky implant sites, and (4) the provision of a rigid fixed-bonded retainer to maintain the implant site. Although there are no randomized controlled clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of orthodontic therapy for implant site development, clinical case reports and experience document the efficacy of orthodontic therapy for this application.

  8. In vivo determination of aluminum, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, titanium and vanadium in oral mucosa cells from orthodontic patients with mini-implants by Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Jos, Angeles; Puerto, Maria; Calleja, Ana; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-10-01

    Miniscrews are used as orthodontic anchorage devices in the dentistry clinical practice but the in vivo metallic release from these structures has been not previously investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the content of Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Ti and V in oral mucosa cells of control subjects, patients under orthodontic treatment and with both, orthodontic treatment and miniscrew, in order to know the contribution of these mini-implants to the total metallic content. ICP-MS measurements revealed the following ascending order: Crorthodontic group, and for Ni in both, orthodontic and orthodontic+miniscrew groups. Potential correlations among metallic elements and with some clinical factors were also explored. These findings suggest that miniscrews do not increase significantly the metal release. PMID:26302907

  9. Prevalence of hypodontia in orthodontic patients in Brasilia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Raquel Ribeiro; da Fonseca, Janaína Aparecida Calaça; Paula, Lílian Marly; Faber, Jorge; Acevedo, Ana Carolina

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of hypodontia and associated dental anomalies in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment in Brasília, Brazil, over a 2 year period (1998-2000). The records of 1049 orthodontic patients between 10 and 15.7 years of age (507 males and 542 females) from 16 orthodontic clinics were analysed. Descriptive statistics were performed for the study variables. A chi-square test was used to determine the difference in the prevalence of hypodontia between genders. The prevalence of hypodontia was 6.3 per cent (39.4 per cent males and 60.6 per cent females) with no statistically significant difference between the genders. One case of oligodontia was observed. The maxillary lateral incisor was the most frequently missing tooth, followed by the mandibular second premolar. All cases of hypodontia, except one, were associated with at least one other dental anomaly. These associated dental anomalies were retained primary teeth (30.3 per cent), ectopic canine eruption (25.8 per cent), taurodontism (21.2 per cent), and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors (16.7 per cent). PMID:19837747

  10. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments. PMID:15584258

  11. The effect of budesonide on orthodontic induced root resorption

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Hosseinagha; Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza Fatahi; Ardekani, Mohammed Danesh; Bemanianashkezari, Mohammad Hassan; Modaresi, Jalil; Masomi, Yousef; Moghadam, Mahdjoube Goldani

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that budesonide increases the susceptibility of teeth to root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial design (animal study) was employed. Budesonide was administered in test group for 14 days during which orthodontic force was applied to upper right molar. Afterwards, root resorption was measured on mesio-cervical and disto-apical parts of the mesial root on transverse histological sections. ANOVA and Bonfferoni tests were used. Statistical significance was considered to be P ≤ 0.05. Results: In general, the subgroups in which the force was applied showed significantly greater root resorption. Where force was applied there was no significant difference, whether budesonide was administered or not. While where there was no force, a group who received budesonide showed significantly greater root resorption than the other, unless at the coronal level where the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it seems budesonide could increase root resorption, but in the presence of orthodontic force this effect is negligible. PMID:26288626

  12. Comparisons of similar patients treated by general dental clinicians and orthodontic specialists. Outcome and economical considerations.

    PubMed

    Laag, Björn; Ström, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare orthodontic treatment in two groups of patients in regard to treatment results and costs. One group was treated at a General Dental Clinic (GDC) with removable appliances and the other at a Special Orthodontic Clinic (SOC) using fixed appliances. Both groups had similar malocclusions. All treatment plans were determined bythe same orthodontic specialist. Study models were taken before and after the treatment of the patients. Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-index) was used to determine the extent of treatment needed. Weigthed Peer Assessment Rating (WPAR) was calculated for every model. The percentage of improvement in each group was calculated and results were compared. Chair time and treatment costs extracted from patient records were registered. The group treated at the GDC had initially WPAR 22.2 and the percentage reduction in WPAR 69 was percent.The group from the SOC had initially WPAR 24.0 and was reduced by 81 percent. Treatment costs, with the exception of x-ray analyses, were 56 percent higher for the SOC.The results of the study indicated that it was economically advantageous to treat patients with removable appliances at a GDC, if the patients are sufficiently cooperative.

