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Sample records for early osteoarthritis oa

  1. Early osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Kon, Elizaveta; Condello, Vincenzo; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Steinwachs, Matthias; Seil, Romain; Berruto, Massimo; Engebretsen, Lars; Filardo, Giuseppe; Angele, Peter

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing awareness on the importance in identifying early phases of the degenerative processes in knee osteoarthritis (OA), the crucial period of the disease when there might still be the possibility to initiate treatments preventing its progression. Early OA may show a diffuse and ill-defined involvement, but also originate in the cartilage surrounding a focal lesion, thus necessitating a separate assessment of these two entities. Early OA can be considered to include a maximal involvement of 50 % of the cartilage thickness based on the macroscopic ICRS classification, reflecting an OARSI grade 4. The purpose of this paper was to provide an updated review of the current status of the diagnosis and definition of early knee OA, including the clinical, radiographical, histological, MRI, and arthroscopic definitions and biomarkers. Based on current evidence, practical classification criteria are presented. As new insights and technologies become available, they will further evolve to better define and treat early knee OA.

  2. The role of imaging in early hip OA.

    PubMed

    Siebelt, M; Agricola, R; Weinans, H; Kim, Y J

    2014-10-01

    Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone sclerosis and osteophyte formation. Nowadays, OA is thought to develop via different etiologies that all lead to a similar form of end stage joint degradation. One of these subtypes is related to an abnormal shaped hip joint, like acetabular dysplasia and a cam deformity. These bony abnormalities are highly predictive for development of hip OA, but they are likely to already be present from childhood. This suggests that these deformations induce OA changes in the hip, well before extensive hip degradation becomes present three to four decades later. Accurate detection and successful characterization of these early OA events might lead to better treatment options for hip OA besides nowadays available invasive joint replacement surgery. However, current diagnostic imaging techniques like radiographs or plain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are not sensitive enough to detect these subtle early OA changes. Nor are they able to disentangle intertwined and overlapping cascades from different OA subtypes, and neither can they predict OA progression. New and more sensitive imaging techniques might enable us to detect first OA changes on a cellular level, providing us with new opportunities for early intervention. In this respect, shape analysis using radiography, MRI, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, and positron emission tomography (PET) might prove promising techniques and be more suited to detect early pathological changes in the hip joint. A broad application of these techniques might give us more understanding what can be considered physiological adaptation of the hip, or when early OA really starts. With a more clear definition of early OA, more homogenous patient populations can be selected and help with the development of new disease modifying OA interventions. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International

  3. Synovial tissue volume: a treatment target in knee osteoarthritis (OA).

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Terence W; Parkes, Matthew J; Maricar, Nasimah; Marjanovic, Elizabeth J; Hodgson, Richard; Gait, Andrew D; Cootes, Timothy F; Hutchinson, Charles E; Felson, David T

    2016-01-01

    Synovitis occurring frequently in osteoarthritis (OA) may be a targeted outcome. There are no data examining whether synovitis changes following intra-articular intervention. Persons aged 40 years and older with painful knee OA participated in an open label trial of intra-articular steroid therapy. At all time points they completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire. They had a contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI immediately prior to an intra-articular steroid injection with a repeat scan within 20 days. Response status was assessed using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) response criteria. OARSI responders were followed until their pain relapsed either within 20% of baseline or 6 months, shortly after which a third MRI was performed. Synovial tissue volume (STV) was measured on postcontrast knee images. We looked at changes in the STV and in pain, and their association. 120 subjects with preinjection and postinjection CE MRI were followed. Their mean age was 62.3 years (SD=10.3) and 62 (52%) were women. The median time between injection and follow-up scan was 8 days (IQR 7-14 days). 85/120 (71%) were OARSI responders. Pain decreased (mean change in KOOS=+23.9; 95% CI 20.1 to 27.8, p<0.001) following steroid injection, as did mean STV (mean change=-1071 mm(3); 95% CI -1839 mm(3) to -303 mm(3), p=0.01). Of the 80 who returned for a third MRI, pain relapsed in 57, and in the 48 of those with MRI data, STV increased between follow-up and final visit (+1220 mm(3); 95% CI 25 mm(3) to 2414 mm(3), p=0.05). 23 were persistent responders at 6 months and, in these, STV did not increase (mean change=-202 mm(3); 95% CI -2008 mm(3) to 1604 mm(3), p=0.83). Controlling for variation over time, there was a significant association between synovitis volume and KOOS pain (b coefficient-change in KOOS pain score per 1000 mm(3) change in STV=-1.13; 95% CI -1.87 to -0.39, p=0.003), although STV accounted for only a small proportion of

  4. Genetic Determinism of Primary Early-Onset Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Aury-Landas, Juliette; Marcelli, Christian; Leclercq, Sylvain; Boumédiene, Karim; Baugé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. A minority of cases correspond to familial presentation characterized by early-onset forms which are genetically heterogeneous. This review brings a new point of view on the molecular basis of OA by focusing on gene mutations causing early-onset OA (EO-OA). Recently, thanks to whole-exome sequencing, a gain-of-function mutation in the TNFRSF11B gene was identified in two distant family members with EO-OA, opening new therapeutic perspectives for OA. Indeed, unraveling the molecular basis of rare Mendelian OA forms will improve our understanding of molecular processes involved in OA pathogenesis and will contribute to better patient diagnosis, management, and therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Knee contact forces are not altered in early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meireles, S; De Groote, F; Reeves, N D; Verschueren, S; Maganaris, C; Luyten, F; Jonkers, I

    2016-03-01

    This study calculated knee contact forces (KCF) and its relations with knee external knee adduction moments (KAM) and/or flexion moments (KFM) during the stance phase of gait in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA), classified based on early joint degeneration on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We aimed at assessing if altered KCF are already present in early structural degeneration. Three-dimensional motion and ground reaction force data in 59 subjects with medial compartment knee OA (N=23 established OA, N=16 early OA, N=20 controls) were used as input for a musculoskeletal model. KAM and KFM, and KCF were estimated using OpenSim software. No significant differences were found between controls and subjects with early OA. In early OA patients, KAM significantly explained 69% of the variance associated with the first peaks KCF but only KFM contributed to the second peaks KCF. The multiple correlation, combining KAM and KFM, showed to be higher. However, only 20% of the variance of second peak KCF was explained by both moments in established OA. KCF are not increased in patients with early OA, suggesting that knee joint overload is more a consequence of further joint degeneration in more advanced stages of OA. Additionally, our results clearly show that KAM is not sufficient to predict joint loading at the end of the stance, where KFM contributes substantially to the loading, especially in early OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological aspects of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Luyten, Frank P; Facchini, Andrea

    2012-03-01

    Early OA primarily affects articular cartilage and involves the entire joint, including the subchondral bone, synovial membrane, menisci and periarticular structures. The aim of this review is to highlight the molecular basis and histopathological features of early OA. Selective review of literature. Risk factors for developing early OA include, but are not limited to, a genetic predisposition, mechanical factors such as axial malalignment, and aging. In early OA, the articular cartilage surface is progressively becoming discontinuous, showing fibrillation and vertical fissures that extend not deeper than into the mid-zone of the articular cartilage, reflective of OARSI grades 1.0-3.0. Early changes in the subchondral bone comprise a progressive increase in subchondral plate and subarticular spongiosa thickness. Early OA affects not only the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone but also other structures of the joint, such as the menisci, the synovial membrane, the joint capsule, ligaments, muscles and the infrapatellar fat pad. Genetic markers or marker combinations may become useful in the future to identify early OA and patients at risk. The high socioeconomic impact of OA suggests that a better insight into the mechanisms of early OA may be a key to develop more targeted reconstructive therapies at this first stage of the disease. Systematic review, Level II.

  7. The bovine patella as a model of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hargrave-Thomas, E J; Thambyah, A; McGlashan, S R; Broom, N D

    2013-12-01

    The bovine patella model has been used extensively for studying important structure-function aspects of articular cartilage, including its degeneration. However, the degeneration seen in this model has, to our knowledge, never been adequately compared with human osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, bovine patellae displaying normal to severely degenerate states were compared with human tissue displaying intact cartilage to severe OA. Comparisons of normal and OA features were made with histological scoring, morphometric measurements, and qualitative observations. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used to image early OA changes in the articular cartilage matrix and to investigate whether this method provided comparable quality of visualisation of key structural features with standard histology. The intact bovine cartilage was found to be similar to healthy human cartilage and the degenerate bovine cartilage resembled the human OA tissues with regard to structural disruption, cellularity changes, and staining loss. The extent of degeneration in the bovine tissues matched the mild to moderate range of human OA tissues; however, no bovine samples exhibited late-stage OA. Additionally, in both bovine and human tissues, cartilage degeneration was accompanied by calcified cartilage thickening, tidemark duplication, and the advancement of the cement line by protrusions of bony spicules into the calcified cartilage. This comparison of degeneration in the bovine and human tissues suggests a common pathway for the progression of OA and thus the bovine patella is proposed to be an appropriate model for investigating the structural changes associated with early OA. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  8. The bovine patella as a model of early osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave-Thomas, E J; Thambyah, A; McGlashan, S R; Broom, N D

    2013-01-01

    The bovine patella model has been used extensively for studying important structure–function aspects of articular cartilage, including its degeneration. However, the degeneration seen in this model has, to our knowledge, never been adequately compared with human osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, bovine patellae displaying normal to severely degenerate states were compared with human tissue displaying intact cartilage to severe OA. Comparisons of normal and OA features were made with histological scoring, morphometric measurements, and qualitative observations. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used to image early OA changes in the articular cartilage matrix and to investigate whether this method provided comparable quality of visualisation of key structural features with standard histology. The intact bovine cartilage was found to be similar to healthy human cartilage and the degenerate bovine cartilage resembled the human OA tissues with regard to structural disruption, cellularity changes, and staining loss. The extent of degeneration in the bovine tissues matched the mild to moderate range of human OA tissues; however, no bovine samples exhibited late-stage OA. Additionally, in both bovine and human tissues, cartilage degeneration was accompanied by calcified cartilage thickening, tidemark duplication, and the advancement of the cement line by protrusions of bony spicules into the calcified cartilage. This comparison of degeneration in the bovine and human tissues suggests a common pathway for the progression of OA and thus the bovine patella is proposed to be an appropriate model for investigating the structural changes associated with early OA. PMID:24111904

  9. Is early osteoarthritis associated with differences in joint congruence?

    PubMed Central

    Conconi, Michele; Halilaj, Eni; Castelli, Vincenzo Parenti; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that osteoarthritis (OA) is related to abnormal or excessive articular contact stress. The peak pressure resulting from an applied load is determined by many factors, among which is shape and relative position and orientation of the articulating surfaces or, referring to a more common nomenclature, joint congruence. It has been hypothesized that anatomical differences may be among the causes of OA. Individuals with less congruent joints would likely develop higher peak pressure and thus would be more exposed to the risk of OA onset. The aim of this work was to determine if the congruence of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint differs with the early onset of OA or with sex, as the female population has a higher incidence of OA. 59 without and 38 with early OA were CT-scanned with their dominant or arthritic hand in a neutral configuration. The proposed measure of joint congruence is both shape and size dependent. The correlation of joint congruence with pathology and sex was analyzed both before and after normalization for joint size. We found a significant correlation between joint congruence and sex due to the sex-related differences in size. The observed correlation disappeared after normalization. Although joint congruence increased with size, it did not correlate significantly with the onset of early OA. Differences in joint congruence in this population may not be a primary cause of OA onset or predisposition, at least for the CMC joint. PMID:25468667

  10. Is early osteoarthritis associated with differences in joint congruence?

    PubMed

    Conconi, Michele; Halilaj, Eni; Parenti Castelli, Vincenzo; Crisco, Joseph J

    2014-12-18

    Previous studies suggest that osteoarthritis (OA) is related to abnormal or excessive articular contact stress. The peak pressure resulting from an applied load is determined by many factors, among which is shape and relative position and orientation of the articulating surfaces or, referring to a more common nomenclature, joint congruence. It has been hypothesized that anatomical differences may be among the causes of OA. Individuals with less congruent joints would likely develop higher peak pressure and thus would be more exposed to the risk of OA onset. The aim of this work was to determine if the congruence of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint differs with the early onset of OA or with sex, as the female population has a higher incidence of OA. 59 without and 38 with early OA were CT-scanned with their dominant or arthritic hand in a neutral configuration. The proposed measure of joint congruence is both shape and size dependent. The correlation of joint congruence with pathology and sex was analyzed both before and after normalization for joint size. We found a significant correlation between joint congruence and sex due to the sex-related differences in size. The observed correlation disappeared after normalization. Although joint congruence increased with size, it did not correlate significantly with the onset of early OA. Differences in joint congruence in this population may not be a primary cause of OA onset or predisposition, at least for the CMC joint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and preliminary evaluation of the OsteoArthritis Questionnaire (OA-Quest): a psychometric study.

    PubMed

    Busija, L; Buchbinder, R; Osborne, R H

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the development of the OsteoArthritis Questionnaire (OA-Quest) - a new measure designed to comprehensively capture the potentially modifiable burden of osteoarthritis. Item development was guided by the a priori conceptual framework of the Personal Burden of Osteoarthritis (PBO) which captures 8 dimensions of osteoarthritis burden (Physical distress, Fatigue, Physical limitations, Psychosocial distress, Physical de-conditioning, Financial hardship, Sleep disturbances, Lost productivity). One hundred and twenty three candidate items were pretested in a clinical sample of 18 osteoarthritis patients. The measurement properties of the OA-Quest were assessed with exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Rasch modelling, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a community-based sample (n = 792). EFA replicated 7 of the 8 PBO domains. An exception was PBO Fatigue domain, with items merging into the Physical distress subscale in the OA-Quest. Following item analysis, a 42-item 7-subscale questionnaire was constructed, measuring Physical distress (seven items, Cronbach's α = 0.93), Physical limitations (11 items, α = 0.95), Psychosocial distress (seven items, α = 0.93), Physical de-conditioning (four items, α = 0.87), Financial hardship (four items, α = 0.93), Sleep disturbances (five items, α = 0.96), and Lost productivity (four items α = 0.90). A highly restricted 7-factor CFA model had excellent fit with the data (χ(2)(113) = 316.36, P < 0.001; chi-square/degrees of freedom = 2.8; comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.97; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.07), supporting construct validity of the new measure. The OA-Quest is a new measure of osteoarthritis burden that is founded on a comprehensive conceptual model. It has strong evidence of construct validity and provides reliable measurement across a broad range of osteoarthritis burden. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International

  12. Metabolomics as a promising tool for early osteoarthritis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, E B; Dos Santos, G C; Duarte, M E L; Moura, V; Aguiar, D P

    2017-09-21

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of disability worldwide, due to progressive articular cartilage loss and degeneration. According to recent research, OA is more than just a degenerative disease due to some metabolic components associated to its pathogenesis. However, no biomarker has been identified to detect this disease at early stages or to track its development. Metabolomics is an emerging field and has the potential to detect many metabolites in a single spectrum using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques or mass spectrometry (MS). NMR is a reproducible and reliable non-destructive analytical method. On the other hand, MS has a lower detection limit and is more destructive, but it is more sensitive. NMR and MS are useful for biological fluids, such as urine, blood plasma, serum, or synovial fluid, and have been used for metabolic profiling in dogs, mice, sheep, and humans. Thus, many metabolites have been listed as possibly associated to OA pathogenesis. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the studies in animal models and humans, regarding the use of metabolomics as a tool for early osteoarthritis diagnosis. The concept of osteoarthritis as a metabolic disease and the importance of detecting a biomarker for its early diagnosis are highlighted. Then, some studies in plasma and synovial tissues are shown, and finally the application of metabolomics in the evaluation of synovial fluid is described.

  13. “Let’s Talk about OA Pain”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Perceptions of People Suffering from OA. Towards the Development of a Specific Pain OA-Related Questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS)

    PubMed Central

    Cedraschi, Christine; Delézay, Sylvie; Marty, Marc; Berenbaum, Francis; Bouhassira, Didier; Henrotin, Yves; Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pain is the primary outcome measurement in osteoarthritis, and its assessment is mostly based on its intensity. The management of this difficult chronic condition could be improved by using pain descriptors to improve analyses of painful sensations. This should help to define subgroups of patients based on pain phenotype, for more adapted treatment. This study draws upon patients’ descriptions of their pain, to identify and understand their perception of osteoarthritis pain and to categorize pain dimensions. Methods This qualitative study was conducted with representative types of patients suffering from osteoarthritis. Two focus groups were conducted with a sample of 14 participants, with either recent or chronic OA, at one or multiple sites. Focus groups were semi-structured and used open-ended questions addressing personal experiences to explore the experiences of patients with OA pain and the meanings they attributed to these pains. Results Two main points emerged from content analyses: -A major difficulty in getting patients to describe their osteoarthritis pain: perception that nobody wants to hear about it; necessity to preserve one’s self and social image; notion of self-imposed stoicism; and perception of osteoarthritis as a complex, changing, illogical disease associated with aging. -Osteoarthritis pains were numerous and differed in intensity, duration, depth, type of occurrence, impact and rhythm, but also in painful sensations and associated symptoms. Based on analyses of the verbatim interviews, seven dimensions of OA pain emerged: pain sensory description, OA-related symptoms, pain variability profile, pain-triggering factors, pain and physical activity, mood and image, general physical symptoms. Summary In osteoarthritis, pain analysis should not be restricted to intensity. Our qualitative study identified pain descriptors and defined seven dimensions of osteoarthritis pain. Based on these dimensions, we aim to develop a specific

  14. Decreased Knee Joint Loading Associated With Early Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    PubMed

    Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Gardinier, Emily S; Manal, Kurt; Axe, Michael J; Buchanan, Thomas S; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury predisposes individuals to early-onset knee joint osteoarthritis (OA). Abnormal joint loading is apparent after ACL injury and reconstruction. The relationship between altered joint biomechanics and the development of knee OA is unknown. Altered knee joint kinetics and medial compartment contact forces initially after injury and reconstruction are associated with radiographic knee OA 5 years after reconstruction. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Individuals with acute, unilateral ACL injury completed gait analysis before (baseline) and after (posttraining) preoperative rehabilitation and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after reconstruction. Surface electromyographic and knee biomechanical data served as inputs to an electromyographically driven musculoskeletal model to estimate knee joint contact forces. Patients completed radiographic testing 5 years after reconstruction. Differences in knee joint kinetics and contact forces were compared between patients with and those without radiographic knee OA. Patients with OA walked with greater frontal plane interlimb differences than those without OA (nonOA) at baseline (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.00 ± 0.08 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.15 ± 0.09 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .014; peak knee adduction moment impulse difference: -0.001 ± 0.032 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.048 ± 0.031 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .042). The involved limb knee adduction moment impulse of the group with osteoarthritis was also lower than that of the group without osteoarthritis at baseline (0.087 ± 0.023 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs 0.049 ± 0.018 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .023). Significant group differences were absent at posttraining but reemerged 6 months after reconstruction (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.02 ± 0.04 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs -0.06 ± 0.11 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .043). In addition, the OA group walked with lower peak medial compartment contact forces of the involved limb

  15. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vannini, F; Spalding, T; Andriolo, L; Berruto, M; Denti, M; Espregueira-Mendes, J; Menetrey, J; Peretti, G M; Seil, R; Filardo, G

    2016-06-01

    Sports activities are considered favourable for general health; nevertheless, a possible influence of sports practice on the development of early osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause for concern. A higher incidence of OA in knees and ankles of former high-impact sports players than in those of the normal population has been shown and it is still debatable whether the cause is either to be recognized generically in the higher number of injuries or in a joint overload. The possibility to address knee OA in its early phases may be strictly connected to the modification of specific extrinsic or intrinsic factors, related to the patient in order to save the joint from further disease progression; these include sport practice, equipment and load. Non-surgical therapies such as continuative muscles reinforce and training play a strong role in the care of athletes with early OA, particularly if professional. There is an overall agreement on the need of an early restoring of a proper meniscal, ligament and cartilage integrity in order to protect the knee and resume sports safely, whereas alignment is a point still strongly debatable especially for professional athletes. Remaining questions still to be answered are the risks of different sports in relation to one another, although an actual protective effect of low-impact sports, such as walking, swimming or cycling, has been recognized on the appearance or worsening of OA, the effect of continuing or ceasing to practice a sport on the natural history of early OA, and even following appropriate treatment is still unknown.

  16. Semi-Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers of Knee Osteoarthritis Progression: Data from the FNIH OA Biomarkers Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jamie E.; Losina, Elena; Nevitt, Michael C.; Roemer, Frank W.; Guermazi, Ali; Lynch, John A.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Kraus, Virginia B.; Hunter, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between changes in semi-quantitative knee MRI biomarkers over 24 months and radiographic and pain progression over 48 months in knees with mild to moderate osteoarthritis. Methods We undertook a nested case-control study as part of the Osteoarthritis Biomarkers Consortium Project. We built multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association between change over 24 months in semi-quantitative MR imaging markers and knee OA radiographic and pain progression. MRIs were read according to the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) scoring system. We focused on changes in cartilage, osteophytes, meniscus, bone marrow lesions, Hoffa-synovitis, and synovitis-effusion. Results The most parsimonious model included changes in cartilage thickness and surface area, synovitis-effusion, Hoffa-synovitis, and meniscal morphology (C-statistic =0.740). Subjects with worsening cartilage thickness in 3+ subregions vs. no worsening had 2.8-fold (95% CI: 1.3 – 5.9) greater odds of being a case while subjects with worsening in cartilage surface area in 3+ subregions vs. no worsening had 2.4-fold (95% CI: 1.3 – 4.4) greater odds of being a case. Having worsening in any region in meniscal morphology was associated with a 2.2-fold (95%CI: 1.3 – 3.8) greater odds of being a case. Worsening synovitis-effusion (OR=2.7) and Hoffa-synovitis (OR=2.0) were also associated with greater odds of being a case. Conclusion Twenty-four-month change in cartilage thickness, cartilage surface area, synovitis-effusion, Hoffa-synovitis, and meniscal morphology were independently associated with OA progression, suggesting that they may serve as efficacy biomarkers in clinical trials of disease modifying interventions for knee OA. PMID:27111771

  17. Non-surgical treatments for the management of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elizaveta; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Madry, Henning; Marchettini, Paolo; Marmotti, Antonio; Van Assche, Dieter; Zanon, Giacomo; Peretti, Giuseppe M

    2016-06-01

    Non-surgical treatments are usually the first choice for the management of knee degeneration, especially in the early osteoarthritis (OA) phase when no clear lesions or combined abnormalities need to be addressed surgically. Early OA may be addressed by a wide range of non-surgical approaches, from non-pharmacological modalities to dietary supplements and pharmacological therapies, as well as physical therapies and novel biological minimally invasive procedures involving injections of various substances to obtain a clinical improvement and possibly a disease-modifying effect. Numerous pharmaceutical agents are able to provide clinical benefit, but no one has shown all the characteristic of an ideal treatment, and side effects have been reported at both systemic and local level. Patients and physicians should have realistic outcome goals in pharmacological treatment, which should be considered together with other conservative measures. Among these, exercise is an effective conservative approach, while physical therapies lack literature support. Even though a combination of these therapeutic options might be the most suitable strategy, there is a paucity of studies focusing on combining treatments, which is the most common clinical scenario. Further studies are needed to increase the limited evidence on non-surgical treatments and their combination, to optimize indications, application modalities, and results with particular focus on early OA. In fact, most of the available evidence regards established OA. Increased knowledge about degeneration mechanisms will help to better target the available treatments and develop new biological options, where preliminary results are promising, especially concerning early disease phases. Specific treatments aimed at improving joint homoeostasis, or even counteracting tissue damage by inducing regenerative processes, might be successful in early OA, where tissue loss and anatomical changes are still at very initial stages.

  18. Rehabilitation Strategies for the Athletic Individual with Early Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Ihm, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in the United States. The condition has most commonly been associated with elderly sedentary individuals; however, it also can affect those who participate in regular athletic activities. The diagnosis and management of these individuals can be challenging because of both their higher level of physical activity and their overall athletic goals. Treatment requires an appropriate exercise regimen, rehabilitation program, and education of both the athlete and the coach. The focus of our article is to provide an up-to-date overview of the evaluation and management of the athletic individual who presents with symptomatic early knee OA, in particular, the nonsurgical rehabilitation treatment options available to the practitioner and the evidence to support these recommendations.

  19. Decreased Knee Joint Loading Associated With Early Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Gardinier, Emily S.; Manal, Kurt; Axe, Michael J.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury predisposes individuals to early-onset knee joint osteoarthritis (OA). Abnormal joint loading is apparent after ACL injury and reconstruction. The relationship between altered joint biomechanics and the development of knee OA is unknown. Hypothesis Altered knee joint kinetics and medial compartment contact forces initially after injury and reconstruction are associated with radiographic knee OA 5 years after reconstruction. Study Design Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Individuals with acute, unilateral ACL injury completed gait analysis before (baseline) and after (posttraining) preoperative rehabilitation and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after reconstruction. Surface electromyographic and knee biomechanical data served as inputs to an electromyographically driven musculoskeletal model to estimate knee joint contact forces. Patients completed radiographic testing 5 years after reconstruction. Differences in knee joint kinetics and contact forces were compared between patients with and those without radiographic knee OA. Results Patients with OA walked with greater frontal plane interlimb differences than those without OA (nonOA) at baseline (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.00 ± 0.08 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs −0.15 ± 0.09 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .014; peak knee adduction moment impulse difference: −0.001 ± 0.032 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs −0.048 ± 0.031 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .042). The involved limb knee adduction moment impulse of the group with osteoarthritis was also lower than that of the group without osteoarthritis at baseline (0.087 ± 0.023 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs 0.049 ± 0.018 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .023). Significant group differences were absent at posttraining but reemerged 6 months after reconstruction (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.02 ± 0.04 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs −0.06 ± 0.11 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .043). In addition, the OA group walked with lower peak

  20. Stage-specific differences in secretory profile of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) subjected to early- vs late-stage OA synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aristizábal, A; Sharma, A; Bakooshli, M A; Kapoor, M; Gilbert, P M; Viswanathan, S; Gandhi, R

    2017-05-01

    Although, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being clinically investigated for their use in osteoarthritis (OA), it is unclear whether their postulated therapeutic properties are equally effective in the early- and late-stages of OA. In this study we investigated MSC cytokine secretion post-exposure to synovial fluid (SF), obtained from early- vs late-stage knee OA patients to justify a potential patient stratification strategy to maximize MSC-mediated treatment effects. Subjects were recruited and categorized into early- [Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade I/II, n = 12] and late-stage (KL-III/IV, n = 12) knee OA groups. SF samples were obtained, and their proteome was tested using multiplex assays, after 3-days culture, with and without MSCs. SFs cultured without MSCs were used as a baseline to identify MSC-secreted factors into SFs cultured with MSCs. Linear mixed-effect models and non-parametric tests were used to identify alterations in the MSC secretome during exposure to OA SF (3-days). MSCs cultured for 3-days in 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented medium were used to compare SF results with culture medium. Following exposure to OA SF, the MSC secretome contained proteins that are involved in tissue repair, angiogenesis, chemotaxis, matrix remodeling and the clotting process. However, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-8 (CXCL8; chemoattractant), interleukin-6 (IL6) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) were elevated in the MSC-secretome in response to early- vs late-stage OA SF. Early- vs late-stage OA SF samples elicit a differential MSC secretome response, arguing for stratification of OA patients to maximize MSC-mediated therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Baseline Vitamin D Status is Predictive of Longitudinal Change in Tibial BMD in Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

    With its lack of effective treatment and high prevalence, the public health impact of OA is substantial. Peri-articular bone in OA can be evaluated with the medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) obtained from dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Higher M:L BMD is associated with medial OA features...

  2. Non-surgical management of early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Drobnic, Matej; Madry, Henning; Jelic, Mislav; van Dijk, Niek; Della Villa, Stefano

    2012-03-01

    Conservative approach is usually the first choice for the management of the knee degeneration processes, especially in the phase of the disease recognized as early osteoarthritis (OA) with no clear lesions or associated abnormalities requiring to be addressed surgically. A wide spectrum of treatments is available, from non-pharmacological modalities to dietary supplements and pharmacological therapies, as well as minimally invasive procedures involving injections of various substances aiming to restore joint homeostasis and provide clinical improvement and possibly a disease-modifying effect. Numerous pharmaceuticals have been proposed, but since no therapy has shown all the characteristic of an ideal treatment, and side effects have been reported at both systemic and local level, the use of pharmacological agents should be considered with caution by assessing the risk/benefit ratio of the drugs prescribed. Both patients and physicians should have realistic outcome goals in pharmacological treatment, which should be considered together with other conservative measures. A combination of these therapeutic options is a more preferable scenario, in particular considering the evidence available for non-pharmacological management. In fact, exercise is an effective conservative approach, even if long-term effectiveness and optimal dose and administration modalities still need to be clarified. Finally, physical therapies are emerging as viable treatment options, and novel biological approaches are under study. Further studies to increase the limited medical evidence on conservative treatments, optimizing results, application modalities, indications, and focusing on early OA will be necessary in the future. Level of evidence IV.

  3. Establishment of reference intervals for osteoarthritis-related soluble biomarkers: the FNIH/OARSI OA Biomarkers Consortium.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Virginia B; Hargrove, David E; Hunter, David J; Renner, Jordan B; Jordan, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    To establish reference intervals for osteoarthritis (OA)-related biomarkers used in the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) OA Biomarkers Consortium Project. A total of 129 'multijoint controls' were selected from 2722 African-American and Caucasian men and women in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. The majority (79%) of those eligible (with biospecimens and baseline data) also had one or more follow-up evaluations 5-15 years later. Multijoint controls were selected to be free of radiographic hand, hip, knee and lumbar spine osteoarthritis (OA), to have no knee or hip symptoms, and minimal hand and spine symptoms at all available time points. Eighteen biomarkers were evaluated in serum (s) and/or urine (u) by ELISA. Reference intervals and partitioning by gender and race were performed with EP Evaluator software. Controls were 64% women, 33% African-Americans, mean age 59 years and mean body mass index 29 kg/m 2 . Three biomarkers were associated with age: sHyaluronan (positively), sN-terminal propeptide of collagen IIA (positively) and sCol2-3/4 C-terminal cleavage product of types I and II collagen (negatively). Exploratory analyses suggested that separate reference intervals may be warranted on the basis of gender for uC-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (uCTXII), sMatrix metalloproteinase-3, uNitrated type II collagen degradation fragment (uCol2-1 NO2) and sHyaluronan, and on the basis of race for uCTXII, sCartilage oligomeric matrix protein, sC-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and uCol2-1 NO2. To our knowledge, this represents the best and most stringent control group ever assayed for OA-related biomarkers. These well-phenotyped controls, representing a similar age demographic to that of the OA Initiative-FNIH main study sample, provide a context for interpretation of OA subject biomarker data. The freely available data set also provides a reference for future human studies. Published

  4. On the detection of early osteoarthritis by quantitative microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Daniel John

    Articular cartilage is a thin layer of connective tissue that protects the ends of bones in diarthroidal joints. Cartilage distributes mechanical forces during daily movement throughout its unique depth-dependent structure. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage primarily contains water, collagen, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The collagen fibers are intertwined with negatively charged GAG and surround the cells (i.e. chondrocytes) in cartilage. Degradation to the ECM reduces the load bearing properties of cartilage which can be initiated by injury (e.g. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture) or disease (e.g. osteoarthritis (OA)). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) are noninvasive imaging techniques that are increasingly being used in the clinical detection of cartilage degradation. The aim of the first project in this dissertation was to quantify and compare the depth-dependent GAG concentration from healthy and biochemically degraded humeral ex vivo articular cartilage using quantitative contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography (qCECT) at high resolution. The second project in this dissertation was aimed to measure the topographical and depth-dependent GAG concentration using qCECT and delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) from the medial tibia cartilage three weeks after unilateral ACL transection which is an animal model of OA (i.e. modified Pond-Nuki model). These GAG measurements were correlated with a biochemical method, inductively couple plasma optical emission spectrometry, to compare the degradation on the medial tibia between the OA and contralateral cartilage. The third project in this dissertation used the same cartilage specimens as in project two to investigate the change in T2 due to OA and the effect on T2 from a contrast agent. Furthermore, the change in T2 relaxation was investigated from static unconfined compression with correlations by biomechanical

  5. The impact of osteoarthritis on early exit from work: results from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Laires, Pedro A; Canhão, Helena; Rodrigues, Ana M; Eusébio, Mónica; Gouveia, Miguel; Branco, Jaime C

    2018-04-11

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of pain and disability, which may be a source of productivity losses. The objectives of this study were to describe the impact of OA, namely through pain and physical disability, on early exit from work and to calculate its economic burden. We analysed data from the national, cross-sectional, population-based EpiReumaPt study (Sep2011-Dec2013) in which 10,661 individuals were randomly surveyed in order to capture all cases of rheumatic diseases. We used all participants aged 50-64, near the official retirement age, who were clinically validated by experienced rheumatologists (n = 1286), including OA cases. A national database was used to calculate productivity values by gender, age and region, using the human capital approach. The impact of OA on the likelihood of early exit from work and the population attributable fractions used to calculate due economic burden (indirect costs) were obtained at the individual level by logistic regression. All results were based on weighted data. Almost one third of the Portuguese population aged 50-64 had OA (29.7%; men: 16.2% and women: 43.5%) and more than half were out of paid work (51.8%). Only knee OA is associated with early exit from work (OR: 2.25; 95%CI: 1.42-3.59; p = 0.001), whereas other OA locations did not reach any statistical difference. Furthermore, we observed an association between self-reported longstanding musculoskeletal pain (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.07-2.23; p = 0.02) and pain interference (OR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.13-1.62; p = 0.001) with early exit from work. We also detected a clear relationship between levels of disability, measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the probability of work withdrawal. The estimated annual cost of early exit from work attributable to OA was €656 million (€384 per capita; €1294 per OA patient and €2095 per OA patient out-of-work). In this study, we observed an association between OA and early exit from

  6. Muscle contributions to knee extension in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Kubota, Ryo; Chujo, Yuta; Hirooka, Eiko; Kwang-Ho, Kim; Hase, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze individual muscle contributions to knee angular acceleration using a musculoskeletal simulation analysis and evaluate knee extension mechanics in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The subjects comprised 15 patients with medial knee OA and 14 healthy elderly individuals. All participants underwent gait performance test using 8 infrared cameras and two force plates to measure the kinetic and kinematic data. The simulation was driven by 92 Hill-type muscle-tendon units of the lower extremities and a trunk with 23° of freedom. We analyzed each muscle contribution to knee angular acceleration in the 5%-15% and 15%-25% periods of the stance phase (% SP) using an induced acceleration analysis. We compared accelerations by individual muscles between the two groups using an analysis of covariance for controlling gait speed. Patients with knee OA had a significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles and higher knee acceleration by hip adductors than those in controls in 5-15% SP. In addition, knee OA resulted in significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles in 15-25% SP. These results indicate that patients with knee OA have decreased dependency on the vasti muscles to control knee movements during early stance phase. Hip adductor muscles, which mainly control mediolateral motion, partly compensate for the weak knee extension by the vasti muscles in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Familial osteochondritis dissecans associated with early osteoarthritis and disproportionate short stature.

    PubMed

    Stattin, E-L; Tegner, Y; Domellöf, M; Dahl, N

    2008-08-01

    Familial osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a rare disorder characterised by disturbed chondro-skeletal development, disproportionate growth and deformation of the skeleton. We identified a five-generation family with 15 living affected members from Northern Sweden. The disorder was diagnosed with a case definition of OCD in at least one joint. Main clinical findings consisted of OCD in knees and/or hips and/or elbows, disproportionate short stature and early osteoarthritis (OA). There were no radiological indications of epiphyseal dysplasia. Anthropometric measurements of affected individuals showed short stature, a high ratio between sitting height and total height, a relatively normal arm span and head circumference. In 12 of 15 cases, onset was during late childhood or adolescence and OA had developed in seven of those patients. Our observation suggests that OA is a frequent complication in familial OCD even though the lesions appear before closure of physis.

  8. Early detection of osteoarthritis in rabbits using MRI with a double-contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Okihiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Kido, Masamitsu; Kabuto, Yukichi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-03-13

    Articular cartilage degeneration has been evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, this method has several problems, including its time-consuming nature and the requirement of a high magnetic field or specialized hardware. The purpose of this study was to sequentially assess early degenerative changes in rabbit knee articular cartilage using MRI with a new double-contrast agent. We induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the right knee of rabbits by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy. Proton density-weighted images and T 2 -calculated images were obtained before and after contrast agent injection into the knee. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) values on the proton density-weighted images were calculated by dividing the signal intensity of the articular cartilage by that of joint fluid. Six rabbits were examined using MRI at 2 (designated 2-w OA) and 4 weeks (4-w OA) after the operation. Histological examination was performed 4 weeks after the operation. One rabbit was histologically examined 2 weeks after the operation. The control consisted of six rabbits that were not subjected to the operation. The SIR values, T 2 values and the thicknesses of the cartilage of the 2-w OA, 4-w OA and the control before and after contrast agent injection were analyzed. The Mankin score and OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score were used for the histological evaluation. Significant differences in the SIR and T 2 values of the medial and lateral condyles of the femur were found between the control and the 4-w OA only after contrast agent injection. No significant differences were found in the SIR and T 2 values before contrast agent injection between the control, the 2-w OA and 4-w OA. The thickness of the articular cartilage revealed no significant differences. In the histological assessment, the Mankin score and OARSI score sequentially increased from the control to the 4-w OA. We evaluated the SIR and T 2 values

  9. Adverse Effects (AEs) of Topical NSAIDs in Older Adults with Osteoarthritis (OA): a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Makris, UE.; Kohler, MJ.; Fraenkel, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the literature on reported adverse effects (AEs) associated with topical NSAID use in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A systematic search of Medline (1950 to November 2009), Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane databases, Dissertation and American College of Rheumatology Meeting Abstracts was performed to identify original randomized controlled trials, case reports, observational studies, editorials or dissertations reporting AEs from topical NSAIDs in older adults with OA. Information was sought on study and participant characteristics, detailed recording of application site and systemic AEs as well as withdrawals due to AEs. Results The initial search yielded 953 articles of which 19 met eligibility criteria. Subjects receiving topical NSAIDs reported up to 39.3% application site AEs, and up to 17.5% systemic AEs. Five cases of warfarin potentiation with topical agents were reported; 1 resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding. In formal trials, the withdrawal rate from AEs ranged from 0-21% in the topical agents, 0-25% in the oral NSAIDs, and 0-16% in the placebo group. Conclusion In summary, although topical NSAIDs are safer than oral NSAIDs (fewer severe gastrointestinal AEs), a substantial proportion of older adults report systemic AEs with topical agents. Moreover, the withdrawal rate due to AEs with topical agents is comparable to that of oral NSAIDs. Given the safety profile and withdrawal rates described in this study, further data are needed to determine the incremental benefits of topical NSAIDs compared to other treatment modalities in older adults with OA. PMID:20360183

  10. Early Osteoarthritis of the Trapeziometacarpal Joint Is Not Associated With Joint Instability during Typical Isometric Loading

    PubMed Central

    Halilaj, Eni; Moore, Douglas C.; Patel, Tarpit K.; Ladd, Amy L.; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    The saddle-shaped trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint contributes importantly to the function of the human thumb. A balance between mobility and stability is essential in this joint, which experiences high loads and is prone to osteoarthritis (OA). Since instability is considered a risk factor for TMC OA, we assessed TMC joint instability during the execution of three isometric functional tasks (key pinch, jar grasp, and jar twist) in 76 patients with early TMC OA and 44 asymptomatic controls. Computed tomography images were acquired while subjects held their hands relaxed and while they applied 80% of their maximum effort for each task. Six degree-of-freedom rigid body kinematics of the metacarpal with respect to the trapezium from the unloaded to the loaded task positions were computed in terms of a TMC joint coordinate system. Joint instability was expressed as a function of the metacarpal translation and the applied force. We found that the TMC joint was more unstable during a key pinch task than during a jar grasp or a jar twist task. Sex, age, and early OA did not have an effect on TMC joint instability, suggesting that instability during these three tasks is not a predisposing factor in TMC OA. PMID:25941135

  11. Gene Expression Analyses of Subchondral Bone in Early Experimental Osteoarthritis by Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Chen, YuXian; Shen, Jun; Lu, HuaDing; Zeng, Chun; Ren, JianHua; Zeng, Hua; Li, ZhiFu; Chen, ShaoMing; Cai, DaoZhang; Zhao, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that affects both cartilage and bone. A better understanding of the early molecular changes in subchondral bone may help elucidate the pathogenesis of OA. We used microarray technology to investigate the time course of molecular changes in the subchondral bone in the early stages of experimental osteoarthritis in a rat model. We identified 2,234 differentially expressed (DE) genes at 1 week, 1,944 at 2 weeks and 1,517 at 4 weeks post-surgery. Further analyses of the dysregulated genes indicated that the events underlying subchondral bone remodeling occurred sequentially and in a time-dependent manner at the gene expression level. Some of the identified dysregulated genes that were identified have suspected roles in bone development or remodeling; these genes include Alp, Igf1, Tgf β1, Postn, Mmp3, Tnfsf11, Acp5, Bmp5, Aspn and Ihh. The differences in the expression of these genes were confirmed by real-time PCR, and the results indicated that our microarray data accurately reflected gene expression patterns characteristic of early OA. To validate the results of our microarray analysis at the protein level, immunohistochemistry staining was used to investigate the expression of Mmp3 and Aspn protein in tissue sections. These analyses indicate that Mmp3 protein expression completely matched the results of both the microarray and real-time PCR analyses; however, Aspn protein expression was not observed to differ at any time. In summary, our study demonstrated a simple method of separation of subchondral bone sample from the knee joint of rat, which can effectively avoid bone RNA degradation. These findings also revealed the gene expression profiles of subchondral bone in the rat OA model at multiple time points post-surgery and identified important DE genes with known or suspected roles in bone development or remodeling. These genes may be novel diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for OA. PMID:22384228

  12. Pre-Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brittberg, Mats; Eriksson, Karl; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Lindahl, Anders; Marlovits, Stefan; Möller, Per; Richardson, James B.; Steinwachs, Matthias; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Objective An attempt to define pre-osteoarthritis (OA) versus early OA and definitive osteoarthritis. Methods A group of specialists in the field of cartilage science and treatment was formed to consider the nature of OA onset and its possible diagnosis. Results Late-stage OA, necessitating total joint replacement, is the end stage of a biological process, with many previous earlier stages. Early-stage OA has been defined and involves structural changes identified by arthroscopy or radiography. The group argued that before the “early-stage OA” there must exist a stage where cellular processes, due to the presence of risk factors, have kicked into action but have not yet resulted in structural changes. The group suggested that this stage could be called “pre-osteoarthritis” (pre-OA). Conclusions The group suggests that defining points of initiation for OA in the knee could be defined, for example, by traumatic episodes or surgical meniscectomy. Such events may set in motion metabolic processes that could be diagnosed by modern MRI protocols or arthroscopy including probing techniques before structural changes of early OA have developed. Preventive measures should preferably be applied at this pre-OA stage in order to stop the projected OA “epidemic.” PMID:26175861

  13. Biomechanical and neuromuscular adaptations during the landing phase of a stepping-down task in patients with early or established knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Malfait, Bart; Baert, Isabel; van der Leeden, Marike; van Dieën, Jaap; Lems, Willem F; Dekker, Joost; Luyten, Frank P; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-06-01

    To compare the knee joint kinematics, kinetics and EMG activity patterns during a stepping-down task in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with control subjects. 33 women with knee OA (early OA, n=14; established OA n=19) and 14 female control subjects performed a stepping-down task from a 20cm step. Knee joint kinematics, kinetics and EMG activity were recorded on the stepping-down leg during the loading phase. During the stepping-down task patients with established knee OA showed greater normalized medial hamstrings activity (p=0.034) and greater vastus lateralis-medial hamstrings co-contraction (p=0.012) than controls. Greater vastus medialis-medial hamstrings co-contraction was found in patients with established OA compared to control subjects (p=0.040) and to patients with early OA (p=0.023). Self-reported knee instability was reported in 7% and 32% of the patients with early and established OA, respectively. The greater EMG co-activity found in established OA might suggest a less efficient use of knee muscles or an attempt to compensate for greater knee laxity usually present in patients with established OA. In the early stage of the disease, the biomechanical and neuromuscular control of stepping-down is not altered compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cost utility modeling of early vs late total knee replacement in osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Mari, K; Dégieux, P; Mistretta, F; Guillemin, F; Richette, P

    2016-12-01

    Given the dramatic increase in the number of total knee replacement (TKR) surgeries in developed countries, the issue of the best time for surgery needs to be addressed from an economic perspective. To assess, from the perspective of the healthcare payer, the cost-utility of two surgical strategies in which knee replacement is performed at the early or late stage of the disease in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patient data and evidence from published literature on economic costs and outcomes in OA, including utilities, non-pharmacological, pharmacological and surgical options, combined with population life tables were entered in a Markov model of OA. The model represented the lifetime experience of a cohort of patients following their therapeutic management, discounting costs (euros) and utilities (quality-adjusted life-years) at 4% annually. In the base-case scenario, early TKR cost €6,624 more than late TKR (€76,223 vs €69,599) with a 0.15 gain in QALYs (18.675 vs 18.524). This yielded an incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of 43,631 €/QALY. Sensitivity analyses of the most influential uncertain parameters were performed and did not modify the direction of the conclusions: early TKR cost between €3,655 and €7,194 more than late TKR with a gain in QALYs between 0.15 and 0.39. The ICUR ranged from 17,131 €/QALY to 48,241 €/QALY. Our data do not support the early TKR strategy over the late TKR strategy in knee OA patients from a medico-economic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing risk factors for early hip osteoarthritis in activity-related hip pain: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, K A; Glyn-Jones, S; Batt, M E; Arden, N K; Newton, J L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hip pain and injury as a result of activity can lead to the development of early hip osteoarthritis (OA) in susceptible individuals. Our understanding of the factors that increase susceptibility continues to evolve. The ability to clearly identify individuals (and cohorts) with activity-related hip pain who are at risk of early hip OA is currently lacking. The purpose of this study was to gain expert consensus on which key clinical measures might help predict the risk of early hip OA in individuals presenting with activity-related hip pain. The agreed measures would constitute a standardised approach to initial clinical assessment to help identify these individuals. Methods This Dephi study used online surveys to gain concordance of expert opinion in a structured process of ‘rounds’. In this study, we asked ‘What outcome measures are useful in predicting hip OA in activity-related hip pain?’ The Delphi panel consisted of experts from sport and exercise medicine, orthopaedics, rheumatology, physiotherapy and OA research. Results The study identified key clinical measures in the history, examination and investigations (plain anteroposterior radiograph and femoroacetabular impingement views) that the panel agreed would be useful in predicting future risk of hip OA when assessing activity-related hip pain. The panel also agreed that certain investigations and tests (eg, MR angiography) did not currently have a role in routine assessment. There was a lack of consensus regarding the role of MRI, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and certain biomechanical and functional assessments. Conclusions We provide a standardised approach to the clinical assessment of patients with activity-related hip pain. Assessment measures rejected by the Delphi panel were newer, more expensive investigations that currently lack evidence. Assessment measures that did not reach consensus include MRI and PROMs. Their role remains ambiguous and would benefit from further

  16. Early osteoarthritis of the patellofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Berruto, Massimo; Filardo, Giuseppe; Ronga, Mario; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Farr, Jack; Ferrua, Paolo; Grassi, Alberto; Condello, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    Patellofemoral joint cartilage lesions are associated with a variety of clinical situations including blunt trauma, lateral patella dislocations, or as a secondary development in the setting of abnormal joint loading. There is a need for more clarity on how to best address these lesions. Most specifically, when is it necessary to surgically treat these lesions of the patella and trochlea and which technique to use? This review will focus on the spectrum of patellofemoral disease/injury and their treatment strategies, with special emphasis on cartilage damage and early osteoarthritis. Chapter sections will review the most common scenarios of cartilage damage in the patellofemoral joint, with an attempt to summarize current treatment, their outcomes, remaining challenges and unanswered questions.

  17. Effect of antiresorptive and anabolic bone therapy on development of osteoarthritis in a posttraumatic rat model of OA.

    PubMed

    Bagi, Cedo M; Berryman, Edwin; Zakur, David E; Wilkie, Dean; Andresen, Catharine J

    2015-11-06

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability, but despite the high unmet clinical need and extensive research seeking dependable therapeutic interventions, no proven disease-modifying treatment for OA is currently available. Due to the close interaction and interplay between the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone plate, it has been hypothesized that antiresorptive drugs can also reduce cartilage degradation, inhibit excessive turnover of the subchondral bone plate, prevent osteophyte formation, and/or that bone anabolic drugs might also stimulate cartilage synthesis by chondrocytes and preserve cartilage integrity. The benefit of intensive zoledronate (Zol) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy for bone and cartilage metabolism was evaluated in a rat model of OA. Medial meniscectomy (MM) was used to induce OA in male Lewis rats. Therapy with Zol and human PTH was initiated immediately after surgery. A dynamic weight-bearing (DWB) system was deployed to evaluate the weight-bearing capacity of the front and hind legs. At the end of the 10-week study, the rats were euthanized and the cartilage pathology was evaluated by contrast (Hexabrix)-enhanced μCT imaging and traditional histology. Bone tissue was evaluated at the tibial metaphysis and epiphysis, including the subchondral bone. Histological techniques and dynamic histomorphometry were used to evaluate cartilage morphology and bone mineralization. The results of this study highlight the complex changes in bone metabolism in different bone compartments influenced by local factors, including inflammation, pain and mechanical loads. Surgery caused severe and extensive deterioration of the articular cartilage at the medial tibial plateau, as evidenced by contrast-enhanced μCT and histology. The study results showed the negative impact of MM surgery on the weight-bearing capacity of the operated limb, which was not corrected by treatment. Although both Zol and PTH improved subchondral bone mass and

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis of early knee osteoarthritis based on MRI T2 mapping.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yixiao; Yang, Ran; Jia, Sen; Li, Zhanjun; Zhou, Zhiyang; Lou, Ting

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed at studying the method of computer-aided diagnosis of early knee OA (OA: osteoarthritis). Based on the technique of MRI (MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging) T2 Mapping, through computer image processing, feature extraction, calculation and analysis via constructing a classifier, an effective computer-aided diagnosis method for knee OA was created to assist doctors in their accurate, timely and convenient detection of potential risk of OA. In order to evaluate this method, a total of 1380 data from the MRI images of 46 samples of knee joints were collected. These data were then modeled through linear regression on an offline general platform by the use of the ImageJ software, and a map of the physical parameter T2 was reconstructed. After the image processing, the T2 values of ten regions in the WORMS (WORMS: Whole-organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score) areas of the articular cartilage were extracted to be used as the eigenvalues in data mining. Then,a RBF (RBF: Radical Basis Function) network classifier was built to classify and identify the collected data. The classifier exhibited a final identification accuracy of 75%, indicating a good result of assisting diagnosis. Since the knee OA classifier constituted by a weights-directly-determined RBF neural network didn't require any iteration, our results demonstrated that the optimal weights, appropriate center and variance could be yielded through simple procedures. Furthermore, the accuracy for both the training samples and the testing samples from the normal group could reach 100%. Finally, the classifier was superior both in time efficiency and classification performance to the frequently used classifiers based on iterative learning. Thus it was suitable to be used as an aid to computer-aided diagnosis of early knee OA.

  19. Alarmins S100A8/S100A9 aggravate osteophyte formation in experimental osteoarthritis and predict osteophyte progression in early human symptomatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Schelbergen, R F P; de Munter, W; van den Bosch, M H J; Lafeber, F P J G; Sloetjes, A; Vogl, T; Roth, J; van den Berg, W B; van der Kraan, P M; Blom, A B; van Lent, P L E M

    2016-01-01

    Alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are major products of activated macrophages regulating cartilage damage and synovial activation during murine and human osteoarthritis (OA). In the current study, we investigated whether S100A8 and S100A9 are involved in osteophyte formation during experimental OA and whether S100A8/A9 predicts osteophyte progression in early human OA. OA was elicited in S100A9-/- mice in two experimental models that differ in degree of synovial activation. Osteophyte size, S100A8, S100A9 and VDIPEN neoepitope was measured histologically. Chondrogenesis was induced in murine mesenchymal stem cells in the presence of S100A8. Levels of S100A8/A9 were determined in plasma of early symptomatic OA participants of the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee (CHECK) cohort study and osteophytes measured after 2 and 5 years. Osteophyte size was drastically reduced in S100A9-/- mice in ligaments and at medial femur and tibia on days 21 and 42 of collagenase-induced OA, in which synovial activation is high. In contrast, osteophyte size was not reduced in S100A9-/- mice during destabilised medial meniscus OA, in which synovial activation is scant. S100A8 increased expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases during micromass chondrogenesis, thereby possibly increasing cartilage matrix remodelling allowing for larger osteophytes. Interestingly, early symptomatic OA participants of the CHECK study with osteophyte progression after 2 and 5 years had elevated S100A8/A9 plasma levels at baseline, while C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein were not elevated at baseline. S100A8/A9 aggravate osteophyte formation in experimental OA with high synovial activation and may be used to predict osteophyte progression in early symptomatic human OA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. The economic and clinical burden of early versus late initiation of celecoxib among patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shelbaya, Ahmed; Solem, Caitlyn T; Walker, Chris; Wan, Yin; Johnson, Courtney; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with early versus late initiation of celecoxib treatment after osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosis and whether economic and safety outcomes differ between patients with early versus late initiation of celecoxib. Methods Adults (≥18 years) with a confirmed OA diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modifications code: 715.XX), ≥12 months of continuous pre- and post-index enrollment, and ≥1 post-index claim for celecoxib were included from the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounter Database (2009–2013). Index date was defined as initial OA diagnosis. Patients were categorized as initiating celecoxib early (within 6 months of index date) or late (≥6 months after index date). Logistic regressions were used to assess characteristics associated with early versus late celecoxib initiation. Key outcomes included health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs post-index, and adverse event incidence post-celecoxib initiation. Unadjusted and adjusted comparisons (using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution for costs and Poisson distribution for event and resource utilization) were made between early and late celecoxib initiators. Results Of the 62,434 OA patients identified, 27,402 were early and 35,032 were late initiators. Post-index hospital admissions and length of stay did not differ statistically between early versus late initiators after controlling for pre-index event rates and covariates, but early patients had significantly fewer outpatient (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 0.97) and emergency room visits (IRR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.95). After adjustment for key covariates, early initiators (versus late initiators) had lower all-cause (US$12,909 versus US$13,781, P<0.001) and OA-related (US$4,988 versus US$5,178, P=0.015) costs per person-year. Early initiators had no statistically significant

  1. Biomarkers for identifying the early phases of osteoarthritis secondary to medial patellar luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Rafiqul; Ji, Joong Ryong; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Nam Soo

    2011-09-01

    The levels of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in synovial fluid (SF) and serum in cases of canine osteoarthritis (OA) were measured. OA was induced by a surgically-created medial patellar luxation in the left stifle of 24 dogs. SF and blood samples were collected at 1.5- and 3-month intervals, respectively. Every 3 months, one dog was euthanatized to collect tissue samples from both stifles. TRAP levels in SF and serum were measured using a spectrophotometer, and TRAP-positive cells in joint tissues were identified by enzyme histochemistry. MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in SF and serum were detected by Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. TRAP in SF from the stifles and serum was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after 3 months. TIMP-2 in SF and serum was significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas MMP-2 in SF was significantly increased (p < 0.05) during the progression of OA. Histochemistry revealed an increased number of TRAP-positive cells in tissues from OA-affected joints. Assays measuring TRAP, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 in SF and serum, and methods that detect increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells in the joint tissues can play an important role in identifying the early phases of degenerative changes in canine joint components.

  2. Can multivariate models based on MOAKS predict OA knee pain? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Gómez, Carlos D.; Zanella-Calzada, Laura A.; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in the world. Knee pain is the most disabling symptom in the disease, the prediction of pain is one of the targets in preventive medicine, this can be applied to new therapies or treatments. Using the magnetic resonance imaging and the grading scales, a multivariate model based on genetic algorithms is presented. Using a predictive model can be useful to associate minor structure changes in the joint with the future knee pain. Results suggest that multivariate models can be predictive with future knee chronic pain. All models; T0, T1 and T2, were statistically significant, all p values were < 0.05 and all AUC > 0.60.

  3. India-Based Knee Osteoarthritis Evaluation (iKare): A Multi-Centre Cross-Sectional Study on the Management of Knee Pain and Early Osteoarthritis in India.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, Parag; Shetty, Vijay D; Dhillon, Mandeep S; Sprague, Sheila A; Bhandari, Mohit

    2017-09-01

    Access to early knee osteoarthritis treatment in low and middle income nations is often believed to be limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study in India to assess prior access to treatment among patients presenting with knee pain to specialist orthopaedic clinics. The multi-centre, cross-sectional study included patients presenting with knee pain at 3 hospitals in India. Patients who met the inclusion criteria and provided informed consent completed a questionnaire designed to assess patient demographics, socioeconomic status, knee pain, treatment method, and patient's knowledge on osteoarthritis (OA). Their orthopaedic surgeons also completed a questionnaire on the severity of patient's OA and their recommended treatments. The impact of demographic characteristics on the prescription of treatment options was analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 714 patients met the eligibility criteria and participated in this study. The majority of patients had been experiencing pain for less than 1 year (64.8%) and had previously been prescribed medications (91.6%), supplements (68.6%), and nonpharmacological (81.9%) treatments to manage their knee OA. Current treatment recommendations included oral medications (83.3%), intra-articular injections (29.8%), and surgical intervention (12.7%). Prescription of oral medications was related to younger age, lack of deformities, and lower Kellgren-Lawrence grades ( p < 0.01). Patients treated in private hospital settings were more likely to have been previously treated with medications (range, 84.3% to 92.6%; p < 0.01) and physical treatments (range, 61.8% to 84.8%; p < 0.01) than patients treated at government hospitals. Contrary to the perception, our findings suggest a similar proportion of early knee OA treatment between India and North America.

  4. Early signs of osteoarthritis in professional ballet dancers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Angioi, Manuela; Maffulli, Gayle D; McCormack, Moira; Morrissey, Dylan; Chan, Otto; Maffulli, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    To investigate a cohort of professional ballet dancers for evidence of early signs of osteoarthritis (OA). One radiologist and 1 orthopedic surgeon specialized in musculoskeletal disorders analyzed magnetic resonance imaging scans independently. University Teaching Hospital. Fifteen professional ballet dancers (4 males and 11 females; age range, 19-36 years) experiencing chronic pain in the hip, knee, spine, ankle, or foot joints. Presence of osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis, joint space narrowing, cysts, and bone marrow changes; the Kellgren and Lawrence scale was used to quantify the knee OA. In the knee, there was thinning and irregularity of the articular cartilage over the medial femoral condyle and bone marrow changes within the lateral femoral condyle. In the hip, there was a loss of joint space and a frayed labrum with deep recess. The first metatarsophalangeal joint showed evidence of osteophytic development. Early signs of OA, in different joints, were present in a small but highly selected cohort of professional ballet dancers. In future, prospective studies among a number of ballet companies should control for medical and natural history alongside the visual analysis of images and plain radiographs to confirm these preliminary results.

  5. Clinical comparison of oral administration and viscosupplementation of hyaluronic acid (HA) in early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, M; Micheloni, G M; Berti, M; Perusi, F; Sambugaro, E; Vecchini, E; Magnan, B

    2017-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive, chronic and degenerative joint disease characterized by a loss of articular cartilage. Treatment of OA is largely palliative based on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids and injections of steroids. Regarding conservative treatment, intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) can play a role in early symptomatic knee OA. Between August 2015 and September 2015, sixty patients (32 males and 28 females) between 40 and 70 years old were randomly allocated into two groups: Half were treated with three weekly intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid 1.6 % (group A), while the others were treated with Syalox 300 Plus ® (hyaluronic acid 300 mg + Boswellia serrata extract 100 mg) 1 tab/die for 20 days and afterward Syalox 150 ® (hyaluronic acid 150 mg) 1 tab/die for other 20 days (group B). All patients were evaluated clinically with American Knee Society Score (AKSS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) for the pain before the treatment and after 3 months. AKSS of the patients in both groups was significantly increased by the treatment, and VAS score was significantly reduced. In both groups, two subgroups were created with patients older than 60 years and patients younger than 60 years. Better results are reported in younger patients of group A and older subjects in group B. Despite several limitations, the results of the study have shown that HA injection and oral administration may have beneficial therapeutic effects on patients with early osteoarthritis. Different outcomes in younger and older subject suggested a combined therapy first with local infiltrations and then with oral composition.

  6. Subgroup analyses of the effectiveness of oral glucosamine for knee and hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis from the OA trial bank.

    PubMed

    Runhaar, Jos; Rozendaal, Rianne M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Bijlsma, Hans J W; Doherty, Michael; Dziedzic, Krysia S; Lohmander, L Stefan; McAlindon, Timothy; Zhang, Weiya; Bierma Zeinstra, Sita

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of oral glucosamine in subgroups of people with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) based on baseline pain severity, body mass index (BMI), sex, structural abnormalities and presence of inflammation using individual patient data. After a systematic search of the literature and clinical trial registries, all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of any oral glucosamine substance in patients with clinically or radiographically defined hip or knee OA were contacted. As a minimum, pain, age, sex and BMI at baseline and pain as an outcome measure needed to be assessed. Of 21 eligible studies, six (n=1663) shared their trial data with the OA Trial Bank. Five trials (all independent of industry, n=1625) compared glucosamine with placebo, representing 55% of the total number of participants in all published placebo-controlled RCTs. Glucosamine was no better than placebo for pain or function at short (3 months) and long-term (24 months) follow-up. Glucosamine was also no better than placebo among the predefined subgroups. Stratification for knee OA and type of glucosamine did not alter these results. Although proposed and debated for several years, open trial data are not widely made available for studies of glucosamine for OA, especially those sponsored by industry. Currently, there is no good evidence to support the use of glucosamine for hip or knee OA and an absence of evidence to support specific consideration of glucosamine for any clinically relevant OA subgroup according to baseline pain severity, BMI, sex, structural abnormalities or presence of inflammation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Physical Activity Levels in Early Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Going, Scott B.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Rankin, Lucinda; Kasle, Shelley; Cornett, Michelle; Cussler, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity (PA) is recommended for osteoarthritis (OA) management to reduce pain and improve function. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess the level and pattern of PA in male and female knee OA patients to determine adherence to CDC/ACSM and EPAC recommendations for PA. Methods: Early OA patients (n = 255, 76% women, 54.6 ± 7.1 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.8 ± 4.3 kg/m2) having radiographic status of Kellgren and Lawrence-defined grade II OA (and no higher) in at least one knee wore an accelerometer (Actigraph MTI) for 6-7 contiguous days. Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) PA intensities were defined as accelerometer recordings of 100 to 2,224, 2,225 to 5,950, and > 5,950 counts per minute, respectively. Results: Subjects wore accelerometers for 6.8 ± 0.3 days and 13.8 ± 2.2 hours per day (hr/day) and spent much more (P < 0.001) time in MPA (23.6 ± 17.2 min/day) compared to VPA (0.95 ± 3.5 min/day). Males spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in all PA intensities than females. Only 30% of subjects achieved recommended PA levels. The proportion of males (47%) achieving the recommendation was significantly (P = 0.04) higher than females (24%). Conclusion: Knee OA patients accumulate little vigorous PA and most (70%) do not achieve recommended levels for moderate or greater intensity PA. New strategies to increase levels of PA in this population are needed. PMID:18759320

  8. Management of osteoarthritis (OA) with the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia): a 12-week registry.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Luzzi, R; Ledda, A; Pellegrini, L; Hu, S; Ippolito, E

    2015-10-22

    This registry study assessed the pharma-standard supplement FlexiQule (Boswellia extract in capsules) in the management of symptoms associated to osteoarthritis (OA) also managed with the 'standard management' (SM) in comparison with a group of patients managed only with SM. The 12- week registry included patients with symptomatic knee arthrosis. They were able to walk on a treadmill for a walking test and to complete the WOMAC questionnaire. 32 patients used the supplement and 34 acted as controls (SM). No safety problems were observed. At 12 weeks, the Karnofsky scale was significantly improved in both groups: the variation was higher (p<0.05) in the supplement group. The WOMAC score was decreased significantly more in the supplement+SM group in comparison with controls considering pain, stiffness and physical functions (p<0.05). For social and emotional functions the decrease in score was also more evident in the supplement group (p<0.05). Both groups improved in pain-free and total walking distance at 12 weeks. Pain-free walking distance (treadmill) was higher (p<0.05) with the supplement (from 93.4;11.6 m to 271.3;19.3 m) than in controls (from 90.5;13.5 m to 158.3;22.3)(p<0.05). The improvement in total walking distance was also higher in the supplement group (p<0.05) (from 164.3;23.2 to 322.3;22.3 m) in comparison with the SM- only group ( from 158.3;18,4 to 240.2;19.3 m). The need for concomitant drugs and medical attention during the registry was reduced more in the supplement group (p<0.05). In conclusion the difference between SM and the Flexiqule+SM was in favor of the management with the supplement for all target measurements. The product is safe and well tolerated.

