Science.gov

Sample records for early patient contacts

  1. Knee contact forces are not altered in early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Meireles, S; De Groote, F; Reeves, N D; Verschueren, S; Maganaris, C; Luyten, F; Jonkers, I

    2016-03-01

    This study calculated knee contact forces (KCF) and its relations with knee external knee adduction moments (KAM) and/or flexion moments (KFM) during the stance phase of gait in patients with early osteoarthritis (OA), classified based on early joint degeneration on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We aimed at assessing if altered KCF are already present in early structural degeneration. Three-dimensional motion and ground reaction force data in 59 subjects with medial compartment knee OA (N=23 established OA, N=16 early OA, N=20 controls) were used as input for a musculoskeletal model. KAM and KFM, and KCF were estimated using OpenSim software. No significant differences were found between controls and subjects with early OA. In early OA patients, KAM significantly explained 69% of the variance associated with the first peaks KCF but only KFM contributed to the second peaks KCF. The multiple correlation, combining KAM and KFM, showed to be higher. However, only 20% of the variance of second peak KCF was explained by both moments in established OA. KCF are not increased in patients with early OA, suggesting that knee joint overload is more a consequence of further joint degeneration in more advanced stages of OA. Additionally, our results clearly show that KAM is not sufficient to predict joint loading at the end of the stance, where KFM contributes substantially to the loading, especially in early OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tooth contact in patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Glaros, Alan G; Williams, Karen; Lausten, Leonard; Friesen, Lynn R

    2005-07-01

    Both experimental and retrospective studies suggest a link between parafunctions and pain in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. To investigate the role of parafunctions in TMD, experience sampling methodology was used as a prospective test of the hypothesis that patients with TMD have higher levels of tooth contact and tension than non-TMD controls. Three groups of TMD patients and a group of normal controls carried pagers for one week, were contacted approximately every two hours by an automated calling system, and completed questionnaires assessing tooth contact, tension, and pain at each contact. Results showed that tooth contact was much more frequent among normal controls than is commonly presumed. Patients with myofascial pain with/without arthralgia reported more frequent contact, higher intensity contact, and more tension than patients with disk displacement or normal controls. Increased masticatory muscle activity responsible for tooth contact and tension may be an important mechanism in the etiology and maintenance of the myofascial pain and arthralgia of TMD.

  3. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Henak, Corinne R.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanics of contacting cartilage layers is fundamentally important to understanding the development, homeostasis and pathology of diarthrodial joints. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of both the materials and the contact problem itself, numerical methods such as the finite element method are typically incorporated to obtain solutions. Over the course of five decades, we have moved from an initial qualitative understanding of articular cartilage material behavior to the ability to perform complex, three-dimensional contact analysis, including multiphasic material representations. This history includes the development of analytical and computational contact analysis methods that now provide the ability to perform highly nonlinear analyses. Numerical implementations of contact analysis based on the finite element method are rapidly advancing and will soon enable patient-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics using models based on medical image data. In addition to contact stress on the articular surfaces, these techniques can predict variations in strain and strain through the cartilage layers, providing the basis to predict damage and failure. This opens up exciting areas for future research and application to patient-specific diagnosis and treatment planning applied to a variety of pathologies that affect joint function and cartilage homeostasis. PMID:25698236

  6. [Contact eczema in patients with leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Degreef, H; Dooms-Goossens, A; Gladys, K

    1986-01-01

    Patients with leg ulcers or varicose eczema suffer much more often from contact eczema due to the local application of pharmaceutical preparations than patients suffering from other dermatological problems (even those of eczematous origin). This contact allergy may concern not only the active ingredient but also the excipient, the preservative, or even the perfume. In all cases of leg ulcers, of varicose eczema, but also of badly healed ulcers, epicutaneous tests should be carried out with all the components of the pharmaceutical preparations concerned. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry really must perfect non-allergenic preparations.

  7. Students' Opinions about the Effects of Preclinical Patient Contacts on Their Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemers, Agnes D.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Verwijnen, Maarten G. M.; Heineman, Erik; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Several reasons have been given why students should have contacts with real patients early in the undergraduate medical curriculum, i.e., in the preclinical phase. However, it is not clear exactly what effects early patient contacts have with regard to knowledge construction and the development of clinical reasoning skills. We sought students'…

  8. Experiences and Expectations of Bereavement Contact among Caregivers of Patients with Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Maisam; Mohammed, Shan; Swami, Nadia; Pope, Ashley; Kevork, Nanor; Krzyzanowska, Monika; Rodin, Gary; Hannon, Breffni; Zimmermann, Camilla

    2018-05-16

    Contact with bereaved caregivers is not standard practice among cancer physicians, and little is known about its impact on caregivers. Our aim was to describe the experiences and opinions of caregivers regarding bereavement contact from healthcare providers (HCP). Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 61 bereaved caregivers. Bereaved caregivers of advanced cancer patients who had completed a randomized controlled trial of an early palliative care intervention were approached one to five years after the patient's death. Caregivers completed qualitative interviews from April 2012 to March 2015 after completion of quantitative measures. In semistructured interviews, bereaved caregivers were asked to describe the contact they received from HCP after the patient's death and their opinions about bereavement contact. We used thematic analysis informed by grounded theory to code and analyze the data. Of 60 caregivers included in the study, 30 (50%) received bereavement contact. There were no thematic differences between trial arms. The themes "contact reflects caring," "contact offers support," and "contact facilitates closure" were prominent among those who were contacted. "Contact is a courtesy," "contact is not always necessary," and "caregiver-initiated contact" were most evident among those who were not contacted. Overall, contact was appreciated by those who received it; for those who did not, reactions included rationalization, ambivalence, and regret. No negative consequences of contact were reported. Bereavement contact is well received and may be missed if not provided. These data support integration of bereavement contact into routine supportive care for caregivers.

  9. Early microbial contact, the breast milk microbiome and child health.

    PubMed

    Rautava, S

    2016-02-01

    The significance of contact with microbes in early life for subsequent health has been the subject of intense research during the last 2 decades. Disturbances in the establishment of the indigenous intestinal microbiome caused by cesarean section delivery or antibiotic exposure in early life have been linked to the risk of immune-mediated and inflammatory conditions such as atopic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease and obesity later in life. Distinct microbial populations have recently been discovered at maternal sites including the amniotic cavity and breast milk, as well as meconium, which have previously been thought to be sterile. Our understanding of the impact of fetal microbial contact on health outcomes is still rudimentary. Breast milk is known to modulate immune and metabolic programming. The breast milk microbiome is hypothesized to guide infant gut colonization and is affected by maternal health status and mode of delivery. Immunomodulatory factors in breast milk interact with the maternal and infant gut microbiome and may mediate some of the health benefits associated with breastfeeding. The intimate connection between the mother and the fetus or the infant is a potential target for microbial therapeutic interventions aiming to support healthy microbial contact and protect against disease.

  10. Friend and Family Contact and Support in Early Widowhood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study explored the relative contributions of friends and family to the social and emotional well-being of women and men in the first 2–6 months following the death of their spouse or partner. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-eight widowed men (39%) and women aged 50 and older completed self-administered questionnaires that included measures of contact and satisfaction with friends and family, as well as measures of affective (i.e., grief and depression) and self-evaluative (i.e., coping self-efficacy, mastery, self-esteem) responses to loss. Results. Regression analyses supported the positive features of social support and interaction but particularly highlight the role of friends: ease of contact and satisfaction with friendship support were associated with more positive self-evaluative aspects of loss; greater frequency of friendship help was associated with more negative affective reactions, whereas higher satisfaction with friendship support was associated with more positive affective reactions. Discussion. These analyses support the voluntary and socializing functions of friendship and social support, bolstering individuals during stressful life transitions, advancing our understanding of the underexamined and particularly distinct functions of friendship in the early phases of spousal loss. PMID:24170717

  11. [Eye contact in adult patients with Asperger syndrome].

    PubMed

    Roy, M; Wolfgang, D

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if individuals with autism spectrum disorders rarely hold direct eye contact because eyes are unimportant for them, or if it is actively avoided. The aim of the current investigation was to gain a better understanding for their views on direct eye contact by exploring adult patients with Asperger syndrome. 63 adult patients with Asperger syndrome (28 females, 35 males, 21 - 62 years old) were explored about using and sensing direct eye contact by means of a standardised questionnaire. 87 % of investigated patients depict direct eye contact as being disagreeable. They describe it as arduous and distracting. Therefore they mostly actively avoid direct eye contact. The here gained knowledge about aversion towards direct eye contact in individuals with autism should lead to a stronger understanding and acceptance of this problem in the non-autistic population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Acanthamoeba keratitis in patients wearing scleral contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Sticca, Matheus Porto; Carrijo-Carvalho, Linda C; Silva, Isa M B; Vieira, Luiz A; Souza, Luciene B; Junior, Rubens Belfort; Carvalho, Fábio Ramos S; Freitas, Denise

    2018-06-01

    To report a series of cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in scleral lens wearers with keratoconus to determine whether this type of contact lens presents a greater risk for development of infection. This study reports three patients who wore scleral contact lenses to correct keratoconus and developed AK. The diagnoses of AK were established based on cultures of the cornea, scleral contact lenses, and contact lens paraphernalia. This study investigated the risk factors for infections. The possible risks for AK in scleral contact lens wearers are hypoxic changes in the corneal epithelium because of the large diameter and minimal tear exchange, use of large amounts of saline solution necessary for scleral lens fitting, storing the scleral lens overnight in saline solution rather than contact lens multipurpose solutions, not rubbing the contact lens during cleaning, and the space between the cornea and the back surface of the scleral lens that might serve as a fluid reservoir and environment for Acanthamoeba multiplication. Two patients responded well to medical treatment of AK; one is still being treated. The recommendations for use and care of scleral contact lenses should be emphasized, especially regarding use of sterile saline (preferably single use), attention to rubbing the lens during cleaning, cleaning of the plunger, and overnight storage in fresh contact lens multipurpose solutions without topping off the lens solution in the case. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [In-patient (early) rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Wallesch, Claus-W; Lautenschläger, Sindy

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to develop the financing and hospital provision of interventions for early rehabilitation within the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system. In addition to a range of partially rehabilitative complex interventions, the system recognizes three main forms of early rehabilitative interventions: geriatric, neurological/neurosurgical, and interdisciplinary and others. In this article, the appropriate definitions and cost-effectiveness of these procedures are analyzed and compared. The early rehabilitative interventions are characterized by constant cooperation in the therapeutic team, especially neurological early rehabilitation through the incorporation of nursing as a therapeutic profession. Whereas geriatric and neurological early rehabilitation are reflected in the DRG system, the former provided in many general hospitals and the latter mainly in specialized institutions, interdisciplinary early rehabilitation has only occasionally been represented in the DRG system so far. If all acute in-patients who require early rehabilitation should receive such an intervention, an additional fee must be implemented for this this interdisciplinary service.

  14. Holding the baby: early mother-infant contact after childbirth and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Maggie; Hennegan, Julie; Kruske, Sue

    2014-05-01

    to describe the timing, type and duration of initial infant contact and associated demographic and clinical factors in addition to investigating the impact of early contact on breastfeeding and maternal health and well being after birth. data from a recent population survey of women birthing in Queensland, Australia were used to describe the nature of the first hold and associated demographic characteristics. Initial comparisons, with subsequent adjustment for type of birthing facility and mode of childbirth, were used to assess associations between timing, type and duration of initial contact and outcomes. Further analyses were conducted to investigate a dose-response relationship between duration of first contact and outcomes. women who had an unassisted vaginal birth held their infant sooner, and for longer than women who had an assisted vaginal birth or caesarean and were more satisfied with their early contact. Multivariate models showed a number of demographic and clinical interventions contributing to timing, duration and type of first contact with type of birthing facility (public/private), area of residence, and assisted birth as prominent factors. For women who had a vaginal birth; early, skin-to-skin, and longer duration of initial contact were associated with high rates of breastfeeding initiation and breastfeeding at discharge, but not breastfeeding at 13 weeks. Some aspects of early contact were associated with improved maternal well being. However, these associations were not found for women who had a caesarean birth. With longer durations of first contact, a dose-response effect was found for breastfeeding. results of the study provide a description of current practice in Queensland, Australia and factors impacting on early contact. For vaginal births, findings add to the evidence in support of early skin-to-skin contact for an extended period. It is suggested that all research in this area should consider the effects of early contact separately for

  15. Risk factors and common contact allergens in facial allergic contact dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Kasemsarn, Pranee; Iamphonrat, Thanawan; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Facial dermatitis is commonly encountered in dermatologic practice. It is sometimes difficult to manage because its causative factors may be multiple and difficult to diagnose. This study was designed to identify the characteristics, patch test results, and final diagnoses of facial dermatitis patients who were referred to a contact dermatitis clinic and to identify factors associated with facial allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We retrospectively reviewed case records of facial dermatitis patients who underwent patch testing at the clinic during the period from July 2006 to June 2011. Of the 891 patients patch-tested, 244 (27.4%) had facial dermatitis. Female patients were 9.1 times more predominant than male patients. The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 37.3 ± 14.8 years. A total of 199 (81.6%) patients demonstrated at least one positive reaction to a patch test, 66.7% of which were clinically relevant. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 45.5% of patients. Independent factors predisposing towards facial dermatitis were female sex, having a previous history of cosmetic allergy, a positive patch test reaction to hairdressing product-related allergens, and a positive allergic reaction to preservative allergens. The prevalence of facial dermatitis was 27.4%. Almost half of all patients with facial dermatitis demonstrated ACD. Factors associated with facial ACD were female gender, a history of cosmetic allergy, and positive patch test reactions to hairdressing product-related allergens and preservatives. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Patient Compliance During Contact Lens Wear: Perceptions, Awareness, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thai H.; Cavanagh, H. Dwight; Robertson, Danielle M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Patient noncompliance with recommended hygienic practices in contact lens wear is often considered a significant risk factor for microbial keratitis and adverse contact lens–related events. Despite advancements in lens materials and care solutions, noncompliant behavior continues to hinder efforts to maximize contact lens safety. The objective of this pilot study was to assess the relationship between perceived and actual compliance with awareness of risk and behavior. Methods One hundred sixty-two established contact lens wearers were sequentially evaluated after their routine contact lens examination at the Optometry Clinic at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, TX. Each patient was questioned by a single trained interviewer regarding his or her lens care practices and knowledge of risk factors associated with lens wear. Results Eighty-six percent of patients believed they were compliant with lens wear and care practices; 14% identified themselves as noncompliant. Using a scoring model, 32% demonstrated good compliance, 44% exhibited average compliance, and 24% were noncompliant; age was a significant factor (P = 0.020). Only 34% of patients who perceived themselves as compliant exhibited a good level of compliance (P<0.001). Eighty percent of patients reported an awareness of risk factors, but awareness did not influence negative behavior. Replacing the lens case was the only behavior associated with a positive history for having experienced a prior contact lens–related complication (P = 0.002). Conclusions Perceived compliance is not an indicator for appropriate patient behavior. A large proportion of patients remain noncompliant despite awareness of risk. Education alone is not a sufficient strategy to improve behavior; newer approaches aimed at improving compliance with lens care practices are urgently needed. PMID:20935569

  17. [Patient satisfaction from the contact with the physician].

    PubMed

    Barański, J

    1999-03-01

    The satisfaction of a patient at the contact with a doctor results from realisation of patient's emotional and medical needs by the doctor. Lack of satisfaction reduces patient's ability to acquire and memorize information, causes unwillingness to follow doctor's instructions, eliminates the need of prophylactic examinations and decreases the level of rational response to disease symptoms. It is an emotional barrier which often makes it impossible to archive therapeutic aim.

  18. Tracing contacts of TB patients in Malaysia: costs and practicality.

    PubMed

    Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ali, Irfhan; Asif, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) and chest X-ray are the conventional methods used for tracing suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients. The purpose of the study was to calculate the cost incurred by Penang General Hospital on performing one contact tracing procedure using an activity based costing approach. Contact tracing records (including the demographic profile of contacts and outcome of the contact tracing procedure) from March 2010 until February 2011 were retrospectively obtained from the TB contact tracing record book. The human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent (in minutes) by employees doing a specific activity by their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables, Purified Protein Derivative vials and clinical equipment were obtained from the procurement section of the Pharmacy and Radiology Departments. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the facility with the unit cost of the public building department. Straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for the calculation of equivalent annual costs for the building and machines. Out of 1024 contact tracing procedures, TST was positive (≥10 mm) in 38 suspects. However, chemoprophylaxis was started in none. Yield of contact tracing (active tuberculosis) was as low as 0.5%. The total unit cost of chest X-ray and TST was MYR 9.23 (2.90 USD) & MYR 11.80 (USD 3.70), respectively. The total cost incurred on a single contact tracing procedure was MYR 21.03 (USD 6.60). Our findings suggest that the yield of contact tracing was very low which may be attributed to an inappropriate prioritization process. TST may be replaced with more accurate and specific methods (interferon gamma release assay) in highly prioritized contacts; or TST-positive contacts should be administered 6H therapy (provided that the chest radiography excludes TB) in accordance with standard protocols. The unit cost of contact tracing can be significantly

  19. Contact laser prostatectomy in a patient on chronic anticoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Edward J.

    1995-05-01

    The `gold standard' therapy for patients with symptomatic bladder outlet obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia has always been electrocautery TURP. However, in patients with medical problems requiring chronic anticoagulation, this procedure is contraindicated due to the extreme risk of hemorrhage, both during the procedure and the immediate post operative period. With the recent development of contact laser prostatectomy the patient on chronic anticoagulation can safely undergo the procedure. Herein, I present a case of a 60 year old with significant bladder outlet obstruction yielding an AUA symptom score of 18. The patient had a history of multiple episodes of deep venous thrombosis of the left leg with three prior pulmonary emboli. He was maintained on chronic anticoagulation with alternating days of 3.5 mg. and 5.0 mg. of warfarin sodium (coumadin). Preoperative cystoscopy showed a 4 cm prostatic fossa obstructed by tri-lobar hypertrophy, with large kissing lateral lobes and visual obstruction from the verumontanum. The patient underwent a contact laser prostatectomy with the SLT Nd:YAG laser at 50 watts. There was minimal bleeding both during the procedure and in the immediate postoperative period. At three months post-op the AUA symptom score had decreased to 2. This case demonstrated that contact laser prostatectomy can be safely and effectively performed in patients on chronic anticoagulation.

  20. Health sciences librarians, patient contact, and secondary traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Becker, Rachel W; McCrillis, Aileen

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) in health sciences librarians (HSLs) who have direct contact with traumatized individuals and their families. A twenty-five-item survey and the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS) were distributed via email to three Medical Library Association email discussion lists. A total of fifty-five HSLs responded to the survey. Survey results indicate moderate levels of STS and variability of symptoms among participants. Library and employee assistance program managers should be aware of the emotional toll of patient and/or family contact for HSLs.

  1. Quality of life in patients with allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kadyk, Deana L; McCarter, Kevin; Achen, Fritz; Belsito, Donald V

    2003-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), a common dermatological disorder, often results in ongoing disease and disability. However, relatively little has been published quantifying the quality of life (QoL) of patients with ACD. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of ACD on QoL and explore prognostic factors that influence outcomes. A total of 428 subjects with ACD were, at varying times after diagnosis, mailed a QoL questionnaire modified from Skindex-16 to include an additional 5 items pertaining to occupational impact. The QoL scores were correlated with subject demographics, disease characteristics, and management techniques to ascertain factors that impact QoL in subjects with ACD. The response rate was 35%, with 149 subjects returning the postal survey. Responders reported being bothered most by itching, skin irritation, and persistence of the condition. Of the four scales included in the QoL questionnaire, the emotions scale had the worst composite QoL score, followed by symptoms, functioning, and occupational impact. Patients with ACD of the face were significantly more bothered by the appearance of their skin. Hand involvement and occupationally related ACD were associated with worse QoL scores within the occupational impact and functioning scales. Subjects that had changed jobs because of ACD had more severe QoL impairment than any other group analyzed, with significantly worse scores on 17 of the 21 QoL items. A history of atopic eczema seemed to impart improved outcomes on patients with ACD, and these subjects were less worried about being fired from their jobs. Subjects diagnosed by patch testing more than 36 months after disease onset seemed to have worse QoL scores than those diagnosed earlier in the natural history of the disease. Patients diagnosed by patch testing within the last 6 months had the worst QoL scores, while the best outcomes were reported in subjects patch tested 6 to 12 months ago. A slight decline in QoL was observed 12

  2. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke. We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts. The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01). The multivariable Cox method analyzed adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.19) for all stroke types and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.05–1.20) for ischemic stroke and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.94–1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-specific aHR of stroke for contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03–1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15–1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07–1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.18) for men and women, respectively. This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further. PMID:28272195

  3. Efficacy of Toric Contact Lenses in Fitting and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Contact Lens Wearers.

    PubMed

    Cox, Stephanie M; Berntsen, David A; Bickle, Katherine M; Mathew, Jessica H; Powell, Daniel R; Little, B Kim; Lorenz, Kathrine Osborn; Nichols, Jason J

    2018-06-05

    To assess whether patient-reported measures are improved with soft toric contact lenses (TCLs) compared with soft spherical contact lenses (SCLs) and whether clinical time needed to fit TCL is greater than SCL. Habitual contact lens wearers with vertexed spherical refraction +4.00 to +0.25 D or -0.50 to -9.00 D and cylinder -0.75 to -1.75 DC were randomly assigned to be binocularly fitted into a TCL or SCL, and masked to treatment assignment. Time to successful fit was recorded. After 5 days, the National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life Instrument (NEI-RQL-42) and modified Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) were completed. After washout, subjects were fit into the alternative lens design (TCL or SCL). Outcomes were evaluated using linear mixed models for the time to fit and CISS score, generalized linear model for the successful fit, and Wilcoxon tests for the NEI-RQL-42. Sixty subjects (71.7% women, mean age [±SD] = 27.5±5.0 years) completed the study. The mean time to fit the TCL was 10.2±4.3 and 9.0±6.5 min for the SCL (least square [LS] mean difference (TCL-SCL)=1.2, P=0.22). Toric contact lens scored better than SCL in global NEI-RQL-42 score (P=0.006) and the clarity of vision (P=0.006) and satisfaction with correction subscales (P=0.006). CISS showed a 15% reduction in symptoms (LS mean difference [TCL-SCL]=-2.20, P=0.02). TCLs are a good option when trying to improve the vision of patients with low-to-moderate astigmatism given the subjective improvements in outcomes.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  4. Do schizophrenia patients age early?

    PubMed

    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2014-08-01

    The etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Within the proposed "neurodegeneration paradigm", observations have been put forth for "accelerated aging" in this disorder. This proposition is largely based on the neuroscience research that demonstrates progressive changes in brain as well as other systemic abnormalities supportive of faster aging process in patients with this disorder. In this review, we have summarized the literature related to the concept of early aging in schizophrenia. These studies include P300 abnormalities & visual motion discrimination, neuroimaging findings, telomere dynamics as well as neuropathology of related brain regions. We also propose a role of vitamin D, neuroimmunological changes and elevated oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to the above factors with 'vitamin-D deficiency' as the central paradox. Put together, the evidence supporting early aging in schizophrenia is compelling and this requires further systematic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiplex PCR technique could be an alternative approach for early detection of leprosy among close contacts--a pilot study from India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Surajita; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Gupta, Soma; Mahapatra, Prasanta Sinha; Gupta, Siddhartha; Guha, Samudra; Bandhopadhayay, Debasis; Ghosal, Chaitry; Paine, Suman Kalyan; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Biswas, Nibir; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2010-08-24

    Implementation of Multi drug Therapy (MDT) regimen has resulted in the decline of the total number of leprosy cases in the world. Though the prevalence rate has been declining, the incidence rate remains more or less constant and high in South East Asian countries particularly in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Srilanka. Leprosy, particularly that of multibacillary type spreads silently before it is clinically detected. An early detection and treatment would help to prevent transmission in the community. Multiplex PCR (M-PCR) technique appears to be promising towards early detection among contacts of leprosy cases. A total of 234 paucibacillary (PB) and 205 multibacillary (MB) leprosy cases were studied in a community of an endemic area of Bankura district of West Bengal (Eastern India). They were assessed by smear examination for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and M-PCR technique. These patients were treated with Multidrug Therapy (MDT) as prescribed by WHO following detection. A total of 110 MB and 72 PB contacts were studied by performing M-PCR in their nasal swab samples. 83.4% of MB patients were observed to be positive by smear examination for AFB and 89.2% by M-PCR. While 22.2% of PB patients were found to be positive by smear examination for AFB, 80.3% of these patients were positive by M-PCR. Among leprosy contacts (using M-PCR), 10.9% were found to be positive among MB contacts and 1.3% among PB contacts. Interestingly, two contacts of M-PCR positive MB cases developed leprosy during the period of two years follow up. The M-PCR technique appears to be an efficient tool for early detection of leprosy cases in community based contact tracing amongst close associates of PB and MB cases. Early contact tracing using a molecular biology tool can be of great help in curbing the incidence of leprosy further.

  6. Medical students' and facilitators' experiences of an Early Professional Contact course: active and motivated students, strained facilitators.

    PubMed

    von Below, Bernhard; Hellquist, Gunilla; Rödjer, Stig; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Björkelund, Cecilia; Wahlqvist, Mats

    2008-12-02

    Today, medical students are introduced to patient contact, communication skills, and clinical examination in the preclinical years of the curriculum with the purpose of gaining clinical experience. These courses are often evaluated from the student perspective. Reports with an additional emphasis on the facilitator perspective are scarce. According to constructive alignment, an influential concept from research in higher education, the learning climate between students and teachers is also of great importance. In this paper, we approach the learning climate by studying both students' and facilitators' course experiences.In 2001, a new "Early Professional Contact" longitudinal strand through term 1-4, was introduced at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. General practitioners and hospital specialists were facilitators.The aim of this study was to assess and analyse students' and clinical facilitators' experiences of the Early Professional Contact course and to illuminate facilitators' working conditions. Inspired by a Swedish adaptation of the Course Experience Questionnaire, an Early Professional Contact Questionnaire was constructed. In 2003, on the completion of the first longitudinal strand, a student and facilitator version was distributed to 86 students and 21 facilitators. In the analysis, both Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were used. Sixty students (70%) and 15 facilitators (71%) completed the questionnaire. Both students and facilitators were satisfied with the course. Students reported gaining iiration for their future work as doctors along with increased confidence in meeting patients. They also reported increased motivation for biomedical studies. Differences in attitudes between facilitators and students were found. Facilitators experienced a greater workload, less reasonable demands and less support, than students. In this project, a new Early Professional Contact course was analysed from both student and facilitator

  7. Longitudinal analysis of tibiofemoral cartilage contact area and position in ACL reconstructed patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ellison; Amano, Keiko; Pedoia, Valentina; Souza, Richard B; Ma, C Benjamin; Li, Xiaojuan

    2018-04-18

    Patients who have suffered ACL injury are more likely to develop early onset post-traumatic osteoarthritis despite reconstruction. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in the tibiofemoral cartilage contact area size and location after ACL injury and reconstruction. Thirty-one patients with isolated unilateral ACL injury were followed with T 2 weighted Fast Spin Echo, T 1ρ and T 2 MRI at baseline prior to reconstruction, and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Areas were delineated in FSE images with an in-house Matlab program using a spline-based semi-automated segmentation algorithm. Tibiofemoral contact area and centroid position along the anterior-posterior axis were calculated along with T 1ρ and T 2 relaxation times on both the injured and non-injured knees. At baseline, the injured knees had significantly smaller and more posteriorly positioned contact areas on the medial tibial surface compared to corresponding healthy knees. These differences persisted 6 months after reconstruction. Moreover, subjects with more anterior medial centroid positions at 6 months had elevated T 1ρ and T 2 measures in the posterior medial tibial plateau at 1 year. Changes in contact area and centroid position after ACL injury and reconstruction may characterize some of the mechanical factors contributing to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Shigella Infections in Household Contacts of Pediatric Shigellosis Patients in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    George, Christine Marie; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Talukder, Kaisar A; Azmi, Ishrat J; Perin, Jamie; Sack, R Bradley; Sack, David A; Stine, O Colin; Oldja, Lauren; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Subhra; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Bouwer, Edward; Zhang, Xiaotong; Hasan, Trisheeta N; Luna, Sharmin J; Akter, Fatema; Faruque, Abu S G

    2015-11-01

    To examine rates of Shigella infections in household contacts of pediatric shigellosis patients, we followed contacts and controls prospectively for 1 week after the index patient obtained care. Household contacts of patients were 44 times more likely to develop a Shigella infection than were control contacts (odds ratio 44.7, 95% CI 5.5-361.6); 29 (94%) household contacts of shigellosis patients were infected with the same species and serotype as the index patient's. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 14 (88%) of 16 with infected contacts had strains that were indistinguishable from or closely related to the index patient's strain. Latrine area fly counts were higher in patient households compared with control households, and 2 patient household water samples were positive for Shigella. We show high susceptibility of household contacts of shigellosis patients to Shigella infections and found environmental risk factors to be targeted in future interventions.