  13. Antibacterial effects of several current orthodontic materials against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Catalbaş, B; Kamak, H; Demir, A; Nur, M; Hadimli, H H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antibacterial effect of several current orthodontic materials against a certain oral bacterium. The antibacterial activities of six orthodontic composite resins (Transbond LR, Light Cure Retainer (LCR), Light Bond, System 1+, Kurasper F, Transbond XT adhesive), two orthodontic bonding materials (Transbond XT primer and System 1+ activator) and two glass ionomer cements (GIC) [Multicure Glass Ionomer and Ketac Cem GIC] were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans. The hard materials were put into the Teflon mould. The liquid materials were put on a paper disc. All materials were handled under aseptic conditions and placed on agar culture plates. All plates were incubated at 5% CO2 and 37 degrees C for 48 hours. The bacterial growth inhibition zones including the diameter of the sample were measured in millimetres. As a result of this study, the multicure GIC showed the highest antibacterial effectiveness, but no inhibition zones were noted for ketac cem GIC. The light bond adhesive of the Reliance orthodontic bonding system produced high antibacterial effect against S mutans, while the Reliance composite (LCR) did not show any antibacterial effect (p < 0.05). Both composite and primer of the transbond XT system demonstrated significant antibacterial effect against the test bacterium when compared to transbond LR (p < 0.05). Among the materials tested, kurasper F, Ormco system 1+ and system 1+ activator showed slight or no inhibitory effect against the test bacterium in this study In patients who have relatively high salivary levels of Streptococci mutans before treatment, the multicure GIC, the Reliance light bond adhesive, and transbond XT system which had high level antibacterial properties could be applied. PMID:23757904

  14. Extensive Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor of the Maxilla: A Case Report of Conservative Surgical Excision and Orthodontic Alignment of Impacted Canine

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jee-Won

    2014-01-01

    The present report describe the surgical therapy, clinical course, orthodontic treatment and morphological characteristics of an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in the maxilla of an 11-year-old patient. The cystic tumor filled the maxillary sinus and involved a tooth. Marsupialization was accompanied by partial enucleation and applied traction to the affected tooth by a fixed orthodontic appliance. Healing was uneventful and no local recurrence was observed during a 1-year period of follow-up control. PMID:27489830

  15. The assessment of orthodontic bonding defects: optical coherence tomography followed by three-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rominu, R.; Sinescu, C.; Rominu, M.; Negrutiu, M.; Petrescu, E.; Pop, D.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2011-10-01

    Orthodontic bonding is a simple yet important procedure that can influence the outcome of treatment in case it is performed incorrectly. An orthodontic treatment shadowed by repeated bonding failures can become unduly long and will decrease patient trust and compliance. Optical coherence tomography has been widely used in ophtalmology but is relatively new to dentistry. Using OCT one can detect aerial inclusions within the orthodontic adhesive or even identify incongruence between the bracket base and the tooth surface. The aim of our study was to identify bonding defects and reconstruct them three-dimensionally in order to be able to characterize them more accurately. We bonded 30 sound human permanent teeth with ceramic orthodontic brackets using a no-mix self-curing orthodontic adhesive. Prior to bonding all teeth were stored in tap water at 4°C and then professionally cleaned with rotary brushes and pumice. The samples were processed by the same person and the rotary brushes were changed after every fifth tooth. All interfaces were investigated by means of OCT and 4 defects were found. Subsequently, the defects were reconstructed threedimensionally using an open-source program. By identifying and reconstructing bonding defects we could assess the quality of the bonding procedure. Since bonding tends to be more accurate in vitro where the environmental conditions are close to ideal, it is probable that defects found in vivo be even greater in number, which leads to the conclusion that this type of investigation is potentially valuable.

  16. Piezocision-assisted Invisalign treatment.

    PubMed

    Keser, Elif I; Dibart, Serge

    2011-03-01

    In today's fast-paced, esthetic-conscious society, the orthodontic treatment of the adult patient can sometimes be a challenge. Considerable time spent in treatment as well as the use of brackets often deter patients from seeking treatment. The authors illustrate how piezocision combined with Invisalign can be used in selected cases to successfully treat adults who would otherwise not pursue orthodontic treatment.