  9. Detection of early osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of Icelandic horses: Evaluation of radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ley, C J; Björnsdóttir, S; Ekman, S; Boyde, A; Hansson, K

    2016-01-01

    Validated noninvasive detection methods for early osteoarthritis (OA) are required for OA prevention and early intervention treatment strategies. To evaluate radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of early stage OA osteochondral lesions in equine centrodistal joints using microscopy as the reference standard. Prospective imaging of live horses and imaging and microscopy of cadaver tarsal joints. Centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of 38 Icelandic research horses aged 27-29 months were radiographed. Horses were subjected to euthanasia approximately 2 months later and cadaver joints examined with low-field MRI. Osteochondral joint specimens were classified as negative or positive for OA using light microscopy histology or scanning electron microscopy. Radiographs and MRIs were evaluated for osteochondral lesions and results compared with microscopy. Forty-two joints were classified OA positive with microscopy. Associations were detected between microscopic OA and the radiography lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P<0.0001), joint margin lesion (P<0.0001), central osteophyte (P = 0.03) and the low-field MRI lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P = 0.01), joint margin lesion (P = 0.02) and articular cartilage lesion (P = 0.0003). The most frequent lesion category detected in microscopic OA positive joints was the mineralisation front defect in radiographs (28/42 OA positive joints, specificity 97%, sensitivity 67%). No significant differences were detected between the sensitivity and specificity of radiography and low-field MRI pooled lesion categories, but radiography was often superior when individual lesion categories were compared. Early stage centrodistal joint OA changes may be detected with radiography and low-field MRI. Detection of mineralisation front defects in radiographs may be a useful screening method for detection of early OA in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses. © 2015 EVJ

  10. Early Changes of Articular Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in The DMM Mouse Model of Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hang; Huang, Lisi; Welch, Ian; Norley, Chris; Holdsworth, David W; Beier, Frank; Cai, Daozhang

    2018-02-12

    To examine the early changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the DMM mouse model of osteoarthritis, mice were subjected to DMM or SHAM surgery and sacrificed at 2-, 5- and 10-week post-surgery. Catwalk gait analyses, Micro-Computed Tomography, Toluidine Blue, Picrosirius Red and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining were used to investigate gait patterns, joint morphology, subchondral bone, cartilage, collagen organization and osteoclasts activity, respectively. Results showed OA progressed over 10-week time-course. Gait disparity occurred only at 10-week post-surgery. Osteophyte formed at 2-week post-surgery. BMDs of DMM showed no statistical differences comparing to SHAM at 2 weeks, but BV/TV is much higher in DMM mice. Increased BMD was clearly found at 5- and 10-week post-surgery in DMM mice. TRAP staining showed increased osteoclast activity at the site of osteophyte formation of DMM joints at 5- and 10-week time points. These results showed that subchondral bone turnover might occurred earlier than 2 weeks in this mouse DMM model. Gait disparity only occurred at later stage of OA in DMM mice. Notably, patella dislocation could occur in some of the DMM mice and cause a different pattern of OA in affected knee.

  11. Advanced Imaging in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Amano, Keiko; Link, Thomas M.; Ma, C. Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Radiography is widely accepted as the gold standard for diagnosing osteoarthritis (OA), but it has limitations when assessing early stage OA and monitoring progression. While there are improvements in the treatment of OA, the challenge is early recognition. Evidence Acquisition: MEDLINE and PubMed as well as professional orthopaedic and imaging websites were reviewed from 2006 to 2016. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide the most comprehensive assessment of joint injury and OA with the advantages of being noninvasive and multiplanar with excellent soft tissue contrast. However, MRI is expensive, time consuming, and not widely used for monitoring OA clinically. Computed tomography (CT) and CT arthrography (CTA) can also be used to evaluate OA, but these are also invasive and require radiation exposure. Ultrasound is particularly useful for evaluation of synovitis but not for progression of OA. Conclusion: MRI, CT, and CTA are available for the diagnosis and monitoring of OA. Improvement in techniques and decrease in cost can allow some of these modalities to be effective methods of detecting early OA. PMID:27510507

  12. Products resulting from cleavage of the interglobular domain of aggrecan in samples of synovial fluid collected from dogs with early- and late-stage osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Innes, John F; Little, Chris B; Hughes, Clare E; Caterson, Bruce

    2005-10-01

    To investigate interglobular domain (IGD) cleavage of aggrecan in dogs with naturally developing osteoarthritis (OA). Samples of synovial fluid (SF) obtained from 3 cubital (elbow) joints and 3 stifle joints of 4 clinically normal dogs, 24 elbow joints of 12 dogs with early-stage OA, 8 stifle joints of 5 dogs with early-stage OA, and 10 stifle joints of 9 dogs with late-stage OA. Fractions of SF were assayed for total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content and also subjected to Western blot analysis by use of monoclonal antibodies against neoepitopes generated by cleavage of the IGD of the aggrecan protein core by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP; BC-14) and aggrecanase (BC-3). Total GAG content of SF from joints of clinically normal dogs did not differ from that of dogs with early-stage OA. The GAG content of SF from joints of dogs with late-stage OA was significantly lower, compared with GAG content for other SF samples. Aggrecanase-generated fragments were detected in SF from all groups but not in all samples. Matrix metalloproteinase-generated fragments were not detected in any SF samples. In early-stage OA, high-molecular-weight aggrecanase-generated aggrecan catabolites were evident. GAG content of SF obtained from dogs with late-stage OA is significantly decreased, suggesting proteoglycan depletion of cartilage. Aggrecanases, but not MMPs, are the major proteolytic enzymes responsible for IGD cleavage of aggrecan in canine joints. Analyses of SF samples to detect aggrecanase-generated catabolites may provide an early biomarker for discriminating early- and late-stage OA in dogs.

  13. The spatial organisation of joint surface chondrocytes: review of its potential roles in tissue functioning, disease and early, preclinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Aicher, Wilhelm K; Rolauffs, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    Chondrocytes display within the articular cartilage depth-dependent variations of their many properties that are comparable to the depth-dependent changes of the properties of the surrounding extracellular matrix. However, not much is known about the spatial organisation of the chondrocytes throughout the tissue. Recent studies revealed that human chondrocytes display distinct spatial patterns of organisation within the articular surface, and each joint surface is dominated in a typical way by one of four basic spatial patterns. The resulting complex spatial organisations correlate with the specific diarthrodial joint type, suggesting an association of the chondrocyte organisation within the joint surface with the occurring biomechanical forces. In response to focal osteoarthritis (OA), the superficial chondrocytes experience a destruction of their spatial organisation within the OA lesion, but they also undergo a defined remodelling process distant from the OA lesion in the remaining, intact cartilage surface. One of the biological insights that can be derived from this spatial remodelling process is that the chondrocytes are able to respond in a generalised and coordinated fashion to distant focal OA. The spatial characteristics of this process are tremendously different from the cellular aggregations typical for OA lesions, suggesting differences in the underlying mechanisms. Here we summarise the available information on the spatial organisation of chondrocytes and its potential roles in cartilage functioning. The spatial organisation could be used to diagnose early OA onset before manifest OA results in tissue destruction and clinical symptoms. With further development, this concept may become clinically suitable for the diagnosis of preclinical OA.

  14. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Osteoarthritis English Español 繁體中文 한국어 tiếng Việt Osteoarthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is a disease that damages the slippery ...

  15. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-02-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) involves cartilage changes as well as modifications of subchondral bone and synovial tissues. Strontium ranelate (SR), an anti-osteoporosis compound, which is currently in phase III clinical trial for treatment of OA. Evidences suggest that SR preferably deposited in osteophyte, other than in subchondral bone in early phase of OA. This phenomenon raises concern about its utility for OA treatment as a disease-modifying drug. To evaluate the effect of SR on cartilage, subchondral bone mass and subchondral trabecular bone structure in medial meniscectomized (MNX) guinea pigs. Thirty-six 3-month-old male Dunkin Hartley albino guinea pigs received either sham or medial meniscectomy operations. One week after the procedure, meniscectomized animals began 12 weeks of SR (625 mg/kg, daily) treatment by oral gavage for MNX + SR group, or normal saline for MNX + V group. All animals were euthanized 12 weeks later, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone micro-architecture was analyzed. Both OARSI scores (P = 0.523 for marcoscopic scores, P = 0.297 for histological scores) and Cartilage thickness (P = 0.335) in MNX + SR group were comparable to MNX + V group. However, osteophyte sizes were larger in MNX + SR group (P = 0.014), and collapsed osteophytes in MNX + SR group (7 by 12) were significantly more than in MNX + V group (1 by 12) (P = 0.027), while immunohistochemistry indicates catabolic changes in osteophyte/plateau junction. Micro-CT analysis showed bone mineral density (BMD) (P = 0.001), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (P = 0.008), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (P = 0.020), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (P = 0.012) and structure model index (SMI) (P = 0.005) levels to be significantly higher in the MNX + SR group than in the MNX + V group. SR (625 mg/kg/day) did not protect cartilage from degeneration in MNX guinea pigs but subchondral bone was significantly enhanced. In early

  16. Meniscus Induced Cartilaginous Damage and Non-linear Gross Anatomical Progression of Early-stage Osteoarthritis in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, David; Mittelstaedt, Daniel; Matyas, John; Qu, Xiangui; Lee, Ji Hyun; Badar, Farid; Les, Clifford; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The predictable outcome of the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) canine model, and the similarity to naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA) in humans, provide a translatable method for studying OA. Still, evidence of direct meniscus-induced cartilaginous damage has not been identified, and gross-anatomical blinded scoring of early-stage OA has not been performed. Objective: A gross anatomical observation and statistical analysis of OA progression to determine meniscus induced cartilaginous damage, to measure the macroscopic progression of OA, and to address matters involving arthroscopic and surgical procedures of the knee. Method: Unblinded assessment and blinded scoring of meniscal, tibial, femoral, and patellar damage were performed for control and at four time points following unilateral ACLT: 3-week (N=4), 8-week (N=4), 12-week (N=5), and 25-week (N=4). Mixed-model statistics illustrates damage (score) progression; Wilcoxon rank-sum tests compared time-point scores; and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared ACLT and contralateral scores, and meniscus and tibia scores. Result: Damage was manifest first on the posterior aspect of the medial meniscus and subsequently on the tibia and femur, implying meniscal damage can precede, coincide with, and aggravate cartilage damage. Damage extent varied chronologically and was dependent upon the joint component. Meniscal damage was evident at 3 weeks and progressed through 25-weeks. Meniscal loose bodies corresponded to tibial cartilage damage location and extent through 12 weeks, followed by cartilage repair activity after complete meniscal degeneration. Conclusion: This study provides additional information for understanding OA progression, identifying OA biomarkers, and arthroscopic and meniscectomy procedures. PMID:28144379

  17. Linkage of early-onset osteoarthritis and chondrocalcinosis to human chromosome 8q

    SciT

    Baldwin, C.T.; Farrer, L.A.; Adair, R.

    Calcium pyrophosphate-deposition disease (CPDD), also called {open_quotes}chondrocalcinosis{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudogout{close_quotes}, is a disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium-containing crystals in joint tissue, which leads to arthritis-like symptoms. The presence of these crystals in joint tissue is a common finding in the elderly, and, in this population, there is a poor correlation with joint pain. In contrast, early-onset CPDD has been described in several large families in which the disease progresses to severe degenerative osteoarthritis (OA). In these families, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is observed, with an age at onset between the 2nd and 5th decades of life. Inmore » this report, we describe a large New England family with early-onset CPDD and severe degenerative OA. We found genetic linkage between the disease in this family and chromosome 8q, with a multipoint lod score of 4.06. These results suggest that a defective gene at this location causes the disease in this family. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  18. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=<0.001), stiffness (p=0.001) and physical function (p<0.001) were found for the OAG. Moderate and negative correlations were found between the AP COP amplitude of displacement and physical function (ρ=-0.40, p=0.02). Moderate and negative correlations were observed between the AP COP

  19. Oral administration of undenatured native chicken type II collagen (UC-II) diminished deterioration of articular cartilage in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA).

    PubMed

    Bagi, C M; Berryman, E R; Teo, S; Lane, N E

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of undenatured native chicken type II collagen (UC-II) to prevent excessive articular cartilage deterioration in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty male rats were subjected to partial medial meniscectomy tear (PMMT) surgery to induce OA. Immediately after the surgery 10 rats received vehicle and another 10 rats oral daily dose of UC-II at 0.66 mg/kg for a period of 8 weeks. In addition 10 naïve rats were used as an intact control and another 10 rats received sham surgery. Study endpoints included a weight-bearing capacity of front and hind legs, serum biomarkers of bone and cartilage metabolism, analyses of subchondral and cancellous bone at the tibial epiphysis and metaphysis, and cartilage pathology at the medial tibial plateau using histological methods. PMMT surgery produced moderate OA at the medial tibial plateau. Specifically, the deterioration of articular cartilage negatively impacted the weight bearing capacity of the operated limb. Immediate treatment with the UC-II preserved the weight-bearing capacity of the injured leg, preserved integrity of the cancellous bone at tibial metaphysis and limited the excessive osteophyte formation and deterioration of articular cartilage. Study results demonstrate that a clinically relevant daily dose of UC-II when applied immediately after injury can improve the mechanical function of the injured knee and prevent excessive deterioration of articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Knee Osteoarthritis by DY Wen, M.D.(American Family Physician 08/01/00) Shoulder Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and Management ... Gobezie, MD, and Robert E. Boykin, MD(American Family Physician 09/01/08) Last Updated: April 1, 2014 ...

  1. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your ... it affects your hands, knees, hips or spine. Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in your joints. Cartilage ...

  2. New application of 18F-fluoride PET for the detection of bone remodeling in early-stage osteoarthritis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Inaba, Yutaka; Tateishi, Ukihide; Yukizawa, Yohei; Ike, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Tomio; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have reported the acceleration of subchondral bone remodeling during the development of osteoarthritis (OA). However, it is not possible to evaluate such molecular abnormalities using conventional radiographic techniques. We have applied 18F-fluoride PET to the analysis of painful or dysplastic hips at various stages of OA and then compared this with radiographic findings and clinical findings. A consecutive series of 65 joints from 48 patients (average age, 40 years; range, 19-72 years) with a hip joint complaint or radiographic dysplastic hip were enrolled in this study. Twenty-five contralateral joints without any evidence of OA or clinical symptoms were assigned as a normal control group. Radiographic evaluations were performed on the basis of Kellgren and Lawrence grade and the minimum joint space. Clinical evaluations were performed using the grading scale for pain severity and the SUVmax was measured for each joint. The association between SUVmax and the radiographic or clinical findings was evaluated. 18F-fluoride PET shows a significantly higher uptake value for progressive-stage OA cases than for early-stage cases and also shows a significantly higher uptake value in cases with severe pain. Even in early-OA-stage patients who do not show joint space narrowing on a plain x-ray, cases with severe pain show a significantly higher uptake value. 18F-fluoride PET has great potential as an imaging method for diagnosing early-stage OA without any marked radiographic changes.

  3. A cost-effectiveness analysis of celecoxib compared with diclofenac in the treatment of pain in osteoarthritis (OA) within the Swedish health system using an adaptation of the NICE OA model.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Nicholas; Pennington, Becky; Ekelund, Mats; Akehurst, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Celecoxib for the treatment of pain resulting from osteoarthritis (OA) was reviewed by the Tandvårds- och läkemedelsförmånsverket-Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Board (TLV) in Sweden in late 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of celecoxib plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) compared to diclofenac plus a PPI in a Swedish setting. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK developed a health economic model as part of their 2008 assessment of treatments for OA. In this analysis, the model was reconstructed and adapted to a Swedish perspective. Drug costs were updated using the TLV database. Adverse event costs were calculated using the regional price list of Southern Sweden and the standard treatment guidelines from the county council of Stockholm. Costs for treating cardiovascular (CV) events were taken from the Swedish DRG codes and the literature. Over a patient's lifetime treatment with celecoxib plus a PPI was associated with a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain of 0.006 per patient when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. There was an increase in discounted costs of 529 kr per patient, which resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 82,313 kr ($12,141). Sensitivity analysis showed that treatment was more cost effective in patients with an increased risk of bleeding or gastrointestinal (GI) complications. The results suggest that celecoxib plus a PPI is a cost effective treatment for OA when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. Treatment is shown to be more cost effective in Sweden for patients with a high risk of bleeding or GI complications. It was in this population that the TLV gave a positive recommendation. There are known limitations on efficacy in the original NICE model.

  4. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  5. Cartilage Thickening in Early Radiographic Human Knee Osteoarthritis –Within-Person, Between-Knee Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Cotofana, Sebastian; Buck, Robert; Wirth, Wolfgang; Roemer, Frank; Duryea, Jeff; Nevitt, Michael; Eckstein, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the presence of definite osteophytes (in absence of joint space narrowing [JSN]) by radiograph is associated with (subregional) increases in cartilage thickness, in a within-person, between-knee cross-sectional comparison of participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Based on previous results, external medial (ecMF) and external lateral weight-bearing femoral (ecLF) subregions were selected as primary endpoints. Methods Both knees of 61 (of 4798) OAI participants displayed definite tibial or femoral marginal osteophytes and no JSN in one knee, and no signs of radiographic OA in the contra-lateral knee; this being confirmed by an expert central reader. In these participants, cartilage thickness was measured in 16 femorotibial subregions of each knee, based on sagittal DESSwe magnetic resonance images. Location-specific joint space width from fixed flexion radiographs was determined using dedicated software. Location-specific associations of osteophytes with cartilage thickness were evaluated using paired t-tests and mixed effect models. Results Of the 61 participants, 48% had only medial, 36% only lateral, and 16% bi-compartmental osteophytes. Osteophyte knees had significantly thicker cartilage than contra-lateral non-osteophyte knees in the ecMF (+71±223μm, equivalent to +5.5%, p=0.015) and ecLF (+64±195μm, +4.1%, p=0.013). No significant differences between knees were noted in other subregions, nor in joint space width. Cartilage thickness in ecMF and ecLF was significantly associated with tibial osteophytes in the same (medial or lateral) compartment (p=0.003). Conclusion Knees with early radiographic OA display thicker cartilage than (contra-lateral) knees without radiographic findings of OA, specifically in the external femoral subregions of compartments with marginal osteophytes. PMID:22556039

  6. Relationships between biomarkers of cartilage, bone, synovial metabolism and knee pain provide insights into the origins of pain in early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Muneaki; Watari, Taiji; Naito, Kiyohito; Kaneko, Haruka; Futami, Ippei; Yoshimura-Ishida, Kaori; Tomonaga, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Nagaoka, Isao; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Poole, Robin A; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2011-02-14

    We tested the hypothesis that there exist relationships between the onset of early stage radiographically defined knee osteoarthritis (OA), pain and changes in biomarkers of joint metabolism. Using Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grading early radiographic knee OA (K/L 2) was detected in 16 of 46 patients. These grades (K/L 1 is no OA and K/L 2 is early OA) were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of persistent knee pain. Sera (s) and urines (u) were analysed with biomarkers for cartilage collagen cleavage (sC2C and uCTX-II) and synthesis (sCPII), bone resorption (uNTx) and synovitis (hyaluronic acid: sHA). sCPII decreased and sC2C/sCPII, uCTX-II/sCPII and sHA increased with onset of OA (K/L 2 versus K/L 1) irrespective of joint pain. In contrast, sC2C and uCTX-II remained unchanged in early OA patients. Of the patients with K/L grades 1 and 2 sC2C, sCPII, sHA, uNTX and uCTX-II were all significantly increased in patients with knee pain independent of grade. Among the K/L grade 2 subjects, only uCTX-II and uCTX-II/sCPII were increased in those with knee pain. In grade 1 patients both sC2C and sCPII were increased in those with knee pain. No such grade specific changes were seen for the other biomarkers including sHA. These results suggest that changes in cartilage matrix turnover detected by molecular biomarkers may reflect early changes in cartilage structure that account directly or indirectly for knee pain. Also K/L grade 1 patients with knee pain exhibit biomarker features of early OA.

  7. Individual patient data meta-analysis of trials investigating the effectiveness of intra-articular glucocorticoid injections in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis: an OA Trial Bank protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on small to moderate effect sizes for the wide range of symptomatic treatments in osteoarthritis (OA), and on the heterogeneity of OA patients, treatment guidelines for OA have stressed the need for research on clinical predictors of response to different treatments. A meta-analysis to quantify the effect modified by the predictors using individual patient data (IPD) is suggested. The initiative to collect and analyze IPD in OA research is commenced by the OA Trial Bank. The study aims are therefore: to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular glucocorticoids for knee or hip OA in specific subgroups of patients with severe pain and (mild) inflammatory signs, over both short-term and long-term follow-up, using IPD from existing studies; to reach consensus on the rules for cooperation in a consortium; and to develop and explore the methodological issues of meta-analysis with individual OA patient data. Methods/Design For the current IPD analysis we will collect and synthesize IPD from randomized trials studying the effect of intra-articular glucocorticoid injections in patients with hip or knee OA. Subgroup analyses will be performed for the primary outcome of pain at both short-term and long-term follow-up, in the subgroups of patients with and without severe pain and with and without inflammatory signs. Discussion This study protocol includes the first study of the OA Trial Bank, an international collaboration that initiates meta-analyses on predefined subgroups of OA patients from existing literature. This approach ensures a widely supported initiative and is therefore likely to be successful in data collection of existing trials. The collaboration developed (that is, the OA Trial Bank) may also lead to future IPD analyses on subgroups of patients with several intervention strategies applied in OA patients. PMID:23830482

  8. Individual patient data meta-analysis of trials investigating the effectiveness of intra-articular glucocorticoid injections in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis: an OA Trial Bank protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Middelkoop, Marienke; Dziedzic, Krysia S; Doherty, Michael; Zhang, Weiya; Bijlsma, Johannes W; McAlindon, Timothy E; Lohmander, Stefan L; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2013-07-05

    Based on small to moderate effect sizes for the wide range of symptomatic treatments in osteoarthritis (OA), and on the heterogeneity of OA patients, treatment guidelines for OA have stressed the need for research on clinical predictors of response to different treatments. A meta-analysis to quantify the effect modified by the predictors using individual patient data (IPD) is suggested. The initiative to collect and analyze IPD in OA research is commenced by the OA Trial Bank. The study aims are therefore: to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular glucocorticoids for knee or hip OA in specific subgroups of patients with severe pain and (mild) inflammatory signs, over both short-term and long-term follow-up, using IPD from existing studies; to reach consensus on the rules for cooperation in a consortium; and to develop and explore the methodological issues of meta-analysis with individual OA patient data. For the current IPD analysis we will collect and synthesize IPD from randomized trials studying the effect of intra-articular glucocorticoid injections in patients with hip or knee OA. Subgroup analyses will be performed for the primary outcome of pain at both short-term and long-term follow-up, in the subgroups of patients with and without severe pain and with and without inflammatory signs. This study protocol includes the first study of the OA Trial Bank, an international collaboration that initiates meta-analyses on predefined subgroups of OA patients from existing literature. This approach ensures a widely supported initiative and is therefore likely to be successful in data collection of existing trials. The collaboration developed (that is, the OA Trial Bank) may also lead to future IPD analyses on subgroups of patients with several intervention strategies applied in OA patients.

  9. [Subchondral bone in osteoarthritis: a review].

    PubMed

    Pang, Jian; Cao, Yue-long; Shi, Yin-yu

    2011-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent of joint diseases,and its pathology is characterized by the degeneration of cartilage, sclerosis of subchondral bone, and osteophyte formation. Localization of the early lesions of OA has not been clarified, but many researchers have focused on cartilage and have considered that changes in subchondral bone occur subsequently to the degeneration of cartilage. However, a low bone mineral density, particularly in the knee joint with OA, high bone turnover, and efficacy of bone resorption inhibitors for OA have recently been reported, suggesting that subchondral bone plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. This review aims to make a conclusion about advancement in research of subchondral bone in osteoarthritis.

  10. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  11. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  12. The Relationship Between Early-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis and Lower-Extremity Alignment, Joint Laxity, and Subjective Scores of Pain, Stiffness, and Function.

    PubMed

    Hicks-Little, Charlie A; Peindl, Richard D; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia J; Cordova, Mitchell L

    2016-08-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that affects an estimated 27 million Americans. Changes in lower-extremity alignment and joint laxity have been found to redistribute the medial and/or lateral loads at the joint. However, the effect that changes in anteroposterior knee-joint laxity have on lower-extremity alignment and function in individuals with knee OA remains unclear. To examine anteroposterior knee-joint laxity, lower-extremity alignment, and subjective pain, stiffness, and function scores in individuals with early-stage knee OA and matched controls and to determine if a relationship exists among these measures. Case control. Sports-medicine research laboratory. 18 participants with knee OA and 18 healthy matched controls. Participants completed the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis questionnaire and were tested for total anteroposterior knee-joint laxity (A-P) and knee-joint alignment (ALIGN). WOMAC scores, A-P (mm), and ALIGN (°). A significant multivariate main effect for group (Wilks' Λ = 0.30, F7,26 = 8.58, P < .0001) was found. Knee-OA participants differed in WOMAC scores (P < .0001) but did not differ from healthy controls on ALIGN (P = .49) or total A-P (P = .66). No significant relationships were identified among main outcome measures. These data demonstrate that participants with early-stage knee OA had worse pain, stiffness, and functional outcome scores than the matched controls; however, ALIGN and A-P were no different. There was no association identified among participants' subjective scores, ALIGN, or A-P measures in this study.

  13. Association of medial meniscal extrusion with medial tibial osteophyte distance detected by T2 mapping MRI in patients with early-stage knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hada, Shinnosuke; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Kinoshita, Mayuko; Liu, Lizu; Sadatsuki, Ryo; Futami, Ippei; Yusup, Anwajan; Takamura, Tomohiro; Arita, Hitoshi; Shiozawa, Jun; Aoki, Takako; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Shigeki; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Okada, Yasunori; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-09-12

    Medial meniscal extrusion (MME) is associated with progression of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), but no or little information is available for relationships between MME and osteophytes, which are found in cartilage and bone parts. Because of the limitation in detectability of the cartilage part of osteophytes by radiography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the rate of development and size of osteophytes appear to have been underestimated. Because T2 mapping MRI may enable us to evaluate the cartilage part of osteophytes, we aimed to examine the association between MME and OA-related changes, including osteophytes, by using conventional and T2 mapping MRI. Patients with early-stage knee OA (n = 50) were examined. MRI-detected OA-related changes, in addition to MME, were evaluated according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score. T2 values of the medial meniscus and osteophytes were measured on T2 mapping images. Osteophytes surgically removed from patients with end-stage knee OA were histologically analyzed and compared with findings derived by radiography and MRI. Medial side osteophytes were detected by T2 mapping MRI in 98% of patients with early-stage knee OA, although the detection rate was 48% by conventional MRI and 40% by radiography. Among the OA-related changes, medial tibial osteophyte distance was most closely associated with MME, as determined by multiple logistic regression analysis, in the patients with early-stage knee OA (β = 0.711, p < 0.001). T2 values of the medial meniscus were directly correlated with MME in patients with early-stage knee OA, who showed ≥ 3 mm of MME (r = 0.58, p = 0.003). The accuracy of osteophyte evaluation by T2 mapping MRI was confirmed by histological analysis of the osteophytes removed from patients with end-stage knee OA. Our study demonstrates that medial tibial osteophyte evaluated by T2 mapping MRI is frequently observed in the patients with early-stage knee

  14. Quantitative Raman characterization of cross-linked collagen thin films as a model system for diagnosing early osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Durney, Krista M.; Fomovsky, Gregory; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Vukelic, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    The onset of osteoarthritis (OA)in articular cartilage is characterized by degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Specifically, breakage of cross-links between collagen fibrils in the articular cartilage leads to loss of structural integrity of the bulk tissue. Since there are no broadly accepted, non-invasive, label-free tools for diagnosing OA at its early stage, Raman spectroscopyis therefore proposed in this work as a novel, non-destructive diagnostic tool. In this study, collagen thin films were employed to act as a simplified model system of the cartilage collagen extracellular matrix. Cross-link formation was controlled via exposure to glutaraldehyde (GA), by varying exposure time and concentration levels, and Raman spectral information was collected to quantitatively characterize the cross-link assignments imparted to the collagen thin films during treatment. A novel, quantitative method was developed to analyze the Raman signal obtained from collagen thin films. Segments of Raman signal were decomposed and modeled as the sum of individual bands, providing an optimization function for subsequent curve fitting against experimental findings. Relative changes in the concentration of the GA-induced pyridinium cross-links were extracted from the model, as a function of the exposure to GA. Spatially resolved characterization enabled construction of spectral maps of the collagen thin films, which provided detailed information about the variation of cross-link formation at various locations on the specimen. Results showed that Raman spectral data correlate with glutaraldehyde treatment and therefore may be used as a proxy by which to measure loss of collagen cross-links in vivo. This study proposes a promising system of identifying onset of OA and may enable early intervention treatments that may serve to slow or prevent osteoarthritis progression.

  15. Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA) and Osteoarithritis (OA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory-related bone diseases. 22 If there is nothing significant to report during this reporting period, state...of arthritis . Thus, this proposal has very high clinical significance to the military, veterans, and civilian populations. Osteoarthritis; Post...Access J Sports Med. 5:73-9. 3. Arthritis : The Nation’s Most Common Cause of Disability Centers for disease prevention and health promotion. At a

  16. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Holly T.; O'Brien, Melissa; McDougall, Jason J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy. Osteoarthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (150-175 g) by intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA; 3 mg). On day 14 (end-stage OA), joint afferent mechanosensitivity was assessed using in vivo electrophysiology, whereas pain behaviour was measured by von Frey hair algesiometry and dynamic incapacitance. To investigate acute joint inflammation, blood flow and leukocyte trafficking were measured on day 1 after MIA. Joint nerve myelination was calculated by G-ratio analysis. The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of peripheral CBD (100-300 μg) were assessed. In end-stage OA, CBD dose-dependently decreased joint afferent firing rate, and increased withdrawal threshold and weight bearing (P < 0.0001; n = 8). Acute, transient joint inflammation was reduced by local CBD treatment (P < 0.0001; n = 6). Prophylactic administration of CBD prevented the development of MIA-induced joint pain at later time points (P < 0.0001; n = 8), and was also found to be neuroprotective (P < 0.05; n = 6-8). The data presented here indicate that local administration of CBD blocked OA pain. Prophylactic CBD treatment prevented the later development of pain and nerve damage in these OA joints. These findings suggest that CBD may be a safe, useful therapeutic for treating OA joint neuropathic pain. PMID:28885454

  17. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Holly T; OʼBrien, Melissa; McDougall, Jason J

    2017-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy. Osteoarthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (150-175 g) by intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA; 3 mg). On day 14 (end-stage OA), joint afferent mechanosensitivity was assessed using in vivo electrophysiology, whereas pain behaviour was measured by von Frey hair algesiometry and dynamic incapacitance. To investigate acute joint inflammation, blood flow and leukocyte trafficking were measured on day 1 after MIA. Joint nerve myelination was calculated by G-ratio analysis. The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of peripheral CBD (100-300 μg) were assessed. In end-stage OA, CBD dose-dependently decreased joint afferent firing rate, and increased withdrawal threshold and weight bearing (P < 0.0001; n = 8). Acute, transient joint inflammation was reduced by local CBD treatment (P < 0.0001; n = 6). Prophylactic administration of CBD prevented the development of MIA-induced joint pain at later time points (P < 0.0001; n = 8), and was also found to be neuroprotective (P < 0.05; n = 6-8). The data presented here indicate that local administration of CBD blocked OA pain. Prophylactic CBD treatment prevented the later development of pain and nerve damage in these OA joints. These findings suggest that CBD may be a safe, useful therapeutic for treating OA joint neuropathic pain.

  18. Histopathological subgroups in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, L A; Moreton, B J; Mapp, P I; Wilson, D; Hill, R; Ferguson, E; Scammell, B E; Walsh, D A

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous, multi-tissue disease. We hypothesised that different histopathological features characterise different stages during knee OA progression, and that discrete subgroups can be defined based on validated measures of OA histopathological features. Medial tibial plateaux and synovium were from 343 post-mortem (PM) and 143 OA arthroplasty donations. A 'chondropathy/osteophyte' group (n = 217) was classified as PM cases with osteophytes or macroscopic medial tibiofemoral chondropathy lesions ≥grade 3 to represent pre-surgical (early) OA. 'Non-arthritic' controls (n = 48) were identified from the remaining PM cases. Mankin histopathological scores were subjected to Rasch analysis and supplemented with histopathological scores for subchondral bone marrow replacement and synovitis. Item weightings were derived by principle components analysis (PCA). Histopathological subgroups were sought using latent class analysis (LCA). Chondropathy, synovitis and osteochondral pathology were each associated with OA at arthroplasty, but each was also identified in some 'non-arthritic' controls. Tidemark breaching in the chondropathy/osteophyte group was greater than in non-arthritic controls. Three histopathological subgroups were identified, characterised as 'mild OA', or 'severe OA' with mild or moderate/severe synovitis. Presence and severity of synovitis helps define distinct histopathological OA subgroups. The absence of a discrete 'normal' subgroup indicates a pathological continuum between normality and OA status. Identifying specific pathological processes and their clinical correlates in OA subgroups has potential to accelerate the development of more effective therapies. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomarkers of (osteo)arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mobasheri, Ali; Henrotin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arthritic diseases are a major cause of disability and morbidity, and cause an enormous burden for health and social care systems globally. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. The key risk factors for the development of OA are age, obesity, joint trauma or instability. Metabolic and endocrine diseases can also contribute to the pathogenesis of OA. There is accumulating evidence to suggest that OA is a whole-organ disease that is influenced by systemic mediators, inflammaging, innate immunity and the low-grade inflammation induced by metabolic syndrome. Although all joint tissues are implicated in disease progression in OA, articular cartilage has received the most attention in the context of aging, injury and disease. There is increasing emphasis on the early detection of OA as it has the capacity to target and treat the disease more effectively. Indeed it has been suggested that this is the era of “personalized prevention” for OA. However, the development of strategies for the prevention of OA require new and sensitive biomarker tools that can detect the disease in its molecular and pre-radiographic stage, before structural and functional alterations in cartilage integrity have occurred. There is also evidence to support a role for biomarkers in OA drug discovery, specifically the development of disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs. This Special Issue of Biomarkers is dedicated to recent progress in the field of OA biomarkers. The papers in this Special Issue review the current state-of-the-art and discuss the utility of OA biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools. PMID:26954784

  20. Call for Standardized Definitions of Osteoarthritis and Risk Stratification for Clinical Trials and Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Virginia Byers; Blanco, Francisco J.; Englund, Martin; Karsdal, Morten A.; Lohmander, L. Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a heterogeneous disorder. The goals of this review are (1) To stimulate use of standardized nomenclature for osteoarthritis (OA) that could serve as building blocks for describing OA and defining OA phenotypes, in short to provide unifying disease concepts for a heterogeneous disorder; and (2) To stimulate establishment of ROAD (Risk of Osteoarthritis Development) and ROAP (Risk of Osteoarthritis Progression) tools analogous to the FRAX™ instrument for predicting risk of fracture in osteoporosis; and (3) To stimulate formulation of tools for identifying disease in its early preradiographic and/or molecular stages -- REDI (Reliable Early Disease Identification). Consensus around more sensitive and specific diagnostic criteria for OA could spur development of disease modifying therapies for this entity that has proved so recalcitrant to date. We fully acknowledge that as we move forward, we expect to develop more sophisticated definitions, terminology and tools. PMID:25865392

  1. The degeneration and destruction of femoral articular cartilage shows a greater degree of deterioration than that of the tibial and patellar articular cartilage in early stage knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hada, S; Kaneko, H; Sadatsuki, R; Liu, L; Futami, I; Kinoshita, M; Yusup, A; Saita, Y; Takazawa, Y; Ikeda, H; Kaneko, K; Ishijima, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the degenerative and morphological changes of articular cartilage in early stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) occurred equally for both femoral- and tibial- or patellar- articular cartilage using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based analyses. This cross-sectional study was approved by the ethics committee of our university. Fifty patients with early stage painful knee OA were enrolled. The patients underwent 3.0 T MRI on the affected knee joint. Healthy volunteers who did not show MRI-based OA changes were also recruited as controls (n = 19). The degenerative changes of the articular cartilage were quantified by a T2 mapping analysis, and any structural changes were conducted using Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) technique. All patients showed MRI-detected OA morphological changes. The T2 values of femoral condyle (FC) (P < 0.0001) and groove (P = 0.0001) in patients with early stage knee OA were significantly increased in comparison to those in the control, while no significant differences in the T2 values of patellar and tibial plateau (TP) were observed between the patients and the control. The WORMS cartilage and osteophyte scores of the femoral articular cartilage were significantly higher than those in the patellar- (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively) and tibial- (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) articular cartilage in the patients with early stage knee OA. The degradation and destruction of the femoral articular cartilage demonstrated a greater degree of deterioration than those of the tibial- and patellar- articular cartilage in patients with early stage knee OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Articular Morphology of the First Carpometacarpal Joint Does Not Differ between Men and Women, but Changes with Aging and Early Stage Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Halilaj, Eni; Moore, Douglas C.; Laidlaw, David H.; Got, Christopher J.; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C.; Ladd, Amy L.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The increased prevalence of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA) in women has been previously linked to the articular morphology of the trapezium. However, studies report conflicting results on how the articular shapes of male and female trapezia compare to one another, mainly because their findings are based on data from older cadaver specimens. The purpose of this in vivo study was to dissociate the effect of sex from that of aging and early OA by using cohorts of healthy young and healthy older subjects, as well as patients with early stage OA. Computed tomography scans from 68 healthy subjects and 87 arthritic subjects were used to obtain 3-D bone models. The trapezial and metacarpal articular surfaces were manually delineated on scaled bone models, to remove the effect of size, and then were compared between sex, age, and health groups by using polar histograms of curvature and average curvature values. We found no sex differences, but significant age-group and health-group differences, in the articular surfaces of both bones. The older healthy subjects had higher curvature in the concave and lower curvature in the convex directions of both the trapezial and metacarpal saddles than the healthy young subjects. Subjects with early OA had significantly different metacarpal and trapezial articular shapes from healthy subjects. These findings suggest that aging and OA affect the articular shape of the CMC joint, but that, in contrast to previously held beliefs, inherent sex differences are not responsible for the higher incidence of CMC OA in women. PMID:24909332

  3. Progressive Resistance Training Improves Overall Physical Activity Levels in Patients With Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Going, Scott B.; McKnight, Patrick E.; Kasle, Shelley; Cussler, Ellen C.; Cornett, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Background Prescription of resistance training (RT) exercises is an essential aspect of management for knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, whether patients with knee OA who are randomly assigned to receive RT simply substitute RT for other modes of physical activity remains unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a structured RT intervention on overall levels of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in patients with early-onset knee OA. The study compared patients with early-onset OA who participated in an RT program, those who participated in a self-management (SM) program, and those who participated in both RT and SM. Because participants randomly assigned to receive the RT intervention may simply switch activity modes, resulting in little net effect, we assessed total MVPA in addition to tracking changes in strength (force-generating capacity). Design and Intervention This study was a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of SM alone, RT alone, and combined RT+SM on MVPA in patients with early OA of the knee. Setting The study was conducted on a university campus, with patient recruitment from the local community. Participants The participants in this study were 171 patients (74% women, 26% men) with knee OA. They had a mean age of 55.1 (SD=7.1) years, a mean body mass index of 27.6 (SD=4.2) kg/m2, and radiographic status of grade II OA (and no higher) in at least one knee, as defined by the Kellgren and Lawrence classification. They wore an accelerometer while awake (X̄=14.2 [SD=2.2] hours) for 5 to 7 contiguous days (X̄=6.8 [SD=0.5] days) at baseline and at 3 and 9 months of intervention. Results The participants engaged in MVPA a mean of 26.2 (SD=19.3) minutes per day at baseline. Both groups significantly increased their MVPA from baseline to 3 months (RT group by 18% [effect size (d)=0.26]; SM group by 22% [effect size (d)=0.25]), but only the RT group sustained those changes at 9 months

  4. Interlimb symmetry of dynamic knee joint stiffness and co-contraction is maintained in early stage knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Collins, A T; Richardson, R T; Higginson, J S

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with knee OA often exhibit greater co-contraction of antagonistic muscle groups surrounding the affected joint which may lead to increases in dynamic joint stiffness. These detrimental changes in the symptomatic limb may also exist in the contralateral limb, thus contributing to its risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the interlimb symmetry of dynamic knee joint stiffness and muscular co-contraction in knee osteoarthritis. Muscular co-contraction and dynamic knee joint stiffness were assessed in 17 subjects with mild to moderate unilateral medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and 17 healthy control subjects while walking at a controlled speed (1.0m/s). Paired and independent t-tests determined whether significant differences exist between groups (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in dynamic joint stiffness or co-contraction between the OA symptomatic and OA contralateral group (p=0.247, p=0.874, respectively) or between the OA contralateral and healthy group (p=0.635, p=0.078, respectively). There was no significant difference in stiffness between the OA symptomatic and healthy group (p=0.600); however, there was a slight trend toward enhanced co-contraction in the symptomatic knees compared to the healthy group (p=0.051). Subjects with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis maintain symmetric control strategies during gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interlimb symmetry of dynamic knee joint stiffness and co-contraction is maintained in early stage knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A.T.; Richardson, R.T.; Higginson, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with knee OA often exhibit greater co-contraction of antagonistic muscle groups surrounding the affected joint which may lead to increases in dynamic joint stiffness. These detrimental changes in the symptomatic limb may also exist in the contralateral limb, thus contributing to its risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the interlimb symmetry of dynamic knee joint stiffness and muscular co-contraction in knee osteoarthritis. Muscular co-contraction and dynamic knee joint stiffness were assessed in 17 subjects with mild to moderate unilateral medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and 17 healthy control subjects while walking at a controlled speed (1.0 m/s). Paired and independent t-tests determined whether significant differences exist between groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in dynamic joint stiffness or co-contraction between the OA symptomatic and OA contralateral group (p = 0.247, p = 0.874, respectively) or between the OA contralateral and healthy group (p = 0.635, p = 0.078, respectively). There was no significant difference in stiffness between the OA symptomatic and healthy group (p = 0.600); however, there was a slight trend toward enhanced co-contraction in the symptomatic knees compared to the healthy group (p = 0.051). Subjects with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis maintain symmetric control strategies during gait. PMID:24768278

  6. Influence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in the fluctuation of the submaximal isometric torque of knee extensors in patients with early-grade osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Andressa; Mello, Marco T.; Serrão, Paula R.; Luz, Roberta P.; Bittencourt, Lia R.; Mattiello, Stela M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) alters the fluctuation of submaximal isometric torque of the knee extensors in patients with early-grade osteoarthritis (OA). METHOD: The study included 60 male volunteers, aged 40 to 70 years, divided into four groups: Group 1 (G1) - Control (n=15): without OA and without OSA; Group 2 (G2) (n=15): with OA and without OSA; Group 3 (G3) (n=15): without OA and with OSA; and Group 4 (G4) (n=15) with OA and with OSA. Five patients underwent maximal isometric contractions of 10 seconds duration each, with the knee at 60° of flexion to determine peak torque at 60°. To evaluate the fluctuation of torque, 5 submaximal isometric contractions (50% of maximum peak torque) of 10 seconds each, which were calculated from the standard deviation of torque and coefficient of variation, were performed. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between groups for maximum peak torque, while G4 showed a lower value compared with G1 (p=0.005). Additionally, for the average torque exerted, G4 showed a lower value compared to the G1 (p=0.036). However, no differences were found between the groups for the standard deviation (p=0.844) and the coefficient of variation (p=0.143). CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that OSA did not change the parameters of the fluctuation of isometric submaximal torque of knee extensors in patients with early-grade OA. PMID:26443974

  7. Commentary on recent therapeutic guidelines for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Berenbaum, Francis; Hochberg, Marc; Punzi, Leonardo; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-06-01

    Despite availability of international evidence-based guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) management, agreement on the different treatment modalities is lacking. A symposium of European and US OA experts was held within the framework of the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology to discuss and compare guidelines and recommendations for the treatment of knee OA and to reach a consensus for management, particularly for areas in which there is no clear consensus: non-pharmacological therapy; efficacy and safety of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); intra-articular (i.a.) hyaluronates (HA); and the role of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and/or glucosamine sulfate (GS). All guidelines reviewed agree that knee OA is a progressive disease of the joint whose management requires non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches. Discrepancies between guidelines are few and mostly reflect heterogeneity of expert panels involved, geographical differences in the availability of pharmacotherapies, and heterogeneity of the studies included. Panels chosen for guideline development should include experts with real clinical experience in drug use and patient management. Implementation of agreed guidelines can be thwarted by drug availability and reimbursement plans, resulting in optimal OA treatment being jeopardized, HA and symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SySADOAs) being clear examples of drugs whose availability and prescription can greatly vary geographically. In addition, primary care providers, often responsible for OA management (at least in early disease), may not adhere to clinical care guidelines, particularly for non-pharmacological OA treatment. Harmonization of the recommendations for knee OA treatment is challenging but feasible, as shown by the step-by-step therapeutic algorithm developed by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO). More easily disseminated and

  8. Social determinants and osteoarthritis outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Luong, My-Linh N; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Nyrop, Kirsten A; Callahan, Leigh F

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequently occurring musculoskeletal diseases, posing a significant public health problem due to its impact on pain and disability. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all of the risk observed for OA outcomes. In recent years, our view of disease causation has broadened to include health risks that are created by an individual’s socioeconomic circumstances. Early research into social determinants has focused on social position and explored factors related to the individual such as education, income and occupation. Results from these investigations suggest that low education attainment and nonprofessional occupation are associated with poorer arthritis outcomes. More recently, research has expanded to examine how one’s neighborhood socioeconomic environment may be relevant to OA outcomes. This narrative review proposes a framework to help guide our understanding of how social context may interact with pathophysiological processes and individual-level variables to influence health outcomes in those living with OA. PMID:23243459

  9. Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis: what is the overlap?

    PubMed

    Bultink, Irene E M; Lems, Willem F

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) are highly prevalent health problems, associated with considerable morbidity. In the past, attention was focused on a supposed inverse relationship between OA and OP, since both disorders usually affect the elderly, but were regarded to rarely coexist in a single person. However, recent studies have revealed several factors which contribute to the pathogenesis of both disorders. These insights might contribute to the development of shared new treatment options in the near future. Increased subchondral bone loss is a characteristic feature of OP and the early stage of OA, and this finding is the rationale for studies on the effect of anti-osteoporotic drugs in OA. In addition, inflammation and unfavourable body composition have been recognized as contributing factors for both disorders. Underweight is a risk factor for OP, while obesity stimulates the development of OA, by mechanical overloading of weight-bearing joints but also by supposed unfavourable effects of adipokines.

  10. OA Go Away: Development and Preliminary Validation of a Self-Management Tool to Promote Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity for People with Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee

    PubMed Central

    Toupin April, Karine; Backman, Catherine; Tugwell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the face and content validity, construct validity, and test–retest reliability of the OA Go Away (OGA), a personalized self-management tool to promote adherence to exercise and physical activity for people with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Methods: The face and content validity of OGA version 1.0 were determined via interviews with 10 people with OA of the hip or knee and 10 clinicians. A revised OGA version 2.0 was then tested for construct validity and test–retest reliability with a new sample of 50 people with OA of the hip or knee by comparing key items in the OGA journal with validated outcome measures assessing similar health outcomes and comparing scores on key items of the journal 4–7 days apart. Face and content validity were then confirmed with a new sample of 5 people with OA of the hip or knee and 5 clinicians. Results: Eighteen of 30 items from the OGA version 1.0 and 41 of 43 items from the OGA version 2.0 journal, goals and action plan, and exercise log had adequate content validity. Construct validity and test–retest reliability were acceptable for the main items of the OGA version 2.0 journal. The OGA underwent modifications based on results and participant feedback. Conclusion: The OGA is a novel self-management intervention and assessment tool for people with OA of the hip or knee that shows adequate preliminary measurement properties. PMID:27909359

  11. Physical therapy management of knee osteoarthritis in the middle-aged athlete.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas; Band-Entrup, Debra; Kuhn, Scott; Legere, Lucas; Mace, Kimberly; Paggi, Adam; Penney, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent in today's population, including the athletic and recreationally active "middle-aged" population. OA is a degenerative condition of the articular/hyaline cartilage of synovial joints and commonly affects the knee joint. In general, athletic participation does not specifically influence a higher incidence of knee OA in this population; however, traumatic injury to the knee joint poses a definitive risk in developing early-onset OA. The purpose of this article is to review evidence-based nonpharmacological interventions for the conservative management of knee OA. Manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, patient education, and weight management are strongly supported in the literature for conservative treatment of knee OA. Modalities [thermal, electrical stimulation (ES), and low-level laser therapy (LLLT)] and orthotic intervention are moderately supported in the literature as indicated management strategies for knee OA. While many strongly supported conservative interventions have been published, additional research is needed to determine the most effective approach in treating knee OA.

  12. Obesity & osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    King, Lauren K.; March, Lyn; Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila

    2013-01-01

    The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:24056594

  13. Intra-articular administration of xenogeneic neonatal Mesenchymal Stromal Cells early after meniscal injury down-regulates metalloproteinase gene expression in synovium and prevents cartilage degradation in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, N; Viguier, E; Perrier-Groult, E; Chenu, C; Pillet, E; Roger, T; Maddens, S; Boulocher, C

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of neonatal Mesenchymal Stromal Cell (MSC) were investigated in a xenogeneic model of mild osteoarthritis (OA). The paracrine properties of MSC on synoviocytes were further investigated in vitro. OA was induced by medial meniscal release (MMR) in 30 rabbit knees. A single early (day 3) or delayed (day 15) intra-articular (IA) injection of MSC isolated from equine Umbilical Cord Wharton's jelly (UC-MSC) was performed. Rabbits were euthanized on days 15 or 56. OA grading was performed and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases was measured in synovial tissue. Paracrine effects of UC-MSC were investigated using UC-conditioned vs control medium on rabbit primary synoviocytes stimulated with interleukin 1 beta in vitro. No adverse local or systemic responses were observed clinically after xenogeneic UC-MSC injection. At study end point, cartilage fibrillation was lower in early treatment than in delayed treatment group. Cellular infiltrate was observed in the synovium of both UC-MSC groups. OA synovium exhibited a reduced expression of metalloproteinases-1, -3, -13 in the early cell-treated group at d56. In vitro, UC-conditioned medium exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects on synoviocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory stimulus. Early IA injection of equine UC-MSC was effective in preventing OA signs in rabbit knees following MMR. UC-MSC target the synovium and modulate the gene expression pattern of synoviocytes to promote an anti-catabolic environment. This confirms the synovium is a major target and mediator of MSC therapy, modulating the expression of matrix-degrading enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-03-11

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Cross-sectional health examination survey. This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1-10/day, 11-20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into 'Yes' or 'No'. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥ 3.0 mg/L. After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥ 3.0 mg/L) in the second (1-10/day, n=133), third (11-20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by further prospective studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  15. Comparative lipidomic analysis of synovial fluid in human and canine osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kosinska, M K; Mastbergen, S C; Liebisch, G; Wilhelm, J; Dettmeyer, R B; Ishaque, B; Rickert, M; Schmitz, G; Lafeber, F P; Steinmeyer, J

    2016-08-01

    The lipid profile of synovial fluid (SF) is related to the health status of joints. The early stages of human osteoarthritis (OA) are poorly understood, which larger animals are expected to be able to model closely. This study examined whether the canine groove model of OA represents early OA in humans based on the changes in the lipid species profile in SF. Furthermore, the SF lipidomes of humans and dogs were compared to determine how closely canine lipid species profiles reflect the human lipidome. Lipids were extracted from cell- and cellular debris-free knee SF from nine donors with healthy joints, 17 patients with early and 13 patients with late osteoarthritic changes, and nine dogs with knee OA and healthy contralateral joints. Lipid species were quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Compared with control canine SF most lipid species were elevated in canine OA SF. Moreover, the lipid species profiles in the canine OA model resembled early OA profiles in humans. The SF lipidomes between dog and human were generally similar, with differences in certain lipid species in the phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) classes. Our lipidomic analysis demonstrates that SF in the canine OA model closely mimics the early osteoarthritic changes that occur in humans. Further, the canine SF lipidome often reflects normal human lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The implementation of a community-based aerobic walking program for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA): a knowledge translation (KT) randomized controlled trial (RCT): Part I: The Uptake of the Ottawa Panel clinical practice guidelines (CPGs)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The implementation of evidence based clinical practice guidelines on self-management interventions to patients with chronic diseases is a complex process. A multifaceted strategy may offer an effective knowledge translation (KT) intervention to promote knowledge uptake and improve adherence in an effective walking program based on the Ottawa Panel Evidence Based Clinical Practice Guidelines among individuals with moderate osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A single-blind, randomized control trial was conducted. Patients with mild to moderate (OA) of the knee (n=222) were randomized to one of three KT groups: 1) Walking and Behavioural intervention (WB) (18 males, 57 females) which included the supervised community-based aerobic walking program combined with a behavioural intervention and an educational pamphlet on the benefits of walking for OA; 2) Walking intervention (W) (24 males, 57 females) wherein participants only received the supervised community-based aerobic walking program intervention and the educational pamphlet; 3) Self-directed control (C) (32 males, 52 females) wherein participants only received the educational pamphlet. One-way analyses of variance were used to test for differences in quality of life, adherence, confidence, and clinical outcomes among the study groups at each 3 month assessment during the 12-month intervention period and 6-month follow-up period. Results Short-term program adherence was greater in WB compared to C (p<0.012) after 3 months. No statistical significance (p> 0.05) was observed for long-term adherence (6 to 12 months), and total adherence between the three groups. The three knowledge translation strategies demonstrated equivalent long-term results for the implementation of a walking program for older individuals with moderate OA. Lower dropout rates as well as higher retention rates were observed for WB at 12 and 18 months. Conclusion The additional knowledge translation behavioural component facilitated the

  17. Varus thrust in women with early medial knee osteoarthritis and its relation with the external knee adduction moment.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, Armaghan; van Dieen, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Baert, Isabel Ac; Faber, Gert S; Luyten, Frank P; Verschueren, Sabine Mp

    2016-11-01

    Varus thrust, defined as an abrupt increase of the knee varus angle during weight-bearing in gait, has been shown to be present in patients with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis and is considered to be one of the risk factors for progression of symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis. We evaluated the presence and magnitude of varus thrust and its relation with the Knee Adduction Moment in women with early medial knee osteoarthritis, and compared it to that in a group of controls and in a group of subjects with established medial knee osteoarthritis. Twenty-seven women with early medial knee osteoarthritis, 20 women with established medial knee osteoarthritis and 24 asymptomatic controls were evaluated. Varus thrust was estimated as an increase of the knee varus angle during the weight-bearing phase of gait at self-selected speed, assessed by 3D motion analysis. Varus thrust was significantly higher in both early and established osteoarthritis groups compared to the control group (P<0.001), but not different between osteoarthritis groups. While the knee adduction moments were higher than controls only in the established osteoarthritis group, the magnitude of varus thrust was significantly correlated with the second peak knee adduction moment. Higher varus thrust was found both in early and established stages of knee osteoarthritis, suggesting that problems with dynamic stabilization of the knee are present early in the development of knee osteoarthritis. This highlights the necessity of considering dynamic alignment in rehabilitation already in the early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Osteoarthritis: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Kentaro; Utturkar, Amol; Chang, Eric; Panush, Richard; Hata, Justin; Perret-Karimi, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) are faced with a barrage of treatment options, from recommendations from friends and social media to medications prescribed by the primary care physician. The purpose of this article is to critically review current approaches to generalized or monoarticular OA based on available evidence and to illustrate multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies for the management of OA. Treatment options assessed for efficacy include patient education; oral and topical pharmacological agents; complementary and alternative medicine; surgery; manual medicine; acupuncture; interventional procedures (corticosteroid injection, viscosupplementation, and pulsed radiofrequency); bracing; assistive devices; physical therapy; and physical modalities. Multidisciplinary and multimodal treatment strategies combined with early detection and prevention strategies provide the best benefit to patients. This review also illustrates that traditional and alternative modalities of treatment can be both synergistic and beneficial. Physicians should be aware of the variety of tools available for the management of OA and the associated symptoms. Those healthcare providers who can best individualize treatment plans for specific patients and inspire their patients to embrace healthy lifestyle modifications will achieve the best results. PMID:25750483

  19. Strategies for the prevention of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Roos, Ewa M; Arden, Nigel K

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has been thought of as a disease of cartilage that can be effectively treated surgically at severe stages with joint arthroplasty. Today, OA is considered a whole-organ disease that is amenable to prevention and treatment at early stages. OA develops slowly over 10-15 years, interfering with activities of daily living and the ability to work. Many patients tolerate pain, and many health-care providers accept pain and disability as inevitable corollaries of OA and ageing. Too often, health-care providers passively await final 'joint death', necessitating knee and hip replacements. Instead, OA should be viewed as a chronic condition, where prevention and early comprehensive-care models are the accepted norm, as is the case with other chronic diseases. Joint injury, obesity and impaired muscle function are modifiable risk factors amenable to primary and secondary prevention strategies. The strategies that are most appropriate for each patient should be identified, by selecting interventions to correct--or at least attenuate--OA risk factors. We must also choose the interventions that are most likely to be acceptable to patients, to maximize adherence to--and persistence with--the regimes. Now is the time to begin the era of personalized prevention for knee OA.

  20. Osteoarthritis Year in Review 2015: Clinical

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Leena

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight clinical research in osteoarthritis. A literature search was conducted using PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) with the search terms “osteoarthritis [All Fields] AND treatment [All Fields]” and the following limits activated: humans, English language, all adult 19+ years, published between April 1, 2014 and April 1, 2015. A second literature search was then conducted with the search terms “osteoarthritis [All Fields] AND epidemiology [All Fields]”, with the same limits. Reports of surgical outcome, case series, surgical technique, tissue sample or culture studies, trial protocols, and pilot studies were excluded. Of 1523, 148 were considered relevant. Among epidemiologic and observational clinical studies, themes included physical activity, early knee OA, and confidence/instability/falls. Symptom outcomes of pharmacologic treatments were reported for methotrexate, adalimumab, anti-nerve growth factor monoclonal antibodies, strontium ranelate, bisphosphonates, glucosamine, and chondroitin sulfate, and structural outcomes of pharmacologic treatments for strontium ranelate, recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18, and glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. Symptom outcomes of non-pharmacologic interventions were reported for: neuromuscular exercise, quadriceps strengthening, weight reduction and maintenance, TENS, therapeutic ultrasound, stepped care strategies, cognitive behavior therapy for sleep disturbance, acupuncture, gait modification, booster physical therapy, a web-based therapeutic exercise resource center for knee OA; hip physical therapy for hip OA; and joint protection and hand exercises for hand OA. Structure outcomes of non-pharmacologic interventions were reported for patellofemoral bracing. PMID:26707991

  1. The OA Trial Bank: meta-analysis of individual patient data from knee and hip osteoarthritis trials show that patients with severe pain exhibit greater benefit from intra-articular glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    van Middelkoop, M; Arden, N K; Atchia, I; Birrell, F; Chao, J; Rezende, M U; Lambert, R G W; Ravaud, P; Bijlsma, J W; Doherty, M; Dziedzic, K S; Lohmander, L S; McAlindon, T E; Zhang, W; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular (IA) glucocorticoids for knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) in specific subgroups of patients with severe pain and inflammatory signs using individual patient data (IPD) from existing trials. Randomized trials evaluating one or more IA glucocorticoid preparation in patients with knee or hip OA, published from 1995 up to June 2012 were selected from the literature. IPD obtained from original trials included patient and disease characteristics and outcomes measured. The primary outcome was pain severity at short-term follow-up (up to 4 weeks). The subgroup factors assessed included severe pain (≥70 points, 0-100 scale) and signs of inflammation (dichotomized in present or not) at baseline. Multilevel regression analyses were applied to estimate the magnitude of the effects in the subgroups with the individuals nested within each study. Seven out of 43 published randomized clinical trials (n = 620) were included. Patients with severe baseline pain had a significantly larger reduction in short-term pain, but not in mid- and long-term pain, compared to those with less severe pain at baseline (Mean Difference 13.91; 95% Confidence Interval 1.50-26.31) when receiving IA glucocorticoid injection compared to placebo. No statistical significant interaction effects were found between inflammatory signs and IA glucocorticoid injections compared to placebo and to tidal irrigation at all follow-up points. This IPD meta-analysis demonstrates that patients with severe knee pain at baseline derive more benefit from IA glucocorticoid injection at short-term follow-up than those with less severe pain at baseline. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early detection of aging cartilage and osteoarthritis in mice and patient samples using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Martin; Gottardi, Riccardo; Raiteri, Roberto; Miot, Sylvie; Martin, Ivan; Imer, Raphaël; Staufer, Urs; Raducanu, Aurelia; Düggelin, Marcel; Baschong, Werner; Daniels, A. U.; Friederich, Niklaus F.; Aszodi, Attila; Aebi, Ueli

    2009-03-01

    The pathological changes in osteoarthritis-a degenerative joint disease prevalent among older people-start at the molecular scale and spread to the higher levels of the architecture of articular cartilage to cause progressive and irreversible structural and functional damage. At present, there are no treatments to cure or attenuate the degradation of cartilage. Early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of osteoarthritis are therefore important for developing effective therapies. Here, we show that indentation-type atomic force microscopy can monitor age-related morphological and biomechanical changes in the hips of normal and osteoarthritic mice. Early damage in the cartilage of osteoarthritic patients undergoing hip or knee replacements could similarly be detected using this method. Changes due to aging and osteoarthritis are clearly depicted at the nanometre scale well before morphological changes can be observed using current diagnostic methods. Indentation-type atomic force microscopy may potentially be developed into a minimally invasive arthroscopic tool to diagnose the early onset of osteoarthritis in situ.

  3. Predictors and outcome of pain-related avoidance of activities in persons with early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a five-year followup study.

    PubMed

    Holla, Jasmijn F M; van der Leeden, Marike; Knol, Dirk L; Roorda, Leo D; Hilberdink, Wim K H A; Lems, Willem F; Steultjens, Martijn P M; Dekker, Joost

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that pain and low vitality lead to an increase in avoidance of activities in persons with early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), and that avoidance of activities leads to an increase in activity limitations. The present study aimed to evaluate these hypotheses. Baseline, 2-year, and 5-year followup data of 828 participants from the Cohort Hip and Cohort Knee Study with early symptomatic knee OA were used. Autoregressive generalized estimating equations and linear regression models were used to analyze the longitudinal and cross-sectional associations between self-reported knee pain, vitality, pain-related avoidance of activities, and activity limitations. The models were adjusted for the covariates age, sex, education level, body mass index, comorbidity, radiographic severity, and hip pain. In longitudinal analyses, knee pain and vitality predicted a subsequent increase in avoidance of activities. Pain-related avoidance of activities predicted a subsequent increase in activity limitations; however, this relationship lost statistical significance (P = 0.089) after adjustment for covariates. Cross-sectional analyses showed strong relationships between knee pain, low vitality, pain-related avoidance of activities, and activity limitations at all time points. In persons with early symptomatic knee OA, knee pain and low vitality lead to a subsequent increase in avoidance of activities. Pain-related avoidance of activities is related to activity limitations at inception of symptoms, but also years later. Therefore, it can be recommended to monitor and target avoidance of activities at various stages of the disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Subgrouping and TargetEd Exercise pRogrammes for knee and hip OsteoArthritis (STEER OA): a systematic review update and individual participant data meta-analysis protocol.