  9. Patient problems, advanced practice nurse (APN) interventions, time and contacts among five patient groups.

    PubMed

    Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M; Deatrick, Janet; Naylor, Mary; York, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    To describe patient problems and APN interventions in each of five clinical trials and to establish links among patient problems, APN interventions, APN time and number of contacts, patient outcomes, and health care costs. Analysis of 333 interaction logs created by APNs during five randomized controlled trials: (a) very low birthweight infants (n = 39); (b) women with unplanned cesarean birth (n = 61), (c) high-risk pregnancy (n = 44), and (d) hysterectomy (n = 53); and (e) elders with cardiac medical and surgical diagnoses (n = 139). Logs containing recordings of all APN interactions with participants, APN time and type of patient contact were content analyzed with the smallest phrase or sentence representing a "unit." These units were then classified using the Omaha Classification System to determine patient problems and APN interventions. Groups were compared concerning total amount of APN time, number of contacts per patient, and mean length of time per APN contact. All studies were conducted in the United States. Groups with greater mean APN time and contacts per patient had greater improvements in patients' outcomes and greater health care cost savings. Of the 150,131 APN interventions, surveillance was the predominant APN function in all five patient groups. Health teaching, guidance, and counseling was the second most frequent category of APN intervention in four of the five groups. In all five groups, treatments and procedures accounted for < 1% of total APN interventions. Distribution of patient problems (N = 150,131) differed across groups reflecting the health care problems common to the group. Dose of APN time and contacts makes a difference in improving patient outcomes and reducing health care costs. Skills needed by APNs in providing transitional care include well-developed skills in assessing, teaching, counseling, communicating, collaborating, knowing health behaviors, negotiating systems, and having condition-specific knowledge about different

  10. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether or...

  11. 16 CFR 315.3 - Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of contact lens prescriptions... SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CONTACT LENS RULE § 315.3 Availability of contact lens prescriptions to patients. (a) In general. When a prescriber completes a contact lens fitting, the prescriber: (1) Whether or...

  12. Contact lens strategies for the patient with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Sindt, Christine W; Longmuir, Reid A

    2007-10-01

    Dry eye is the most common reason for contact lens (CL) discontinuation, and the patient with pre-existing dry eye presents particular challenges to the CL fitter. Poor tear film quality/stability, oxygen deprivation, lens deposits, and adverse reactions to CL solutions all contribute to dry eye, and lid disease, allergies, environmental factors, and medications can further hamper successful CL wear by the patient with dry eye. Health and comfort of the ocular surface is affected by the water content, ionicity, oxygen permeability, and modulus of elasticity of the lens, as well as by surface characteristics, such as protein, lipid, and mucin deposition; protein adsorption; and wettability. The choice of CL cleaning solutions with regard to action, cytotoxicity, and biocompatibility are as important as the choice of the CL itself. With appropriate management of the lid, meibomian gland, and ocular surface conditions that produce dry eye, careful selection of lenses and solutions, and vigilant follow-up, successful CL wear should be achievable for the dry eye patient.

  13. Longitudinal assessment of anti-PGL-I serology in contacts of leprosy patients in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Richardus, Renate A; van der Zwet, Konrad; van Hooij, Anouk; Wilson, Louis; Oskam, Linda; Faber, Roel; van den Eeden, Susan J F; Pahan, David; Alam, Khorshed; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Geluk, Annemieke

    2017-12-01

    Despite elimination efforts, the number of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infected individuals who develop leprosy, is still substantial. Solid evidence exists that individuals living in close proximity to patients are at increased risk to develop leprosy. Early diagnosis of leprosy in endemic areas requires field-friendly tests that identify individuals at risk of developing the disease before clinical manifestation. Such assays will simultaneously contribute to reduction of current diagnostic delay as well as transmission. Antibody (Ab) levels directed against the M.leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) represents a surrogate marker for bacterial load. However, it is insufficiently defined whether anti-PGL-I antibodies can be utilized as prognostic biomarkers for disease in contacts. Particularly, in Bangladesh, where paucibacillary (PB) patients form the majority of leprosy cases, anti-PGL-I serology is an inadequate method for leprosy screening in contacts as a directive for prophylactic treatment. Between 2002 and 2009, fingerstick blood from leprosy patients' contacts without clinical signs of disease from a field-trial in Bangladesh was collected on filter paper at three time points covering six years of follow-up per person. Analysis of anti-PGL-I Ab levels for 25 contacts who developed leprosy during follow-up and 199 contacts who were not diagnosed with leprosy, was performed by ELISA after elution of bloodspots from filter paper. Anti-PGL-I Ab levels at intake did not significantly differ between contacts who developed leprosy during the study and those who remained free of disease. Moreover, anti-PGL-I serology was not prognostic in this population as no significant correlation was identified between anti-PGL-I Ab levels at intake and the onset of leprosy. In this highly endemic population in Bangladesh, no association was observed between anti-PGL-I Ab levels and onset of disease, urging the need for an extended, more specific biomarker

  14. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, E R; Anderson, G C; Bergman, N

    2007-07-18

    Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, covered across the back with a warm blanket, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically 'sensitive period' for programming future behavior. To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, behavior, and physiological adaptation in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's and Neonatal Group's Trials Registers (August 2006), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1976 to 2006). Randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Thirty studies involving 1925 participants (mother-infant dyads), were included. Data from more than two trials were available for only 8-of-64 outcome measures. We found statistically significant and positive effects of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (10 trials; 552 participants) (odds ratio (OR) 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 3.07), and breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (weighted mean difference (WMD) 42.55, 95% CI -1.69 to 86.79). Trends were found for improved summary scores for maternal affectionate love/touch during observed breastfeeding (four trials; 314 participants) (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.52, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98) and maternal attachment behavior (six trials; 396 participants) (SMD 0.52, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.72) with early SSC. SSC infants cried for a shorter length of time (one trial; 44 participants) (WMD -8.01, 95% CI -8.98 to -7.04). Late preterm infants had

  15. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese

    2012-05-16

    Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically 'sensitive period' for programming future physiology and behavior. To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI -1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was significantly higher in SSC infants (two trials, 94 infants) (MD 10.56 mg/dL, 95% CI 8.40 to 12.72).The

  16. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Anderson, Gene C; Bergman, Nils; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother’s bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time may represent a psychophysiologically ‘sensitive period’ for programming future physiology and behavior. Objectives To assess the effects of early SSC on breastfeeding, physiological adaptation, and behavior in healthy mother-newborn dyads. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 November 2011), made personal contact with trialists, and consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr. Susan Ludington. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials comparing early SSC with usual hospital care. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Main results Thirty-four randomized controlled trials were included involving 2177 participants (mother-infant dyads). Data from more than two trials were available for only eight outcome measures. For primary outcomes, we found a statistically significant positive effect of early SSC on breastfeeding at one to four months postbirth (13 trials; 702 participants) (risk ratio (RR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 1.53, and SSC increased breastfeeding duration (seven trials; 324 participants) (mean difference (MD) 42.55 days, 95% CI −1.69 to 86.79) but the results did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). Late preterm infants had better cardio-respiratory stability with early SSC (one trial; 31 participants) (MD 2.88, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.23). Blood glucose 75 to 90 minutes following the birth was

  17. Pelvis morphology suggests that early Mesozoic birds were too heavy to contact incubate their eggs.

    PubMed

    Charles Deeming, D; Mayr, Gerald

    2018-05-01

    Numerous new fossils have driven an interest in reproduction of early birds, but direct evidence remains elusive. No Mesozoic avian eggs can be unambiguously assigned to a species, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of contact incubation, which is a defining feature of extant birds. Compared to living species, eggs of Mesozoic birds are relatively small, but whether the eggs of Mesozoic birds could actually have borne the weight of a breeding adult has not yet been investigated. We estimated maximal egg breadth for a range of Mesozoic avian taxa from the width of the pelvic canal defined by the pubic symphysis. Known elongation ratios of Mesozoic bird eggs allowed us to predict egg mass and hence the load mass an egg could endure before cracking. These values were compared to the predicted body masses of the adult birds based on skeletal remains. Based on 21 fossil species, we show that for nonornithothoracine birds body mass was 187% of the load mass of the eggs. For Enantiornithes, body mass was 127% greater than the egg load mass, but some early Cretaceous ornithuromorphs were 179% heavier than their eggs could support. Our indirect approach provides the best evidence yet that early birds could not have sat on their eggs without running the risk of causing damage. We suggest that contact incubation evolved comparatively late in birds. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Contact allergies in haemodialysis patients: a prospective study of 75 patients.

    PubMed

    Gaudy-Marqueste, C; Jouhet, C; Castelain, M; Brunet, P; Berland, Y; Grob, J J; Richard, M A

    2009-02-01

    Haemodialysis exposes patients to many potentially sensitizing allergens. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of delayed hypersensitivity in a population of haemodialysis patients. Secondary objectives were to identify the possible risk factors for contact sensitization and to propose a series of skin tests adapted to haemodialysis patients. A prospective monocentric study was carried out in a nonselected population of haemodialysis patients. For each patient, medical history of atopy and allergic contact dermatitis, ongoing treatments (including topical ones), presence of eczema at the site of vascular access for haemodialysis were recorded. Allergological investigation included delayed hypersensitivity tests (European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group battery, tests GERDA, additional list and a battery of antiseptics and other dialysis-specific allergens) and latex skin prick test. Seventy-five patients (41 men, 34 women, mean age of 65 years old), with a mean 3.8 years under dialysis, were included. Nineteen patients (25%) had at least one positive skin test and 13 (17%) a positive patch test to at least one allergen relative to dialysis process including eight tests to lidocaine-prilocaine cream and three to povidone-iodine. Tests results seemed clinically relevant since nine patients had localized pruritus at the fistula site and six patients active eczema around it. Contact sensitizations are frequent in haemodialysis patients and are linked to vascular access conditioning especially the use of lidocaine-prilocaine cream. Designing a specific test battery could help to diagnose the potential allergens and subsequently to give advice to avoid contact with sensitizing agents.

  19. A prospective analysis of unplanned patient-initiated contacts in an adult cystic fibrosis centre.

    PubMed

    Burnet, Espérie; Hubert, Dominique; Champreux, Juliette; Honoré, Isabelle; Kanaan, Reem; Panzo, Rosewilta; Burgel, Pierre-Régis

    2018-05-07

    Timely response should be provided when patients contact the cystic fibrosis (CF) centre in between scheduled visits. Little data exist on unplanned patient-initiated contacts in CF adults. A two-stage prospective study was undertaken from 1 January to 31 December 2015 at Cochin Hospital, Paris (France). The first stage included all adults (≥18 years) who initiated unplanned contacts to the CF centre over four months. Four physicians and three nurses systematically recorded unplanned patient-initiated contacts. The data was analysed to determine why and how patients contacted the CF centre and time spent responding to their request(s). The second stage (one physician, three nurses) lasted twelve months and explored whether high contact frequency was associated with disease severity, using multivariate logistic regression. In the first stage, 259 of 410 patients (63%) initiated at least one unplanned contact, corresponding to 1067 contacts over 4 months. Patients favoured email with physicians (61% of contacts) and telephone with nurses (87% of contacts). Total time spent by the 7 caregivers on providing responses was 8 h/work week. Reasons for contacting the CF centre varied greatly, but <20% of contacts were directly related to symptom management. In the second stage, 180 of 212 patients (85%) initiated 1876 contacts over 12 months. Factors associated with ≥5 contacts/year were female sex, FEV 1  ≤ 30% predicted, ≥5 physician visits/year, and ≥ 1 hospital admission/year. Answering unplanned patient-initiated contacts represented a significant workload for CF caregivers. Increased disease severity was associated with high contact frequency. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal assessment of anti-PGL-I serology in contacts of leprosy patients in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    van der Zwet, Konrad; van Hooij, Anouk; Wilson, Louis; Oskam, Linda; Faber, Roel; van den Eeden, Susan J. F.; Pahan, David; Alam, Khorshed; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Geluk, Annemieke

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite elimination efforts, the number of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infected individuals who develop leprosy, is still substantial. Solid evidence exists that individuals living in close proximity to patients are at increased risk to develop leprosy. Early diagnosis of leprosy in endemic areas requires field-friendly tests that identify individuals at risk of developing the disease before clinical manifestation. Such assays will simultaneously contribute to reduction of current diagnostic delay as well as transmission. Antibody (Ab) levels directed against the M.leprae-specific phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) represents a surrogate marker for bacterial load. However, it is insufficiently defined whether anti-PGL-I antibodies can be utilized as prognostic biomarkers for disease in contacts. Particularly, in Bangladesh, where paucibacillary (PB) patients form the majority of leprosy cases, anti-PGL-I serology is an inadequate method for leprosy screening in contacts as a directive for prophylactic treatment. Methods Between 2002 and 2009, fingerstick blood from leprosy patients’ contacts without clinical signs of disease from a field-trial in Bangladesh was collected on filter paper at three time points covering six years of follow-up per person. Analysis of anti-PGL-I Ab levels for 25 contacts who developed leprosy during follow-up and 199 contacts who were not diagnosed with leprosy, was performed by ELISA after elution of bloodspots from filter paper. Results Anti-PGL-I Ab levels at intake did not significantly differ between contacts who developed leprosy during the study and those who remained free of disease. Moreover, anti-PGL-I serology was not prognostic in this population as no significant correlation was identified between anti-PGL-I Ab levels at intake and the onset of leprosy. Conclusion In this highly endemic population in Bangladesh, no association was observed between anti-PGL-I Ab levels and onset of disease, urging the need for an

  1. Mandatory communication training of all employees with patient contact.

    PubMed

    Ammentorp, Jette; Graugaard, Lars Toke; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Andersen, Troels Præst; Waidtløw, Karin; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2014-06-01

    In 2010 a communication program that included mandatory communication skills training for all employees with patient contact was developed and launched at a large regional hospital in Denmark. We describe the communication program, the implementation process, and the initial assessment of the process to date. The cornerstone of the program is a communication course based on the Calgary Cambridge Guide and on the experiences of several efficacy and effectiveness studies conducted at the same hospital. The specific elements of the program are described in steps and a preliminary assessment based on feedback from the departments will be presented. The elements of the communication program are as follows: (1) education of trainers; (2) courses for health professionals employed in clinical departments; (3) education of new staff; (4) courses for health professionals in service departments; and (5) maintenance of communication skills. Thus far, 70 of 86 staff have become certified trainers and 17 of 18 departments have been included in the program. Even though the communication program is resource-intensive and competes with several other development projects in the clinical departments, the experiences of the staff and the managers are positive and the program continues as planned. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Does contact by a family nurse practitioner decrease early school absence?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in nursing literature. This article describes a nursing intervention to decrease early school absence in two elementary schools K-3 (N = 449) and a Head Start program (N = 130). The Head Start Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) contacted families of chronically and excessively absent students by telephone, clinic visit at school, or home visit. The aggregate percentage attendance was evaluated by grades (preschool to third grade), schools (Head Start, Elementary Schools 1 and 2), and grades and schools and compared with publicly available school district aggregate data. There were statistically significant increases in attendance from Year 1 to Year 2 at p < .05 at the elementary level but not at the Head Start level. Student demographics, types of contacts, absence reasons (including sick child), and medical diagnoses are described.

  3. Early skin-to-skin contact after cesarean section: A randomized clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kollmann, Martina; Aldrian, Lisa; Scheuchenegger, Anna; Mautner, Eva; Herzog, Sereina A.; Urlesberger, Berndt; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Lang, Uwe; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Klaritsch, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early bonding by skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has been demonstrated to be beneficial for mothers and newborns following vaginal delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intraoperative bonding (early SSC) after cesarean section on neonatal adaptation, maternal pain and stress response. Study design This prospective, randomized-controlled pilot study was performed at a single academic tertiary hospital (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Graz, Austria) between September 2013 and January 2014. Women were randomly assigned to intraoperative (“early”) SCC (n = 17) versus postoperative (“late”) SCC (n = 18). Main variables investigated were neonatal transition (Apgar score, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate and temperature), maternal pain perception and both maternal and neonatal stress response by measuring the stress biomarkers salivary free cortisol and salivary alpha amylase. Results There was no evidence for differences in parameters reflecting neonatal transition or stress response between the ‘Early SSC Group’ and the ‘Late SSC Group’. Maternal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels as well as maternal wellbeing and pain did not differ between the groups. However, the rise of maternal salivary alpha-amylase directly after delivery was higher in the ‘Early SSC Group’ compared to the ‘Late SSC Group’ (p = 0.004). Conclusions This study did not reveal significant risks for the newborn in terms of neonatal transition when early SSC is applied in the operating room. Maternal condition and stress marker levels did not differ either, although the rise of maternal salivary alpha-amylase directly after delivery was higher in the ‘Early SSC Group’ compared to the ‘Late SSC Group’, which may indicate a stressor sign due to intensive activation of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary-system. This needs to be further evaluated in a larger prospective randomized trial. Trial

  4. Opening wedge trapezial osteotomy as possible treatment for early trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis: a biomechanical investigation of radial subluxation, contact area, and contact pressure.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Tahseen; Salas, Christina; Morrell, Nathan; Lansing, Letitia; Reda Taha, Mahmoud M; Mercer, Deana

    2012-04-01

    Radial subluxation and cartilage thinning have been associated with initiation and accelerated development of osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Few investigators have reported on the benefits of opening wedge trapezial osteotomy for altering the contact mechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint as a possible deterrent to the initiation or progression of osteoarthritis. We used cadaveric specimens to determine whether opening wedge osteotomy of the trapezium was successful in reducing radial subluxation of the metacarpal base and to quantify the contact area and pressure on the trapezial surface during simulated lateral pinch. We used 8 fresh-frozen specimens in this study. The flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, adductor pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, and flexor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis tendons were each loaded to simulate the thumb in lateral pinch position. We measured radial subluxation from anteroposterior radiographs before and after placement of a 15° wedge. We used real-time sensors to analyze contact pressure and contact area distribution on the trapezium. Center of force in the normal joint under lateral pinch loading was primarily located in the dorsal region of the trapezium. After wedge placement, contact pressure increased in the ulnar-dorsal region by 76%. Mean contact area increased in the ulnar-dorsal region from 0.05 to 0.07 cm(2), and in the ulnar-volar region from 0.003 to 0.024 cm(2). The average reduction in joint subluxation was 64%. The 15° opening wedge osteotomy of the trapezium reduced radial subluxation of the metacarpal on the trapezium and increased contact pressure and contact area away from the diseased compartments of the trapezial surface. Trapezial osteotomy addresses the 2 preeminent theories about the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. By reducing radial subluxation and altering contact pressure and contact area, trapezial osteotomy may prove an alternative to first

  5. Healthcare Industry Injuries by Patient Contact Status in Kentucky, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Ranzenberger, Kristen; Bunn, Terry L; Slavova, Svetla

    2016-10-01

    The healthcare industry continues to have a high number of reported injuries. The purpose of this study was to characterize healthcare industry injuries by patient contact status, identify the occupations associated with healthcare injuries by patient contact status, and determine healthcare injury rates by occupation to gain a better understanding of healthcare industry-compensated injuries and better target safety practices and programs in the healthcare industry. Kentucky healthcare industry workers' compensation first reports of injuries from calendar years 2012-2014 were categorized into injuries involved in direct patient contact versus injuries without direct patient contact using narrative text analysis. Injury numbers and rates were calculated for a number of data variables. Healthcare injuries without direct patient contact (55% of all first reports of injuries) occurred more frequently among older workers (45 years old and older [51%]), in "other" occupations such as housekeeping and maintenance (28%), and as a result of falls/slips/trips (39%) and sprains/tears (38%). In contrast, a higher percentage of healthcare injuries involving direct patient contact occurred among workers younger than 35 years (48%), in healthcare support occupations (50%), and resulting from sprains/tears (66%) and lifting/handling (52%), compared with those without direct patient contact. Findings from this study can better target the need for new and/or additional specific workplace safety training, especially in the healthcare support and nursing occupations with and without patient contact.

  6. Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Bergman, Nils; Anderson, Gene C; Medley, Nancy

    2016-11-25

    Mother-infant separation post birth is common. In standard hospital care, newborn infants are held wrapped or dressed in their mother's arms, placed in open cribs or under radiant warmers. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and should last continually until the end of the first breastfeeding. SSC involves placing the dried, naked baby prone on the mother's bare chest, often covered with a warm blanket. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neuro-behaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs. This time frame immediately post birth may represent a 'sensitive period' for programming future physiology and behavior. To assess the effects of immediate or early SSC for healthy newborn infants compared to standard contact on establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding and infant physiology. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (17 December 2015), made personal contact with trialists, consulted the bibliography on kangaroo mother care (KMC) maintained by Dr Susan Ludington, and reviewed reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized controlled trials that compared immediate or early SSC with usual hospital care. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We included 46 trials with 3850 women and their infants; 38 trials with 3472 women and infants contributed data to our analyses. Trials took place in 21 countries, and most recruited small samples (just 12 trials randomized more than 100 women). Eight trials included women who had SSC after cesarean birth. All infants recruited to trials were healthy, and the majority were full term. Six trials studied late preterm infants (greater than 35 weeks' gestation). No included trial met all criteria for good quality with respect to methodology and reporting

  7. [Persistent Perpetrator Contact in a Patient with Dissociative Identity Disorder].

    PubMed

    Tschöke, Stefan; Eisele, Frank; Steinert, Tilman

    2016-05-01

    The case of a young woman with still ongoing incest and forced prostitution is presented. The criteria for a dissociative identity disorder (DID) were met. Due to persistent contact to the perpetrator she was repeatedly revictimized. Based on the model of trauma-related dissociation we discuss to what extent she was capable of self-determined decision making as well as therapeutic consequences resulting therefrom. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Assessing patient and caregiver understanding of and satisfaction with the use of contact isolation.

    PubMed

    Chittick, Paul; Koppisetty, Shalini; Lombardo, Lia; Vadhavana, Akash; Solanki, Ashish; Cumming, Kristi; Agboto, Vincent; Karl, Cindy; Band, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Contact isolation is a method used for limiting the spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms when caring for patients. This policy has been linked to several adverse outcomes and less patient satisfaction. We assessed patient and caregiver understanding and satisfaction with the use of contact isolation. A prospective survey of >500 patients in contact isolation at our institution was performed during 2014. Participants responded to a series of statements relating to contact isolation, using a 5-point Likert scale. Responses were assessed for overall positivity or negativity and further compared according to floor type or designation. Of the patients, 48.7% responded to the survey; 70 caregivers also responded. Patient and caregiver responses were similar and were positive overall. Most respondents felt safer because of the use of contact isolation and because it prevented infections. A smaller majority of respondents also thought the policy was adequately explained to them and adhered to by staff. In the largest collection of respondents surveyed to date about contact isolation and its impact on them, the policy was viewed positively, both by patients and caregivers. There is still room for improvement in the area of patient education regarding the use of contact isolation. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of Contacts of Patients With Severe Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Torres, Rosângela Stadnick Lauth; dos Santos, Talita Zajac; Torres, Robson Antônio de Almeida; Petrini, Lygia Maria Coimbra de Manuel; Burger, Marion; Steer, Andrew C; Smeesters, Pierre R

    2016-03-01

    Conflicting recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for contacts of patients with invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection exist. Close contacts of patients with such severe and rapidly progressive disease often strongly appeal to the treating clinicians for antimicrobial treatment to prevent additional cases. We aimed to use an approach based on pharyngeal culture testing of contacts and targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. A large throat swab survey including 105 contacts was undertaken after a fulminant and fatal case of GAS necrotizing fasciitis. GAS strains were characterized by emm typing and antimicrobial susceptibility to 7 antibiotics. The presence of 30 virulence determinants was determined by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The GAS isolate recovered from the index patient was an M1T1 GAS clone susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. The same clone was present in the throat of 36% of close contacts who had exposure to the index patient (family households and classroom contacts) for >24 hours/week, whereas the strain was present in only 2% of the other contacts. Although the study does not allow firm conclusions to be drawn as to whether antibiotic prophylaxis is effective, we describe a practical approach, including an educational campaign and targeted antibiotic treatment to close contacts who have been exposed to an index patient for > 24 hours/week before the initial disease onset. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Contact Investigation in Households of Patients with Tuberculosis in Hanoi, Vietnam: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Gregory James; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Lien, Luu Thi; Cuong, Nguyen Kim; Britton, Warwick John; Marks, Guy Barrington

    2012-01-01

    Setting Existing tuberculosis control strategies in Vietnam are based on symptomatic patients attending health services for investigation. This approach has not resulted in substantial reductions in the prevalence of tuberculosis disease, despite the National Tuberculosis Program achieving high treatment completion rates. Alternative approaches are being considered. Objective To determine the feasibility and yield of contact investigation in households of patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among household members of tuberculosis patients in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods Household contacts of patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis were recruited at four urban and rural District Tuberculosis Units in Hanoi. Clinical and radiological screening was conducted at baseline, six months and 12 months. Sputum microscopy and culture was performed in contacts suspected of having tuberculosis. MIRU-VNTR molecular testing was used to compare the strains of patients and their contacts with disease. Results Among 545 household contacts of 212 patients, four were diagnosed with tuberculosis at baseline (prevalence 734 cases per 100,000 persons, 95% CI 17–1451) and one was diagnosed with tuberculosis during the subsequent 12 months after initial screening (incidence 180 cases per 100,000 person-years, 95% CI 44–131). Two of these cases were culture positive for M. tuberculosis and both had identical or near-identical MIRU-VNTR strain types. Conclusion Household contacts of patients with potentially infectious forms of tuberculosis have a high prevalence of disease. Household contact investigation is feasible in Vietnam. Further research is required to investigate its effectiveness. PMID:23166785

  11. Contact force monitoring during catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Krause, Ulrich; Backhoff, David; Klehs, Sophia; Schneider, Heike E; Paul, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of catheter contact force during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation has been shown to increase efficacy and safety. However, almost no data exists on the use of this technology in catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of contact force monitoring during catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in those patients. Catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia using monitoring of catheter contact force was performed in 28 patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Thirty-two patients matched according to gender, age, and body weight with congenital heart disease undergoing catheter ablation without contact force monitoring served as control group. Parameters reflecting acute procedural success, long-term efficacy, and safety were compared. Acute procedural success was statistically not different in both groups (contact force 93 % vs. control 84 %, p = 0.3). Likewise the recurrence rate 1 year after ablation as shown by Kaplan-Meier analysis did not differ (contact force 28 % vs. control 37 %, p = 0.63). Major complications were restricted to groin vessel injuries and occurred in 3 out of 60 patients (contact force n = 1; control n = 2). Complications related to excessive catheter contact force were not observed. The present study did not show superiority of catheter contact force monitoring during ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with CHD in terms of efficacy and safety. Higher contact force compared to pulmonary vein isolation might therefore be required to increase the efficacy of catheter ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia in patients with congenital heart disease.