  17. Severe bidentoalveolar protrusion treated with orthodontic microimplant-dependent en-masse retraction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2007-07-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 14.5-year-old girl with severe bidentoalveolar protrusion. Specially designed sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) orthodontic microimplants (C-implants, Cimplant Co, Seoul, Korea) were placed in the alveolar bone in all 4 quadrants to provide anchorage for en-masse retraction without the help of banded or bonded molars. Successful retraction was achieved. The mandibular dentition was detailed by using conventional orthodontic appliances during the finishing stage. The osseointegration potential of these microimplants allows them to resist rotational force moments and control 3-dimensional movements of the anterior teeth during retraction. Facial esthetics improved for the patient, fullness of the upper and lower lips was reduced, and the interdental relationship was corrected. Biomechanical considerations, efficacy, and potential complications of the treatment technique are discussed.

  18. The Anterior Ratio: The Missing Link between Orthodontics and Aesthetic Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Aulakh, Raman

    2013-01-01

    There is an increase in the number of dentists using orthodontic treatment for anterior tooth alignment. This is either combined with additive bonding or interproximal reduction; knowing “when to” and “how much” requires an understanding of the anterior ratio. This case report explains how to use the anterior ratio to help provide optimal aesthetics and function for the ortho-restorative patient. The anterior ratio is an important diagnostic tool required for both disciplines of orthodontics and restorative dentistry which is often overlooked. The case report demonstrates the use of the Invisalign orthodontic appliance and the corresponding ClinCheck software to help achieve the proposed treatment goals. PMID:24024044

  19. Experience of pain during an orthodontic procedure.

    PubMed

    Bergius, Marianne; Berggren, Ulf; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2002-04-01

    This study investigated pain experiences during a common orthodontic treatment. Fifty-five patients (12-18 yr) starting treatment due to crowding were included. Molar elastic separators were inserted bilaterally, and telephone interviews were made during evenings for a week. Pain intensity was assessed on a VAS scale, and pain medications were recorded. Forty-eight patients (87%) reported pain the first evening. The highest intensity of pain was reached the day after placement of separators (VAS mean = 43.7). At day 7, 42% of the patients still reported pain. Pain medication was used by 27% of the patients during the first 2 d, after which no patients used painkillers. While motivational factors and reasons for seeking treatment did not influence pain assessments, patients taking pain medication made significantly higher pain ratings during the days medication was used. Girls made significantly higher pain ratings during the later phase (day 3-7) of the follow-up week. Statistically significant relationships were found between 'late' VAS assessments and reported level of previous general pain experiences. The perceived pain from separators was comparable to previous general and dental pain experiences. It was concluded that pain is common after a simple procedure such as placement of molar separators. The experience of pain varied substantially among subjects. The intensity of pain was gradually reduced, but still more than 40% of the teenagers reported some pain after 1 week.

  20. Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in GCF during Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mohammad; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Dianat, Omid; Khoramian Tusi, Somayeh; Younessian, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The present constituents of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can reflect the changes occurring in underlying tissues. Considering variety of biologic bone markers, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been examined as bone turn over markers in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose The current study designed in a longitudinal pattern to determine the changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Method An upper canines from twelve patients (mean age: 14±2 years) undergoing extraction orthodontic treatment for distal movement served as the test tooth (DC), and its contralateral (CC) and antagonist (AC) canines were used as controls. The CC was included in orthodontic appliance without orthodontic force; the AC was free from any orthodontic appliance. The GCF around the experimental teeth was harvested from mesial and distal tooth sites immediately before appliance placement (T0), and 14 (T2) and 28 days (T3) after it and ALP and ACP concentration were determined spectrophotometrically. Results ALP concentration was elevated significantly in DC and CC groups at days 14 and 28 compared with the AC. In DC group, the ALP was significantly greater in mesial sites than distal site, while no significant changes were found between both sites of CC. The peak level of ALP was observed in mesial sites of DC at T2. Regarding ACP, significant elevation of this enzyme was seen in DC group both in mesial and distal sites at T2 and T3. The peak level of this enzyme was seen at T2. Conclusion Monitoring simultaneous changes of ALP and ACP levels in GCF can reflect the tissue responses occur in periodontium during bone formation and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement, respectively. PMID:26535403