    PubMed

    Holden, Melanie A; Burke, Danielle L; Runhaar, Jos; van Der Windt, Danielle; Riley, Richard D; Dziedzic, Krysia; Legha, Amardeep; Evans, Amy L; Abbott, J Haxby; Baker, Kristin; Brown, Jenny; Bennell, Kim L; Bossen, Daniël; Brosseau, Lucie; Chaipinyo, Kanda; Christensen, Robin; Cochrane, Tom; de Rooij, Mariette; Doherty, Michael; French, Helen P; Hickson, Sheila; Hinman, Rana S; Hopman-Rock, Marijke; Hurley, Michael V; Ingram, Carol; Knoop, Jesper; Krauss, Inga; McCarthy, Chris; Messier, Stephen P; Patrick, Donald L; Sahin, Nilay; Talbot, Laura A; Taylor, Robert; Teirlinck, Carolien H; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Walker, Christine; Foster, Nadine E

    2017-12-22

    Knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Therapeutic exercise is a recommended core treatment for people with knee and hip OA, however, the observed effect sizes for reducing pain and improving physical function are small to moderate. This may be due to insufficient targeting of exercise to subgroups of people who are most likely to respond and/or suboptimal content of exercise programmes. This study aims to identify: (1) subgroups of people with knee and hip OA that do/do not respond to therapeutic exercise and to different types of exercise and (2) mediators of the effect of therapeutic exercise for reducing pain and improving physical function. This will enable optimal targeting and refining the content of future exercise interventions. Systematic review and individual participant data meta-analyses. A previous comprehensive systematic review will be updated to identify randomised controlled trials that compare the effects of therapeutic exercise for people with knee and hip OA on pain and physical function to a non-exercise control. Lead authors of eligible trials will be invited to share individual participant data. Trial-level and participant-level characteristics (for baseline variables and outcomes) of included studies will be summarised. Meta-analyses will use a two-stage approach, where effect estimates are obtained for each trial and then synthesised using a random effects model (to account for heterogeneity). All analyses will be on an intention-to-treat principle and all summary meta-analysis estimates will be reported as standardised mean differences with 95% CI. Research ethical or governance approval is exempt as no new data are being collected and no identifiable participant information will be shared. Findings will be disseminated via national and international conferences, publication in peer-reviewed journals and summaries posted on websites accessed by the public and clinicians. CRD42017054049. © Article

  5. Accelerated Return to Sport After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Early Knee Osteoarthritis Features at 1 Year: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Culvenor, Adam G; Patterson, Brooke E; Guermazi, Ali; Morris, Hayden G; Whitehead, Timothy S; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-04-01

    A timely return to competitive sport is a primary goal of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). It is not known whether an accelerated return to sport increases the risk of early-onset knee osteoarthritis (KOA). To determine whether an accelerated return to sport post-ACLR (ie, <10 months) is associated with increased odds of early KOA features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1 year after surgery and to evaluate the relationship between an accelerated return to sport and early KOA features stratified by type of ACL injury (isolated or concurrent chondral/meniscal injury) and lower limb function (good or poor). Cross-sectional study. Private radiology clinic and university laboratory. A total of 111 participants (71 male; mean age 30 ± 8 years) 1-year post-ACLR. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire regarding postoperative return-to-sport data (specific sport, postoperative month first returned), and isotropic 3-T MRI scans were obtained. Early KOA features (bone marrow, cartilage and meniscal lesions, and osteophytes) assessed with the MRI OA Knee Score. Logistic regression analyses evaluated the odds of early KOA features with an accelerated return to sport (<10 months post-ACLR versus ≥10 months or no return to sport) in the total cohort and stratified by type of ACL injury and lower limb function. Forty-six (41%) participants returned to competitive sport <10 months post-ACLR. An early return to sport was associated with significantly increased odds of bone marrow lesions (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0) but not cartilage (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.5-2.6) or meniscal lesions (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.8) or osteophytes (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.4). In those with poor lower limb function, early return to sport exacerbated the odds of bone marrow lesions (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6-13.5), whereas stratified analyses for type of ACL injury did not reach statistical significance. An accelerated return to sport, particularly in the

  6. Early identification of radiographic osteoarthritis of the hip using an active shape model to quantify changes in bone morphometric features: can hip shape tell us anything about the progression of osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jennifer S; Waarsing, Jan H; Day, Judd; Pols, Huibert A; Reijman, Max; Weinans, Harrie; Aspden, Richard M

    2007-11-01

    Few methods exist to measure the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) or to identify people at high risk of developing OA. Striking radiographic changes include deformation of the femoral head and osteophyte growth, which are usually measured semiquantitatively following visual assessment. In this study, an active shape model (ASM) of the proximal femur was used to determine whether morphologic changes to the bone could be quantified and used as a marker of hip OA. One hundred ten subjects who had no signs of radiographic hip OA at baseline (Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] scores 0-1) were selected from the Rotterdam Study cohort of subjects ages > or = 55 years. To measure the progression of OA, subjects were followed up with radiographic assessment after 6 years. At the 6-year followup, 55 subjects had established OA (K/L score 3), and in 12 of these OA subjects, the progression of the disease required a total hip replacement (THR). Age- and sex-matched control subjects had a K/L score of 0 at followup. Using the ASM, subjects were assessed for shape changes in the femoral head and neck before, during, and after the development of radiographic OA. Scores of shape variance, or mode scores, were assigned for 10 modes of variation in each subject, and differences in mode scores were determined. During followup, significant changes in shape of the proximal femur occurred within the OA group from baseline to followup (P < 0.0001 for mode 1 and P = 0.002 for mode 6) but not within the control group. At baseline (all subjects having K/L scores 0-1), there were significant differences in mode 6 between the OA group and the control group (P = 0.020), and in modes 3 and 6 between the OA subjects who underwent THR and the remaining OA subjects (P = 0.012 and P = 0.019, respectively). Compared with traditional scoring methods, the ASM can be used more precisely to quantify the deforming effect of OA on the proximal femur and to identify, at an earlier stage of disease, those subjects

  7. Utility of circulating serum miRNAs as biomarkers of early cartilage degeneration in animal models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kung, L H W; Zaki, S; Ravi, V; Rowley, L; Smith, M M; Bell, K M; Bateman, J F; Little, C B

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if serum microRNA (miRNA) signatures were biomarkers of early cartilage degeneration in preclinical mouse models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory arthritis. Cartilage degeneration was induced in 10-12 week old male C57BL6 mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or intra-articular injection of methylated-bovine-serum-albumin (AIA), with sham-operated or saline-injected control animals (n = 6/treatment/time). Total serum RNA and knee joints were isolated at 1, 4 and 16 weeks post-induction. Cartilage degeneration was scored histologically. Serum miRNA expression profiling was performed using Agilent microarrays and validated by qPCR. DMM-operated and AIA mice had characteristic cartilage degeneration (proteoglycan loss, chondrocyte hypertrophy, structural damage), that increased significantly with time compared with controls, and with distinct temporal differences between arthritis models. However, expression profiling revealed no statistically significant dysregulation of serum miRNAs between AIA vs saline-injected or DMM vs sham-operated control mice at the critical early disease stages. The inability to detect DMM or AIA serum miRNA signatures compared with controls was not due to the insensitivity of the expression profiling approach since significant changes were observed in miRNA expression between the arthritis models and between time points. While distinct patterns of progressive cartilage degradation were induced in the arthritis models, we were unable to identify any serum miRNAs that were significantly dysregulated in early stages of disease compared with controls. This suggests circulating serum miRNAs may not be useful as cartilage biomarkers in distinguishing the early or progressive stages of arthritis cartilage degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synovial inflammation in patients with different stages of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ene, Răzvan; Sinescu, Ruxandra Diana; Ene, Patricia; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela; Cîrstoiu, Florin Cătălin

    2015-01-01

    The synovium is an intra-articular mesenchymal tissue and essential for the normal joint function. It is involved in many pathological characteristic processes and sometimes specific for this distinctive tissue. In this study, we refer to synovial proliferative disorders according to the stage of osteoarthritis (OA) disease. Forty-three patients with knee OA were treated in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest, Romania, in the last two years. In all cases, we used at least five criteria for the knee OA: knee pain, knee joint tenderness, no palpable warmth over the knee, stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. In all the cases the synovial tissue was selected by the orthopedic surgeon. X-ray examination was taken in every case of the affected joint. Patients who were considered to have early OA underwent arthroscopic synovial biopsy of the symptomatic joint. Synovial tissue samples from patients with late OA were obtained at the time of knee joint arthroplasty. Microscopic examination in early osteoarthritis revealed for more than half of patients with synovial biopsy through arthroscopic technique having synovitis lesions with mononuclear infiltrates, diffuse fibrosis, thickening of the lining layer, macrophages appearance and neoformation vessels also. The synovitis seen in advanced OA knees tends to be diffuse and is not mandatory localized to areas of chondral defects, although an association has been reported between chondral defects and associated synovitis in the knee medial tibio-femoral compartment. The overexpression of mediators of inflammation and the increased mononuclear cell infiltration were seen in early OA, compared with late OA.

  9. Age and Early Revision After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Zachary; Baca, Geneva; Rames, Richard; Barrack, Robert; Clohisy, John; Nam, Denis

    2017-11-01

    Prior reports have noted an increased risk of early revision among younger patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) but have been confounded by the inclusion of various diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to assess the revision rate and the time to revision for patients undergoing THA for osteoarthritis based on age. Patients with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis who underwent both primary and revision THA at the same institution were identified. The time between primary and revision surgery and the indication for revision were collected. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on age at the time of primary THA: 64 years or younger (group 1) or 65 years or older (group 2). Between 1996 and 2016, a total of 4662 patients (5543 hips) underwent primary THA for a diagnosis of osteoarthritis. Of these, 100 patients (104 hips) received a revision THA (62 in group 1 and 42 in group 2). Mean age was 52.7±8.4 years in group 1 vs 73.4±6.3 years in group 2 (P<.001). There was no significant difference in mean body mass index (29.7±7.3 kg/m 2 vs 28.4±4.6 kg/m 2 , P=.30). Rate of revision was not significantly different between the groups (1.8% vs 2.0%, P=.7). Average time from primary to revision surgery was 3.0±3.2 years for group 1 and 1.1±2.1 years for group 2 (P=.001). Among patients undergoing primary THA for a diagnosis of osteoarthritis, younger age is not associated with an increased rate of early failure or revision. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(6):e1069-e1073.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Synovial and systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) following intra-articular (IA) injection of an extended-release microsphere-based formulation (FX006) or standard crystalline suspension in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).

    PubMed

    Kraus, V B; Conaghan, P G; Aazami, H A; Mehra, P; Kivitz, A J; Lufkin, J; Hauben, J; Johnson, J R; Bodick, N

    2018-01-01

    Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroids relieve osteoarthritis (OA) pain, but rapid absorption into systemic circulation may limit efficacy and produce untoward effects. We compared the pharmacokinetics (PK) of IA triamcinolone acetonide (TA) delivered as an extended-release, microsphere-based formulation (FX006) vs a crystalline suspension (TAcs) in knee OA patients. This Phase 2 open-label study sequentially enrolled 81 patients who received a single IA injection of FX006 (5 mL, 32 mg delivered dose, N = 63) or TAcs (1 mL, 40 mg, N = 18). Synovial fluid (SF) aspiration was attempted in each patient at baseline and one post-IA-injection visit (FX006: Week 1, Week 6, Week 12, Week 16 or Week 20; TAcs: Week 6). Blood was collected at baseline and multiple post-injection times. TA concentrations (validated LC-MS/MS, geometric means (GMs)), PK (non-compartmental analysis models), and adverse events (AEs) were assessed. SF TA concentrations following FX006 were quantifiable through Week 12 (pg/mL: 231,328.9 at Week 1; 3590.0 at Week 6; 290.6 at Week 12); post-TAcs, only two of eight patients had quantifiable SF TA at Week 6 (7.7 pg/mL). Following FX006, plasma TA gradually increased to peak (836.4 pg/mL) over 24 h and slowly declined to <110 pg/mL over Weeks 12-20; following TAcs, plasma TA peaked at 4 h (9628.8 pg/mL), decreased to 4991.1 pg/mL at 24 h, and was 149.4 pg/mL at Week 6, the last post-treatment time point assessed. AEs were similar between groups. In knee OA patients, microsphere-based TA delivery via a single IA injection prolonged SF joint residency, diminished peak plasma levels, and thus reduced systemic TA exposure relative to TAcs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Results after distraction arthroplasty according to Bufalini and Perugia in early stages of trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Fatzer, Lukas; Soleman, E; Sanchez, T

    2015-02-01

    A distraction arthroplasty of the trapeziometacarpal joint was introduced by Bufalini and Perugia for the treatment of the early stages of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis. Our retrospective study presents the results of this technique. Thereby, a tendon graft anchored to the distal second metacarpal is fixed at the base of the first metacarpal, keeping it in distraction. 10 distraction arthroplasties were performed in 9 patients with carpometacarpal osteoarthritis stage I and II of the thumb after unsuccessful conservative therapy. In 2 cases, which were excluded from our study, trapeziectomy had to be performed because of persisting pain. Patient satisfaction, pain measurement, range of motion, and tip, key and grip strength were evaluated at a follow-up of 46.5 (29-63) months in the remaining 7 patients (8 operations overall). Strengh measurement was taken in an absolute value and compared to the opposite side. Thumb range of motion was measured with the combined flexion-opposition of the thumb with the Kapandij index and also the angle of abduction of the metacarpal I to metacarpal II. Assessment included a DASH score evaluation and an X-ray control. All of the 7 evaluated patients were satisfied with the operation results. Compared to the opposite side, patients achieved 80.1% (5.9 kg±1.1 kg) of key pinch strength, 86.3% (4.8 kg±0.9 kg) of oppositional tip pinch strength, and 86.1% (23.1 kg±4.8 kg) of grip strength. In combined flexion and opposition a Kapandij index of 8.5 (94.4%) compared to 9 on the opposite side was achieved. Thumb radial abduction was 48.2°±2.8°, compared to 51.0°±2.9° on the contralateral hand. At follow-up, the mean DASH score was 17.8 (±10.0). Radiological control showed no progression of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis of the thumb. The collected data after distraction arthroplasty according to Bufalini and Perugia confirm the efficacy of the technique in the early stage of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis of the

  12. Clinical features of symptomatic patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (OA) is common and leads to pain and disability. However, current classification criteria do not distinguish between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint OA. The objective of this study was to provide empirical evidence of the clinical features of patellofemoral joint OA (PFJOA) and to explore the potential for making a confident clinical diagnosis in the community setting. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study of 745 adults aged ≥50 years with knee pain. Information on risk factors and clinical signs and symptoms was gathered by a self-complete questionnaire, and standardised clinical interview and examination. Three radiographic views of the knee were obtained (weight-bearing semi-flexed posteroanterior, supine skyline and lateral) and individuals were classified into four subsets (no radiographic OA, isolated PFJOA, isolated tibiofemoral joint OA, combined patellofemoral/tibiofemoral joint OA) according to two different cut-offs: 'any OA' and 'moderate to severe OA'. A series of binary logistic and multinomial regression functions were performed to compare the clinical features of each subset and their ability in combination to discriminate PFJOA from other subsets. Results Distinctive clinical features of moderate to severe isolated PFJOA included a history of dramatic swelling, valgus deformity, markedly reduced quadriceps strength, and pain on patellofemoral joint compression. Mild isolated PFJOA was barely distinguished from no radiographic OA (AUC 0.71, 95% CI 0.66, 0.76) with only difficulty descending stairs and coarse crepitus marginally informative over age, sex and body mass index. Other cardinal signs of knee OA - the presence of effusion, bony enlargement, reduced flexion range of movement, mediolateral instability and varus deformity - were indicators of tibiofemoral joint OA. Conclusions Early isolated PFJOA is clinically manifest in symptoms and self-reported functional

  13. [The time-related risk for knee osteoarthritis after ACL injury. Results from a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Spahn, G; Schiltenwolf, M; Hartmann, B; Grifka, J; Hofmann, G O; Klemm, H-T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the time-related risk for knee osteoarthritis in patients after ACL injury. The primary search was carried out in different medical databases with the deadline 12.01.2014. The search strategy for the evaluation was [ACL] AND [osteoarthritis] including "all fields". All 1656 title/abstracts were reviewed by two independent researchers who selected 140 papers for full text review. Finally, a total of 21 relevant publications were identified for inclusion in this current paper. The incidence of knee osteoarthritis rises significantly over time. Two years after injury it was 6.9%, after 5 years 32.2%, after 7 years 36.3%, and after 10 years 79.6%. At the same time, the crude relative risk of OA rises as the time interval since injury increases. The relative risk of OA has already doubled by 2 years after ACL injury). By 7 years it has increased fivefold and compared with OA status at the time of injury it is still increasing significantly after 10 years. The ACL injury is a significant risk factor for the development of early-onset secondary knee osteoarthritis. Within 5 years of the injury the knee shows clear signs of osteoarthritis on MRI. However, these lesions are often not associated with any clinical signs. Knee osteoarthritis as a severe disease starts 8 years or later after the injury, when it requires treatment.

  14. Arthroscopic Synovectomy Combined with Autologous Fat Grafting in Early Stages of CMC Osteoarthritis of the Thumb.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Robert; Wirth, Johanna; Baur, Eva-Maria

    2018-04-01

    Background  Minimal invasive treatments such as arthroscopic techniques may be adequate to restore the anatomy and functional integrity of the thumb CMC (carpometacarpal) joint. In this paper, we reported the interposition of autologous fat tissue in combination with arthroscopic synovectomy/debridement for early stage of the thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis. Patients and Methods  Twelve patients with a mean age of 46 years with early radiological stages of thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis were included. Evaluation of outcome was measured prior and 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery including, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), QuickDASH, grip and pinch strength, range of motion (ROM), and patient satisfaction. Results  Pain at rest (or with load) was reduced from preoperative 4,7 (8,7) to 2 (5,9) at 3 to 6 months; 1,4 (4,3) at 12 months; and 0,75 (2,7) at 2 years after the surgery. Initial preoperative QuickDASH value of 52 points reduced to 33 (17-65) at 6 months, 23 (2-70) at 12 months, and 20 (11-29) at 24 months after the surgery. Grip strength and thumb pinch with respect to the contralateral untreated thumb was reduced in the first 12 months but recovered subsequently. ROM was equal to the contralateral thumb. Three patients suffered from tendinitis and required surgical treatment. One patient indicated prolonged pain symptoms. No infections were noted and no donor-site morbidity or side effects were detected. Conclusion  Arthroscopic synovectomy combined with autologous fat graft is a reliable surgical option for early thumb CMC joint osteoarthritis and that effect continues for more than 24 months.

  15. PTH [1-34]-induced alterations of the subchondral bone provoke early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Orth, P; Cucchiarini, M; Wagenpfeil, S; Menger, M D; Madry, H

    2014-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that changes in the subchondral bone induced by parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) reciprocally affect the integrity of the articular cartilage within a naïve osteochondral unit in vivo. Daily subcutaneous injections of 10 μg PTH [1-34]/kg were given to adult rabbits for 6 weeks, controls received saline. Blood samples were continuously collected to monitor renal function. The subchondral bone plate and subarticular spongiosa of the femoral heads were separately assessed by micro-computed tomography. Articular cartilage was evaluated by macroscopic and histological osteoarthritis scoring, polarized light microscopy, and immunohistochemical determination of type-I, type-II, type-X collagen contents, PTH [1-34] receptor and caspase-3 expression. Absolute and relative extents of hyaline and calcified articular cartilage layers were measured histomorphometrically. The correlation between PTH-induced changes in subchondral bone and articular cartilage was determined. PTH [1-34] enhanced volume, mineral density, and trabecular thickness within the subarticular spongiosa, and increased thickness of the calcified cartilage layer (all P < 0.05). Moreover, PTH [1-34] led to cartilage surface irregularities and reduced matrix staining (both P < 0.03). These early osteoarthritic changes correlated with and were ascribed to the increased thickness of the calcified cartilage layer (P = 0.026) and enhanced mineral density of the subarticular spongiosa (P = 0.001). Modifications of the subarticular spongiosa by PTH [1-34] cause broadening of the calcified cartilage layer, resulting in osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration. These findings identify a mechanism by which PTH-induced alterations of the normal subchondral bone microarchitecture may provoke early osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Dual Role for NOTCH Signaling in Joint Cartilage Maintenance and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Chen, Jianquan; Mirando, Anthony; Wang, Cuicui; Zuscik, Michael J.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of NOTCH signaling in postnatal murine joints results in osteoarthritis (OA), indicating a requirement for NOTCH during joint cartilage maintenance. Unexpectedly, NOTCH components are significantly up-regulated in human and murine post-traumatic OA, suggesting either a reparative or pathological role for NOTCH activation in OA. Here we investigated the potential dual role for NOTCH in joint maintenance and OA by generating two mouse models overexpressing the NOTCH1 intracellular domain within postnatal joint cartilage; one with sustained NOTCH activation that likely resembles pathological NOTCH signaling and one with transient NOTCH activation that more closely reflects physiological NOTCH signaling. Sustained NOTCH signaling in joint cartilage leads to an early and progressive OA pathology, while on the contrary, transient NOTCH activation enhances cartilage matrix synthesis and promotes joint maintenance under normal physiological conditions. Using RNA-seq, immunohistochemical, and biochemical approaches we identified several novel targets potentially responsible for NOTCH-mediated cartilage degradation, fibrosis, and OA progression, including components of the IL6/STAT3 and ERK/p38 MAPK pathways; factors that may also contribute to post-traumatic OA development. Collectively, these data demonstrate a dual role for the NOTCH pathway in joint cartilage and identify important downstream NOTCH effectors as potential targets for disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). PMID:26198357

  17. Osteoarthritis: detection, pathophysiology, and current/future treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Sovani, Sujata; Grogan, Shawn P

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the joint, and age is the major risk factor for its development. Clinical manifestation of OA includes joint pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. Currently, no pharmacological treatments are available to treat this specific joint disease; only symptom-modifying drugs are available. Improvement in imaging technology, identification of biomarkers, and increased understanding of the molecular basis of OA will aid in detecting the early stages of disease. Yet the development of interventional strategies remains elusive and will be critical for effective prevention of OA-associated joint destruction. The potential of cell-based therapies may be applicable in improving joint function in mild to more advanced cases of OA. Ongoing studies to understand the basis of this disease will eventually lead to prevention and treatment strategies and will also be a key in reducing the social and economic burden of this disease. Nurses are advised to provide an integrative approach of disease assessment and management in OA patients' care with a focus on education and implementation. Knowledge and understanding of OA and how this affects the individual patient form the basis for such an integrative approach to all-round patient care and disease management.

  18. Osteoarthritis: new insights in animal models.

    PubMed

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fumo, Caterina; Rizzello, Giacomo; Khan, Wasim Sardar; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent and symptomatic health problem in the middle-aged and elderly population, with over one-half of all people over the age of 65 showing radiographic changes in painful knees. The aim of the present study was to perform an overview on the available animal models used in the research field on the OA. Discrepancies between the animal models and the human disease are present. As regards human 'idiopathic' OA, with late onset and slow progression, it is perhaps wise not to be overly enthusiastic about animal models that show severe chondrodysplasia and very early OA. Advantage by using genetically engineered mouse models, in comparison with other surgically induced models, is that molecular etiology is known. Find potential molecular markers for the onset of the disease and pay attention to the role of gender and environmental factors should be very helpful in the study of mice that acquire premature OA. Surgically induced destabilization of joint is the most widely used induction method. These models allow the temporal control of disease induction and follow predictable progression of the disease. In animals, ACL transection and meniscectomy show a speed of onset and severity of disease higher than in humans after same injury.

  19. Fibulin-3 in joint aging and osteoarthritis pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Akihiko; Yonezawa, Tomo; Taniguchi, Noboru; Otabe, Koji; Akasaki, Yukio; Matsukawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Masahiko; Neo, Masashi; Marmorstein, Lihua Y.; Lotz, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The EFEMP1 gene encoding fibulin-3 is specifically expressed in the superficial zone of articular cartilage. This study examined fibulin-3 expression patterns in joint aging and osteoarthritis (OA) and the role of fibulin-3 in OA pathogenesis. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on normal and OA human and mouse knee cartilage. Experimental OA was induced in wild type and fibulin-3−/− mice and OA severity was evaluated by histological scoring. To examine fibulin-3 function, chondrocyte monolayer cultures were transfected with siRNA for quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were transduced with EFEMP1 lentivirus and analyzed for chondrogenesis markers. Results Fibulin-3 was specifically expressed in the SZ of normal cartilage in human and mouse knee joints and declined with aging. Both aging-related OA and experimental OA were significantly more severe in fibulin-3−/− mice compared with wild type mice. Fibulin-3 expression was high in undifferentiated MSC and decreased during chondrogenesis. Suppression of fibulin-3 by siRNA significantly increased SOX9, collagen II and aggrecan in articular chondrocytes, while overexpression of fibulin-3 inhibited chondrogenesis in MSC. Conclusion Fibulin-3 is specifically expressed in the SZ of articular cartilage and its expression is reduced in aging and OA. Fibulin-3 regulates differentiation of adult progenitor cells and its aging-related decline is an early event in OA pathogenesis. Preventing or restoring aging-associated loss of fibulin-3 in SZ chondrocytes has potential to delay or prevent onset of OA. PMID:27780308

  20. How does tibial cartilage volume relate to symptoms in subjects with knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Wluka, A; Wolfe, R; Stuckey, S; Cicuttini, F

    2004-01-01

    Background: No consistent relationship between the severity of symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and radiographic change has been demonstrated. Objectives: To determine the relationship between symptoms of knee OA and tibial cartilage volume, whether pain predicts loss of cartilage in knee OA, and whether change in cartilage volume over time relates to change in symptoms over the same period. Method: 132 subjects with symptomatic, early (mild to moderate) knee OA were studied. At baseline and 2 years later, participants had MRI scans of their knee and completed questionnaires quantifying symptoms of knee OA (knee-specific WOMAC: pain, stiffness, function) and general physical and mental health (SF-36). Tibial cartilage volume was determined from the MRI images. Results: Complete data were available for 117 (89%) subjects. A weak association was found between tibial cartilage volume and symptoms at baseline. The severity of the symptoms of knee OA at baseline did not predict subsequent tibial cartilage loss. However, weak associations were seen between worsening of symptoms of OA and increased cartilage loss: pain (rs = 0.28, p = 0.002), stiffness (rs = 0.17, p = 0.07), and deterioration in function (rs = 0.21, p = 0.02). Conclusion: Tibial cartilage volume is weakly associated with symptoms in knee OA. There is a weak association between loss of tibial cartilage and worsening of symptoms. This suggests that although cartilage is not a major determinant of symptoms in knee OA, it does relate to symptoms. PMID:14962960

  1. The use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Hagerty, Sarah; Cortazzo, Megan Helen

    2014-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability in the United States. With an aging population, its incidence is only likely to rise. Articular cartilage has a poor capacity to heal. The advent of regenerative medicine has heralded a new approach to early treatment of degenerative conditions such as osteoarthritis by focusing on regenerating damaged tissue rather than focusing on replacement. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is one such treatment that has received much recent attention and has been used particularly for tendon healing. Recent studies have focused on assessing its use on degenerative conditions such as OA. In this article, we review the evidence for the pathologic basis for the use of PRP in OA and also the clinical outcomes pertaining to its use. Finally, we also consider reasons for the inconsistent clinical success pertaining to its use.

  2. Nutraceuticals and osteoarthritis pain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Angela; Leong, Daniel J; Cardoso, Luis; Sun, Hui B

    2018-02-24

    Arthritis is a chronic disease of joints. It is highly prevalent, particularly in the elderly, and is commonly associated with pain that interferes with quality of life. Because of its chronic nature, pharmacological approaches to pain relief and joint repair must be safe for long term use, a quality many current therapies lack. Nutraceuticals refer to compounds or materials that can function as nutrition and exert a potential therapeutic effect, including the relief of pain, such as pain related to arthritis, of which osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form. Of interest, nutraceuticals have recently been shown to have potential in relieving OA pain in human clinical trials. Emerging evidence indicates nutraceuticals may represent promising alternatives for the relief of OA pain. In this paper, we will overview OA pain and the use of nutraceuticals in OA pain management, focusing on those that have been evaluated by clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the biologic and pharmacologic actions underlying the nutraceutical effects on pain relief based on the potential active ingredients identified from traditional nutraceuticals in OA pain management and their potential for drug development. The review concludes by sharing our viewpoints that future studies should prioritize elucidating the mechanisms of action of nutraceuticals in OA and developing nutraceuticals that not only relieve OA pain, but also mitigate OA pathology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Avidin as a Model for Charge Driven Transport into Cartilage and Drug Delivery for treating Early Stage Post-traumatic Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bajpayee, Ambika G.; Wong, Cliff R.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Frank, Eliot H.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Local drug delivery into cartilage remains a challenge due to its dense extracellular matrix of negatively charged proteoglycans enmeshed within a collagen fibril network. The high negative fixed charge density of cartilage offers the unique opportunity to utilize electrostatic interactions to augment transport, binding and retention of drug carriers. With the goal of developing particle-based drug delivery mechanisms for treating post-traumatic osteoarthritis, our objectives were, first, to determine the size range of a variety of solutes that could penetrate and diffuse through normal cartilage and enzymatically treated cartilage to mimic early stages of OA, and second, to investigate the effects of electrostatic interactions on particle partitioning, uptake and binding within cartilage using the highly positively charged protein, Avidin, as a model. Results showed that solutes having a hydrodynamic diameter ≤ 10 nm can penetrate into the full thickness of cartilage explants while larger sized solutes were trapped in the tissue’s superficial zone. Avidin had a 400-fold higher uptake than its neutral same-sized counterpart, NeutrAvidin, and >90% of the absorbed Avidin remained within cartilage explants for at least 15 days. We report reversible, weak binding (KD ~150 μM) of Avidin to intratissue sites in cartilage. The large effective binding site density (NT ~ 2920 μM) within cartilage matrix facilitates Avidin’s retention, making its structure suitable for particle based drug delivery into cartilage. PMID:24120044

  4. New developments in osteoarthritis and cartilage biology.

    PubMed

    Poulet, Blandine; Staines, Katherine A

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and the most common form of arthritis. Characterised by articular cartilage loss, subchondral bone thickening and osteophyte formation, the OA joint afflicts much pain and disability. Whilst OA has been associated with many contributing factors, its underpinning molecular mechanisms are, nevertheless, not fully understood. Clinical management of OA is largely palliative and there is an ever growing need for an effective disease modifying treatment. This review discusses some of the recent progress in OA therapies in the different joint tissues affected by OA pathology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical signs of early osteoarthritis: reproducibility and relation to x ray changes in 541 women in the general population.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, D J; Spector, T D; Brown, P; Wilson, P; Doyle, D V; Silman, A J

    1991-01-01

    The definition and classification of early clinically apparent osteoarthritis both in clinical situations and in epidemiological surveys remains a problem. Few data exist on the between-observer reproducibility of simple clinical methods of detecting hand and knee osteoarthritis in the population and their sensitivity and specificity as compared with radiography. Two observers first studied the reproducibility of a number of clinical signs in 41 middle aged women. Good rates of agreement were found for most of the clinical signs tested (kappa = 0.54-1.0). The more reproducible signs were then tested on a population of 541 women, aged 45-65, drawn from general practice, screening centres, and patients previously attending hospital for non-rheumatic problems. The major clinical signs used had a high specificity (87-99%) and lower sensitivity (20-49%) when compared with radiographs graded on the Kellgren and Lawrence scale (2+ = positive). When analysis was restricted to symptomatic radiographic osteoarthritis, levels of sensitivity were increased and specificity was lowered. These data show that certain physical signs of osteoarthritis are reproducible and may be used to identify clinical disease. They are not a substitute for radiographs, however, if radiographic change is regarded as the 'gold standard' of diagnosis. As the clinical signs tested seemed specific for osteoarthritis they may be of value in screening populations for clinical disease. PMID:1877852

  6. A comparison of strength-training, self-management and the combination for early osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Patrick E.; Kasle, Shelley; Going, Scott; Villaneuva, Isidro; Cornett, Michelle; Farr, Josh; Wright, Jill; Streeter, Clara; Zautra, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative effectiveness of combining self-management and strength-training for improving functional outcomes in early knee osteoarthritis patients. Methods A randomized intervention trial lasting 24 months conducted at an academic medical center. Community dwelling middle-aged adults (N=273), aged 34 to 65 with knee osteoarthritis, pain and self-reported physical disability completed a strength-training program, a self-management program, or a combined program. Outcomes included five physical function tests (leg press, range of motion, work capacity, balance, and stair climbing) and two self-reported measures of pain and disability. Results A total of 201 (73.6 %) participants completed the 2-year trial. Overall compliance was modest - strength-training (55.8 %), self-management (69.1 %), and combined (59.6 %) programs. The three groups showed a significant and large increase from pre- to post-treatment in all physical functioning measures including leg press (d =.85), range of motion (d=1.00), work capacity (d=.60), balance (d=.59), and stair climbing (d=.59). Additionally, all three groups showed decreased self-reported pain (d=-.51) and disability (d=-.55). There were no significant differences among groups. Conclusions Middle-aged, sedentary persons with mild early knee osteoarthritis benefited from strength-training, self-management, and the combination. These results suggest that both strength-training and self-management are suitable treatments for early onset of knee osteoarthritis in middle-aged adults. Self-management alone may offer the least burdensome treatment for early osteoarthritis. PMID:20191490

  7. Current concepts regarding pharmacologic treatment of rheumatoid and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wildy, K S; Wasko, M C

    2001-05-01

    Treating patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains challenging; however, new agents offer the chance for an improved quality of life. As an alternative to traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors provide pain relief for OA and RA patients with possible fewer side effects. Otherwise, OA patients may opt for topical agents, injections, or supplements. Rheumatoid arthritis research has led to an improved understanding of the inflammatory cascade and an appreciation of the early tissue destruction. A new treatment philosophy has thus emerged along with the development of new biologic agents; the latter, along with combination therapy and a new disease modifying antirheumatic drug, leflunomide, have greatly expanded the chances for disease control in RA patients.

  8. The first international workshop on the epigenetics of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meulenbelt, Ingrid M; Bhutani, Nidhi; den Hollander, Wouter; Gay, Steffen; Oppermann, Udo; Reynard, Louise N; Skelton, Andrew J; Young, David A; Beier, Frank; Loughlin, John

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major clinical problem across the world, in part due to the lack of disease-modifying drugs resulting, to a significant degree, from our incomplete understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disease. Emerging evidence points to a role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of OA, but research in this area is still in its early stages. In order to summarize current knowledge and to facilitate the potential coordination of future research activities, the first international workshop on the epigenetics of OA was held in Amsterdam in October 2015. Recent findings on DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, histone modifications, noncoding RNAs, and other epigenetic mechanisms were presented and discussed. The workshop demonstrated the advantage of bringing together those working in this nascent field and highlights from the event are summarized in this report in the form of summaries from invited speakers and organizers.

  9. Diagnostic index: an open-source tool to classify TMJ OA condyles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Pascal, Laura; Prieto, Juan; Vimort, Jean Baptiste; Gomes, Liliane; Yatabe, Marilia; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos; Budin, Francois; Pieper, Steve; Styner, Martin; Benavides, Erika; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of temporomandibular joints (TMJ) occurs in about 40% of the patients who present TMJ disorders. Despite its prevalence, OA diagnosis and treatment remain controversial since there are no clear symptoms of the disease, especially in early stages. Quantitative tools based on 3D imaging of the TMJ condyle have the potential to help characterize TMJ OA changes. The goals of the tools proposed in this study are to ultimately develop robust imaging markers for diagnosis and assessment of treatment efficacy. This work proposes to identify differences among asymptomatic controls and different clinical phenotypes of TMJ OA by means of Statistical Shape Modeling (SSM), obtained via clinical expert consensus. From three different grouping schemes (with 3, 5 and 7 groups), our best results reveal that that the majority (74.5%) of the classifications occur in agreement with the groups assigned by consensus between our clinical experts. Our findings suggest the existence of different disease-based phenotypic morphologies in TMJ OA. Our preliminary findings with statistical shape modeling based biomarkers may provide a quantitative staging of the disease. The methodology used in this study is included in an open source image analysis toolbox, to ensure reproducibility and appropriate distribution and dissemination of the solution proposed.

  10. Expression and significance of MMP3 in synovium of knee joint at different stage in osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Huang, Jie-Feng; Du, Wen-Xi; Tong, Pei-Jian

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the expression and significance of MMP-3 in synovium of knee joint at different stage in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Knee synovial tissue were collected in 90 OA patients (the OA group). Patients in the OA group was divided into 3 subgroups: grade I subgroup (n=30), grade II subgroup (n=30), grade III; subgroup (n=30). Thirty patients served as control group. Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of MMP-3 protein in the knee synovial tissue. MMP-3 protein was detected in all knee synovial tissue. The expression of MMP-3 protein in the OA group was significantly higher that in the normal synovium (P<0.05), and the MMP-3 protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm. There was significant difference in the expression of MMP-3 protein between the grade I subgroup and the grade II, grade III subgroups (all P<0.05). The expression of MMP-3 protein was positively related to the severity of OA (r=0.912, P<0.05). The expression of MMP-3 protein are closely related to pathogenic mechanism of OA. It may be an important indicator of early diagnosis and the activity of the disease of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The advance of non-invasive detection methods in osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jiao; Chen, Yanping

    2011-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases which badly affected the patients' living quality and economy. Detection and evaluation technology can provide basic information for early treatment. A variety of imaging methods in OA were reviewed, such as conventional X-ray, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Among the existing imaging modalities, the spatial resolution of X-ray is extremely high; CT is a three-dimensional method, which has high density resolution; US as an evaluation method of knee OA discriminates lesions sensitively between normal cartilage and degenerative one; as a sensitive and nonionizing method, MRI is suitable for the detection of early OA, but the cost is too expensive for routine use; NIRS is a safe, low cost modality, and is also good at detecting early stage OA. In a word, each method has its own advantages, but NIRS is provided with broader application prospect, and it is likely to be used in clinical daily routine and become the golden standard for diagnostic detection.

  12. Medial knee loading is altered in subjects with early osteoarthritis during gait but not during step-up-and-over task

    PubMed Central

    Wesseling, Mariska; Smith, Colin R.; Thelen, Darryl G.; Verschueren, Sabine; Jonkers, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates knee joint loading during gait and step-up-and-over tasks in control subjects, subjects with early knee OA and those with established knee OA. Thirty-seven subjects with varying degrees of medial compartment knee OA severity (eighteen with early OA and sixteen with established OA), and nineteen healthy controls performed gait and step-up-and-over tasks. Knee joint moments, contact forces (KCF), the magnitude of contact pressures and center of pressure (CoP) location were analyzed for the three groups for both activities using a multi-body knee model with articular cartilage contact, 14 ligaments, and six degrees of freedom tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. During gait, the first peak of the medial KCF was significantly higher for patients with early knee OA (p = 0.048) and established knee OA (p = 0.001) compared to control subjects. Furthermore, the medial contact pressure magnitudes and CoP location were significantly different in both groups of patients compared to controls. Knee rotation moments (KRMs) and external rotation angles were significantly higher during early stance in both patient groups (p < 0.0001) compared to controls. During step-up-and-over, there was a high variability between the participants and no significant differences in KCF were observed between the groups. Knee joint loading and kinematics were found to be altered in patients with early knee OA only during gait. This is an indication that an excessive medial KCF and altered loading location, observed in these patients, is a contributor to early progression of knee OA. PMID:29117248

  13. Hand osteoarthritis: an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Hernández-Molina, Gabriela

    2010-06-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent condition with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. We review herein the prevalence, impact on hand function, and various risk factors related to hand OA. PubMed and MEDLINE databases (1950-2009) were searched for the keywords: "hand," "hand osteoarthritis," "distal interphalangeal," "proximal interphalangeal," "metacarpophalangeal," and "carpometacarpal." Published material emphasizing cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies regarding epidemiology, clinical features, functional impairment, and associated risk factors of hand OA were included. Hand OA is a heterogeneous, age- and gender-dependent disorder, occurring more frequently in women over 50 years of age. In the elderly population, the prevalence of radiographic hand OA can reach 80%. OA has a strong genetic predisposition, apparently gender- and phenotype-specific. A history of heavy manual labor or a repetitive use of the hand also has been linked to OA. Other variables such as weight, smoking, joint hyperlaxity, age of menarche, bone and cartilage mineralization factors, grip strength, and handedness may play a role. Symptomatic hand OA may cause functional impairment due to loss of strength, thus limiting the individual's ability to perform daily tasks. Several risk factors for hand OA have been identified; however, their interrelationship is not clearly understood. The development of preventive strategies and future research goals is needed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cumulative hip contact stress predicts osteoarthritis in DDH.

    PubMed

    Mavcic, Blaz; Iglic, Ales; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Brand, Richard A; Vengust, Rok

    2008-04-01

    Hip stresses are generally believed to influence whether a hip develops osteoarthritis (OA); similarly, various osteotomies have been proposed to reduce contact stresses and the risk of OA. We asked whether elevated hip contact stress predicted osteoarthritis in initially asymptomatic human hips. We identified 58 nonoperatively treated nonsubluxated hips with developmental dysplasia (DDH) without symptoms at skeletal maturity; the control group included 48 adult hips without hip disease. The minimum followup was 20 years (mean, 29 years; range, 20-41 years). Peak contact stress was computed with the HIPSTRESS method using anteroposterior pelvic radiographs at skeletal maturity. The cumulative contact stress was determined by multiplying the peak contact stress by age at followup. We compared WOMAC scores and radiographic indices of OA. Dysplastic hips had higher mean peak contact and higher mean cumulative contact stress than normal hips. Mean WOMAC scores and percentage of asymptomatic hips in the study group (mean age 51 years) were similar to those in the control group (mean age 68 years). After adjusting for gender and age, the cumulative contact stress, Wiberg center-edge angle, body mass index, but not the peak contact stress, independently predicted the final WOMAC score in dysplastic hips but not in normal hips. Cumulative contact stress predicted early hip OA better than the Wiberg center-edge angle. Level II, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. Research progress on osteoarthritis treatment mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yun-Tao; Chen, Jian; Meng, Zhu-Long; Ge, Wan-Yu; Bian, Yang-Yang; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Xing, Chen-Kun; Yao, Jiang-Ling; Fu, Jian; Peng, Lei

    2017-09-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common disease and is frequently encountered in the older population; the incidence rises sharply with age. It is estimated that more than 360 million people suffer from OA. However, the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis remains unclear, and we cannot effectively prevent the progression of OA. The aim of this review was to explore the molecular markers and signaling pathways that induce chondrocyte apoptosis in OA. We searched, using the key words osteoarthritis, chondrocyte apoptosis, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, molecular targets, and biomarkers, in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 1994 to 2017. We also reviewed the signaling pathways and molecular markers associated with chondrocyte apoptosis and approaches aimed at inhibiting the apoptosis-inducing mechanism to at least delay the progression of cartilage degeneration in OA. This article provides an overview of targeted therapies and the related signaling pathways in OA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 modulates OA-related pain, cartilage and bone pathology.

    PubMed

    Huesa, Carmen; Ortiz, Ana C; Dunning, Lynette; McGavin, Laura; Bennett, Louise; McIntosh, Kathryn; Crilly, Anne; Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Plevin, Robin; van 't Hof, Rob J; Rowan, Andrew D; McInnes, Iain B; Goodyear, Carl S; Lockhart, John C; Ferrell, William R

    2016-11-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) deficiency protects against cartilage degradation in experimental osteoarthritis (OA). The wider impact of this pathway upon OA-associated pathologies such as osteophyte formation and pain is unknown. Herein, we investigated early temporal bone and cartilage changes in experimental OA in order to further elucidate the role of PAR2 in OA pathogenesis. OA was induced in wild-type (WT) and PAR2-deficient (PAR2 -/- ) mice by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM). Inflammation, cartilage degradation and bone changes were monitored using histology and microCT. In gene rescue experiments, PAR2 -/- mice were intra-articularly injected with human PAR2 (hPAR2)-expressing adenovirus. Dynamic weight bearing was used as a surrogate of OA-related pain. Osteophytes formed within 7 days post-DMM in WT mice but osteosclerosis was only evident from 14 days post induction. Importantly, PAR2 was expressed in the proliferative/hypertrophic chondrocytes present within osteophytes. In PAR2 -/- mice, osteophytes developed significantly less frequently but, when present, were smaller and of greater density; no osteosclerosis was observed in these mice up to day 28. The pattern of weight bearing was altered in PAR2 -/- mice, suggesting reduced pain perception. The expression of hPAR2 in PAR2 -/- mice recapitulated osteophyte formation and cartilage damage similar to that observed in WT mice. However, osteosclerosis was absent, consistent with lack of hPAR2 expression in subchondral bone. This study clearly demonstrates PAR2 plays a critical role, via chondrocytes, in osteophyte development and subchondral bone changes, which occur prior to PAR2-mediated cartilage damage. The latter likely occurs independently of OA-related bone changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 modulates OA-related pain, cartilage and bone pathology

    PubMed Central

    Huesa, Carmen; Ortiz, Ana C; Dunning, Lynette; McGavin, Laura; Bennett, Louise; McIntosh, Kathryn; Crilly, Anne; Kurowska-Stolarska, Mariola; Plevin, Robin; van ‘t Hof, Rob J; Rowan, Andrew D; McInnes, Iain B; Goodyear, Carl S; Lockhart, John C; Ferrell, William R

    2016-01-01

    Objective Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) deficiency protects against cartilage degradation in experimental osteoarthritis (OA). The wider impact of this pathway upon OA-associated pathologies such as osteophyte formation and pain is unknown. Herein, we investigated early temporal bone and cartilage changes in experimental OA in order to further elucidate the role of PAR2 in OA pathogenesis. Methods OA was induced in wild-type (WT) and PAR2-deficient (PAR2−/−) mice by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM). Inflammation, cartilage degradation and bone changes were monitored using histology and microCT. In gene rescue experiments, PAR2−/− mice were intra-articularly injected with human PAR2 (hPAR2)-expressing adenovirus. Dynamic weight bearing was used as a surrogate of OA-related pain. Results Osteophytes formed within 7 days post-DMM in WT mice but osteosclerosis was only evident from 14 days post induction. Importantly, PAR2 was expressed in the proliferative/hypertrophic chondrocytes present within osteophytes. In PAR2−/− mice, osteophytes developed significantly less frequently but, when present, were smaller and of greater density; no osteosclerosis was observed in these mice up to day 28. The pattern of weight bearing was altered in PAR2−/− mice, suggesting reduced pain perception. The expression of hPAR2 in PAR2−/− mice recapitulated osteophyte formation and cartilage damage similar to that observed in WT mice. However, osteosclerosis was absent, consistent with lack of hPAR2 expression in subchondral bone. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates PAR2 plays a critical role, via chondrocytes, in osteophyte development and subchondral bone changes, which occur prior to PAR2-mediated cartilage damage. The latter likely occurs independently of OA-related bone changes. PMID:26698846

  18. Weight-bearing asymmetries during Sit-To-Stand in patients with mild-to-moderate hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Eitzen, Ingrid; Fernandes, Linda; Nordsletten, Lars; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna

    2014-02-01

    The Sit-To-Stand (STS) transition is a mechanically demanding task that may pose particular challenges for individuals with lower limb osteoarthritis (OA). Biomechanical features of STS have been investigated in patients with OA, but not in patients with early stage hip OA. The purpose of this study was to explore inter-limb weight-bearing asymmetries (WBA) and selected kinematic and kinetic variables during STS in patients with mild-to-moderate hip OA compared with healthy controls. Twenty-one hip OA patients and 23 controls were included in the study. Sagittal and frontal plane kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an eight-camera motion analysis system synchronized with two force plates embedded in the floor. There were no distinctive biomechanical alterations in sagittal or frontal plane kinematics or kinetics, movement time, or time to reach peak ground reaction force (GRF) in hip OA patients compared with controls. However, the hip OA patients revealed a distinct pattern of WBA compared with the controls, in unloading their involved limb by 18.4% at peak GRF. These findings indicate that patients with early stage hip OA are not yet forced into a stereotypical movement strategy for STS; however, the observed pattern of WBA requires clinical attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Knee osteoarthritis image registration: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.; Treviño, Victor; Tamez-Peña, José G.

    2015-03-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a very common disease, in early stages, changes in joint structures are shown, some of the most common symptoms are; formation of osteophytes, cartilage degradation and joint space reduction, among others. Based on a joint space reduction measurement, Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale, is a very extensive used tool to asses radiological OA knee x-ray images, based on information obtained from these assessments, the objective of this work is to correlate the Kellgren-Lawrence score to the bilateral asymmetry between knees. Using public data from the Osteoarthritis initiative (OAI), a set of images with different Kellgren-Lawrencescores were used to determine a relationship of Kellgren-Lawrence score and the bilateral asymmetry, in order to measure the asymmetry between the knees, the right knee was registered to match the left knee, then a series of similarity metrics, mutual information, correlation, and mean squared error where computed to correlate the deformation (mismatch) of the knees to the Kellgren-Lawrence score. Radiological information was evaluated and scored by OAI radiologist groups. The results of the study suggest an association between Radiological Kellgren-Lawrence score and image registration metrics, mutual information and correlation is higher in the early stages, and mean squared error is higher in advanced stages. This association can be helpful to develop a computer aided grading tool.

  20. Definition of osteoarthritis on MRI: results of a Delphi exercise.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D J; Arden, N; Conaghan, P G; Eckstein, F; Gold, G; Grainger, A; Guermazi, A; Harvey, W; Jones, G; Hellio Le Graverand, M P; Laredo, J D; Lo, G; Losina, E; Mosher, T J; Roemer, F; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    sensitivity (0.46) likely due to detection of disease earlier on MRI. We have developed MRI definition of knee OA that requires further formal testing with regards their diagnostic performance (especially in datasets of persons with early disease), before they are more widely used. Our current analysis suggests that further testing should focus on comparisons other than the radiograph, that may capture later stage disease and thus nullify the potential for detecting early disease that MRI may afford. The propositions are not to detract from, nor to discourage the use of traditional means of diagnosing OA. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. All rights reserved.

  1. Time to Talk: 6 Things You Should Know about Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Y Z 6 Things You Should Know About Dietary Supplements for Osteoarthritis Share: Osteoarthritis is the most common ... hormones). Many people with OA report trying various dietary supplements, including glucosamine and chondroitin, alone or in combination, ...

  2. Adding a Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis By Colleen Labbe, M.S. | June 1, 2013 Vitamin ... supplements likely do not improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to results from a clinical trial ...

  3. Superficial Collagen Fibril Modulus and Pericellular Fixed Charge Density Modulate Chondrocyte Volumetric Behaviour in Early Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Turunen, Siru M.; Han, Sang Kuy; Herzog, Walter; Korhonen, Rami K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the experimentally detected altered chondrocyte volumetric behavior in early osteoarthritis can be explained by changes in the extracellular and pericellular matrix properties of cartilage. Based on our own experimental tests and the literature, the structural and mechanical parameters for normal and osteoarthritic cartilage were implemented into a multiscale fibril-reinforced poroelastic swelling model. Model simulations were compared with experimentally observed cell volume changes in mechanically loaded cartilage, obtained from anterior cruciate ligament transected rabbit knees. We found that the cell volume increased by 7% in the osteoarthritic cartilage model following mechanical loading of the tissue. In contrast, the cell volume decreased by 4% in normal cartilage model. These findings were consistent with the experimental results. Increased local transversal tissue strain due to the reduced collagen fibril stiffness accompanied with the reduced fixed charge density of the pericellular matrix could increase the cell volume up to 12%. These findings suggest that the increase in the cell volume in mechanically loaded osteoarthritic cartilage is primarily explained by the reduction in the pericellular fixed charge density, while the superficial collagen fibril stiffness is suggested to contribute secondarily to the cell volume behavior. PMID:23634175

  4. Therapeutic Benefit for Late, but Not Early, Passage Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Pain Behaviour in an Animal Model of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Victoria; Markides, Hareklea; Sagar, Devi Rani; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J.; Mapp, Paul; Kay, Alasdair; Kehoe, Oksana

    2017-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteoarthritic (OA) joint pathology and pain. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of a passage number on the effects of MSCs on pain behaviour and cartilage and bone features in a rodent model of OA. Methods Rats underwent either medial meniscal transection (MNX) or sham surgery under anaesthesia. Rats received intra-articular injection of either 1.5 × 106 late passage MSCs labelled with 10 μg/ml SiMAG, 1.5 × 106 late passage mesenchymal stem cells, the steroid Kenalog (200 μg/20 μL), 1.5 × 106 early passage MSCs, or serum-free media (SFM). Sham-operated rats received intra-articular injection of SFM. Pain behaviour was quantified until day 42 postmodel induction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to localise the labelled cells within the knee joint. Results Late passage MSCs and Kenalog attenuated established pain behaviour in MNX rats, but did not alter MNX-induced joint pathology at the end of the study period. Early passage MSCs exacerbated MNX-induced pain behaviour for up to one week postinjection and did not alter joint pathology. Conclusion Our data demonstrate for the first time the role of a passage number in influencing the therapeutic effects of MSCs in a model of OA pain. PMID:29434641

  5. Gene Therapy for Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0498 TITLE: Gene Therapy for Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven C...COVERED 30Sept 2014 - 29 Sept 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Gene Therapy for Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis 5b. GRANT NUMBER...the research. 1. KEYWORDS: Provide a brief list of keywords (limit to 20 words). Osteoarthritis (OA) is a

  6. To run or not to run: a post-meniscectomy qualitative risk analysis model for osteoarthritis when considering a return to recreational running.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The increased likelihood of osteoarthritic change in the tibiofemoral joint following meniscectomy is well documented. This awareness often leads medical practitioners to advise patients previously engaged in recreational running who have undergone meniscectomy to cease all recreational running. This literature review examines the following questions: 1) Is there evidence to demonstrate that runners, post-meniscectomy, incur a great enough risk for early degenerative OA to cease all running? 2) Does the literature yield risk factors for early OA that would guide a physical therapist with regard to advising the post-meniscectomy patient contemplating a return to recreational running? Current literature related to meniscal structure and function, etiology and definition of osteoarthritis, methods for assessing osteoarthritis, relationship between running and osteoarthritis, and relationship between meniscectomy and osteoarthritis are reviewed. This review finds that while the probability for early osteoarthritis in the post-meniscectomy population is substantial, it is a probability and not a certainty. To help guide a physical therapist with regard to advising the patient for a safe return to running following a meniscectomy, a qualitative risk assessment based on identified risk factors for osteoarthritis in both the running and the post-meniscectomy populations is proposed.

  7. CCL2 and CCR2 regulate pain-related behaviour and early gene expression in post-traumatic murine osteoarthritis but contribute little to chondropathy.

    PubMed

    Miotla Zarebska, J; Chanalaris, A; Driscoll, C; Burleigh, A; Miller, R E; Malfait, A M; Stott, B; Vincent, T L

    2017-03-01

    The role of inflammation in structural and symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. One key mediator of inflammation is the chemokine CCL2, primarily responsible for attracting monocytes to sites of injury. We investigated the role of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in experimental OA. OA was induced in 10 weeks old male wild type (WT), Ccl2 -/- and Ccr2 -/- mice, by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM). RNA was extracted from whole joints at 6 h and 7 days post-surgery and examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gene expression changes between naïve and DMM-operated mice were compared. Chondropathy scores, from mice at 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks post DMM were calculated using modified Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) grading systems. Changes in hind paw weight distribution, as a measure of pain, were assessed by Linton incapacitance. Absence of CCL2 strongly suppressed (>90%) selective inflammatory response genes in the joint 6 h post DMM, including arginase 1, prostaglandin synthase 2, nitric oxide synthase 2 and inhibin A. IL6, MMP3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 were also significantly suppressed. Similar trends were also observed in the absence of CCR2. A lower average chondropathy score was observed in both Ccl2 -/- and Ccr2 -/- mice at 12, 16 and 20 weeks post DMM compared with WT mice, but this was only statistically significant at 20 weeks in Ccr2 -/- mice. Pain-related behaviour in Ccl2 -/- and Ccr2 -/- mice post DMM was delayed in onset. The CCL2/CCR2 axis plays an important role in the development of pain in murine OA, but contributes little to cartilage damage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Osteoarthritis Year in Review 2016: biomarkers (biochemical markers).

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, A; Bay-Jensen, A-C; van Spil, W E; Larkin, J; Levesque, M C

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this "Year in Review" article is to summarize and discuss the implications of biochemical marker related articles published between the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) 2015 Congress in Seattle and the OARSI 2016 Congress in Amsterdam. The PubMed/MEDLINE bibliographic database was searched using the combined keywords: 'biomarker' and 'osteoarthritis'. The PubMed/MEDLINE literature search was conducted using the Advanced Search Builder function (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/advanced). Over two hundred new biomarker-related papers were published during the literature search period. Some papers identified new biomarkers whereas others explored the biological properties and clinical utility of existing markers. There were specific references to several adipocytokines including leptin and adiponectin. ADAM Metallopeptidase with Thrombospondin Type 1 motif 4 (ADAMTS-4) and aggrecan ARGS neo-epitope fragment (ARGS) in synovial fluid (SF) and plasma chemokine (CeC motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) were reported as potential new knee biomarkers. New and refined proteomic technologies and novel assays including a fluoro-microbead guiding chip (FMGC) for measuring C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in serum and urine and a novel magnetic nanoparticle-based technology (termed magnetic capture) for collecting and concentrating CTX-II, were described this past year. There has been steady progress in osteoarthritis (OA) biomarker research in 2016. Several novel biomarkers were identified and new technologies have been developed for measuring existing biomarkers. However, there has been no "quantum leap" this past year and identification of novel early OA biomarkers remains challenging. During the past year, OARSI published a set of recommendations for the use of soluble biomarkers in clinical trials, which is a major step forward in the clinical use of OA biomarkers and bodes well for future OA biomarker development. Copyright © 2016 The

  9. OAS :: Our History

    institutions in different spheres. The Conferences of American States met at varying intervals until, in 1970 English Español Português Français Search OAS Logo OAS Logo Home button About the OAS Who We Are What We Do Our Structure Our Locations Contact Us Access to Information Offices in the Member

  10. Association Between Physical Therapy and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Dyslipidemia Among Osteoarthritis Patients: A Nationwide Database Study.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Huan-Jui; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Yang, Nan-Ping; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Huang, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    To provide empirical evidence on the effect of early physical therapy (PT) within the first year of osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosis on reduction in OA-related comorbidities in patients with OA. Retrospective cohort study. The study was conducted using a nationally representative sample of 1 million National Health Insurance enrollees. Newly diagnosed patients with OA (N=13,545). One-to-one propensity score matching was used to match patients who received PT within the first year of OA diagnosis (PT group; n=3403) with an equal number of patients with OA who did not receive PT (non-PT group). Not applicable. The 4-year cumulative risk of comorbidities including coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis, gastrointestinal tract ulcer, and renal failure was estimated. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify the dose-response relation between the PT dosage and the risk of OA-related comorbidities. A total of 3403 patients (25.1%) received PT within the first year of OA diagnosis. The PT group had a significantly lower 4-year cumulative risk of dyslipidemia (P=.05) and a potentially lower 4-year cumulative risk of CAD (P=.09). After adjusting for other potential confounders, the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that patients with OA who received a high PT dosage had a low risk of CAD and dyslipidemia. Patients with OA who received PT had a lower risk of OA-related comorbidities such as dyslipidemia or CAD. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurements of C-reactive protein in serum and lactate dehydrogenase in serum and synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hurter, K; Spreng, D; Rytz, U; Schawalder, P; Ott-Knüsel, F; Schmökel, H

    2005-03-01

    Diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) is based upon the clinical orthopaedic examination and the radiographic assessment, both of which can be non-specific and insensitive in early joint disease. The aim of our study was to investigate if there is an increase in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in degenerative joint disease (DJD) and if CRP could be used to help diagnose OA. We also wished to investigate whether it was possible to distinguish a joint with clinically and radiographically confirmed OA from a healthy joint by comparing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels within the synovial fluid and the serum. We have shown a difference in synovial LDH levels between diseased and healthy joints (P<0.0001). There was also a significant difference between LDH in arthritic synovial fluid and serum, with no correlation between the values. Despite the fact that the values of our clinical patients tended to be higher than the values of our control group (P=0.05) all measured values were within the normal limits of previous publications. From these data, we conclude that single measurements of serum CRP do not permit detection of OA in clinical patients and that serum LDH is not a reliable marker for osteoarthritis. LDH levels in the synovial fluid could be of diagnostic value for identifying osteoarthritis.

  12. Frequency of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis and related symptoms in a hand osteoarthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, A K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z; Kvien, T K; Larheim, T A; Haugen, I K

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) in hand OA patients is largely unknown. Our aims were to explore (1) The frequency of TMJ-related symptoms and clinical findings; (2) The TMJ OA frequency defined by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT); and (3) The relationship between TMJ-related symptoms/clinical findings and CBCT-defined TMJ OA, in a hand OA cohort. We calculated the frequencies of TMJ-related symptoms, clinical findings and diagnosis of TMJ OA by CBCT and clinical examination in 54 patients from the Oslo hand OA cohort (88% women, mean (range) age 71 (61-83) years). Participants with and without CBCT-defined TMJ OA were compared for differences in proportions (95% confidence interval (CI)) of symptoms and clinical findings. Sensitivity and specificity of the clinical TMJ OA diagnosis were calculated using CBCT as reference. Self-reported symptoms and clinical findings were found in 24 (44%) and 50 (93%) individuals (93%), respectively, whereas 7 (13%) had sought healthcare. Individuals with CBCT-defined TMJ OA (n = 36, 67%) reported statistically significantly more pain at mouth opening (22%, 95% CI 4-40%), clicking (33%, 95% CI 14-52%) and crepitus (25%, 95% CI 4-46%). By clinical examination, only crepitus was more common in TMJ OA (33%, 95% CI 29-77%). Clinical diagnosis demonstrated low sensitivity (0.42) and high specificity (0.93). CBCT-defined TMJ OA was common in hand OA patients, suggesting that TMJ OA may be part of generalized OA. Few had sought healthcare, despite high burden of TMJ-related symptoms/findings. Clinical examination underestimated TMJ OA frequency. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary intake of fiber and risk of knee osteoarthritis in two U.S. prospective cohorts

    Objectives: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation both of which are linked with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association between fiber intake and risk of knee OA. Methods: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) of 4796 participants and Framingham Offspring Os...