  12. Incident Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in household contacts of infectious tuberculosis patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jones-López, Edward C; Acuña-Villaorduña, Carlos; Fregona, Geisa; Marques-Rodrigues, Patricia; White, Laura F; Hadad, David Jamil; Dutra-Molina, Lucilia Pereira; Vinhas, Solange; McIntosh, Avery I; Gaeddert, Mary; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Salgame, Padmini; Palaci, Moises; Alland, David; Ellner, Jerrold J; Dietze, Reynaldo

    2017-08-18

    In household contact investigations of tuberculosis (TB), a second tuberculin skin test (TST) obtained several weeks after a first negative result consistently identifies individuals that undergo TST conversion. It remains unclear whether this delay in M. tuberculosis infection is related to differences in the infectious exposure, TST boosting, partial host resistance, or some other factor. We conducted a household contact study Vitória, Brazil. Between 2008 and 2013, we identified culture-positive pulmonary TB patients and evaluated their household contacts with both a TST and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), and identified TST converters at 8-12 weeks post study enrollment. Contacts were classified as TST-positive (≥10 mm) at baseline, TST converters, or persistently TST-negative. We compared TST converters to TST-positive and to TST-negative contacts separately, using generalized estimating equations. We enrolled 160 index patients and 838 contacts; 523 (62.4%) were TST+, 62 (7.4%) TST converters, and 253 (30.2%) TST-. TST converters were frequently IGRA- at 8-12 weeks. In adjusted analyses, characteristics distinguishing TST converters from TST+ contacts (no contact with another TB patient and residence ownership) were different than those differentiating them from TST- contacts (stronger cough in index patient and contact BCG scar). The individual risk and timing of M. tuberculosis infection within households is variable and dependent on index patient, contact and environmental factors within the household, and the surrounding community. Our findings suggest a threshold effect in the risk of infection in humans.

  13. Hand hygiene compliance in patients under contact precautions and in the general hospital population.

    PubMed

    Almaguer-Leyva, Martín; Mendoza-Flores, Lidia; Medina-Torres, Ana Gabriela; Salinas-Caballero, Ana Gabriela; Vidaña-Amaro, Jose Antonio; Garza-Gonzalez, Elvira; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2013-11-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is the single most important intervention for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Contact precautions are a series of actions that infection control units take to reduce the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. We conducted an observational study of HH compliance. Observations were stratified as opportunities in patients under contact precautions and in the general hospital population. Trained infection control personnel performed all direct evaluations. A total of 3,270 opportunities were recorded. HH compliance was statistically higher in patients on contact precautions than in the overall population (70.3% vs 60.4%; P = .0001). Critical care areas had higher HH compliance when patients were isolated by contact precautions. Medical wards were statistically lower in HH when patients were under contact precautions. Respiratory technicians had the highest HH compliance in both overall performance and in patients under contact precautions. Medical students had a lower HH compliance in both evaluations (P < .001). We noted greater compliance with HH practices when patients were under contact precaution in comparison with the overall hospital population. The difference was stronger in intensive care areas and lower among medical students. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Council tax valuation band of patient residence and clinical contacts in a general practice

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Norman; Taylor, Gordon; Straker-Cook, Dawn; Peart, Carole; Gwynne, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of data relating UK general practice workload to personal and social markers of individual patients. Aim To test whether there is a significant association between general practice patient contact rates and the council tax valuation band of their residential address. Design of study Cross-sectional analyses using data recorded, over 1 year, for over 3300 general practice patients. Setting One medium-sized group practice in an industrialised English market town. Method Face-to-face contacts between the patients and the doctors and nurses in the practice were compared by patient age, sex, registration period, distance from surgery, Underprivileged Area 8 (UPA8) score, and council tax valuation band. Results Patient sex, age, recent registration, distance from surgery, and council tax valuation band were each significantly associated with face-to-face contact rate in univariate analyses. UPA8 score was not significantly associated with contact rates. On multivariate testing, sex, age, recent registration, and council tax valuation band remained significantly associated with contact rates. The last is a new finding. Conclusion Council tax valuation bands predict contact rate in general practice; the lower the band, the higher the contact rate. Council tax valuation band could be a useful marker of workload that is linked to socioeconomic status. This is a pilot study and multipractice research is advocated. PMID:15667763

  15. Leprosy exposure, infection and disease: a 25-year surveillance study of leprosy patient contacts.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Duppre, Nadia Cristina; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana Andréa; Nery, José Augusto; de Matos, Haroldo José

    2012-12-01

    Contact surveillance is a valuable strategy for controlling leprosy. A dynamic cohort study of leprosy contacts was initiated in 1987 at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. The objective of this work was to review the data on the major risk factors leading up to the infectious stage of the disease, estimate incidence rates of leprosy in the cohort and characterise the risk factors for the disease among the contacts under surveillance. The incidence rate of leprosy among contacts of leprosy patients was estimated at 0.01694 cases per person-year in the first five years of follow-up. The following factors were associated with acquiring the disease: (i) not receiving the BCG vaccine, (ii) a negative Mitsuda reaction and (iii) contact with a patient with a multibacillary clinical form of leprosy. The contacts of index patients who had high bacilloscopic index scores > 1 were at especially high risk of infection. The following factors were associated with infection, which was defined as a seropositive reaction for anti-phenolic glicolipid-1 IgM: (i) young age (< 20 years), (ii) a low measured Mitsuda reaction (< 5 mm) and (iii) contact with an index patient who had a high bacilloscopic index. BCG vaccination and re-vaccination were shown to be protective among household contacts. The main conclusions of this study indicate an urgent need for additional leprosy control strategies in areas with a high incidence of the disease.

  16. Daily patterns of communication and contact between Italian early adolescents and their friends.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Schneider, Barry H; Dalessio, Maria; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Coplan, Robert J; Koszycki, Diana; Flament, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore patterns of communication between adolescents and their friends across both "online" and "in-person" contexts. The participants were adolescents (n = 727) aged 11-16 years attending middle schools in urban and rural areas of Italy. Participants completed daily logs of their in-person and online contacts with friends for 20 consecutive school days. Girls reported more total contacts with their friends than did boys as well as friendships that were closer and more intimate. However, boys indicated more contact than girls via electronic communication and online. Contacts with peers in general were less frequent among the older participants, perhaps because of increasing academic demands. Participants who complemented in-person contact with friends with electronic contact were less lonely than their counterparts who were less versatile in accessing different modalities of making contact with friends.

  17. Patient-Doctor Contact Interval and Clinical Outcomes in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chunyan; Guo, Qunying; Lin, Jianxiong; Li, Jianying; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    The optimal patient-doctor contact (PDC) interval remains unknown in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim was to investigate the association between PDC interval and clinical outcomes in continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) patients. In this retrospective cohort study, CAPD patients who resided in Guangzhou city between January 2006 and December 2012 were included. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, all patients were classified as high (PDC interval ≤2 months) and low (PDC interval >2 months) PDC frequency groups. Biochemical data, clinical events, and clinical outcomes during the follow-up period were compared. Of 433 CAPD patients, the mean age was 51.3 ± 15.7 years, 54.3% of patients were male, and 29.1% with diabetes. The median vintage of PD was 45.8 (26.3-69.1) months. Patients with high PDC frequency (n = 233) had better patient-survival rates (99.6, 87.7, and 76.5% vs. 92.7, 76.5, and 58.7% at 1, 3, and 5 years; p < 0.001), lower peritonitis rate (0.17 vs. 0.23 episodes per patient-year; p < 0.001), and hospitalization rate (0.49 vs. 0.67 episodes per patient-year; p < 0.001) than those in the low PDC frequency group (n = 200). After adjustment for confounders, PDC interval of no more than 2 months was independently associated with better patient survival (hazard ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.86, p = 0.006). A PDC interval of 2 months or less was associated with better clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. This indicates that a shorter PDC interval should be encouraged for them to achieve better clinical outcomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Screening contacts of patients with extrapulmonary TB for latent TB infection.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Anna; Abbara, Aula; Williams, Sion; John, Laurence; Corrah, Tumena; McGregor, Alastair; Davidson, Robert N

    2018-03-01

    2016 TB National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines imply that contacts of extrapulmonary TB do not require screening for latent TB infection. At our high TB prevalence site, we identified 189 active cases of TB for whom there were 698 close contacts. 29.1% of the contacts of pulmonary TB and 10.7% of the contacts of extrapulmonary TB had active or latent TB infection. This supports screening contacts of extrapulmonary TB at our site and presents a way to access high-risk individuals. We propose to continue to screen the contacts of our patients with extrapulmonary TB and recommend other TB units audit their local results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. [Activities without patient contact : Estimate of time costs based on telephone interviews in eight psychiatric hospitals].

    PubMed

    Blume, A; Brückner-Bozetti, P; Steinert, T

    2018-04-20

    The aim of this pilot study was to estimate the share of working time that staff in psychiatric hospitals theoretically spend on obligatory activities, such as training and further education, organizational and documentation tasks as well as statutory lecturing duties without patient contact. A total of 47 physicians, 39 nurses, 34 psychologists and 35 social workers from eight psychiatric hospitals were interviewed. The results reveal that the theoretically remaining time for direct patient contact is low. The ratio of time spent with versus time spent without patient contact was even worse for senior physicians and leading nurses as well as part-time employees; however, all activities without direct contact to patients seemed to be indispensable in terms of quality of treatment and care. Hence, employees in German psychiatric hospitals regularly have to make decisions on which of their duties they prefer to neglect, to which they are actually obligated.

  20. Preferences for partner notification method: variation in responses between respondents as index patients and contacts.

    PubMed

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2007-07-01

    There have been very few studies focusing on what form of communication patients would find acceptable from a clinic. This study looks at the differences in preferences for various partner notification methods when the respondents were index patients compared with when they had to be contacted because a partner had a sexually transmitted infection (STI). There were 2544 respondents. When the clinic had to notify partners, respondents were more likely to report the method as good when a partner had an STI and they were being contacted compared with when the respondents had an infection and the partner was being contacted. The opposite was true for patient referral partner notification. Therefore, there are variations in the preferences of respondents for partner notification method, which depend on whether they see themselves as index patients or contacts.

  1. Reduction of plantar pressures in leprosy patients by using custom made shoes and total contact insoles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Simon Fuk-Tan; Chen, Carl P C; Lin, Shih-Cherng; Wu, Chih-Kuan; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Cheng, Shun-Ping

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe whether our custom made shoes and total contact insoles can effectively increase the plantar contact areas and reduce peak pressures in patients with leprosy. In the rehabilitation laboratory of a tertiary medical center. Six male and two female leprosy patients were recruited in this study. In this study, parameters related to foot pressures were compared between these patients wearing commercial available soft-lining kung-fu shoes and our custom made shoes with total contact insoles. The custom made shoes were made with larger toe box and were able to accommodate both the foot and the insoles. Custom made total contact insoles were made with the subtalar joints under neutral and non-weight-bearing positions. The insole force measurement system of Novel Pedar-X (Novel, Munich, Germany) was used to measure the plantar forces. The parameters of contact area (cm(2)), peak plantar pressures (kPa), contact time (s), and pressure time integral (kPa s) were measured. There were significant contact area increases in the right and left foot heel areas, left medial arch, and second to fifth toes after wearing the custom made shoes and insoles. There were significant decreases in peak plantar pressures in bilateral heels, left lateral midfoot, bilateral second to fourth metatarsal areas, and left fifth metatarsal head after wearing the custom made shoes and insoles (p<0.05). Plantar ulceration is a common serious disability in leprosy patients. As a result, footwear and measures able to reduce plantar pressures may be beneficial in preventing plantar ulcers from occurring in these patients. Our custom made shoes and total contact insoles were proven to be effective in increasing contact areas and decreasing peak pressures in plantar surfaces, and may therefore be a feasible treatment option in preventing leprosy patients from developing plantar ulcers. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of the frequency of allergens in cosmetics components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eliane Aparecida; Bosco, Marcia Regina Miras; Mozer, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to cosmetics is a common dermatosis, especially in adults and professionals who handle them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to cosmetics' components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis and to identify the main sensitizers related to occupational contact dermatitis. During the period of January 2008 to June 2010, all the patients with a presumptive diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics were selected. The patients were submitted to the patch tests of cosmetics series, composed by ten substances. Among the 147 patients studied sensitization to cosmetics components occurred in 31,29% of the cases, 14 of those (19,18%) equally corresponding to BHT and triethanolamine substances, 13 (17,81%) to ammonium thioglycolate, 09 to sorbic acid (12,33%), 08 to tosilamida (10,95%), 06 to germall (8,22%). The other elements tested showed indices of 5% or less. A higher frequency of contact dermatitis to cosmetics was observed in women and the age most affected was concordant with the age range of greatest professional activity of the population. Allergic contact dermatitis was more frequently associated with Triethanolamine, BHT and ammonium thioglycolate, and the relation with occupational contact dermatitis was discreet.

  3. Latent tuberculosis infection among close contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y-W; Shen, G-H; Lee, J-J; Yang, W-T

    2010-11-01

    Both the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) may be used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. A positive reaction to either test can indicate latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). These tests can be used to study the rate of infection in contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients. To evaluate the transmission status of MDR-TB patients in Taiwan by examining their close contacts and to compare the efficiency of TST and QFT-GIT. Chest radiographs, TST and QFT-GIT were performed in household contacts of confirmed MDR-TB patients to determine their infection status. A total of 78 close contacts of confirmed MDR-TB patients were included in the study. The majority of the MDR-TB patients were parents of the close contacts and lived in the same building; 46% of the subjects were TST-positive and 19% were QFT-GIT-positive, indicating LTBI that was likely to develop into active MDR-TB. There was a lack of consistency between TST and QFT-GIT results in subjects with previous bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination. Household contacts of MDR-TB patients are likely to develop LTBI; thus, follow-up and monitoring are mandatory to provide treatment and reduce the occurrence of active infection.

  4. Immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a Caesarean section: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeni; Schmied, Virginia; Burns, Elaine; Dahlen, Hannah

    2014-10-01

    The World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund recommends that mothers and newborns have skin-to-skin contact immediately after a vaginal birth, and as soon as the mother is alert and responsive after a Caesarean section. Skin-to-skin contact can be defined as placing a naked infant onto the bare chest of the mother. Caesarean birth is known to reduce initiation of breastfeeding, increase the length of time before the first breastfeed, reduce the incidence of exclusive breastfeeding, significantly delay the onset of lactation and increase the likelihood of supplementation. The aim of this review is to evaluate evidence on the facilitation of immediate (within minutes) or early (within 1 h) skin-to-skin contact following Caesarean section for healthy mothers and their healthy term newborns, and identify facilitators, barriers and associated maternal and newborn outcomes. A range of electronic databases were searched for papers reporting research findings published in English between January 2003 and October 2013. Seven papers met the criteria. This review has provided some evidence that with appropriate collaboration skin-to-skin contact during Caesarean surgery can be implemented. Further evidence was provided, albeit limited, that immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a Caesarean section may increase breastfeeding initiation, decrease time to the first breastfeed, reduce formula supplementation in hospital, increase bonding and maternal satisfaction, maintain the temperature of newborns and reduce newborn stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cosmetic Contact Sensitivity in Patients with Melasma: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Neel; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient's own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy. PMID:25132846

  6. Relationship between first treatment contact and supernatural beliefs in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Grover, S; Nebhinani, N; Chakrabarti, S; Shah, R; Avasthi, A

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between attribution of symptoms to supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital located in North India. METHODS. A total of 122 caregivers (aged ≥ 18 years, staying with patient ≥ 1 year and involved in patients' care) of consecutive patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (according to the ICD-10) were evaluated for their supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact. RESULTS. The first treatment contact was a government or private psychiatrist in slightly more than half (53.3%) of the patients, while it was faith healers in 23.8% of the patients. Around three quarters (74.6%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to ≥ 1 supernatural belief (like sorcery / witchcraft, ghosts, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary influences, evil spirits, and bad deeds in previous life) and more than half (57.4%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to > 1 supernatural belief. It was observed that those who contacted faith healers for their patients' treatment had significantly higher attribution of the symptoms to supernatural causes. CONCLUSIONS. Supernatural beliefs were common in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and the majority attributed their patients' symptoms to these beliefs. It signifies an urgent need for mental health literacy in India.

  7. Genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from household contacts of tuberculosis patients in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sia, Irene G; Buckwalter, Seanne P; Doerr, Kelly A; Lugos, Sonia; Kramer, Rebecca; Orillaza-Chi, Ruth; Quelapio, Maria Imelda; Tupasi, Thelma E; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2013-12-05

    The Philippines has an extremely high rate of tuberculosis but little is known about M. tuberculosis genotypes and transmission dynamics in this country. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of household contacts who develop active TB due to direct transmission from an index case in that household. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from household contacts of tuberculosis patients in the Philippines were characterized using restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis, spoligotyping, and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units - variable number tandem repeats typing (12-loci) to determine their utility in elucidating transmission in an area of high tuberculosis prevalence. Drug susceptibility patterns for these isolates were also determined. Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing results matched in 10 (62.5%) of 16 index patient-household contact pairs while IS6110 fingerprints matched in only six (37.5%) pairs. Only 3/16 (18.8%) index patient-household contact pairs had identical drug susceptibility results. Strain typing of M. tuberculosis isolates from household contacts in the Philippines indicates that transmission of strains does not necessarily occur directly from the index patient living in close proximity in the same household but rather that community-based transmission also frequently occurs. Accurate susceptibility testing of all isolates is necessary to insure optimal care of both the index patients and any culture-positive household contacts.

  8. Corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in contact lens discomfort patients.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Aysun Sanal; Gurdal, Canan; Arslan, Nese

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in patients with contact lens discomfort. The study included 3 groups of participants: Contact lens wearers using silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses who are symptomatic (CLD, n=15) or asymptomatic (ACL, n=11) and non-wearers as controls (n=14). Duration of contact lens wear, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire responses, fluorescein tear break-uptime (FBUT), and corneal confocal microscopy findings were recorded. Mean age was 25.7±8.2 years and male/female ratio was 7/33. Demographic findings were similar regarding the groups. CLD patients had a longer lens use history than ACL (median 5 vs 2 years, p<0.001). OSDI scores were higher in CLD group than ACL or controls (p<0.001, p=0.002). FBUT was significantly lowest in CLD group, compared to controls and ACL (p<0.001, p=0.039). FBUT was also lower in ACL patients compared to controls (p=0.036). There was no difference between basal epithelium cell counts between all 3 groups. Anterior stromal activated keratocyte numbers were similar between contact lens using groups but was lower in controls (p=0.005). However, dendritiform cells in the sub-basal nerve layer were higher in CLD group compared to controls but similar to ACL (p<0.001, p=0.058). Graded sub-basal nerve tortuosity was more prominent in CLD group than the ACL (p=0.014). Patients with CLD had been wearing contact lenses for longer than those without symptoms. OSDI and FBUT scores were worse in CLD patients. In contact lens discomfort patients, there were increased dendritiform cells, indicating intensified inflammatory status of the cornea. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shared patients: multiple health and social care contact.

    PubMed

    Keene, J; Swift, L; Bailey, S; Janacek, G

    2001-07-01

    The paper describes results from the 'Tracking Project', a new method for examining agency overlap, repeat service use and shared clients/patients amongst social and health care agencies in the community. This is the first project in this country to combine total population databases from a range of social, health care and criminal justice agencies to give a multidisciplinary database for one county (n = 97,162 cases), through standardised anonymisation of agency databases, using SOUNDEX, a software programme. A range of 20 community social and health care agencies were shown to have a large overlap with each other in a two-year period, indicating high proportions of shared patients/clients. Accident and Emergency is used as an example of major overlap: 16.2% (n = 39,992) of persons who attended a community agency had attended Accident and Emergency as compared to 8.2% (n = 775,000) of the total population of the county. Of these, 96% who had attended seven or more different community agencies had also attended Accident and Emergency. Further statistical analysis of Accident and Emergency attendance as a characteristic of community agency populations (n = 39,992) revealed that increasing frequency of attendance at Accident and Emergency was very strongly associated with increasing use of other services. That is, the patients that repeatedly attend Accident and Emergency are much more likely to attend more other agencies, indicating the possibility that they share more problematic or difficult patients. Research questions arising from these data are discussed and future research methods suggested in order to derive predictors from the database and develop screening instruments to identify multiple agency attenders for targeting or multidisciplinary working. It is suggested that Accident and Emergency attendance might serve as an important predictor of multiple agency attendance.

  10. The combined diagnosis of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in a retrospective cohort of 1000 consecutive patients with occupational contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis is an accepted subdiagnosis for hand dermatitis, and it is often considered in a patient with contact dermatitis, a positive and relevant patch test result, and wet work exposure. We therefore hypothesize that it is arbitrary for wet work exposure to be taken into consideration in a patient with newly diagnosed relevant contact allergy. Furthermore, an overestimation of the diagnosis will probably occur if the criteria for wet work exposure are applied correctly, as many occupations have an element of wet work. To find the statistically expected number of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis cases in 1000 patients, and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. One thousand consecutive patients with occupational contact dermatitis from a hospital unit in Denmark were assessed. The expected number of cases with the diagnosis of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was 0.33%, as compared with the observed number of 6.4%. Females occupied in wet occupations were often diagnosed with combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis (p < 0.005). The diagnosis of combined allergic and irritant contact dermatitis should be used critically to avoid misclassification, and possible criteria for the diagnosis are proposed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Psychosocial Vulnerability Among Patients Contacting a Norwegian Sexual Assault Center.

    PubMed

    Vik, Bjarte Frode; Nöttestad, Jim Aage; Schei, Berit; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Hagemann, Cecilie Therese

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the objective was to assess the occurrence of specific vulnerability factors among adult and adolescent females attending a Norwegian sexual assault center (SAC). We also explored assault characteristics and investigated whether these characteristics differed between the group of patients with vulnerability factors compared with the group without such factors. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 573 women ≥ 12 years of age attending the SAC at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010. A patient was considered vulnerable if at least one of the following features was present: intellectual or physical disability; history of present/former mental health problems; history of present/former alcohol/substance abuse; or former sexual assault. At least one vulnerability factor was present in 59% of the cases. More than one vulnerability factor was present in 29%. Reporting at least one vulnerability factor was associated with a higher patient age, unemployment, a higher frequency of reported light/moderate physical violence, and the documentation of minor body injury. In contrast, those without vulnerability more often were students assaulted during night time, by a casual or stranger assailant and reporting a higher intake of alcohol prior to the assault. There are obvious patterns of differences in the nature of sexual assaults reported among victims with specific vulnerability factors compared with victims without these factors. Future research should address these differences and possible solutions for better protection of especially vulnerable individuals against sexual offenses, such as those with mental health and substance abuse difficulties.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate in a Danish cohort of 259 selected patients.

    PubMed

    Lerbaek, Anne; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, Torkil

    2004-08-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate is present in many plants. Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate is well known but infrequently reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to allyl isothiocyanate in patients with suspected contact dermatitis from vegetables and food. 259 such patients were tested at the Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, Denmark, from 1994 to 2003. Only 2 patients (0.8%) had a positive reaction (+) to allyl isothiocyanate and 43 patients (16.6%) had a ?+ reaction. One of the patients with a positive reaction provided samples of margarine, salad cream, oil and mayonnaise. These were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography, and a moderate concentration of allyl isothiocyanate (2.5 ppm) was detected in the sample of margarine. This patient was a professional sandwich maker presenting with fingertip dermatitis mimicking 'tulip fingers' or allergic contact dermatitis from garlic and onions. In conclusion, allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate occurs in only a limited number of cases, despite frequent exposure. The large number of ?+ reactions raises the question as to whether the recommended patch test concentration is too low.

  13. Early local differentiation of the cell wall matrix defines the contact sites in lobed mesophyll cells of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Giannoutsou, E; Sotiriou, P; Apostolakos, P; Galatis, B

    2013-10-01

    The morphogenesis of lobed mesophyll cells (MCs) is highly controlled and coupled with intercellular space formation. Cortical microtubule rings define the number and the position of MC isthmi. This work investigated early events of MC morphogenesis, especially the mechanism defining the position of contacts between MCs. The distributions of plasmodesmata, the hemicelluloses callose and (1 → 3,1 → 4)-β-d-glucans (MLGs) and the pectin epitopes recognized by the 2F4, JIM5, JIM7 and LM6 antibodies were studied in the cell walls of Zea mays MCs. Matrix cell wall polysaccharides were immunolocalized in hand-made sections and in sections of material embedded in LR White resin. Callose was also localized using aniline blue in hand-made sections. Plasmodesmata distribution was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Before reorganization of the dispersed cortical microtubules into microtubule rings, particular bands of the longitudinal MC walls, where the MC contacts will form, locally differentiate by selective (1) deposition of callose and the pectin epitopes recognized by the 2F4, LM6, JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies, (2) degradation of MLGs and (3) formation of secondary plasmodesmata clusterings. This cell wall matrix differentiation persists in cell contacts of mature MCs. Simultaneously, the wall bands between those of future cell contacts differentiate with (1) deposition of local cell wall thickenings including cellulose microfibrils, (2) preferential presence of MLGs, (3) absence of callose and (4) transient presence of the pectins identified by the JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies. The wall areas between cell contacts expand determinately to form the cell isthmi and the cell lobes. The morphogenesis of lobed MCs is characterized by the early patterned differentiation of two distinct cell wall subdomains, defining the sites of the future MC contacts and of the future MC isthmi respectively. This patterned cell wall differentiation precedes cortical microtubule

  14. Arguments for zero tolerance of sexual contact between doctors and patients.

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, R M

    1999-01-01

    Some doctors do enter into sexual relationships with patients. These relationships can be damaging to the patient involved. One response available to both individual doctors and to disciplinary bodies is to prohibit sexual contact between doctors and patients ("zero tolerance"). This paper considers five ways of arguing for a zero tolerance policy. The first rests on an empirical claim that such contact is almost always harmful to the patient involved. The second is based on a "principles" approach while the third originates in "virtues" ethics. The fourth argues that zero tolerance is an "a priori" truth. These four attempt to establish that the behaviour is always wrong and ought, therefore, to be prohibited. The fifth argument is counterfactual. It claims a policy that allowed sexual contact would have unacceptable consequences. Given the responsibility of regulatory bodies to protect the public, zero tolerance is a natural policy to develop. PMID:10635503

  15. Illness perception and quality of life in patients with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Yael; Goner-Shilo, Daphna; Lazarov, Aneta

    2012-10-01

    People's subjective perceptions of illness are important determinants of their ways of coping with health threats and the ensuing physical and mental outcomes, including quality of life (QoL), which has been consistently reported to be impaired by contact dermatitis. To investigate the relationships of subjective illness perceptions and dermatological QoL in atopic, contact and occupational dermatitis patients and a comparison group of patients with other dermatological diseases. Three hundred and three patients of four diagnostic groups filled in the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Skindex-16 (+ occupational impact items) Dermatological QoL questionnaire before clinical examination and patch testing. Perceptions of serious consequences, greater symptom burden and more uncertainty and worry were associated with lower QoL (r(s) > 0.50). Overall, patients reported low personal control over their condition and low understanding of the disease (3.5 and 4.8, respectively, on a 0-10 scale). QoL was most impaired among occupational dermatitis patients (mean = 46) and least impaired among patients who were later diagnosed as suffering from conditions other than contact dermatitis (mean = 62). Identifying critical components of illness perceptions in patients with atopic, contact and occupational dermatitis may enable the design of consultations and interventions to fit patients' perceptions, which could affect their QoL. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Serum concentrations of metalloproteinase 2, metalloproteinase 9 and granzyme B in contact eczema patients

    PubMed Central

    Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Czajkowski, Rafał; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Contact eczema is a common skin condition with complex etiology, variable clinical presentation and lengthy therapy duration. The mechanism of contact eczema is complex, since it is affected by multiple inflammatory mediators. Aim To assess concentrations of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and granzyme B (GzmB) in patients with contact eczema. Material and methods Seventy patients with contact eczema and 30 healthy persons as controls were included in the study. In all subjects, MMP-2, MMP-9 and GzmB were determined using ELISA immunoassay. In study group patients, concentrations were assayed in periods of disease exacerbation and remission. Obtained results were analyzed statistically. Results Mean MMP-2 and GzmB concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. Mean MMP-2, MMP-9 and GzmB levels were also statistically significantly higher during skin lesion relapse compared to contact eczema remission periods. Conclusions The presented paper demonstrates that MMP-2, MMP-9 and GzmB are good markers of contact eczema exacerbations. PMID:24278051

  17. Contact allergy to preservatives in patients with occupational contact dermatitis and exposure analysis of preservatives in registered chemical products for occupational use.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate risk factors for sensitization to preservatives and to examine to which extent different preservatives are registered in chemical products for occupational use in Denmark. A retrospective epidemiological observational analysis of data from a university hospital was conducted. All patients had occupational contact dermatitis and were consecutively patch tested with 11 preservatives from the European baseline series and extended patch test series during a 5-year period: 2009-2013. Information regarding the same preservatives in chemical products for occupational use ('substances and materials') registered in the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) was obtained. The frequency of preservative contact allergy was 14.2% (n = 141) in 995 patients with occupational contact dermatitis. Patients with preservative contact allergy had significantly more frequently facial dermatitis (19.9 versus 13.1%) and age > 40 years (71.6 versus 45.8%) than patients without preservative contact allergy, whereas atopic dermatitis was less frequently observed (12.1 versus 19.8%). Preservative contact allergy was more frequent in painters with occupational contact dermatitis as compared to non-painters with occupational contact dermatitis (p < 0.001). This was mainly caused by contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone and contact allergy to formaldehyde. Analysis of the registered substances and materials in PROBAS revealed that preservatives occurred in several product categories, e.g., 'paints and varnishes', 'cleaning agents', 'cooling agents', and 'polishing agents'. Formaldehyde and isothiazolinones were extensively registered in PROBAS. The extensive use of formaldehyde and isothiazolinones in chemical products for occupational use may be problematic for the worker. Appropriate legislation, substitution, and employee education should be prioritized.

  18. Hand-touch contact assessment of high-touch and mutual-touch surfaces among healthcare workers, patients, and visitors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, V C C; Chau, P H; Lee, W M; Ho, S K Y; Lee, D W Y; So, S Y C; Wong, S C Y; Tai, J W M; Yuen, K Y

    2015-07-01

    Unlike direct contact with patients' body, hand hygiene practice is often neglected by healthcare workers (HCWs) and visitors after contact with patients' environment. Contact with hospital environmental items may increase risk of pathogen transmission. To enumerate the number of hand-touch contacts by patients, HCWs and visitors with any hospital environmental items. All contact-episodes between person and item were recorded by direct observation in a six-bed cubicle of acute wards for 33 working days. High-touch and mutual-touch items with high contact frequencies by HCWs, patients, and visitors were analysed. In total, 1107 person-episodes with 6144 contact-episodes were observed in 66 observation hours (average: 16.8 person-episodes and 93.1 contact-episodes per hour). Eight of the top 10 high-touch items, including bedside rails, bedside tables, patients' bodies, patients' files, linen, bed curtains, bed frames, and lockers were mutually touched by HCWs, patients, and visitors. Bedside rails topped the list with 13.6 contact-episodes per hour (mean), followed by bedside tables (12.3 contact-episodes per hour). Using patients' body contacts as a reference, it was found that medical staff and nursing staff contacted bedside tables [rate ratio (RR): 1.741, 1.427, respectively] and patients' files (RR: 1.358, 1.324, respectively) more than patients' bodies, and nursing staff also contacted bedside rails (RR: 1.490) more than patients' bodies. Patients' surroundings may be links in the transmission of nosocomial infections because many are frequently touched and mutually contacted by HCWs, patients, and visitors. Therefore, the focus of hand hygiene education, environmental disinfection, and other system changes should be enhanced with respect to high-touch and mutual-touch items. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early nutritional support in severe traumatic patients.

    PubMed

    Chuntrasakul, C; Siltharm, S; Chinswangwatanakul, V; Pongprasobchai, T; Chockvivatanavanit, S; Bunnak, A

    1996-01-01

    Multiple trauma is associated with altered metabolism, wasting of the lean body mass and compromised wound healing. Nutritional support is one way to improve the condition of these critically ill patients. We performed a prospective randomized study on the effect of early nutritional support in severely injured patients admitted to the Division of Traumatic Surgery, Siriraj Hospital between June 1992 and January 1994. Thirty-eight severe traumatic patients with ISS between 20-40 were randomly divided into control and study group. The 17 patients in the control group were treated in the conventional method with administration of hypo caloric intravenous regimen and supplement with oral diet as soon as the bowel function was returned. The 21 patients of the study group were fed either by enteral or parenteral feeding or both with an appropriate caloric and protein requirement as soon as hemodynamic status was stabilized. We found the study group had a lower mortality rate, a lower complication rate, a shorter period of ICU stay, and an earlier weaning from the ventilator than the control group. The study group also lost less weight than the control group. Nitrogen balance in the study group was significantly lower than the control group.

  20. IgE antibody on worn highly oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogel contact lenses from patients with contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenjun; Fu, Han; Skotnitsky, Cheryl C; Sankaridurg, Padmaja R; Willcox, Mark D P

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether the level of IgE is increased in the eyes of patients during general contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC) events, which involve enlarged papillae across the entire palpebral conjunctiva, or local CLPC events, in which papillae are confined to one or two parts of the area. Worn contact lenses were collected and soaked in phosphate-buffered saline. The levels of eluted IgE and IgE retained on contact lenses were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgE was detected in 6 of 12 cases of general CLPC, 8 of 21 cases of local CLPC, and none of 14 control contact lenses. The average level of eluted IgE was 0.54 +/- 1.06 IU/contact lens, 0.28 +/- 0.54 IU/contact lens, and 0.04 +/- 0.06 IU/contact lens for general CLPC, local CLPC, and the control group, respectively. The incidences of positive IgE were significantly higher in patients with CLPC (general and local) than in control subjects, but no statistical difference was found between general and local CLPC. Generally higher amounts of retained IgE were detected on contact lenses that had increased levels of eluted IgE. Contact lenses that were collected before or after a CLPC event did not show increased levels of IgE. The level of IgE is increased in the eyes of some patients during an acute event of CLPC. The similar incidence of IgE-positive cases and levels of IgE from general and local CLPC contact lenses suggest that the conditions may share similar causal pathways.

  1. Motives that head and neck cancer patients have for contacting a specialist nurse - an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Salander, Pär; Isaksson, Joakim; Granström, Brith; Laurell, Göran

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematically explore the motives for patients with head and neck cancer to contact a specialist nurse during two years postdiagnosis. Research focusing on the role of specialist nurses in cancer care almost exclusively concern cancers other than head and neck cancer. Qualitative, descriptive study based on the contacts between patients with head and neck cancer and a specialist nurse. Patients were invited to contact a specialist nurse by telephone. The specialist nurse took systematic field notes, that is, she registered who contacted her, the nature of the call and the outcome. Sixty patients were included. In descending order, the motives for contact were questions about practical and uncomplicated matters, consultations about medical troubles/worries, presenting a report of the patient's situation, requests for additional information about the treatment plan and requests for medical information. The pattern of the patients' motivations for calling was not related to medical or social factors, suggesting that the initiative to make contact is very much a question of the complexity of individual life circumstances. Very few referrals were sent from the specialist nurse to other professionals. The specialist nurse turned out to be more than just a coordinator of health-care resources. The findings bring up questions about the potential of the nurse's function as a coordinator, but also as a potential attachment figure, and questions about the nurse's relationships to other professionals. When implementing a specialist nurse function, it is important to decide whether the function should be inspired by a broader relational perspective. In addition to the indispensible competence and experience in the clinical field of head and neck cancer, training in counselling and acquaintance with object-relational psychology will then be desirable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Practitioner Perceptions of Patients Wearing Decorative Contact Lenses Purchased Through Unauthorized Sellers.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, Hilary; Ho, Connie; Janier, Nicole; Wee, Amy; Johnson, Catherine; Watanabe, Ronald

    2017-03-01

    To describe practitioner experiences regarding ocular complications in patients wearing decorative contact lenses, and to investigate the compliance of unauthorized distributors of decorative contact lenses to current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations. Also, to provide data to support a more targeted public health approach to reducing the incidence of illegal contact lens sales and associated ocular complications. An institutional review board-approved online survey was distributed through mass email to a list of 98 optometrists in the Boston, MA area. Concurrently, an empirical evaluation of independent, online decorative contact lens sellers who were not associated with FDA-approved contact lens manufacturers was performed to determine their adherence to FDA and FTC guidelines. The first 18 noncoincidental websites that resulted from a Google search for "costume contact lens sellers" and "cosmetic contact lens sellers" were examined as to the brands and parameters of lenses being sold, whether or not a valid prescription was required or verified, and if consumer education was provided. Twenty-two optometrists completed the online survey. Seventy-seven percent of respondents reported having patients with complications from decorative contact lenses that were purchased both legally and illegally. The most common age group for complications was 18 to 25 years (61%). One third of complications were seen in first-time lens wearers, half of whom never received proper care instructions or were unaware that care instructions existed. One quarter of the lenses were purchased illegally with unlicensed stores being the most common place of purchase. Of the 18 online sites examined, 72% of sellers failed to adhere to FTC and FDA regulations. A significant number of individuals who obtain contact lenses illegally from unauthorized sources are young adults. Most unauthorized sellers reviewed did not adhere to the proper protocol

  3. Polymicrobial and microsporidial keratitis in a patient using Boston scleral contact lens for Sjogren's syndrome and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Merle; Sharma, Savitri

    2013-04-01

    To report a rare case of microsporidial and polymicrobial keratitis in a patient with Sjogren's syndrome and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. This is a descriptive case report. A 66-year-old lady diagnosed with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) presented to us with microbial keratitis after using a Boston sclera contact lens for a painful epithelial defect. After 9 days of medical treatment, she underwent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. 10% potassium hydroxide and calcofluor white wet mount revealed microsporidial spores. Gram positive cocci and Gram variable bacilli on Gram stain were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium accolens in culture. Histopathological examination of the corneal tissue confirmed the presence of microsporidial spores. Microsporidal keratitis can occur in patients with severe ocular surface disease due to SS and OCP. Predisposing factors include dry eye, local and systemic immunosuppression and Boston scleral contact lens. Early surgical intervention may be needed to eradicate the infection. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Physical Contact and Association in Early Contamination Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken; Belk, Amy

    1994-01-01

    Children were asked whether someone would get sick from drinking juice placed near a bug. Some preschoolers and most seven- and eight-year olds recognized the need for physical contact with the bug to make the juice noxious, whereas some believed the mere presence of a contaminant made it noxious. Thus, associational contamination sometimes plays…

  5. Effect of the meniscus contact angle during early regimes of spontaneous imbibition in nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Karna, Nabin Kumar; Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens H; Zambrano, Harvey A

    2016-11-30

    Nanoscale capillarity has been extensively investigated; nevertheless, many fundamental questions remain open. In spontaneous imbibition, the classical Lucas-Washburn equation predicts a singularity as the fluid enters the channel consisting of an anomalous infinite velocity of the capillary meniscus. Bosanquet's equation overcomes this problem by taking into account fluid inertia predicting an initial imbibition regime with constant velocity. Nevertheless, the initial constant velocity as predicted by Bosanquet's equation is much greater than those observed experimentally. In the present study, large scale atomistic simulations are conducted to investigate capillary imbibition of water in slit silica nanochannels with heights between 4 and 18 nm. We find that the meniscus contact angle remains constant during the inertial regime and its value depends on the height of the channel. We also find that the meniscus velocity computed at the channel entrance is related to the particular value of the meniscus contact angle. Moreover, during the subsequent visco-inertial regime, as the influence of viscosity increases, the meniscus contact angle is found to be time dependent for all the channels under study. Furthermore, we propose an expression for the time evolution of the dynamic contact angle in nanochannels which, when incorporated into Bosanquet's equation, satisfactorily explains the initial capillary rise.

  6. Contact Aspiration Versus Stent Retriever in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke With M2 Occlusion in the ASTER Randomized Trial (Contact Aspiration Versus Stent Retriever for Successful Revascularization).

    PubMed

    Gory, Benjamin; Lapergue, Bertrand; Blanc, Raphael; Labreuche, Julien; Ben Machaa, Malek; Duhamel, Alain; Marnat, Gautier; Saleme, Suzana; Costalat, Vincent; Bracard, Serge; Desal, Hubert; Mazighi, Mikael; Consoli, Arturo; Piotin, Michel

    2018-02-01

    Middle cerebral artery M2-segment occlusions represent an important subgroup of patients with acute stroke with large-vessel occlusion. The safety of mechanical thrombectomy, especially contact aspiration (CA), in such distal intracranial occlusions is still under debate. We compared reperfusion, adverse events, neurological recovery, and functional outcome of patients with isolated M2 occlusions according to the first-line strategy mechanical thrombectomy devices (CA versus stent retriever [SR]). This is a post hoc analysis of the ASTER trial (Contact Aspiration Versus Stent Retriever for Successful Revascularization). The primary outcome was successful reperfusion at the end of all endovascular procedures, defined as modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) scores 2b/3. Secondary outcomes were mTICI 2c/3 and mTICI 3, 90-day functional outcome, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale score. Safety outcomes included 90-day mortality and any symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Seventy-nine patients were included: 48 were allocated to the CA group and 31 to the SR group. There were no significant differences between CA and SR groups in reperfusion after all endovascular procedures regarding mTICI 2b/3 (89.6% versus 83.9%; P =0.36), mTICI 2c/3 (54.2% versus 54.8%; P =0.90), and mTICI 3 (35.4% versus 41.9%; P =0.36) rates. There were no significant differences between CA and SR groups in 90-day modified Rankin Scale ≤2 rate (54.4% versus 50.0%; P =0.84), 24-hour change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (mean difference, -3.9; 95% confidence interval, -7.9 to 0.01), and Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography score (mean difference, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 2.0) scores. Safety parameters were well balanced between the 2 groups except for a higher 90-day mortality rate in the CA group (19.6% versus 3.3%; P =0.078). First-line mechanical thrombectomy with CA compared with SR did not result in an increased successful

  7. Investigation of household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients increases case detection in Mwanza City, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Beyanga, Medard; Kidenya, Benson R; Gerwing-Adima, Lisa; Ochodo, Eleanor; Mshana, Stephen E; Kasang, Christa

    2018-03-06

    ], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-8.0; p = 0.012) and consuming less than three meals a day (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.7; p = 0.009). Our data suggest that in Mwanza, Tanzania, seven in 100 contacts living in the same house with a TB patient develop bacteriologically-confirmed pulmonary TB. These results therefore underscore the need to implement routine TB contact tracing to control tuberculosis in high TB burden countries such as Tanzania.

  8. Development of a risk assessment tool for contact tracing people after contact with infectious patients while travelling by bus or other public ground transport: a Delphi consensus approach

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Oliver; Hermes, Julia; Schink, Susanne B; Askar, Mona; Menucci, Daniel; Swaan, Corien; Goetsch, Udo; Monk, Philip; Eckmanns, Tim; Poggensee, Gabriele; Krause, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Background Tracing persons who have been in contact with an infectious patient may be very effective in preventing the spread of communicable diseases. However, criteria to decide when to conduct contact tracing are not well established. We have investigated the available evidence for contact tracing with a focus on public ground transport aiming to give guidance in what situations contact tracing should be considered. Methods Relevant infectious diseases suitable for contact tracing in ground transport and a set of disease-specific epidemiological criteria were defined through literature search and structured multistep expert consultations. We developed continuous scales for each criterion to be rated for its relevance to contact tracing in ground transport. We used the Delphi method with an international expert panel to position the values of criteria on the respective scales. Results The study led to the development of the ‘Contact Tracing-Risk Assessment Profile’ (CT-RAP), a decision-making instrument, taking into account pathogen-specific as well as situation-specific criteria. This report describes the methodology of this instrument and presents two examples of ready-to-use CT-RAP for tuberculosis and for meningococcal disease in public ground transport. Discussion The systematic and transparent use of the CT-RAP for tuberculosis and meningococcal disease is likely to facilitate reasonable, efficient and user-friendly decisions with respect to contact tracing. New CT-RAPs for additional pathogens and different settings such as schools and kindergartens are being planned. PMID:24157815

  9. Cost-of-illness of patients with contact dermatitis in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Saetterstrøm, Bjørn; Olsen, Jens; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-09-01

    Contact dermatitis is a frequent occupational and non-occupational skin disease. To investigate the effects of contact dermatitis on labour market affiliation and societal costs in terms of healthcare costs and production loss. A total of 21 441 patients patch tested either in hospital departments or at dermatological clinics in the period 2004-2009 were included in the study. The analyses were stratified by children (age 0-15 years), occupational contact dermatitis (age 16-65 years), and non-occupational dermatitis (age ≥ 16 years). Controls were selected from a 30% random sample of the population. Individual encrypted data were retrieved on healthcare utilization, socio-demographics, education, labour market affiliation and transfer payments from public registers in Denmark for cases and controls. Attributable healthcare costs for 4 years prior to patch testing (1 year for children) and the year after patch testing were €959 for children, €724 for occupational contact dermatitis, and €1794 for non-occupational dermatitis. Productivity costs for the same period were €10 722 for occupational contact dermatitis and €3074 for non-occupational contact dermatitis. The main findings of this study were that there were statistically significant attributable healthcare costs for both children and adults, and statistically significant productivity loss for adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Decision support system for determining the contact lens for refractive errors patients with classification ID3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situmorang, B. H.; Setiawan, M. P.; Tosida, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    Refractive errors are abnormalities of the refraction of light so that the shadows do not focus precisely on the retina resulting in blurred vision [1]. Refractive errors causing the patient should wear glasses or contact lenses in order eyesight returned to normal. The use of glasses or contact lenses in a person will be different from others, it is influenced by patient age, the amount of tear production, vision prescription, and astigmatic. Because the eye is one organ of the human body is very important to see, then the accuracy in determining glasses or contact lenses which will be used is required. This research aims to develop a decision support system that can produce output on the right contact lenses for refractive errors patients with a value of 100% accuracy. Iterative Dichotomize Three (ID3) classification methods will generate gain and entropy values of attributes that include code sample data, age of the patient, astigmatic, the ratio of tear production, vision prescription, and classes that will affect the outcome of the decision tree. The eye specialist test result for the training data obtained the accuracy rate of 96.7% and an error rate of 3.3%, the result test using confusion matrix obtained the accuracy rate of 96.1% and an error rate of 3.1%; for the data testing obtained accuracy rate of 100% and an error rate of 0.

  11. Walking patterns and hip contact forces in patients with hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Skalshøi, Ole; Iversen, Christian Hauskov; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Jacobsen, Julie; Mechlenburg, Inger; Søballe, Kjeld; Sørensen, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have investigated walking characteristics in hip dysplasia patients, but so far none have described all hip rotational degrees of freedom during the whole gait cycle. This descriptive study reports 3D joint angles and torques, and furthermore extends previous studies with muscle and joint contact forces in 32 hip dysplasia patients and 32 matching controls. 3D motion capture data from walking and standing trials were analysed. Hip, knee, ankle and pelvis angles were calculated with inverse kinematics for both standing and walking trials. Hip, knee and ankle torques were calculated with inverse dynamics, while hip muscle and joint contact forces were calculated with static optimisation for the walking trials. No differences were found between the two groups while standing. While walking, patients showed decreased hip extension, increased ankle pronation and increased hip abduction and external rotation torques. Furthermore, hip muscle forces were generally lower and shifted to more posteriorly situated muscles, while the hip joint contact force was lower and directed more superiorly. During walking, patients showed lower and more superiorly directed hip joint contact force, which might alleviate pain from an antero-superiorly degenerated joint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contact allergy in patients with rosacea: a clinic-based, prospective epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Jappe, U; Schäfer, T; Schnuch, A; Uter, W

    2008-11-01

    Rosacea is a relatively common inflammatory skin disease of unknown prevalence. The proportion of contact allergy complicating rosacea and its therapy, respectively, is largely unknown. To estimate the prevalence of specific contact allergy in rosacea patients and to compare this with the prevalence observed in the general population and in general patch test patients. In this prospective monocentre study, 78 patients with rosacea were investigated for contact sensitizations via patch testing the standard series, constituents of topical formulations, preservatives, fragrances, topically applied drugs and, if available, patient's own products. Positive reactions occurred to nickel (II) sulphate (12 of 78, 15.4%), fragrance mix I (4 of 77, 5.2%), balsam of Peru (8 of 77, 10.4%; significantly elevated prevalence compared to that observed in the population-based KORA study), potassium dichromate (4 of 78, 5.1%) and Lyral (3 of 78, 3.8%). Regarding topical antibiotics, only 1 of 78 (1.3%) patients was positive to neomycin sulphate, and none to metronidazole; however, 6 of 75 (8%) patients were positive to gentamicin sulphate, and 4 of 76 (5.3%) patients were positive to framycetin sulphate. No allergic but irritant patch test reactions, instead, were provoked by various patients' own products as well as by the irritant sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) even in low concentrations. Despite the limited power of the study, a strikingly high prevalence of contact allergy to gentamicin sulphate was observed, which is probably due to antibiotic treatment of rosacea-associated eye symptoms. The reactions to the irritant SLS probably mirror the extreme skin sensitivity in rosacea.

  13. Contacts with out-of-hours primary care for nonurgent problems: patients' beliefs or deficiencies in healthcare?

    PubMed

    Keizer, Ellen; Smits, Marleen; Peters, Yvonne; Huibers, Linda; Giesen, Paul; Wensing, Michel

    2015-10-28

    In the Netherlands, about half of the patient contacts with a general practitioner (GP) cooperative are nonurgent from a medical perspective. A part of these problems can wait until office hours or can be managed by the patient himself without further professional care. However, from the patient's perspective, there may be a need to contact a physician immediately. Our objective was to determine whether contacts with out-of-hours primary care made by patients with nonurgent problems are the result of patients' beliefs or of deficiencies in the healthcare system. We performed a survey among 2000 patients with nonurgent health problems in four GP cooperatives in the Netherlands. Two GPs independently judged the medical necessity of the contacts of all patients in this study. We examined characteristics, views and motives of patients with medically necessary contacts and those without medically necessary contacts. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the characteristics, views and reasons of the patients with medically unnecessary contacts and medically necessary contacts. Differences between these groups were tested with chi-square tests. The response rate was 32.3 % (N = 646). Of the nonurgent contacts 30.4 % were judged as medically necessary (95 % CI 27.0-34.2). Compared to patients with nonurgent but medically necessary contacts, patients with medically unnecessary contacts were younger and were more often frequent attenders. They had longer-existing problems, lower self-assessed urgency, and more often believed GP cooperatives are intended for all help requests. Worry was the most frequently mentioned motive for contacting a GP cooperative for patients with a medically unnecessary contact (45.3 %) and a perceived need to see a GP for patients with a medically necessary contact (44.2 %). Perceived availability (5.8 %) and accessibility (8.3 %) of a patient's own GP played a role for some patients. Motives for contacting a GP cooperative are mostly

  14. Silicone hydrogel mini-scleral contact lenses in early stage after corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Severinsky, Boris; Wajnsztajn, Denise; Frucht-Pery, Joseph

    2013-11-01

     The aim was to the evaluate performance of a novel silicone hydrogel mini-scleral contact lens (SHmS) for optical correction of keratoconus in the early stages after the corneal collagen cross-linking procedure (CXL).  We retrospectively analysed the visual acuity improvement and corneal adaptation in the first 10 eyes of nine patients fitted with SHmS lenses one to 3.5 months after corneal collagen cross-linking. The lenses were designed to rest over the patients' sclera and peri-limbal cornea and vault the central cornea with minimal support over it. Visual acuities with manifest refraction and contact lenses, refractive and topographical values (Kmin and Kmax) were evaluated on lens dispensing and after six month of lens wearing. Ocular physiological responses were evaluated using the Institute of Eye Research (IER) grading scales.  SHmS fitting was performed 2.1 ± 0.97 (SD) months after collagen cross-linking. Mean follow up was 10.9 ± 4.41 months (range six to 18 months). Mean decimal visual acuity with SHmS was 0.66 ± 0.22 (approximately 6/9 Snellen fraction, range 0.3 to 0.1) or 0.75 ± 0.14 (approximately 6/8.1, range 0.5 to 1.0), when omitting two amblyopic eyes. Nine (90 per cent) eyes were successfully fitted, that is, able to wear the lenses for 10 hours per day or longer. Mean wearing time was 11.7 hours (range six to 14) per day. No corneal neovascularisation or papillary reaction was found in all fitted eyes.  SHmS contact lenses provide successful visual rehabilitation shortly after corneal collagen cross-linking. This new soft contact lens design with scleral fixation and minimal apical touch was demonstrated to be safe shortly after collagen cross-linking, as the avoidance of contact with the treated zone minimises contact lens influence on corneal recovery. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  15. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in the Podlasie region

    PubMed Central

    Bacharewicz, Joanna; Pawłoś, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to provide current data on the incidence of allergy to various contact allergens in patients with allergic contact eczema and the analysis of selected socio-demographic data of the patients. Material and methods The study included 1532 patients (1010 women and 522 men) treated for allergic contact dermatitis at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok in 2007–2011. The assessment of selected demographic data and skin lesions was based on the MOAHFLA index, while the results of patch tests were analyzed with modified Baseline European Series consisting of 31 allergens. Results In the group of patients with eczema, 34.1% were men, and 55% of all respondents were people over 40 years of age. The occupational character of skin lesions was found in 22.5%. Most frequently (38.9%) skin lesions were localized on the hands, rarely involved legs (3.98%). Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 4.5% of patients. The ten most frequent allergens were: nickel sulfate (24%), cobalt chloride (15.3%), fragrance mix (8.25%), potassium dichromate (6.8%), balsam of Peru (5.5%), neomycin (4.42%), paraphenylenediamine (3.85%), Quatermium-15 (2.1%), detreomycin (1.83%) and budesonide (1.44% of tested patients). Conclusions Frequent allergy to detreomycin indicates the need of patch testing for this allergen of all examined patients with allergic contact dermatitis. The increased frequency of the nickel allergy is a worrying problem and indicates the need for education about the risk factors for nickel allergy development and the implementation of appropriate legal regulations. PMID:24493997

  16. WW Geminorum: An Early B-type Eclipsing Binary Evolving into the Contact Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Yang, Y.; Dai, H.-F.; Yin, X.-G.