  14. Articular Joint Lubricants during Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis Display Altered Levels and Molecular Species

    PubMed Central

    Liebisch, Gerhard; Zhang, Ruiyan; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Wilhelm, Jochen; Kaesser, Ulrich; Dettmeyer, Reinhard B.; Klein, Heiko; Ishaque, Bernd; Rickert, Markus; Schmitz, Gerd; Schmidt, Tannin A.; Steinmeyer, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyaluronic acid (HA), lubricin, and phospholipid species (PLs) contribute independently or together to the boundary lubrication of articular joints that is provided by synovial fluid (SF). Our study is the first reporting quantitative data about the molecular weight (MW) forms of HA, lubricin, and PLs in SF from cohorts of healthy donors, patients with early (eOA)- or late (lOA)-stage osteoarthritis (OA), and patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We used human SF from unaffected controls, eOA, lOA, and RA. HA and lubricin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PLs was quantified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Fatty acids (FAs) were analyzed by gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry. The MW distribution of HA was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results Compared with control SF, the concentrations of HA and lubricin were lower in OA and RA SF, whereas those of PLs were higher in OA and RA SF. Moreover, the MW distribution of HA shifted toward the lower ranges in OA and RA SF. We noted distinct alterations between cohorts in the relative distribution of PLs and the degree of FA saturation and chain lengths of FAs. Conclusions The levels, composition, and MW distribution of all currently known lubricants in SF—HA, lubricin, PLs—vary with joint disease and stage of OA. Our study is the first delivering a comprehensive view about all joint lubricants during health and widespread joint diseases. Thus, we provide the framework to develop new optimal compounded lubricants to reduce joint destruction. PMID:25933137

  15. Deletion of Panx3 Prevents the Development of Surgically Induced Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Paxton M.; Penuela, Silvia; Barr, Kevin; Khan, Sami; Pin, Christopher L.; Welch, Ian; Attur, Mukundan; Abramson, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent, disabling joint disease with no existing therapies to slow or halt its progression. Cartilage degeneration hallmarks OA pathogenesis, and pannexin 3 (Panx3), a member of a novel family of channel proteins, is upregulated during this process. The function of Panx3 remains poorly understood, but we consistently observed a strong increase in Panx3 immunostaining in OA lesions in both mice and humans. Here, we developed and characterized the first global and conditional Panx3 knockout mice to investigate the role of Panx3 in OA. Interestingly, global Panx3 deletion produced no overt phenotype and had no obvious effect on early skeletal development. Mice lacking Panx3 specifically in the cartilage and global Panx3 knockout mice were markedly resistant to the development of OA following destabilization of medial meniscus surgery. These data indicate a specific catabolic role of Panx3 in articular cartilage and identify Panx3 as a potential therapeutic target for OA. Lastly, while Panx1 has been linked to over a dozen human pathologies, this is the first in vivo evidence for a role of Panx3 in disease. PMID:26138248

  16. Inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritis: A critical review of the state-of-the-art, current prospects, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Maryam; Mobasheri, Ali; Mozafari, Masoud

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has traditionally been defined as a prototypical non-inflammatory arthropathy, but today there is compelling evidence to suggest that it has an inflammatory component. Many recent studies have shown the presence of synovitis in a large number of patients with OA and demonstrated a direct association between joint inflammation and the progression of OA. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide, matrix degrading enzymes and biomechanical stress are major factors responsible for the progression of OA in synovial joints. The aim of this review is to discuss the significance of a wide range of implicated inflammatory mediators and their contribution to the progression of OA. We also discuss some of the currently available guidelines, practices, and prospects. In addition, this review argues for new innovation in methodologies and instrumentation for the non-invasive detection of inflammation in OA by modern imaging techniques. We propose that identifying early inflammatory events and targeting these alterations will help to ameliorate the major symptoms such as inflammation and pain in OA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Elevated Early Callose Deposition Results in Complete Penetration Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Dorothea; Naumann, Marcel; Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Jamrow, Torsten; Manisseri, Chithra; Somerville, Shauna C.; Voigt, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    A common response by plants to fungal attack is deposition of callose, a (1,3)-β-glucan polymer, in the form of cell wall thickenings called papillae, at site of wall penetration. While it has been generally believed that the papillae provide a structural barrier to slow fungal penetration, this idea has been challenged in recent studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where fungal resistance was found to be independent of callose deposition. To the contrary, we show that callose can strongly support penetration resistance when deposited in elevated amounts at early time points of infection. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines that express POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT4 (PMR4), which encodes a stress-induced callose synthase, under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter. In these lines, we detected callose synthase activity that was four times higher than that in wild-type plants 6 h post inoculation with the virulent powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum. The callose synthase activity was correlated with enlarged callose deposits and the focal accumulation of green fluorescent protein-tagged PMR4 at sites of attempted fungal penetration. We observed similar results from infection studies with the nonadapted powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Haustoria formation was prevented in resistant transgenic lines during both types of powdery mildew infection, and neither the salicylic acid-dependent nor jasmonate-dependent pathways were induced. We present a schematic model that highlights the differences in callose deposition between the resistant transgenic lines and the susceptible wild-type plants during compatible and incompatible interactions between Arabidopsis and powdery mildew. PMID:23335625

  18. HSPRO Controls Early Nicotiana attenuata Seedling Growth during Interaction with the Fungus Piriformospora indica1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Stefan; Camehl, Iris; Gilardoni, Paola A.; Oelmueller, Ralf; Baldwin, Ian T.; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study aimed at identifying regulators of Nicotiana attenuata responses against chewing insects, a 26-nucleotide tag matching the HSPRO (ORTHOLOG OF SUGAR BEET Hs1pro-1) gene was found to be strongly induced after simulated herbivory (Gilardoni et al., 2010). Here we characterized the function of HSPRO during biotic interactions in transgenic N. attenuata plants silenced in its expression (ir-hspro). In wild-type plants, HSPRO expression was not only induced during simulated herbivory but also when leaves were inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and roots with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica. Reduced HSPRO expression did not affect the regulation of direct defenses against Manduca sexta herbivory or P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 infection rates. However, reduced HSPRO expression positively influenced early seedling growth during interaction with P. indica; fungus-colonized ir-hspro seedlings increased their fresh biomass by 30% compared with the wild type. Grafting experiments demonstrated that reduced HSPRO expression in roots was sufficient to induce differential growth promotion in both roots and shoots. This effect was accompanied by changes in the expression of 417 genes in colonized roots, most of which were metabolic genes. The lack of major differences in the metabolic profiles of ir-hspro and wild-type colonized roots (as analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry) suggested that accelerated metabolic rates were involved. We conclude that HSPRO participates in a whole-plant change in growth physiology when seedlings interact with P. indica. PMID:22892352

  19. An Early Nodulin-Like Protein Accumulates in the Sieve Element Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Junaid A.; Wang, Qi; Sjölund, Richard D.; Schulz, Alexander; Thompson, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Membrane proteins within the sieve element-companion cell complex have essential roles in the physiological functioning of the phloem. The monoclonal antibody line RS6, selected from hybridomas raised against sieve elements isolated from California shield leaf (Streptanthus tortuosus; Brassicaceae) tissue cultures, recognizes an antigen in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia that is associated specifically with the plasma membrane of sieve elements, but not companion cells, and accumulates at the earliest stages of sieve element differentiation. The identity of the RS6 antigen was revealed by reverse transcription-PCR of Arabidopsis leaf RNA using degenerate primers to be an early nodulin (ENOD)-like protein that is encoded by the expressed gene At3g20570. Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins are encoded by a multigene family composed of several types of structurally related phytocyanins that have a similar overall domain structure of an amino-terminal signal peptide, plastocyanin-like copper-binding domain, proline/serine-rich domain, and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic domain. The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of the 21.5-kD sieve element-specific ENOD are posttranslationally cleaved from the precursor protein, resulting in a mature peptide of approximately 15 kD that is attached to the sieve element plasma membrane via a carboxy-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. Many of the Arabidopsis ENOD-like proteins accumulate in gametophytic tissues, whereas in both floral and vegetative tissues, the sieve element-specific ENOD is expressed only within the phloem. Members of the ENOD subfamily of the cupredoxin superfamily do not appear to bind copper and have unknown functions. Phenotypic analysis of homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants for the gene At3g20570 shows minimal alteration in vegetative growth but a significant reduction in the overall reproductive potential. PMID:17293437

  20. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA): A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome.

    PubMed

    Saturveithan, C; Premganesh, G; Fakhrizzaki, S; Mahathir, M; Karuna, K; Rauf, K; William, H; Akmal, H; Sivapathasundaram, N; Jaspreet, K

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees) which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS) in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option.

  1. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA): A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Premganesh, G; Fakhrizzaki, S; Mahathir, M; Karuna, K; Rauf, K; William, H; Akmal, H; Sivapathasundaram, N; Jaspreet, K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees) which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS) in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option. PMID:28435559

  2. Inflammatory markers associated with osteoarthritis after destabilization surgery in young mice with and without Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, D. Justin; Kartchner, Jeffrey Z.; Doxey, Alexander S.; Hollis, Weston R.; Rees, Jeffrey L.; Wilhelm, Spencer K.; Draper, Christian S.; Peterson, Danielle M.; Jackson, Gregory G.; Ingersoll, Chelsey; Haynie, S. Scott; Chavez, Elizabeth; Reynolds, Paul R.; Kooyman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    HtrA1, Ddr-2, and Mmp-13 are reliable biomarkers for osteoarthritis (OA), yet the exact mechanism for the upregulation of HtrA-1 is unknown. Some have shown that chondrocyte hypertrophy is associated with early indicators of inflammation including TGF-β and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE). To examine the correlation of inflammation with the expression of biomarkers in OA, we performed right knee destabilization surgery on 4-week-old-wild type and RAGE knock-out (KO) mice. We assayed for HtrA-1, TGF-β1, Mmp-13, and Ddr-2 in articular cartilage at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days post-surgery by immunohistochemistry on left and right knee joints. RAGE KO and wild type mice both showed staining for key OA biomarkers. However, RAGE KO mice were significantly protected against OA compared to controls. We observed a difference in the total number of chondrocytes and percentage of chondrocytes staining positive for OA biomarkers between RAGE KO and control mice. The percentage of cells staining for OA biomarkers correlated with severity of cartilage degradation. Our results indicate that the absence of RAGE did protect against the development of advanced OA. We conclude that HtrA-1 plays a role in lowering TGF-β1 expression in the process of making articular cartilage vulnerable to damage associated with OA progression. PMID:23755017

  3. Early Intervention with Cdk9 Inhibitors to Prevent Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Manuscript published in Biochem Biophys Res Commun, title “High abundant protein removal from rodent blood for biomarker discovery”. Included as...Vivo Drug Deliv- ery via the TAT Protein Transduction Domain. Poster Presentation, Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI), Seattle, WA o...COL2A, aggrecan, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein ) and housekeeping genes. Flavopiridol had no apparent short-term cytotoxicity, as assessed by

  4. The Clinical Utility and Diagnostic Performance of MRI for Identification of Early and Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Quatman, Carmen E.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Current diagnostic strategies for detection of structural articular cartilage abnormalities, the earliest structural signs of osteoarthritis, often do not capture the condition until it is too far advanced for the most potential benefit of non-invasive interventions. Purpose Systematically review the literature relative to the following questions: (1) Is MRI a valid, sensitive, specific, accurate and reliable instrument to identify knee articular cartilage abnormalities compared to arthroscopy? (2) Is MRI a sensitive tool that can be utilized to identify early cartilage degeneration? Study Design Systematic Review Methods A systematic search was performed in November 2010 using PubMed MEDLINE (from 1966), CINAHL (from 1982), SPORTDiscus (from 1985), and SCOPUS (from 1996) databases. Results Fourteen level I and 13 level II studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and provided information related to diagnostic performance of MRI compared to arthroscopic evaluation. The diagnostic performance of MRI demonstrated a large range of sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies. The sensitivity for identifying articular cartilage abnormalities in the knee joint was reported between 26–96%. Specificity and accuracy was reported between 50–100% and 49–94%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying early osteoarthritis were reported between 0–86%, 48–95%, and 5–94%, respectively. As a result of inconsistencies between imaging techniques and methodological shortcomings of many of the studies, a meta-analysis was not performed and it was difficult to fully synthesize the information to state firm conclusions about the diagnostic performance of MRI. Conclusions There is evidence in some MRI protocols that MRI is a relatively valid, sensitive, specific, accurate, and reliable clinical tool for identifying articular cartilage degeneration. Due to heterogeneity of MRI sequences it is not possible to make definitive

  5. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  6. Review of Prospects of Biological Fluid Biomarkers in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lich Thi; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Saibaba, Balaji; Ahn, Moo-Eob; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the joints and is one of the leading causes of disability in adults. However, there are no key therapeutics for OA and medical treatment is based on managing the symptoms and slowing down progression of the disease. Diagnostics based on clinical examination and radiography have provided little information about metabolic changes in joint tissues, disease onset and progression. Due to lack of effective methods for early detection and evaluation of treatment outcome, the measurement of biochemical markers (biomarkers) shows promise as a prospective method aiding in disease monitoring. OA biomarkers that are present in biological fluids such as blood, urine and synovial fluid, sources that are easily isolated from body, are of particular interest. Moreover, there are increasingly more studies identifying and developing new biomarkers for OA. In this review, efforts have been made to summarize the biomarkers that have been reported in recent studies on patients. We also tried to classify biomarkers according to tissue metabolism (bone, cartilage and synovial metabolism markers), pathological pathways (inflammatory and genetic markers) and biological function (chemokines, growth factors, acute phase proteins, etc.). PMID:28287489

  7. Analysis of light incident location and detector position in early diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanping; Chen, Yisha; Yan, Huangping; Wang, Xiaoling

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is meaningful to delay or prevent the onset of osteoarthritis. In consideration of structural complexity of knee joint, position of light incidence and detector appears to be extremely important in optical inspection. In this paper, the propagation of 780-nm near infrared photons in three-dimensional knee joint model is simulated by Monte Carlo (MC) method. Six light incident locations are chosen in total to analyze the influence of incident and detecting location on the number of detected signal photons and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Firstly, a three-dimensional photon propagation model of knee joint is reconstructed based on CT images. Then, MC simulation is performed to study the propagation of photons in three-dimensional knee joint model. Photons which finally migrate out of knee joint surface are numerically analyzed. By analyzing the number of signal photons and SNR from the six given incident locations, the optimal incident and detecting location is defined. Finally, a series of phantom experiments are conducted to verify the simulation results. According to the simulation and phantom experiments results, the best incident location is near the right side of meniscus at the rear end of left knee joint and the detector is supposed to be set near patella, correspondingly.

  8. Subchondral bone histology and grading in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Olli-Matti; Finnilä, Mikko; Thevenot, Jerome; Saarakkala, Simo; Lehenkari, Petri

    2017-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) has often regarded as a disease of articular cartilage only. New evidence has shifted the paradigm towards a system biology approach, where also the surrounding tissue, especially bone is studied more vigorously. However, the histological features of subchondral bone are only poorly characterized in current histological grading scales of OA. The aim of this study is to specifically characterize histological changes occurring in subchondral bone at different stages of OA and propose a simple grading system for them. Design 20 patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery were randomly selected for the study and series of osteochondral samples were harvested from the tibial plateaus for histological analysis. Cartilage degeneration was assessed using the standardized OARSI grading system, while a novel four-stage grading system was developed to illustrate the changes in subchondral bone. Subchondral bone histology was further quantitatively analyzed by measuring the thickness of uncalcified and calcified cartilage as well as subchondral bone plate. Furthermore, internal structure of calcified cartilage-bone interface was characterized utilizing local binary patterns (LBP) based method. Results The histological appearance of subchondral bone changed drastically in correlation with the OARSI grading of cartilage degeneration. As the cartilage layer thickness decreases the subchondral plate thickness and disorientation, as measured with LBP, increases. Calcified cartilage thickness was highest in samples with moderate OA. Conclusion The proposed grading system for subchondral bone has significant relationship with the corresponding OARSI grading for cartilage. Our results suggest that subchondral bone remodeling is a fundamental factor already in early stages of cartilage degeneration. PMID:28319157

  9. A novel biomarker in patients with knee osteoarthritis: adropin.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Gulsah; Gundogdu, Koksal

    2018-03-16

    Adropin is newly discovered peptide hormone. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a kind of joint disease characterized by progressive joint cartilage loss and joint pain. The present study was carried out to investigate adropin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and the relationship between adropin in patients with knee OA classified by Kellgren-Lawrence (KL). A total of 60 knee OA patients and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. KL grading was carried out using the radiographic findings. Demographic characteristics and laboratory parameters were recorded. Adropin and TNF-α levels were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Adropin level was lower in the knee OA patients compared with the healthy controls (p < 0.001), whereas TNF-α level was higher (p < 0.001). Adropin level was negatively correlated with TNF-α level, blood white blood cell (WBC) count, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). However, there was a significant decrease in adropin level and an increase in TNF-α level parallel to the increase in the KL grade. In addition, serum adropin level was found to be significantly lower in KL grade 1 groups compared with healthy controls (p < 0.01). There was a decrease in adropin level parallel to the increase in the body mass index (BMI), and there was a statistically significant decrease in adropin level in knee OA patients higher than BMI > 30 (p < 0.01). Mean NLR of KL grade 4 was significantly increased compared with other grades (p < 0.05). The consequence of the present study suggested that serum adropin level could be used as a new biomarker indicating the early grade of knee OA.

  10. OAS -- Americas Magazine

    performance in promoting the ideals and goals of the OAS. Américas will continue to fulfill requests for back English Español Americas Magazine Banner Americas Magazine Main Site OAS Main Site Home Back magazine. The last issue published was Volume 64, Number 3 (May/June) 2012. Beginning in 1949, Américas, a

  11. Application of Biomarkers in the Development of Drugs Intended for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Virginia Byers; Burnett, Bruce; Coindreau, Javier; Cottrell, Susan; Eyre, David; Gendreau, Michael; Gardiner, Jennifer; Garnero, Patrick; Hardin, John; Henrotin, Yves; Heinegård, Dick; Ko, Amy; Lohmander, Stefan; Matthews, Gloria; Menetski, Joseph; Moskowitz, Roland; Persiani, Stefano; Poole, Robin; Rousseau, Jean Charles; Todman, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic and slowly progressive disease for which biomarkers may be able to provide a more rapid indication of therapeutic responses to therapy than is currently available; this could accelerate and facilitate OA drug discovery and development programs. The goal of this document is to provide a summary and guide to the application of in vitro (biochemical and other soluble) biomarkers in the development of drugs for OA and to outline and stimulate a research agenda that will further this goal. Methods The Biomarkers Working Group representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from both academia and industry developed this consensus document between 2007–2009 at the behest of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI FDA initiative). Results This document summarizes definitions and classification systems for biomarkers, the current outcome measures used in OA clinical trials, applications and potential utility of biomarkers for development of OA therapeutics, the current state of qualification of OA-related biomarkers, pathways for biomarker qualification, critical needs to advance the use of biomarkers for drug development, recommendations regarding practices and clinical trials, and a research agenda to advance the science of OA-related biomarkers. Conclusions Although many OA-related biomarkers are currently available they exist in various states of qualification and validation. The biomarkers that are likely to have the earliest beneficial impact on clinical trials fall into two general categories, those that will allow targeting of subjects most likely to either respond and/or progress (prognostic value) within a reasonable and manageable time frame for a clinical study (for instance within one to two years for an OA trial), and those that provide early feedback for preclinical decision-making and for trial organizers that a drug is having the desired biochemical effect. As in vitro biomarkers are

  12. Further evidence of the developmental origins of osteoarthritis: results from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Clynes, M A; Parsons, C; Edwards, M H; Jameson, K A; Harvey, N C; Sayer, A Aihie; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M

    2014-12-01

    Investigators have suggested a link between birth weight and both hand and lumbar spine osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, we sought to extend these observations by investigating relationships between growth in early life, and clinical and radiological diagnoses of OA at the hand, knee and hip, among participants from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Data were available for 222 men and 222 women. Clinical OA was defined based on American College of Rheumatology criteria. Radiographs were taken of the knees and hips, and graded for the presence of osteophytes and overall Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) score. Lower weight at year one was associated with higher rates of clinical hand OA (OR 1.396, 95% CI 1.05, 1.85, P=0.021). Individuals with lower birth weights were more likely to have hip osteophytes (OR 1.512, 95% CI 1.14, 2.00, P=0.004) and this remained robust after adjustment for confounders. Furthermore, a low weight at one year was also associated with a higher osteophyte number in the lateral compartment of the knee, after adjustment for confounders (OR 1.388, 95% CI 1.01, 1.91, P=0.043). We have found further evidence of a relationship between early life factors and adult OA. These findings accord with previous studies.

  13. A pilot randomised clinical trial of physiotherapy (manual therapy, exercise, and education) for early-onset hip osteoarthritis post-hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Joanne; Moore, Kate; Fransen, Marlene; Russell, Trevor; Freke, Matthew; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of hip arthroscopy for hip pain, there is no level 1 evidence to support physiotherapy rehabilitation programs following this procedure. The aims of this study were to determine (i) what is the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating a targeted physiotherapy intervention for early-onset hip osteoarthritis (OA) post-hip arthroscopy? and (ii) what are the within-group treatment effects of the physiotherapy intervention and a health-education control group? This study was a pilot single-blind RCT conducted in a private physiotherapy clinic in Hobart, Australia. Patients included 17 volunteers (nine women; age 32 ± 8 years; body mass index = 25.6 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 ) who were recruited 4-14 months post-hip arthroscopy, with chondropathy and/or labral pathology at the time of surgery. Interventions included a physiotherapy treatment program that was semi-standardised and consisted of (i) manual therapy; (ii) hip strengthening and functional retraining; and (iii) health education. Control treatment encompassed individualised health education sessions. The primary outcome measure was feasibility, which was reported as percentage of eligible participants enrolled, adherence with the intervention, and losses to follow-up. The research process was evaluated using interviews, and an estimated sample size for a definitive study is offered. Secondary outcomes included the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and the International Hip Outcome Tool (IHOT-33) patient-reported outcomes. Seventeen out of 48 eligible patients (35%) were randomised. Adherence to the intervention was 100%, with no losses to follow-up. The estimated sample size for a full-scale RCT was 142 patients. The within-group (95% confidence intervals) change scores for the physiotherapy group were HOOS-Symptoms 6 points (-4 to 16); HOOS-Pain 10 points (-2 to 22); HOOS-Activity of Daily Living 8 points (0 to 16); HOOS-Sport 3 points

  14. Assessment of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy with Serum YKL-40 and ultrasonography in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Ümit; Aşık, Gülşah; Ulaşlı, Alper Murat; Sınıcı, Şükrü; Yaman, Fatima; Solak, Özlem; Toktaş, Hasan; Eroğlu, Selma

    2016-03-01

    The use of biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) have potential for early diagnosis, evaluation of disease severity and monitoring treatment. Serum and synovial fluid YKL-40 levels are increased in severe knee OA. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is a novel treatment method for OA. However, studies evaluating the PEMF therapy in treatment of knee OA revealed conflicting results. This study was conducted to objectively assess the effect of PEMF therapy in patients with knee OA, by using ultrasonographic measurements and a novel biomarker, YKL-40. Forty patients were randomized into two treatment groups. Both groups received conventional physical therapy, while Group 1 received additional PEMF therapy. The patients were asked to rate their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and complete a Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Serum YKL-40 levels were measured, and knee effusion and cartilage degeneration level were evaluated with ultrasonography before and after treatment. Pre-treatment YKL-40 level was correlated with WOMAC pain subscale (P = 0.032, r = 0.339). VAS and WOMAC scores significantly improved in both treatment groups (P < 0.05). The effusion in the right knee significantly decreased in Group 1. The change in YKL-40 level was not correlated with the change in VAS, WOMAC scores and knee effusion. This study revealed that adjuvant PEMF therapy has no additional effect on pain in patients with knee OA. Serum YKL-40 level seems to be unuseful for monitoring the treatment in knee OA. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Knee Joint Loading during Gait in Healthy Controls and Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Manal, Kurt T.; Rudolph, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective People with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are thought to walk with high loads at the knee which are yet to be quantfied using modeling techniques that account for subject specific EMG patterns, kinematics and kinetics. The objective was to estimate medial and lateral loading for people with knee OA and controls using an approach that is sensitive to subject specific muscle activation patterns. Methods 16 OA and 12 control (C) subjects walked while kinematic, kinetic and EMG data were collected. Muscle forces were calculated using an EMG-Driven model and loading was calculated by balancing the external moments with internal muscle and contact forces Results OA subjects walked slower and had greater laxity, static and dynamic varus alignment, less flexion and greater knee adduction moment (KAM). Loading (normalized to body weight) was no different between the groups but OA subjects had greater absolute medial load than controls and maintained a greater %total load on the medial compartment. These patterns were associated with body mass, sagittal and frontal plane moments, static alignment and close to signficance for dynamic alignment. Lateral compartment unloading during mid-late stance was observed in 50% of OA subjects. Conclusions Loading for control subjects was similar to data from instrumented prostheses. Knee OA subjects had high medial contact loads in early stance and half of the OA cohort demonstared lateral compartment lift-off. Results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing body weight and dynamic malalignment might be effective in reducing medial compartment loading and establishing normal medio-lateral load sharing patterns. PMID:23182814

  16. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  17. FABP4 as a biomarker for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaofan; Li, Teng; Chiu, Kwong Yuen; Wen, Chunyi; Xu, Aimin; Yan, Chun Hoi

    2018-02-01

    To explore the role of an adipokine-termed fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) in osteoarthritis (OA). Patients with primary knee OA and non-OA controls were included. Paired tissues including plasma, synovial fluid (SF), subcutaneous fat and infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) were harvested during surgery. FABP4 concentration was determined by ELISA. Plasma FABP4 increased significantly with OA stage (n = 263). OA patients (n = 38) had significantly higher plasma and SF FABP4 than non-OA patients (n = 29). FABP4 level of IPFP was positively correlated with SF FABP4. OA patients had significantly high systemic and local FABP4, and IPFP may be the main source of FABP4 in synovial cavity. FABP4 may be a promising biomarker for OA.

  18. Are joint injury, sport activity, physical activity, obesity, or occupational activities predictors for osteoarthritis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Sarah A; Fukuchi, Reginaldo K; Ezzat, Allison; Schneider, Kathryn; Schneider, Geoff; Emery, Carolyn A

    2013-08-01

    Systematic review with meta-analysis. To identify risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, hip, and ankle, including joint injury, sport, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and occupational activity, in all age groups. OA is a significant health problem worldwide, affecting up to 10% of men and 18% of women over 60 years of age. There has not been a comprehensive review examining modifiable physical risk factors associated with the onset of OA. This evidence is important to inform the physiotherapy management of individuals following onset of OA. Twelve electronic databases were systematically reviewed. The studies selected met the following criteria: (1) original data; (2) joint injury, sport activity, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and/or occupational activity investigated as risk factors; (3) outcomes included OA (hip, knee, and/or ankle); and (4) analytic component of study design. The data extracted included study design, years of follow-up, study population, OA definition, risk factors, and results (effect estimates reported or calculated where available). The quality of evidence was assessed based on a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity were associated with an increased risk of OA of the knee and hip. Sport and physical activity produced inconsistent findings. Joint injury was identified as a significant risk factor for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.2) and hip OA (combined odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 18.2), as was previous meniscectomy with or without anterior cruciate ligament injury for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 7.4; 95% confidence interval: 4.0, 13.7). There is a paucity of research examining risk factors associated with ankle OA; this review identified only 2 studies with this outcome. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity are associated with an increased risk of knee and hip OA. Some findings

  19. Factor structure of the arthritis body experience scale (ABES) in a U.S. population of people with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibromyalgia (FM) and other rheumatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Boyington, J E A; Devellis, R; Shreffler, J; Schoster, B; Callahan, L F

    2008-01-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Arthritis Body Experience Scale (ABES) in a US sample of people with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and other rheumatic conditions. The ABES, with the scoring direction modified, was phone-administered to 937 individuals who self-identified as having one or more arthritis conditions based on a validated, US, national survey assessment tool. Descriptive statistics of demographic variables and factor analysis of scale items were conducted. Scale dimensionality was assessed using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation. Criteria for assessing factors were eigenvalues > 1, visual assessment of scree plot, and structure and pattern matrices. The predominantly female (74.2%) and Caucasian (79.9%) sample had a mean age of 61.0 ± 13.1 years, and a mean BMI of 30.2 ± 7.1. Major arthritis conditions reported were rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia. A three-factor structure with cronbach alpha values of .84, .85 and .53 was elicited, and accounted for 72% of the variance. Compared to the two-factor structure evidenced by the original ABES scale in a sample of UK adults, the data from this sample evidenced a three-factor structure with higher variance. The third factor's cronbach alpha of .53 was low and could be improved by the addition of salient questions derived from further qualitative interviews with patients with arthritis and other rheumatic conditions and from current literature findings. The observed psychometrics indicate the scale usefully assesses body image in populations with arthritis and related conditions. However, further testing and refinement is needed to determine its utility in clinical and other settings.

  20. Anti-inflammatory response of dietary vitamin E and its effects on pain and joint structures during early stages of surgically induced osteoarthritis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rhouma, Mohamed; de Oliveira El Warrak, Alexander; Troncy, Eric; Beaudry, Francis; Chorfi, Younès

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that vitamin E (VE) has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in human osteoarthritis (OA). This double-blinded and randomized pilot study used a broad spectrum of clinical and laboratory parameters to investigate whether such beneficial effects could be detected in a canine experimental OA model. Dogs were divided into 2 groups: control (n = 8), which received a placebo, and test group (n = 7), which received 400 IU/animal per day of VE for 55 d, starting the day after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament. Lameness and pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), numerical rating scale (NRS), and electrodermal activity (EDA) at day 0, day 28, and day 55. Cartilage and synovial inflammation lesions were assessed. One-side comparison was conducted at an alpha-threshold of 10%. At day 56, dogs were euthanized and concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were measured in synovial fluid. Concentrations of NOx and PGE2 in synovial fluid were lower in the test group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Values of VAS, NRS, and EDA showed a consistent trend to be lower in the test group than in the control, while statistical significance was reached for VAS at day 55 and for EDA at day 28 (adjusted P = 0.07 in both cases). Histological analyses of cartilage showed a significant reduction in the scores of lesions in the test group. This is the first time that a study in dogs with OA using a supplement with a high dose of vitamin E showed a reduction in inflammation joint markers and histological expression, as well as a trend to improving signs of pain. PMID:24101795

  1. Anti-inflammatory response of dietary vitamin E and its effects on pain and joint structures during early stages of surgically induced osteoarthritis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Mohamed; de Oliveira El Warrak, Alexander; Troncy, Eric; Beaudry, Francis; Chorfi, Younès

    2013-07-01

    There is evidence that vitamin E (VE) has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in human osteoarthritis (OA). This double-blinded and randomized pilot study used a broad spectrum of clinical and laboratory parameters to investigate whether such beneficial effects could be detected in a canine experimental OA model. Dogs were divided into 2 groups: control (n = 8), which received a placebo, and test group (n = 7), which received 400 IU/animal per day of VE for 55 d, starting the day after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament. Lameness and pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), numerical rating scale (NRS), and electrodermal activity (EDA) at day 0, day 28, and day 55. Cartilage and synovial inflammation lesions were assessed. One-side comparison was conducted at an alpha-threshold of 10%. At day 56, dogs were euthanized and concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were measured in synovial fluid. Concentrations of NOx and PGE2 in synovial fluid were lower in the test group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Values of VAS, NRS, and EDA showed a consistent trend to be lower in the test group than in the control, while statistical significance was reached for VAS at day 55 and for EDA at day 28 (adjusted P = 0.07 in both cases). Histological analyses of cartilage showed a significant reduction in the scores of lesions in the test group. This is the first time that a study in dogs with OA using a supplement with a high dose of vitamin E showed a reduction in inflammation joint markers and histological expression, as well as a trend to improving signs of pain.

  2. Correlation between Gene Expression and Osteoarthritis Progression in Human.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Leilei; Huang, Xiaobin; Karperien, Marcel; Post, Janine N

    2016-07-14

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by gradual degradation of joint cartilage. This study aimed to quantify major pathogenetic factors during OA progression in human cartilage. Cartilage specimens were isolated from OA patients and scored 0-5 according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) guidelines. Protein and gene expressions were measured by immunohistochemistry and qPCR, respectively. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to detect apoptotic cells. Cartilage degeneration in OA is a gradual progress accompanied with gradual loss of collagen type II and a gradual decrease in mRNA expression of SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1. Expression of WNT antagonists DKK1 and FRZB was lost, while hypertrophic markers (RUNX2, COL10A1 and IHH) increased during OA progression. Moreover, DKK1 and FRZB negatively correlated with OA grading, while RUNX2 and IHH showed a significantly positive correlation with OA grading. The number of apoptotic cells was increased with the severity of OA. Taken together, our results suggested that genetic profiling of the gene expression could be used as markers for staging OA at the molecular level. This helps to understand the molecular pathology of OA and may lead to the development of therapies based on OA stage.

  3. Osteoarthritis year in review 2016: imaging.

    PubMed

    Boesen, M; Ellegaard, K; Henriksen, M; Gudbergsen, H; Hansen, P; Bliddal, H; Bartels, E M; Riis, R G

    2017-02-01

    The current narrative review covers original research related to imaging in osteoarthritis (OA) in humans published in English between April 1st 2015 and March 31st 2016, in peer reviewed journals available in Medline via PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). Relevant studies in humans, subjectively decided by the authors, contributing significantly to the OA imaging field, were selected from an extensive Medline search using the terms "Osteoarthritis" in combination with "MRI", "Imaging", "Radiography", "X-rays", "Ultrasound", "Computed tomography", "Nuclear medicine", "PET-CT", "PET-MRI", "Scintigraphy", "SPECT". Publications were sorted according to relevance for the OA imaging research community with an emphasis on high impact special interest journals using the software for systematic reviews www.covidence.org. An overview of newly published studies compared to studies reported previous years is presented, followed by a review of selected imaging studies of primarily knee, hip and hand OA focussing on (1) results for detection of OA and OA-related pathology (2) studies dealing with treatments and (3) studies focussing on prognosis of disease progression or joint replacement. A record high number of 1420 articles were published, among others, of new technologies and tools for improved morphological and pathophysiological understanding of OA-related changes in joints. Also, imaging data were presented of monitoring treatment effect and prognosis of OA progression, primarily using established radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US) methods. Imaging continues to play an important role in OA research, where several exciting new technologies and computer aided analysis methods are emerging to complement the conventional imaging approaches. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tissue Engineering in Osteoarthritis: Current Status and Prospect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Im, Gun-Il

    2018-04-27

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. Over the last 20 years, attempts have been made to regenerate articular cartilage to overcome the limitations of conventional treatments. As OA is generally associated with larger and diffuse involvement of articular surfaces and alteration of joint homeostasis, a tissue engineering approach for cartilage regeneration is more difficult than in simple chondral defects. Autologous and allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have rapidly emerged as investigational products for cartilage regeneration. This review outlines points to consider in MSC-based approaches for OA treatment, including allogeneic MSCs, sources of MSCs, dosages, feasibility of multiple injections, indication according to severity of OA lesion and patient age, and issues regarding implantation versus injection. We introduce possible mechanisms of action of implanted or injected MSCs as well as the immunological aspects of MSC therapy and provide a summary of clinical trials of MSCs in the treatment of OA. Given current knowledge, it is too early to draw conclusions on the ultimate effectiveness of intra-articular application of MSCs in terms of regenerative effects. Further radiological and histological data will be needed, with a larger pool of patients, before this question can be answered.

  5. In Vivo Identification and Induction of Articular Cartilage Stem Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB Signaling in Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wenxue; Geng, Yiyun; Huang, Yan; Shi, Yu; Xiang, Shengnan; Zhang, Ning; Qin, Ling; Shi, Qin; Chen, Qian; Dai, Kerong; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2015-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent and debilitating joint disorder characterized by the degeneration of articular cartilage. However, no effective medical therapy has been found yet for such condition. In this study, we directly confirmed the existence of articular cartilage stem cells (ACSCs) in vivo and in situ for the first time both in normal and OA articular cartilage, and explored their chondrogenesis in Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced inflammation environment and disclose whether the inhibition of NF-κB signaling can induce ACSCs activation thus improve the progression of experimental OA. We found an interesting phenomenon that ACSCs were activated and exhibited a transient proliferative response in early OA as an initial attempt for self-repair. During the in vitro mechanism study, we discovered IL-1β can efficiently activate the NF-κB pathway and potently impair the responsiveness of ACSCs, whereas the NF-κB pathway inhibitor rescued the ACSCs chondrogenesis. The final in vivo experiments further confirmed ACSCs' activation were maintained by NF-κB pathway inhibitor, which induced cartilage regeneration, and protected articular cartilage from injury in an OA animal model. Our results provided in vivo evidence of the presence of ACSCs, and disclosed their action in the early OA stage and gradual quiet as OA process, presented a potential mechanism for both cartilage intrinsic repair and its final degradation, and demonstrated the feasibility of inducing endogenous adult tissue-specific mesenchymal stem cells for articular cartilage repair and OA therapy. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Lateral displacement, sulcus angle and trochlear angle are associated with early patellofemoral osteoarthritis following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Macri, Erin M; Culvenor, Adam G; Morris, Hayden G; Whitehead, Timothy S; Russell, Trevor G; Khan, Karim M; Crossley, Kay M

    2017-05-09

    Patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) occurs in approximately half of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injured knees within 10-15 years of trauma. Risk factors for post-traumatic PFOA are poorly understood. Patellofemoral alignment and trochlear morphology may be associated with PFOA following ACL reconstruction (ACLR), and understanding these relationships, particularly early in the post-surgical time period, may guide effective early intervention strategies. In this study, patellofemoral alignment and trochlear morphology were investigated in relation to radiographic features of early PFOA 1-year post-ACLR. Participants (aged 18-50 years) had undergone ACLR approximately 1 year prior to being assessed. Early PFOA was defined as presence of a definite patellofemoral osteophyte on lateral or skyline radiograph. Sagittal and axial plane alignment and trochlear morphology were estimated using MRI. Using logistic regression, the relationship between alignment or morphology and presence of osteophytes was evaluated. Of 111 participants [age 30 ± 8.5; 41 (37%) women], 19 (17%) had definite osteophytes, only two of whom had had patellofemoral chondral lesions noted intra-operatively. One measure of patellar alignment (bisect offset OR 1.1 [95% confidence interval 1.0, 1.2]) and two measures of trochlear morphology (sulcus angle OR 1.1 [1.0, 1.2], trochlear angle OR 1.2 [1.0, 1.5]) were associated with patellofemoral osteophytes. Patellofemoral malalignment and/or altered trochlear morphology were associated with PFOA 1 year following ACLR compared to individuals post-ACLR without these features. Clarifying the role of alignment and morphology in post-traumatic PFOA may contribute to improving early intervention strategies aimed at secondary prevention. IV.

  7. Biomarkers reflect differences in osteoarthritis phenotypes of the lumbar spine: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project.

    PubMed

    Goode, A P; Nelson, A E; Kraus, V B; Renner, J B; Jordan, J M

    2017-10-01

    To determine differences in biomarker levels between radiographic phenotypes of facet joint osteoarthritis (FOA) only, spine OA only ((disc space narrowing (DSN) and vertebral osteophytes (OST)) or the combination of FOA and spine OA. A cross-sectional analysis of data from 555 participants in the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project was performed. Lumbar spine levels were graded by severity (OST and DSN) and presence (FOA) of degeneration. Biomarkers included hyaluronan (HA) and type II collagen (CTX-II). Adjusted risk ratios (aRRR) were estimated using multinomial regression, with adjustment for age, race, sex, body mass index (BMI), and radiographic OA (knee, hip, hand). Interactions were tested between sex, race and low back symptoms. FOA only was present in 22.4%, 14.5% had spine OA only, and 34.6% had the combination of FOA and spine OA. Compared to the reference group of neither FOA or spine OA, a one unit higher ln HA level was associated with 31% higher relative risk ratio (RRR = 1.31 (95% 1.03, 1.67)) of having FOA only, while, a one unit higher lnuCTX-II level was associated with 84% higher relative risk ratio (RRR = 1.84 (95% CI 1.19, 2.84)) of having spine OA only. No significant interactions were identified. Interestingly, OA affecting the synovial facet joint was associated with a marker of inflammation (HA). Spine OA, affecting intervertebral discs that contain collagen type II, was associated with a marker reflecting collagen type II degradation (CTX-II). These findings suggest that biomarkers may reflect the different pathophysiologic processes of lumbar spine OA phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. OAS :: Press Releases

    General Assembly Governance H Human Development Human Rights I Indigenous Peoples Integral Development Scholarships School of Governance Science and Technology Social Development Summits of the Americas Sustainable : 1 2 Next » S-022/18 May 25, 2018 FACT SHEET: OAS School of Governance S-021/18 May 24, 2018 FACT

  9. Automated segmentation and analysis of normal and osteoarthritic knee menisci from magnetic resonance images--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Paproki, A; Engstrom, C; Chandra, S S; Neubert, A; Fripp, J; Crozier, S

    2014-09-01

    To validate an automatic scheme for the segmentation and quantitative analysis of the medial meniscus (MM) and lateral meniscus (LM) in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee. We analysed sagittal water-excited double-echo steady-state MR images of the knee from a subset of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) cohort. The MM and LM were automatically segmented in the MR images based on a deformable model approach. Quantitative parameters including volume, subluxation and tibial-coverage were automatically calculated for comparison (Wilcoxon tests) between knees with variable radiographic osteoarthritis (rOA), medial and lateral joint space narrowing (mJSN, lJSN) and pain. Automatic segmentations and estimated parameters were evaluated for accuracy using manual delineations of the menisci in 88 pathological knee MR examinations at baseline and 12 months time-points. The median (95% confidence-interval (CI)) Dice similarity index (DSI) (2 ∗|Auto ∩ Manual|/(|Auto|+|Manual|)∗ 100) between manual and automated segmentations for the MM and LM volumes were 78.3% (75.0-78.7), 83.9% (82.1-83.9) at baseline and 75.3% (72.8-76.9), 83.0% (81.6-83.5) at 12 months. Pearson coefficients between automatic and manual segmentation parameters ranged from r = 0.70 to r = 0.92. MM in rOA/mJSN knees had significantly greater subluxation and smaller tibial-coverage than no-rOA/no-mJSN knees. LM in rOA knees had significantly greater volumes and tibial-coverage than no-rOA knees. Our automated method successfully segmented the menisci in normal and osteoarthritic knee MR images and detected meaningful morphological differences with respect to rOA and joint space narrowing (JSN). Our approach will facilitate analyses of the menisci in prospective MR cohorts such as the OAI for investigations into pathophysiological changes occurring in early osteoarthritis (OA) development. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Resistance Exercise for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kevin R.; Vincent, Heather K.

    2013-01-01

    The initiation, progression, and severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been associated with decreased muscular strength and alterations in joint biomechanics. Chronic OA pain may lead to anxiety, depression, fear of movement, and poor psychological outlook. The fear of movement may prevent participation in exercise and social events which could lead to further physical and social isolation. Resistance exercise (RX) has been shown to be an effective intervention both for decreasing pain and for improving physical function and self-efficacy. RX may restore muscle strength and joint mechanics while improving physical function. RX may also normalize muscle firing patterns and joint biomechanics leading to reductions in joint pain and cartilage degradation. These physical adaptations could lead to improved self-efficacy and decreased anxiety and depression. RX can be prescribed and performed by patients across the OA severity spectrum. When designing and implementing an RX program for a patient with knee OA, it is important to consider both the degree of OA severity as well as the level of pain. RX, either in the home or at a fitness facility, is an important component of a comprehensive regimen designed to offset the physical and psychological limitations associated with knee OA. Unique considerations for this population include: 1) monitoring pain during and after exercise, 2) providing days of rest when disease flares occur, and 3) infusing variety into the exercise regimen to encourage adherence. PMID:22632702

  11. Presence, location, type and size of denuded areas of subchondral bone in the knee as a function of radiographic stage of OA - data from the OA initiative.

    PubMed

    Frobell, R B; Wirth, W; Nevitt, M; Wyman, B T; Benichou, O; Dreher, D; Davies, R Y; Lee, J H; Baribaud, F; Gimona, A; Hudelmaier, M; Cotofana, S; Eckstein, F

    2010-05-01

    To assess the presence, location, type and size of denuded areas of subchondral bone (dAB) in the femorotibial joint, measured quantitatively with 3T MRI, in a large subset of OAI participants. One knee of 633 subjects (250 men, 383 women, aged 61.7+/-9.6 y) were studied, spanning all radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) stages. dABs were determined quantitatively using segmentations of coronal FLASHwe images, representing areas where the subchondral bone was not covered by cartilage. Post hoc visual examination of segmented images determined whether dABs represented full thickness cartilage loss or internal osteophyte. 7% Of the knees were Kellgren & Lawrence (KL) grade 0, 6% grade 1, 41% grade 2, 41% grade 3, and 5% grade 4. 39% Of the participants (48% of the men and 33% of the women) displayed dABs; 61% of the dABs represented internal osteophytes. 1/47 Participants with KL grade 0 displayed 'any' dAB whereas 29/32 of the KL grade 4 knees were affected. Even as early as KL grade 1, 29% of the participants showed dABs. There were significant relationships of dAB with increasing KL grades (P<0.001) and with ipsi-compartimental JSN (P< or =0.001). Internal osteophytes were more frequent laterally (mainly posterior tibia and internal femur) whereas full thickness cartilage loss was more frequent medially (mainly external tibia and femur). dABs occur already at earliest stages of radiographic OA (KL grades 1 and 2) and become more common (and larger) with increasing disease severity. Almost all KL grade 4 knees exhibited dABs, with cartilage loss being more frequent than internal osteophytes. Copyright 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural Associations of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Stoppiello, Laura A; Mapp, Paul I; Wilson, Deborah; Hill, Roger; Scammell, Brigitte E; Walsh, David A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Structural changes of osteoarthritis (OA) may occur in the absence of pain. In this study, we aimed to identify histopathologic features that are associated with symptomatic knee OA. Methods Medial tibial plateaus and synovium samples were obtained at the time of total knee replacement (TKR) surgery for OA (advanced OA group) or were obtained postmortem from subjects who had not sought medical attention for knee pain during the last year of life (non-OA control group). To identify features of OA, we compared the patients with advanced OA with the age-matched non-OA controls (n = 26 per group). To identify OA features associated with symptoms, we compared two additional groups of subjects who were matched for severity of chondropathy (n = 29 per group): patients undergoing TKR for symptomatic OA (symptomatic chondropathy group) and postmortem subjects with similar severity of chondropathy who were asymptomatic during the last year of life (asymptomatic chondropathy group). The histologic features of the samples were graded, and immunoreactivities for macrophages (CD68) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the synovium were quantified. The cellular localization of synovial NGF was determined by double immunofluorescence analysis. Results Advanced OA cases displayed more severe changes in the synovium (synovitis, increased synovial NGF, and CD68-immunoreactive macrophages) and cartilage (loss of cartilage surface integrity, loss of proteoglycan, tidemark breaching, and alterations in chondrocyte morphology) than did the non-OA controls. Synovial NGF was localized predominantly to fibroblasts and to some macrophages. The symptomatic chondropathy group displayed greater levels of synovitis, synovial NGF, and loss of cartilage integrity, in addition to alterations in chondrocyte morphology, than did the asymptomatic chondropathy group (P < 0.05 for each comparison). Conclusion Synovitis, increased synovial NGF, alterations in chondrocyte morphology, and loss of

  13. High Density Infill in Cracks and Protrusions from the Articular Calcified Cartilage in Osteoarthritis in Standardbred Horse Carpal Bones

    PubMed Central

    Laverty, Sheila; Lacourt, Mathieu; Gao, Chan; Henderson, Janet E.; Boyde, Alan

    2015-01-01

    We studied changes in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone (SCB) in the third carpal bones (C3) of Standardbred racehorses with naturally-occurring repetitive loading-induced osteoarthritis (OA). Two osteochondral cores were harvested from dorsal sites from each of 15 post-mortem C3 and classified as control or as showing early or advanced OA changes from visual inspection. We re-examined X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) image sets for the presence of high-density mineral infill (HDMI) in ACC cracks and possible high-density mineralized protrusions (HDMP) from the ACC mineralizing (tidemark) front (MF) into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC). We hypothesized and we show that 20-µm µCT resolution in 10-mm diameter samples is sufficient to detect HDMI and HDMP: these are lost upon tissue decalcification for routine paraffin wax histology owing to their predominant mineral content. The findings show that µCT is sufficient to discover HDMI and HDMP, which were seen in 2/10 controls, 6/9 early OA and 8/10 advanced OA cases. This is the first report of HDMI and HDMP in the equine carpus and in the Standardbred breed and the first to rely solely on µCT. HDMP are a candidate cause for mechanical tissue destruction in OA. PMID:25927581

  14. Pathomechanics of Post-Traumatic OA Development in the Military Following Articular Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0087 TITLE: Pathomechanics of Post -Traumatic OA Development in the Military Following Articular Fracture PRINCIPAL...Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Pathomechanics of Post -Traumatic OA Development in the Military Following Articular Fracture 5b...develop new models for predicting the risk of post -traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) following intra-articular fracture (IAF). We have analyzed pre

  15. Association between Patient History and Physical Examination and Osteoarthritis after Ankle Sprain.

    PubMed

    van Ochten, John M; de Vries, Anja D; van Putte, Nienke; Oei, Edwin H G; Bindels, Patrick J E; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2017-09-01

    Structural abnormalities on MRI are frequent after an ankle sprain. To determine the association between patient history, physical examination and early osteoarthritis (OA) in patients after a previous ankle sprain, 98 patients with persistent complaints were selected from a cross-sectional study. Patient history taking and physical examination were applied and MRI was taken. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to test possible associations. Signs of OA (cartilage loss, osteophytes and bone marrow edema) were seen in the talocrural joint (TCJ) in 40% and the talonavicular joint (TNJ) in 49%. Multivariable analysis showed a significant positive association between swelling (OR 3.58, 95%CI 1.13;11.4), a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.01;1.18) and bone edema in the TCJ. A difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.00;1.15) and pain at the end range of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion (OR 5.23, 95%CI 1.88;14.58) were associated with osteophytes in the TNJ. Pain at the end of dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, a difference in ROM of passive plantar flexion and swelling seem to be associated with features of OA (bone marrow edema, osteophytes) in the TCJ and TNJ. Our findings may guide physicians to predict structural joint abnormalities as signs of osteoarthritis. 1b. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Global Gene Expression Differences in Joints of Mice with Divergent Post Traumatic Osteoarthritis Phenotypes

    SciT

    Kibui, J.

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation which prompts pain, stiffness and swelling. Contributing factors include age, genetics, obesity, injury and overuse of joints. OA is defined by an acute phase and a chronic phase whereby inflammation and degeneration of articular cartilage and other tissues is followed by joint pain and limited mobility. Patients remain asymptomatic until substantial joint damage has occurred and therefore rely on long term surgical joint replacement and pain management as their sole treatment options. For this reason, there is an increasing need to identify early stage osteoarthritis biomarkers. Our study aimedmore » to identify and characterize gene expression variances in 3 different mouse strains (STR/ort, C57BL/6 and MRL/MpJ) with different susceptibility to post traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Through RNA sequence analysis of whole knee joint RNA, we identified differentially expressed genes associated with the initial stages of PTOA in relation to mice with divergent phenotypes. These results will help elucidate potential mechanisms responsible for PTOA outcomes.« less

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Patients With Ankle Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fukawa, Taisuke; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akatsu, Yorikazu; Yamamoto, Yohei; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Sasho, Takahisa

    2017-06-01

    An intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may be an effective treatment for osteoarthritis (OA). However, its efficacy in ankle OA has not been investigated yet. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of an intra-articular injection of PRP in patients with ankle OA during a 24-week period. Twenty ankles of 20 patients with varus-type ankle OA who received intra-articular injections of PRP were evaluated. PRP was extracted from whole blood by using the double-spin technique. Three injections of 2-mL PRP were administered to the ankle at an interval of 2 weeks under ultrasonographic guidance. Adverse events and efficacy were assessed at 4, 12, and 24 weeks after the last injection. Clinical outcomes were assessed by using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) ankle/hindfoot scale, and the Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire (SAFE-Q). No serious adverse effects were observed during the follow-up period. The VAS and JSSF scale scores significantly decreased from baseline to 4, 12, and 24 weeks after treatment ( P < .001). The mean score in the pain-related subscale of the SAFE-Q significantly improved from baseline to 12 weeks after treatment ( P = .04). Overall, the amount of pain reduction was maximal at 12 weeks after the last injection, and the effect was reduced at 24 weeks. The patients with late-stage OA had worse scores in all outcomes than those with early-stage OA. Intra-articular injections of PRP resulted in no serious adverse effects and significantly reduced pain in the patients with ankle OA. PRP treatment can be safe and effective and may be an option in the treatment of ankle OA. Level IV, case series.

  18. Antioxidant to treat osteoarthritis: dream or reality?

    PubMed

    Henrotin, Y; Kurz, B

    2007-02-01

    Osteoarthritis is one of the most common chronic diseases that causes pain and physical disability in patient. Although OA is considered as a global disease affecting all joint tissues, cartilage degradation is the end point. The degradation of cartilage results of the combination of mechanical stress and biochemical factors, mainly metalloproteinases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The activity of reactive oxygen species is balanced by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, that act by inhibiting oxidative enzymes, scavenging free radicals or chelating ion metals. Until now, few information is available on the antioxidative status of chondrocytes. Further, the modification of the antioxidative system in osteoarthritis remains unknown. Some antioxidant supplements or drugs with antioxidant properties have been developed to reinforce the cellular antioxidant status. However, until now, there is no consistent evidence that additional antioxidant supply is efficient to relieve OA symptoms or to prevent structural changes in OA cartilage.

  19. Particle Based Technologies for Osteoarthritis Detection and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kavanaugh, Taylor E.; Werfel, Thomas A.; Cho, Hongsik; Hasty, Karen A.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease characterized by degradation of joints with the development of painful osteophytes in the surrounding tissues. Currently, there are a limited number of treatments for this disease and many of these only provide temporary, palliative relief. In this review, we discuss polymer drug delivery systems that can provide targeted and sustained delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents to OA-affected sites. We focus on technologies such as polymeric micelles and nano- / micro-particles, liposomes, and dendrimers for their potential treatment and/or diagnosis of OA. Several promising studies are highlighted, motivating the continued development of delivery technologies to improve treatments for OA. PMID:25990835

  20. Using multidimensional topological data analysis to identify traits of hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rossi-deVries, Jasmine; Pedoia, Valentina; Samaan, Michael A; Ferguson, Adam R; Souza, Richard B; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2018-05-07

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifaceted disease with many variables affecting diagnosis and progression. Topological data analysis (TDA) is a state-of-the-art big data analytics tool that can combine all variables into multidimensional space. TDA is used to simultaneously analyze imaging and gait analysis techniques. To identify biochemical and biomechanical biomarkers able to classify different disease progression phenotypes in subjects with and without radiographic signs of hip OA. Longitudinal study for comparison of progressive and nonprogressive subjects. In all, 102 subjects with and without radiographic signs of hip osteoarthritis. 3T, SPGR 3D MAPSS T 1ρ /T 2 , intermediate-weighted fat-suppressed fast spin-echo (FSE). Multidimensional data analysis including cartilage composition, bone shape, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) classification of osteoarthritis, scoring hip osteoarthritis with MRI (SHOMRI), hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS). Analysis done using TDA, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) testing, and Benjamini-Hochberg to rank P-value results to correct for multiple comparisons. Subjects in the later stages of the disease had an increased SHOMRI score (P < 0.0001), increased KL (P = 0.0012), and older age (P < 0.0001). Subjects in the healthier group showed intact cartilage and less pain. Subjects found between these two groups had a range of symptoms. Analysis of this subgroup identified knee biomechanics (P < 0.0001) as an initial marker of the disease that is noticeable before the morphological progression and degeneration. Further analysis of an OA subgroup with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) showed anterior labral tears to be the most significant marker (P = 0.0017) between those FAI subjects with and without OA symptoms. The data-driven analysis obtained with TDA proposes new phenotypes of these subjects that partially overlap with the radiographic-based classical disease status classification and also shows the

  1. The relationship between clinical characteristics, radiographic osteoarthritis and 3D bone area: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Barr, A J; Dube, B; Hensor, E M A; Kingsbury, S R; Peat, G; Bowes, M A; Conaghan, P G

    2014-10-01

    Radiographic measures of osteoarthritis (OA) are based upon two dimensional projection images. Active appearance modelling (AAM) of knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables accurate, 3D quantification of joint structures in large cohorts. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between clinical characteristics, radiographic measures of OA and 3D bone area (tAB). Clinical data and baseline paired radiographic and MRI data, from the medial compartment of one knee of 2588 participants were obtained from the NIH Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). The medial femur (MF) and tibia (MT) tAB were calculated using AAM. 'OA-attributable' tAB (OA-tAB) was calculated using data from regression models of tAB of knees without OA. Associations between OA-tAB and radiographic measures of OA were investigated using linear regression. In univariable analyses, height, weight, and age in female knees without OA explained 43.1%, 32.1% and 0.1% of the MF tAB variance individually and 54.4% when included simultaneously in a multivariable model. Joint space width (JSW), osteophytes and sclerosis explained just 5.3%, 14.9% and 10.1% of the variance of MF OA-tAB individually and 17.4% when combined. Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade explained approximately 20% of MF OA-tAB individually. Similar results were seen for MT OA-tAB. Height explained the majority of variance in tAB, confirming an allometric relationship between body and joint size. Radiographic measures of OA, derived from a single radiographic projection, accounted for only a small amount of variation in 3D knee OA-tAB. The additional structural information provided by 3D bone area may explain the lack of a substantive relationship with these radiographic OA measures. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. A phase II trial for the efficacy of physiotherapy intervention for early-onset hip osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Joanne L; Moore, Kate; Fransen, Marlene; Russell, Trevor G; Crossley, Kay M

    2015-01-27

    Early-onset hip osteoarthritis is commonly seen in people undergoing hip arthroscopy and is associated with increased pain, reduced ability to participate in physical activity, reduced quality of life and reduced range of motion and muscle strength. Despite this, the efficacy of non-surgical interventions such as exercise therapies remains unknown. The primary aim is to establish the feasibility of a phase III randomised controlled trial investigating a targeted physiotherapy intervention for people with early-onset hip osteoarthritis. The secondary aims are to determine the size of treatment effects of a physiotherapy intervention, targeted to improve hip joint range and hip-related symptoms in early-onset hip osteoarthritis following hip arthroscopy, compared to a health-education control. This protocol describes a randomised, assessor- and participant-blind, controlled clinical trial. We will include 20 participants who are (i) aged between 18 and 50 years; (ii) have undergone hip arthroscopy during the past six to 12 months; (iii) have early-onset hip osteoarthritis (defined as chondrolabral pathology) at the time of hip arthroscopy; and (iv) experience hip-related pain during activities. Primary outcome will be the feasibility of a phase III clinical trial. Secondary outcomes will be (i) perceived global change score; (ii) hip-related symptoms (measured using the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) pain subscale, activity subscale, and sport and recreation subscale); (iii) hip quality of life (measured using the HOOS quality of life subscale and International Hip Outcome tool; (iv) hip muscle strength and (v) hip range of motion. The physiotherapy intervention is semi-standardised, including joint and soft tissue mobilisation and stretching, hip and trunk muscle retraining and functional and activity-specific retraining and education. The control intervention encompasses individualised health education, with the same frequency and duration

  3. The effect of osteoarthritis definition on prevalence and incidence estimates: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, D; Peleteiro, B; Araújo, J; Branco, J; Santos, R A; Ramos, E

    2011-11-01

    To understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints. A systematic review was carried out in PUBMED and SCOPUS databases comprising the date of publication period from January 1995 to February 2011. We attempted to summarise data on the incidence and prevalence of OA according to different methods of assessment: self-reported, radiographic and symptomatic OA (clinical plus radiographic). Prevalence estimates were combined through meta-analysis and between-study heterogeneity was quantified. Seventy-two papers were reviewed (nine on incidence and 63 on prevalence). Higher OA prevalences are seen when radiographic OA definition was used for all age groups. Prevalence meta-analysis showed high heterogeneity between studies even in each specific joint and using the same OA definition. Although the knee is the most studied joint, the highest OA prevalence estimates were found in hand joints. OA of the knee tends to be more prevalent in women than in men independently of the OA definition used, but no gender differences were found in hip and hand OA. Insufficient data for incidence studies didn't allow us to make any comparison according to joint site or OA definition. Radiographic case definition of OA presented the highest prevalences. Within each joint site, self-reported and symptomatic OA definitions appear to present similar estimates. The high heterogeneity found in the studies limited further conclusions. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foot osteoarthritis: latest evidence and developments

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Menz, Hylton B.

    2018-01-01

    Foot osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in older adults yet is under-researched compared to knee or hand OA. Most existing studies focus on the first metatarsophalangeal joint, with evidence relating to midfoot OA being particularly sparse. Symptomatic radiographic foot OA affects 17% of adults aged 50 years and over. The first metatarsophalangeal joint is most commonly affected, followed by the second cuneometatarsal and talonavicular joints. Epidemiological studies suggest the existence of distinct first metatarsophalangeal joint and polyarticular phenotypes, which have differing clinical and risk factor profiles. There are few randomized controlled trials in foot OA. Existing trials provide some evidence of the effectiveness for pain relief of physical therapy, rocker-sole shoes, foot orthoses and surgical interventions in first metatarsophalangeal joint OA and prefabricated orthoses in midfoot OA. Prospective epidemiological studies and randomized trials are needed to establish the incidence, progression and prognosis of foot OA and determine the effectiveness of both commonly used and more novel interventions. PMID:29619094

  5. Cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis and cartilage repair procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baum, T.; Joseph, G.B.; Karampinos, D.C.; Jungmann, P.M.; Link, T.M.; Bauer, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The purpose of this work was to review the current literature on cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time. Methods Electronic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant studies about T2 relaxation time measurements as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and cartilage repair procedures. Results Initial osteoarthritic changes include proteoglycan loss, deterioration of the collagen network, and increased water content within the articular cartilage and menisci. T2 relaxation time measurements are affected by these pathophysiological processes. It was demonstrated that cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time values were significantly increased in subjects with compared to those without radiographic OA and focal knee lesions, respectively. Subjects with OA risk factors such as overweight/obesity showed significantly greater cartilage T2 values than normal controls. Elevated cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation times were found in subjects with vs without knee pain. Increased cartilage T2 at baseline predicted morphologic degeneration in the cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow over 3 years. Furthermore, cartilage repair tissue could be non-invasively assessed by using T2 mapping. Reproducibility errors for T2 measurements were reported to be smaller than the T2 differences in healthy and diseased cartilage indicating that T2 relaxation time may be a reliable discriminatory biomarker. Conclusions Cartilage and meniscal T2 mapping may be suitable as non-invasive biomarker to diagnose early stages of knee OA and to monitor therapy of OA. PMID:23896316

  6. Association of magnetic resonance imaging-based knee cartilage T2 measurements and focal knee lesions with knee pain: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Baum, Thomas; Joseph, Gabby B; Arulanandan, Ahilan; Nardo, Lorenzo; Virayavanich, Warapat; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Nevitt, Michael C; Lynch, John; McCulloch, Charles E; Link, Thomas M

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the association of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based knee cartilage T2 measurements and focal knee lesions with knee pain in knees without radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) among subjects with OA risk factors. We studied the right knees of 126 subjects from the Osteoarthritis Initiative database. We randomly selected 42 subjects ages 45-55 years with OA risk factors, right knee pain (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC] pain score ≥5), no left knee pain (WOMAC pain score 0), and no radiographic OA (Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] score ≤1) in the right knee. We also selected 2 comparison groups: 42 subjects without knee pain in either knee and 42 with bilateral knee pain. Both groups were frequency matched to subjects with right knee pain only by sex, age, body mass index, and K/L score. All of the subjects underwent 3T MRI of the right knee. Focal knee lesions were assessed and cartilage T2 measurements were performed. Prevalences of meniscal, bone marrow, and ligamentous lesions and joint effusion were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05), while cartilage lesions were more frequent in subjects with right knee pain only compared to subjects without knee pain (P < 0.05). T2 values averaged over all of the compartments were similar in subjects with right knee pain only (mean ± SD 34.4 ± 1.8 msec) and in subjects with bilateral knee pain (mean ± SD 34.7 ± 4.7 msec), but were significantly higher compared to subjects without knee pain (mean ± SD 32.4 ± 1.8 msec; P < 0.05). These results suggest that elevated cartilage T2 values are associated with findings of pain in the early phase of OA, whereas among morphologic knee abnormalities only knee cartilage lesions are significantly associated with knee pain status. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Matrix Gla Protein polymorphism, but not concentrations, is associated with radiographic hand osteoarthritis

    Objective. Factors associated with mineralization and osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis (OA) are incompletely understood. Genetic polymorphisms of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a mineralization inhibitor, have been associated clinically with conditions of abnormal calcification. We therefore evalua...