    2014-11-01

    WW Gem is a B-type eclipsing binary with a period of 1.2378 days. The CCD photometry of this binary was performed in 2013 December using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Stations of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated W-D program, the photometric model was deduced from the VRI light curves. The results imply that WW Gem is a near-contact eclipsing binary whose primary component almost fills its Roche lobe. The photometric mass ratio is q ph = 0.48(± 0.05). All collected times of minimum light, including two new ones, were used for the period studies. The orbital period changes of WW Gem could be described by an upward parabola, possibly overlaid by a light-time orbit with a period of P mod = 7.41(± 0.04) yr and a semi-amplitude of A = 0.0079 days(± 0.0005 days), respectively. This kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to the light-travel time effect via the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.47(±0.04) × 10-8 day yr-1, which may be explained by the conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transfer, the massive binary WW Gem may be evolving into a contact binary.

  17. Acceptability of chemoprophylaxis for household contacts of leprosy patients in Bangladesh: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Sabiena G; Nahar, Quamrun; Pahan, David; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2011-06-01

    Chemoprophylaxis with single dose rifampicin is a promising intervention to prevent leprosy in close contacts of patients. However, application in control programmes often requires disclosure of the leprosy diagnosis, which is still a stigmatised disease in many countries. Promoting control and treatment of stigmatised diseases without contributing towards stigma of the individuals involved can be very difficult. The objective of this study was to assess the social acceptability of disclosure of the diagnosis and the attitude towards taking prophylactic medicines in a leprosy endemic area in Bangladesh. Qualitative study through focus group discussions with 136 healthy men and women from different age groups and religions, coming from two rural villages and an urban area in northwest Bangladesh, and 14 health workers with extensive experience with leprosy patients. The participants would not object to disclosure of the diagnosis to household members and nearby family if they were diagnosed with leprosy. However, many participants were not willing to share this information with their neighbours and other social contacts due to stigma of the disease. All healthy participants were willing to take chemoprophylaxis if any of their close contacts were diagnosed with leprosy, even after explaining that full protection against leprosy was not guaranteed. It can be concluded that chemoprophylaxis for household contacts of leprosy patients is an effective and socially acceptable addition to the current leprosy control programme. Chemoprophylaxis for other categories of contacts likely to benefit would only be feasible, without disclosure of patient information, if given in the form of mass campaigns for the whole population in the area.

  18. Does Contact by a Family Nurse Practitioner Decrease Early School Absence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in…

  19. The Risk of Depressive Disorder Among Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in a TB-endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sheng-Wei; Yen, Yung-Feng; Feng, Jia-Yih; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Kou, Yu Ru; Su, Wei-Juin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) disease may be transmitted to close contacts of index cases, causing physical illness. No studies have investigated the risk of developing depressive disorder among TB contacts in a TB-endemic area. Adult participants with a new diagnosis of TB contact (ICD-9-CM codes V01.1 plus chest radiographic order) since January 1, 2008, were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A control cohort matched for age (±5 y), sex, enrolled years, and income level was selected. These 2 cohorts were followed until December 31, 2012, and observed for the development of depressive disorder. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to examine the difference in cumulative incidences of depressive disorder between groups. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for depressive disorder. The TB contact cohort consisted of 9046 patients and matched controls of 36,184 ones. The mean age of TB contacts was 44.7 years, and 56.0% of them were women. During a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years, 127 (1.40%) TB contacts and 521 (1.44%) matched controls developed depressive disorder. TB exposure was found to be an independent risk factor of depressive disorder in women (aHR 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.68), but not in men (aHR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.06) after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and income levels. The risk of depression was significantly higher for female TB contacts than for matched controls in the first and second years (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03–2.14; and aHR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.23, respectively), but not thereafter. Of note, 67 (0.74%) TB contacts and 88 (0.24%) matched controls developed active TB, but none of them had subsequent depressive disorder during follow-up periods. Female TB contacts had an increased risk of depression within the first 2 years after exposure. Clinicians should consider conducting depression evaluations in addition to

  20. The Evaluation of Contact Sensitivity with Standard and Cosmetic Patch Test Series in Rosacea Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Bilgin, Muzaffer

    2018-01-01

    Background Rosacea is a common dermatosis characterized by erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Objective We aimed to evaluate contact sensitivity in the rosacea patients. Methods We included 65 rosacea patients and 60 healthy volunteers in the study. The patient and control groups were patch tested with European baseline series and cosmetic series. Results A positive reaction to at least 1 allergen in the European standard series was found in 32.3% of rosacea patients and 20.0% of subjects in the control group while the relevant numbers were 30.8% of rosacea patients and 10% of controls with the cosmetic series (p=0.08). In total, we found a positive reaction to at least 1 allergen in 38.5% of patients and 25.0% of controls (p=0.15). We did not find a statistically significant relationship between a positive reaction to 1 allergen in total and the gender, skin type, rosacea type, ocular involvement, age and disease duration. There were more symptoms in patients with a positive reaction to allergens (p<0.001). Conclusion Contact sensitivity was detected more common in rosacea patients. Patch testing may be useful in the treatment and follow up of rosacea patients especially if symptoms such as itching, burning and stinging are present. PMID:29853742

  1. The Evaluation of Contact Sensitivity with Standard and Cosmetic Patch Test Series in Rosacea Patients.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Hilal Kaya; Bulur, Isil; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Bilgin, Muzaffer

    2018-06-01

    Rosacea is a common dermatosis characterized by erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. We aimed to evaluate contact sensitivity in the rosacea patients. We included 65 rosacea patients and 60 healthy volunteers in the study. The patient and control groups were patch tested with European baseline series and cosmetic series. A positive reaction to at least 1 allergen in the European standard series was found in 32.3% of rosacea patients and 20.0% of subjects in the control group while the relevant numbers were 30.8% of rosacea patients and 10% of controls with the cosmetic series ( p =0.08). In total, we found a positive reaction to at least 1 allergen in 38.5% of patients and 25.0% of controls ( p =0.15). We did not find a statistically significant relationship between a positive reaction to 1 allergen in total and the gender, skin type, rosacea type, ocular involvement, age and disease duration. There were more symptoms in patients with a positive reaction to allergens ( p <0.001). Contact sensitivity was detected more common in rosacea patients. Patch testing may be useful in the treatment and follow up of rosacea patients especially if symptoms such as itching, burning and stinging are present.

  2. Participant observation of time allocation, direct patient contact and simultaneous activities in hospital physicians.

    PubMed

    Weigl, Matthias; Müller, Andreas; Zupanc, Andrea; Angerer, Peter

    2009-06-29

    Hospital physicians' time is a critical resource in medical care. Two aspects are of interest. First, the time spent in direct patient contact - a key principle of effective medical care. Second, simultaneous task performance ('multitasking') which may contribute to medical error, impaired safety behaviour, and stress. There is a call for instruments to assess these aspects. A preliminary study to gain insight into activity patterns, time allocation and simultaneous activities of hospital physicians was carried out. Therefore an observation instrument for time-motion-studies in hospital settings was developed and tested. 35 participant observations of internists and surgeons of a German municipal 300-bed hospital were conducted. Complete day shifts of hospital physicians on wards, emergency ward, intensive care unit, and operating room were continuously observed. Assessed variables of interest were time allocation, share of direct patient contact, and simultaneous activities. Inter-rater agreement of Kappa = .71 points to good reliability of the instrument. Hospital physicians spent 25.5% of their time at work in direct contact with patients. Most time was allocated to documentation and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff. Physicians performed parallel simultaneous activities for 17-20% of their work time. Communication with patients, documentation, and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff were the most frequently observed simultaneous activities. Applying logit-linear analyses, specific primary activities increase the probability of particular simultaneous activities. Patient-related working time in hospitals is limited. The potential detrimental effects of frequently observed simultaneous activities on performance outcomes need further consideration.

  3. Pain in general practice. Pain as a cause of patient-doctor contact.

    PubMed

    Frølund, F; Frølund, C

    1986-05-01

    In 1983 26 general practitioners in a Danish provincial town made a week's survey of pain as the main cause of patient-doctor contact during the day time. The population served was 45 000-50 000 persons of all ages. Coexistent pain which was not the cause of actual contact was not recorded. Out of 2 886 contacts of all causes 641 were due to pain (22% or 222/1 000 contacts). Percentages for acute and chronic pain were 61 and 39 respectively. The commonest causes of pain were musculo-skeletal (50%), visceral including cardio-vascular (20%), infectious (15%), and headaches (8%). The overall female: male ratio was 1.5: 1, but with considerable variation within the different pain categories. The ratios for acute and chronic pain were 1.4: 1 and 1.8: 1 respectively. About one hundred contacts were recorded as "problem cases" whose predominant complaints were low back pain, headaches, and visceral pain. Pain--especially chronic pain with a non-malignant cause--is a major problem in general practice. Essentially, pain is a primary health care problem and research in this field should be encouraged.

  4. Modeling the Influence of Early Skin-to-Skin Contact on Exclusive Breastfeeding in a Sample of Hispanic Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Linares, Ana M; Wambach, Karen; Rayens, Mary K; Wiggins, Amanda; Coleman, Elizabeth; Dignan, Mark B

    2017-10-01

    Using data from a longitudinal study of breastfeeding in Hispanics, this study evaluated the influence of early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) on initiation and sustained exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 1 month postpartum. Two-thirds of the women in the sample participated in early SSC. At discharge, over half of the women were EBF; this proportion decreased to one-third at 1 month postpartum. Controlling for demographic and clinical variables in the model, participation in early SSC was associated with a greater than sevenfold increase in the odds of EBF at discharge (p = .005) but was not predictive of EBF at 1 month post-discharge (p = .7). Younger maternal age and increased prenatal infant feeding intention were associated with an increased likelihood of EBF across both timepoints. Promoting early SSC may help with initiation of EBF, while further breastfeeding support may be needed to maintain EBF following discharge for this vulnerable population.

  5. WW Geminorum: An early B-type eclipsing binary evolving into the contact phase

    SciT

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Yin, X.-G.

    2014-11-01

    WW Gem is a B-type eclipsing binary with a period of 1.2378 days. The CCD photometry of this binary was performed in 2013 December using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Stations of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated W-D program, the photometric model was deduced from the VRI light curves. The results imply that WW Gem is a near-contact eclipsing binary whose primary component almost fills its Roche lobe. The photometric mass ratio is q {sub ph} = 0.48(± 0.05). All collected times of minimum light, including two new ones, were used for the periodmore » studies. The orbital period changes of WW Gem could be described by an upward parabola, possibly overlaid by a light-time orbit with a period of P {sub mod} = 7.41(± 0.04) yr and a semi-amplitude of A = 0.0079 days(± 0.0005 days), respectively. This kind of cyclic oscillation may be attributed to the light-travel time effect via the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.47(±0.04) × 10{sup –8} day yr{sup –1}, which may be explained by the conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transfer, the massive binary WW Gem may be evolving into a contact binary.« less

  6. Occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones in Danish contact dermatitis patients: results from a Danish multicentre study (2009-2012).

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Sommerlund, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to isothiazolinones has reached epidemic levels. Few studies have presented data on occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones. To present demographics and examine risk factors for sensitization to methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with MI and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in Danish dermatitis patients. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of data from three Danish hospitals departments was conducted. All patients consecutively patch tested with MI, MCI/MI and BIT between 2009 and 2013 were included. MI contact allergy showed a significantly increased trend in prevalence from 1.8% in 2009 to 4.2% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Females with facial dermatitis mainly drove the increase in 2012. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that MI sensitization was significantly associated with occupational exposures, hand and facial dermatitis, age > 40 years, and the occupational groups of tile setters/terrazzo workers, machine operators, and painters. MCI/MI contact allergy was significantly associated with the following high-risk occupations: painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration of isothiazolinones, and especially MI, in both consumer products and industrial products is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Multicenter study of preservative sensitivity in patients with suspected cosmetic contact dermatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang S; Hong, Dong K; Jeong, Nam J; Lee, Jeung H; Choi, Yun-Seok; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Cheol-Heon; Kim, Kea J; Park, Hae Y; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Ga-Young; Lee, Joon; Eun, Hee C; Moon, Kee-Chan; Seo, Seong J; Hong, Chang K; Lee, Sang W; Choi, Hae Y; Lee, Jun Y

    2012-08-01

    As many new cosmetic products are introduced into the market, attention must be given to contact dermatitis, which is commonly caused by cosmetics. We investigate the prevalence of preservative allergy in 584 patients with suspected cosmetic contact dermatitis at 11 different hospitals. From January 2010 to March 2011, 584 patients at 11 hospital dermatology departments presented with cosmetic contact dermatitis symptoms. These patients were patch-tested for preservative allergens. An irritancy patch test performed on 30 control subjects using allergens of various concentrations showed high irritancy rates. Preservative hypersensitivity was detected in 41.1% of patients. Allergens with the highest positive test rates were benzalkonium chloride (12.1%), thimerosal (9.9%) and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) (5.5%). Benzalkonium chloride and chlorphenesin had the highest irritancy rate based on an irritancy patch test performed using various concentrations. Seven of 30 normal subjects had a positive irritant patch reading with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride and eight of 30 normal subjects had a positive irritant patch reading at 4 days with 0.5% chlorphenesin in petrolatum. Although benzalkonium chloride was highly positive for skin reactions in our study, most reactions were probably irritation. MCI/MI and thimerosal showed highly positive allergy reactions in our study. The optimum concentration of chlorphenesin to avoid skin reactions is less than 0.5%. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Clinical profile and quality of life of patients with occupational contact dermatitis from New Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Riti; Sharma, Vinod K; Ramam, M; Sethuraman, Gomathy; Yadav, Chander P

    2015-09-01

    Data regarding occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) and its effect on quality of life (QOL) in India are limited. To evaluate patients with OCD and record the outcome of treatment. All patients with OCD were evaluated for severity of disease (by the use of physician global assessment) and its effect on QOL (by use of the Dermatology Life Quality Index) questionnaire) at the first visit and after 3 months of treatment. Among 117 patients with OCD, hand eczema was present in 81.2%. Positive patch test reactions were found in 76%. The most common allergens were Parthenium hysterophorus and potassium dichromate. The most frequent diagnosis was occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) (57%), caused by farming and construction work, followed by occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) (24%), caused by wet work. Severe psychosocial distress was recorded in 62.5% of patients. After 3 months of treatment, 83% improved significantly, and 54% had improvement in QOL. Farmers were most frequently affected, followed by construction workers and housewives. OACD was found at a higher frequency than OICD. The most frequent allergens were Parthenium hysterophorus in farmers, potassium dichromate in construction workers, and vegetables in housewives. OCD has a significant impact on QOL. Patch testing, in addition to standard treatment, improves the outcome considerably. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Severe keratomalacia after 12 months of continuous hydrogel contact lens wear in a psychiatric patient.

    PubMed

    Rico-Sergado, Laura; Pérez-Canales, Jose L; Pérez-Santonja, Juan J; Cigüenza-Sancho, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    A 53-year-old cachectic patient diagnosed with major depressive disorder was referred to our department for evaluation of a visible deformation of the right eye. She had been wearing hydrogel contact lenses on a continuous basis without removal for the last 12 months, influenced by low self-esteem and social isolation. Slit-lamp examination of the right eye showed a conical cornea, extensive neovascularization, severe stromal melting with descemetocele formation and forward bulging of the iris. Examination of the left eye revealed multiple corneal opacities, deep stromal neovascularization and anterior chamber inflammation. No sign of infection was present. Vitamin A deficiency was suspected and later confirmed. The patient required evisceration of the right eye and psychiatric treatment. Inflammatory signs of the left eye resolved within 1 week of initiating treatment. This case illustrates the synergistic effect of soft contact lens abuse and vitamin A deficiency in a psychiatric patient, and emphasizes the importance of instructing vulnerable patients on appropriate lens use and care. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Water contacts in dracunculiasis-infected patients in Mali: transmission risk activities].

    PubMed

    Etard, J F; Kodio, B; Traoré, S; Audibert, M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study lies in the identification of human activities responsible for the transmission of the Guinea worm in an endemic village in Diema Region in Mali. Human water contacts observations started after a census followed by the implementation of a bi-monthly notification system, carried out from May to November 1993. Water contacts were noticed and observed from the mid-July to the end of November of the same year. The first case of dracunculiasis observed was randomly drawn out of a list of the families with obvious cases. The patent case activities involving either surface water, traditional wells or bore-hole water were recorded for 10 consecutive days. During this observation period, contacts made by other patients with the same water sources were also recorded. After 14 days, the case list was updated and a new case selected out of families previously selected. This cycle was repeated until the end of the study period. A "contact at risk for transmission" was defined by a close correspondence between the location of the worm's emergence and the surface of the skin exposed to water, within two weeks following emergence. Contacts were described according to water sources, activities in relation to water, date, gender and age. Observations were made on 103 patients who had 2506 activities in relation with a water body: 1132 of these activities implied a skin contact with the water. Only 133 (9%) of these water contacts were at risk for transmission, 75% took place during the months of August and September, 80% were related to surface waters and 20% to traditional wells. Woman household activities and boys games were the major activities at risk, in contrast to economic activities (watering cattle). The low proportion of "at risk activities" evaluated in this study suggests that a small number of water contacts is sufficient to maintain the transmission. The case implications of the current eradication strategy might not be sufficient alone to break

  11. Physical distance, genetic relationship, age, and leprosy classification are independent risk factors for leprosy in contacts of patients with leprosy.

    PubMed

    Moet, F Johannes; Pahan, David; Schuring, Ron P; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan H

    2006-02-01

    Close contacts of patients with leprosy have a higher risk of developing leprosy. Several risk factors have been identified, including genetic relationship and physical distance. Their independent contributions to the risk of developing leprosy, however, have never been sufficiently quantified. Logistic-regression analysis was performed on intake data from a prospective cohort study of 1037 patients newly diagnosed as having leprosy and their 21,870 contacts. Higher age showed an increased risk, with a bimodal distribution. Contacts of patients with paucibacillary (PB) leprosy with 2-5 lesions (PB2-5) and those with multibacillary (MB) leprosy had a higher risk than did contacts of patients with single-lesion PB leprosy. The core household group had a higher risk than other contacts living under the same roof and next-door neighbors, who again had a higher risk than neighbors of neighbors. A close genetic relationship indicated an increased risk when blood-related children, parents, and siblings were pooled together. Age of the contact, the disease classification of the index patient, and physical and genetic distance were independently associated with the risk of a contact acquiring leprosy. Contact surveys in leprosy should be not only focused on household contacts but also extended to neighbors and consanguineous relatives, especially when the patient has PB2-5 or MB leprosy.

  12. PATIENT-SPECIFIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CHRONIC CONTACT STRESS EXPOSURE AFTER INTRA-ARTICULAR FRACTURE OF THE TIBIAL PLAFOND

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wendy; Anderson, Donald D.; Goldsworthy, Jane K.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of altered contact mechanics in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) following intra-articular fracture remains poorly understood. One proposed etiology is that residual incongruities lead to altered joint contact stresses that, over time, predispose to PTOA. Prevailing joint contact stresses following surgical fracture reduction were quantified in this study using patient-specific contact finite element (FE) analysis. FE models were created for 11 ankle pairs from tibial plafond fracture patients. Both (reduced) fractured ankles and their intact contralaterals were modeled. A sequence of 13 loading instances was used to simulate the stance phase of gait. Contact stresses were summed across loadings in the simulation, weighted by resident time in the gait cycle. This chronic exposure measure, a metric of degeneration propensity, was then compared between intact and fractured ankle pairs. Intact ankles had lower peak contact stress exposures that were more uniform, and centrally located. The series-average peak contact stress elevation for fractured ankles was 38% (p=0.0015; peak elevation was 82%). Fractured ankles had less area with low contact stress exposure than intacts, and a greater area with high exposure. Chronic contact stress overexposures (stresses exceeding a damage threshold) ranged from near zero to a high of 18 times the matched intact value. The patient-specific FE models utilized in this study represent substantial progress towards elucidating the relationship between altered contact stresses and the outcome of patients treated for intra-articular fractures. PMID:18404662

  13. [Medical emergency care and patient contact at the Quart Rock Festival in Norway].

    PubMed

    Skjeie, Holgeir; Nygaard, Siv; Li, Henrik Stenwig; Gardasevic, Bozidar; Fetveit, Arne; Brekke, Mette

    2008-06-26

    The annual Quart Rock Festival (1991-2007) was the largest rock festival in Norway. During festivals in 2004-06, a daily average of 3 000 personnel, guests and artists, and 10,000 visitors, 13,000 people, were present daily. The festival had a medical care organization recruited from primary care personnel. The team consisted of one general practitioner, one physiotherapist, two nurses from the municipality outpatient service, and lay personnel trained in first aid. We recorded all patient contacts at the festival in 2004, 2005, and 2006 in order to describe injuries requiring medical attention and the need for referrals. The total number of festival participants, including personnel, was 208,000 during the registration period. Of totally 1,349 patient contacts, 254 required consultation with a nurse and 191 with the attending physician. There were no deaths, cardiac or respiratory arrests or serious penetrating trauma. 33 contacts were related to intoxication: 24 due to alcohol, five to illegal drugs and four to unknown substances. Violence-related injuries were the cause of 18 contacts, of which none were serious. 49 patients were referred for follow-up, mostly to the municipality outpatient service or their own physician, and five patients were admitted to hospital. The transport-to-hospital-ratio was 0.24 per 10,000 participants. The results are similar to those in studies of rock festivals in other countries. The need for referrals was equal to or lower than in other studies. This indicates that the primary care-based medical organization at the Quart Festival was adequate.

  14. Contact sensitization in patients with suspected cosmetic intolerance: results of the IVDK 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Dinkloh, A; Worm, M; Geier, J; Schnuch, A; Wollenberg, A

    2015-06-01

    Ingredients of leave-on cosmetics and body care products may sensitize. However, not every case of cosmetic intolerance is due to contact sensitization. To describe the frequency of contact sensitization due to cosmetics in a large clinic population, and a possible particular allergen pattern. Retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, 2006-2011. Of 69 487 patients tested, 'cosmetics, creams, sunscreens' was the only suspected allergen source category in 10 124 patients (14.6%). A final diagnosis 'allergic contact dermatitis' was stated in 2658 of these patients (26.3%).Compared to a control group, there were significantly more reactions to fragrance mixes I and II, balsam of Peru, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) and lanolin alcohols. No special pattern of fragrance sensitization could be identified. Among the preservatives, MI was by far the leading allergen, while sensitization to other widely used compounds like parabens or phenoxyethanol was rare. True allergic reactions to cosmetic ingredients are rarer than generally assumed. Limitation of exposure to MI in leave-on cosmetics and body care products is urgently needed. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Risk Factors for SARS among Persons without Known Contact with SARS Patients, Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiang; Xu, Fujie; Zhou, Weigong; Feikin, Daniel R.; Lin, Chang-Ying; He, Xiong; Zhu, Zonghan; Liang, Wannian; Chin, Daniel P.

    2004-01-01

    Most cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) have occurred in close contacts of SARS patients. However, in Beijing, a large proportion of SARS cases occurred in persons without such contact. We conducted a case-control study in Beijing that compared exposures of 94 unlinked, probable SARS patients with those of 281 community-based controls matched for age group and sex. Case-patients were more likely than controls to have chronic medical conditions or to have visited fever clinics (clinics at which possible SARS patients were separated from other patients), eaten outside the home, or taken taxis frequently. The use of masks was strongly protective. Among 31 case-patients for whom convalescent-phase (>21 days) sera were available, 26% had immunoglobulin G to SARS-associated coronavirus. Our finding that clinical SARS was associated with visits to fever clinics supports Beijing’s strategy of closing clinics with poor infection-control measures. Our finding that mask use lowered the risk for disease supports the community’s use of this strategy. PMID:15030685

  16. Contact allergy to corticosteroids and Malassezia furfur in seborrhoeic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Ljubojevic, S; Lipozencic, J; Basta-Juzbasic, A

    2011-06-01

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic skin disease, requiring long-term treatment, which might promote sensitization. Malassezia furfur (Mf) plays an important role in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Objectives  The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of contact sensitivity in SD patients. A total of 100 patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were investigated: 50 suffering from SD with no previous local corticosteroid treatment (SDN), 50 SD patients treated with local corticosteroids (SDC). Mycological examination for Mf was performed. All patients were patch tested with the baseline standard, corticosteroid series, with 12 commercial corticosteroid preparations frequently used in Croatia; and also with Mf. Malassezia furfur was found in 44 (88%) SDN, 37 (74%) SDC, and in 4 (20%) HC; patch test reaction to Mf was positive in one SDN and in three SDC. Positive patch tests to standard allergens were observed in 17 (34%) SDN, 33 (66%) SDC and 2 (10%) HC. Patch tests to the corticosteroid series revealed positive reactions in 4 SDC and to commercial corticosteroids in seven patients, i.e. 2 SD and 5 SDC. Patch tests to the baseline series and to both individual corticosteroid and commercial corticosteroid preparations should be performed in SD patients with persistent dermatitis, as contact-allergic reactions may complicate their dermatitis. Sensitization to Mf was found to be infrequent. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Formaldehyde in cosmetics in patch tested dermatitis patients with and without contact allergy to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Hauksson, Inese; Pontén, Ann; Isaksson, Marléne; Hamada, Haneen; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-known contact sensitizer. Formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives in cosmetics. To survey the release of formaldehyde in cosmetics brought by patients investigated because of suspected allergic contact dermatitis, to compare it with information given by the manufacturers on the packages, and to investigate whether formaldehyde-allergic patients are potentially exposed to more cosmetics releasing formaldehyde than dermatitis patients without contact allergy to formaldehyde. Cosmetics from 10 formaldehyde-allergic and 30 non-allergic patients (controls) matched for age and sex were investigated with the chromotropic acid spot test, which is a semiquantitative method measuring the release of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde was found in 58 of 245 (23.7%) products. Twenty-six of 126 (20.6%) leave-on products released formaldehyde, and 17 of 26 (65.4%) of these were not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Among the rinse-off products, there were 32 of 119 (26.8%) formaldehyde-releasing products, and nine of 32 (28.0%) of these were not labelled as containing formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Five of 10 formaldehyde-allergic patients brought leave-on products with ≥ 40 ppm formaldehyde, as compared with 4 of 30 in the control group (p = 0.029). Cosmetic products used by formaldehyde-allergic patients that are not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing preservatives should be analysed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Obstetrical outcomes in patients with early onset gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Simi; Dolin, Cara; Jadhav, Ashwin; Chervenak, Judith; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan; Monteagudo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize patients with early onset gestational diabetes and compare outcomes to patients diagnosed with standard gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with gestational or pregestational diabetes. All patients received a glucose challenge test at their first prenatal visit to diagnose early onset gestational diabetes and were recommended to have postpartum glucose tolerance tests to detect undiagnosed type 2 diabetes. Outcomes were compared between patients with early onset gestational diabetes and both standard gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes with p < 0.05 was used for significance. Four hundred and twenty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Nine percent of the patients with early onset gestational diabetes were found to have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes based on postpartum testing and 91% to have resolution in the postpartum period. No patient with early onset gestational diabetes and resolution in the postpartum period had abnormal screening for renal or ophthalmologic disease, but 5% had abnormal fetal echocardiograms. These patients were more likely to require pharmacotherapy for glycemic control than patients with standard gestational diabetes and less likely than patients with pregestational diabetes (55% versus 39% versus 81%). Most patients diagnosed with early onset gestational diabetes do not have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes but do have unique characteristics and obstetrical outcomes.