  8. Efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys.

    PubMed

    Rannou, François; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended in international and national guidelines as an early treatment option for the symptomatic management of knee and hand osteoarthritis (OA), and may be used ahead of oral NSAIDs due to their superior safety profile. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) treatment algorithm recommends topical NSAIDs for knee OA in addition to the pharmacological background of symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) and rescue analgesia with paracetamol and non-pharmacological treatment, if the patient is still symptomatic. Topical NSAIDs have a moderate effect on pain relief, with efficacy similar to that of oral NSAIDs, with the advantage of a better risk:benefit ratio. In real-life studies, topical and oral NSAIDs demonstrate an equivalent effect on knee pain over 1 year of treatment, with fewer adverse events due to lower systemic absorption of topical NSAIDs compared with oral NSAIDs. As a result, topical NSAIDs may be the preferred treatment option, especially in OA patients aged ≥75 years, and those with co-morbidities or at an increased risk of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or renal side effects. Furthermore, using topical NSAIDs in inflammatory rheumatic diseases leads to a 40% reduction in the need for concomitant oral NSAIDs. When selecting a topical NSAID, absorption and bioavailability are important because of heterogeneity among topical drug formulations. Molecules like etofenamate have a bioavailability of >20% and evidence for accumulation in synovial tissues, with efficacy demonstrated as improvement in pain and function in real-life studies of OA patients. Diclofenac also shows good efficacy alongside evidence that diclofenac accumulates in the synovium. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3 expressions in the temporo-mandibular joint condylar cartilage after an experimentally induced osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Juan-hong; Ma, Xu-chen; Li, Zhi-min; Wu, Deng-cheng

    2007-12-20

    Over 70% of the total tissue weight in the cartilage matrix consists of water, and the early-stage osteoarthritic cartilage is characterized by swelling. Water transport in the cartilage matrix and across the membranes of chondrocytes may be important in normal and pathological conditions of cartilage. The purpose of this study was to identify aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expressions in the mandibular condylar cartilage after experimentally induced osteoarthritis (OA) in rats. An experimental temporomandibular joint OA was induced by partial discectomy in rats. The pathological characteristics of the normal, early-stage, and late-stage osteoarthritic TMJ cartilages were verified by histological techniques. The AQP1 and AQP3 gene expressions in the normal and osteoarthritic cartilages were measured using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR analysis. The cartilage sections were incubated in primary polyclonal antibodies to AQP3; immunofluorescent microscopy was used to examine the AQP3 expression shown by its protein level. The mRNA expression levels of AQP1 and AQP3, analyzed using quantitative PCR, revealed that AQP3 mRNA was highly up-regulated in the OA cartilage, which was considered significant. There was no notable difference in the expression of AQP1 mRNA between OA and normal controls. With the progressing of the OA, the localization of the AQP3 protein was quite different from that of the normal cartilage. Compared to the normal cartilage, the expressions of AQP3 protein were observed mainly in the proliferative zone and the upper mid-zone chondrocytes at the early-stage of OA, and were observed to appear frequently throughout the mid- and deep zone during the late-stage of OA. The high expression of AQP3 mRNA in the OA cartilage and the different localization of the AQP3 protein suggest that it may play a particular role in OA pathogenesis. Further study of AQP3 function may provide new insight into the understanding of the

  10. Exercise therapy, manual therapy, or both, for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a factorial randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Abbott, J Haxby; Robertson, M Clare; McKenzie, Joanne E; Baxter, G David; Theis, Jean-Claude; Campbell, A John

    2009-02-08

    Non-pharmacological, non-surgical interventions are recommended as the first line of treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. There is evidence that exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and improving function in patients with knee OA, some evidence that exercise therapy is effective for hip OA, and early indications that manual therapy may be efficacious for hip and knee OA. There is little evidence as to which approach is more effective, if benefits endure, or if providing these therapies is cost-effective for the management of this disorder. The MOA Trial (Management of OsteoArthritis) aims to test the effectiveness of two physiotherapy interventions for improving disability and pain in adults with hip or knee OA in New Zealand. Specifically, our primary objectives are to investigate whether:1. Exercise therapy versus no exercise therapy improves disability at 12 months;2. Manual physiotherapy versus no manual therapy improves disability at 12 months;3. Providing physiotherapy programmes in addition to usual care is more cost-effective than usual care alone in the management of osteoarthritis at 24 months. This is a 2 x 2 factorial randomised controlled trial. We plan to recruit 224 participants with hip or knee OA. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated to receive either: (a) a supervised multi-modal exercise therapy programme; (b) an individualised manual therapy programme; (c) both exercise therapy and manual therapy; or, (d) no trial physiotherapy. All participants will continue to receive usual medical care. The outcome assessors, orthopaedic surgeons, general medical practitioners, and statistician will be blind to group allocation until the statistical analysis is completed. The trial is funded by Health Research Council of New Zealand Project Grants (Project numbers 07/199, 07/200). The MOA Trial will be the first to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of providing physiotherapy programmes of this kind

  11. Associations of educational attainment, occupation and community poverty with knee osteoarthritis in the Johnston County (North Carolina) osteoarthritis project.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Leigh F; Cleveland, Rebecca J; Shreffler, Jack; Schwartz, Todd A; Schoster, Britta; Randolph, Randy; Renner, Jordan B; Jordan, Joanne M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis (OA) Project for independent associations of educational attainment, occupation and community poverty with tibiofemoral knee OA. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 3,591 individuals (66% Caucasian and 34% African American). Educational attainment (< 12 years or ≥12 years), occupation (non-managerial or not), and census block group household poverty rate (< 12%, 12 to 25%, > 25%) were examined separately and together in logistic models adjusting for covariates of age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), smoking, knee injury and occupational activity score. Outcomes were presence of radiographic knee OA (rOA), symptomatic knee OA (sxOA), bilateral rOA and bilateral sxOA. When all three socioeconomic status (SES) variables were analyzed simultaneously, low educational attainment was significantly associated with rOA (odds ratio (OR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20, 1.73), bilateral rOA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.13, 1.81), and sxOA (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.34, 2.06), after adjusting for covariates. Independently, living in a community of high household poverty rate was associated with rOA (OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.43, 2.36), bilateral rOA (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.12, 2.16), and sxOA (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.00, 1.83). Occupation had no significant independent association beyond educational attainment and community poverty. Both educational attainment and community SES were independently associated with knee OA after adjusting for primary risk factors for knee OA.

  12. Use of routine clinical multimodality imaging in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis--part I.

    PubMed

    Bouchgua, M; Alexander, K; d'Anjou, M André; Girard, C A; Carmel, E Norman; Beauchamp, G; Richard, H; Laverty, S

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate in vivo the evolution of osteoarthritis (OA) lesions temporally in a rabbit model of OA with clinically available imaging modalities: computed radiography (CR), helical single-slice computed tomography (CT), and 1.5 tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging was performed on knees of anesthetized rabbits [10 anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and contralateral sham joints and six control rabbits] at baseline and at intervals up to 12 weeks post-surgery. Osteophytosis, subchondral bone sclerosis, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), femoropatellar effusion and articular cartilage were assessed. CT had the highest sensitivity (90%) and specificity (91%) to detect osteophytes. A significant increase in total joint osteophyte score occurred at all time-points post-operatively in the ACLT group alone. BMLs were identified and occurred most commonly in the lateral femoral condyle of the ACLT joints and were not identified in the tibia. A significant increase in joint effusion was present in the ACLT joints until 8 weeks after surgery. Bone sclerosis or cartilage defects were not reliably assessed with the selected imaging modalities. Combined, clinically available CT and 1.5 T MRI allowed the assessment of most of the characteristic lesions of OA and at early time-points in the development of the disease. However, the selected 1.5 T MRI sequences and acquisition times did not permit the detection of cartilage lesions in this rabbit OA model.

  13. Evaluation of degenerative changes in articular cartilage of osteoarthritis by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Ishimaru, Yasumitsu; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Hino, Kazunori; Miura, Hiromasa

    2018-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a very common joint disease in the aging population. Main symptom of OA is accompanied by degenerative changes of articular cartilage. Cartilage contains mostly type II collagen and proteoglycans, so it is difficult to access the quality and morphology of cartilage tissue in situ by conventional diagnostic tools (X-ray, MRI and echography) directly or indirectly. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free technique which enables to analyze molecular composition in degenerative cartilage. In this proposal, we aim to develop Raman spectroscopic system for the quality assessment of articular cartilage during arthroscopic surgery. Toward this goal, we are focusing on the proteoglycan content and collagen fiber alignment in cartilage matrix which may be associated with degenerative changes in OA, and we designed an original Raman device for remote sensing during arthroscopic surgery. In this project, we define the grading system for cartilage defect based on Raman spectroscopy, and we complete the evaluation of the Raman probing system which makes it possible to detect early stage of degenerative cartilage as a novel tool for OA diagnosis using human subject.

  14. Osteoarthritis guidelines: Barriers to implementation and solutions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Meneses, Sarah; Rannou, Francois; Hunter, David J

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to facilitate improved OA management. Scientific communities worldwide have proposed CPGs for OA treatment. Despite the number of highly prominent guidelines available and their remarkable consistency, their uptake has been suboptimal. Possibly because of the multitude of barriers related to the implementation of CPGs. For example, different guidelines show contradictions, some lack evidence, and they lack a hierarchy or tools to facilitate their translation and application. Also, the guidelines do not acknowledge the effect of comorbidities on choosing the treatments. Finally, poor integration of multidisciplinary services within and across healthcare settings is a major barrier to the effective implementation of management guidelines. Here we describe the main problems related to the OA guidelines and some solutions so as to offer some guidance on the elaboration of future CPGs and their implementation in primary care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. An Herbal Derivative as the Basis for a New Approach to Treating Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    OA 3) A new ex vivo assay using intact joint cartilage to test ex vivo efficacy of EPRS inhibitors as therapeutics for OA. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Post ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0396 TITLE: An Herbal Derivative as the Basis for a New Approach to Treating Post - Traumatic Osteoarthritis...TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Herbal Derivative as the Basis for a New Approach to Treating Post - Traumatic Osteoarthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  16. Mechanism of disease in early osteoarthritis: application of modern MR imaging techniques -- a technical report.

    PubMed

    Jobke, Bjoern; Bolbos, Radu; Saadat, Ehsan; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of early cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1ρ relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MRI sequence, T1ρ, was able to detect early intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-weighted sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanism of Disease in early Osteoarthritis: Application of modern MR imaging techniques – A technical report

    PubMed Central

    Jobke, B.; Bolbos, R.; Saadat, E.; Cheng, J.; Li, X.; Majumdar, S.

    2012-01-01

    The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of early cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1 relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MR imaging sequence, T1, was able to detect early intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-w sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in-vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future. PMID:22902064

  18. Changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone after extracorporeal shockwave therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Wen-Yi; Hsu, Shan-Ling; Chen, Jen-Hung; Huang, Chien-Yiu

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the pathological changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone on different locations of the knee after extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in early osteoarthritis (OA). Rat knees under OA model by anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) and medial meniscectomy (MM) to induce OA changes. Among ESWT groups, ESWT were applied to medial (M) femur (F) and tibia (T) condyles was better than medial tibia condyle, medial femur condyle as well as medial and lateral (L) tibia condyles in gross osteoarthritic areas (p<0.05), osteophyte formation and subchondral sclerotic bone (p<0.05). Using sectional cartilage area, modified Mankin scoring system as well as thickness of calcified and un-calcified cartilage analysis, the results showed that articular cartilage damage was ameliorated and T+F(M) group had the most protection as compared with other locations (p<0.05). Detectable cartilage surface damage and proteoglycan loss were measured and T+F(M) group showed the smallest lesion score among other groups (p<0.05). Micro-CT revealed significantly improved in subchondral bone repair in all ESWT groups compared to OA group (p<0.05). There were no significantly differences in bone remodeling after ESWT groups except F(M) group. In the immunohistochemical analysis, T+F(M) group significant reduced TUNEL activity, promoted cartilage proliferation by observation of PCNA marker and reduced vascular invasion through observation of CD31 marker for angiogenesis compared to OA group (P<0.001). Overall the data suggested that the order of the effective site of ESWT was T+F(M) ≧ T(M) > T(M+L) > F(M) in OA rat knees. PMID:28367081

  19. Changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone after extracorporeal shockwave therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Chou, Wen-Yi; Hsu, Shan-Ling; Chen, Jen-Hung; Huang, Chien-Yiu

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the pathological changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone on different locations of the knee after extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in early osteoarthritis (OA). Rat knees under OA model by anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) and medial meniscectomy (MM) to induce OA changes. Among ESWT groups, ESWT were applied to medial (M) femur (F) and tibia (T) condyles was better than medial tibia condyle, medial femur condyle as well as medial and lateral (L) tibia condyles in gross osteoarthritic areas (p<0.05), osteophyte formation and subchondral sclerotic bone (p<0.05). Using sectional cartilage area, modified Mankin scoring system as well as thickness of calcified and un-calcified cartilage analysis, the results showed that articular cartilage damage was ameliorated and T+F(M) group had the most protection as compared with other locations (p<0.05). Detectable cartilage surface damage and proteoglycan loss were measured and T+F(M) group showed the smallest lesion score among other groups (p<0.05). Micro-CT revealed significantly improved in subchondral bone repair in all ESWT groups compared to OA group (p<0.05). There were no significantly differences in bone remodeling after ESWT groups except F(M) group. In the immunohistochemical analysis, T+F(M) group significant reduced TUNEL activity, promoted cartilage proliferation by observation of PCNA marker and reduced vascular invasion through observation of CD31 marker for angiogenesis compared to OA group (P<0.001). Overall the data suggested that the order of the effective site of ESWT was T+F(M) ≧ T(M) > T(M+L) > F(M) in OA rat knees.

  20. EGFR signaling is critical for maintaining the superficial layer of articular cartilage and preventing osteoarthritis initiation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Haoruo; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Tong, Wei; Doyran, Basak; Sun, Zeyang; Wang, Luqiang; Zhang, Xianrong; Zhou, Yilu; Badar, Farid; Chandra, Abhishek; Lu, X. Lucas; Xia, Yang; Han, Lin; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage. The surface of joint cartilage is the first defensive and affected site of OA, but our knowledge of genesis and homeostasis of this superficial zone is scarce. EGFR signaling is important for tissue homeostasis. Immunostaining revealed that its activity is mostly dominant in the superficial layer of healthy cartilage but greatly diminished when OA initiates. To evaluate the role of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage, we studied a cartilage-specific Egfr-deficient (CKO) mouse model (Col2-Cre EgfrWa5/flox). These mice developed early cartilage degeneration at 6 mo of age. By 2 mo of age, although their gross cartilage morphology appears normal, CKO mice had a drastically reduced number of superficial chondrocytes and decreased lubricant secretion at the surface. Using superficial chondrocyte and cartilage explant cultures, we demonstrated that EGFR signaling is critical for maintaining the number and properties of superficial chondrocytes, promoting chondrogenic proteoglycan 4 (Prg4) expression, and stimulating the lubrication function of the cartilage surface. In addition, EGFR deficiency greatly disorganized collagen fibrils in articular cartilage and strikingly reduced cartilage surface modulus. After surgical induction of OA at 3 mo of age, CKO mice quickly developed the most severe OA phenotype, including a complete loss of cartilage, extremely high surface modulus, subchondral bone plate thickening, and elevated joint pain. Taken together, our studies establish EGFR signaling as an important regulator of the superficial layer during articular cartilage development and OA initiation. PMID:27911782

  1. Identification of Synovial Fluid Biomarkers for Knee Osteoarthritis and Correlation with Radiographic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Monibi, Farrah; Roller, Brandon L; Stoker, Aaron; Garner, Bridget; Bal, Sonny; Cook, James L

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a costly and debilitating condition that is typically not diagnosed early enough to prevent progression of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate synovial fluid from knees with and without OA for potential markers of joint inflammation and degradation and to correlate these findings with radiographic severity of disease. With Institutional Review Board approval, synovial fluid samples were collected before the patient undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Control knees (n = 3) were patients younger than 30 years of age with no history of anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, or meniscal injury, and no surgical history for either knee. Weight-bearing, anterior-posterior radiographic views were used to determine radiographic OA severity using the modified Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Synovial fluid samples from 18 patients (21 knees) were analyzed using a multiplex assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (p < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.013), IL-8 (p < 0.024), and Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) (p < 0.006) were significantly higher in the synovial fluid of OA patients compared with normal patients. The radiographic score was significantly higher in patients with OA compared with normal knees (p < 0.002). MMP-1 had a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CCL5. IL-6 had a strong positive correlation with IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 had a moderate positive correlation with IL-6 and a strong positive correlation with IL-8. Radiographic scores had a strong positive correlation with IL-6 and IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MCP-1. These data provide novel and clinically relevant information for the investigation of synovial fluid biomarkers for knee OA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Gait Analysis Methods for Rodent Models of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Brittany Y.; Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Allen, Kyle D.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models. PMID:25160712

  3. Biomarkers of Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Autophagy in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Al-Wasiyah, Mohammad K.; Alqahtani, Mohammed H.; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cell death with morphological and molecular features of apoptosis has been detected in osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage, which suggests a key role for chondrocyte death/survival in the pathogenesis of OA. Identification of biomarkers of chondrocyte apoptosis may facilitate the development of novel therapies that may eliminate the cause or, at least, slow down the degenerative processes in OA. The aim of this review was to explore the molecular markers and signals that induce chondrocyte apoptosis in OA. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords chondrocyte death, apoptosis, osteoarthritis, autophagy and biomarker. Several molecules considered to be markers of chondrocyte apoptosis will be discussed in this brief review. Molecular markers and signalling pathways associated with chondroycte apoptosis may turn out to be therapeutic targets in OA and approaches aimed at neutralizing apoptosis-inducing molecules may at least delay the progression of cartilage degeneration in OA. PMID:26334269

  4. Joint loading decreased by inexpensive and minimalist footwear in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis during stair descent.

    PubMed

    Sacco, I C N; Trombini-Souza, F; Butugan, M K; Pássaro, A C; Arnone, A C; Fuller, R

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that flexible footwear, which mimics the biomechanics of walking barefoot, results in decreased knee loads in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) during walking. However, the effect of flexible footwear on other activities of daily living, such as descending stairs, remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of inexpensive and minimalist footwear (Moleca) on knee adduction moment (KAM) during stair descent of elderly women with and without knee OA. Thirty-four elderly women were equally divided into an OA group and a control group (CG). Stair descent was evaluated in barefoot condition, while wearing the Moleca, and while wearing heeled shoes. Kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured to calculate KAM by using inverse dynamics. The OA group experienced a higher KAM during midstance under the barefoot condition (233.3%; P = 0.028), the Moleca (379.2%; P = 0.004), and heeled shoes (217.6%; P = 0.007). The OA group had a similar knee load during early, mid, and late stance with the Moleca compared with the barefoot condition. Heeled shoes increased the knee loads during the early-stance (versus barefoot [16.7%; P < 0.001] and versus the Moleca [15.5%; P < 0.001]), midstance (versus barefoot [8.6%; P = 0.014] and versus the Moleca [9.5%; P = 0.010]), and late-stance phase (versus barefoot [10.6%; P = 0.003] and versus the Moleca [9.2%; P < 0.001]). In the CG, the Moleca produced a knee load similar to the barefoot condition only during the early-stance phase. Besides the general foot protection, the inexpensive and minimalist footwear contributes to decreasing knee loads in elderly women with OA during stair descent. The loads are similar to the barefoot condition and effectively decreased when compared with heeled shoes. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Serum N-propeptide of collagen IIA (PIIANP) as a marker of radiographic osteoarthritis burden.

    PubMed

    Daghestani, Hikmat N; Jordan, Joanne M; Renner, Jordan B; Doherty, Michael; Wilson, A Gerry; Kraus, Virginia B

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage homeostasis relies on a balance of catabolism and anabolism of cartilage matrix. Our goal was to evaluate the burden of radiographic osteoarthritis and serum levels of type IIA procollagen amino terminal propeptide (sPIIANP), a biomarker representing type II collagen synthesis, in osteoarthritis. OA burden was quantified on the basis of radiographic features as total joint faces with an osteophyte, joint space narrowing, or in the spine, disc space narrowing. sPIIANP was measured in 1,235 participants from the Genetics of Generalized Osteoarthritis study using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Separate multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index and additionally for ipsilateral osteophytes or joint/disc space narrowing, were used to assess the independent association of sPIIANP with osteophytes and with joint/disc space narrowing burden in knees, hips, hands and spine, individually and together. After full adjustment, sPIIANP was significantly associated with a lesser burden of hip joint space narrowing and knee osteophytes. sPIIANP was associated with a lesser burden of hand joint space narrowing but a greater burden of hand osteophytes; these results were only evident upon adjustment for osteoarthritic features in all other joints. There were no associations of sPIIANP and features of spine osteoarthritis. Higher cartilage collagen synthesis, as reflected in systemic PIIANP concentrations, was associated with lesser burden of osteoarthritic features in lower extremity joints (knees and hips), even accounting for osteoarthritis burden in hands and spine, age, sex and body mass index. These results suggest that pro-anabolic agents may be appropriate for early treatment to prevent severe lower extremity large joint osteoarthritis.

  6. Prognostic biomarkers in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Attur, Mukundan; Krasnokutsky-Samuels, Svetlana; Samuels, Jonathan; Abramson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Identification of patients at risk for incident disease or disease progression in osteoarthritis remains challenging, as radiography is an insensitive reflection of molecular changes that presage cartilage and bone abnormalities. Thus there is a widely appreciated need for biochemical and imaging biomarkers. We describe recent developments with such biomarkers to identify osteoarthritis patients who are at risk for disease progression. Recent findings The biochemical markers currently under evaluation include anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory molecules representing diverse biological pathways. A few promising cartilage and bone degradation and synthesis biomarkers are in various stages of development, awaiting further validation in larger populations. A number of studies have shown elevated expression levels of inflammatory biomarkers, both locally (synovial fluid) and systemically (serum and plasma). These chemical biomarkers are under evaluation in combination with imaging biomarkers to predict early onset and the burden of disease. Summary Prognostic biomarkers may be used in clinical knee osteoarthritis to identify subgroups in whom the disease progresses at different rates. This could facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis and allow us to differentiate phenotypes within a heterogeneous knee osteoarthritis population. Ultimately, such findings may help facilitate the development of disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). PMID:23169101

  7. Dynamic Alterations in Microarchitecture, Mineralization and Mechanical Property of Subchondral Bone in Rat Medial Meniscal Tear Model of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, De-Gang; Nie, Shao-Bo; Liu, Feng-Xiang; Wu, Chuan-Long; Tian, Bo; Wang, Wen-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Zhen-An; Mao, Yuan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: The properties of subchondral bone influence the integrity of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the characteristics of subchondral bone alterations remain unresolved. The present study aimed to observe the dynamic alterations in the microarchitecture, mineralization, and mechanical properties of subchondral bone during the progression of OA. Methods: A medial meniscal tear (MMT) operation was performed in 128 adult Sprague Dawley rats to induce OA. At 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following the MMT operation, cartilage degeneration was evaluated using toluidine blue O staining, whereas changes in the microarchitecture indices and tissue mineral density (TMD), mineral-to-collagen ratio, and intrinsic mechanical properties of subchondral bone plates (BPs) and trabecular bones (Tbs) were measured using micro-computed tomography scanning, confocal Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing, respectively. Results: Cartilage degeneration occurred and worsened progressively from 2 to 12 weeks after OA induction. Microarchitecture analysis revealed that the subchondral bone shifted from bone resorption early (reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number, connectivity density and trabecular thickness [Tb.Th], and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) at 2 and 4 weeks) to bone accretion late (increased BV/TV, Tb.Th and thickness of subchondral bone plate, and reduced Tb.Sp at 8 and 12 weeks). The TMD of both the BP and Tb displayed no significant changes at 2 and 4 weeks but decreased at 8 and 12 weeks. The mineral-to-collagen ratio showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks for the Tb and from 8 weeks for the BP after OA induction. Both the elastic modulus and hardness of the Tb showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks after OA induction. The BP showed a significant decrease in its elastic modulus from 8 weeks and its hardness from 4 weeks. Conclusion: The microarchitecture, mineralization and mechanical properties of

  8. Correlation between varus knee malalignment and patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakajima, Mikio; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Oda, Shuhei; Hoshiyama, Yoshiaki; Iida, Go; Neo, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) and varus OA of the knee with a focus on the location of joint space narrowing. Eighty-five patients scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty caused by varus OA were enrolled in this study. The relationship between patellofemoral OA and varus knee malalignment was elucidated. To determine the alignment of the patellofemoral joint in varus knees, patellar tilt, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance were measured, and patellofemoral OA was classified using computed tomography. The femorotibial angles in patients with stage II-IV patellofemoral OA were significantly larger than those in patients with stage I patellofemoral OA, and the patellar tilt in patients with stage II-IV patellofemoral OA and the TT-TG distance in patients with stage IV patellofemoral OA were significantly larger than those in patients with stage I patellofemoral OA. The TT-TG distance was strongly correlated with patellar tilt (R(2) = 0.41, P < 0.001). Patellofemoral joint space narrowing was mainly noted at the lateral facet, and it was found on both sides as patellofemoral OA worsened. Varus knee malalignment was induced by patellofemoral OA, especially at the lateral facet. Patellar tilt and the TT-TG distance are considered critical factors for the severity of patellofemoral OA. Understanding the critical factors for patellofemoral OA in varus knees such as the TT-TG distance and patellar will facilitate the prevention of patellofemoral OA using procedures such as high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty to correct knee malalignment. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  9. Knee Osteoarthritis and Risk of Hypertension: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Solmi, Marco; Smith, Toby O; Noale, Marianna; Schofield, Patricia; Maggi, Stefania

    2018-02-01

    Although previous research has indicated an association between osteoarthritis (OA) and cardiovascular disease, it remains unclear whether people with OA are at greater risk of developing hypertension. The aim of this study was to answer this uncertainity. We used the data of the Osteoarthritis Initiative, an ongoing public and private longitudinal study including people at higher risk of OA or having knee OA. Knee OA was defined through radiological and clinical assessment. Incident hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or a diastolic value ≥90 mmHg. Multivariate Cox's regression analyses were constructed considering the presence of knee OA as the exposure and incident hypertension as the outcome during a 96-month follow-up interval. A total of 3558 people with normative blood pressure values at baseline were analyzed (1930 OA/1628 controls). Incidence of hypertension within the follow-up interval was significantly higher in people with knee OA than in those without (60/[1000 person-years] vs. 55/[1000 person-years]; p < 0.0001). After adjusting for 13 confounders, people with knee OA had a 13% higher chance of developing hypertension (hazard ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.26; p = 0.03). Propensity score analysis did not alter these conclusions. In conclusion, this is the first longitudinal data analysis to demonstrate that people with knee OA have a higher chance of developing hypertension than those without OA. Our data suggest that monitoring blood pressure and prescribing health promotion interventions may be warranted among people with OA to mitigate the potential onset and adverse consequences of hypertension.

  10. Molecular mechanisms underlying osteoarthritis development: Notch and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Saito, Taku; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-05-15

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multi-factorial and highly prevalent joint disorder worldwide. Since the establishment of murine surgical knee OA models in 2005, many of the key molecules and signalling pathways responsible for OA development have been identified. Here we review the roles of two multi-functional signalling pathways in OA development: Notch and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. Previous studies have identified various aspects of articular chondrocyte regulation by these pathways. However, comprehensive understanding of the molecular networks regulating articular cartilage homeostasis and OA pathogenesis is needed.

  11. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... for those with osteoarthritis. TREATMENT The Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis When diagnosing osteoarthritis, your doctor will ask you ...

  12. Differences in Osteoarthritis Self-Management Support Intervention Outcomes According to Race and Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperber, Nina R.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Lindquist, Jennifer H.; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Weinberger, Morris; Allen, Kelli D.

    2013-01-01

    We explored whether the effects of a telephone-based osteoarthritis (OA) self-management support intervention differed by race and health literacy. Participants included 515 veterans with hip and/or knee OA. Linear mixed models assessed differential effects of the intervention compared with health education (HE) and usual care (UC) on pain…

  13. High plasma levels of vitamin C and E are associated with incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis

    Previous studies suggest that the antioxidants vitamins C and E may protect against development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association of circulating levels of vitamin C and E with incident whole knee radiographic OA (WKROA). We performed a nested case-control study of incident WKR...

  14. Muscle power is an independent determinant of pain and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationships between leg muscle strength, power, and perceived disease severity in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in order to determine whether dynamic leg extensor muscle power would be associated with pain and quality of life in knee OA. METHODS: Baseli...

  15. THIGH MUSCLE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREAS AND STRENGTH IN KNEES WITH EARLY VS KNEES WITHOUT RADIOGRAPHIC KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A BETWEEN-KNEE, WITHIN-PERSON COMPARISON

    PubMed Central

    Ruhdorfer, AS; Dannhauer, T; Wirth, W; Cotofana, S; Roemer, F; Nevitt, M; Eckstein, F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare cross-sectional and longitudinal side-differences in thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSAs), muscle strength, and specific strength (strength/ACSA), between knees with early radiographic change vs. knees without radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA), in the same person. Design 55 (of 4796) Osteoarthritis Initiative participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria of early RKOA in one limb (definite tibiofemoral osteophytes; no radiographic joint space narrowing [JSN]) vs. no RKOA (no osteophyte; no JSN) in the contralateral limb. ACSAs of the thigh muscles and quadriceps heads were determined using axial MRIs at 33%/30% femoral length (distal to proximal). Isometric extensor and flexor muscle strength were measured (Good Strength Chair). Baseline quadriceps ACSA and extensor (specific) strength represented the primary analytic focus, and two-year changes of quadriceps ACSAs the secondary focus. Results No statistically significant side-differences in quadriceps (or other thigh muscle) ACSAs, muscle strength, or specific strength were observed between early RKOA vs. contralateral limbs without RKOA (p≥0.44), neither in men nor in women. The two-year reduction in quadriceps ACSA in limbs with early RKOA was −0.9±6% (mean ± standard deviation) vs. −0.5±6% in limbs without RKOA (statistical difference p=0.85). Conclusion Our results do not provide evidence that early unilateral radiographic changes, i.e. presence of osteophytes, are associated with cross-sectional or longitudinal differences in quadriceps muscle status compared with contralateral knees without RKOA. At the stage of early unilateral RKOA there thus appears to be no clinical need for countervailing a potential dys-balance in quadriceps ACSAs and strength between both knees. PMID:25278072

  16. Physiotherapy management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Page, Carolyn J; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L

    2011-05-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic joint disease causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy, which encompasses a number of modalities, is a non-invasive treatment option in the management of OA. This review summarizes the evidence for commonly used physiotherapy interventions. There is strong evidence to show short-term beneficial effects of exercise on pain and function, although the type of exercise does not seem to influence treatment outcome. Delivery modes, including individual, group or home exercise are all effective, although therapist contact may improve benefits. Attention to improving adherence to exercise is needed to maximize outcomes in the longer-term. Knee taping applied with the aim of realigning the patella and unloading soft tissues can reduce pain. There is also evidence to support the use of knee braces in people with knee OA. Biomechanical studies show that lateral wedge shoe insoles reduce knee load but clinical trials do not support symptomatic benefits. Recent studies suggest individual shoe characteristics also affect knee load and there is current interest in the effect of modified shoe designs. Manual therapy, while not to be used as a stand-alone treatment, may be beneficial. In summary, although the research is not equivocal, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that physiotherapy interventions can reduce pain and improve function in those with knee OA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Characterization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone changes in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hayami, Tadashi; Pickarski, Maureen; Zhuo, Ya; Wesolowski, Gregg A; Rodan, Gideon A; Duong, Le T

    2006-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease characterized by cartilage destruction, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Subchondral bone stiffness has been proposed to initiate and/or contribute to cartilage deterioration in OA. The purpose of this study was to characterize subchondral bone remodeling, cartilage damage, and osteophytosis during the disease progression in two models of surgically induced OA. Rat knee joints were subjected either to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) alone or in combination with resection of medial menisci (ACLT + MMx). Histopathological changes in the surgical joints were compared with sham at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks post-surgery. Using a modified Mankin scoring system, we demonstrate that articular cartilage damage occurs within 2 weeks post-surgery in both surgical models. Detectable cartilage surface damage and proteoglycan loss were observed as early as 1 week post-surgery. These were followed by the increases in vascular invasion into cartilage, in loss of chondrocyte number and in cell clustering. Histomorphometric analysis revealed subchondral bone loss in both models within 2 weeks post-surgery followed by significant increases in subchondral bone volume relative to sham up to 10 weeks post-surgery. Incidence of osteophyte formation was optimally observed in ACLT joints at 10 weeks and in ACLT + MMx joints at 6 weeks post-surgery. In summary, the two surgically induced rat OA models share many characteristics seen in human and other animal models of OA, including progressive articular cartilage degradation, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Moreover, increased subchondral bone resorption is associated with early development of cartilage lesions, which precedes significant cartilage thinning and subchondral bone sclerosis. Together, these findings support a role for bone remodeling in OA pathogenesis and suggest that these rat models are suitable for evaluating bone

  18. Knee joint pain potentially due to bone alterations in a knee osteoarthritis patient.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Kamimura, Mikio; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of musculoskeletal pain and functional disability worldwide. However, the etiology of this condition is still largely unknown. We report the clinical course of an elderly man with knee OA. Plain radiographs and MRI examinations performed during follow-up suggested that the pathophysiology of the patient's knee OA and joint pain may have been primarily due to bone alterations.

  19. New guidelines for topical NSAIDs in the osteoarthritis treatment paradigm.

    PubMed

    Altman, Roy D

    2010-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, often affects hands, hips, and knees and involves an estimated 26.9 million US adults. Women have a higher prevalence of OA, and the risk of developing OA increases with age, obesity, and joint malalignment. OA typically presents with pain and reduced function. Therapeutic programs are often multimodal and must take into account pharmaceutical toxicities and patient comorbidities. For example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and renal adverse events. Topical NSAIDs offer efficacy with reduced systemic drug exposure. This is a review of current guideline recommendations regarding the use of topical NSAIDs in OA of the hand and knee. Articles were identified by PubMed search (January 1, 2000 to May 21, 2010). Several current guidelines for management of OA recommend topical NSAIDs, indicating them as a safe and effective treatment. One guideline recommends that topical NSAIDs be considered as first-line pharmacologic therapy. A US guideline for knee OA recommends topical NSAIDs in older patients and in patients with increased gastrointestinal risk. The consensus across US and European OA guidelines is that topical NSAIDs are a safe and effective treatment for OA. Because the research base on topical NSAIDs for OA is small, guidelines will continue to evolve.

  20. Functional ankle instability as a risk factor for osteoarthritis: using T2-mapping to analyze early cartilage degeneration in the ankle joint of young athletes.

    PubMed

    Golditz, T; Steib, S; Pfeifer, K; Uder, M; Gelse, K; Janka, R; Hennig, F F; Welsch, G H

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, using T2-mapping, the impact of functional instability in the ankle joint on the development of early cartilage damage. Ethical approval for this study was provided. Thirty-six volunteers from the university sports program were divided into three groups according to their ankle status: functional ankle instability (FAI, initial ankle sprain with residual instability); ankle sprain Copers (initial sprain, without residual instability); and controls (without a history of ankle injuries). Quantitative T2-mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at the beginning ('early-unloading') and at the end ('late-unloading') of the MR-examination, with a mean time span of 27 min. Zonal region-of-interest T2-mapping was performed on the talar and tibial cartilage in the deep and superficial layers. The inter-group comparisons of T2-values were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical analysis of variance was performed. T2-values showed significant to highly significant differences in 11 of 12 regions throughout the groups. In early-unloading, the FAI-group showed a significant increase in quantitative T2-values in the medial, talar regions (P = 0.008, P = 0.027), whereas the Coper-group showed this enhancement in the central-lateral regions (P = 0.05). Especially the comparison of early-loading to late-unloading values revealed significantly decreasing T2-values over time laterally and significantly increasing T2-values medially in the FAI-group, which were not present in the Coper- or control-group. Functional instability causes unbalanced loading in the ankle joint, resulting in cartilage alterations as assessed by quantitative T2-mapping. This approach can visualize and localize early cartilage abnormalities, possibly enabling specific treatment options to prevent osteoarthritis in young athletes. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Osteoarthritis year in review 2017: genetics and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Peffers, M J; Balaskas, P; Smagul, A

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe highlights from original research publications related to osteoarthritis (OA), epigenetics and genomics with the intention of recognising significant advances. To identify relevant papers a Pubmed literature search was conducted for articles published between April 2016 and April 2017 using the search terms 'osteoarthritis' together with 'genetics', 'genomics', 'epigenetics', 'microRNA', 'lncRNA', 'DNA methylation' and 'histone modification'. The search term OA generated almost 4000 references. Publications using the combination of descriptors OA and genetics provided the most references (82 references). However this was reduced compared to the same period in the previous year; 8.1-2.1% (expressed as a percentage of the total publications combining the terms OA and genetics). Publications combining the terms OA with genomics (29 references), epigenetics (16 references), long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) (11 references; including the identification of novel lncRNAs in OA), DNA methylation (21 references), histone modification (3 references) and microRNA (miR) (79 references) were reviewed. Potential OA therapeutics such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been identified. A number of non-coding RNAs may also provide targets for future treatments. There continues to be a year on year increase in publications researching miRs in OA (expressed as a percentage of the total publications), with a doubling over the last 4 years. An overview on the last year's progress within the fields of epigenetics and genomics with respect to OA will be given. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. All rights reserved.

  2. Dance between biology, mechanics, and structure: A systems-based approach to developing osteoarthritis prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Chu, Constance R; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of human suffering and disability for which disease-modifying treatments are lacking. OA occurs through complex and dynamic interplays between diverse factors over long periods of time. The traditional research and clinical focus on OA, the end stage disease, obscured understanding pathogenesis prior to reaching a common pathway defined by pain and functional deficits, joint deformity, and radiographic changes. To emphasize disease modification and prevention, we describe a multi-disciplinary systems-based approach encompassing biology, mechanics, and structure to define pre-osteoarthritic disease processes. Central to application of this model is the concept of "pre-osteoarthritis," conditions where clinical OA has not yet developed. Rather, joint homeostasis has been compromised and there are potentially reversible markers for heightened OA risk. Key messages from this perspective are (i) to focus research onto defining pre-OA through identifying and validating biological, mechanical, and imaging markers of OA risk, (ii) to emphasize multi-disciplinary approaches, and (iii) to propose that developing personalized interventions to address reversible markers of OA risk in healthy joints may be the key to prevention. Ultimately, a systems-based analysis of OA pathogenesis shows potential to transform clinical practice by facilitating development and testing of new strategies to prevent or delay the onset of osteoarthritis. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Serum and synovial fluid cytokine profiling in hip osteoarthritis: distinct from knee osteoarthritis and correlated with pain.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guomin; Lutz, Ian; Railton, Pamela; Wiley, J Preston; McAllister, Jenelle; Powell, James; Krawetz, Roman J

    2018-02-05

    Inflammation is associated with the onset and progression of osteoarthritis in multiple joints. It is well known that mechanical properties differ between different joints, however, it remains unknown if the inflammatory process is similar/distinct in patients with hip vs. knee OA. Without complete understanding of the role of any specific cytokine in the inflammatory process, understanding the 'profile' of inflammation in a given patient population is an essential starting point. The aim of this study was to identify serum cytokine profiles in hip Osteoarthritis (OA), and investigate the association between cytokine concentrations and clinical measurements within this patient population and compare these findings to knee OA and healthy control cohorts. In total, 250 serum samples (100 knee OA, 50 hip OA and 100 control) and 37 synovial fluid samples (8 knee OA, 14 hip OA and 15 control) were analyzed using a multiplex ELISA based approach. Synovial biopsies were also obtained and examined for specific cytokines. Pain, physical function and activity within the hip OA cohort were examined using the HOOS, SF-36, HHS and UCLA outcome measures. The three cohorts showed distinct serum cytokine profiles. EGF, FGF2, MCP3, MIP1α, and IL8 were differentially expressed between hip and knee OA cohorts; while FGF2, GRO, IL8, MCP1, and VEGF were differentially expressed between hip OA and control cohorts. Eotaxin, GRO, MCP1, MIP1β, VEGF were differentially expressed between knee OA and control cohorts. EGF, IL8, MCP1, MIP1β were differentially expressed in synovial fluid from a sub-set of patients from each cohort. Specifically within the hip OA cohort, IL-6, MDC and IP10 were associated with pain and were also found to be present in synovial fluid and synovial membrane (except IL-6) of patients with hip OA. OA may include different inflammatory subtypes according to affected joints and distinct inflammatory processes may drive OA in these joints. IL6, MDC and IP10 are

  4. Preserving knee function following osteoarthritis diagnosis: a sustainability theory and social ecology clinical commentary.

    PubMed

    Nyland, J; Wera, J; Henzman, C; Miller, T; Jakob, R; Caborn, D N M

    2015-02-01

    To sustain natural systems, there must be an ongoing balance between environmental, social, and economic considerations. A key element of sustainability theory is to identify the most vulnerable surroundings. The most vulnerable knee tissue is the articular cartilage as it is the last line of osteoarthritis (OA) defense. This tissue has a poor capacity for healing. Based on sustainability theory and social ecology concepts we propose that several key factors contribute to knee function preservation. Factors include health history, genetic predisposition, personal behaviors, and socio-environmental factors in addition to local-regional-global physiological system function. Addressing only some of these factors or any one factor in isolation may lead to less than optimal treatment effectiveness. The purpose of this commentary is to introduce a medical, surgical and rehabilitation management approach for patients with knee OA that considers more than physical function improvement. This approach also considers social, emotional, and environmental factors to better ensure patient satisfaction, fulfilled expectations and successful outcomes. A clinical care pathway is presented for a 57-year-old patient with medial compartment knee OA who is contemplating early arthroplasty versus a knee function preservation treatment approach. Early arthroplasty refers to high revision likelihood based on a minimum 15 year prosthesis life-expectancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Evidence-based Guideline.

    PubMed

    McGrory, Brian J; Weber, Kristy L; Jevsevar, David S; Sevarino, Kaitlyn

    2016-08-01

    Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Evidence-based Guideline is based on a systematic review of the current scientific and clinical research. The guideline contains 38 recommendations pertaining to the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative care of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee who are considering surgical treatment. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to help improve surgical management of patients with OA of the knee based on current best evidence. In addition to guideline recommendations, the work group highlighted the need for better research on the surgical management of OA of the knee.

  6. The relationship between foot and ankle symptoms and risk of developing knee osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Paterson, K L; Kasza, J; Hunter, D J; Hinman, R S; Menz, H B; Peat, G; Bennell, K L

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether foot and/or ankle symptoms increase the risk of developing (1) knee symptoms and (2) symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). 1020 Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) participants who were at-risk of knee OA, but were without knee symptoms or radiographic knee OA, were investigated. Participants indicated the presence and laterality of foot/ankle symptoms at baseline. The main outcome was development of knee symptoms (pain, aching or stiffness in and around the knee on most days of the month for at least 1 month in the past year). A secondary outcome was development of symptomatic radiographic knee OA (symptoms plus Kellgren and Lawrence [KL] grade ≥2), over the subsequent 4 years. Associations between foot/ankle symptoms and study outcomes were assessed by logistic regression models. Foot/ankle symptoms in either or both feet significantly increased the odds of developing knee symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 2.19), and developing symptomatic radiographic knee OA (adjusted OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.69 to 6.37). Based on laterality, contralateral foot/ankle symptoms were associated with developing both knee symptoms (adjusted OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.68) and symptomatic radiographic knee OA (adjusted OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 8.98), whilst bilateral foot/ankle symptoms were associated with developing symptomatic radiographic knee OA (adjusted OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.76 to 9.17). In individuals at-risk of knee OA, the presence of contralateral foot/ankle symptoms in particular increases risk of developing both knee symptoms and symptomatic radiographic knee OA. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coronal tibial slope is associated with accelerated knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Stout, Alina C; Duryea, Jeffrey; Lo, Grace H; Harvey, William F; Price, Lori Lyn; Ward, Robert J; Eaton, Charles B; Barbe, Mary F; Lu, Bing; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2016-07-19

    Accelerated knee osteoarthritis may be a unique subset of knee osteoarthritis, which is associated with greater knee pain and disability. Identifying risk factors for accelerated knee osteoarthritis is vital to recognizing people who will develop accelerated knee osteoarthritis and initiating early interventions. The geometry of an articular surface (e.g., coronal tibial slope), which is a determinant of altered joint biomechanics, may be an important risk factor for incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to determine if baseline coronal tibial slope is associated with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis or common knee osteoarthritis. We conducted a case-control study using data and images from baseline and the first 4 years of follow-up in the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We included three groups: 1) individuals with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis, 2) individuals with common knee osteoarthritis progression, and 3) a control group with no knee osteoarthritis at any time. We did 1:1:1 matching for the 3 groups based on sex. Weight-bearing, fixed flexion posterior-anterior knee radiographs were obtained at each visit. One reader manually measured baseline coronal tibial slope on the radiographs. Baseline femorotibial angle was measured on the radiographs using a semi-automated program. To assess the relationship between slope (predictor) and incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis or common knee osteoarthritis (outcomes) compared with no knee osteoarthritis (reference outcome), we performed multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex. The mean baseline slope for incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis, common knee osteoarthritis, and no knee osteoarthritis were 3.1(2.0), 2.7(2.1), and 2.6(1.9); respectively. A greater slope was associated with an increased risk of incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis (OR = 1.15 per degree, 95 % CI = 1.01 to 1.32) but not common knee osteoarthritis (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 0

  8. Osteoarthritis year in review: rehabilitation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Davis, A M

    2012-03-01

    This review highlights seminal publications of rehabilitation interventions and outcomes in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. Medline, CINAHL, and Embase databases from September 2010 through August 2011 were searched using the key words 'osteoarthritis', rehabilitation, physical therapy, exercise, and outcome(s), limited to human and English. Rehabilitation intervention studies were included if they were randomized trials (RCT), systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Studies of surgical interventions were excluded unless they included evaluation of a rehabilitation intervention. Outcome studies were included if they contributed methodologically to advancing outcome measurement. Reviews of measurement properties of outcomes were excluded. Eight publications were selected and reviewed that relate to interventions evaluating manual therapy in hip or knee OA, tele-rehabilitation and performance and participation measures as outcomes. One systematic review of hip and knee OA, one meta-analysis of knee OA provide limited support for the benefit of manual therapy with exercise for improving pain and function to a lesser extent in the short-term (3 months). Study quality overall was low. One high quality RCT in knee replacement of usual outpatient physiotherapy vs internet-based tele-rehabilitation based on a non-inferiority analysis demonstrated comparable outcomes on Western Ontario McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis questionnaire (WOMAC) pain and function and performance measures. Three studies demonstrated that observed performance measures such as timed walk tests and stair-climbing and timed-up-and-go measure concepts differ from self-report of difficulty with physical function. Additionally, two studies showed differential times of recovery following total knee replacement (TKR). Two studies evaluated participation. One demonstrated the conceptual distinction of activity limitations and participation and a second re-analyzed trial data from knee OA studies

  9. The clinical utility and diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging for identification of early and advanced knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Quatman, Carmen E; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Schmitt, Laura C; Spindler, Kurt P

    2011-07-01

    Current diagnostic strategies for detection of structural articular cartilage abnormalities, the earliest structural signs of osteoarthritis, often do not capture the condition until it is too far advanced for the most potential benefit of noninvasive interventions. To systematically review the literature relative to the following questions: (1) Is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a valid, sensitive, specific, accurate, and reliable instrument to identify knee articular cartilage abnormalities compared with arthroscopy? (2) Is MRI a sensitive tool that can be utilized to identify early cartilage degeneration? Systematic review. A systematic search was performed in November 2010 using PubMed MEDLINE (from 1966), CINAHL (from 1982), SPORTDiscus (from 1985), SCOPUS (from 1996), and EMBASE (from 1974) databases. Fourteen level I and 13 level II studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and provided information related to diagnostic performance of MRI compared with arthroscopic evaluation. The diagnostic performance of MRI demonstrated a large range of sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies. The sensitivity for identifying articular cartilage abnormalities in the knee joint was reported between 26% and 96%. Specificity and accuracy were reported between 50% and 100% and between 49% and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying early osteoarthritis were reported between 0% and 86%, 48% and 95%, and 5% and 94%, respectively. As a result of inconsistencies between imaging techniques and methodological shortcomings of many of the studies, a meta-analysis was not performed, and it was difficult to fully synthesize the information to state firm conclusions about the diagnostic performance of MRI. There is evidence in some MRI protocols that MRI is a relatively valid, sensitive, specific, accurate, and reliable clinical tool for identifying articular cartilage degeneration. Because of heterogeneity of MRI sequences, it is not

  10. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells or meniscal cells: what is the best cell source for regenerative meniscus treatment in an early osteoarthritis situation?

    PubMed

    Zellner, Johannes; Pattappa, Girish; Koch, Matthias; Lang, Siegmund; Weber, Johannes; Pfeifer, Christian G; Mueller, Michael B; Kujat, Richard; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2017-10-10

    Treatment of meniscus tears within the avascular region represents a significant challenge, particularly in a situation of early osteoarthritis. Cell-based tissue engineering approaches have shown promising results. However, studies have not found a consensus on the appropriate autologous cell source in a clinical situation, specifically in a challenging degenerative environment. The present study sought to evaluate the appropriate cell source for autologous meniscal repair in a demanding setting of early osteoarthritis. A rabbit model was used to test autologous meniscal repair. Bone marrow and medial menisci were harvested 4 weeks prior to surgery. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and meniscal cells were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto collagen-hyaluronan scaffolds before implantation. A punch defect model was performed on the lateral meniscus and then a cell-seeded scaffold was press-fit into the defect. Following 6 or 12 weeks, gross joint morphology and OARSI grade were assessed, and menisci were harvested for macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluation using a validated meniscus scoring system. In conjunction, human meniscal cells isolated from non-repairable bucket handle tears and human MSCs were expanded and, using the pellet culture model, assessed for their meniscus-like potential in a translational setting through collagen type I and II immunostaining, collagen type II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and gene expression analysis. After resections of the medial menisci, all knees showed early osteoarthritic changes (average OARSI grade 3.1). However, successful repair of meniscus punch defects was performed using either meniscal cells or MSCs. Gross joint assessment demonstrated donor site morbidity for meniscal cell treatment. Furthermore, human MSCs had significantly increased collagen type II gene expression and production compared to meniscal cells (p < 0.05). The regenerative potential of the

  11. Strontium ranelate, a promising disease modifying osteoarthritis drug.

    PubMed

    Han, Weiyu; Fan, Shicai; Bai, Xiaochun; Ding, Changhai

    2017-03-01

    The articular cartilage and subchondral bone may have potential crosstalk in the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Strontium ranelate (SrR) has the ability to dissociate the bone remodeling process and to change the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. Its effect on subchondral bone makes it a potential disease- modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD) in the treatment of OA. The aim of the current review is to summarize up-to-date pharmacological and clinical data of SrR for OA treatment. Areas covered: A literature search was performed on PubMed and European Medicines Agency (EMA) website for all publications and documents related to SrR and OA. References of related studies were searched by hand. Treatment with SrR, especially at the dosage of 2 g/day, was associated with reduced radiographic knee OA progression, and with meaningful clinical improvement. It was also significantly associated with decreased MRI-assessed cartilage volume loss (CVL) and bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Expert opinion: SrR could be a promising DMOAD particularly for OA patients with bone phenotypes. The clinical efficacy and side effects of SrR for OA treatment need to be further investigated in future clinical trials before clinical application.

  12. Occupational and genetic risk factors for osteoarthritis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yucesoy, Berran; Charles, Luenda E.; Baker, Brent; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease with strong genetic and occupational components. Although published studies have described several risk factors for OA, very few studies have investigated the occupational and genetic factors that contribute to this debilitating condition. OBJECTIVE To describe occupational and genetic factors that may contribute to the risk of developing (OA). METHODS A literature search was conducted in PubMed using the search terms osteoarthritis, occupation, work, and genetics. RESULTS Heavy physical work load was the most common occupational risk factor for OA in several anatomical locations. Other factors include kneeling and regular stair climbing, crawling, bending and whole body vibration, and repetitive movements. Numerous studies have also shown the influence of genetic variability in the pathogenesis of OA. Genetic variants of several groups of genes e.g., cartilage extracellular matrix structural genes and the genes related to bone density have been implicated in disease pathogenesis. CONCLUSION This review shows that occupational factors were extensively studied in knee OA unlike OA of other anatomical regions. Although genetic association studies performed to date identified a number of risk variants, some of these associations have not been consistently replicated across different studies and populations. Therefore, more research is needed. PMID:24004806

  13. Genetic epidemiology of hip and knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Ana M; Spector, Tim D

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of arthritis and represents an enormous healthcare burden in industrialized societies. Current therapeutic approaches for OA are limited and are insufficient to prevent the initiation and progression of the disease. Genetic studies of patients with OA can help to unravel the molecular mechanisms responsible for specific disease manifestations, including joint damage, nociception and chronic pain. Indeed, these studies have identified molecules, such as growth/differentiation factor 5, involved in signaling cascades that are important for the pathology of joint components. Genome-wide association studies have uncovered a likely role in OA for the genes encoding structural extracellular matrix components (such as DVWA) and molecules involved in prostaglandin metabolism (such as DQB1 and BTNL2). A ∼300 kilobase region in chromosome 7q22 is also associated with OA susceptibility. Finally, the identification of individuals at a high risk of OA and of total joint arthroplasty failure might be facilitated by the use of combinations of genetic markers, allowing for the application of preventive and disease-management strategies.

  14. Imaging Bone–Cartilage Interactions in Osteoarthritis Using [18F]-NaF PET-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Pedoia, Valentina; Seo, Youngho; Yang, Jaewon; Bucknor, Matt; Franc, Benjamin L.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Simultaneous positron emission tomography–magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) is an emerging technology providing both anatomical and functional images without increasing the scan time. Compared to the traditional PET/computed tomography imaging, it also exposes the patient to significantly less radiation and provides better anatomical images as MRI provides superior soft tissue characterization. Using PET-MRI, we aim to study interactions between cartilage composition and bone function simultaneously, in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Procedures: In this article, bone turnover and remodeling was studied using [18F]-sodium fluoride (NaF) PET data. Quantitative MR-derived T1ρ relaxation times characterized the biochemical cartilage degeneration. Sixteen participants with early signs of OA of the knee received intravenous injections of [18F]-NaF at the onset of PET-MR image acquisition. Regions of interest were identified, and kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data provided the rate of uptake (Ki) and the normalized uptake (standardized uptake value) of [18F]-NaF in the bone. Morphological MR images and quantitative voxel-based T1ρ maps of cartilage were obtained using an atlas-based registration technique to segment cartilage automatically. Voxel-by-voxel statistical parameter mapping was used to investigate the relationship between bone and cartilage. Results: Increases in cartilage T1ρ, indicating degenerative changes, were associated with increased turnover in the adjoining bone but reduced turnover in the nonadjoining compartments. Associations between pain and increased bone uptake were seen in the absence of morphological lesions in cartilage, but the relationship was reversed in the presence of incident cartilage lesions. Conclusion: This study shows significant cartilage and bone interactions in OA of the knee joint using simultaneous [18F]-NaF PET-MR, the first in human study. These observations highlight the complex biomechanical and biochemical

  15. Determination of Pain Phenotypes in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Latent Class Analysis using Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kittelson, Andrew J.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.; Schmiege, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a broadly applied diagnosis that may encompass multiple subtypes of pain. The purpose of this study was to identify phenotypes of knee OA, using measures from the following pain-related domains: 1) knee OA pathology, 2) psychological distress, and 3) altered pain neurophysiology. Methods Data were selected from a total of 3494 participants at Visit #6 of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) study. Latent Class Analysis was applied to the following variables: radiographic OA severity, quadriceps strength, Body Mass Index (BMI), Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression subscale (CES-D), Coping Strategies Questionnaire-Catastrophizing subscale (CSQ-Cat), number of bodily pain sites, and knee joint tenderness at 4 sites. Resulting classes were compared on the following demographic and clinical factors: age, sex, pain severity, disability, walking speed, and use of arthritis-related healthcare. Results A four-class model was identified. Class 1 (4% of the study population) had higher CCI scores. Class 2 (24%) had higher knee joint sensitivity. Class 3 (10%) had greater psychological distress. Class 4 (62%) had lesser radiographic OA, little psychological involvement, greater strength, and less pain sensitivity. Additionally, Class 1 was the oldest, on average. Class 4 was the youngest, had the lowest disability, and least pain. Class 3 had the worst disability and most pain. Conclusions Four distinct pain phenotypes of knee OA were identified. Psychological factors, comorbidity status, and joint sensitivity appear to be important in defining phenotypes of knee OA-related pain. PMID:26414884

  16. Determination of Pain Phenotypes in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Latent Class Analysis Using Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kittelson, Andrew J; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E; Schmiege, Sarah J

    2016-05-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a broadly applied diagnosis that may describe multiple subtypes of pain. The purpose of this study was to identify phenotypes of knee OA, using measures from the following pain-related domains: 1) knee OA pathology, 2) psychological distress, and 3) altered pain neurophysiology. Data were selected from a total of 3,494 participants at visit 6 of the Osteoarthritis Initiative study. Latent class analysis was applied to the following variables: radiographic OA severity, quadriceps strength, body mass index, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire-Catastrophizing subscale, number of bodily pain sites, and knee joint tenderness at 4 sites. The resulting classes were compared on the following demographic and clinical factors: age, sex, pain severity, disability, walking speed, and use of arthritis-related health care. A 4-class model was identified. Class 1 (4% of the study population) had higher CCI scores. Class 2 (24%) had higher knee joint sensitivity. Class 3 (10%) had greater psychological distress. Class 4 (62%) had lesser radiographic OA, little psychological involvement, greater strength, and less pain sensitivity. Additionally, class 1 was the oldest, on average. Class 4 was the youngest, had the lowest disability, and least pain. Class 3 had the worst disability and most pain. Four distinct pain phenotypes of knee OA were identified. Psychological factors, comorbidity status, and joint sensitivity appear to be important in defining phenotypes of knee OA-related pain. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. What of guidelines for osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    Lim, Anita Y N; Doherty, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is by far the most common joint disease and a major cause of pain and disability. The prevalence and impact of OA will increase in the next decades in the Asia-Pacific region due to increased longevity, increasing urbanization and a parallel increase in obesity. The three main types of evidence to inform evidence-based practice are research evidence, expert experience and patient opinion--all three of these are equally weighted. Guideline development groups vary in terms of process and structure of guideline production and in how much integration there is between research, expert and patient evidence. Nevertheless, guidelines on OA concur in recommending: holistic assessment of the patient and individualizing the management plan; patient information access; weight loss if overweight or obese, and prescription of exercise. Additional adjunctive non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions, including surgery, may be added to this core set as required. However, when audited, it appears that management of OA is often suboptimal, with a major focus on oral analgesics, especially non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A number of barriers to implementation are evident and appropriate audit of care is necessary to improve delivery of service and to plan healthcare resources. For OA, the effect size of placebo in clinical trials is usually far greater than the additional specific effect of individual treatments, emphasizing the importance of contextual ('meaning') response in this chronic painful condition. This has important implications for clinical care in that optimization of the contextual response can lead to improvements in patient outcomes even in the absence of very effective treatments. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Osteoarthritis and frailty in elderly individuals across six European countries: results from the European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA).

    PubMed

    Castell, Maria Victoria; van der Pas, Suzan; Otero, Angel; Siviero, Paola; Dennison, Elaine; Denkinger, Michael; Pedersen, Nancy; Sanchez-Martinez, Mercedes; Queipo, Rocio; van Schoor, Natasja; Zambon, Sabina; Edwards, Mark; Peter, Richard; Schaap, Laura; Deeg, Dorly

    2015-11-17

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability in the elderly. Clinical frailty is associated with high mortality, but few studies have explored the relationship between OA and frailty. The objective of this study was to consider the association between OA and frailty/pre-frailty in an elderly population comprised of six European cohorts participating in the EPOSA project. Longitudinal study using baseline data and first follow-up waves, from EPOSA; 2,455 individuals aged 65-85 years were recruited from pre-existing population-based cohorts in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Data were collected on clinical OA at any site (hand, knee or hip), based on the clinical classification criteria developed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). Frailty was defined according to Fried's criteria. The covariates considered were age, gender, educational level, obesity and country. We used multinomial logistic regression to analyse the associations between OA, frailty/pre-frailty and other covariates. The overall prevalence of clinical OA at any site was 30.4 % (95 % CI:28.6-32.2); frailty was present in 10.2 % (95 % CI:9.0-11.4) and pre-frailty in 51.0 % (95 % CI:49.0-53.0). The odds of frailty was 2.96 (95 % CI:2.11-4.16) and pre-frailty 1.54 (95 % CI:1.24-1.91) as high among OA individuals than those without OA. The association remained when Knee OA, hip OA or hand OA were considered separately, and was stronger in those with increasing number of joints. Clinical OA is associated with frailty and pre-frailty in older adults in European countries. This association might be considered when designing appropriate intervention strategies for OA management.

  19. Nutraceuticals: potential for chondroprotection and molecular targeting of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Leong, Daniel J; Choudhury, Marwa; Hirsh, David M; Hardin, John A; Cobelli, Neil J; Sun, Hui B

    2013-11-21

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of adult disability. There is no cure for OA, and no effective treatments which arrest or slow its progression. Current pharmacologic treatments such as analgesics may improve pain relief but do not alter OA disease progression. Prolonged consumption of these drugs can result in severe adverse effects. Given the nature of OA, life-long treatment will likely be required to arrest or slow its progression. Consequently, there is an urgent need for OA disease-modifying therapies which also improve symptoms and are safe for clinical use over long periods of time. Nutraceuticals-food or food products that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease-offer not only favorable safety profiles, but may exert disease- and symptom-modification effects in OA. Forty-seven percent of OA patients use alternative medications, including nutraceuticals. This review will overview the efficacy and mechanism of action of commonly used nutraceuticals, discuss recent experimental and clinical data on the effects of select nutraceuticals, such as phytoflavonoids, polyphenols, and bioflavonoids on OA, and highlight their known molecular actions and limitations of their current use. We will conclude with a proposed novel nutraceutical-based molecular targeting strategy for chondroprotection and OA treatment.

  20. Nutraceuticals: Potential for Chondroprotection and Molecular Targeting of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Daniel J.; Choudhury, Marwa; Hirsh, David M.; Hardin, John A.; Cobelli, Neil J.; Sun, Hui B.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and a leading cause of adult disability. There is no cure for OA, and no effective treatments which arrest or slow its progression. Current pharmacologic treatments such as analgesics may improve pain relief but do not alter OA disease progression. Prolonged consumption of these drugs can result in severe adverse effects. Given the nature of OA, life-long treatment will likely be required to arrest or slow its progression. Consequently, there is an urgent need for OA disease-modifying therapies which also improve symptoms and are safe for clinical use over long periods of time. Nutraceuticals—food or food products that provide medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease—offer not only favorable safety profiles, but may exert disease- and symptom-modification effects in OA. Forty-seven percent of OA patients use alternative medications, including nutraceuticals. This review will overview the efficacy and mechanism of action of commonly used nutraceuticals, discuss recent experimental and clinical data on the effects of select nutraceuticals, such as phytoflavonoids, polyphenols, and bioflavonoids on OA, and highlight their known molecular actions and limitations of their current use. We will conclude with a proposed novel nutraceutical-based molecular targeting strategy for chondroprotection and OA treatment. PMID:24284399

  1. Occupational activity and osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, C; McAlindon, T; Coggon, D; Egger, P; Dieppe, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To test the hypothesis that specific occupational physical activities are risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS--A population-based case-control study of knee osteoarthritis was carried out in which 109 men and women with painful, radiographically confirmed knee OA were compared with 218 age and sex matched controls who had not suffered knee pain and had normal radiographs. Information collected included a lifetime occupational history and details of specific workplace physical activities. RESULTS--After adjustment for obesity and Heberden's nodes, the risk of knee OA was significantly elevated in subjects whose main job entailed more than 30 minutes per day squatting (OR 6.9, 95% CI 1.8-26.4) or kneeling (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-9.1), or climbing more than ten flights of stairs per day (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1). The increase in risk associated with kneeling or squatting appeared to be more marked in subjects whose jobs entailed heavy lifting, but the size of the study did not permit precise delineation of any such interaction. CONCLUSIONS--These data suggest that prolonged or repeated knee bending is a risk factor for knee OA, and that risk may be higher in jobs which entail both knee bending and mechanical loading. PMID:8129467

  2. Current advances in therapies for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kalunian, Kenneth C

    2016-05-01

    Although osteoarthritis (OA) has received a paucity of attention from researchers in terms of drug development, there have been some significant findings relevant to clinical issues in OA that are summarized in this review. Recent osteoarthritis research has focused on synovial, subchondral bone, and biomechanical effects of the disease. Results from a pilot study of patients treated with methotrexate demonstrated 20% pain reduction in 50% of patients and 40% pain reduction in 37% of patients. Data show that plasma levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and synovial fluid levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha associate with radiographic progression, suggesting that these mediators may be prognostic biomarkers and/or targets for drug development. Recent data suggest that subchondral bone features associate with structural progression, suggesting a need for therapeutic approaches that target this region. Patient-reported outcome measures and kinematic factors may predict success to an exercise treatment protocol and unloader braces appear to reduce the knee adduction moment, suggesting a need for a comprehensive review of the clinical effects of braces. Advances in the understanding of key areas of osteoarthritis pathogenesis are helping define the spectrum of therapeutic targets that potentially should be explored to reduce the symptomatic and structural effects of osteoarthritis.