  19. The importance of skin–to–skin contact for early initiation of breastfeeding in Nigeria and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Khan, Shane M; Carvajal–Aguirre, Liliana; Brodish, Paul; Amouzou, Agbessi; Moran, Allisyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Skin–to–skin contact (SSC) between mother and newborn offers numerous protective effects, however it is an intervention that has been under–utilized. Our objectives are to understand which newborns in Bangladesh and Nigeria receive SSC and whether SSC is associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding. Methods Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used to study the characteristics of newborns receiving SSC for non–facility births in Nigeria (DHS 2013) and for both facility and non–facility births in Bangladesh (DHS 2014). Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the association between SSC and early initiation of breastfeeding after controlling for key socio–demographic, maternal and newborn–related factors. Results Only 10% of newborns in Nigeria and 26% of newborns in Bangladesh received SSC. In the regression models, SSC was significantly associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding in both countries (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.15–1.76 for Nigeria; OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55, for Bangladesh). Findings from the regression analysis for Bangladesh revealed that newborns born by Cesarean section had a 67% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born by normal delivery (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.26–0.43). Also in Bangladesh newborns born in a health facility had a 30% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born in non–facility environments (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.92). Early initiation of breastfeeding was significantly associated with parity, urban residence and wealth in Nigeria. Geographic area was significant in the regression analyses for both Bangladesh and Nigeria. Conclusions Coverage of SSC is very low in the two countries, despite its benefits for newborns without complications. SSC has the potential to save newborn lives. There is a need to prioritize training of health providers on the implementation of essential newborn care including SSC

  20. The importance of skin-to-skin contact for early initiation of breastfeeding in Nigeria and Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kavita; Khan, Shane M; Carvajal-Aguirre, Liliana; Brodish, Paul; Amouzou, Agbessi; Moran, Allisyn

    2017-12-01

    Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and newborn offers numerous protective effects, however it is an intervention that has been under-utilized. Our objectives are to understand which newborns in Bangladesh and Nigeria receive SSC and whether SSC is associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data were used to study the characteristics of newborns receiving SSC for non-facility births in Nigeria (DHS 2013) and for both facility and non-facility births in Bangladesh (DHS 2014). Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the association between SSC and early initiation of breastfeeding after controlling for key socio-demographic, maternal and newborn-related factors. Only 10% of newborns in Nigeria and 26% of newborns in Bangladesh received SSC. In the regression models, SSC was significantly associated with the early initiation of breastfeeding in both countries (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.15-1.76 for Nigeria; OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.55, for Bangladesh). Findings from the regression analysis for Bangladesh revealed that newborns born by Cesarean section had a 67% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born by normal delivery (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.26-0.43). Also in Bangladesh newborns born in a health facility had a 30% lower odds of early initiation of breastfeeding than those born in non-facility environments (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92). Early initiation of breastfeeding was significantly associated with parity, urban residence and wealth in Nigeria. Geographic area was significant in the regression analyses for both Bangladesh and Nigeria. Coverage of SSC is very low in the two countries, despite its benefits for newborns without complications. SSC has the potential to save newborn lives. There is a need to prioritize training of health providers on the implementation of essential newborn care including SSC. Community engagement is also needed to ensure that all women and

  1. Early skin-to-skin contact and breast-feeding behavior in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thukral, Anu; Sankar, Mari Jeeva; Agarwal, Ramesh; Gupta, Nandita; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate if early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) improves breast-feeding (BF) behavior and exclusive BF (EBF) rates in term infants at 48 h of age. Term infants born by normal delivery were randomized at birth to either early SSC (n = 20) or conventional care (controls; n = 21). SSC was continued for at least 2 h after birth. Subsequently, one BF session of the infants was video recorded at about 48 h of life. The primary outcome, infants' BF behavior at 48 h of life, was assessed using the modified infant Breast-Feeding Assessment Tool (BAT; a score consisting of infant's readiness to feed, sucking, rooting and latching, each item scored from 0 to 3) by three independent masked observers. The secondary outcomes were EBF rates at 48 h and 6 weeks of age and salivary cortisol level of infants at 6 h of age. Baseline characteristics including birth weight and gestation were comparable between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the BAT scores between the groups [median: 8, interquartile range (IQR) 5-10 vs. median 9, IQR 5-10; p = 0.6]. EBF rates at 48 h and at 6 weeks were, however, significantly higher in the early-SSC group than in the control group [95.0 vs. 38.1%; relative risk (RR): 2.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.4-4.3 and 90 vs. 28.6%; RR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.6-6.3]. Early SSC did not improve BF behavior at discharge but significantly improved the EBF rates of term neonates. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Asymptomatic Chiari Type I malformation: should patients be advised against participation in contact sports?

    PubMed

    Spencer, Robert; Leach, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Chiari type I malformation (CM-I) is characterised by caudal displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum, crowding the craniocervical junction. It is being increasingly diagnosed in asymptomatic patients due to the widespread availability of MRI, and there are case reports of these patients suffering sudden death or neurological injury following head or neck trauma, raising the issue of whether they should be prohibited from contact sport participation, given the likelihood of frequent trauma. General neurosurgical opinion is that patients who are symptomatic and those with an associated spinal cord syrinx should be offered foramen magnum decompression, however asymptomatic patients without syringomyelia are not offered this in the majority of cases. The authors performed a full review of the published literature, including all case reports, case series, studies and literature reviews regarding CM-I and either contact sports or trauma, excluding patients that had undergone surgical intervention and those becoming symptomatic in circumstances other than head or neck trauma. 21 case reports of CM-I patients deteriorating following trauma were identified, including four cases of sudden death following head or neck injury. However, studies of large samples of CM-I patients are yet to capture an incident of sudden death or acute neurological deterioration, suggesting that the risk is very low. CM-I patients may have an increased risk of concussion and post-concussion syndrome compared to the background population however. Overall, the authors feel that there should be no restriction of sports participation for CM-I patients, but a discussion to make them and their families aware of the possible increased risks is important.

  3. Association between social contact frequency and negative symptoms, psychosocial functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Karin; Millier, Aurelie; Amri, Ikbal; Aballéa, Samuel; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-12-30

    The lack of social contacts may be an important element in the presumed vicious circle aggravating, or at least stabilising negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A European 2-year cohort study collected negative symptom scores, psychosocial functioning scores, objective social contact frequency scores and quality of life scores every 6 months. Bivariate analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate regressions and random effects regressions were conducted to describe relations between social contact and outcomes of interest and to gain a better understanding of this relation over time. Using data from 1208 patients with schizophrenia, a link between social contact frequency and negative symptom scores, functioning and quality of life at baseline was established. Regression models confirmed the significant association between social contact and negative symptoms as well as psychosocial functioning. This study aimed at demonstrating the importance of social contact for deficient behavioural aspects of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemoprophylaxis in Contacts of Patients with Cholera: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar; Koehlmoos, Tracey Perez; Cuervo, Luis Gabriel; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Chambliss, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There is a pressing need for effective measures to prevent the spread of cholera. Our systematic review assesses the effects of chemoprophylaxis in preventing cholera among exposed contacts. Methods and Findings We considered published and unpublished reports of studies up to July 2011. For this we searched: PubMed (1966 to July, 2011), Embase (1980 to July 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (6; 2011), LILACS (1982 to July, 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (July 2011) and references of identified publications. We included controlled clinical trials (randomized and non-randomized) in which chemoprophylaxis was used to prevent cholera among patient contacts. The main outcome measures were hospitalization and laboratory diagnosis of cholera in contacts for cholera patients. We assessed the risk of bias. We identified 2638 references and these included 2 randomized trials and 5 controlled trials that added up to a total of 4,154 participants. The risk of bias scored high for most trials. The combined results from two trials found that chemoprophylaxis reduced hospitalization of contacts during the follow-up period by 8–12 days (2826 participants; RR 0.54 95% CI 0.40–0.74;I2 0%). A meta-analysis of five trials found a significant reduction in disease among contacts with at least one positive sample who received chemoprophylaxis during the overall follow-up (range 4–15 days) (1,414 participants; RR 0.35 95% CI 0.18–0.66;I2 74%). A significant reduction in the number of positive samples was also found with chemoprophylaxis (3 CCT; 6,918 samples; RR 0.39 95% CI 0.29–0.51;I2 0%). Conclusion Our findings suggest that chemoprophylaxis has a protective effect among household contacts of people with cholera but the results are based on studies with a high risk of bias. Hence, there is a need for adequate reliable research that allows balancing benefits and harms by evaluating the effects of chemoprophylaxis

  5. STI patients are effective recruiters of undiagnosed cases of HIV: results of a social contact recruitment study in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Kamanga, Gift; Pettifor, Audrey E; Bonongwe, Naomi; Mapanje, Clement; Rutstein, Sarah E; Ward, Michelle; Hoffman, Irving F; Martinson, Francis; Miller, William C

    2014-04-15

    Patients with newly diagnosed HIV may be part of social networks with elevated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection. Social network recruitment by persons with newly diagnosed HIV may efficiently identify undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. We assessed social network recruitment as a strategy for identifying undiagnosed cases of HIV infection. In a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, 3 groups of 45 "seeds" were enrolled: STI patients with newly diagnosed HIV, STI patients who were HIV-uninfected, and community controls. Seeds were asked to recruit up to 5 social "contacts" (sexual or nonsexual). Mean number of contacts recruited per group was calculated. HIV prevalence ratios (PRs) and number of contacts needed to test to identify 1 new case of HIV were compared between groups using generalized estimating equations with exchangeable correlation matrices. Mean number of contacts recruited was 1.3 for HIV-infected clinic seeds, 1.8 for HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 2.3 for community seeds. Contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds had a higher HIV prevalence (PR: 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 7.8) than contacts of community seeds, but contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds did not (PR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 3.3). Results were similar when restricted to nonsexual contacts. To identify 1 new case of HIV, it was necessary to test 8 contacts of HIV-infected clinic seeds, 10 contacts of HIV-uninfected clinic seeds, and 18 contacts of community seeds. Social contact recruitment by newly diagnosed STI patients efficiently led to new HIV diagnoses. Research to replicate findings and guide implementation is needed.

  6. The comfort factor: assessing patient satisfaction with Opti-Free vs other contact lens cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Yeaton, K

    1994-01-01

    Many patients cite comfort as a primary factor in their success or failure with soft contact lenses. In an effort to further meet the needs of these patients, eye-care professionals must place more emphasis on dispensing a lens type and lens-care system that maximize patient satisfaction and thus provide a higher quality of service. This study delineated patient-defined quality and comfort as they relate to lens-care solutions. Five hundred ninety-nine U.S. practices were each asked to switch 25 of their patients to Opti-Free Lens Care from their currently used lens-care system (52% ReNu Multi-Purpose Solution, 20% AOSept System) for 2 weeks. Data were collected from 14,455 patients who completed the post-trial interview. At the time of the callback interview, 81% of respondents (78% ReNu users, 82% AOSept users) were using the Opti-Free System. Of these patients, 85% (84% previous ReNu users, 87% previous AOSept users) rated Opti-Free Lens Care more comfortable than or as comfortable as their previous system. These findings demonstrate differences in patient comfort among Opti-Free, AOSept, and ReNu. Eye-care professionals should consider relative comfort when dispensing lens-care systems, as this may affect patient-defined quality.

  7. Recovery of resistant bacteria from mattresses of patients under contact precautions.

    PubMed

    Viana, Roberta El Hariri; dos Santos, Simone G; Oliveira, Adriana C

    2016-04-01

    Microorganisms may contaminate hospital mattresses even after terminal cleaning. We investigated the recovery of resistant bacteria from the mattresses of patients under contact precautions at a university hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study. Samples were obtained from the surface of mattresses, spread on replicate organism detection and counting plates, and cultivated at 37°C for 48 hours. After collecting samples, we identified microorganisms and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using the Vitek 2 (bioMérieux SA, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) automation system. We evaluated 51 mattresses. A total of 26 had resistant bacteria on the surface; the predominant species were Acinetobacter baumannii (69.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.5%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.5%). The median length of hospital stay was 41 days; the bed occupancy for patients under contact precautions and the time at which the patient was diagnosed as a carrier of resistant bacteria was 18 days. The phenotypic similarity of A baumannii in inpatient units (mattresses) suggests circulation of the same strain. These results highlight the importance of controlling the potential spread of microorganisms through hospital mattresses. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of life for patients living with ostomies: influence of contact with an ostomy nurse.

    PubMed

    Aronovitch, Sharon A; Sharp, Robbie; Harduar-Morano, Laurel

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether or not contact with a WOC nurse improves quality of life for ostomy patients. Home health care agencies, hospitals, and a durable medical equipment company in northern Florida were contacted to participate in the study. The role of the participating facilities was to address the provided envelopes and mail the patient survey packet (introductory letter, Ostomy Quality of Life Questionnaire [OQLQ], and demographic survey) directly to the patient. The mean age or respondents was 62 years, and the mean time of living with an ostomy was 10 years. Ninety-six percent of the sample participants did not attend support groups, yet nearly 50% reported receiving education following discharge home. Analysis of OQLQ scores revealed statistically significant differences based on who the respondent lived with, the number of comorbidities, how the respondent received supplies, and the type of appliance worn. There was no significant difference between respondents who saw an ostomy nurse and those who did not among the various sections of the OQLQ, even though 83% indicated seeing an ostomy nurse. Body image was a concern to respondents. The data demonstrated that most participants maintained satisfactory quality of life despite the presence of an ostomy. Individuals who were working part-time had a better health-related quality of life than those who worked full-time. More than 50% of our study sample participants reported satisfaction with the healthcare services they received, regardless of whether services were provided by a WOC or a nonspecialist nurse.

  9. Diagnostic reasoning and underlying knowledge of students with preclinical patient contacts in PBL.

    PubMed

    Diemers, Agnes D; van de Wiel, Margje W J; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Baarveld, Frank; Dolmans, Diana H J M

    2015-12-01

    Medical experts have access to elaborate and integrated knowledge networks consisting of biomedical and clinical knowledge. These coherent knowledge networks enable them to generate more accurate diagnoses in a shorter time. However, students' knowledge networks are less organised and students have difficulties linking theory and practice and transferring acquired knowledge. Therefore we wanted to explore the development and transfer of knowledge of third-year preclinical students on a problem-based learning (PBL) course with real patient contacts. Before and after a 10-week PBL course with real patients, third-year medical students were asked to think out loud while diagnosing four types of paper patient problems (two course cases and two transfer cases), and explain the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the patient features. Diagnostic accuracy and time needed to think through the cases were measured. The think-aloud protocols were transcribed verbatim and different types of knowledge were coded and quantitatively analysed. The written pathophysiological explanations were translated into networks of concepts. Both the concepts and the links between concepts in students' networks were compared to model networks. Over the course diagnostic accuracy increased, case-processing time decreased, and students used less biomedical and clinical knowledge during diagnostic reasoning. The quality of the pathophysiological explanations increased: the students used more concepts, especially more model concepts, and they used fewer wrong concepts and links. The findings differed across course and transfer cases. The effects were generally less strong for transfer cases. Students' improved diagnostic accuracy and the improved quality of their knowledge networks suggest that integration of biomedical and clinical knowledge took place during a 10-week course. The differences between course and transfer cases demonstrate that transfer is complex and time-consuming. We

  10. Characteristics of patients contacting a center for undiagnosed and rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Tobias; Jerrentrup, Andreas; Bauer, Max Jakob; Fritsch, Hans Walter; Schaefer, Juergen Rolf

    2016-06-21

    Little is known about the characteristics of patients seeking help from dedicated centers for undiagnosed and rare diseases. However, information about their demographics, symptoms, prior diagnoses and medical specialty is crucial to optimize these centers' processes and infrastructure. Using a questionnaire, structured information from 522 adult patients contacting a center for undiagnosed and rare diseases was obtained. The information included basic sociodemographic data (age, gender, insurance status), previous hospital admissions, primary symptoms of complaint and previously determined diagnosis. The majority of patients completing the questionnaire were female, 300 (57 %) vs. 222 men (43 %). The median age was 52 years (range 18-92). More than half, 309 (59 %), of our patients had never been admitted to a university hospital. Common diagnoses included other soft tissue disorders, not classified elsewhere (ICD M79, n = 63, 15.3 %), somatoform disorders (ICD F45, n = 51, 12.3 %) and other polyneuropathies (ICD G62, n=36, 8.7 %). The most frequent symptoms were general weakness (n = 180, 36.6 %) followed by arthralgia (n = 124, 25.2 %) and abdominal discomfort (n = 113, 23.0 %). The majority of patients had either internal medicine (81.3 %) and/or neurologic (37.6 %) health problems. Pain-associated diagnoses and the typical "unexplained" medical conditions (chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome) are frequent among people contacting a center dedicated to undiagnosed diseases. The chief symptoms are mostly unspecific. An interdisciplinary organizational approach involving mainly internal medicine, neurology and psychiatry/psychosomatic care is needed.

  11. Conjunctival impression cytology evaluation of patients with dry eye disease using scleral contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sarah La Porta; Hazarbassanov, Rossen Mihaylov; Nasaré, Alex; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira; Hofling-Lima, Ana Luisa

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate conjunctival impression cytology and HLADR expression changes after wearing scleral contact lenses (ScCLs) for moderate to severe dry eye disease (DED). Prospective interventional case series. Forty-one eyes from 25 patients with moderate to severe DED were evaluated for Esclera ScCL treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and slit-lamp findings were assessed. Impression cytology specimens were obtained from DED patients at the baseline and after wearing ScCLs for 12 months. The impression cytology specimens were analyzed using morphological results score, and HLA-DR positive cells were detected and quantified. The values were compared to assess the IC changes after wearing ScCLs. Forty-one eyes from 25 patients were fitted with ScCLs to manage DED. The underlying diseases were Stevens-Johnson syndrome (22 eyes), Sjogren's syndrome (11 eyes), graft-versus-host disease (2 eyes), dry eye after keratomileusis (2 eyes) and undifferentiated ocular surface disease (4 eyes). The HE-PAS impression cytology score did not differ significantly before and after wearing ScCLs for 12 months in DED patients (p>0.05). The percentage of eyes expressing the HLA-DR antigen in the temporal conjunctiva after wearing ScCL for 12 months significantly increased in patients with Sjogren's syndrome (11.11% to 66.66%; p=0.0498). In groups with Stevens Johnson syndrome and other ocular surface disorders, we did not observe statistically significant differences (p>0.05). The ScCLs did not change the parameters used to evaluate inflammatory processes, which were measured using conjunctival impression cytology and HLA-DR expression, except in Sjogren syndrome, in which there was an unexpected increase in HLA expression. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Skin tuberculin test (STT) for screening tuberculosis in contacts of tuberculosis patients].

    PubMed

    Toure, N O; Dia, Y; Diatta, A; Ndiaye, E H M; Thiam, K; Niang, A; Fall, N; Kane, M; Mbae, F; Cisse, A; Hane, A A

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have underlined the theorical and practical role of Skin Tuberculin Test (STT) as an important tool for the diagnosis and for the screening of tuberculosis in the population. This prospective study evaluated STT in 51 smear positive tuberculosis patients and 108 contacts tuberculosis patients apparently in a good health condition. Twenty seven patients have disappeared before the end of the study and 7 patients were excluded for non suitable results. So we analysed only 73 cases. The mean age was 34 years, with extreme of 1 and 77 years. There were 33 male and 40 female patients for a sex-ratio of 0,8. BCG vaccination scar was found in 64% of patients. We calculated the Body-Mass-Index and we found a proteinocaloric malnutrition (BMI<18,5) in 30%. The mean diameter of STT induration was 12,3mm with extremes of 7 and 20mm. Considering a STT < 7 mm as negative, 4 patients (5%) had a negative STT and 69 (95%) a positive STT. 13 of these 69 patients had a STT > 15mm. The age group of the 10 to 50 years had more positive STT. Meanwhile, according to the sexe and to the nutritional status, there was no statistical difference. All patients with a negative STT received BCG vaccination after 2 months of follow-up. Those with STT>15mm were examinated and had a chest X-ray the day of their enrolment, at the second month and at the sixth month and we didn't find any evolutive tuberculosis. According to these results, we can conclude that STT is not an important test for the screening of pulmonary tuberculosis in contact patients. Clinical examination, chest X-ray and sputum smear remain very important for the diagnosis. Despite these results, STT remain the only validated technic between the different tuberculin tests. Its interest was twofold: the research of an acquired immunity against tuberculosis after BCG immunisation and it is clinical test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children.

  13. Total contact cast wall load in patients with a plantar forefoot ulcer and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Begg, Lindy; McLaughlin, Patrick; Vicaretti, Mauro; Fletcher, John; Burns, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The total contact cast (TCC) is an effective intervention to reduce plantar pressure in patients with diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer. The walls of the TCC have been indirectly shown to bear approximately 30 % of the plantar load. A new direct method to measure inside the TCC walls with capacitance sensors has shown that the anterodistal and posterolateral-distal regions of the lower leg bear the highest load. The objective of this study was to directly measure these two regions in patients with Diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer to further understand the mechanism of pressure reduction in the TCC. A TCC was applied to 17 patients with Diabetes and a plantar forefoot ulcer. TCC wall load (contact area, peak pressure and max force) at the anterodistal and posterolateral-distal regions of the lower leg were evaluated with two capacitance sensor strips measuring 90 cm(2) (pliance®, novel GmbH, Germany). Plantar load (contact area, peak pressure and max force) was measured with a capacitance sensor insole (pedar®, novel GmbH, Germany) placed inside the TCC. Both pedar® and pliance® collected data simultaneously at a sampling rate of 50Hz synchronised to heel strike. The magnitude of TCC wall load as a proportion of plantar load was calculated. The TCC walls were then removed to determine the differences in plantar loading between the TCC and the cut down shoe-cast for the whole foot, rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot (region of interest). TCC wall load was substantial. The anterodistal lower leg recorded 48 % and the posterolateral-distal lower leg recorded 34 % of plantar contact area. The anterodistal lower leg recorded 28 % and the posterolateral-distal lower leg recorded 12 % of plantar peak pressure. The anterodistal lower leg recorded 12 % and the posterolateral-distal lower leg recorded 4 % of plantar max force. There were significant differences in plantar load between the TCC and the cut down shoe-cast for the whole foot, rearfoot, midfoot and

  14. Contact allergy to oxidized geraniol among Swedish dermatitis patients-A multicentre study by the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Lina; Bruze, Magnus; Engfeldt, Malin; Isaksson, Marléne; Lindberg, Magnus; Ryberg, Kristina; Stenberg, Berndt; Svedman, Cecilia; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Bråred Christensson, Johanna

    2018-06-21

    Geraniol is a widely used fragrance terpene, and is included in fragrance mix I. Geraniol is prone to autoxidation, forming the skin sensitizers geranial, neral, and geraniol-7-hydroperoxide. Oxidized geraniol has previously been patch tested in 1 clinic, giving 1% to 4.6% positive reactions in consecutive patients when tested at 2% to 11%. To compare test reactions to pure and oxidized geraniol, to compare 2 different test concentrations of oxidized geraniol and to investigate the pattern of concomitant reactions to fragrance markers of the baseline series in a multicentre setting. One thousand four hundred and seventy-six consecutive patients referred for patch testing were patch tested with geraniol 6% pet. and oxidized geraniol 6% and 11% pet. Pure geraniol 6% pet., oxidized geraniol 6% pet. and oxidized geraniol 11% pet. gave 1%, 3% and 8% positive patch test reactions and 0.7%, 3% and 5% doubtful reactions, respectively. Approximately 50% of the patients with doubtful reactions to oxidized geraniol 6% pet. had positive reactions to oxidized geraniol 11% pet. Oxidized geraniol 11% pet. provides better detection than oxidized geraniol 6% pet. As most patients reacted only to oxidized geraniol, it is important to explore further whether oxidized geraniol should be included in a baseline patch test series. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Clinical features of 31 patients with systemic contact dermatitis due to the ingestion of Rhus (lacquer).

    PubMed

    Park, S D; Lee, S W; Chun, J H; Cha, S H

    2000-05-01

    In Korea, Rhus has been used as a folk medicine to cure gastrointestinal diseases and as a health food. We review the clinicopathological and laboratory findings in patients with systemic contact dermatitis caused by intake of Rhus. We reviewed medical records and histopathological sections from 31 patients during a 10-year period. The male/female ratio was 1.4: 1 and the average age was 43.8 years (range 22-70). Ten patients (32%) had a known history of allergy to lacquer. Rhus was ingested to treat gastrointestinal problems including indigestion and gastritis (45%), and as a health food (39%), in cooked meat, in herbal medicine, or taken by inhalation. The patients developed skin lesions such as a maculopapular eruption (65%), erythema multiforme (EM, 32%), erythroderma (19%), pustules, purpura, weals and blisters. Erythroderma was very frequent in patients with a known history of allergy to lacquer, but maculopapular and EM-type eruptions were more frequently observed in those without a history of allergy. All patients experienced generalized or localized pruritus. Other symptoms included gastrointestinal problems (32%), fever (26%), chills and headache; many developed leucocytosis (70%) with neutrophilia (88%), while some showed toxic effects on liver and kidney. Fifty-nine per cent of patients observed cutaneous or general symptoms within a day after ingestion of Rhus. There was no difference in the time lag for symptoms to develop between patients allergic and not allergic to Rhus. All patients responded well to treatment with systemic steroids and antihistamines. Common histopathological findings were vascular dilatation, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltration, and extravasation of red blood cells in the upper dermis. Rhus lacquer should not be ingested in view of its highly allergic and toxic effects.

  16. Ingestion of Rhus chicken causing systemic contact dermatitis in a Korean patient.

    PubMed

    Yoo, K H; Seo, S J; Li, K; Hong, C K

    2010-10-01

    Rhus chicken is a common traditional remedy used to cure gastrointestinal diseases and as a health food in Korea. Unfortunately, systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) due to the ingestion of Rhus occasionally occurs. In this study, the clinical and laboratory findings were reviewed and analysed for 30 Korean patients with SCD developing after ingestion of Rhus chicken. Summer was found to be the commonest period for hospital visits because of this condition. The mean period of incubation for SCD, was 4 ± 1.5 days. The commonest skin features were generalized maculopapular eruptions. Of the 30 patients, 10 had a known history of allergy to Rhus chicken. Many of the patients developed neutrophilia and leucocytosis. All the patients responded well to standard treatments. The commonest reason for their ingestion of Rhus chicken was indigestion. We conclude that SCD often occurs in Koreans after ingestion of Rhus chicken. Patients should be educated about the harmful effects of Rhus chicken and advised not to ingest it.

  17. Risk factors for acquisition of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumonia among contact patients: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Hilliquin, D; Le Guern, R; Thepot Seegers, V; Neulier, C; Lomont, A; Marie, V; Legeay, C; Merrer, J; Lepelletier, D; Rogues, A M; Grandbastien, B; Lucet, J C; Zahar, J R

    2018-03-01

    Cohorting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) carriers during hospitalization limits in-hospital spreading. To identify risk factors for CPE acquisition among contacts of an index patient in non-cohorted populations. A multicentre retrospective matched case-control study was conducted in five hospitals. Each contact patient (case) who acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP)-OXA-48 from an index patient was compared to three contact (controls) with the same index patients matched with hospitalization in the same unit and similar exposure times. Fifty-one secondary cases and 131 controls were included. By univariate analysis, exposure time (odds ratio: 1.06; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.1; P = 0.006), concomitant infection at admission (3.23; 1.42-7.35; P = 0.005), antimicrobial therapy within the last month before hospitalization (2.88; 1.34-6.2; P = 0.007), antimicrobial therapy during the exposure time (5.36; 2.28-12.6; P < 0.001), use of at least one invasive procedure (2.99; 1.25-7.15; P = 0.014), number of invasive procedures (1.52; 1.05-2.19; P = 0.025), and geographical proximity (2.84; 1.15-7.00; P = 0.023) were associated with CPE acquisition. By multivariate analysis, antimicrobial therapy during the exposure time (odds ratio: 6.36; 95% confidence interval: 2.46-16.44; P < 0.001), at least one invasive procedure (2.92; 1.04-8.17; P = 0.041), and geographical proximity (3.69; 1.15-11.86; P = 0.028) were associated with acquisition. In this study, geographical proximity, invasive procedure, and antimicrobial therapy during exposure time were significantly associated with KP-OXA-48 acquisition. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer: an analysis of patient contacts and utilization of healthcare resources.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Berg, Kasper D; Røder, M Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Brasso, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Evidence supports active surveillance (AS) as a means to reduce overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The consequences of close and long-standing follow-up with regard to outpatient visits, tests and repeated biopsies are widely unknown. This study investigated the trajectory and costs of AS in patients with localized PCa. In total, 317 PCa patients were followed in a prospective, single-arm AS cohort. The primary outcomes were number of patient contacts, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, biopsies, hospital admissions due to biopsy complications and patients eventually undergoing curative treatment. The secondary outcome was cost. The 5 year cumulative incidence of discontinued AS in a competing-risk model was 40%. During the first 5 years of AS patients underwent a median of two biopsy sets, and patients were seen in an outpatient clinic including PSA testing three to four times annually. In total, 38 of the 406 biopsy sessions led to hospital admission and 87 of the 317 patients required treatment for bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). With a median of 3.7 years' follow-up, the total cost of AS was euro (€) 1,240,286. Assuming all patients had otherwise undergone primary radical prostatectomy, the cost difference favoured AS with a net benefit of €662,661 (35% reduction). AS entails a close clinical follow-up with a considerable risk of rebiopsy complication, treatment of BOO and subsequent delayed definitive therapy. This risk should be weighed against a potential economic benefit and reduction in the risk of overtreatment compared to immediate radical treatment.

  19. Expedited patient-specific assessment of contact stress exposure in the ankle joint following definitive articular fracture reduction.

    PubMed

    Kern, Andrew M; Anderson, Donald D

    2015-09-18

    Acute injury severity, altered joint kinematics, and joint incongruity are three important mechanical factors linked to post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Finite element analysis (FEA) was previously used to assess the influence of increased contact stress due to joint incongruity on PTOA development. While promising agreement with PTOA development was seen, the inherent complexities of contact FEA limited the numbers of subjects that could be analyzed. Discrete element analysis (DEA) is a simplified methodology for contact stress computation, which idealizes contact surfaces as a bed of independent linear springs. In this study, DEA was explored as an expedited alternative to FEA contact stress exposure computation. DEA was compared to FEA using results from a previously completed validation study of two cadaveric human ankles, as well as a previous study of post-operative contact stress exposure in 11 patients with tibial plafond fracture. DEA-computed maximum contact stresses were within 19% of those experimentally measured, with 90% of the contact area having computed contact stress values within 1MPa of those measured. In the 11 fractured ankles, maximum contact stress and contact area differences between DEA and FEA were 0.85 ± 0.64 MPa and 22.5 ± 11.5mm(2). As a predictive measure for PTOA development, both DEA and FEA had 100% concordance with presence of OA (KL grade ≥ 2) and >95% concordance with KL grade at 2 years. These results support DEA as a reasonable alternative to FEA for computing contact stress exposures following surgical reduction of a tibial plafond fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial flora of tears of orthokeratology patients, and microbial contamination of contact lenses and contact lens accessories.

    PubMed

    Boost, Maureen V; Cho, Pauline

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if there are changes in the ocular flora of overnight orthokeratology (ortho-k) patients, and the levels of contamination of their lenses and lens accessories, and to correlate compliance with levels of contamination. Normal ocular flora of 41 subjects was determined twice before commencing ortho-k lens wear by culture of the lower conjunctiva. Further specimens were collected on six follow-up visits after beginning lens wear, as were samples from their lenses, cases, and suction holders. A questionnaire on lens care was administered after the fifth visit. Three subjects provided conjunctival samples yielding Staphylococcus aureus on one occasion before lens wear, one being positive for this organism after beginning lens wear. Of 38 subjects yielding no growth or only normal eye flora before use, 28 remained free of ocular pathogens after beginning lens wear. Only four subjects had positive cultures on more than one occasion after lens wear. There was no significant difference in isolation levels of pathogens with lens wear (p = 0.423). Lens culture of 54% of subjects yielded no growth or normal flora only; lenses of 16 subjects yielded potential pathogens, including three subjects contaminated on more than one occasion. Lens isolates did not match the organisms transiently colonizing the eye. Lens case, the most frequently contaminated item, was associated with lens contamination (p < 0.001), the same organism being isolated from both items in 11 subjects. Lens suction holder was less frequently contaminated. Neither lens case nor suction holder contamination was associated with isolates from the eye. Reported good compliance correlated with lack of contamination in all but one subject. The most frequent breaches in the lens care protocol were failure to clean, disinfect, and replace the lens case. Ocular flora was not altered by ortho-k lens wear over an extended period, and patients remained free of infection

  1. Mortality in first-contact psychosis patients in the U.K.: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dutta, R; Murray, R M; Allardyce, J; Jones, P B; Boydell, J E

    2012-08-01

    The excess mortality following first-contact psychosis is well recognized. However, the causes of death in a complete incidence cohort and mortality patterns over time compared with the general population are unknown. All 2723 patients who presented for the first time with psychosis in three defined catchment areas of the U.K. in London (1965-2004, n=2056), Nottingham (1997-1999, n=203) and Dumfries and Galloway (1979-1998, n=464) were traced after a mean of 11.5 years follow-up and death certificates were obtained. Data analysis was by indirect standardization. The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for first-contact psychosis was 184 [95% confidence interval (CI) 167-202]. Most deaths (84.2%, 374/444) were from natural causes, although suicide had the highest SMR (1165, 95% CI 873-1524). Diseases of the respiratory system and infectious diseases had the highest SMR of the natural causes of death (232, 95% CI 183-291). The risk of death from diseases of the circulatory system was also elevated compared with the general population (SMR 139, 95% CI 117-164) whereas there was no such difference for neoplasms (SMR 111, 95% CI 86-141). There was strong evidence that the mortality gap compared with the general population for all causes of death (p<0.001) and all natural causes (p=0.01) increased over the four decades of the study. There was weak evidence that cardiovascular deaths may be increasing relative to the general population (p=0.07). People with first-contact psychosis have an overall mortality risk that is nearly double that of the general population. Most excess deaths are from natural causes. The widening of the mortality gap over the last four decades should be of concern to all clinicians involved in delivering healthcare.

  2. Optical patient interface in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery: contact corneal applanation versus liquid immersion.

    PubMed

    Talamo, Jonathan H; Gooding, Philip; Angeley, David; Culbertson, William W; Schuele, Georg; Andersen, Daniel; Marcellino, George; Essock-Burns, Emma; Batlle, Juan; Feliz, Rafael; Friedman, Neil J; Palanker, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    To compare 2 optical patient interface designs used for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Optimedica Corp., Santa Clara, California, USA, and Centro Laser, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Experimental and clinical studies. Laser capsulotomy was performed during cataract surgery with a curved contact lens interface (CCL) or a liquid optical immersion interface (LOI). The presence of corneal folds, incomplete capsulotomy, subconjunctival hemorrhage, and eye movement during laser treatment were analyzed using video and optical coherence tomography. The induced rise of intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in porcine and cadaver eyes. Corneal folds were identified in 70% of the CCL cohort; 63% of these had areas of incomplete capsulotomies beneath the corneal folds. No corneal folds or incomplete capsulotomies were identified in the LOI cohort. The mean eye movement during capsulotomy creation (1.5 sec) was 50 μm with a CCL and 20 μm with an LOI. The LOI cohort had 36% less subconjunctival hemorrhage than the CCL cohort. During suction, the mean IOP rise was 32.4 mm Hg ± 3.4 (SD) in the CCL group and 17.7 ± 2.1 mm Hg in the LOI group. Curved contact interfaces create corneal folds that can lead to incomplete capsulotomy during laser cataract surgery. A liquid interface eliminated corneal folds, improved globe stability, reduced subconjunctival hemorrhage, and lowered IOP rise. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Neuroplasticity as a basis for early rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Putilina, M V

    2011-01-01

    The review is devoted to the current state of the problem of early rehabilitation of stroke patients. The rate of primary disability in patients after stroke is 3.2 per 10000 population but only 20% of previously working patients return to work. Early rehabilitation is treatment actions during a period following stroke. Adequate treatment during this period may decrease the extent of brain damage and improve disease outcome. The complexity of rehabilitation consists in using several complementary pharmacological and non-pharmacological rehabilitation measures. Appearance of new techniques of rehabilitation treatment aimed at neuroplasticity stimulation increases treatment potential of rehabilitative technologies.

  4. Predictors of Late Reperfusion in STEMI Patients Undergoing Primary Angioplasty. Impact of the Place of First Medical Contact.

    PubMed

    Carol Ruiz, Antoni; Masip Utset, Josep; Ariza Solé, Albert

    2017-03-01

    The benefit of primary angioplasty may be reduced if there are delays to reperfusion. Identification of the variables associated with these delays could improve health care. Analysis of the Codi Infart registry of Catalonia and of the time to angioplasty depending on the place of first medical contact. In 3832 patients analyzed, first medical contact took place in primary care centers in 18% and in hospitals without a catheterization laboratory in 37%. Delays were longer in these 2 groups than in patients attended by the outpatient emergency medical system or by hospitals with a catheterization laboratory (P < .0001, results in median): first medical contact to reperfusion indication time was 42minutes in both (overall 35minutes); first medical contact to artery opening time was 131 and 143minutes, respectively (overall 121minutes); total ischemia time was 230 and 260minutes (overall 215minutes). First medical contact to artery opening time > 120minutes was strongly associated with first medical contact in a center without a catheterization laboratory (OR, 4.96; 95% confidence interval, 4.14-5.93), and other factors such as age, previous coronary surgery, first medical contact during evening hours, nondiagnostic electrocardiogram, and Killip class ≥ III. Mortality at 30 days and 1 year was 5.6% and 8.7% and was independently associated with age, longer delay to angioplasty, Killip class ≥ II, and first medical contact in a center with a catheterization laboratory. In more than 50% of patients requiring primary angioplasty, the first medical contact occurs in centers without a catheterization laboratory, which is an important predictor of delay from diagnosis to artery opening. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A home tracing program for contacts of people with tuberculosis or HIV and patients lost to care.

    PubMed

    Deery, C B; Hanrahan, C F; Selibas, K; Bassett, J; Sanne, I; Van Rie, A

    2014-05-01

    Primary care clinic serving a high tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence community in South Africa. To evaluate a program combining TB and HIV contact investigation with tracing of individuals lost to TB or HIV care. Contacts were offered home-based HIV testing, TB symptom screening, sputum collection and referral for isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Effectiveness was assessed by the number needed to trace (NNT). Only 419/1197 (35.0%) households were successfully traced. Among 267 contacts, we diagnosed 27 new HIV cases (10 linked to care) and two TB cases (both initiated treatment) and three started IPT. Of 630 patients lost to care, 132 (21.0%) were successfully traced and 81 (61.4%) re-engaged in care. The NNT to locate one individual lost to care was 4.8 (95%CI 4.1-5.6), to re-engage one person in care 7.8 (95%CI 6.4-9.7), to diagnose one contact with HIV 44.3 (95%CI 30.6-67.0), to link one newly diagnosed contact to HIV care 120 (95%CI 65.3-249.2) and to find one contact with active TB and initiate treatment 599 (95%CI 166.0-4940.7). The effectiveness of this contact tracing approach in identifying new TB and HIV cases was low. Methods to optimize contact investigation should be explored and their cost-effectiveness assessed.

  6. Investigation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Transmission from Patients to Relatives: A Prospective Contact Tracing Study

    PubMed Central

    Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Bakir, Mehmet; Oztop, Atifet Yasemin; Engin, Aynur; Dokmetas, Ilyas; Elaldi, Nazif

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus through respiratory and physical contact. In this prospective study, we traced 116 close relatives of confirmed CCHF cases who were in close contact with the patients during the acute phase of the infection and evaluated the type of contact between patients and their relatives. These relatives were followed for clinical signs or symptoms indicative of CCHF disease, blood samples of those with and without clinical signs were analyzed for CCHF virus immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG, respectively) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No close relatives developed any signs or symptoms of CCHF and were negative for CCHF virus IgM and IgG. The results suggest that CCHF virus is not easily transmitted from person to person through respiratory or physical contact. PMID:24166037

  7. Early tracheostomy in trauma patients saves time and money.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Glendon A; Savage, Stephanie A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Hart-Hyde, Jensen E; Schaefer, Candace B; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2015-01-01

    Patients suffering traumatic brain and chest wall injuries are often difficult to liberate from the ventilator yet best timing of tracheostomy remains ill-defined. While prior studies have addressed early versus late tracheostomy, they generally suffer from the use of historical controls, which cannot account for variations in management over time. Propensity scoring can be utilized to identify controls from the same patient population, minimizing impact of confounding variables. The purpose of this study was to determine outcomes associated with early versus late tracheostomy by application of propensity scoring. Patients requiring intubation within 48h and receiving tracheostomy from January 2010 to June 2012 were identified. Early tracheostomy (ET) was a tracheostomy performed by the fifth hospital day. ET patients were matched to late tracheostomy patients (LT, tracheostomy after day 5) using propensity scoring and compared for multiple outcomes. Cost for services was calculated using average daily billing rates at our institution. One hundred and six patients were included, 53 each in the ET (mean day tracheostomy=4) and the LT (mean day tracheostomy=10) cohorts. The average age was 47 years and 94% suffered blunt injury, with an average NISS of 23.7. Patients in the ET group had significantly shorter TICU LOS (21.4 days vs. 28.6 days, p<0.0001) and significantly fewer ventilator days (16.7 days vs. 21.9, p<0.0001) compared to the LT group. ET patients also had significantly less VAP (34% vs. 64.2%, p=0.0019). In the current era of increased health-care costs, early tracheostomy significantly decreased both pulmonary morbidity and critical care resource utilization. This translates to an appreciable cost savings, at minimum $52,173 per patient and a potential total savings of $2.8million/year for the entire LT cohort. For trauma patients requiring prolonged ventilator support, early tracheostomy should be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Contacting authors to retrieve individual patient data: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Straus, Sharon E; Ashoor, Huda; Stewart, Lesley A; Clarke, Mike; Tricco, Andrea C

    2016-03-15

    Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis is considered the "gold standard" for exploring the effectiveness of interventions in different subgroups of patients. However, obtaining IPD is time-consuming and contact with the researchers responsible for the original trials is usually required. To date, there are no studies evaluating different strategies to optimize the process for retrieval of IPD from such researchers. Our aim is to examine the impact of providing incentives to the researchers responsible for the trials eligible for a meta-analysis to submit their IPD. We updated our previously published systematic reviews for type 1 diabetes mellitus comparing long- and intermediate-acting insulin regimens (from January 2013 to June 2015) and for Alzheimer's dementia comparing cognitive enhancers (from January 2015 to May 2015). Eligible were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) fulfilling the eligibility criteria of the systematic reviews. We will randomly allocate authors of the reports of these RCTs into an intervention or control group. Those allocated to the intervention group will be contacted by email, mail, and phone, and will be asked to provide the IPD from their RCT and will be given a financial incentive. Those allocated to the control group will be contacted by email, mail, and phone, but will not receive a financial incentive. Our primary outcome will be the proportion of authors who provide the IPD. The secondary outcomes will be the time to return the dataset (defined as the period between the information request and the authors' response with the dataset), and completeness of data. We will compare the response rates in the two groups using the odds ratio and the corresponding 95 % confidence interval. We will also use binary logistic regression and cox regression analyses to examine whether different RCT characteristics, such as study size and sponsor information, influence the probability of providing IPD and the time needed to share the data

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of a Chemoprophylactic Intervention with Single Dose Rifampicin in Contacts of New Leprosy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Idema, Willemijn J.; Majer, Istvan M.; Pahan, David; Oskam, Linda; Polinder, Suzanne; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    Background With 249,007 new leprosy patients detected globally in 2008, it remains necessary to develop new and effective interventions to interrupt the transmission of M. leprae. We assessed the economic benefits of single dose rifampicin (SDR) for contacts as chemoprophylactic intervention in the control of leprosy. Methods We conducted a single centre, double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled trial in northwest Bangladesh between 2002 and 2007, including 21,711 close contacts of 1,037 patients with newly diagnosed leprosy. We gave a single dose of rifampicin or placebo to close contacts, with follow-up for four years. The main outcome measure was the development of clinical leprosy. We assessed the cost effectiveness by calculating the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) between the standard multidrug therapy (MDT) program with the additional chemoprophylaxis intervention versus the standard MDT program only. The ICER was expressed in US dollars per prevented leprosy case. Findings Chemoprophylaxis with SDR for preventing leprosy among contacts of leprosy patients is cost-effective at all contact levels and thereby a cost-effective prevention strategy. In total, $6,009 incremental cost was invested and 38 incremental leprosy cases were prevented, resulting in an ICER of $158 per one additional prevented leprosy case. It was the most cost-effective in neighbours of neighbours and social contacts (ICER $214), slightly less cost-effective in next door neighbours (ICER $497) and least cost-effective among household contacts (ICER $856). Conclusion Chemoprophylaxis with single dose rifampicin given to contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients is a cost-effective intervention strategy. Implementation studies are necessary to establish whether this intervention is acceptable and feasible in other leprosy endemic areas of the world. PMID:21072235

  10. Severity and functional disability of patients with occupational contact dermatitis: validation of the German version of the Occupational Contact Dermatitis Disease Severity Index.

    PubMed

    Ofenloch, Robert F; Diepgen, Thomas L; Popielnicki, Ana; Weisshaar, Elke; Molin, Sonja; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; Elsner, Peter; Schmitt, Jochen; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The Occupational Contact Dermatitis Disease Severity Index (ODDI) was designed in Australia to measure severity and functional disability in patients with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) of the hands. The ODDI was translated into the German language with a linguistic validation process. The psychometric properties of the German version of the ODDI are still unclear. To report the linguistic validation procedure and to perform a psychometric validation by investigating the validity and reliability of the German ODDI version in a sample of patients with OCD. Data were drawn from the baseline assessment (T0) and first follow-up (T1) of the German chronic hand eczema (CHE) registry (CARPE). Spearman correlations of the ODDI with reference measures were computed to assess validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated as a measure of internal consistency, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess retest reliability. The smallest real difference (SRD) and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) were calculated to assess sensitivity to change. Physician Global Assessment (PGA) was used as an anchor for the MCID. Four hundred and twenty-two patients (54.5% female, mean age 45.1 years) were included for analysis. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.73. The ICC was 0.79. Correlations between the ODDI total and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (rho = 0.36), and between PGA (rho = 0.48) and patient-assessed disease severity (rho = 0.40), were of moderate strength. The MCID (1.29) was found to be smaller than the SRD (1.87). The German ODDI version is reliable and valid for the measurement of functional impairment and disease severity in patients suffering from OCD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. IFNγ Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Risk of Infection and Disease in Household Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Nancy D.; Marín, Diana M.; López, Lucelly; Henao, Hanna M.; Martínez, Teresita; Villa, Liliana; Barrera, Luis F.; Ortiz, Blanca L.; Ramírez, María E.; Montes, Carlos J.; Oquendo, María C.; Arango, Lisandra M.; Riaño, Felipe; Aguirre, Carlos; Bustamante, Alberto; Belisle, John T.; Dobos, Karen; Mejía, Gloria I.; Giraldo, Margarita R.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Robledo, Jaime; Arbeláez, María P.; Rojas, Carlos A.; García, Luis F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Household contacts (HHCs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients are at high risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and early disease development. Identification of individuals at risk of tuberculosis disease is a desirable goal for tuberculosis control. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) using specific M. tuberculosis antigens provide an alternative to tuberculin skin testing (TST) for infection detection. Additionally, the levels of IFNγ produced in response to these antigens may have prognostic value. We estimated the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by IGRA and TST in HHCs and their source population (SP), and assessed whether IFNγ levels in HHCs correlate with tuberculosis development. Methods A cohort of 2060 HHCs was followed for 2–3 years after exposure to a tuberculosis case. Besides TST, IFNγ responses to mycobacterial antigens: CFP, CFP-10, HspX and Ag85A were assessed in 7-days whole blood cultures and compared to 766 individuals from the SP in Medellín, Colombia. Isoniazid prophylaxis was not offered to child contacts because Colombian tuberculosis regulations consider it only in children under 5 years, TST positive without BCG vaccination. Results Using TST 65.9% of HHCs and 42.7% subjects from the SP were positive (OR 2.60, p<0.0001). IFNγ response to CFP-10, a biomarker of M. tuberculosis infection, tested positive in 66.3% HHCs and 24.3% from the SP (OR = 6.07, p<0.0001). Tuberculosis incidence rate was 7.0/1000 person years. Children <5 years accounted for 21.6% of incident cases. No significant difference was found between positive and negative IFNγ responders to CFP-10 (HR 1.82 95% CI 0.79–4.20 p = 0.16). However, a significant trend for tuberculosis development amongst high HHC IFNγ producers was observed (trend Log rank p = 0.007). Discussion CFP-10-induced IFNγ production is useful to establish tuberculosis infection prevalence amongst HHC and identify those at highest risk of disease. The high

  12. Associations of Frequency and Duration of Patient-Doctor Contact in Hemodialysis Facilities with Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Karaboyas, Angelo; Robinson, Bruce M.; Li, Yun; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Bieber, Brian A.; Rayner, Hugh C.; Andreucci, Vittorio E.; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Port, Friedrich K.; Morgenstern, Hal; Akizawa, Tadao; Saran, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether regular patient-doctor contact (PDC) contributes to better outcomes for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Here, we analyzed the associations between frequency and duration of PDC during hemodialysis treatments with clinical outcomes among 24,498 patients from 778 facilities in the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). The typical facility PDC frequency, estimated by facility personnel, was high (more than once per week) for 55% of facilities, intermediate (once per week) for 24%, and low (less than once per week) for 21%. The mean ± SD estimated duration of a typical interaction between patient and physician was 7.7±5.6 minutes. PDC frequency and duration varied across DOPPS phases and countries; the proportion of facilities with high PDC frequency was 17% in the United States and 73% across the other countries. Compared with high PDC frequency, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96 to 1.17) for intermediate PDC frequency and 1.11 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23) for low PDC frequency (P=0.03 for trend). Furthermore, each 5-minutes-shorter duration of PDC was associated with a 5% higher risk for death, on average (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.09), adjusted for PDC frequency and other covariates. Multivariable analyses also suggested modest inverse associations between both PDC frequency and duration with hospitalization but not with kidney transplantation. Taken together, these results suggest that policies supporting more frequent and longer duration of PDC may improve patient outcomes in hemodialysis. PMID:23886592

  13. [Response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte to nickel stimulation in patients with systemic and contact allergy to nickel].

    PubMed

    Czarnobilska, Ewa; Thor, Piotr; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, Jolanta; Słodowska-Hajduk, Zofia; Stobiecki, Marcin; Dyga, Wojciech; Wsołek, Katarzyna; Obtułowicz, Krystyna

    2006-01-01

    Nickel is knows as the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis, as well as diffuse eczema, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. The mechanism of contact allergy to nickel is well known. In spite of numerous investigations, the mechanism of systemic allergy to nickel is still not clear. 22 patients with positive patch tests to nickel were analyzed. On basis of clinical symptoms the patients were divided into two groups: 1. with contact allergy dermatitis to nickel--8 patients 2. with systemic allergy to nickel (allergic rhinitis and/or diffuse eczema--14 patients. The control group included non-atopic patients with negative patch test to nickel--6 patients. 10 ml of blood were taken from each patient and peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBC) were isolated. In PBMC culture, NiSO4 and PHA were stimulated. The control group was non-stimulated cells. The supernatants were collected after 3 and 6 days of culture and the levels of cytokines IL-5, 4 and IFNgamma were measured (ELISA). The concentration of IFNgamma in supernatants from stimulated as well as non-stimulated cells from patients with contact allergy to nickel was higher in comparison to the control group. The concentration of IL-5 in this group was low. There was an increase in the production of IFNgamma and IL-5 after NiSO4 stimulation in patients with systemic allergy to nickel. The higher concentration of IFNgamma in the same groups of patients investigated was in supernatants from the third day of PBMC culture were compared to the sixth day. After 3 and 6 days of culture, the concentration of IL-4 (ELISA) was below detection level in all supernatants analyzed. IFNgamma plays an essential role in the mechanism of developing of contact allergy to nickel; and IFNgamma as well as IL-5 play a role in the mechanism of developing systemic allergy to nickel. The third day of PBMC culture is more reliable for IFNgamma estimation.