  3. A Comprehensive Review of the Effectiveness of Different Exercise Programs for Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Golightly, Yvonne M.; Allen, Kelli D.; Caine, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise is recommended as a first-line conservative intervention approach for osteoarthritis (OA). A wide range of exercise programs are available, and scientific evidence is necessary for advising patients with OA on the optimal treatment strategy. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effectiveness of different types of exercise programs for OA based on trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in the literature. Publications from January 1997 to July 2012 were searched in 4 electronic databases using the terms osteoarthritis, exercise, exercise program, effectiveness, and treatment outcome. Strong evidence supports that aerobic and strengthening exercise programs, both land- and water-based, are beneficial for improving pain and physical function in adults with mild to moderate knee and hip OA. Areas that require further research include examination of the long-term effects of exercise programs for OA, balance training for OA, exercise programs for severe OA, the effect of exercise programs on progression of OA, the effectiveness of exercise for joint sites other than the knee or hip, and the effectiveness of exercise for OA by such factors as age, gender and obesity. Efforts to improve adherence to evidence-based exercise programs for OA and to promote the dissemination and implementation of these programs are crucial. PMID:23306415

  4. Clinical trial data in support of changing guidelines in osteoarthritis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Balmaceda, Casilda M

    2014-01-01

    Goals for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) emphasize pain relief, reduction of inflammation, and improvement in functioning. Among pharmacological pain management interventions, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently recommended as the most effective treatment option for OA. However, the use of traditional oral NSAIDs is associated with risk of serious adverse events involving the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal systems. Topical NSAIDs are an alternative with well-established tolerability and efficacy in the treatment of OA of the knee or hand. While the management of OA pain is evolving toward the more widespread use of topical NSAIDs, some OA management guidelines have yet to incorporate these agents in their recommendations. This review examines the efficacy and tolerability of topical NSAIDs, their current placement in OA management guidelines, and their potential role in enabling pain specialists to provide individualized care for their patients with OA. PMID:24748817

  5. Early Induction of Apple Fruitlet Abscission Is Characterized by an Increase of Both Isoprene Emission and Abscisic Acid Content12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Giulia, Eccher; Alessandro, Botton; Mariano, Dimauro; Andrea, Boschetti; Benedetto, Ruperti; Angelo, Ramina

    2013-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) fruitlet abscission represents an interesting model system to study the early phases of the shedding process, during which major transcriptomic changes and metabolic rearrangements occur within the fruit. In apple, the drop of fruits at different positions within the cluster can be selectively magnified through chemical thinners, such as benzyladenine and metamitron, acting as abscission enhancers. In this study, different abscission potentials were obtained within the apple fruitlet population by means of the above-cited thinners. A metabolomic study was conducted on the volatile organic compounds emitted by abscising fruitlets, allowing for identification of isoprene as an early marker of abscission induction. A strong correlation was also observed between isoprene production and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in the fruit cortex, which were shown to increase in abscising fruitlets with respect to nonabscising ones. Transcriptomic evidence indicated that abscission-related ABA is biologically active, and its increased biosynthesis is associated with the induction of a specific ABA-responsive 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene. According to a hypothetical model, ABA may transiently cooperate with other hormones and secondary messengers in the generation of an intrafruit signal leading to the downstream activation of the abscission zone. The shedding process therefore appears to be triggered by multiple interdependent pathways, whose fine regulation, exerted within a very short temporal window by both endogenous and exogenous factors, determines the final destiny of the fruitlets. PMID:23444344

  6. The Armadillo Repeat Gene ZAK IXIK Promotes Arabidopsis Early Embryo and Endosperm Development through a Distinctive Gametophytic Maternal Effect[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Quy A.; Baroux, Celia; Guthörl, Daniela; Mozerov, Peter; Collinge, Margaret A.; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    The proper balance of parental genomic contributions to the fertilized embryo and endosperm is essential for their normal growth and development. The characterization of many gametophytic maternal effect (GME) mutants affecting seed development indicates that there are certain classes of genes with a predominant maternal contribution. We present a detailed analysis of the GME mutant zak ixik (zix), which displays delayed and arrested growth at the earliest stages of embryo and endosperm development. ZIX encodes an Armadillo repeat (Arm) protein highly conserved across eukaryotes. Expression studies revealed that ZIX manifests a GME through preferential maternal expression in the early embryo and endosperm. This parent-of-origin–dependent expression is regulated by neither the histone and DNA methylation nor the DNA demethylation pathways known to regulate some other GME mutants. The ZIX protein is localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells in reproductive tissues and actively dividing root zones. The maternal ZIX allele is required for the maternal expression of MINISEED3. Collectively, our results reveal a reproductive function of plant Arm proteins in promoting early seed growth, which is achieved through a distinct GME of ZIX that involves mechanisms for maternal allele-specific expression that are independent of the well-established pathways. PMID:23064319

  7. Tibiofemoral Osteoarthritis and Varus-Valgus Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Freisinger, Gregory M.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Wanamaker, Andrea B.; Siston, Robert A.; Chaudhari, Ajit M. W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and synthesize the literature measuring varus-valgus laxity in individuals with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA). Specifically, we aimed to identify varus-valgus laxity differences between persons with OA and controls, by radiographic disease severity, by frontal plane knee alignment, and by sex. We also aimed to identify if there was a relationship between varus-valgus laxity and clinical performance and self-reported function. We systematically searched for peer-reviewed original research articles in PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL to identify all existing literature regarding knee OA and objective measurement of varus-valgus laxity in vivo. Forty articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria and data were extracted. Varus-valgus laxity was significantly greater in individuals with OA compared with controls in a majority of studies, while no study found laxity to be significantly greater in controls. Varus-valgus laxity of the knee was reported in persons with OA and varying degrees of frontal plane alignment, disease severity, clinical performance, and self-reported function but no consensus finding could be identified. Females with knee OA appear to have more varus-valgus laxity than males. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the subject populations and differences in laxity measurement devices, applied loading, and laxity definitions. Increased varus-valgus laxity is a characteristic of knee joints with OA. Large variances exist in reported varus-valgus laxity and may be due to differences in measurement devices. Prospective studies on joint laxity are needed to identify if increased varus-valgus laxity is a causative factor in OA incidence and progression. PMID:27680888

  8. Central Sensitization and Neuropathic Features of Ongoing Pain in a Rat Model of Advanced Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Havelin, Joshua; Imbert, Ian; Cormier, Jennifer; Allen, Joshua; Porreca, Frank; King, Tamara

    2016-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) pain is most commonly characterized by movement-triggered joint pain. However, in advanced disease, OA pain becomes persistent, ongoing and resistant to treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The mechanisms underlying ongoing pain in advanced OA are poorly understood. We recently showed that intra-articular (i.a.) injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the rat knee joint produces concentration-dependent outcomes. Thus, a low dose of i.a. MIA produces NSAID-sensitive weight asymmetry without evidence of ongoing pain and a high i.a. MIA dose produces weight asymmetry and NSAID-resistant ongoing pain. In the present study, palpation of the ipsilateral hind limb of rats treated 14 days previously with high, but not low, doses of i.a. MIA produced expression of the early oncogene, FOS, in the spinal dorsal horn. Inactivation of descending pain facilitatory pathways using a microinjection of lidocaine within the rostral ventromedial medulla induced conditioned place preference selectively in rats treated with the high dose of MIA. Conditioned place preference to intra-articular lidocaine was blocked by pretreatment with duloxetine (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally at -30 minutes). These observations are consistent with the likelihood of a neuropathic component of OA that elicits ongoing, NSAID-resistant pain and central sensitization that is mediated, in part, by descending modulatory mechanisms. This model provides a basis for exploration of underlying mechanisms promoting neuropathic components of OA pain and for the identification of mechanisms that might guide drug discovery for treatment of advanced OA pain without the need for joint replacement. Difficulty in managing advanced OA pain often results in joint replacement therapy in these patients. Improved understanding of mechanisms driving NSAID-resistant ongoing OA pain might facilitate development of alternatives to joint replacement therapy. Our findings suggest

  9. Validation of TMJ osteoarthritis synthetic defect database via non-rigid registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Pera, Juliette; Budin, Francois; Gomes, Liliane; Styner, Martin; Lucia, Cevidanes; Nguyen, Tung

    2015-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders are a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the jaw joint and the muscles controlling jaw movement. However, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions remain controversial. To date, there is no single sign, symptom, or test that can clearly diagnose early stages of osteoarthritis (OA). Instead, the diagnosis is based on a consideration of several factors, including radiological evaluation. The current radiological diagnosis scores of TMJ pathology are subject to misdiagnosis. We believe these scores are limited by the acquisition procedures, such as oblique cuts of the CT and head positioning errors, and can lead to incorrect diagnoses of flattening of the head of the condyle, formation of osteophytes, or condylar pitting. This study consists of creating and validating a methodological framework to simulate defects in CBCT scans of known location and size, in order to create synthetic TMJ OA database. User-generated defects were created using a non-rigid deformation protocol in CBCT. All segmentation evaluation, surface distances and linear distances from the user-generated to the simulated defects showed our methodological framework to be very precise and within a voxel (0.5 mm) of magnitude. A TMJ OA synthetic database will be created next, and evaluated by expert radiologists, and this will serve to evaluate how sensitive the current radiological diagnosis tools are.

  10. Curcumin slows osteoarthritis progression and relieves osteoarthritis-associated pain symptoms in a post-traumatic osteoarthritis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Leong, Daniel J; Xu, Lin; He, Zhiyong; Wang, Angela; Navati, Mahantesh; Kim, Sun J; Hirsh, David M; Hardin, John A; Cobelli, Neil J; Friedman, Joel M; Sun, Hui B

    2016-06-03

    Curcumin has been shown to have chondroprotective potential in vitro. However, its effect on disease and symptom modification in osteoarthritis (OA) is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether curcumin could slow progression of OA and relieve OA-related pain in a mouse model of destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Expression of selected cartilage degradative-associated genes was evaluated in human primary chondrocytes treated with curcumin and curcumin nanoparticles and assayed by real-time PCR. The mice subjected to DMM surgery were orally administered curcumin or topically administered curcumin nanoparticles for 8 weeks. Cartilage integrity was evaluated by Safranin O staining and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) score, and by immunohistochemical staining of cleaved aggrecan and type II collagen, and levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and ADAMTS5. Synovitis and subchondral bone thickness were scored based on histologic images. OA-associated pain and symptoms were evaluated by von Frey assay, and locomotor behavior including distance traveled and rearing. Both curcumin and nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin suppressed mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-1β and TNF-α, MMPs 1, 3, and 13, and aggrecanase ADAMTS5, and upregulated the chondroprotective transcriptional regulator CITED2, in primary cultured chondrocytes in the absence or presence of IL-1β. Oral administration of curcumin significantly reduced OA disease progression, but showed no significant effect on OA pain relief. Curcumin was detected in the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) following topical administration of curcumin nanoparticles on the skin of the injured mouse knee. Compared to vehicle-treated controls, topical treatment led to: (1) reduced proteoglycan loss and cartilage erosion and lower OARSI scores, (2) reduced synovitis and subchondral plate thickness, (3) reduced immunochemical staining of type II collagen and aggrecan

  11. Management of osteoarthritis in general practice in Australia.

    PubMed

    Brand, Caroline A; Harrison, Christopher; Tropea, Joanne; Hinman, Rana S; Britt, Helena; Bennell, Kim

    2014-04-01

    To describe management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip (OA-hip) and knee (OA-knee) by Australian general practitioners (GPs). We analyzed data from the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, from April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2010. Patient and GP characteristics and encounter management data were extracted. Data were classified by the International Classification of Primary Care, version 2, and summarized using descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals around point estimates. There were 489,900 GP encounters at which OA was managed (rate of 26.4 per 1,000 encounters). OA-hip was managed at a rate of 2.3 per 1,000 encounters (n = 1,106, 8.6% OA) and OA-knee at a rate of 6.2 per 1,000 (n = 3,058, 23.7% OA). The encounter management rate per 1,000 for OA-hip was higher among non-metropolitan dwellers (2.85 per 1,000 versus 1.97 per 1,000) and lower for non-English-speaking people (1.53 per 1,000 encounters versus 2.39 per 1,000). The rate for OA-knee was higher for non-English-speaking background (8.50 per 1,000 encounters versus 6.24 per 1,000) and lower among indigenous people (3.16 per 1,000 encounters versus 6.46 per 1,000). Referral to an orthopedic surgeon was the most frequently used nonpharmacologic management (OA-knee 17.4 per 100 contacts and OA-hip 17.7 per 100), followed by advice, education, and counselling. As first-line treatment, medication prescription rates (OA-knee 78.7 per 100 contacts and OA-hip 73.2 per 100) were substantially higher than rates of lifestyle management (OA-knee 20.7 per 100 contacts and OA-hip 14.8 per 100). OA-hip and OA-knee encounters and management differ. Nonpharmacologic treatments as first-line management were low compared with pharmacologic management rates, and surgical referral rates were high. However, lack of longitudinal data limits definitive assessment of appropriateness of care. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Impact of Osteoarthritis on Household Catastrophic Health Expenditures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoungyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Daehyun; Kim, Dalho; Jung, Sun-Young; Jang, Eun Jin; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung

    2018-05-21

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of old age whose prevalence is increasing. This study explored the impact of OA on household catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) in Korea. We used data on 5,200 households from the Korea Health Panel Survey in 2013 and estimated annual living expenses and out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Household CHE was defined when a household's total OOP health payments exceeded 10%, 20%, 30%, or 40% of the household's capacity to pay. To compare the OOP payments of households with OA individuals and those without OA, OA households were matched 1:1 with households containing a member with other chronic disease such as neoplasm, hypertension, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, or osteoporosis. The impact of OA on CHE was determined by multivariable logistic analysis. A total of 1,289 households were included, and households with and without OA patients paid mean annual OOP payments of $2,789 and $2,607, respectively. The prevalence of household CHE at thresholds of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were higher in households with OA patients than in those without OA patients ( P < 0.001). The presence of OA patients in each household contributed significantly to CHE at thresholds of 10% (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.87), 20% (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.66), and 30% (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.78), but not of 40% (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.87-1.57). The presence of OA patients in Korean households is significantly related to CHE. Policy makers should try to reduce OOP payments in households with OA patients.

  13. Analgesic efficacy of tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Beatriz P; Klinck, Mary P; Moreau, Maxim; Guillot, Martin; Steagall, Paulo V M; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Gauvin, Dominique; Del Castillo, Jérôme R E; Troncy, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) compare outcome assessments in normal and osteoarthritic cats and (2) evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in feline osteoarthritis (OA), in a prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Twenty cats were included after clinical examination, blood work and full body radiographs were performed. In Phase 1, outcome assessments aimed to differentiate normal (n = 5; i.e. exempt of any radiographic and clinical sign of OA) from OA (n = 15) cats. In Phase 2, OA cats were treated twice daily with a placebo (PG: cornstarch 15 mg) or tramadol (TG: 3 mg/kg) orally for 19 days, with a 3-month washout period between treatments. Evaluations were performed in normal and OA cats at baseline and consisted of: 1) peak vertical force (PVF) after staircase exercise; 2) telemetered night-time motor activity (NMA); and 3) response to mechanical temporal summation (RMTS). After treatment, PVF, NMA and RMTS evaluations were repeated in OA cats. Data were analysed with mixed model methods with an alpha-threshold of 5%. Phase 1: 1) PVF (% of body weight; mean ± SD) was higher in normal (59 ± 10.5) than in OA cats (50.6 ± 5.7) (p = 0.005); 2) NMA (no unit) was not different between groups; 3) RMTS (number of stimuli; median (range)) was higher in normal [29.5 (23.5-30)] than in OA cats [14 (8.5-28)] (p < 0.0001). Phase 2: PVF, NMA and RMTS presented a treatment effect (p = 0.024, p = 0.008 and p = 0.018, respectively). No clinically important adverse-effects were observed. Outcome assessments such as kinetics (PVF) and evaluation of central sensitisation (RMTS) are discriminant of OA status. Mobility measured by NMA was not discriminant of OA status, however it increased in OA cats with tramadol treatment. Nociceptive hypersensitivity quantified by RMTS was evident in OA cats and was responsive to tramadol treatment.

  14. Logistical challenges and design considerations for studies using acute anterior cruciate ligament injury as a potential model for early posttraumatic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lattermann, Christian; Jacobs, Cale A; Bunnell, Mary Proffitt; Jochimsen, Kate N; Abt, John P; Reinke, Emily K; Gammon, Lee G; Huebner, Janet L; Kraus, Virginia B; Spindler, Kurt P

    2017-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common and lead to posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in a high percentage of patients. Research has been ineffective in identifying successful treatment options for people suffering from symptomatic PTOA resulting in a shift of focus toward the young, ACL injured patients at risk of developing PTOA. Randomized clinical trials examining the very early phase after ACL injury are ideal to study this population; however, these trials face significant challenges regarding recruitment as well as reproducibility of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and inflammatory and/or chondrodegenerative biomarkers associated with early PTOA. The aim of this work was to develop an approach to allow for early recruitment into an RCT for early treatment following ACL injury and to analyze the variability of commonly used measures and biomarkers at various time points after injury. This paper reports the study design and data related to the first month of treatment for the placebo group of an ongoing 2-year clinical trial to evaluate the effect of an early intra-articular intervention after ACL injury. The results of this study suggest that acute ACL injury results in early changes of both inflammatory and chondrodegenerative biomarkers. These results also provide vital information for researchers to consider when developing future protocols, both related to the logistics of early patient enrollment as well as the appropriate timing of biomarker and patient-reported outcome collection. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:641-650, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Spinal neuropeptide modulation, functional assessment and cartilage lesions in a monosodium iodoacetate rat model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Otis, Colombe; Guillot, Martin; Moreau, Maxim; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Beaudry, Francis; Troncy, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Characterising the temporal evolution of changes observed in pain functional assessment, spinal neuropeptides and cartilage lesions of the joint after chemical osteoarthritis (OA) induction in rats. On day (D) 0, OA was induced by an IA injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA). Rats receiving 2mg MIA were temporally assessed at D3, D7, D14 and D21 for the total spinal cord concentration of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related-peptide (CGRP), bradykinin (BK) and somatostatin (STT), and for severity of cartilage lesions. At D21, the same outcomes were compared with the IA 1mg MIA, IA 2mg MIA associated with punctual IA injection of lidocaine at D7, D14 and D21, sham (sterile saline) and naïve groups. Tactile allodynia was sequentially assessed using a von Frey anaesthesiometer. Non-parametric and mixed models were applied for statistical analysis. Tactile allodynia developed in the 2mg MIA group as soon as D3 and was maintained up to D21. Punctual IA treatment with lidocaine counteracted it at D7 and D14. Compared to naïve, [STT], [BK] and [CGRP] reached a maximum as early as D7, which plateaued up to D21. For [SP], the increase was delayed up to D14 and maintained at D21. No difference in levels of neuropeptides was observed between MIA doses, except for higher [STT] in the 2mg MIA group (P=0.029). Neuropeptides SP and BK were responsive to lidocaine treatment. The increase in severity of cartilage lesions was significant only in the 2mg MIA groups (P=0.01). In the MIA OA pain model, neuropeptide modulation appears early, and confirms the central nervous system to be an attractive target for OA pain quantification. The relationship of neuropeptide release with severity of cartilage lesions and functional assessment are promising and need further validation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Cone Setting in Picea abies acrocona Is Associated with Increased Transcriptional Activity of a MADS Box Transcription Factor1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Uddenberg, Daniel; Reimegård, Johan; Clapham, David; Almqvist, Curt; von Arnold, Sara; Emanuelsson, Olof; Sundström, Jens F.

    2013-01-01

    Conifers normally go through a long juvenile period, for Norway spruce (Picea abies) around 20 to 25 years, before developing male and female cones. We have grown plants from inbred crosses of a naturally occurring spruce mutant (acrocona). One-fourth of the segregating acrocona plants initiate cones already in their second growth cycle, suggesting control by a single locus. The early cone-setting properties of the acrocona mutant were utilized to identify candidate genes involved in vegetative-to-reproductive phase change in Norway spruce. Poly(A+) RNA samples from apical and basal shoots of cone-setting and non-cone-setting plants were subjected to high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq). We assembled and investigated 33,383 expressed putative protein-coding acrocona transcripts. Eight transcripts were differentially expressed between selected sample pairs. One of these (Acr42124_1) was significantly up-regulated in apical shoot samples from cone-setting acrocona plants, and the encoded protein belongs to the MADS box gene family of transcription factors. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction with independently derived plant material, we confirmed that the MADS box gene is up-regulated in both needles and buds of cone-inducing shoots when reproductive identity is determined. Our results constitute important steps for the development of a rapid cycling model system that can be used to study gene function in conifers. In addition, our data suggest the involvement of a MADS box transcription factor in the vegetative-to-reproductive phase change in Norway spruce. PMID:23221834

  17. Therapeutic effect of irradiation of magnetic infrared laser on osteoarthritis rat model.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chul-Hwan; Kwon, Ogon; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Hee-Duk; Kwon, Young-Sam; Park, Soo-Jin; Song, Chang-Hyun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease caused by articular cartilage loss. Many complementary and alternative medicines for OA have been reported so far, but the effectiveness is controversial. Previously, we have shown anti-inflammatory effects of low level laser therapy with static magnetic field, magnetic infrared laser (MIL), in various animal models. Therefore, the beneficial effects were examined in OA rat model. Rats were divided by six groups; no treatment controls of sham and OA model, three MIL treatment groups of OA model at 6.65, 2.66 and 1.33 J cm(-2), and Diclofenac group of OA model with 2 mg kg(-1) diclofenac sodium. The OA control exhibited typical symptoms of OA, but 4-week MIL treatment improved the functional movement of knee joint with reduced edematous changes. In addition, cartilage GAGs were detected more in all MIL treatment groups than OA control. It suggests that 4-week MIL irradiation has dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects on OA. Histopathological analyses revealed that MIL treatment inhibits the cartilage degradation and enhances chondrocyte proliferation. The fact that MIL has an additional potential for the cartilage formation and no adverse effects can be regarded as great advantages for OA treatment. These suggest that MIL can be useful for OA treatment. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. Uncovering transcription factor and microRNA risk regulatory pathways associated with osteoarthritis by network analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenhua; Zhang, Chi; He, Lingxiao; Sui, Yanfang; Lin, Xiafei; Pan, Jingjing

    2018-06-12

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. The development of inflammation have been considered to play a key role during the progression of OA. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, deciphering these risk regulatory pathways is critical for elucidating the mechanisms underlying OA. We constructed an OA-specific regulatory network by integrating comprehensive curated transcription and post-transcriptional resource involving transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA). To deepen our understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms of OA, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify OA-specific risk regulatory pathways. In this study, we identified 89 significantly differentially expressed genes between normal and inflamed areas of OA patients. We found the OA-specific regulatory network was a standard scale-free network with small-world properties. It significant enriched many immune response-related functions including leukocyte differentiation, myeloid differentiation and T cell activation. Finally, 141 risk regulatory pathways were identified based on OA-specific regulatory network, which contains some known regulator of OA. The risk regulatory pathways may provide clues for the etiology of OA and be a potential resource for the discovery of novel OA-associated disease genes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maize Brittle stalk2 Encodes a COBRA-Like Protein Expressed in Early Organ Development But Required for Tissue Flexibility at Maturity1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sindhu, Anoop; Langewisch, Tiffany; Olek, Anna; Multani, Dilbag S.; McCann, Maureen C.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Johal, Gurmukh

    2007-01-01

    analyses, levels of saponifiable hydroxycinnamates are elevated in bk2 leaves and stems. As Bk2 is highly expressed during early development, well before the onset of the brittle phenotype, we propose that Bk2 functions in a patterning of lignin-cellulosic interactions that maintain organ flexibility rather than having a direct role in cellulose biosynthesis. PMID:17932309

  20. Forecasting the future burden of opioids for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, I N; Zomer, E; Gilmartin-Thomas, J F-M; Liew, D

    2018-03-01

    To quantify the current national burden of opioids for osteoarthritis (OA) pain in Australia in terms of number of dispensed opioid prescriptions and associated costs, and to forecast the likely burden to the year 2030/31. Epidemiological modelling. Published data were obtained on rates of opioid prescribing for people with OA and national OA prevalence projections. Trends in opioid dispensing from 2006 to 2016, and average costs for common opioid subtypes were obtained from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and Medicare Australia Statistics. Using these inputs, a model was developed to estimate the likely number of dispensed opioid prescriptions and costs to the public healthcare system by 2030/31. In 2015/16, an estimated 1.1 million opioid prescriptions were dispensed in Australia for 403,954 people with OA (of a total 2.2 million Australians with OA). Based on recent dispensing trends and OA prevalence projections, the number of dispensed opioid prescriptions is expected to nearly triple to 3,032,332 by 2030/31, for an estimated 562,610 people with OA. The estimated cost to the Australian healthcare system was $AUD25.2 million in 2015/16, rising to $AUD72.4 million by 2030/31. OA-related opioid dispensing and associated costs are set to increase substantially in Australia from 2015/16 to 2030/31. Use of opioids for OA pain is concerning given joint disease chronicity and the risk of adverse events, particularly among older people. These projections represent a conservative estimate of the full financial burden given additional costs associated with opioid-related harms and out-of-pocket costs borne by patients. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A myofascial component of pain in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dor, Adi; Kalichman, Leonid

    2017-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of musculoskeletal pain and disability. The knee is the most common site of OA. Numerous studies have shown an inconsistency between patients' reports of pain and their radiographic findings. This inconsistency may be partially explained by the fact that a portion of the pain originates from the myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) located in the surrounding muscles. To assess the role of myofascial pain in OA patients. Critical review. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and PEDro databases were searched from inception until December 2016 for the following keywords: "myofascial pain", "osteoarthritis", "trigger points", "knee" or any combination of these words. The reference lists of all articles retrieved were searched as well. The current review included two observational studies evaluating the prevalence of MTrPs in OA patients and six interventional studies describing the treatment of myofascial pain in OA patients. Data from two of the interventional studies also included an observational section. The reviewed observational studies offered initial evidence as to the assumption that myofascial pain and the presence of MTrPs may play a role in pain and disability of knee OA. Because of the cross-sectional design of these studies, the causal relationships could not be established. Additional studies are needed to confirm this assumption as well as to clarify if MTrPs are a portion of OA etiology or that OA is the basis for MTrPs formation. Each interventional study elaborated on various myofascial treatment techniques. However, treatment focusing on MTrPs seems to be effective in reducing pain and improving function in OA patients. Due to the heterogeneity in treatment methods and outcome measures, it is difficult to attain a definite conclusion and therefore, additional high-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Osteoarthritis year in review 2015: rehabilitation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K L; Hall, M; Hinman, R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative review was to highlight recent research in the rehabilitation of people with osteoarthritis (OA) by summarizing findings from selected key systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic search was conducted using the PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane databases from April 1st 2014 to March 31st 2015. A selection of these is discussed based on study quality, relevance, contribution to new knowledge or controversial findings. Methodological quality of RCTs was assessed using guidelines from PEDro. From 274 articles, 74 were deemed to meet the eligibility criteria including 24 systematic reviews and 50 studies reporting on findings from RCTs. Overall the methodological quality of the RCTs was moderate. The studies were grouped into several themes covering; evidence of rehabilitation outcomes in less studied joints including the hand and hip; new insights into exercise in knee OA; effects of biomechanical treatments on symptoms and structure in knee OA; and effects of acupuncture. Exercise was the most common treatment evaluated. Although little evidence supported benefit of exercise for hand OA, exercise has positive effects for hip and knee OA symptoms and these benefits may depend upon patient phenotypes. The first evidence that a brace can influence knee joint structure emerged. The latest evidence suggests that acupuncture has, at best, small treatment effects on knee OA pain of unlikely clinical relevance. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemiology of osteoarthritis: state of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kelli D.; Golightly, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on recent studies of osteoarthritis epidemiology, including research on prevalence, incidence, and a broad array of potential risk factors at the person level and joint level. Recent findings Studies continue to illustrate the high impact of osteoarthritis worldwide, with increasing incidence. Person-level risk factors with strong evidence regarding osteoarthritis incidence and/or progression include age, sex, socioeconomic status, family history, and obesity. Joint-level risk factors with strong evidence for incident osteoarthritis risk include injury and occupational joint loading; the associations of injury and joint alignment with osteoarthritis progression are compelling. Moderate levels of physical activity have not been linked to increased osteoarthritis risk. Some topics of high recent interest or emerging evidence for association with osteoarthritis include metabolic pathways, vitamins, joint shape, bone density, limb length inequality, muscle strength and mass, and early structural damage. Summary Osteoarthritis is a complex, multifactorial disease, and there is still much to learn regarding mechanisms underlying incidence and progression. However, there are several known modifiable and preventable risk factors, including obesity and joint injury; efforts to mitigate these risks can help to lessen the impact of osteoarthritis. PMID:25775186

  4. Opening wedge trapezial osteotomy as possible treatment for early trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis: a biomechanical investigation of radial subluxation, contact area, and contact pressure.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Tahseen; Salas, Christina; Morrell, Nathan; Lansing, Letitia; Reda Taha, Mahmoud M; Mercer, Deana

    2012-04-01

    Radial subluxation and cartilage thinning have been associated with initiation and accelerated development of osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Few investigators have reported on the benefits of opening wedge trapezial osteotomy for altering the contact mechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint as a possible deterrent to the initiation or progression of osteoarthritis. We used cadaveric specimens to determine whether opening wedge osteotomy of the trapezium was successful in reducing radial subluxation of the metacarpal base and to quantify the contact area and pressure on the trapezial surface during simulated lateral pinch. We used 8 fresh-frozen specimens in this study. The flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, adductor pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, and flexor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis tendons were each loaded to simulate the thumb in lateral pinch position. We measured radial subluxation from anteroposterior radiographs before and after placement of a 15° wedge. We used real-time sensors to analyze contact pressure and contact area distribution on the trapezium. Center of force in the normal joint under lateral pinch loading was primarily located in the dorsal region of the trapezium. After wedge placement, contact pressure increased in the ulnar-dorsal region by 76%. Mean contact area increased in the ulnar-dorsal region from 0.05 to 0.07 cm(2), and in the ulnar-volar region from 0.003 to 0.024 cm(2). The average reduction in joint subluxation was 64%. The 15° opening wedge osteotomy of the trapezium reduced radial subluxation of the metacarpal on the trapezium and increased contact pressure and contact area away from the diseased compartments of the trapezial surface. Trapezial osteotomy addresses the 2 preeminent theories about the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. By reducing radial subluxation and altering contact pressure and contact area, trapezial osteotomy may prove an alternative to first

  5. Outcomes associated with early post-traumatic osteoarthritis and other negative health consequences 3-10 years following knee joint injury in youth sport.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, J L; Woodhouse, L J; Nettel-Aguirre, A; Emery, C A

    2015-07-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) commonly affects the knee joint. Although the risk of PTOA substantially increases post-joint injury, there is little research examining PTOA outcomes early in the period between joint injury and disease onset. Improved understanding of this interval would inform secondary prevention strategies aimed at preventing and/or delaying PTOA progression. This study examines the association between sport-related knee injury and outcomes related to development of PTOA, 3-10 years post-injury. This preliminary analysis of the first year of a historical cohort study includes 100 (15-26 years) individuals. Fifty with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10 years previously and 50 uninjured age, sex and sport matched controls. The primary outcome was the 'Symptoms' sub-scale of the Knee Osteoarthritis and Injury Outcome Score (KOOS). Secondary outcomes included; the remaining KOOS subscales, body mass index (BMI), hip abductor/adductor and knee extensor/flexor strength, estimated aerobic capacity (VO2max) and performance scores on three dynamic balance tests. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% Confidence interval (CI) and conditional odds ratio (OR, 95% CI; BMI) were used to compare study groups. Injured participants demonstrated poorer KOOS outcomes [symptoms -9.4 (-13.6, -5.2), pain -4.0 (-6.8, -1.2), quality-of-life -8.0 (-11.0, -5.1), daily living -3.0 (-5.0, -1.1) and sport/recreation -6.9 (-9.9, -3.8)], were 3.75 times (95% CI 1.24, 11.3) more likely to be overweight/obese and had lower triple single leg hop scores compared to controls. No significant group differences existed for remaining balance scores, estimated VO2max, hip or knee strength ratios or side-to-side difference in hip abductor/adductor or quadricep/hamstring strength. This study provides preliminary evidence that youth/young adults following sport-related knee injury report more symptoms and poorer function, and are at

  6. ARE UNILATERAL AND BILATERAL KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS UNIQUE SUBSETS OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS? A BIOMECHANICAL PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Herman, Cassandra; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the gait of adults with unilateral and bilateral symptomatic and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) to determine whether these subgroups can be treated similarly in the clinic and when recruiting for randomized clinical trials, and to use these data to generate future hypotheses regarding gait in these subsets of knee OA patients. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of patients with unilateral and bilateral knee OA on gait mechanics using 136 older adults (age ≥ 55 yrs.; 27 kg.m−2 ≥ BMI ≤ 41 kg.m−2; 82% female) with radiographic knee OA. Comparisons were made between the most affected side of the bilateral group (Bi) and the affected side of the unilateral group (Uni), and between symmetry indices of each group. Results There were no significant differences in any temporal, kinematic, or kinetic measures between the Uni and Bi cohorts. Comparison of symmetry indices between groups also revealed no significant differences. Conclusion The similarity in lower extremity mechanics between unilateral and bilateral knee OA patients is sufficiently robust to consider both subsets as a single cohort. We hypothesize that biomechanical adaptations to knee OA are at least partially systemic in origin and not based solely on the physiological characteristics of an affected knee joint. PMID:26706699

  7. The relationship between foot and ankle symptoms and risk of developing knee osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Kade L; Kasza, Jessica; Hunter, David J; Hinman, Rana S; Menz, Hylton B; Peat, George; Bennell, Kim L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether foot and/or ankle symptoms increase the risk of developing (i) knee symptoms and (ii) symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design 1020 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants who were at-risk of knee OA, but were without knee symptoms or radiographic knee OA, were investigated. Participants indicated the presence and laterality of foot/ankle symptoms at baseline. The main outcome was development of knee symptoms (pain, aching or stiffness in and around the knee on most days of the month for at least one month in the past year). A secondary outcome was development of symptomatic radiographic knee OA (symptoms plus Kellgren and Lawrence [KL] grade ≥2), over the subsequent four years. Associations between foot/ankle symptoms and study outcomes were assessed by logistic regression models. Results Foot/ankle symptoms in either or both feet significantly increased the odds of developing knee symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 2.19), and developing symptomatic radiographic knee OA (adjusted OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.69 to 6.37). Based on laterality, contralateral foot/ankle symptoms were associated with developing both knee symptoms (adjusted OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.68) and symptomatic radiographic knee OA (adjusted OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.06 to 8.98), whilst bilateral foot/ankle symptoms were associated with developing symptomatic radiographic knee OA (adjusted OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.76 to 9.17). Conclusion In individuals at-risk of knee OA, the presence of contralateral foot/ankle symptoms in particular increases risk of developing both knee symptoms and symptomatic radiographic knee OA. PMID:27939621

  8. Identification of transcription regulatory relationships in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guofeng; Han, Ning; Li, Zengchun; Lu, Qingyou

    2013-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is recognized as the most crippling or disabling type of arthritis, and osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. These diseases severely reduce the quality of life, and cause high socioeconomic burdens. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA and OA development remain elusive despite intensive research efforts. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential transcription regulatory relationships between transcription factors (TFs) and differentially co-expressed genes (DCGs) in RA and OA, respectively. We downloaded the gene expression profiles of RA and OA from the Gene Expression Omnibus and analyzed the gene expression using computational methods. We identified a set of 4,076 DCGs in pairwise comparisons between RA and OA patients, RA and normal donors (NDs), or OA and ND. After regulatory network construction and regulatory impact factor analysis, we found that EGR1, NFE2L1, and NFYA were crucial TFs in the regulatory network of RA and NFYA, CBFB, CREB1, YY1 and PATZ1 were crucial TFs in the regulatory network of OA. These TFs could regulate the DCGs expression to involve RA and OA by promoting or inhibiting their expression. Altogether, our work may extend our understanding of disease mechanisms and may lead to an improved diagnosis. However, further experiments are still needed to confirm these observations.

  9. Leptin in osteoarthritis: Focus on articular cartilage and chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Scotece, Morena; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex joint disorder with a number of underlying physical, biochemical, biomechanical and genetic causes. Obesity is considered to be one of the major risk factors for the development and progression of OA. It actively contributes to the inflammatory status and to cartilage degradation in the OA joints. Recent data suggests that metabolic factors produced by white adipose tissue, such as leptin, may provide a mechanistic link between obesity and OA, providing an explanation for the high prevalence of OA among obese and over-weight individuals. The unbalanced production of catabolic and anabolic mediators by chondrocytes, the only cell type present in cartilage, determines cartilage degradation, which is the central pathological feature of OA. Evidence is accumulating to support a key role for leptin in the pathogenesis and/or progression of OA. The goal of this focused review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of leptin in OA with particular emphasis on the effects of this adipokine in cartilage and chondrocyte pathophysiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reflections about Osteoarthritis and Curcuma longa

    PubMed Central

    Akuri, Marina Cristina; Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Val, Raíssa Meira; Guiguer, Elen Landgraf

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory degenerative process that affects joints such as the hands, hips, shoulders, feet, spine, and especially knees in millions of people worldwide. Some authors have shown that Curcuma longa components may exhibit benefic effects in the treatment of degenerative diseases as OA. This plant belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and it is popularly known as turmeric or saffron. This review intended to perform a retrospective search to identify studies involving humans and animal models. This review was based on articles linking OA and C. longa. Databases as Medline, Science Direct, and Lilacs were consulted and a retrospective search was carried out in order to identify studies involving humans and animal models. The curcuminoids from C. longa exhibit actions at different locations in the pathogenesis of OA once it may play an important role as anti-inflammatory, down-regulating enzymes as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, and lipoxygenases, and reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha-and interleukins such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8. They also act as inducer of apoptosis in synoviocytes, decreasing the inflammation process and may also reduce the synthesis of reactive oxygen species. For these reasons, new pharmaceutical technology and pharmacological studies should be proposed to determine the dose, the best delivery vehicle, pharmaceutical formulation and route of administration of this plant so its use as an adjunct in the treatment of OA may become a reality in clinical practice. PMID:28503046

  11. Prevalence of hand osteoarthritis and knee osteoarthritis in Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas and non Kashin-Beck disease endemic areas: A status survey

    PubMed Central

    Song, QuanQuan; Liu, Yun Qi; Sun, Li Yan; Deng, Qing; Wang, Shao Ping; Cao, Yan Hong; Zhang, Xue Ying; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Lv, Hong Yan; Duan, Li Bin; Yu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a considerable health problem worldwide, and the prevalence of OA varies in different regions. In this study, the prevalence of OA in Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and non-KBD endemic areas was examined, respectively. According to monitoring data, 4 types of regions (including none, mild, moderate and high KBD endemic areas) in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces were selected. All local residents were eligible for inclusion criteria have undergone X-ray images of hands and anteroposterior image of knees. A total of 1673 cases were collected, 1446 cases were analyzed after removing the KBD patients (227). The overall hand OA and knee OA detection rates were 33.3% (481/1446) and 56.6% (818/1446), respectively. After being standardized by age, the detection rate of hand OA in the KBD endemic areas was significantly higher than that in the non-endemic endemic areas. Differently, there was no significant difference in the detection rates of knee OA between the KBD endemic areas and the non-endemic area. The correlation coefficient between the severity of OA and the severity of knee OA was 0.358 and 0.197 in the KBD and non-KBD endemic areas, respectively. Where the KBD historical prevalence level was higher, the severity of the residents’ hand OA was more serious. The detection rates of hand OA and knee OA increased with age. The detection rate of knee OA increased with the increase in body mass index. The prevalence of hand OA was closely related to the pathogenic factors of Kashin-Beck disease, and the prevalence of knee OA had no significant correlation with KBD pathogenic factors. PMID:29320581

  12. Impact of clinical osteoarthritis of the hip, knee and hand on self-rated health in six European countries: the European Project on OSteoArthritis.

    PubMed

    van Schoor, N M; Zambon, S; Castell, M V; Cooper, C; Denkinger, M; Dennison, E M; Edwards, M H; Herbolsheimer, F; Maggi, S; Sánchez-Martinez, M; Pedersen, N L; Peter, R; Schaap, L A; Rijnhart, J J M; van der Pas, S; Deeg, D J H

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has been shown to be associated with decreased physical function, which may impact upon a person's self-rated health (SRH). Only a few studies have examined the association between OA and SRH in the general population, but to date none have used a clinical definition of OA. The objectives are: (1) To examine the cross-sectional association between clinical OA and fair-to-poor SRH in the general population; (2) To examine whether this association differs between countries; (3) To examine whether physical function is a mediator in the association between clinical OA and SRH. Baseline data of the European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA) were used, which includes pre-harmonized data from six European cohort studies (n = 2709). Clinical OA was defined according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. SRH was assessed using one question: How is your health in general? Physical function was assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index and Australian/Canadian OA Hand Index. The prevalence of fair-to-poor SRH ranged from 19.8 % in the United Kingdom to 63.5 % in Italy. Although country differences in the strength of the associations were observed, clinical OA of the hip, knee and hand were significantly associated with fair-to-poor SRH in five out of six European countries. In most countries and at most sites, the association between clinical OA and fair-to-poor SRH was partly or fully mediated by physical function. Clinical OA at different sites was related to fair-to-poor SRH in the general population. Most associations were (partly) mediated by physical functioning, indicating that deteriorating physical function in patients with OA should be a point of attention in patient care.

  13. Leptin - a link between obesity and osteoarthritis. applications for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Koskinen, Anna; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of musculoskeletal disability and pain in the world. The current drug treatment for OA is symptom relieving, and there is an urgent need for treatments that could retard, prevent or repair cartilage destruction in OA. Obesity is a major risk factor for OA. Traditionally, it has been thought to contribute to the development of OA by increasing the load on weight-bearing joints. However, this appears to be an over-simplification, because obesity is also linked to OA in the hand and finger joints. Recent studies have shown that adipocytokine leptin is a possible link between obesity and OA: Leptin levels in synovial fluid are increased in obese patients, leptin receptor (Ob-R) is expressed in cartilage, and leptin induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), pro-inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide (NO) in chondrocytes. Furthermore, according to the very recent findings, not only leptin levels in the joint but also leptin sensitivity in the cartilage are enhanced in obese OA patients. The findings supporting leptin as a causative link between obesity and OA offer leptin as a potential target to the development of disease-modifying drugs for osteoarthritis (DMOAD), especially for obese patients. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Osteoarthritis: priorities for osteoarthritis research: much to be done.

    PubMed

    Felson, David T

    2014-08-01

    With a frustrating lack of progress in the development of treatments for osteoarthritis, EULAR has released recommendations to reorient research into this disease. These recommendations include focused attention on noncartilagenous tissues, the interaction of structures within the joint, the pathogenesis of osteoarthritic pain, new treatment strategies and early disease.

  15. Development of OA Abroad and Its Inspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces the concept and characteristics of open access (OA), analyses the status quo and development of OA in foreign countries, and discusses its inspiration to its future development in China.

  16. Adiposity and hand osteoarthritis: the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA. Methods The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort aged 45 to 65 years, including 5315 participants (53% women, median BMI 29.9 kg/m2). Fat percentage and fat mass (FM) (kg) were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was calculated. In 1721 participants, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (cm2) were assessed using abdominal MR imaging. Hand OA was defined according to the ACR criteria. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the association of fat percentage, FM, WHR, VAT and SAT with hand OA using logistic regression analyses per standard deviation, stratified by sex and adjusted for age. Results Hand OA was present in 8% of men and 20% of women. Fat percentage was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.61)) and women (OR 1.26 (1.05 to 1.51)), as was FM. WHR was associated with hand OA in men (OR 1.45 (1.13 to 1.85)), and to a lesser extent in women (OR 1.17 (1.00 to 1.36)). Subgroup analysis revealed that VAT was associated with hand OA in men (OR1.33 (1.01 to 1.75)). This association increased after additional adjustment for FM (OR 1.51 (1.13 to 2.03)). Conclusions Fat percentage, FM and WHR were associated with hand OA. VAT was associated with hand OA in men, suggesting involvement of visceral fat in hand OA. PMID:24447395

  17. Osteoarthritis and the Tactical Athlete: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Svoboda, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although tactical athletes (eg, military service members, law enforcement personnel, fire fighters) are exposed to several known risk factors, it remains unclear if they are at increased risk for osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the association between serving as a tactical athlete and the incidence and prevalence of OA. Data Sources: We completed a comprehensive systematic literature search in November 2014 using 12 bibliographic databases (eg, PubMed, Ovid, SportDiscus) supplemented with manual searches of reference lists. Study Selection: Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) an aim of the study was to investigate an association between tactical athletes and OA; (2) the outcome measure was radiographic OA, clinical OA, total joint replacement, self-reported diagnosis of OA, or placement on a waiting list for a total joint replacement; (3) the study design was a cohort study; and (4) the study was written in English. Data Extraction: One investigator extracted data from articles that met all inclusion criteria (eg, group descriptions, measures of disease burden, source of nonexposed controls). Data Synthesis: Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria and described retrospective cohort studies. Firefighters, active-duty military service members, and veteran military parachutists consistently had a higher incidence or prevalence of knee, hip, or any OA diagnosis (4 studies). Active-duty pilots and veteran military parachutists may have a higher prevalence of spine OA, but this was not statistically significant (2 studies). Occupational risk factors for OA among tactical athletes include rank and branch of military service. The risk of OA among individuals who completed mandatory national military service remains unclear (6 studies). Conclusions: The incidence of OA among tactical athletes appears to be significantly higher when compared with nonexposed controls. Further research is

  18. Quercetin attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and biogenesis via upregulated AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway in OA rats.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Linan; Luo, Yuju; Chen, Xiaojuan

    2018-07-01

    Despite the severity of osteoarthritis (OA), current medical therapy strategies for OA aim at symptom control and pain reduction, as there is no ideal drug for effective OA treatment. OA rat model was used to explore the therapeutic function of quercetin on remission of OA, by determining the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial function and extracellular matrix integrity. Quercetin could attenuate ROS generation and augment the glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression levels in OA rat. Quercetin not only enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in mitochondria, but also increased the mitochondrial copy number. Furthermore, the interlukin (IL)-1β-induced accumulation of nitric oxide (NO), matrixmetalloproteinase (MMP)-3) and MMP-13 could be suppressed by quercetin. Finally, we confirmed that the therapeutic properties of quercetin on OA might function through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/sirtuin 1 (AMPK/SIRT1) signaling pathway. In summary, quercetin could alleviate OA through attenuating the ROS levels, reversing the mitochondrial dysfunction and keeping the integrality of extracellular matrix of joint cartilage. The underlying mechanism might involve the regulation of AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Footwear on Joint Pain and Function in Older Adults With Lower Extremity Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amy; Luna, Sarah

    Lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition among older adults; given the risks of surgical and pharmaceutical interventions, conservative, lower-cost management options such as footwear warrant further investigation. This systematic review investigated the effects of footwear, including shoe inserts, in reducing lower extremity joint pain and improving gait, mobility, and quality of life in older adults with OA. The CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, RECAL, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for publications from January 1990 to September 2014, using the terms "footwear," "shoes," "gait," "pain," and "older adult." Participants who were 50 years or older and those who had OA in at least one lower extremity joint narrowed the results. Outcomes of interest included measures of pain, comfort, function, gait, or quality of life. Exclusion criteria applied to participants with rheumatoid arthritis, amputation, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, use of modified footwear or custom orthotics, purely biomechanical studies, and outcomes of balance or falls only. Single-case studies, qualitative narrative descriptions, and expert opinions were also excluded. The initial search resulted in a total of 417 citations. Eleven articles met inclusion criteria. Two randomized controlled trials and 3 quasiexperimental studies reported lateral wedge insoles may have at least some pain-relieving effects and improved functional mobility in older adults at 4 weeks to 2 years' follow-up, particularly when used with subtalar and ankle strapping. Three randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes reported that lateral wedges provided no knee pain relief compared with flat insoles. Hardness of shoe soles did not significantly affect joint comfort in the foot in a quasiexperimental study. A quasiexperimental designed study investigating shock-absorbing insoles showed reduction in knee joint pain with 1 month of wear. Finally, a cross-sectional prognostic study indicated

  20. An alternative treatment option for scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) and radioscaphoid osteoarthritis: early results of a prospective study on the pyrocarbon adaptive proximal scaphoid implant (APSI).

    PubMed

    Daruwalla, Zubin J; Davies, Kirstenlee; Shafighian, Ali; Gillham, Nicholas R

    2013-06-01

    Scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) and radioscaphoid osteoarthritis are difficult to treat. Options include proximal row carpectomy (PRC), four corner fusion (4CF) and wrist arthroplasty or arthrodesis. However, with inevitable disease progression, a significant proportion of patients undergo total wrist fusion. This reduces function by abolishing wrist movement. We review the preliminary results of a pyrocarbon interpositional radiocarpal implant in a small cohort of patients from our prospective study and challenge the assumption that there are no surgical alternatives. This study prospectively studied 12 consecutive pyrocarbon Interpositional arthroplasty day cases over 3 years. Patients were assessed using level of pain, ranges of motion, grip strength, key pinch, type of and time to return to work and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Radiographs were also taken and patient satisfaction recorded. All 12 patients could be contacted and were satisfied with their surgery. There were no immediate, early or late postoperative complications associated with the procedure. Promising results were noted in terms of pain, ranges of motion, grip strength, key pinch, type of and time to return to work, DASH scores, photographs and radiographs. The mean follow-up was 18 months, range between 11 months and 3 years. Our early results are encouraging, warrant further and longer studies and support the use of pyrocarbon implants as a primary procedure in what is a generally young and active subgroup of patients.

  1. The older worker with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Keith T

    2012-06-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with large joint arthritis will work beyond traditional retirement age. This review considers the impact of knee osteoarthritis (OA) on work participation and the relation between work and total knee replacement (TKR). Two systematic searches in Embase and Medline, supplemented by three systematic reviews. Probably, although evidence is limited, knee OA considerably impairs participation in work (labour force participation, work attendance and work productivity). AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY/RESEARCH NEED: Little is known about effective interventions (treatments, work changes and policies) to improve vocational participation in patients with knee OA; or how type of work affects long-term clinical outcomes (e.g. pain, function and the need for revision surgery) in patients with TKRs. The need for such research is pressing and opportune, as increasing numbers of patients with knee OA or TKR expect to work on.

  2. Future directions for the management of pain in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Nidhi; Kuttapitiya, Anasuya

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the predominant form of arthritis worldwide, resulting in a high degree of functional impairment and reduced quality of life owing to chronic pain. To date, there are no treatments that are known to modify disease progression of OA in the long term. Current treatments are largely based on the modulation of pain, including NSAIDs, opiates and, more recently, centrally acting pharmacotherapies to avert pain. This review will focus on the rationale for new avenues in pain modulation, including inhibition with anti-NGF antibodies and centrally acting analgesics. The authors also consider the potential for structure modification in cartilage/bone using growth factors and stem cell therapies. The possible mismatch between structural change and pain perception will also be discussed, introducing recent techniques that may assist in improved patient phenotyping of pain subsets in OA. Such developments could help further stratify subgroups and treatments for people with OA in future. PMID:25018771

  3. Future directions for the management of pain in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sofat, Nidhi; Kuttapitiya, Anasuya

    2014-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the predominant form of arthritis worldwide, resulting in a high degree of functional impairment and reduced quality of life owing to chronic pain. To date, there are no treatments that are known to modify disease progression of OA in the long term. Current treatments are largely based on the modulation of pain, including NSAIDs, opiates and, more recently, centrally acting pharmacotherapies to avert pain. This review will focus on the rationale for new avenues in pain modulation, including inhibition with anti-NGF antibodies and centrally acting analgesics. The authors also consider the potential for structure modification in cartilage/bone using growth factors and stem cell therapies. The possible mismatch between structural change and pain perception will also be discussed, introducing recent techniques that may assist in improved patient phenotyping of pain subsets in OA. Such developments could help further stratify subgroups and treatments for people with OA in future.

  4. Topical Treatment of Degenerative Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zengdong; Huang, Rongzhong

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews topical management strategies for degenerative osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A search of Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library using MeSH terms including "topical," "treatment," "knee" and "osteoarthritis" was carried out. Original research and review articles on the effectiveness and safety, recommendations from international published guidelines and acceptability studies of topical preparations were included. Current topical treatments included for the management of knee OA include topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, capsaicin, salicylates and physical treatments such as hot or cold therapy. Current treatment guidelines recommend topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an alternative and even first-line therapy for OA management, especially among elderly patients. Guidelines on other topical treatments vary, from recommendations against their use, to in favor as alternative or simultaneous therapy, especially for patients with contraindications to other analgesics. Although often well-tolerated and preferred by many patients, clinical care still lags in the adoption of topical treatments. Aspects of efficacy, safety and patient quality of life data require further research. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Arthroscopy for mechanical symptoms in osteoarthritis: a cost-effective procedure.

    PubMed

    Hutt, Jonathan R B; Craik, Johnathan; Phadnis, Joideep; Cobb, Andrew G

    2015-12-01

    The place of knee arthroscopy as a therapeutic option for osteoarthritis (OA) has been the subject of some debate. The hypothesis for this study was that arthroscopic debridement is beneficial in patients with OA who have significant mechanical symptoms. Forty-three patients with radiological OA on plain radiographs and mechanical symptoms were prospectively followed. No further imaging was obtained. They were assessed pre- and postoperatively with an Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and pain visual analogue score (VAS). Postoperative patient satisfaction was measured with a VAS. A cost-benefit analysis was performed using a transformed OKS to generate a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) measurement. At a mean of 1.5 years, seven patients (16 %) had undergone total knee arthroplasty at a mean of 8.2 months postarthroscopy. For the remaining 35 patients, there were significant improvements in pain (median 7-5, p < 0.05) and OKS (median 24-36.5, p < 0.05). Satisfaction was a median 6.2 for all patients. The mean calculated EQ-5D improved from 0.43 (SD 0.16) to 0.79 (SD 0.23), which gave a gain of 0.52 QALYs in the study period. This generated a cost per QALY of £2,088, well below the threshold of £30,000 quoted by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence as demonstration of cost-effective treatment. This prospective study demonstrates that although not universally effective, arthroscopic debridement for patients with knee OA and mechanical symptoms can result in significant improvements in pain and function. The procedure gave good patient satisfaction, and even at an early follow-up period proves to be cost-effective. IV.

  6. Novel method of using dynamic electrical impedance signals for noninvasive diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gajre, Suhas S; Anand, Sneh; Singh, U; Saxena, Rajendra K

    2006-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of knee is the most commonly occurring non-fatal irreversible disease, mainly in the elderly population and particularly in female. Various invasive and non-invasive methods are reported for the diagnosis of this articular cartilage pathology. Well known techniques such as X-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, arthroscopy and arthrography are having their disadvantages, and diagnosis of OA in early stages with simple effective noninvasive method is still a biomedical engineering problem. Analyzing knee joint noninvasive signals around knee might give simple solution for diagnosis of knee OA. We used electrical impedance data from knees to compare normal and osteoarthritic subjects during the most common dynamic conditions of the knee, i.e. walking and knee swing. It was found that there is substantial difference in the properties of the walking cycle (WC) and knee swing cycle (KS) signals. In experiments on 90 pathological (combined for KS and WC signals) and 72 normal signals (combined), suitable features were drawn. Then signals were used to classify as normal or pathological. Artificial multilayer feed forward neural network was trained using back propagation algorithm for the classification. On a training data set of 54 signals for KS signals, the classification efficiency for a test set of 54 was 70.37% and 85.19% with and without normalization respectively wrt base impedance. Similarly, the training set of 27 WC signals and test set of 27 signals resulted in 77.78% and 66.67% classification efficiency. The results indicate that dynamic electrical impedance signals have potential to be used as a novel method for noninvasive diagnosis of knee OA.

  7. Osteoarthritis in two marine mammals and 22 land mammals: learning from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Soponteerakul, Ratsadakorn; Kaewkumpai, Piyatida; Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Kittiwatanawong, Kongkiat; Chawangwongsanukun, Rachanchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2017-07-01

    The occurrence of osteoarthritis (OA) in marine mammals is still questionable. Here we investigated the prevalence of OA in marine (dolphin and dugong) and terrestrial mammals (Asian elephant, Asiatic buffalo, camel, cat, cattle, deer, dog, domestic goat, horse, human, hyena, impala, lion, Malayan tapir, Assam macaque, mule, pig, rabbit, red kangaroo, sheep, tiger and waterbuck). Skeletal remains obtained from five institutes were used as subjects; a total of 45 different parts (locations) of bones were observed for OA lesions. The prevalence of OA was reported as number of OA lesions/total number of bones. Our results revealed that the presence of OA in marine species (dolphin and dugong) was 2.44% and 3.33%, respectively. In dolphins, the highest OA occurrence was on the left and right humeral trochlea, with 13.68% and 12.63%, respectively, while the highest number of OA lesions in dugongs was on the lumbar vertebrae (8.79%). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of OA between sexes in dolphins and dugongs was observed, but we found a significant difference (P < 0.05) in 24 bone locations of human bones, which had the highest OA prevalence (48.93%), followed by dogs (3.94%). In conclusion, OA can occur in marine mammals, similar to terrestrial mammals, even though their natural habitat is the ocean. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  8. OA-7 Service Module Arrival

    2017-02-01

    The Orbital ATK OA-7 Cygnus spacecraft's service module arrives inside the Space Station Processing Facility of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The service module is sealed in an environmentally controlled shipping container, pulled in by truck on a low-boy flatbed trailer. Scheduled to launch on March 19, 2017, the Orbital ATK OA-7 mission will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials that improve life on Earth and drive progress toward future space exploration.

  9. OA-7 Cargo Module Arrival

    2017-01-09

    The Orbital ATK OA-7 Cygnus spacecraft's pressurized cargo module (PCM) arrives at the Space Station Processing Facility of NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The PCM is sealed in an environmentally controlled shipping container, pulled in by truck on a low-boy flatbed trailer. Scheduled to launch in March 2017, the Orbital ATK OA-7 mission will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials that improve life on Earth and drive progress toward future space exploration.

  10. Wrist osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Laulan, J; Marteau, E; Bacle, G

    2015-02-01

    Painful wrist osteoarthritis can result in major functional impairment. Most cases are related to posttraumatic sequel, metabolic arthropathies, or inflammatory joint disease, although wrist osteoarthritis occurs as an idiopathic condition in a small minority of cases. Surgery is indicated only when conservative treatment fails. The main objective is to ensure pain relief while restoring strength. Motion-preserving procedures are usually preferred, although residual wrist mobility is not crucial to good function. The vast array of available surgical techniques includes excisional arthroplasty, limited and total fusion, total wrist denervation, partial and total arthroplasty, and rib-cartilage graft implantation. Surgical decisions rest on the cause and extent of the degenerative wrist lesions, degree of residual mobility, and patient's wishes and functional demand. Proximal row carpectomy and four-corner fusion with scaphoid bone excision are the most widely used surgical procedures for stage II wrist osteoarthritis secondary to scapho-lunate advanced collapse (SLAC) or scaphoid non-union advanced collapse (SNAC) wrist. Proximal row carpectomy is not indicated in patients with stage III disease. Total wrist denervation is a satisfactory treatment option in patients of any age who have good range of motion and low functional demands; furthermore, the low morbidity associated with this procedure makes it a good option for elderly patients regardless of their range of motion. Total wrist fusion can be used not only as a revision procedure, but also as the primary surgical treatment in heavy manual labourers with wrist stiffness or generalised wrist-joint involvement. The role for pyrocarbon implants, rib-cartilage graft implantation, and total wrist arthroplasty remains to be determined, given the short follow-ups in available studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Osteoarthritis 2012 year in review: rehabilitation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Roos, E M; Juhl, C B

    2012-12-01

    Recent scientific advances in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) relating to education, exercise, weight control and passive non-pharmacological and non-surgical treatments such as manual therapy, orthoses/orthotics and other aids are described. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline from July 2011 to 10 April 2012 using the terms 'osteoarthritis, knee', 'osteoarthritis, hip' rehabilitation, physical therapy, exercise therapy and preoperative intervention; both as text words and as MeSH terms where possible. Trials evaluating rehabilitation interventions were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or systematic reviews. Outcome papers were identified by combining the initial search with the terms 'outcome', 'measure*', 'valid*', 'reliabil*' or 'responsiveness'. Outcome studies were included if they contributed methodologically to advancing outcome measurement. The literature search identified 550 potentially relevant papers. Seventeen RCTs on rehabilitation were selected and the results from these were supported by six systematic reviews. Sixteen outcomes papers were considered relevant, but did not add significantly to current knowledge about outcome measures in OA and so, were not included. The current research focus on non-pharmacological and non-surgical treatments for hip and/or knee OA, when combined in systematic reviews, is improving the available evidence to identify best practice treatment. Education, exercise and weight loss are effective in the long term and supported as cost-effective first-line treatments. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial Haplogroups Define Two Phenotypes of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Soto-Hermida, Angel; Oreiro, Natividad; Pértega, Sonia; Fenández-López, Carlos; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Blanco, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess a mitochondrion-related phenotype in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Serum levels of the following OA-related biomarkers: matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1); MMP-3; MMP-13; myeloperoxidase (MPO); a peptide of the alpha-helical region of type II collagen, Coll2-1, and its nitrated form Coll2-1NO2; a C-terminal neoepitope generated by the collagenase-mediated cleavage of collagen type II triple helix, C2C; the C-propeptide of collagen type II, CPII; hyaluronic acid (HA); human cartilage glycoprotein 39, YKL-40; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein; and cathepsin K were analyzed in 48 OA patients and 52 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups H and J. Logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to predict the onset of OA. Results: MMP-13 was the only biomarker significantly increased in OA patients compared to healthy controls in both haplogroups H and J. The collagen type II biomarkers, Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2, the Coll2-1NO2/Coll2-1 ratio, C2C, CPII, and the C2C:CPII ratio were significantly increased in OA patients carrying haplogroup H compared to OA carriers of the haplogroup J. Two logistic regression models for diagnosis were constructed and adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index. For haplogroup H, the biomarkers significantly associated with OA were MMP-13 and Coll2-1; the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for this model was 0.952 (95% CI = 0.892–1.012). For haplogroup J, the only biomarker significantly associated with OA was MMP-13; the AUC for this model was 0.895 (95% CI = 0.801–0.989). Conclusion: The mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are potential complementary candidates for biomarkers of OA; their genotyping in conjunction with the assessment of classical protein molecular markers is recommended. PMID:22593743

  13. Myostatin serum concentrations are correlated with the severity of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chang; Shao, Yan; Lin, Chuangxin; Zeng, Chun; Fang, Hang; Pan, Jianying; Cai, Daozhang

    2017-09-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, contributes to joint deterioration in mice. Thus, we aimed to assess the correlation of myostatin concentrations with the presence and severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA). We determined serum and synovial fluid (SF) myostatin concentrations in a population of 184 patients with knee OA and 109 healthy controls. The knee OA group presented with higher serum myostatin concentrations than the controls. Knee OA patients with KL grade 4 showed higher serum and SF myostatin concentrations compared with those with KL grade 2 and 3. Knee OA patients with KL grade 3 had higher serum and SF myostatin concentrations compared with those with KL grade 2. Serum and SF myostatin concentrations were significantly correlated with KL grading. Serum and SF myostatin concentrations were correlated with the presence and severity of knee OA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Molecular changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pickarski, Maureen; Hayami, Tadashi; Zhuo, Ya; Duong, Le T

    2011-08-24

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating, progressive joint disease. Similar to the disease progression in humans, sequential events of early cartilage degradation, subchondral osteopenia followed by sclerosis, and late osteophyte formation were demonstrated in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) or ACLT with partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx) rat OA models. We describe a reliable and consistent method to examine the time dependent changes in the gene expression profiles in articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Local regulation of matrix degradation markers was demonstrated by a significant increase in mRNA levels of aggrecanase-1 and MMP-13 as early as the first week post-surgery, and expression remained elevated throughout the 10 week study. Immunohistochemistry confirmed MMP-13 expression in differentiated chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts at week-2 and cells within osteophytes at week-10 in the surgically-modified-joints. Concomitant increases in chondrocyte differentiation markers, Col IIA and Sox 9, and vascular invasion markers, VEGF and CD31, peaked around week-2 to -4, and returned to Sham levels at later time points in both models. Indeed, VEGF-positive cells were found in the deep articular chondrocytes adjacent to subchondral bone. Osteoclastic bone resorption markers, cathepsin K and TRAP, were also elevated at week-2. Confirming bone resorption is an early local event in OA progression, cathepsin K positive osteoclasts were found invading the articular cartilage from the subchondral region at week 2. This was followed by late disease events, including subchondral sclerosis and osteophyte formation, as demonstrated by the upregulation of the osteoanabolic markers runx2 and osterix, toward week-4 to 6 post-surgery. In summary, this study demonstrated the temporal and cohesive gene expression changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone using known markers of OA progression. The findings here support genome-wide profiling

  15. Molecular changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating, progressive joint disease. Methods Similar to the disease progression in humans, sequential events of early cartilage degradation, subchondral osteopenia followed by sclerosis, and late osteophyte formation were demonstrated in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) or ACLT with partial medial meniscectomy (ACLT + MMx) rat OA models. We describe a reliable and consistent method to examine the time dependent changes in the gene expression profiles in articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Results Local regulation of matrix degradation markers was demonstrated by a significant increase in mRNA levels of aggrecanase-1 and MMP-13 as early as the first week post-surgery, and expression remained elevated throughout the 10 week study. Immunohistochemistry confirmed MMP-13 expression in differentiated chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts at week-2 and cells within osteophytes at week-10 in the surgically-modified-joints. Concomitant increases in chondrocyte differentiation markers, Col IIA and Sox 9, and vascular invasion markers, VEGF and CD31, peaked around week-2 to -4, and returned to Sham levels at later time points in both models. Indeed, VEGF-positive cells were found in the deep articular chondrocytes adjacent to subchondral bone. Osteoclastic bone resorption markers, cathepsin K and TRAP, were also elevated at week-2. Confirming bone resorption is an early local event in OA progression, cathepsin K positive osteoclasts were found invading the articular cartilage from the subchondral region at week 2. This was followed by late disease events, including subchondral sclerosis and osteophyte formation, as demonstrated by the upregulation of the osteoanabolic markers runx2 and osterix, toward week-4 to 6 post-surgery. Conclusions In summary, this study demonstrated the temporal and cohesive gene expression changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone using known markers of OA progression. The

  16. Middle-aged patients with an MRI-verified medial meniscal tear report symptoms commonly associated with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kristoffer B; Stefan Lohmander, L; Kise, Nina Jullum; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M

    2017-12-01

    distinguish those with a meniscal tear alone from those with early radiographic knee OA. Our findings support the notion that symptoms reported by those with a degenerative meniscal tear represent early signs of knee osteoarthritis.

  17. Investigations of Potential Phenotypes of Foot Osteoarthritis: Cross‐Sectional Analysis From the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Michelle; Thomas, Martin J.; Menz, Hylton B.; Myers, Helen L.; Thomas, Elaine; Downes, Thomas; Peat, George; Roddy, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the existence of distinct foot osteoarthritis (OA) phenotypes based on pattern of joint involvement and comparative symptom and risk profiles. Methods Participants ages ≥50 years reporting foot pain in the previous year were drawn from a population‐based cohort. Radiographs were scored for OA in the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, first and second cuneometatarsal, navicular first cuneiform, and talonavicular joints according to a published atlas. Chi‐square tests established clustering, and odds ratios (ORs) examined symmetry and pairwise associations of radiographic OA in the feet. Distinct underlying classes of foot OA were investigated by latent class analysis (LCA) and their association with symptoms and risk factors was assessed. Results In 533 participants (mean age 64.9 years, 55.9% female) radiographic OA clustered across both feet (P < 0.001) and was highly symmetrical (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% confidence interval 2.1, 4.2). LCA identified 3 distinct classes of foot OA: no or minimal foot OA (64%), isolated first MTP joint OA (22%), and polyarticular foot OA (15%). After adjustment for age and sex, polyarticular foot OA was associated with nodal OA, increased body mass index, and more pain and functional limitation compared to the other classes. Conclusion Patterning of radiographic foot OA has provided insight into the existence of 2 forms of foot OA: isolated first MTP joint OA and polyarticular foot OA. The symptom and risk factor profiles in individuals with polyarticular foot OA indicate a possible distinctive phenotype of foot OA, but further research is needed to explore the characteristics of isolated first MTP joint and polyarticular foot OA. PMID:26238801

  18. Is There an Association Between a History of Running and Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis? A Cross-Sectional Study From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Lo, Grace H; Driban, Jeffrey B; Kriska, Andrea M; McAlindon, Timothy E; Souza, Richard B; Petersen, Nancy J; Storti, Kristi L; Eaton, Charles B; Hochberg, Marc C; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kent Kwoh, C; Nevitt, Michael C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2017-02-01

    Regular physical activity, including running, is recommended based on known cardiovascular and mortality benefits. However, controversy exists regarding whether running can be harmful to knees. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship of running with knee pain, radiographic osteoarthritis (OA), and symptomatic OA. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (2004-2014) with knee radiograph readings, symptom assessments, and completed lifetime physical activity surveys. Using logistic regression, we evaluated the association of history of leisure running with the outcomes of frequent knee pain, radiographic OA, and symptomatic OA. Symptomatic OA required at least 1 knee with both radiographic OA and pain. Of 2,637 participants, 55.8% were female, the mean ± SD age was 64.3 ± 8.9 years, and the mean ± SD body mass index was 28.5 ± 4.9 kg/m 2 ; 29.5% of these participants ran at some time in their lives. Unadjusted odds ratios of pain, radiographic OA, and symptomatic OA for those prior runners and current runners compared to those who never ran were 0.83 and 0.71 (P for trend = 0.002), 0.83 and 0.78 (P for trend = 0.01), and 0.81 and 0.64 (P for trend = 0.0006), respectively. Adjusted models were similar, except radiographic OA results were attenuated. There is no increased risk of symptomatic knee OA among self-selected runners compared with nonrunners in a cohort recruited from the community. In those without OA, running does not appear to be detrimental to the knees. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. The association between reduced knee joint proprioception and medial meniscal abnormalities using MRI in knee osteoarthritis: results from the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, M; Knoop, J; Hunter, D J; Klein, J-P; van der Leeden, M; Knol, D L; Reiding, D; Voorneman, R E; Gerritsen, M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; Dekker, J

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is characterized by pain and activity limitations. In knee OA, proprioceptive accuracy is reduced and might be associated with pain and activity limitations. Although causes of reduced proprioceptive accuracy are divergent, medial meniscal abnormalities, which are highly prevalent in knee OA, have been suggested to play an important role. No study has focussed on the association between proprioceptive accuracy and meniscal abnormalities in knee OA. To explore the association between reduced proprioceptive accuracy and medial meniscal abnormalities in a clinical sample of knee OA subjects. Cross-sectional study in 105 subjects with knee OA. Knee proprioceptive accuracy was assessed by determining the joint motion detection threshold in the knee extension direction. The knee was imaged with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Number of regions with medial meniscal abnormalities and the extent of abnormality in the anterior and posterior horn and body were scored according to the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) method. Multiple regression analyzes were used to examine whether reduced proprioceptive accuracy was associated with medial meniscal abnormalities in knee OA subjects. Mean proprioceptive accuracy was 2.9° ± 1.9°. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected medial meniscal abnormalities were found in the anterior horn (78%), body (80%) and posterior horn (90%). Reduced proprioceptive accuracy was associated with both the number of regions with meniscal abnormalities (P < 0.01) and the extent of abnormality (P = 0.02). These associations were not confounded by muscle strength, joint laxity, pain, age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and duration of knee complaints. This is the first study showing that reduced proprioceptive accuracy is associated with medial meniscal abnormalities in knee OA. The study highlights the importance of meniscal abnormalities in understanding reduced proprioceptive accuracy in

  20. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2017-08-01

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis.

  1. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower prevalence of osteoarthritis: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Noale, Marianna; Solmi, Marco; Luchini, Claudio; Smith, Toby O; Cooper, Cyrus; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Rizzoli, Renè; Maggi, Stefania

    2017-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet appears to be beneficial for several medical conditions, but data regarding osteoarthritis (OA) are not available. The aim of this study was to investigate if adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower prevalence of OA of the knee in a large cohort from North America. 4358 community-dwelling participants (2527 females; mean age: 61.2 years) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were included. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated through a validated Mediterranean diet score (aMED) categorized into quartiles (Q). Knee OA was diagnosed both clinically and radiologically. The strength of the association between aMED (divided in quartiles) and knee OA was investigated through a logistic regression analysis and reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders. Participants with a higher adherence to Mediterranean diet had a significantly lower prevalence of knee OA compared to those with lower adherence (Q4: 25.2% vs. Q1: 33.8%; p < 0.0001). Using a logistic regression analysis, adjusting for 10 potential confounders with those in the lowest quartile of aMED as reference, participants with the highest aMED had a significant reduction in presence of knee OA (OR, 0.83; 95% CIs: 0.69-0.99, p = 0.04). Among the individual components of Mediterranean diet, only higher use of cereals was associated with lower odds of having knee OA (OR: 0.76; 95%CI: 0.60-0.98; p = 0.03). Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower prevalence of knee OA. This remained when adjusting for potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the Cartilage DNA Methylome in Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Michael D; Reynard, Louise N; Barter, Matt J; Refaie, Ramsay; Rankin, Kenneth S; Young, David A; Loughlin, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of chondrocytes from knee and hip cartilage obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and hip cartilage obtained from patients with femoral neck fracture, providing the first comparison of DNA methylation between OA and non-OA hip cartilage, and between OA hip and OA knee cartilage. Methods The study was performed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, which allows the annotation of ∼480,000 CpG sites. Genome-wide methylation was assessed in chondrocyte DNA extracted from 23 hip OA patients, 73 knee OA patients, and 21 healthy hip control patients with femoral neck fracture. Results Analysis revealed that chondrocytes from the hip cartilage of OA patients and healthy controls have unique methylation profiles, with 5,322 differentially methylated loci (DMLs) identified between the 2 groups. In addition, a comparison between hip and knee OA chondrocytes revealed 5,547 DMLs between the 2 groups, including DMLs in several genes known to be involved in the pathogenesis of OA. Hip OA samples were found to cluster into 2 groups. A total of 15,239 DMLs were identified between the 2 clusters, with an enrichment of genes involved in inflammation and immunity. Similarly, we confirmed a previous report of knee OA samples that also clustered into 2 groups. Conclusion We demonstrated that global DNA methylation using a high-density array can be a powerful tool in the characterization of OA at the molecular level. Identification of pathways enriched in DMLs between OA and OA-free cartilage highlight potential etiologic mechanisms that are involved in the initiation and/or progression of the disease and that could be therapeutically targeted. PMID:24838673

  3. Characterization of the cartilage DNA methylome in knee and hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Michael D; Reynard, Louise N; Barter, Matt J; Refaie, Ramsay; Rankin, Kenneth S; Young, David A; Loughlin, John

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of chondrocytes from knee and hip cartilage obtained from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and hip cartilage obtained from patients with femoral neck fracture, providing the first comparison of DNA methylation between OA and non-OA hip cartilage, and between OA hip and OA knee cartilage. The study was performed using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, which allows the annotation of ∼480,000 CpG sites. Genome-wide methylation was assessed in chondrocyte DNA extracted from 23 hip OA patients, 73 knee OA patients, and 21 healthy hip control patients with femoral neck fracture. Analysis revealed that chondrocytes from the hip cartilage of OA patients and healthy controls have unique methylation profiles, with 5,322 differentially methylated loci (DMLs) identified between the 2 groups. In addition, a comparison between hip and knee OA chondrocytes revealed 5,547 DMLs between the 2 groups, including DMLs in several genes known to be involved in the pathogenesis of OA. Hip OA samples were found to cluster into 2 groups. A total of 15,239 DMLs were identified between the 2 clusters, with an enrichment of genes involved in inflammation and immunity. Similarly, we confirmed a previous report of knee OA samples that also clustered into 2 groups. We demonstrated that global DNA methylation using a high-density array can be a powerful tool in the characterization of OA at the molecular level. Identification of pathways enriched in DMLs between OA and OA-free cartilage highlight potential etiologic mechanisms that are involved in the initiation and/or progression of the disease and that could be therapeutically targeted. © 2014 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Patterns and natural history of radiographically defined osteoarthritis in a registry of women

    SciT

    Cerhan, J.R.

    The authors studied the natural history of osteoarthritis (OA) in a registry of female radium dial painters who had longitudinal radiographic examinations. Radiographs of the hands, spine, pelvis, knees and feet were graded for OA using the method of Kellgren and Lawrence. The prevalence of OA in this study was consistent with other population-based studies of OA in white women. A full body OA score was defined as the summation of the number of joints with OA. Higher full body OA score was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, after controlling for age and year of birth. Variables cross-sectionallymore » associated with the full body OA score included increasing age; later year of birth; increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure; increasing uric acid level; a history of diabetes, cholecystectomy, or cardiovascular disease; and being a current drinker of alcohol or being a current smoker. The authors described that natural history of OA for individual joints, joint groups, and the full body. The authors found that progression of OA was common, but not universal. Every joint group studied also displayed some amount of regression, although the authors could not conclude how much of the regression was real versus measurement error. The authors found that, in general, joints with a baseline OA grade of one to four were more likely to progress to a higher grade compared to joints with a grade of zero at baseline. Finally, the authors described predictors of followup OA status and predictors of change from baseline to followup for the full body. Predictors of greater change (to more OA) included increasing age, a history of cholecystectomy, having ever drank alcohol, and not having ever smoked. Predictors of a higher followup OA status included increasing age, increasing baseline full body OA score, a history of cholecystectomy, being a current drinker, and having never smoked.« less

  5. Associations of educational attainment, occupation, and community poverty with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Rebecca J; Schwartz, Todd A; Prizer, Lindsay P; Randolph, Randy; Schoster, Britta; Renner, Jordan B; Jordan, Joanne M; Callahan, Leigh F

    2013-06-01

    To examine cross-sectional baseline data from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project for the association between individual and community socioeconomic status (SES) measures with hip osteoarthritis (OA) outcomes. We analyzed data on 3,087 individuals (68% white and 32% African American). Educational attainment and occupation were used as individual measures of SES. Census block group household poverty rate was used as a measure of community SES. Hip OA outcomes included radiographic OA and symptomatic OA in one or both hip joints. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of each hip OA outcome with each SES variable separately, and then with all SES measures simultaneously. Associations between hip OA outcomes and SES variables were evaluated for effect modification by race and sex. Living in a community of high household poverty rate showed independent associations with hip radiographic OA in one or both hips (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.18-1.92) and bilateral (both hips) radiographic OA (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.32-2.66). Similar independent associations were found between low educational attainment among those with symptomatic OA in one or both hips (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09-1.91) or bilateral symptomatic OA (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.08-3.39), after adjusting for all SES measures simultaneously. No significant associations were observed between occupation and hip OA outcomes, nor did race or sex modify the associations. Our data provide evidence that hip OA outcomes are associated with both education and community SES measures, associations that remained after adjustment for covariates and all SES measures. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. DNA Methylation in Osteoarthritis: Current Status and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Duarte, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Background: Primary Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease in which genetic factors are strongly associated with its development; however, recently it has been observed that epigenetic modifications are also involved in the pathogenesis of OA. DNA methylation is related to gene silencing, and several studies have investigated its role in the loci of different pathways or molecules associated to OA. Objective: This review is focused on the current status of DNA methylation studies related to OA pathogenesis. Method: A review of the literature was conducted on searching in PUBMED for original papers on DNA methylation in OA. Conclusion: The DNA methylation research of loci related to OA pathogenesis has shown a correlation between methylation and gene repression; however, there are some exceptions to this rule. Recently, the development of genome-wide methylation and genome-wide hydroxymethylation profiles has demonstrated that several genes previously associated with OA can have changes in their methylation status, favoring the development of the disease, and these have even shown the role of other epigenetic markers. PMID:29682093

  7. Histological and molecular characterisation of feline humeral condylar osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a clinically important and common disease of older cats. The pathological changes and molecular mechanisms which underpin the disease have yet to be described. In this study we evaluated selected histological and transcriptomic measures in the articular cartilage and subchondral bone (SCB) of the humeral condyle of cats with or without OA. Results The histomorphometric changes in humeral condyle were concentrated in the medial aspect of the condyle. Cats with OA had a reduction in articular chondrocyte density, an increase in the histopathological score of the articular cartilage and a decrease in the SCB porosity of the medial part of the humeral condyle. An increase in LUM gene expression was observed in OA cartilage from the medial part of the humeral condyle. Conclusions Histopathological changes identified in OA of the feline humeral condyle appear to primarily affect the medial aspect of the joint. Histological changes suggest that SCB is involved in the OA process in cats. Differentiating which changes represent OA rather than the aging process, or the effects of obesity and or bodyweight requires further investigation. PMID:23731511

  8. Multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Suvà, Domizio; Armand, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated balance impairment in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Although it is currently accepted that postural control depends on multi-joint coordination, no study has previously considered this postural strategy in patients suffering from knee OA. The objectives of this study were to investigate the multi-joint postural behavior in patients with knee OA and to evaluate the association with clinical outcomes. Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and twenty-five healthy elderly were recruited to the study. A motion analysis system and two force plates were used to investigate the joint kinematics (trunk and lower body segments), the lower body joint moments, the vertical ground reaction force ratio and the center of pressure (COP) during a quiet standing task. Pain, functional capacity and quality of life status were also recorded. Patients with symptomatic and severe knee OA adopt a more flexed posture at all joint levels in comparison with the control group. A significant difference in the mean ratio was found between groups, showing an asymmetric weight distribution in patients with knee OA. A significant decrease in the COP range in the anterior-posterior direction was also observed in the group of patients. Only small associations were observed between postural impairments and clinical outcomes. This study brings new insights regarding the postural behavior of patients with severe knee OA during a quiet standing task. The results confirm the multi-joint asymmetric posture adopted by this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting the gut microbiome to treat the osteoarthritis of obesity.

    PubMed

    Schott, Eric M; Farnsworth, Christopher W; Grier, Alex; Lillis, Jacquelyn A; Soniwala, Sarah; Dadourian, Gregory H; Bell, Richard D; Doolittle, Madison L; Villani, David A; Awad, Hani; Ketz, John P; Kamal, Fadia; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Ashton, John M; Gill, Steven R; Mooney, Robert A; Zuscik, Michael J

    2018-04-19

    Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile in the context of obesity, suggesting a potentially novel approach to treat the OA of obesity. Here, we report that - compared with the lean murine gut - obesity is associated with loss of beneficial Bifidobacteria, while key proinflammatory species gain in abundance. A downstream systemic inflammatory signature culminates with macrophage migration to the synovium and accelerated knee OA. Oligofructose supplementation restores the lean gut microbiome in obese mice, in part, by supporting key commensal microflora, particularly Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. This is associated with reduced inflammation in the colon, circulation, and knee and protection from OA. This observation of a gut microbiome-OA connection sets the stage for discovery of potentially new OA therapeutics involving strategic manipulation of specific microbial species inhabiting the intestinal space.

  10. Estimating the Burden of Osteoarthritis to Plan for the Future.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Deborah A; Vanderby, Sonia; Barnabe, Cheryl; MacDonald, Karen V; Maxwell, Colleen; Mosher, Dianne; Wasylak, Tracy; Lix, Lisa; Enns, Ed; Frank, Cy; Noseworthy, Tom

    2015-10-01

    With aging and obesity trends, the incidence and prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is expected to rise in Canada, increasing the demand for health resources. Resource planning to meet this increasing need requires estimates of the anticipated number of OA patients. Using administrative data from Alberta, we estimated OA incidence and prevalence rates and examined their sensitivity to alternative case definitions. We identified cases in a linked data set spanning 1993 to 2010 (population registry, Discharge Abstract Database, physician claims, Ambulatory Care Classification System, and prescription drug data) using diagnostic codes and drug identification numbers. In the base case, incident cases were captured for patients with an OA diagnostic code for at least 2 physician visits within 2 years or any hospital admission. Seven alternative case definitions were applied and compared. Age- and sex-standardized incidence and prevalence rates were estimated to be 8.6 and 80.3 cases per 1,000 population, respectively, in the base case. Physician claims data alone captured 88% of OA cases. Prevalence rate estimates required 15 years of longitudinal data to plateau. Compared to the base case, estimates are sensitive to alternative case definitions. Administrative databases are a key source for estimating the burden and epidemiologic trends of chronic diseases such as OA in Canada. Despite their limitations, these data provide valuable information for estimating disease burden and planning health services. Estimates of OA are mostly defined through physician claims data and require a long period of longitudinal data. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Targeting the gut microbiome to treat the osteoarthritis of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Eric M.; Farnsworth, Christopher W.; Grier, Alex; Lillis, Jacquelyn A.; Soniwala, Sarah; Dadourian, Gregory H.; Bell, Richard D.; Doolittle, Madison L.; Villani, David A.; Ketz, John P.; Kamal, Fadia; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Ashton, John M.; Gill, Steven R.; Mooney, Robert A.

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), the greatest cause of disability in the US. The impact of obesity on OA is driven by systemic inflammation, and increased systemic inflammation is now understood to be caused by gut microbiome dysbiosis. Oligofructose, a nondigestible prebiotic fiber, can restore a lean gut microbial community profile in the context of obesity, suggesting a potentially novel approach to treat the OA of obesity. Here, we report that — compared with the lean murine gut — obesity is associated with loss of beneficial Bifidobacteria, while key proinflammatory species gain in abundance. A downstream systemic inflammatory signature culminates with macrophage migration to the synovium and accelerated knee OA. Oligofructose supplementation restores the lean gut microbiome in obese mice, in part, by supporting key commensal microflora, particularly Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. This is associated with reduced inflammation in the colon, circulation, and knee and protection from OA. This observation of a gut microbiome–OA connection sets the stage for discovery of potentially new OA therapeutics involving strategic manipulation of specific microbial species inhabiting the intestinal space. PMID:29669931

  12. Recommendations for Soluble Biomarker Assessments in Osteoarthritis Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Virginia Byers; Blanco, Francisco J; Englund, Martin; Henrotin, Yves; Lohmander, L Stefan; Losina, Elena; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Persiani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. Methods The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. Results This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials and their utility at 5 stages, including preclinical development and phase I to phase IV trials. Conclusions Biomarkers can provide value at all stages of therapeutics development. When resources permit, we recommend collection of biospecimens in all OA clinical trials for a wide variety of reasons but in particular, to determine whether biomarkers are useful in identifying those individuals most likely to receive clinically important benefits from an intervention; and to determine whether biomarkers are useful for identifying individuals at earlier stages of OA in order to institute treatment at a time more amenable to disease modification. PMID:25952342

  13. Articular chondrocyte alignment in the rat after surgically induced osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Chondrocytes in articular cartilage are aligned as columns from the joint surface. Notably, loss of chondrocyte and abnormalities of differentiation factors give rise to osteoarthritis (OA). However, the relationship between chondrocyte alignment and OA progression remains unclear. This study was performed to investigate temporal alterations in surgically-induced OA rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen-week-old Wistar rats (n=30) underwent destabilized medial meniscus surgery in their right knee and sham surgery in their left knee. Specimens (n=5) were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Histological analysis with Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scores, cell density ratios, cell alignments and correlation between OARSI scores and cell density/alignment was performed. [Results] OARSI scores were significantly higher at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks in the DMM group than in the control. Cell density ratios were decreased significantly in the DMM group at 2, 4 and 8 weeks compared with the control. Chondrocyte alignment was decreased significantly in the DMM group at 4 and 8 weeks. There were negative correlations between OA severity and cell density / cell alignment. [Conclusion] The results suggest a relationship between chondrocyte alignment and cartilage homeostasis, which plays an important role in OA progression. PMID:28533592

  14. Genetic epidemiology of osteoarthritis: recent developments and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Marc C.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Yau, Michelle; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite the high prevalence of osteoarthritis and its enormous public health impact, the cause of the disease remains largely obscure. The identification of genes associated with osteoarthritis can help reveal underlying biological mechanisms that may lead to development of new therapeutic targets or biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification. The goal of this short review is to provide a brief overview of the current status of genetics of osteoarthritis with an emphasis on developments generated in the last year. Recent findings This review focuses on the following areas: identification of new genes through genetic association studies, including genome-wide association studies; family-based studies and extreme osteoarthritis phenotypes; endophenotypes and pain; and overlap of osteoarthritis with other age-related disorders. Summary Although recent genetic discoveries have produced innovative findings with respect to the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis, we have yet to realize new treatments to improve the quality of life of patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:23249833

  15. The Identity Crisis of Osteoarthritis in General Practice: A Qualitative Study Using Video-Stimulated Recall.

    PubMed

    Paskins, Zoe; Sanders, Tom; Croft, Peter R; Hassell, Andrew B

    2015-11-01

    Patients and doctors report marked disenchantment with primary care consultation experiences relating to osteoarthritis. This study aimed to observe and analyze interactions between general practitioners (GPs) and patients presenting with osteoarthritis (OA) to identify how to improve care for OA. We conducted an observational study in general practices in the United Kingdom using video-recorded real-life consultations of unselected patients and their GPs. Postconsultation interviews were conducted using video-stimulated recall. Both consultations and interviews were analyzed thematically. Three key themes were identified in an analysis of 19 OA consultations and the matched GP and patient interviews: complexity, dissonance, and prioritization. The topic of osteoarthritis arises in the consultation in complex contexts of multimorbidity and multiple, often not explicit, patient agendas. Dissonance between patient and doctor was frequently observed and reported; this occurred when GPs normalized symptoms of OA as part of life and reassured patients who were not seeking reassurance. GPs used wear and tear in preference to osteoarthritis or didn't name the condition at all. GPs subconsciously made assumptions that patients did not consider OA a priority and that symptoms raised late in the consultation were not troublesome. The lack of a clear illness profile results in confusion between patients and doctors about what OA is and its priority in the context of multimorbidity. This study highlights generic communication issues regarding the potential negative consequences of unsought reassurance and the importance of validation of symptoms and raises new arguments for tackling OA's identity crisis by developing a clearer medical language with which to explain OA. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  16. Rehabilitation interventions for pain and disability in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Maura Daly

    2012-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) results in progressive destruction of articular cartilage and bone at the joint margins, leading to impairments extending far beyond the synovial joint. Rehabilitation interventions that target specific impairments and activity restrictions can help restore independence and promote healthy living. Such interventions include exercise, physical modalities (ice, heat, ultrasonography), manual techniques (mobilization and manipulation), and assistive devices. The predominance of evidence on the effects of rehabilitation interventions for knee and hip OA suggest that they afford modest pain relief, reduced disability, and improved function. Research is needed to identify the modes of exercise and the effective doses for relief of symptoms and functional limitations.

  17. Effects of short-term gentle treadmill walking on subchondral bone in a rat model of instability-induced osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Iijima, H; Aoyama, T; Ito, A; Yamaguchi, S; Nagai, M; Tajino, J; Zhang, X; Kuroki, H

    2015-09-01

    Subchondral bone cyst (SBC) growth, caused by osteoclast activity during early knee osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, should be treated to prevent further progressions of OA. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of gentle treadmill walking on subchondral bone and cartilage changes in an experimental rat model of destabilized medial meniscus (DMM). Twelve-week-old Wistar rats underwent DMM surgery in their right knee and sham surgery in their left knee and were assigned to either the sedentary group or walking group (n = 42/group). Animals in the walking group were subjected to treadmill exercise 2 days after surgery, which included walking for 12 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 1, 2, and 4 week(s). Subchondral bone and cartilage changes were evaluated by micro-CT analysis, histological analysis, and biomechanical analysis. Treadmill walking had a tendency to suppress SBC growth, which was confirmed by micro-CT (P = 0.06) and positive staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity for the osteoclast number per bone surface (P = 0.09) 4 weeks after surgery. These changes coincide with the prevention of cartilage degeneration as evaluated by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) score (P < 0.05) and biomechanically softening (P < 0.05). Furthermore, treadmill walking could suppressed increasing osteocyte deaths (P < 0.01), which was positively correlated with the OARSI score (r = 0.77; P < 0.01). These results indicate biomechanical and biological links exist between cartilage and subchondral bone; preventive effects of treadmill walking on subchondral bone deterioration might be partly explained by the chondroprotective effects. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Osteoarthritis in Football

    PubMed Central

    Salzmann, Gian M.; Preiss, Stefan; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Harder, Laurent P.; Maier, Dirk; Dvorák, Jirí

    2016-01-01

    Football is currently the most popular sporting activity in the world. Multiple reports have shown that a high incidence of osteoarthritis is found in football players. Evidence clearly shows that traumatic injury significantly predisposes players for such pathophysiology. Injuries are frequent in amateur as well as professional football players, with knee and ankle accounting for the most severe injuries. Many professional athletes lose playing time due to injuries and many are forced into early retirement. Posttraumatic osteoarthritis is a common finding among ex-football players with numbers well above the normal population. Today’s surgical techniques are advanced and capable of restoring the joint to a certain extent. However, a restitution ad integrum is reached only in very rare cases. Professional football players that return to play after serious injuries perform their extremely strenuous activity on morphologically compromised joints. Incomplete rehabilitation and pressure to return to play after an injurious event clearly put the athlete at an even higher risk for joint degeneration. Prevention strategies, improved surgical management, strict rehabilitation, as well as future aspects such as early suppression of inflammation, personalized medicine, and predictive genomics DNA profiling are needed to reduce incidence and improve the health perspectives of football players. PMID:28345409

  19. Development and characteristics of pannus-like soft tissue in osteoarthritic articular surface in rat osteoarthritis model.

    PubMed

    Duc, P A; Yudoh, K; Masuko, K; Kato, T; Nishioka, K; Nakamura, H

    2008-01-01

    Pannus is invasive granulation tissue found on the articular cartilage having rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, pannus-like tissue has also been found in osteoarthritis (OA). Our previous study showed that pannus-like tissue in OA (OA pannus) was frequently found in human OA samples. The purpose of the study is to investigate the development and the characteristics of OA pannus in a rat OA model. Ligaments of the knee joint were transected in Wister rats to induce OA. The knee joints were removed at weeks 1, 2, 4 and 6, and subjected to histological study. Samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Safranin-O and immuno-stained for vimentin, CD34, type II collagen and MMP-3. The whole knee joint of OA rats was implanted in SCID mice and kept for a further 3 weeks. Then the histological findings were evaluated in HE sections. OA pannus appeared at week 2 and extend over the articular surface. OA pannus cells were positive for vimentin and/or CD34. At week 6, a part of articular surface was restored with matrix. OA pannus cells expressed MMP-3 as well as type II collagen. Histological study of rat OA knees implanted in SCID mice showed that OA pannus cells filled the joint space and invaded articular cartilage. The presence of OA pannus was found in a rat OA model and its features were similar to those in human OA. OA pannus had both catabolic and reparative features, and the latter feature were speculated to be dominant in the later phase of the disease under a certain environmental condition.

  20. Fatigue in osteoarthritis: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Power, J Denise; Badley, Elizabeth M; French, Melissa R; Wall, Angela J; Hawker, Gillian A

    2008-01-01

    Background Fatigue is recognized as a disabling symptom in many chronic conditions including rheumatic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and lupus. Fatigue in osteoarthritis (OA) is not routinely evaluated and has only been considered in a very limited number of studies. To date, these studies have focused primarily on patients with OA under rheumatological care, which represent the minority of people living with OA. The purpose of this study was to increase our understanding of the fatigue experience in community dwelling people with OA. Methods In 2004, 8 focus groups were conducted with 28 men and 18 women (mean age 72.3) with symptomatic hip or knee OA recruited from a population-based cohort. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographics, measures of OA severity (WOMAC), depression (CES-D) and fatigue (FACIT). Sessions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers independently reviewed the transcripts to identify themes. Findings were compared and consensus reached. Results Mean pain, disability, depression and fatigue scores were 8.7/20, 27.8/68, 15.4/60, and 30.9/52, respectively. Participants described their fatigue as exhaustion, being tired and "coming up against a brick wall". Participants generally perceived fatigue as different from sleepiness and distinguished physical from mental fatigue. Factors believed to increase fatigue included OA pain and pain medications, aging, various types of weather and poor sleep. Mental health was identified as both affecting fatigue and being affected by fatigue. Participants described fatigue as impacting physical function, and their ability to participate in social activities and to do household chores. Rest, exercise, and avoiding or getting assistance with activities were cited as ways of coping. Participants generally did not discuss their fatigue with anyone except their spouses. Conclusion Participants with OA described experiencing notable amounts

  1. Inflammation and epigenetic regulation in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Abu-Amer, Yousef; O'Keefe, Regis J.; McAlinden, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) was once defined as a non-inflammatory arthropathy, but it is now well-recognized that there is a major inflammatory component to this disease. In addition to synovial cells, articular chondrocytes and other cells of diarthrodial joints are also known to express inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed that targeting inflammation pathways could be a promising strategy to treat OA. There have been many reports of cross-talk between inflammation and epigenetic factors in cartilage. Specifically, inflammatory mediators have been shown to regulate levels of enzymes that catalyze changes in DNA methylation and histone structure, as well as alter levels of non-coding RNAs. In addition, expression levels of a number of these epigenetic factors have been shown to be altered in OA, thereby suggesting potential interplay between inflammation and epigenetics in this disease. This review provides information on inflammatory pathways in arthritis and summarizes published research on how epigenetic regulators are affected by inflammation in chondrocytes. Furthermore, we discuss data showing how altered expression of some of these epigenetic factors can induce either catabolic or anti-catabolic effects in response to inflammatory signals. A better understanding of how inflammation affects epigenetic factors in OA may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies to treat this condition. PMID:27389927

  2. Ultrasonographic assessment of pes anserinus tendon and pes anserinus tendinitis bursitis syndrome in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Toktas, Hasan; Dundar, Umit; Adar, Sevda; Solak, Ozlem; Ulasli, Alper Murat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the ultrasonographic (US) findings of pes anserinus tendon and bursa in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) with or without clinical pes anserinus tendinitis bursitis syndrome (PATBS). A total of 157 female patients with the diagnosis of knee OA on both knees (314 knees), and 30 age, and body mass index- matched healthy female controls without knee pain (60 knees), were included in the study. PATBS was clinically diagnosed. US evaluation parameters were the measurement of the thickness of pes anserinus tendon insertion region (PA) and examination of the morphologic intratendinous PA tissue characteristics and pes anserinus bursitis (PAB). Radiographic knee osteoarthritis graded I-IV according to Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) for each knee was recorded. Pain and functional status were assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). There were 183 PATBS (58.3%) clinical diagnoses among the 314 knees with OA. The mean thickness of PA in the patients with knee OA graded 1,2,3,4 with/without PATBS was significantly greater than the controls (p = 0.001). The mean thickness of PA in knees with OA KL graded 3 and 4 with/without PATBS, was greater than knees with OA KL graded 1 and 2 with/without PATBS (p < 0,05) (except knee OA KL graded 2 with PATBS versus knee OA KL graded 4 without PATBS).The knee OA KL graded 1,2,3,4 with PATBS had significantly more PAB and less loss of normal fibrillar echotexture of PA compared to controls and knees with OA KL graded 1,2,3,4 without PATBS (p < 0.05). The VAS scores of knees with OA KL graded 3, 4 with PATBS were significantly greater than those of knees with OA KL graded 3,4 without PATBS (p < 0.05). PA thickness was significantly associated with the KL grade (r: 0.336, p:0.001) and PATBS (r: 0.371, p < 0.001). It is concluded that the mean thickness of PA in knees with OA with/without PATBS was significantly greater than the

  3. Osteoarthritis Management: Time to Change the Deck.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David J

    2017-06-01

    This Viewpoint highlights the shortcomings of existing osteoarthritis (OA) clinical practices and emphasizes the opportunity that can come about by virtue of adherence to appropriate management. In an effort to emphasize optimism, there are huge missed opportunities with existing efficacious treatments and tremendous developments that are currently going on that will positively influence future care. How we respond to that opportunity will not only impact the individuals disabled by the disease but also make a massive difference to our society through reducing underemployment and health care waste. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(6):370-372. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0605.

  4. Influence of dendritic polyglycerol sulfates on knee osteoarthritis: an experimental study in the rat osteoarthritis model.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tobias; Welker, Pia; Licha, Kai; Haag, Rainer; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2015-12-15

    Anti-inflammatory nanoparticular compounds could represent a strategy to diminish osteoarthritis (OA) progression. The present study was undertaken to prove the uptake of nanoparticular dendritic polyglycerol sulfates (dPGS) by rat-derived articular chondrocytes and to answer the question of whether dPGS could modulate knee joint cartilage degradation in a rat OA model and whether complications could arise. dPGS uptake and cytotoxicity was assessed in cultured primary rat-derived articular chondrocytes. Subsequently, OA was induced in the right knee joints of 12 male Wistar rats by medial collateral ligament and meniscus transection. Unoperated left knees remained as controls. Six weeks post surgery six rats were either treated daily (14 days) with 30 mg/kg dPGS (s.c.) or a similar volume of physiological saline. Animals were analyzed clinically for gait alterations. Explanted knee joints were studied histologically using OA scores according to Mankin (1971), Glasson et al., (2010) and the synovitis score according to Krenn et al., (2006). Liver, spleen and kidneys were analyzed for degenerative changes due to dPGS accumulation. dPGS was taken up after 2 hours by the chondrocytes. Whereas no significant clinical signs of OA could be detected, at the histological level, all operated rat knee joints revealed features of OA in the medial compartment. The values produced by both OA score systems were lower in rats treated with dPGS compared with saline-treated animals. Synovitis score did not significantly differ between the groups. The analyzed organs revealed no degenerative changes. dPGS presented overall cyto- and biocompatibility, no accumulation in metabolizing organs and chondroprotective properties in the osteoarthritic knee joint.

  5. The alignment of the knee joint in relationship to age and osteoarthritis: the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study.

    PubMed

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the changes in the axis of the knee joint in both radiologically osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic knees, on the basis of angles measurable in standardized clinical short knee radiographs, in a cross sectional study of an epidemiological cohort. From the third inclusion of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 4,151 subjects were selected for standardized radiography of the knees. After censuring the inclusion, the resulting cohort was comprised of 3,488 individuals. Images were analyzed for radiological knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) and the anatomical femorotibial axis of the knee joint was measured. The prevalence of knee joint OA in males was 27.9% and 27.5%, for the left and right knees respectively. In females this was 32.8% and 36.4%. The mean knee joint angles were 4.11° in males; and 5.45° in females. A difference of 1.3° was found between the genders. In non-osteoarthritic knees the increase in valgus orientation in relationship to increasing age was found to be 0.03° and 0.04° per year, respectively, for males and females. Likewise, Kellgren and Lawrence found that OA was seen to influence a shift towards varus of 0.55°-0.76° per level of OA. Stratification in accordance with morphological severity of OA documented a clear tendency for the axis of the diseased knees to depart from the mean, primarily in the direction of varus. In knees exhibiting no signs of radiographic osteoarthritis we found a significant relationship between increasing age and a shift in the anatomical axis in the direction of valgus.

  6. The prevalence of patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Pappas, E; Fransen, M; Refshauge, K; Simic, M

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of radiographic patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) from population- and symptom-based cohorts and to evaluate if knee pain, physical function and quality of life (QOL) differ between people with isolated patellofemoral OA, isolated tibiofemoral OA and combined patellofemoral and tibiofemoral OA. Terms associated with "patellofemoral OA", "prevalence" and "clinical features" were used to search Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS, AMED and Web of Science databases with no language restriction' from inception to August 2014. Two independent reviewers screened papers for eligibility. Studies were included if they reported prevalence of compartmental patterns of radiographic knee OA in population- or symptom-based cohorts. Studies were excluded if they evaluated a targeted sample (e.g., occupation-specific participants) or repeated already reported data from the same cohorts. Point prevalence estimates of patellofemoral OA were extracted from eligible studies, pooled and quantitatively analysed. A critical appraisal tool was used to evaluate methodological quality. The search yielded 1891 records. The inclusion criteria were met by 32 studies. The crude prevalence of patellofemoral OA was 25% in the population-based cohorts (aged >20 years) and 39% in the symptom-based cohorts (aged >30 years). Eight studies reported knee pain, physical function and QOL in people with different compartmental disease; however no significant differences were found. These findings confirm the substantial prevalence of patellofemoral OA, demonstrating the need to specifically consider the patellofemoral joint in knee OA research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Expression of adipokines in osteoarthritis osteophytes and their effect on osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Junker, Susann; Frommer, Klaus W; Krumbholz, Grit; Tsiklauri, Lali; Gerstberger, Rüdiger; Rehart, Stefan; Steinmeyer, Jürgen; Rickert, Markus; Wenisch, Sabine; Schett, Georg; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Neumann, Elena

    2017-10-01

    Osteophyte formation in osteoarthritis (OA) is mediated by increased osteoblast activity, which is -in turn- regulated by the Wnt signaling pathway. Obesity is regarded a risk factor in OA, yet little is known about the interaction between adipose tissue-derived factors, the adipokines, and bone formation, although adipokines are associated with the pathogenesis of OA. Therefore, the effect of adipokines on bone and cartilage forming cells and osteophyte development was analyzed. Human OA osteophytes were histologically characterized and adipokine expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Osteoblasts and chondrocytes were isolated from OA tissue and stimulated with adiponectin, resistin, or visfatin. Cytokine and osteoblast/chondrocyte markers were quantified and activation of Wnt and p38 MAPK signaling was analyzed. Adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin were expressed in OA osteophytes by various articular cell types. Stimulation of OA osteoblasts with adiponectin and of OA chondrocytes with visfatin led to an increased release of proinflammatory mediators but not to osteoblast differentiation or activation. Additionally, visfatin increased matrix degrading factors in chondrocytes. Wnt signaling was not altered by adipokines, but adiponectin induced p38 MAPK signaling in osteoblasts. Adipokines are present in OA osteophytes, and adiponectin and visfatin increase the release of proinflammatory mediators by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The effects of adiponectin were mediated by p38 MAPK but not Wnt signaling in osteoblasts. Therefore, the results support the idea that adipokines do not directly influence osteophyte development but the proinflammatory conditions in OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gait adaptations with aging in healthy participants and people with knee-joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Duffell, Lynsey D; Jordan, Stevan J; Cobb, Justin P; McGregor, Alison H

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between age and gait characteristics in people with and without medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. We aimed to characterize this relationship and to relate biomechanical and structural parameters in a subset of OA patients. Twenty five participants with diagnosed unilateral medial knee OA and 84 healthy participants, with no known knee pathology were recruited. 3D motion capture was used to analyse sagittal and coronal plane gait parameters while participants walked at a comfortable speed. Participants were categorized according to age (18-30, 31-59 and 60+ years), and those with and without OA were compared between and within age groups. In a subset of OA patients, clinically available Computed Tomography images were used to assess joint structure. Differences in coronal plane kinematics at the hip and knee were noted in participants with OA particularly those who were older compared with our healthy controls, as well as increased knee moments. Knee adduction moment correlated with structural parameters in the subset of OA patients. Increased knee moments and altered kinematics were observed in older participants presenting with OA only, which seem to be related to morphological changes in the joint due to OA, as opposed to being related to the initial cause of medial knee OA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Perturbations in amino acids and metabolic pathways in osteoarthritis patients determined by targeted metabolomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Han, Su; Liu, Xuefeng; Wang, Kunpeng; Zhou, Yong; Yang, Chundong; Zhang, Xi

    2018-05-15

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative synovial joint disease affecting people worldwide. However, the exact pathogenesis of OA remains unclear. Metabolomics analysis was performed to obtain insight into possible pathogenic mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers of OA. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS), followed by multivariate statistical analysis, was used to determine the serum amino acid profiles of 32 OA patients and 35 healthy controls. Variable importance for project values and Student's t-test were used to determine the metabolic abnormalities in OA. Another 30 OA patients were used as independent samples to validate the alterations in amino acids. MetaboAnalyst was used to identify the key amino acid pathways and construct metabolic networks describing their relationships. A total of 25 amino acids and four biogenic amines were detected by UPLC-TQ-MS. Differences in amino acid profiles were found between the healthy controls and OA patients. Alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and 4-hydroxy-l-proline were important biomarkers distinguishing OA patients from healthy controls. The metabolic pathways with the most significant effects were involved in metabolism of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, arginine and proline. The results of this study improve understanding of the amino acid metabolic abnormalities and pathogenic mechanisms of OA at the molecular level. The metabolic perturbations may be important for the diagnosis and prevention of OA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rehabilitation (exercise and strength training) and osteoarthritis: A critical narrative review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Christelle; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Poiraudeau, Serge; Rannou, François

    2016-06-01

    Rehabilitation is widely recommended in national and international guidelines for managing osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care settings. According to the 2014 OA Research Society International (OARSI) recommendations, rehabilitation is even considered the core treatment of OA and is recommended for all patients. Rehabilitation for OA widely includes land- and water-based exercise, strength training, weight management, self-management and education, biomechanical interventions, and physically active lifestyle. We performed a critical narrative review of the efficacy and safety of rehabilitation for managing OA and discuss evidence-based international recommendations. The process of article selection was unsystematic. Articles were selected based on authors' expertise, self-knowledge, and reflective practice. For the purpose of the review, we focused on land- and water-based exercise and strength training for knee, hip and hand OA. Other aspects of rehabilitation in OA are treated elsewhere in this special issue. Exercise therapy is widely recommended for managing knee, hip and hand OA. However, the level of evidence varies according to OA location. Overall, consistent evidence suggests that exercise therapy and specific strengthening exercise or strength training for the lower limb reduce pain and improve physical function in knee OA. Evidence for other OA sites are less consistent. Therefore, because of the lack of specific studies, recommendations for hip and hand OA are mainly derived from studies of knee OA. In addition, no recommendations have been established regarding the exercise regimen. The efficacy and safety of exercise therapy and strength training need to be further evaluated in randomized controlled trials of patients with hip and hand OA. The optimal delivery of exercise programs also has to be more clearly defined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. A survey of footwear advice, beliefs and wear habits in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Kade L; Wrigley, Tim V; Bennell, Kim L; Hinman, Rana S

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion recommends cushioned and supportive footwear for people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, little is known about the footwear advice people receive from healthcare professionals, or the beliefs and footwear habits of people with knee OA. This study aimed to determine i) what types of shoes people are advised to wear for their knee OA and by whom; ii) establish which types of shoes people with knee OA believe are best for managing their knee OA symptoms and (iii) which shoes they wear most often. 204 people with symptomatic knee OA completed an online survey. The survey comprised 14 questions asking what footwear advice people had received for their knee OA and who they received it from, individual beliefs about optimal footwear styles for their knee OA symptoms and the types of footwear usually worn. Only one third (n = 69, 34%) of participants reported receiving footwear advice for their knee OA, and this was most frequently received from a podiatrist (n = 47, 68%). The most common advice was to wear sturdy/supportive shoes (n = 96, 47%) or shoes with arch supports (n = 84, 41%). These were also amongst the shoe styles that participants believed were best for their knee OA (n = 157 (77%) and n = 138 (68%) respectively). The type of shoes most frequently worn were athletic (n = 131, 64%) and sturdy/supportive shoes (n = 116, 57%). Most people with knee OA who completed our survey had not received advice about footwear for their knee OA symptoms. Our participants typically believed that sturdy/supportive shoes were best for their knee OA and this shoe style was most frequently worn, which is reflective of expert opinion. Future research is needed to confirm whether sturdy/supportive shoes are indeed optimal for managing symptoms of knee OA.

  12. Variations in Hip Shape Are Associated with Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analyses of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Amanda E; Golightly, Yvonne M; Renner, Jordan B; Schwartz, Todd A; Liu, Felix; Lynch, John A; Gregory, Jenny S; Aspden, Richard M; Lane, Nancy E; Jordan, Joanne M

    2016-02-01

    Hip shape by statistical shape modeling (SSM) is associated with hip radiographic osteoarthritis (rOA). We examined associations between hip shape and knee rOA given the biomechanical interrelationships between these joints. Bilateral baseline hip shape assessments [for those with at least 1 hip with a Kellgren-Lawrence arthritis grading scale (KL) 0 or 1] from the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project were available. Proximal femur shape was defined on baseline pelvis radiographs and evaluated by SSM, producing mean shape and continuous variables representing independent modes of variation (14 modes = 95% of shape variance). Outcomes included prevalent [baseline KL ≥ 2 or total knee replacement (TKR)], incident (baseline KL 0/1 with followup ≥ 2), and progressive knee rOA (KL increase of ≥ 1 or TKR). Limb-based logistic regression models for ipsilateral and contralateral comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), and hip rOA, accounting for intraperson correlations. We evaluated 681 hips and 682 knees from 342 individuals (61% women, 83% white, mean age 62 yrs, BMI 29 kg/m(2)). Ninety-nine knees (15%) had prevalent rOA (4 knees with TKR). Lower modes 2 and 3 scores were associated with ipsilateral prevalent knee rOA, and only lower mode 3 scores were associated with contralateral prevalent knee rOA. No statistically significant associations were seen for incident or progressive knee rOA. Variations in hip shape were associated with prevalent, but not incident or progressive, knee rOA in this cohort, and may reflect biomechanical differences between limbs, genetic influences, or common factors related to both hip shape and knee rOA.

  13. A Computer-Adaptive Disability Instrument for Lower Extremity Osteoarthritis Research Demonstrated Promising Breadth, Precision and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Jette, Alan M.; McDonough, Christine M.; Haley, Stephen M.; Ni, Pengsheng; Olarsch, Sippy; Latham, Nancy; Hambleton, Ronald K.; Felson, David; Kim, Young-jo; Hunter, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate a prototype measure (OA-DISABILITY-CAT) for osteoarthritis research using Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) methodologies. Study Design and Setting We constructed an item bank consisting of 33 activities commonly affected by lower extremity (LE) osteoarthritis. A sample of 323 adults with LE osteoarthritis reported their degree of limitation in performing everyday activities and completed the Health Assessment Questionnaire-II (HAQ-II). We used confirmatory factor analyses to assess scale unidimensionality and IRT methods to calibrate the items and examine the fit of the data. Using CAT simulation analyses, we examined the performance of OA-DISABILITY-CATs of different lengths compared to the full item bank and the HAQ-II. Results One distinct disability domain was identified. The 10-item OA-DISABILITY-CAT demonstrated a high degree of accuracy compared with the full item bank (r=0.99). The item bank and the HAQ-II scales covered a similar estimated scoring range. In terms of reliability, 95% of OA-DISABILITY reliability estimates were over 0.83 versus 0.60 for the HAQ-II. Except at the highest scores the 10-item OA-DISABILITY-CAT demonstrated superior precision to the HAQ-II. Conclusion The prototype OA-DISABILITY-CAT demonstrated promising measurement properties compared to the HAQ-II, and is recommended for use in LE osteoarthritis research. PMID:19216052

  14. Early results of a prospective study on the pyrolytic carbon (pyrocarbon) Amandys® for osteoarthritis of the wrist

    PubMed Central

    Daruwalla, ZJ; Davies, KL; Shafighian, A; Gillham, NR

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The preliminary results of a pyrocarbon interpositional radiocarpal implant in a small cohort of patients were reviewed. As it is currently only a limited release product, we describe to potential users early complications and negative outcomes. METHODS Patients were assessed using pain levels, ranges of motion, grip strength, type of and time to return to work as well as pre-operative and post-operative DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) scores. Radiographs were taken and patient satisfaction was recorded. RESULTS All six patients were contacted. One was not satisfied. Three had reduced motion. None experienced squeaking. There were no immediate or late post-operative complications. There was one early volar displacement of an implant. CONCLUSIONS Although our early results are somewhat encouraging, further and longer studies are warranted before supporting the use of this particular pyrocarbon implant as a primary procedure. PMID:23031769

  15. Changes in MR Relaxation Times of the Meniscus With Acute Loading: An In Vivo Pilot Study in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Souza, Richard B.; Wyman, Bradley T.; Le Graverand-Gastineau, Marie-Pierre Hellio; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate changes in T1ρ and T2 relaxation times in the meniscal body with acute loading using MRI in osteoarthritic knees and to compare these findings with those of age-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods Female subjects above 40 years of age with (N1 = 20) and without osteoarthritis (OA) (N2 = 10) were imaged on a 3 Tesla MR scanner using a custom made loading device. MR images were acquired, with the knee flexed at 20°, with and without a compressive load of 50% of the subject's bodyweight. The subjects were categorized based on the radiographic evidence of OA. Three different zones (outer, middle, and inner) of meniscus body were defined (each occupying 1/3rd the width). After adjusting for age and body mass index in the general linear regression model, repeated measures analysis of variance was used to detect significant differences in T1ρ and T2 with and without loading. Results In the unloaded condition, the average T1ρ and T2 times were elevated in the outer and middle zones of the medial meniscus in OA subjects compared with the controls. In the loaded condition, T1ρ and T2 times of the outer zone of the medial meniscus was significantly elevated in OA subjects compared with controls. Finally the change (from unloaded to loaded) was significantly higher in controls than OA subjects (15.1% versus 8.3%; P = 0.039 for ΔT1ρ, and 11.5% versus 6.9%, P = 0.049 for ΔT2). Conclusion These findings suggest that while the OA process appears to affect the relaxation times of all regions within the meniscus, it may affect some regions sooner or to a greater degree. Furthermore, the differences in the change in relaxation times between unloaded and loaded conditions may reveal evidence about load transmission failure of the outer zone of the medial meniscus in subjects with knee OA. It is possible that these metrics (ΔT1ρ and ΔT2) may be valuable as an early biomechanical biomarker, which could be used to predict load

  16. Systematic review of the concurrent and predictive validity of MRI biomarkers in OA

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, D.J.; Zhang, W.; Conaghan, Philip G.; Hirko, K.; Menashe, L.; Li, L.; Reichmann, W.M.; Losina, E.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To summarize literature on the concurrent and predictive validity of MRI-based measures of osteoarthritis (OA) structural change. Methods An online literature search was conducted of the OVID, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychInfo and Cochrane databases of articles published up to the time of the search, April 2009. 1338 abstracts obtained with this search were preliminarily screened for relevance by two reviewers. Of these, 243 were selected for data extraction for this analysis on validity as well as separate reviews on discriminate validity and diagnostic performance. Of these 142 manuscripts included data pertinent to concurrent validity and 61 manuscripts for the predictive validity review. For this analysis we extracted data on criterion (concurrent and predictive) validity from both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies for all synovial joint tissues as it relates to MRI measurement in OA. Results Concurrent validity of MRI in OA has been examined compared to symptoms, radiography, histology/pathology, arthroscopy, CT, and alignment. The relation of bone marrow lesions, synovitis and effusion to pain was moderate to strong. There was a weak or no relation of cartilage morphology or meniscal tears to pain. The relation of cartilage morphology to radiographic OA and radiographic joint space was inconsistent. There was a higher frequency of meniscal tears, synovitis and other features in persons with radiographic OA. The relation of cartilage to other constructs including histology and arthroscopy was stronger. Predictive validity of MRI in OA has been examined for ability to predict total knee replacement (TKR), change in symptoms, radiographic progression as well as MRI progression. Quantitative cartilage volume change and presence of cartilage defects or bone marrow lesions are potential predictors of TKR. Conclusion MRI has inherent strengths and unique advantages in its ability to visualize multiple individual tissue pathologies relating to pain

  17. Tibial tuberosity to trochlear groove distance and its association with patellofemoral osteoarthritis-related structural damage worsening: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Guermazi, Ali; Hakky, Michael; Sereni, Christopher; Zikria, Bashir; Roemer, Frank W; Tanaka, Miho J; Cosgarea, Andrew J; Demehri, Shadpour

    2018-04-30

    To determine whether the tibial tuberosity-to-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance is associated with concurrent patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (OA)-related structural damage and its worsening on 24-month follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Six hundred subjects (one index knee per participant) were assessed. To evaluate patellofemoral OA-related structural damage, baseline and 24-month semiquantitative MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) variables for cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), osteophytes, effusion, and synovitis were extracted from available readings. The TT-TG distance was measured in all subjects using baseline MRIs by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The associations between baseline TT-TG distance and concurrent baseline MOAKS variables and their worsening in follow-up MRI were investigated using regression analysis adjusted for variables associated with tibiofemoral and patellofemoral OA. At baseline, increased TT-TG distance was associated with concurrent lateral patellar and trochlear cartilage damages, BML, osteophytes, and knee joint effusion [cross-sectional evaluations; overall odds ratio 95% confidence interval (OR 95% CI): 1.098 (1.045-1.154), p < 0.001]. In the longitudinal analysis, increased TT-TG distance was significantly related to lateral patellar and trochlear cartilage, BML, and joint effusion worsening (overall OR 95% CI: 1.111 (1.056-1.170), p < 0.001). TT-TG distance was associated with simultaneous lateral patellofemoral OA-related structural damage and its worsening over 24 months. Abnormally lateralized tibial tuberosity may be considered as a risk factor for future patellofemoral OA worsening. • Excessive TT-TG distance on MRI is an indicator/predictor of lateral-patellofemoral-OA. • TT-TG is associated with simultaneous lateral-patellofemoral-OA (6-17% chance-increase for each millimeter increase). • TT-TG is associated with longitudinal (24

  18. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

  19. Gene Therapy for Osteoarthritis: Pharmacokinetics of Intra-articular scAAV.IL-1Ra Delivery in an Equine Model.

    PubMed

    Watson Levings, Rachael; Broome, Ted A; Smith, Andrew D; Rice, Brett L; Gibbs, Eric P; Myara, D Alex; Hyddmark, E Viktoria; Nasri, Elham; Zarezadeh, Ali; Levings, Padraic P; Lu, Yuan; Dacanay, E Anthony; Foremny, Gregory B; Evans, Christopher H; Morton, Alison J; Winter, Mathew; Dark, Michael J; Nickerson, David M; Colahan, Patrick T; Ghivizzani, Steven Craig

    2018-06-05

    142: Toward the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), we have been investigating self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) for intra-articular delivery of gene products with therapeutic potential. As OA frequently affects weight-bearing joints, we performed pharmacokinetic studies in the equine forelimb to identify parameters of scAAV gene delivery relevant to clinical translation. Using the coding sequence for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) as a secreted therapeutic reporter we first generated an scAAV vector containing an optimized cDNA for equine IL-1Ra. In dosing studies in vivo we identified a putative ceiling dose of 5 x 1012 viral genomes (vg) which elevated the steady-state eqIL-1Ra in synovial fluids >50-fold for over 6 months. No adverse effects of treatment were seen, and eqIL-1Ra in serum and urine remained at background. Using 5 x 1012 vg and GFP as a cytologic marker, we compared the local and systemic distribution of vector and transduced cells in healthy joints and those with late stage, naturally-occurring OA. Strikingly, a substantial increase in transgenic expression was associated with the articular pathologies characteristic of OA, including synovitis, osteophyte formation and damaged cartilage. Nonetheless, in both the healthy and OA environments the vector and transgene expression were effectively contained within the injected joint. 143: We are investigating self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) as a vector for intra-articular gene-delivery of IL-1Ra, and its therapeutic capacity in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). To model gene-transfer on a scale proportional to the human knee, a frequent site of OA incidence, we focused our studies on the joints of the equine forelimb. Using AAV2.5 capsid and equine IL-1Ra as a homologous transgene, we previously identified a functional ceiling dose of ~5 x 1012 viral genomes, which elevated the steady state levels of eqIL-1Ra in synovial fluids by more than 40-fold over

  20. Phlpp1 facilitates post-traumatic osteoarthritis and is induced by inflammation and promoter demethylation in human osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Carpio, Lomeli R.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Becerra, Clara Castillejo; Amanatullah, Derek F.; Ta, Lauren E.; Otero, Miguel; Goldring, Mary B.; Kakar, Sanjeev; Westendorf, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and a leading cause of disability. OA is characterized by articular chondrocyte deterioration, subchondral bone changes and debilitating pain. One strategy to promote cartilage regeneration and repair is to accelerate proliferation and matrix production of articular chondrocytes. We previously reported that the protein phosphatase Phlpp1 controls chondrocyte differentiation by regulating the activities of anabolic kinases. Here we examined the role of Phlpp1 in osteoarthritis progression in a murine model. We also assessed PHLPP1 expression and promoter methylation. DESIGN Knee joints of WT and Phlpp1−/− mice were surgically destabilized by transection of the medial meniscal ligament (DMM). Mice were assessed for signs of OA progression via radiographic and histological analyses, and pain assessment for mechanical hypersensitivity using the von Frey assay. Methylation of the PHLPP1 promoter and PHLPP1 expression was evaluated in human articular cartilage and chondrocyte cell lines. RESULTS Following DMM surgeries, Phlpp1 deficient mice showed fewer signs of OA and cartilage degeneration. Mechanical allodynia associated with DMM surgeries was also attenuated in Phlpp1−/− mice. PHLPP1 was highly expressed in human articular cartilage from OA patients, but was undetectable in cartilage specimens from femoral neck fractures. Higher PHLPP1 levels correlated with less PHLPP1 promoter CpG methylation in cartilage from OA patients. Blocking cytosine methylation or treatment with inflammatory mediators enhanced PHLPP1 expression in human chondrocyte cell lines. CONCLUSION Phlpp1 deficiency protects against OA progression while CpG demethylation and inflammatory responses promote PHLPP1 expression. PMID:26746148

  1. Role of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Osteoarthritis Management.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Yan; Liang, Jun; Li, Yu-Sheng; Tu, Min

    2018-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease, in which metabolic imbalance in bone is observed. The pathological mechanism of metabolic imbalance is not clear yet, but the nutritional factors, particularly the vitamins, might be intrinsic to the development and progression of OA. In this review article, we have explored databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar articles until the beginning of 2017 and reviewed the role of fat-soluble vitamins in pathological and therapeutic aspects of OA. Vitamin D plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the skeleton, as well as bone and cartilage metabolism, and its deficiency is implicated in the pathological process of OA. Vitamin E enhances chondrocyte growth and exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity, as well as plays an important role in the prevention of cartilage degeneration. In human OA cartilage, vitamin K deficiency produces abnormal growth plate calcification and inappropriate mineralization of cartilage. Thus, these fat-soluble vitamins play a key role in the pathophysiology of OA, and supplementation of these vitamins may provide innovative approaches for OA management. However, vitamin A has a different role, which is a regulator of cartilage and skeletal formation. When metabolite levels of vitamin A are elevated in synovial fluid, they appear to drive OA development. The role of inhibitors of vitamin A here remains unclear. More investigations are needed to examine the effects of fat-soluble vitamins on the various molecular pathways of OA, as well as to assess the efficacy and safety of their usage clinically.

  2. Radiographic Hip or Knee Osteoarthritis and the Ability to Drive.

    PubMed

    von Bernstorff, Maximilian; Feierabend, Martina; Jordan, Maurice; Glatzel, Christopher; Ipach, Ingmar; Hofmann, Ulf Krister

    2017-01-01

    The question of whether patients with musculoskeletal disorders are fit to drive is of paramount importance for them and frequently is directed to the treating orthopedic specialist. Although perioperative braking performance has been increasingly investigated in recent years, scientific data on braking safety in individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) are scarce. This study analyzed the braking performance of 158 patients with OA of the right or left knee or hip and compared the results with radiographic OA grading according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification scale. Reaction time and foot transfer time (together called brake response time [BRT]) and brake force were measured in a real car cabin, and the values were compared with measurements obtained from young (n=34) and age-matched (n=36) control groups. Although the majority of BRTs in both control groups remained below 600 milliseconds, patients with both hip and knee OA, whether on the right or left side, had significantly worse values (P<.001) and frequently exceeded this limit. A stronger impact was observed on the right side and in knee OA, with the worst results found in patients with bilateral OA (median BRT for bilateral hip OA, 656 milliseconds [range, 468-1459 milliseconds]; median BRT for bilateral knee OA, 696 milliseconds [range, 527-772 milliseconds]), leading to an increased total stopping distance of up to 32 m at 100 km/h. No correlation of braking performance with radiographic OA manifestation was observed (Kendall tau for BRT: τ=0.007, P=.92; Kendall tau for brake force: τ=-0.014, P=.82), which makes radiographs an inadequate tool for medical driving recommendations. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e82-e89.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. MR Imaging-based Semi-quantitative Methods for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    JARRAYA, Mohamed; HAYASHI, Daichi; ROEMER, Frank Wolfgang; GUERMAZI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based semi-quantitative (SQ) methods applied to knee osteoarthritis (OA) have been introduced during the last decade and have fundamentally changed our understanding of knee OA pathology since then. Several epidemiological studies and clinical trials have used MRI-based SQ methods to evaluate different outcome measures. Interest in MRI-based SQ scoring system has led to continuous update and refinement. This article reviews the different SQ approaches for MRI-based whole organ assessment of knee OA and also discuss practical aspects of whole joint assessment. PMID:26632537

  4. Osteoarthritis: A review.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Susan; Williard, Julie

    2014-05-12

    Disabling for nearly 27 million people, osteoarthritis is expected to double by the year 2030. Although age is a strong predictor of osteoarthritis, it is not an inevitable consequence of aging. Nurse practitioners, frequently the first healthcare providers to see patients with osteoarthritis, must be up-to-date on current treatment recommendations.

  5. Osteoarthritis and stem cell therapy in humans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jevotovsky, D S; Alfonso, A R; Einhorn, T A; Chiu, E S

    2018-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability in the world. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied to treat OA. This review was performed to systematically assess the quality of literature and compare the procedural specifics surrounding MSC therapy for osteoarthritis. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies using MSCs for OA treatment (final search December 2017). Outcomes of interest included study evidence level, patient demographics, MSC protocol, treatment results and adverse events. Level I and II evidence articles were further analyzed. Sixty-one of 3,172 articles were identified. These studies treated 2,390 patients with osteoarthritis. Most used adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) (n = 29) or bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) (n = 30) though the preparation varied within group. 57% of the sixty-one studies were level IV evidence, leaving five level I and nine level II studies containing 288 patients to be further analyzed. Eight studies used BMSCs, five ADSCs and one peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). The risk of bias in these studies showed five level I studies at low risk with seven level II at moderate and two at high risk. While studies support the notion that MSC therapy has a positive effect on OA patients, there is limited high quality evidence and long-term follow-up. The present study summarizes the specifics of high level evidence studies and identifies a lack of consistency, including a diversity of MSC preparations, and thus a lack of reproducibility amongst these articles' methods. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The challenge of the definition of early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a proposal of criteria and red flags from an international initiative promoted by the Italian Society for Rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Alberto; Scirè, Carlo Alberto; Carmona, Loreto; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; Bizzi, Emanuele; Branco, Jaime; Carrara, Greta; Chevalier, Xavier; Collaku, Ledio; Aslanidis, Spiros; Denisov, Lev; Di Matteo, Luigi; Bianchi, Gerolamo; Diracoglu, Demirhan; Frediani, Bruno; Maheu, Emmanuel; Martusevich, Natalia; Bagnato, Gian Filippo; Scarpellini, Magda; Minisola, Giovanni; Akkoc, Nurullah; Ramonda, Roberta; Barskova, Tatiana; Babic-Naglic, Durda; Muelas, Jose Vicente Moreno; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Rashkov, Rasho; Damjanov, Nemanja; Cerinic, Marco Matucci

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish consensus for potential early symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (ESKOA) clinical definition and referral criteria from primary care to rheumatologists, based on available data from literature and a qualitative approach, in order to perform studies on patients fulfilling such criteria and to validate the obtained ESKOA definition. A complex methodological approach was followed including: (1) three focus groups (FG), including expert clinicians, researchers and patients; (2) a systematic literature review (SLR); (3) two discussion groups followed by a Delphi survey. FG and SLR were performed in parallel to inform discussion groups in order to identify relevant constructs to be included in the modified Delphi survey. ESKOA is defined in the presence of: (a) two mandatory symptoms (knee pain in the absence of any recent trauma or injury and very short joint stiffness, lasting for less than 10 min, when starting movement) even in the absence of risk factors, or (b) knee pain, and 1 or 2 risk factors or (c) three or more risk factors in the presence of at least one mandatory symptom, with symptoms lasting less than 6 months. These criteria are applicable in the absence of active inflammatory arthritis, generalized pain, Kellgren-Lawrence grade >0, any recent knee trauma or injury, and age lower than 40 years. Knee pain in the absence of any recent trauma lasting for less than 6 months was considered as the referral criterion to the rheumatologist for the suspicion of ESKOA. This consensus process has identified provisional clinical definition of ESKOA and defined potential referral criterion to rheumatologist, in order to test ESKOA obtained definition in prospective validation studies.

  7. Chondroitin for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasvinder A.; Noorbaloochi, Shahrzad; MacDonald, Roderick; Maxwell, Lara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis, a common joint disorder, is one of the leading causes of disability. Chondroitin has emerged as a new treatment. Previous meta-analyses have shown contradictory results on the efficacy of chondroitin. This, in addition to the publication of more trials, necessitates a systematic review. Objectives To evaluate the benefit and harm of oral chondroitin for treating osteoarthritis compared with placebo or a comparator oral medication including, but not limited to, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), analgesics, opioids, and glucosamine or other “herbal” medications. Search methods We searched seven databases up to November 2013, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Science Citation Index (Web of Science) and Current Controlled Trials. We searched the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) websites for adverse effects. Trial registers were not searched. Selection criteria All randomized or quasi-randomized clinical trials lasting longer than two weeks, studying adults with osteoarthritis in any joint, and comparing chondroitin with placebo, an active control such as NSAIDs, or other “herbal” supplements such as glucosamine. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently performed all title assessments, data extractions, and risk of bias assessments. Main results Forty-three randomized controlled trials including 4,962 participants treated with chondroitin and 4,148 participants given placebo or another control were included. The majority of trials were in knee OA, with few in hip and hand OA. Trial duration varied from 1 month to 3 years. Participants treated with chondroitin achieved statistically significantly and clinically meaningful better pain scores (0–100) in studies less than 6 months than those given placebo with an absolute risk difference of 10% lower (95% confidence interval (CI), 15% to 6% lower

  8. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations: Soluble biomarker assessments in clinical trials in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M; Henrotin, Y; Lohmander, L S; Losina, E; Önnerfjord, P; Persiani, S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this work was to describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials and their utility at five stages, including preclinical development and phase I to phase IV trials. As demonstrated by this summary, biomarkers can provide value at all stages of therapeutics development. When resources permit, we recommend collection of biospecimens in all OA clinical trials for a wide variety of reasons but in particular, to determine whether biomarkers are useful in identifying those individuals most likely to receive clinically important benefits from an intervention; and to determine whether biomarkers are useful for identifying individuals at earlier stages of OA in order to institute treatment at a time more amenable to disease modification. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pain, motor and gait assessment of murine osteoarthritis in a cruciate ligament transection model.

    PubMed

    Ruan, M Z C; Patel, R M; Dawson, B C; Jiang, M-M; Lee, B H L

    2013-09-01

    The major complaint of Osteoarthritis (OA) patients is pain. However, due to the nature of clinical studies and the limitation of animal studies, few studies have linked function impairment and behavioral changes in OA animal models to cartilage loss and histopathology. Our objective was to study surrogate markers of functional impairment in relation to cartilage loss and pathological changes in a post-traumatic mouse model of OA. We performed a battery of functional analyses in a mouse model of OA generated by cruciate ligament transection (CLT). The changes in functional analyses were linked to histological changes graded by OARSI standards, histological grading of synovitis, and volumetric changes of the articular cartilage and osteophytes quantified by phase contrast micro-computed tomography (μCT). OA generated by CLT led to decreased time on rotarod, delayed response on hotplate analysis, and altered gait starting from 4 weeks after surgery. Activity in open field analysis did not change at 4, 8, or 12 weeks after CLT. The magnitude of behavioral changes was directly correlated with higher OARSI histological scores of OA, synovitis in the knee joints, cartilage volume loss, and osteophyte formation. Our findings link functional analyses to histological grading, synovitis, comprehensive three-dimensional assessment of cartilage volume and osteophyte formation. This serves as a reference for a mouse model in predicting outcomes of OA treatment. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. OA-7 Cargo Module Arrival

    2017-01-09

    Still sealed in its environmentally controlled shipping container, the Orbital ATK OA-7 Cygnus spacecraft's pressurized cargo module (PCM) has arrived inside the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Once the Cygnus spacecraft is removed from its shipping container, engineers and technicians will begin preparing for launch scheduled for March 2017. Orbital ATK CRS-7 will lift off atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station will deliver thousands of pounds of supplies, equipment and scientific research materials that improve life on Earth and drive progress toward future space exploration.

  11. Differential contributions of peripheral and central mechanisms to pain in a rodent model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Adrian R; Hathway, Gareth J; Chapman, Victoria

    2018-05-08

    The mechanisms underlying the transition from acute nociceptive pain to centrally maintained chronic pain are not clear. We have studied the contributions of the peripheral and central nervous systems during the development of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received unilateral intra-articular injections of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA 1 mg) or saline, and weight-bearing (WB) asymmetry and distal allodynia measured. Subgroups of rats received intra-articular injections of, QX-314 (membrane impermeable local anaesthetic) + capsaicin, QX-314, capsaicin or vehicle on days 7, 14 or 28 post-MIA and WB and PWT remeasured. On days 7&14 post-MIA, but not day 28, QX-314 + capsaicin signficantly attenuated changes in WB induced by MIA, illustrating a crucial role for TRPV1 expressing nociceptors in early OA pain. The role of top-down control of spinal excitability was investigated. The mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO was microinjected into the rostroventral medulla, to activate endogenous pain modulatory systems, in MIA and control rats and reflex excitability measured using electromyography. DAMGO (3 ng) had a significantly larger inhibitory effect in MIA treated rats than in controls. These data show distinct temporal contribtuions of TRPV1 expressing nociceptors and opioidergic pain control systems at later timepoints.

  12. Mechanical contributors to sex differences in idiopathic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) increases with age and is more common in women compared with men, especially after the age of 50 years. Recent work suggests that contact stress in the knee cartilage is a significant predictor of the risk for developing knee OA. Significant gaps in knowledge remain, however, as to how changes in musculoskeletal traits disturb the normal mechanical environment of the knee and contribute to sex differences in the initiation and progression of idiopathic knee OA. To illustrate this knowledge deficit, we summarize what is known about the influence of limb alignment, muscle function, and obesity on sex differences in knee OA. Observational data suggest that limb alignment can predict the development of radiographic signs of knee OA, potentially due to increased stresses and strains within the joint. However, these data do not indicate how limb alignment could contribute to sex differences in either the development or worsening of knee OA. Similarly, the strength of the knee extensor muscles is compromised in women who develop radiographic and symptomatic signs of knee OA, but the extent to which the decline in muscle function precedes the development of the disease is uncertain. Even less is known about how changes in muscle function might contribute to the worsening of knee OA. Conversely, obesity is a stronger predictor of developing knee OA symptoms in women than in men. The influence of obesity on developing knee OA symptoms is not associated with deviation in limb alignment, but BMI predicts the worsening of the symptoms only in individuals with neutral and valgus (knock-kneed) knees. It is more likely, however, that obesity modulates OA through a combination of systemic effects, particularly an increase in inflammatory cytokines, and mechanical factors within the joint. The absence of strong associations of these surrogate measures of the mechanical environment in the knee joint with sex differences in the development

  13. Mechanical contributors to sex differences in idiopathic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Nicolella, Daniel P; O'Connor, Mary I; Enoka, Roger M; Boyan, Barbara D; Hart, David A; Resnick, Eileen; Berkley, Karen J; Sluka, Kathleen A; Kwoh, C Kent; Tosi, Laura L; Coutts, Richard D; Havill, Lorena M; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2012-12-23

    The occurrence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) increases with age and is more common in women compared with men, especially after the age of 50 years. Recent work suggests that contact stress in the knee cartilage is a significant predictor of the risk for developing knee OA. Significant gaps in knowledge remain, however, as to how changes in musculoskeletal traits disturb the normal mechanical environment of the knee and contribute to sex differences in the initiation and progression of idiopathic knee OA. To illustrate this knowledge deficit, we summarize what is known about the influence of limb alignment, muscle function, and obesity on sex differences in knee OA. Observational data suggest that limb alignment can predict the development of radiographic signs of knee OA, potentially due to increased stresses and strains within the joint. However, these data do not indicate how limb alignment could contribute to sex differences in either the development or worsening of knee OA. Similarly, the strength of the knee extensor muscles is compromised in women who develop radiographic and symptomatic signs of knee OA, but the extent to which the decline in muscle function precedes the development of the disease is uncertain. Even less is known about how changes in muscle function might contribute to the worsening of knee OA. Conversely, obesity is a stronger predictor of developing knee OA symptoms in women than in men. The influence of obesity on developing knee OA symptoms is not associated with deviation in limb alignment, but BMI predicts the worsening of the symptoms only in individuals with neutral and valgus (knock-kneed) knees. It is more likely, however, that obesity modulates OA through a combination of systemic effects, particularly an increase in inflammatory cytokines, and mechanical factors within the joint. The absence of strong associations of these surrogate measures of the mechanical environment in the knee joint with sex differences in the development

  14. Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Linde, Klaus; Lao, Lixing; Yoo, Junghee; Wieland, Susan; van der Windt, Daniëlle AWM; Berman, Brian M; Bouter, Lex M

    2011-01-01

    Background Peripheral joint osteoarthritis is a major cause of pain and functional limitation. Few treatments are safe and effective. Objectives To assess the effects of acupuncture for treating peripheral joint osteoarthritis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE, and EMBASE (both through December 2007), and scanned reference lists of articles. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing needle acupuncture with a sham, another active treatment, or a waiting list control group in people with osteoarthritis of the knee, hip, or hand. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We calculated standardized mean differences using the differences in improvements between groups. Main results Sixteen trials involving 3498 people were included. Twelve of the RCTs included only people with OA of the knee, 3 only OA of the hip, and 1 a mix of people with OA of the hip and/or knee. In comparison with a sham control, acupuncture showed statistically significant, short-term improvements in osteoarthritis pain (standardized mean difference -0.28, 95% confidence interval -0.45 to -0.11; 0.9 point greater improvement than sham on 20 point scale; absolute percent change 4.59%; relative percent change 10.32%; 9 trials; 1835 participants) and function (-0.28, -0.46 to -0.09; 2.7 point greater improvement on 68 point scale; absolute percent change 3.97%; relative percent change 8.63%); however, these pooled short-term benefits did not meet our predefined thresholds for clinical relevance (i.e. 1.3 points for pain; 3.57 points for function) and there was substantial statistical heterogeneity. Additionally, restriction to sham-controlled trials using shams judged most likely to adequately blind participants to treatment assignment (which were also the same shams judged most

  15. Modeling the effect of blunt impact on mitochondrial function in cartilage: implications for development of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kapitanov, Georgi I; Ayati, Bruce P; Martin, James A

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease characterized by degeneration of joint cartilage. It is associated with pain and disability and is the result of either age and activity related joint wear or an injury. Non-invasive treatment options are scarce and prevention and early intervention methods are practically non-existent. The modeling effort presented in this article is constructed based on an emerging biological hypothesis-post-impact oxidative stress leads to cartilage cell apoptosis and hence the degeneration observed with the disease. The objective is to quantitatively describe the loss of cell viability and function in cartilage after an injurious impact and identify the key parameters and variables that contribute to this phenomenon. We constructed a system of differential equations that tracks cell viability, mitochondrial function, and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The system was solved using MATLAB and the equations' parameters were fit to existing data using a particle swarm algorithm. The model fits well the available data for cell viability, ATP production, and GAG content. Local sensitivity analysis shows that the initial amount of ROS is the most important parameter. The model we constructed is a viable method for producing in silico studies and with a few modifications, and data calibration and validation, may be a powerful predictive tool in the search for a non-invasive treatment for post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

  16. Recent advances in intra-articular drug delivery systems for osteoarthritis therapy.

    PubMed

    Maudens, Pierre; Jordan, Olivier; Allémann, Eric

    2018-05-21

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative disease of the joint. Despite many reports and numerous clinical trials, OA is not entirely understood, and there is no effective treatment available for this disease. To satisfy this unmet medical need, drug delivery systems (DDSs) containing disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) for intra-articular (IA) administration are required to improve the health of OA patients. DDSs should provide controlled and/or sustained drug release, enabling long-term treatment with a reduced number of injections. This paper reviews the role and interaction among different tissues involved in OA and summarizes recent clinical trials and research on DDSs, focusing on small-molecule delivery. To achieve an ideal treatment, various key criteria have been identified to design and develop an IA DDS matching the clinical needs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment with the KineSpring Knee Implant System: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, David A.; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability in middle-aged and older adults with the prevalence expected to increase by 40% by 2025. This dramatic projected increase in OA reflects, in large part, the alarming obesity epidemic. Indeed, it is now well understood that abnormal loading across the knee joint due to malalignment and/or excessive weight gain is responsible for accelerating OA progression. Consequently, there is a therapeutic need for alternative knee OA treatments that directly address joint overload to fill the gap between ineffective conservative care and invasive joint-modifying surgical procedures. We describe two cases that presented with bilateral knee OA resistant to conservative treatments, each with one knee previously and unsuccessfully treated with high tibial osteotomy to improve alignment and the contralateral knee successfully treated with a joint-preserving, load-absorbing implant (KineSpring Knee Implant System). PMID:23304590

  18. Osteoarthritis in the XXIst Century: Risk Factors and Behaviours that Influence Disease Onset and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Di Rosa, Michelino; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a growing public health problem across the globe, affecting more than half of the over 65 population. In the past, OA was considered a wear and tear disease, leading to the loss of articular cartilage and joint disability. Nowadays, thanks to advancements in molecular biology, OA is believed to be a very complex multifactorial disease. OA is a degenerative disease characterized by “low-grade inflammation” in cartilage and synovium, resulting in the loss of joint structure and progressive deterioration of cartilage. Although the disease can be dependent on genetic and epigenetic factors, sex, ethnicity, and age (cellular senescence, apoptosis and lubricin), it is also associated with obesity and overweight, dietary factors, sedentary lifestyle and sport injuries. The aim of this review is to highlight how certain behaviors, habits and lifestyles may be involved in the onset and progression of OA and to summarize the principal risk factors involved in the development of this complicated joint disorder. PMID:25785564

  19. Mutation analysis of the Smad3 gene in human osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun-Yan; Wang, Yan; An, Jing; Mao, Chun-Ming; Hou, Ning; Lv, Ya-Xin; Wang, You-Liang; Cui, Fang; Huang, Min; Yang, Xiao

    2003-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease worldwide. Recent studies have shown that targeted disruption of Smad3 in mouse results in OA. To reveal the possible association between the Smad3 gene mutation and human OA, we employed polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing to screen mutations in all nine exons of the Smad3 gene in 32 patients with knee OA and 50 patients with only bone fracture. A missense mutation of the Smad3 gene was found in one patient. The single base mutation located in the linker region of the SMAD3 protein was A --> T change in the position 2 of codon 197 and resulted in an asparagine to isoleucine amino-acid substitution. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 in sera of the patient carrying the mutation were higher than other OA patients and controls. This is the first report showing that the Smad3 gene mutations could be associated with the pathogenesis of human OA.

  20. Static knee alignment and its association with radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Teichtahl, A J; Cicuttini, F M; Janakiramanan, N; Davis, S R; Wluka, A E

    2006-09-01

    Although knee alignment is associated with the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), it is unclear which features that characterize radiographic OA are related to alignment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between static knee joint alignment (measured as a continuous variable) and the radiographic features of knee OA (joint space narrowing and osteophytes). One hundred and twenty one adults with symptomatic knee OA were recruited using a combined strategy including referral from specialist centres, arthritis support groups and media advertising. X-rays were performed to classify the severity of disease and to determine static knee alignment. Increasing varus knee alignment was associated with increasing risk of medial compartment joint space narrowing (P < 0.001) and osteophytes (P = 0.005). Increasing valgus knee alignment was associated with an increased risk for lateral compartment joint space narrowing (P < 0.001) and osteophytes (P = 0.002). This study has demonstrated that the static knee angle, measured as a continuous variable, is an important determinant of the compartment-specific features of radiographic knee OA. Further work is required to determine whether interventions aimed at correcting these relatively minor levels of varus and valgus angulation will have an effect on the risk of tibiofemoral OA.

  1. The Roles of Mechanical Stresses in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Thomas D.; Tochigi, Yuki; Martin, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive joint surface loadings, either single (acute impact event) or repetitive (cumulative contact stress), can cause the clinical syndrome of osteoarthritis (OA). Despite advances in treatment of injured joints, the risk of OA following joint injuries has not decreased in the past 50 years. Cumulative excessive articular surface contact stress that leads to OA results from posttraumatic joint incongruity and instability, and joint dysplasia, but may also cause OA in patients without known joint abnormalities. In vitro investigations show that excessive articular cartilage loading triggers release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria, and that these ROS cause chondrocyte death and matrix degradation. Preventing release of ROS or inhibiting their effects preserves chondrocytes and their matrix. Fibronectin fragments released from articular cartilage subjected to excessive loads also stimulate matrix degradation; inhibition of molecular pathways initiated by these fragments prevents this effect. Additionally, injured chondrocytes release alarmins that activate chondroprogentior cells in vitro that propogate and migrate to regions of damaged cartilage. These cells also release chemokines and cytokines that may contribute to inflammation that causes progressive cartilage loss. Distraction and motion of osteoarthritic human ankles can promote joint remodeling, decrease pain, and improve joint function in patients with end-stage posttraumatic OA. These advances in understanding of how altering mechanical stresses can lead to remodeling of osteoarthritic joints and how excessive stress causes loss of articular cartilage, including identification of mechanically induced mediators of cartilage loss, provide the basis for new biologic and mechanical approaches to the prevention and treatment of OA. PMID:25067995

  2. Epidemiology of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abbey C; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Wikstrom, Erik A; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2017-06-02

    Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability whose prevalence and incidence continue to increase. History of joint injury represents an important risk factor for posttraumatic osteoarthritis and is a significant contributor to the rapidly growing percentage of the population with osteoarthritis. This review will present the epidemiology associated with posttraumatic osteoarthritis, with particular emphasis on the knee and ankle joints. It is important to understand the effect of posttraumatic osteoarthritis on the population so that sufficient resources can be devoted to countering the disease and promoting optimal long-term health for patients after joint injury.

  3. Femoral head-neck junction deformity is related to osteoarthritis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Barros, Hilton José Melo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Bernabé, Antônio Carlos; Rodrigues, Marcelo Bordalo; Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez

    2010-07-01

    Primary or idiopathic osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip has increasingly been attributed to the presence of presumably minor femoral or acetabular deformities that are not routinely identified. The alpha angle reflects one such deformity of the femoral neck and reflects a risk for femoroacetabular impingement, which in turn reportedly is associated with OA. If impingement is in fact associated with OA, then one might expect the mean alpha angle to be greater in patients with presumed idiopathic hip OA. We therefore compared the alpha angle among a group of elderly patients with idiopathic OA with that in a control group of elderly individuals without OA. We measured the alpha angles in 50 individuals (72 hips) with a mean age of 70 years (range, 60-84 years) with apparently idiopathic OA and compared their angles with those from a control group of 56 individuals without OA. The alpha angle was measured by means of radiographs of their hips using the Dunn view at 45 degrees flexion. The patients with OA had a greater percentage with abnormal alpha angles than did the normal subjects: 82% versus 30%, respectively. The mean alpha angle in the group with OA was larger than in the control subjects: 66.4 masculine (range, 28 degrees -108 degrees ) versus 48.1 masculine (range, 34 degrees -68 degrees ). Hips with presumably idiopathic OA had more abnormalities at the femoral head-neck junction than did the control hips without OA and may relate to the risk of OA developing. Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Differences in knee adduction moment between healthy subjects and patients with osteoarthritis depend on the knee axis definition.

    PubMed

    Meireles, S; De Groote, F; Van Rossom, S; Verschueren, S; Jonkers, I

    2017-03-01

    This study, firstly, investigates the effect of using an anatomical versus a functional axis of rotation (FAR) on knee adduction moment (KAM) in healthy subjects and patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Secondly, this study reports KAM for models with FAR calculated using weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing motion. Three musculoskeletal models were created using OpenSim with different knee axis of rotation (AR): transepicondylar axis (TEA); FAR calculated based on SARA algorithm using a weight-bearing motion (wFAR) and a non-weight-bearing motion (nwFAR). KAM were calculated during gait in fifty-nine subjects (n=20 healthy, n=16 early OA, n=23 established OA) for all models and groups. Significant differences between the three groups in the first peak KAM were found when TEA was used (p=0.038). However, these differences were no longer present when using FAR. In subjects with established OA, KAMs were significantly reduced when using nwFAR compared to TEA models but also compared to wFAR models. The presence of excessive KAM in subjects with established KOA showed to be dependent on the definition of the AR: anatomical versus functional. Therefore, caution should be accounted when comparing KAM in different studies on KOA patients. In patients with end-stage knee OA where increased passive knee laxity is likely to exist, the use of weight-bearing motions should be considered to avoid increased variability in the location and orientation of a FAR obtained from activities with only limited joint loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. OAS :: Office of the Inspector General

    Internal Audit Real Estate Strategy Calendar Calendar of Conferences in Headquarters OAS Logo OAS Logo It este sitio de web. Afigura-se o JavaScript está desativado ou desligado. Por favor ative o JavaScript

  6. Biomarkers for equine joint injury and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Frisbie, David D; Little, Christopher B; Clegg, Peter D; Peffers, Mandy J; Karsdal, Morten A; Ekman, Stina; Laverty, Sheila; Slayden, Richard A; Sandell, Linda J; Lohmander, L S; Kraus, Virginia B

    2018-03-01

    We report the results of a symposium aimed at identifying validated biomarkers that can be used to complement clinical observations for diagnosis and prognosis of joint injury leading to equine osteoarthritis (OA). Biomarkers might also predict pre-fracture change that could lead to catastrophic bone failure in equine athletes. The workshop was attended by leading scientists in the fields of equine and human musculoskeletal biomarkers to enable cross-disciplinary exchange and improve knowledge in both. Detailed proceedings with strategic planning was written, added to, edited and referenced to develop this manuscript. The most recent information from work in equine and human osteoarthritic biomarkers was accumulated, including the use of personalized healthcare to stratify OA phenotypes, transcriptome analysis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal injuries in the human knee. The spectrum of "wet" biomarker assays that are antibody based that have achieved usefulness in both humans and horses, imaging biomarkers and the role they can play in equine and human OA was discussed. Prediction of musculoskeletal injury in the horse remains a challenge, and the potential usefulness of spectroscopy, metabolomics, proteomics, and development of biobanks to classify biomarkers in different stages of equine and human OA were reviewed. The participants concluded that new information and studies in equine musculoskeletal biomarkers have potential translational value for humans and vice versa. OA is equally important in humans and horses, and the welfare issues associated with catastrophic musculoskeletal injury in horses add further emphasis to the need for good validated biomarkers in the horse. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:823-831, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. May spa therapy be a valid opportunity to treat hand osteoarthritis? A review of clinical trials and mechanisms of action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunati, Nicola Angelo; Fioravanti, Antonella; Seri, Gina; Cinelli, Simone; Tenti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and its current treatment includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Spa therapy represents a popular treatment for many rheumatic diseases. The aim of this review was to summarize the currently available information on clinical effects and mechanisms of action of spa therapy in OA of the hand. We conducted a search of the literature to extract articles describing randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in hand OA published in the period 1952-2015. We identified three assessable articles reporting RCTs on spa therapy in hand OA. Data from these clinical trials support a beneficial effect of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in hand OA. Spa therapy seems to have a role in the treatment of hand OA. However, additional RCTs are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of action and the effects of the application of thermal treatments.

  8. Clinical algorithms to aid osteoarthritis guideline dissemination.

    PubMed

    Meneses, S R F; Goode, A P; Nelson, A E; Lin, J; Jordan, J M; Allen, K D; Bennell, K L; Lohmander, L S; Fernandes, L; Hochberg, M C; Underwood, M; Conaghan, P G; Liu, S; McAlindon, T E; Golightly, Y M; Hunter, D J

    2016-09-01

    Numerous scientific organisations have developed evidence-based recommendations aiming to optimise the management of osteoarthritis (OA). Uptake, however, has been suboptimal. The purpose of this exercise was to harmonize the recent recommendations and develop a user-friendly treatment algorithm to facilitate translation of evidence into practice. We updated a previous systematic review on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for OA management. The guidelines were assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation for quality and the standards for developing trustworthy CPGs as established by the National Academy of Medicine (NAM). Four case scenarios and algorithms were developed by consensus of a multidisciplinary panel. Sixteen guidelines were included in the systematic review. Most recommendations were directed toward physicians and allied health professionals, and most had multi-disciplinary input. Analysis for trustworthiness suggests that many guidelines still present a lack of transparency. A treatment algorithm was developed for each case scenario advised by recommendations from guidelines and based on panel consensus. Strategies to facilitate the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice are necessary. The algorithms proposed are examples of how to apply recommendations in the clinical context, helping the clinician to visualise the patient flow and timing of different treatment modalities. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patient Preferences Regarding Surgical Interventions for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Claude T; Kirwan, Tom; Share, Jennifer; Vannabouathong, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Surgical interventions for knee osteoarthritis (OA) have markedly different procedure attributes and may have dramatic differences in patient desirability. A total of 323 patients with knee OA were included in a dual response, choice-based conjoint analysis to identify the relative preference of 9 different procedure attributes. A model was also developed to simulate how patients might respond if presented with the real-world knee OA procedures, based on conservative assumptions regarding their attributes. The “amount of cutting and removal of the existing bone” required for a procedure had the highest preference score, indicating that these patients considered it the most important attribute. More specifically, a procedure that requires the least amount of bone cutting or removal would be expected to be the most preferred surgical alternative. The model also suggested that patients who are younger and report the highest pain levels and greatest functional limitations would be more likely to opt for surgical intervention. PMID:28974919

  10. Articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R

    2010-03-01

    The articular surface plays an essential role in load transfer across the joint, and conditions that produce increased load transfer or altered patterns of load distribution accelerate the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Current knowledge segregates the risk factors into two fundamental mechanisms related to the adverse effects of "abnormal" loading on normal cartilage or "normal" loading on abnormal cartilage. Although chondrocytes can modulate their functional state in response to loading, their capacity to repair and modify the surrounding extracellular matrix is limited in comparison to skeletal cells in bone. This differential adaptive capacity underlies the more rapid appearance of detectable skeletal changes, especially after acute injuries that alter joint mechanics. The imbalance in the adaptation of the cartilage and bone disrupts the physiological relationship between these tissues and further contributes to OA pathology. This review focuses on the specific articular cartilage and skeletal features of OA and the putative mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis.

  11. Using the medical food flavocoxid [corrected] in managing osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Daniel; Kuritzky, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common debilitating joint disease worldwide. Clinicians have many therapeutic modalities and prescription medications in their arsenals to treat chronic inflammatory pain. However, as patients age, and develop numerous comorbidities, the most common, and often most effective pharmacologic treatment for OA, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), becomes problematic in that it may exacerbate or even cause cardiovascular, renal, and/or gastrointestinal pathology. This paper reviews the metabolism of arachidonic acid as it relates to the clinical treatment of inflammation, and explores a novel botanical therapy, flavocoxid, that has shown equal efficacy to naproxen in treating pain associated with mild to moderate OA of the knee. Flavocoxid has demonstrated balanced inhibition of the three primary enzymes responsible for processing AA, cyclooxygenases 1 and 2, and 5-lipoxygenase. Researchers have proposed that balanced inhibition of AA metabolism offers the promise of analgesia similar to NSAIDs without the associated cardiovascular, renal, or gastrointestinal side effects.

  12. Self-perceived weather sensitivity and joint pain in older people with osteoarthritis in six European countries: results from the European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA).

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Erik J; van der Pas, Suzan; Schaap, Laura A; Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Zambon, Sabina; Peter, Richard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dennison, Elaine M; Denkinger, Michael; Castell, Maria Victoria; Siviero, Paola; Herbolsheimer, Florian; Edwards, Mark H; Otero, Angel; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2014-03-05

    People with osteoarthritis (OA) frequently report that their joint pain is influenced by weather conditions. This study aimed to examine whether there are differences in perceived joint pain between older people with OA who reported to be weather-sensitive versus those who did not in six European countries with different climates and to identify characteristics of older persons with OA that are most predictive of perceived weather sensitivity. Baseline data from the European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA) were used. ACR classification criteria were used to determine OA. Participants with OA were asked about their perception of weather as influencing their pain. Using a two-week follow-up pain calendar, average self-reported joint pain was assessed (range: 0 (no pain)-10 (greatest pain intensity)). Linear regression analyses, logistic regression analyses and an independent t-test were used. Analyses were adjusted for several confounders. The majority of participants with OA (67.2%) perceived the weather as affecting their pain. Weather-sensitive participants reported more pain than non-weather-sensitive participants (M = 4.1, SD = 2.4 versus M = 3.1, SD = 2.4; p < 0.001). After adjusting for several confounding factors, the association between self-perceived weather sensitivity and joint pain remained present (B = 0.37, p = 0.03). Logistic regression analyses revealed that women and more anxious people were more likely to report weather sensitivity. Older people with OA from Southern Europe were more likely to indicate themselves as weather-sensitive persons than those from Northern Europe. Weather (in)stability may have a greater impact on joint structures and pain perception in people from Southern Europe. The results emphasize the importance of considering weather sensitivity in daily life of older people with OA and may help to identify weather-sensitive older people with OA.

  13. Existence of a neuropathic pain component in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamashita, Masaomi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Ito, Toshinori; Shigemura, Tomonori; Nishiyama, Hideki; Konno, Shin; Ohta, Hideyuki; Takaso, Masashi; Inoue, Gen; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Arai, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzkuki, Miyako; Nakamura, Junichi; Furuya, Takeo; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Masahiko; Sasho, Takahisa; Nakagawa, Koichi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2012-07-01

    Pain from osteoarthritis (OA) is generally classified as nociceptive (inflammatory). Animal models of knee OA have shown that sensory nerve fibers innervating the knee are significantly damaged with destruction of subchondral bone junction, and induce neuropathic pain (NP). Our objective was to examine NP in the knees of OA patients using painDETECT (an NP questionnaire) and to evaluate the relationship between NP, pain intensity, and stage of OA. Ninety-two knee OA patients were evaluated in this study. Pain scores using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), painDETECT, duration of symptoms, severity of OA using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) system, and amount of joint fluid were evaluated and compared using a Spearman's correlation coefficient by rank test. Our study identified at least 5.4% of our knee OA patients as likely to have NP and 15.2% as possibly having NP. The painDETECT score was significantly correlated with the VAS and WOMAC pain severity. Compared with the painDETECT score, there was a tendency for positive correlation with the KL grade, and tendency for negative correlation with the existence and amount of joint fluid, but these correlations were not significant. PainDETECT scores classified 5.4% of pain from knee OA as NP. NP tended to be seen in patients with less joint fluid and increased KL grade, both of which corresponded to late stages of OA. It is important to consider the existence of NP in the treatment of knee OA pain.

  14. Anticipatory postural adjustments during lateral step motion in patients with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ichihashi, Noriaki; Shinya, Masahiro; Oda, Shingo

    2011-02-01

    Patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) have difficulty with mediolateral postural control. Since the symptom of hip OA includes joint pain, which mostly occurs upon initial movement, patients with hip OA might have disabling problems with movement initiation. This study aimed to identify the movement strategy during the anticipatory postural adjustments in the lateral step motion in patients with hip OA. We studied 18 female subjects with unilateral hip OA and 10 healthy subjects, and measured temporal, kinetic, and kinematic variables. Patients with hip OA required a longer duration of anticipation phase than the control subjects, the total duration of lateral stepping was not different between the groups. Displacement of the center of mass to the supporting (affected) side during the anticipation phase was not different between the two groups. These findings suggest that, in patients with hip OA, the center of mass slowly moved to the affected side. Furthermore, patients with hip OA showed greater shift of the trunk to the supporting side than did the control subjects. These movement characteristics might contribute to the achievement of both protection of the affected hip joint and quickness in the subsequent lateral step in patients with hip OA.

  15. Direct and indirect economic costs among private-sector employees with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ariel; Hartrick, Craig; Edelsberg, John; Sadosky, Alesia; Oster, Gerry

    2011-11-01

    To estimate direct and indirect economic costs among private-sector employees with osteoarthritis (OA). Using a large US employer benefits database, we identified all employees with evidence of OA during calendar year 2007, and compared their costs of health care and work loss to age-and-sex-matched employees without evidence of OA in that year. Private-sector employees with OA (n = 2399) averaged 62.9 days of absenteeism versus 36.7 days among matched comparators (n = 2399) (P < 0.01). Mean total direct costs among these persons were $17,751 and $5057, respectively (P < 0.01); 34% of health care costs among persons with OA arose from medical encounters with listed diagnoses of OA. Mean total indirect costs were two-fold higher among persons with OA ($5002 versus $2120 for those without OA; P < 0.01). Private-sector employees with OA have higher direct and indirect costs than those without this condition.

  16. Association between EN1 rs4144782 and susceptibility of knee osteoarthritis: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Haohuan; Zhang, Xiaolong; Cao, Yiping; Hu, Song; Peng, Fei; Zhou, Jianlin; Li, Jianping

    2017-05-30

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease that affects the whole joint, resulting from the combined influence of biomechanical factors and genetic factors. The heritable component for primary OA accounts for about 60% of variation in population liability to the disease. So far, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies have established many OA-related loci. However, these findings account for only a rather small fraction of the genetic component. To further reveal the genetic architecture of OA, we conducted this case-control study to explore the association of locus EN1 rs4144782 and knee OA susceptibility in a Chinese population. EN1 rs4144782 was significantly associated with increased risk of knee OA (OR=1.26; 95% CI: 1.05-1.50, P value=0.012). In dominant model, compared with carriers of GG genotype, those with AG or AA genotype have an 1.44-fold increased risk of OA (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.10-1.88; P value=0.008). Subgroup analyses didn't change the results materially. This should be the first association study of EN1 locus on risk of OA, and our finding suggested that the EN1 rs4144782 might contribute to the susceptibility of knee OA.

  17. Quality of Life in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Commentary on Nonsurgical and Surgical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farr II, Jack; Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has a significant negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Identification of therapies that improve HRQoL in patients with knee OA may mitigate the clinical, economic, and social burden of this disease. The purpose of this commentary is to report the impact of knee OA on HRQoL, describe the change in HRQoL attributable to common knee OA interventions, and summarize findings from clinical trials of a promising therapy. Nonsurgical therapies do not reliably modify HRQoL in knee OA patients given their general inability to alleviate physical manifestations of OA. Surgical knee OA interventions generally result in good to excellent patient outcomes. However, there are significant barriers to considering surgery, which limits clinical utility. Therapies that most effectively control OA-related pain with a low risk: benefit ratio will likely have the greatest benefit on HRQoL with greater rates of patient adoption. Initial clinical trial findings suggest that less invasive joint unloading implants hold promise in bridging the therapeutic gap between nonsurgical and surgical treatments for the knee OA patient. PMID:24285987

  18. [AGING AND OSTEOARTHRITIS. CHRONIC NONSPECIFIC INFLAMMATION AS A LINK BETWEEN AGING AND OSTEOARTHRITIS (REVIEW)].

    PubMed

    Mendel, O I; Luchihina, L V; Mendel, W

    2015-01-01

    This article presents review on the processes underlying aging and the most common age-associated diseases. Special attention is given to the role of chronic nonspecific inflammation. Based on the literature data it was demonstrated that aging and osteoarthritis have the same basic molecular and cellular mechanisms, among which general are cascades intracellular transcription chronic nonspecific inflammation and metabolic disturbances plays an important role. It is concluded that the process of normal aging is not a disease, but makes the human body, and particularly the musculoskeletal system, susceptible to age-associated changes. Number of changes in the human body that accompany the aging process, and play a role in the development and progression of OA, are potentially reversible, regardless of age (eg, chronic non-specific inflammation), and can be considered as a possible entry points for the effective prevention and complex therapy of OA in elderly people.

  19. Association of mechanical factors with medial knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study from Matsudai Knee Osteoarthritis Survey.

    PubMed

    Omori, Go; Narumi, Kentaro; Nishino, Katsutoshi; Nawata, Atsushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Masaei; Endoh, Kazuo; Koga, Yoshio

    2016-07-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease that is affected by mechanical factors. The aim of present study was to investigate the association between multiple mechanical factors and medial knee OA in a large epidemiological cohort. Six hundred and ninety-nine subjects (323 males and 376 females), participating in the Matsudai Knee Osteoarthritis Survey 2010, were included. Twelve mechanical factors were selected and their association with the radiographic grade of knee OA, the Western Ontario and McMaster University Index (WOMAC) pain score, and the WOMAC function score was evaluated. A logistic regression analysis identified varus thrust to be associated with the radiographic grade of knee OA in males (OR: 1.876, 95% CI: 1.332-2.663) and females (2.61, 1.922-3.542), the WOMAC pain score in males (1.997, 1.463-2.672), and the WOMAC function score in females (1.449, 1.12-1.874). Quadriceps muscle strength was associated with the radiographic OA grade in males (0.605, 0.399-0.917) and females (0.636, 0.469-0.863), the WOMAC pain score in females (0.537, 0.445-0.789), and the WOMAC function score in males (0.581, 0.44-0.766). The knee flexion angle was also associated with the radiographic OA grade in males (0.344, 0.19-0.621) and females (0.121, 0.022-0.653), and the WOMAC pain score in males (0.287, 0.156-0.53) and females (0.537, 0.336-0.859). Obesity was associated with the radiographic OA grade in males (1.543, 1.041-2.287) and females (1.589, 1.176-2.146), the WOMAC pain score in female (2.017, 1.517-2.68). Femolo-tibial angle had no significant association with the radiographic knee OA grade or with the WOMAC pain and function scores. Among patients with medial knee OA, dynamic mechanical factors, such as varus thrust, quadriceps muscle strength, and range of motion were more likely to be associated with the radiographic grade of knee OA and to be the WOMAC pain and function scores, compared to static mechanical factors. Copyright © 2016 The

  20. Development of a Decision Support System to Predict Physicians' Rehabilitation Protocols for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M.; Alshraideh, Mohammad A.; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M.; Salah, Imad K.; Holm, Margo B.; Otom, Ali H.

    2012-01-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee…

  1. Ficus deltoidea Prevented Bone Loss in Preclinical Osteoporosis/Osteoarthritis Model by Suppressing Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Che Ahmad Tantowi, Nur Adeelah; Lau, Seng Fong; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2018-05-28

    Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) are debilitating musculoskeletal diseases of the elderly. Ficus deltoidea (FD) or mistletoe fig, a medicinal plant, was pre-clinically evaluated against OP- and OA-related bone alterations, in postmenopausal OA rat model. Thirty twelfth-week-old female rats were divided into groups (n = 6). Four groups were bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) and OA-induced by intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection into the right knee joints. The Sham control and OVX-OA non-treated groups were given deionized water. The three other OVX-OA groups were orally administered daily with FD extract (200, 400 mg/kg) or diclofenac (5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The rats' bones and blood were evaluated for protein and mRNA expressions of osteoporosis and inflammatory indicators, and micro-CT computed tomography for bone microstructure. The non-treated OVX-OA rats developed severe OP bone loss and bone microstructural damage in the subchondral and metaphyseal regions, supported by reduced serum bone formation markers (osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin) and increased bone resorption markers (RANKL and CTX-I). The FD extract significantly (p < 0.05) mitigated these bone microstructural and biomarker changes by dose-dependently down-regulating pro-inflammatory NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNA expressions. The FD extract demonstrated good anti-osteoporotic properties in this OP/OA preclinical model by stimulating bone formation and suppressing bone resorption via anti-inflammatory pathways. This is among the few reports relating the subchondral bone plate and trabecular thickening with the metaphyseal trabecular osteopenic bone loss under osteoporotic-osteoarthritis conditions, providing some insights on the debated inverse relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

  2. The type 2 cannabinoid receptor regulates susceptibility to osteoarthritis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, A; Börjesson, A E; Salter, D M; Ralston, S H

    2015-09-01

    Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands have been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes but their role in osteoarthritis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) in regulating susceptibility to osteoarthritis in mice. We analysed the severity of knee osteoarthritis as assessed by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system in mice with targeted deletion of Cnr2 (Cnr2(-/-)) and wild type (WT) littermates. Studies were conducted in mice subjected to surgical destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) and in those with spontaneous age-related osteoarthritis (OA). Osteoarthritis was more severe following DMM in the medial compartment of the knee in Cnr2(-/-) compared with WT mice (mean ± sem score = 4.9 ± 0.5 vs 3.6 ± 0.3; P = 0.017). Treatment of WT mice with the CB2-selective agonist HU308 following DMM reduced the severity of OA in the whole joint (HU308 = 8.4 ± 0.2 vs vehicle = 10.4 ± 0.6; P = 0.007). Spontaneous age related osteoarthritis was also more severe in the medial compartment of the knee in 12-month old Cnr2(-/-) mice compared with WT (5.6 ± 0.5 vs 3.5 ± 0.3, P = 0.008). Cultured articular chondrocytes from Cnr2(-/-) mice produced less proteoglycans in vitro than wild type chondrocytes. These studies demonstrate that the Cnr2 pathway plays a role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis in mice and shows that pharmacological activation of CB2 has a protective effect. Further studies of the role of cannabinoid receptors in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis in man are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle Activation Profiles and Co-Activation of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles around Knee Joint in Indian Primary Osteoarthritis Knee Patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Yadav, Shiv Lal; Singh, U; Wadhwa, Sanjay

    2017-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of knee is a common joint disease. It is associated with reduced knee joint stability due to impaired quadriceps strength, pain, and an altered joint structure. There is altered muscle activation in knee OA patients, which interferes with normal load distribution around the knee and facilitates disease progression. Our primary aim was to determine activation patterns of the muscles i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings in knee OA patients during walking. We also studied co-activation of muscles around knee joint in primary OA knee patients including directed medial and lateral co-contractions. This observational study was done at Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Fourty-four patients with medial compartment primary knee OA were included in study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were assessed for mean, peak and integrated Root Mean Square (RMS), EMG values, muscle activation patterns and co-activation of muscles around knee joint by surface Electromyography (EMG) analysis of Vastus Medialis Obliques (VMO), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Semitendinosus (SMT) and Biceps Femoris (BF) muscles during gait cycle. The EMG waveform for each muscle was amplitude normalized and time normalized to 100% of gait cycle and plotted on graph. Quantitative variables were assessed for normal distribution and accordingly mean±SD or median (range), as appropriate, was computed. For primary OA knee, mean age 61±5 years, mean weight 63.7±10.1 kg, mean height 153.9±7.2 cm, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 26.8±3.0 kg/m 2 was found. The muscle activity of hamstrings (SMT muscle and BF) was increased during midstance, late stance and early swing phase of gait cycle as compared to quadriceps (VMO and VL) muscle activity respectively, suggesting co-contraction of opposing muscles around knee joint. Patients with knee OA walk with increased hamstring muscle activity (during

  4. Muscle Activation Profiles and Co-Activation of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscles around Knee Joint in Indian Primary Osteoarthritis Knee Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shiv Lal; Singh, U; Wadhwa, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) of knee is a common joint disease. It is associated with reduced knee joint stability due to impaired quadriceps strength, pain, and an altered joint structure. There is altered muscle activation in knee OA patients, which interferes with normal load distribution around the knee and facilitates disease progression. Aim Our primary aim was to determine activation patterns of the muscles i.e., quadriceps and hamstrings in knee OA patients during walking. We also studied co-activation of muscles around knee joint in primary OA knee patients including directed medial and lateral co-contractions. Materials and Methods This observational study was done at Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Fourty-four patients with medial compartment primary knee OA were included in study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were assessed for mean, peak and integrated Root Mean Square (RMS), EMG values, muscle activation patterns and co-activation of muscles around knee joint by surface Electromyography (EMG) analysis of Vastus Medialis Obliques (VMO), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Semitendinosus (SMT) and Biceps Femoris (BF) muscles during gait cycle. The EMG waveform for each muscle was amplitude normalized and time normalized to 100% of gait cycle and plotted on graph. Quantitative variables were assessed for normal distribution and accordingly mean±SD or median (range), as appropriate, was computed. Results For primary OA knee, mean age 61±5 years, mean weight 63.7±10.1 kg, mean height 153.9±7.2 cm, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 26.8±3.0 kg/m2 was found. The muscle activity of hamstrings (SMT muscle and BF) was increased during midstance, late stance and early swing phase of gait cycle as compared to quadriceps (VMO and VL) muscle activity respectively, suggesting co-contraction of opposing muscles around knee joint. Conclusion Patients with knee

  5. Anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody inhibited inflammation and protected against cartilage destruction in murine models of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Ya-Yu; Huwang, Man-Hsiang; Weng, Yun-Han; Jou, I-Ming; Wu, Po-Tin; Lin, Tain-Yu; Wu, Li-Wha; Chang, Ming-Shi

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive destruction of articular cartilage. Interleukin (IL)-20 is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated the role of IL-20 in OA and evaluated whether anti-IL-20 antibody (7E) treatment attenuates disease severity in murine models of surgery-induced OA. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect IL-20 and its receptors expression in synovial tissue and cartilage from OA patients, and in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) and chondrocytes (OACCs) from rodents with surgery-induced OA. RTQ-PCR and western blotting were used to determine IL-20-regulated OA-associated gene expression in OASFs and OACCs. OA rats and OA mice were treated with 7E. Arthritis severity was determined based on the degree of cartilage damage and the arthritis severity score. We found that IL-20 and its receptors were expressed in OASFs and OACCs. IL-20 induced TNF-α, IL-1β, MMP-1, and MMP-13 expression by activating ERK-1/2 and JNK signals in OASFs. IL-20 not only upregulated MCP-1, IL-6, MMP-1, and MMP-13 expression, but also downregulated aggrecan, type 2 collagen, TGF-β, and BMP-2 expression in OACCs. Arthritis severity was significantly lower in 7E-treated OA rats, and 7E- or MSC-treated OA mice. Therefore, we concluded that IL-20 was involved in the progression and development of OA through inducing proinflammatory cytokines and OA-associated gene expression in OASFs and OACCs. 7E reduced the severity of arthritis in murine models of surgery-induced OA. Our findings provide evidence that IL-20 is a novel target and that 7E is a potential therapeutic agent for OA. PMID:28426699

  6. Imaging of non-osteochondral tissues in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Guermazi, A; Roemer, F W; Crema, M D; Englund, M; Hayashi, D

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this review is to describe imaging techniques for evaluation of non-osteochondral structures such as the synovium, menisci in the knee, labrum in the hip, ligaments and muscles and to review the literature from recent clinical and epidemiological studies of OA. This is a non-systematic narrative review of published literature on imaging of non-osteochondral tissues in OA. PubMed and MEDLINE search for articles published up to 2014, using the keywords osteoarthritis, synovitis, meniscus, labrum, ligaments, plica, muscles, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography (PET). Published literature showed imaging of non-osteochondral tissues in OA relies primarily on MRI and ultrasound. The use of semiquantitative and quantitative imaging biomarkers of non-osteochondral tissues in clinical and epidemiological OA studies is reported. We highlight studies that have compared both imaging methodologies directly, and those that have established a relationship between imaging biomarkers and clinical outcomes. We provide recommendations as to which imaging protocols should be used to assess disease-specific changes regarding synovium, meniscus in the knee, labrum in the hip, and ligaments, and highlight potential pitfalls in their usage. MRI and ultrasound are currently the most useful imaging modalities for evaluation of non-osteochondral tissues in OA. MRI evaluation of any tissue needs to be performed using appropriate MR pulse sequences. Ultrasound may be particularly useful for evaluation of small joints of the hand. Nuclear medicine and CT play a limited role in imaging of non-osteochondral tissues in OA. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Osteoprotegerin reduces the development of pain behaviour and joint pathology in a model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Devi Rani; Ashraf, Sadaf; Xu, Luting; Burston, James J; Menhinick, Matthew R; Poulter, Caroline L; Bennett, Andrew J; Walsh, David A; Chapman, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased subchondral bone turnover may contribute to pain in osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives To investigate the analgesic potential of a modified version of osteoprotegerin (osteoprotegerin-Fc (OPG-Fc)) in the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of OA pain. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats (140–260 g) were treated with either OPG-Fc (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) between days 1 and 27 (pre-emptive treatment) or days 21 and 27 (therapeutic treatment) after an intra-articular injection of MIA (1 mg/50 µl) or saline. A separate cohort of rats received the bisphosphonate zoledronate (100 µg/kg, subcutaneously) between days 1 and 25 post-MIA injection. Incapacitance testing and von Frey (1–15 g) hind paw withdrawal thresholds were used to assess pain behaviour. At the end of the study, rats were killed and the knee joints and spinal cord removed for analysis. Immunohistochemical studies using Iba-1 and GFAP quantified levels of activation of spinal microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Joint sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or Safranin-O fast green and scored for matrix proteoglycan and overall joint morphology. The numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts were quantified. N=10 rats/group. Results Pre-emptive treatment with OPG-Fc significantly attenuated the development of MIA-induced changes in weightbearing, but not allodynia. OPG-Fc decreased osteoclast number, inhibited the formation of osteophytes and improved structural pathology within the joint similarly to the decrease seen after pretreatment with the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Therapeutic treatment with OPG-Fc decreased pain behaviour, but did not improve pathology in rats with established joint damage. Conclusions Our data suggest that early targeting of osteoclasts may reduce pain associated with OA. PMID:23723320

  8. Accurate joint space quantification in knee osteoarthritis: a digital x-ray tomosynthesis phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Tanzania S.; Piacsek, Kelly L.; Heckel, Beth A.; Sabol, John M.

    2011-03-01

    The current imaging standard for diagnosis and monitoring of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is projection radiography. However radiographs may be insensitive to markers of early disease such as osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN). Relative to standard radiography, digital X-ray tomosynthesis (DTS) may provide improved visualization of the markers of knee OA without the interference of superimposed anatomy. DTS utilizes a series of low-dose projection images over an arc of +/-20 degrees to reconstruct tomographic images parallel to the detector. We propose that DTS can increase accuracy and precision in JSN quantification. The geometric accuracy of DTS was characterized by quantifying joint space width (JSW) as a function of knee flexion and position using physical and anthropomorphic phantoms. Using a commercially available digital X-ray system, projection and DTS images were acquired for a Lucite rod phantom with known gaps at various source-object-distances, and angles of flexion. Gap width, representative of JSW, was measured using a validated algorithm. Over an object-to-detector-distance range of 5-21cm, a 3.0mm gap width was reproducibly measured in the DTS images, independent of magnification. A simulated 0.50mm (+/-0.13) JSN was quantified accurately (95% CI 0.44-0.56mm) in the DTS images. Angling the rods to represent knee flexion, the minimum gap could be precisely determined from the DTS images and was independent of flexion angle. JSN quantification using DTS was insensitive to distance from patient barrier and flexion angle. Potential exists for the optimization of DTS for accurate radiographic quantification of knee OA independent of patient positioning.

  9. Modification of osteoarthritis in the guinea pig with pulsed low-intensity ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Gurkan, I; Ranganathan, A; Yang, X; Horton, W E; Todman, M; Huckle, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2010-05-01

    The Hartley guinea pig develops articular cartilage degeneration similar to that seen in idiopathic human osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether the application of pulsed low-intensity ultrasound (PLIUS) to the Hartley guinea pig joint would prevent or attenuate the progression of this degenerative process. Treatment of male Hartley guinea pigs was initiated at the onset of degeneration (8 weeks of age) to assess the ability of PLIUS to prevent OA, or at a later age (12 months) to assess the degree to which PLIUS acted to attenuate the progression of established disease. PLIUS (30 mW/cm(2)) was applied to stifle joints for 20 min/day over periods ranging from 3 to 10 months, with contralateral limbs serving as controls. Joint cartilage histology was graded according to a modified Mankin scale to evaluate treatment effect. Immunohistochemical staining for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP-13, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 was performed on the cartilage to evaluate patterns of expression of these proteins. PLIUS did not fully prevent cartilage degeneration in the prevention groups, but diminished the severity of the disease, with the treated joints showing markedly decreased surface irregularities and a much smaller degree of loss of matrix staining as compared to controls. PLIUS also attenuated disease progression in the groups with established disease, although to a somewhat lesser extent as compared to the prevention groups. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a markedly decreased degree of TGF-beta1 production in the PLIUS-treated joints. This indicates less active endogenous repair, consistent with the marked reduction in cartilage degradation. PLIUS exhibits the ability to attenuate the progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model of idiopathic human OA. The effect was greater in the treatment of early, rather than established, degeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Platelet rich plasma, stromal vascular fraction and autologous conditioned serum in treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi, Ali; Maleki, Arash; Dolati, Sanam; Aghebati-Maleki, Ali; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili

    2018-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial chronic disease, causing several problems on patients, hygiene and community care systems. Conventional therapies, such as non-pharmacological mediations, systemic drug treatment and intra-articular therapies are applying previously; however, controlling and management approaches of the disease mainly remain insufficient. Injections of intra-articular therapies directly into the joint evade conservative obstacles to joint entry, rise bioavailability and minor systemic toxicity. Current progresses in osteoarthritis management have designed better diversity of treatment approaches. Innovative treatments, such as autologous blood products and mesenchymal stem cells, are in progress. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is one of the several novel therapeutic approaches that stay to progress in the field of orthopedic medicine. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) comprises a lesser amount of mesenchymal stem cells and is a treatment for OA and cartilage damage. Based on novel opinions, an innovative therapy by autologous conditioned serum (ACS) from the whole blood was settled. The inoculation of ACS into tissues has revealed clinical efficacy for the treatment of osteoarthritis and muscle injuries. Here, we make available historical perspective of PRP, SVF, and ACS and the other existing researches on using PRP, SVF and ACS for the treatment of knee OA. In conclusion, in current years, OA stem cell therapy has rapidly progressed, with optimistic consequences in animals and human studies. Additionally, PRP, SVF and ASC injection seem to be accompanied with numerous favorable results for treatment of patients with OA. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. OARSI Clinical Trials Recommendations: Design and conduct of clinical trials of rehabilitation interventions for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, G K; Hinman, R S; Zeni, J; Risberg, M A; Snyder-Mackler, L; Bennell, K L

    2015-05-01

    A Task Force of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) has previously published a set of guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. Limited material available on clinical trials of rehabilitation in people with OA has prompted OARSI to establish a separate Task Force to elaborate guidelines encompassing special issues relating to rehabilitation of OA. The Task Force identified three main categories of rehabilitation clinical trials. The categories included non-operative rehabilitation trials, post-operative rehabilitation trials, and trials examining the effectiveness of devices (e.g., assistive devices, bracing, physical agents, electrical stimulation, etc.) that are used in rehabilitation of people with OA. In addition, the Task Force identified two main categories of outcomes in rehabilitation clinical trials, which include outcomes related to symptoms and function, and outcomes related to disease modification. The guidelines for rehabilitation clinical trials provided in this report encompass these main categories. The report provides guidelines for conducting and reporting on randomized clinical trials. The topics include considerations for entering patients into trials, issues related to conducting trials, considerations for selecting outcome measures, and recommendations for statistical analyses and reporting of results. The focus of the report is on rehabilitation trials for hip, knee and hand OA, however, we believe the content is broad enough that it could be applied to rehabilitation trials for other regions as well. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Current nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis: a review.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nahid; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2012-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative joint disease that has a major impact on joint function and quality of life. Nutraceuticals and dietary supplements derived from herbs have long been used in traditional medicine and there is considerable evidence that nutraceuticals may play an important role in inflammation and joint destruction in OA. We review the biological effects of some medicinal fruits and herbs - pomegranate, green tea, cat's claw, devil's claw, ginger, Indian olibaum, turmeric and ananas - in an attempt to understand the pivotal molecular targets involved in inflammation and the joint destruction process and to summarize their toxicities and efficacy for OA management. So far there is insufficient reliable evidence on the effectiveness of ginger, turmeric and ananas. Pomegranate and green tea only have preclinical evidence of efficacy due to the lack of clinical data. In vivo and clinical studies are required to understand their targets and efficacy in OA. Limited in vitro and in vivo evidence is available for cat's claw and Indian olibaum. More extensive studies are required before long-term controlled trials of whole cat's claw and Indian olibaum extracts, or isolated active compounds, are carried out in patients with OA to determine their long-term efficacy and safety. Devil's claw has not been rigorously tested to determine its antiarthritic potential in in vitro and in vivo models. There is strong clinical evidence of the effectiveness of devil's claw in pain reduction. However, high-quality clinical trials are needed to determine its effectiveness. No serious side effects have been reported for any fruits and herbs. Overall, these studies identify and support the use of nutraceuticals to provide symptomatic relief to patients with OA and to be used as adjunct therapy for OA management. More high-quality trials are needed to provide definitive answers to questions related to their efficacy and safety for OA prevention and

  13. Systematic review of guidelines for the physical management of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Larmer, Peter J; Reay, Nicholas D; Aubert, Elizabeth R; Kersten, Paula

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a systematic critical appraisal of guidelines to provide a summary of recommendations for the physical management of osteoarthritis (OA). The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, Scopus, ScienceDirect, PEDro, and Google Scholar databases were searched (2000-2013) to identify all guidelines, protocols, and recommendations for the management or treatment of OA. In addition, Internet searches of all relevant arthritis organizations were undertaken. All searches were performed between July 2012 and end of April 2013. Guidelines that included only pharmacological, injection therapy, or surgical interventions were excluded. Guidelines published only in English were retrieved. OA guidelines developed from evidence-based research, consensus, and/or expert opinion were retrieved. There were no restrictions on severity or site of OA, sex, or age. Nineteen guidelines were identified for evaluation. The quality of all guidelines was critically appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation II instrument. Each guideline was independently reviewed. All relevant recommendations for the physical management of OA were synthesized, graded, and ranked according to available evidence. Seventeen guidelines with recommendations on the physical management of OA met the inclusion criteria and underwent a full critical appraisal. There were variations in the interventions, levels of evidence, and strength of recommendations across the guidelines. Forty different interventions were identified. Recommendations were graded from "strongly recommended" to "unsupported." Exercise and education were found to be strongly recommended by most guidelines. Exercise and education were key recommendations supporting the importance of rehabilitation in the physical management of OA. This critical appraisal can assist health care providers who are involved in the management of people with OA. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of

  14. Current nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Nahid

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative joint disease that has a major impact on joint function and quality of life. Nutraceuticals and dietary supplements derived from herbs have long been used in traditional medicine and there is considerable evidence that nutraceuticals may play an important role in inflammation and joint destruction in OA. We review the biological effects of some medicinal fruits and herbs – pomegranate, green tea, cat’s claw, devil’s claw, ginger, Indian olibaum, turmeric and ananas – in an attempt to understand the pivotal molecular targets involved in inflammation and the joint destruction process and to summarize their toxicities and efficacy for OA management. So far there is insufficient reliable evidence on the effectiveness of ginger, turmeric and ananas. Pomegranate and green tea only have preclinical evidence of efficacy due to the lack of clinical data. In vivo and clinical studies are required to understand their targets and efficacy in OA. Limited in vitro and in vivo evidence is available for cat’s claw and Indian olibaum. More extensive studies are required before long-term controlled trials of whole cat’s claw and Indian olibaum extracts, or isolated active compounds, are carried out in patients with OA to determine their long-term efficacy and safety. Devil’s claw has not been rigorously tested to determine its antiarthritic potential in in vitro and in vivo models. There is strong clinical evidence of the effectiveness of devil’s claw in pain reduction. However, high-quality clinical trials are needed to determine its effectiveness. No serious side effects have been reported for any fruits and herbs. Overall, these studies identify and support the use of nutraceuticals to provide symptomatic relief to patients with OA and to be used as adjunct therapy for OA management. More high-quality trials are needed to provide definitive answers to questions related to their efficacy and safety for OA prevention

  15. Gait analysis of patients with knee osteoarthritis highlights a pathological mechanical pathway and provides a basis for therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Favre, Julien; Jolles, Brigitte M.

    2016-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful and incapacitating disease affecting a large portion of the elderly population, for which no cure exists. There is a critical need to enhance our understanding of OA pathogenesis, as a means to improve therapeutic options. Knee OA is a complex disease influenced by many factors, including the loading environment. Analysing knee biomechanics during walking - the primary cyclic load-bearing activity - is therefore particularly relevant. There is evidence of meaningful differences in the knee adduction moment, flexion moment and flexion angle during walking between non-OA individuals and patients with medial knee OA. Furthermore, these kinetic and kinematic gait variables have been associated with OA progression. Gait analysis provides the critical information needed to understand the role of ambulatory biomechanics in OA development, and to design therapeutic interventions. Multidisciplinary research is necessary to relate the biomechanical alterations to the structural and biological components of OA. Cite this article: Favre J, Jolles BM. Analysis of gait, knee biomechanics and the physiopathology of knee osteoarthritis in the development of therapeutic interventions. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:368-374. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000051. PMID:28461915

  16. Iron overload in a murine model of hereditary hemochromatosis is associated with accelerated progression of osteoarthritis under mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Camacho, A; Simão, M; Ea, H-K; Cohen-Solal, M; Richette, P; Branco, J; Cancela, M L

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a disease caused by mutations in the Hfe gene characterised by systemic iron overload and associated with an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) but the role of iron overload in the development of OA is still undefined. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved we have used a murine model of HH and studied the progression of experimental OA under mechanical stress. OA was surgically induced in the knee joints of 10-week-old C57BL6 (wild-type) mice and Hfe-KO mice. OA progression was assessed using histology, micro CT, gene expression and immunohistochemistry at 8 weeks after surgery. Hfe-KO mice showed a systemic iron overload and an increased iron accumulation in the knee synovial membrane following surgery. The histological OA score was significantly higher in the Hfe-KO mice at 8 weeks after surgery. Micro CT study of the proximal tibia revealed increased subchondral bone volume and increased trabecular thickness. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 3 (MMP-3) in the joints of Hfe-KO mice compared with control mice at 8 weeks after surgery. HH was associated with an accelerated development of OA in mice. Our findings suggest that synovial iron overload has a definite role in the progression of HH-related OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.