  14. Very early withdrawal from treatment in patients starting peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qimei; Xia, Xi; Lin, Zhenchuan; Lin, Jianxiong; Yang, Xiao; Huang, Fengxian; Yu, Xueqing

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Very early withdrawal from treatment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an increasingly important, but poorly understood, issue. Here, we identified the reasons and risk factors for very early withdrawal from PD. Methods: Incident PD patients from The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University above 18 years who started treatment between January 1 2006 and December 31 2011 were included. Cessation of PD therapy within the first 90 days after beginning dialysis was classified as very early withdrawal. Results: Totally 1444 patients were enrolled. Of these, 71 (4.9%) withdrew from PD therapy during the first 90 days. Primary reasons for very early withdrawal included death (34 patients, 47.9%), transplantation (21 patients, 29.6%) and transfer to hemodialysis (14 patients, 19.7%). The leading reasons for death were cardiovascular and infectious disease, accounting for 41.2% (14 patients) and 23.5% (8 patients) of total deaths, respectively. Dialysate leakage (six patients, 42.9%) and catheter dysfunction (five patients, 35.7%) were the main reasons for transfer to hemodialysis. In multivariate analysis, predictors for very early PD withdrawal were older age (per decade increasing; hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.45; p = .019), higher systolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg increasing; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.20–1.50; p < .001), lower hemoglobin (per 10 g/l increasing; HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57–0.78; p < .001), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10–0.54; p = .001) and lower residual urine volume (per 100 ml/d increasing; HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84–0.95; p = .001). Conclusions: Death was the primary reason for very early withdrawal from PD. Risk factors for very early withdrawal from PD were older in age, had higher systolic blood pressure, lower hemoglobin, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower residual urine volume

  15. Contact isolation is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, Christopher R; Ferguson, Robert A; Peng, Yiming; Collier, Bryan R; Bradburn, Eric H; Toms, Alice R; Fogel, Sandy L; Baker, Christopher C; Hamill, Mark E

    2015-11-01

    Contact isolation (CI) is a series of precautions used to prevent the transmission of medically significant infectious pathogens in the health care setting. Our institution's implementation of CI includes limiting patient movement to the assigned room. Our objective was to define the association between CI and venous thromboembolism (VTE) at our Level I trauma center. Our institution's prospective trauma database was retrospectively queried for all patients admitted to the trauma service between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. Data including demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), preexisting medical conditions, injury type, and VTE development were collected. CI status data were obtained from our institution's infection control database. χ2 was used to examine the unadjusted relationship between CI status and VTE. As the groups were not equivalent, logistic regression was then used to examine the relationship between CI and VTE while adjusting for relevant covariates including sex, age, ISS, and comorbidities. Of the 4,423 trauma patients admitted during the study period, 4,318 (97.6%) had complete records and were included in subsequent analyses. A total of 249 (5.8%) of the patients were on CI. VTE occurred in 44 patients (17.7%) on CI versus 141 patients (3.5%) who were not isolated (p < 0.0001; odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 4.1-8.6). With the use of lasso [least absolute shrinkage and selection operator] regression to adjust for patient risk factors, this relationship remained highly significant (p < 0.0001; odds ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.0). CI, ISS, hospital length of stay, and cardiac comorbidity were associated with VTE. After adjustment for other risk factors, CI remained most strongly associated with VTE. Although any medical intervention may come with unintended consequences, the risks and benefits of CI in this population need to be reevaluated. Further study is planned to identify opportunities to mitigate

  16. Physical validation of a patient-specific contact finite element model of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald D; Goldsworthy, Jane K; Li, Wendy; James Rudert, M; Tochigi, Yuki; Brown, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to determine the extent to which computational ankle contact finite element (FE) results agreed with experimentally measured tibio-talar contact stress. Two cadaver ankles were loaded in separate test sessions, during which ankle contact stresses were measured with a high-resolution (Tekscan) pressure sensor. Corresponding contact FE analyses were subsequently performed for comparison. The agreement was good between FE-computed and experimentally measured mean (3.2% discrepancy for one ankle, 19.3% for the other) and maximum (1.5% and 6.2%) contact stress, as well as for contact area (1.7% and 14.9%). There was also excellent agreement between histograms of fractional areas of cartilage experiencing specific ranges of contact stress. Finally, point-by-point comparisons between the computed and measured contact stress distributions over the articular surface showed substantial agreement, with correlation coefficients of 90% for one ankle and 86% for the other. In the past, general qualitative, but little direct quantitative agreement has been demonstrated with articular joint contact FE models. The methods used for this validation enable formal comparison of computational and experimental results, and open the way for objective statistical measures of regional correlation between FE-computed contact stress distributions from comparison articular joint surfaces (e.g., those from an intact versus those with residual intra-articular fracture incongruity).

  17. Developing a tool to preserve eye contact with patients undergoing colonoscopy for pain monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Niv, Yaron; Tal, Yossi

    2012-01-01

    Colonoscopy has become the leading procedure for early detection and prevention of colorectal cancer. Patients’ experience of colonic endoscopic procedures is scarcely reported, even though it is considered a major factor in colorectal cancer screening participation. Pain due to air inflation or stretching the colon with an endoscope is not rare during examination and may be the main obstacle to cooperation and participation in a screening program. We propose a four-stage study for developing a tool dedicated to pain monitoring during colonoscopy, as follows: (1) comparison of patient, nurse, and endoscopist questionnaire responses about patient pain and technical details of the procedure using the PAINAD tool during colonoscopy; (2) observation of the correlation between patients’ facial expressions and other parameters (using the short PAINAD); (3) development of a device for continuous monitoring of the patient’s facial expression during the procedure; (4) assessment of the usability of such a tool and its contribution to the outcomes of colonoscopy procedures. Early intervention by the staff performing the procedure, in reaction to alerts encoded by this tool, may prevent adverse events during the procedure. PMID:22977314

  18. Early neurorehabilitation in a patient with severe traumatic brain injury to the frontal lobes.

    PubMed

    Pachalska, Maria; Moskała, Marek; MacQueen, Bruce Duncan; Polak, Jarosław; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena

    2010-12-01

    It seems to be generally believed that early neurostimulation after severe TBI is useless or even harmful, and neuropsychological intervention should not be initiated until the patient is medically stable. On the other hand, the unstimulated brain can incur irreversible damage. The purpose of the present study is to assess the impact of early neuropsychological rehabilitation on a patient with an extremely severe TBI. The patient, a 32-year old male, suffered a massive cranio-facial injury with significant loss of tissue in the right frontal lobes after being struck by a tram. Beginning two weeks after injury, after pharmacological coma, he was attended on a daily basis by a neuropsychologist and a neurolinguist, with the active assistance of his family, when he was still in critical condition and essentially without logical contact. By the time he returned to Scotland 4 weeks later, he was sitting up, writing complete, sensible and grammatical sentences, and making rapid progress every day despite the development of hydrocephalus. Over the course of neurorehabilitation, most of MF's cognitive dysfunctions resolved. Six months later, however, hydrocephalus was increasing and the patient was showing severe frontal syndrome. A personalized version of Community Based Rehabilitation was applied. After two weeks of intensive treatment considerable improvement was achieved and frontal syndrome was reduced. The present case suggests that the prevailing views regarding the inadvisability of early neurorehabilitation in the acute phase after TBI should be reconsidered.

  19. Increasing patient involvement in choosing treatment for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Street, R L; Voigt, B; Geyer, C; Manning, T; Swanson, G P

    1995-12-01

    This investigation examined factors affecting patient involvement in consultations to decide local treatment for early breast cancer and the effectiveness of two methods of preconsultation education aimed at increasing patient participation in these discussions. Sixty patients with Stage I or II breast cancer (1) were pretested on their knowledge about breast cancer treatment and optimism for the future, (2) were randomly assigned to one of two methods for preconsultation education: interactive multimedia program or brochure, (3) completed knowledge and optimism measures, (4) consulted with a medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, and general surgeon, and (5) completed self-report measures assessing their involvement in the consultations and control over decision-making. The consultations were audiorecorded and analyzed to identify behavioral indicators of patient involvement (question-asking, opinion-giving, and expressing concern) and physician utterances encouraging patient participation. College-educated patients younger than 65 years of age were more active participants in these consultations than were older, less educated patients. In addition, patients showed more involvement when they interacted with physicians who encouraged and facilitated patient participation. The method of education did not affect patient involvement although patients tended to learn more about breast cancer treatment after using the multimedia program than after reading the brochure. Although patients vary in their expressiveness, physicians may be able to increase patient participation in deciding treatment by using patient-centered behavior. Also, preconsultation education appears to be an effective clinical strategy for helping patients gain an accurate understanding of their treatment options before meeting with physicians.

  20. Evaluation and Monitoring of Mycobacterium leprae Transmission in Household Contacts of Patients with Hansen's Disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Romero-Montoya, Marcela; Beltran-Alzate, Juan Camilo; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Leprosy in Colombia is in a stage of post elimination-since 1997, prevalence of the disease is less than 1/10000. However, the incidence of leprosy has remained stable, with 400-500 new cases reported annually, with MB leprosy representing 70% of these case and 10% having grade 2 disability. Thus, leprosy transmission is still occurring, and household contacts (HHCs) of leprosy patients are a population at high risk of contracting and suffering from the effects of the disease during their lifetime. We performed a cross-sectional study with the aim of evaluating leprosy transmission within Family Groups (FGs) from four Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Córdoba and Sucre. This study included 159 FGs formed by 543 HHCs; 45 FGs were monitored twice, first in 2003 and again in 2012. Migration, forced displacement by violence, loss of contact with the health center and the lack of an agreement to participate in the second monitoring were the primary reasons not all FGs were tested a second time. In each HHC, a clinical examination was performed, epidemiological data recorded, the bacillary index determined, DNA was isolated for M. leprae detection by nested PCR and IgM anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) titers were inspected. Further, DNA from M. leprae isolates were typed and compared among FGs. Twenty-two (4.1%) of the 543 HHCs had IgM anti-PGL-I positive antibody titers, indicating infection. Nasal swabs (NS) taken from 113 HHCs were tested by RLEP PCR; 18 (16%) were positive for M. leprae DNA and two new leprosy cases were detected among the HHCs. Of the confirmed HHCs with leprosy, it was possible to genotype the bacterial strains from both the index case and their HHCs. We found that the genotype of these two strains agreed at 9 markers, showing the individuals to be infected by the same strain, indicating familiar transmission. HHCs of leprosy patients not only are a high-risk population for M. leprae infection, they can act as M. leprae carriers and

  1. Evaluation and Monitoring of Mycobacterium leprae Transmission in Household Contacts of Patients with Hansen's Disease in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Montoya, Marcela; Beltran-Alzate, Juan Camilo

    2017-01-01

    Leprosy in Colombia is in a stage of post elimination—since 1997, prevalence of the disease is less than 1/10000. However, the incidence of leprosy has remained stable, with 400–500 new cases reported annually, with MB leprosy representing 70% of these case and 10% having grade 2 disability. Thus, leprosy transmission is still occurring, and household contacts (HHCs) of leprosy patients are a population at high risk of contracting and suffering from the effects of the disease during their lifetime. We performed a cross-sectional study with the aim of evaluating leprosy transmission within Family Groups (FGs) from four Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Córdoba and Sucre. This study included 159 FGs formed by 543 HHCs; 45 FGs were monitored twice, first in 2003 and again in 2012. Migration, forced displacement by violence, loss of contact with the health center and the lack of an agreement to participate in the second monitoring were the primary reasons not all FGs were tested a second time. In each HHC, a clinical examination was performed, epidemiological data recorded, the bacillary index determined, DNA was isolated for M. leprae detection by nested PCR and IgM anti-phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) titers were inspected. Further, DNA from M. leprae isolates were typed and compared among FGs. Twenty-two (4.1%) of the 543 HHCs had IgM anti-PGL-I positive antibody titers, indicating infection. Nasal swabs (NS) taken from 113 HHCs were tested by RLEP PCR; 18 (16%) were positive for M. leprae DNA and two new leprosy cases were detected among the HHCs. Of the confirmed HHCs with leprosy, it was possible to genotype the bacterial strains from both the index case and their HHCs. We found that the genotype of these two strains agreed at 9 markers, showing the individuals to be infected by the same strain, indicating familiar transmission. HHCs of leprosy patients not only are a high-risk population for M. leprae infection, they can act as M. leprae carriers

  2. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line.

  3. Early fluid loading for septic patients: Any safety limit needed?

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi-Chun; Liu, Jing-Tao; Ma, Peng-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Early adequate fluid loading was the corner stone of hemodynamic optimization for sepsis and septic shock. Meanwhile, recent recommended protocol for fluid resuscitation was increasingly debated on hemodynamic stability vs risk of overloading. In recent publications, it was found that a priority was often given to hemodynamic stability rather than organ function alternation in the early fluid resuscitation of sepsis. However, no safety limits were used at all in most of these reports. In this article, the rationality and safety of early aggressive fluid loading for septic patients were discussed. It was concluded that early aggressive fluid loading improved hemodynamics transitorily, but was probably traded off with a follow-up organ function impairment, such as worsening oxygenation by reduction of lung aeration, in a part of septic patients at least. Thus, a safeguard is needed against unnecessary excessive fluids in early aggressive fluid loading for septic patients. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Cardiac Arrest in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Trevor C.; McConville, John F.; Kress, John P.; VandenHoek, Terry L.; Hall, Jesse B.; Edelson, Dana P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death. Early deterioration and death commonly result from progressive sepsis, shock, respiratory failure, and cardiac complications. Recent data suggest that cardiac arrest may also be common, yet few previous studies have addressed this. Accordingly, we sought to characterize early cardiac arrest in patients who are hospitalized with coexisting pneumonia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of a multicenter cardiac arrest database, with data from > 500 North American hospitals. We included in-hospital cardiac arrest events that occurred in community-dwelling adults with pneumonia within the first 72 h after hospital admission. We compared patient and event characteristics for patients with and without pneumonia. For patients with pneumonia, we also compared events according to event location. Results: We identified 4,453 episodes of early cardiac arrest in patients who were hospitalized with pneumonia. Among patients with preexisting pneumonia, only 36.5% were receiving mechanical ventilation and only 33.3% were receiving infusions of vasoactive drugs prior to cardiac arrest. Only 52.3% of patients on the ward were receiving ECG monitoring prior to cardiac arrest. Shockable rhythms were uncommon in all patients with pneumonia (ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, 14.8%). Patients on the ward were significantly older than patients in the ICU. Conclusions: In patients with preexisting pneumonia, cardiac arrest may occur in the absence of preceding shock or respiratory failure. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of abrupt cardiopulmonary collapse, and future studies should address this possibility. The mechanism may involve myocardial ischemia, a maladaptive response to hypoxia, sepsis-related cardiomyopathy, or other phenomena. PMID:22194592

  5. Assessment of electromyographic activity in patients with temporomandibular disorders and natural mediotrusive occlusal contact during chewing and tooth grinding.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Aler D; Sforza, Chiarella; Miralles, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Cláudia L; Mapelli, Andrea; Lodetti, Gianluigi; Martin, Conchita

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a natural mediotrusive contact influences electromyographic (EMG) pattern activity in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Bilateral surface EMG activity of the anterior temporalis (AT), masseter (MM), and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles was recorded in 43 subjects during unilateral chewing and tooth grinding. Thirteen patients had TMD and a natural mediotrusive contact (Group 1), 15 had TMD without a natural mediotrusive contact (Group 2), and 15 were healthy subjects without mediotrusive contacts (Group 3). All subjects were examined according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). All EMG values were standardized as the percentage of EMG activity recorded during maximum isometric contraction on cotton rolls. EMG activity from all muscles measured showed no significant differences between groups during chewing and grinding. Overall, in all groups, the EMG activity during chewing was higher in the working side than the non-working side in AT and MM muscles. During grinding, these differences were only found in masseter muscles (mainly in eccentric grinding). SCM EMG activity did not show significant differences during chewing and grinding tasks. Symmetry, muscular balance, and absence of lateral jaw displacement were common findings in all groups. EMG results suggest that the contribution of a natural mediotrusive occlusal contact to EMG patterns in TMD patients is minor. Therefore, the elimination of this occlusal feature for therapeutic purposes could be not indicated.

  6. Ultraviolet radiation-blocking characteristics of contact lenses: relevance to eye protection for psoralen-sensitised patients.

    PubMed

    Anstey, A; Taylor, D; Chalmers, I; Ansari, E

    1999-10-01

    Nine brands of contact lens marketed as "UV protective" were tested for ultraviolet (UV) transmission in order to assess potential suitability for psoralen-sensitised patients. UV-transmission characteristics of hydrated lenses was tested with a Bentham monochromator spectro-radiometer system. All lenses showed minimal transmission loss in the visible band. The performance of the nine lenses was uniform for ultraviolet B radiation with negligible transmission, but showed variation in transmission for ultraviolet A radiation. None of the lenses complied with UV-transmission criteria used previously to assess UV-blocking spectacles. Only two lenses had UV-blocking characteristics which came close to the arbitrary criteria used. The performance of ordinary soft and hard lenses was very similar, with negligible blocking of UV radiation. None of the nine contact lenses marketed as "UV protective" excluded sufficient UVA to comply with criteria in current use to assess UV protection in spectacles for psoralen-sensitised patients. However, the improved UV-blocking characteristics of contact lenses identified in this paper compared to previous studies suggests that such a contact lens will soon become available. Meanwhile, contact lens-wearing systemically sensitised PUVA patients should continue to wear approved spectacles for eye protection whilst photosensitised with psoralen.

  7. Altered Tibiofemoral Joint Contact Mechanics and Kinematics in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis and Episodic Complaints of Joint Instability

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Klatt, Brian A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Tashman, Scott; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate knee joint contact mechanics and kinematics during the loading response phase of downhill gait in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. Methods Forty-three subjects, 11 with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and self-reported instability (unstable), 7 with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis but no reports of instability (stable), and 25 without knee osteoarthritis or instability (control) underwent Dynamic Stereo X-ray analysis during a downhill gait task on a treadmill. Findings The medial compartment contact point excursions were longer in the unstable group compared to the stable (p=0.046) and the control groups (p=0.016). The peak medial compartment contact point velocity was also greater for the unstable group compared to the stable (p=0.047) and control groups (p=0.022). Additionally, the unstable group demonstrated a coupled movement pattern of knee extension and external rotation after heel contact which was different than the coupled motion of knee flexion and internal rotation demonstrated by stable and control groups. Interpretation Our findings suggest that knee joint contact mechanics and kinematics are altered during the loading response phase of downhill gait in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. The observed longer medial compartment contact point excursions and higher velocities represent objective signs of mechanical instability that may place the arthritic knee joint at increased risk for disease progression. Further research is indicated to explore the clinical relevance of altered contact mechanics and kinematics during other common daily activities and to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation programs to improve altered joint biomechanics in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. PMID:24856791

  8. Why do people with chronic disease not contact consumer health organisations? A survey of general practice patients.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Frances M; Dean, Julie H; Young, Charlotte E; Mutch, Allyson J

    2016-07-01

    Aim Consumer health organisations (CHOs) are non-profit or voluntary sector organisations that promote and represent the interests of patients and carers affected by particular conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine, among patients with chronic disease, what differentiates those who contact CHOs from those who do not and what stops people from making contact. CHOs can enhance people's capacity to manage chronic disease by providing information, education and psychosocial support, but are under-utilised. Little is known about barriers to access. Data were from a baseline telephone survey conducted as part of a randomised trial of an intervention to improve access to CHOs. Participants constituted a consecutive sample of 276 adults with diagnosed chronic disease recruited via 18 general practitioners in Brisbane, Australia. Quantitative survey items examined participants' use and perceptions of CHOs and a single open-ended question explored barriers to CHO use. Multiple logistic regression and thematic analysis were used. Findings Overall, 39% of participants had ever contacted a CHO for their health and 28% had contacted a CHO specifically focussed on their diagnosed chronic condition. Diabetes, poorer self-reported physical health and greater health system contact were significantly associated with CHO contact. The view that 'my doctor does it all' was prevalent and, together with a belief that their health problems were 'not serious enough', was the primary reason patients did not make contact. Attitudinal and system-related barriers limit use of CHOs by those for whom they are designed. Developing referral pathways to CHOs and promoting awareness about what they offer is needed to improve access.

  9. The modes of physician remuneration and their effect on direct patient contact.

    PubMed

    Basu, Kisalaya; Mandelzys, David

    2008-01-01

    Initiatives such as primary care reform have allocated millions of dollars towards the Canadian health care system. The way physicians are remunerated affects the supply of physician services and as such is essential to these initiatives to facilitate policy goals. However, there exists a gap in understanding how different modes of remuneration affect physician-patient contact. This paper examines if there is a significant difference between the average full-time-equivalent (FTE) of family physicians (FPs) remunerated through fee-for-service (FFS), salary, and blended arrangements. We used Nova Scotia physician billings dataset which tracks every services performed by both FFS and salaried physicians over the fiscal year 2003 to 2004. We estimated two semi-logarithmic models to examine the relationship between (1) modes of remuneration and FTE, and (2) modes of remuneration and total services, using ordinary least squares method. The National Physician Survey shows a significant difference between the current modes of remuneration and the preferred modes of remuneration; thus ruling out the possibility of selectivity bias. The results show that compared to the FFS FPs, the salaried FPs and blended FPs produce on average 40.46% and 23.13% less FTE respectively. It also indicates that compared to the FFS FPs, the salaried FPs and blended FPs deliver 53.54% and 31.49% fewer services on average.

  10. Delay From First Medical Contact to Primary PCI and All‐Cause Mortality: A Nationwide Study of Patients With ST‐Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Sasha; Andell, Pontus; Martinsson, Andreas; Gustav Smith, J.; van der Pals, Jesper; Scherstén, Fredrik; Jernberg, Tomas; Lagerqvist, Bo; Erlinge, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Early reperfusion in the setting of an ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is of utmost importance. However, the effects of early versus late reperfusion in this patient group undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have so far been inconsistent in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in a nationwide cohort the effects of delay from first medical contact to PCI (first medical contact [FMC]‐to‐PCI) and secondarily delay from symptom‐to‐PCI on clinical outcomes. Methods and Results Using the national Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Register (SCAAR) registry, STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI between the years 2003 and 2008 were screened for. A total of 13 790 patients were included in the FMC‐to‐PCI analysis and 11 489 patients were included in the symptom‐to‐PCI analyses. Unadjusted as well as multivariable analyses showed an overall significant association between increasing FMC‐to‐PCI delay and 1‐year mortality. A statistically significant increase in mortality was noted at FMC‐to‐PCI delays exceeding 1 hour in an incremental fashion. FMC‐to‐PCI delays in excess of 1 hour were also significantly associated with an increase in severe left ventricular dysfunction at discharge. An overall significant association between increasing symptom‐to‐PCI delays and 1‐year mortality was noted. However, when stratified into time delay cohorts, no symptom‐to‐PCI delay except for the highest time delay showed a statistically significant association with increased mortality. Conclusions Delays in FMC‐to‐PCI were strongly associated with increased mortality already at delays of more than 1 hour, possibly through an increase in severe heart failure. A goal of FMC‐to‐PCI of less than 1 hour might save patient lives. PMID:24595190

  11. External Validation of Contact Surface Area as a Predictor of Postoperative Renal Function in Patients Undergoing Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Haifler, Miki; Ristau, Benjamin T; Higgins, Andrew M; Smaldone, Marc C; Kutikov, Alexander; Zisman, Amnon; Uzzo, Robert G

    2017-09-20

    We sought to externally validate a mathematical formula for tumor contact surface area as a predictor of postoperative renal function in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. We queried a prospectively maintained kidney cancer database for patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2014 and 2016. Contact surface area was calculated using data obtained from preoperative cross-sectional imaging. The correlation between contact surface area and perioperative variables was examined. The correlation between postoperative renal functional outcomes, contact surface area and the R.E.N.A.L. (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines and tumor touches main renal artery or vein) nephrometry score was also assessed. A total of 257 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy had sufficient data to enter the study. Median contact surface area was 14.5 cm 2 (IQR 6.2-36) and the median nephrometry score was 9 (IQR 7-10). Spearman correlation analysis showed that contact surface area correlated with estimated blood loss (r s = 0.42, p <0.001), length of stay (r s = 0.18, p = 0.005), and percent and absolute change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (r s = -0.77 and -0.78, respectively, each p <0.001). On multivariable analysis contact surface area and nephrometry score were independent predictors of the absolute change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (each p <0.001). ROC curve analysis revealed that contact surface area was a better predictor of a greater than 20% postoperative decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with the nephrometry score (AUC 0.94 vs 0.80). Contact surface area correlated with the change in postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy. It can be used in conjunction with the nephrometry score to counsel patients about the risk of renal functional decline after partial

  12. Risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection in close contacts of active tuberculosis patients in South Korea: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, You Eun; Cho, Yu Ji; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deog; Kim, Jang Rak; Hwang, Young Sil; Kim, Hee Jin; Menzies, Dick

    2014-11-18

    The diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) have become mandatory to reduce the burden of tuberculosis worldwide. Close contacts of active TB patients are at high risk of both active and LTBI. The aim of this study is to identify the predominant risk factors of contracting LTBI, persons in close contact with TB patients were recruited. This study also aimed to compare the efficacy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON(®)-TB GOLD (QFT-G) to diagnose LTBI. Close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients visiting a hospital in South Korea were diagnosed for LTBI using TST and/or QFT-G. The association of positive TST and/or QFT-G with the following factors was estimated: age, gender, history of Bacillius Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, history of pulmonary TB, cohabitation status, the acid-fast bacilli smear status, and presence of cough in source cases. Of 308 subjects, 38.0% (116/305) were TST positive and 28.6% (59/206) were QFT-G positive. TST positivity was significantly associated with male gender (OR: 1.734; 95% CI: 1.001-3.003, p =0.049), history of pulmonary TB (OR: 4.130; 95% CI: 1.441-11.835, p =0.008) and household contact (OR: 2.130; 95% CI: 1.198-3.786, p =0.01) after adjustment for confounding variables. The degree of concordance between TST and QFT-G was fair (70.4%, κ =0.392). A prevalence of LTBI among close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients was high, and prior TB history and being a household contact were risk factors of LTBI in the study population.

  13. Comparing maximum intercuspal contacts of virtual dental patients and mounted dental casts.

    PubMed

    Delong, Ralph; Ko, Ching-Chang; Anderson, Gary C; Hodges, James S; Douglas, W H

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative measures of occlusal contacts are of paramount importance in the study of chewing dysfunction. A tool is needed to identify and quantify occlusal parameters without occlusal interference caused by the technique of analysis. This laboratory simulation study compared occlusal contacts constructed from 3-dimensional images of dental casts and interocclusal records with contacts found by use of conventional methods. Dental casts of 10 completely dentate adults were mounted in a semi-adjustable Denar articulator. Maximum intercuspal contacts were marked on the casts using red film. Intercuspal records made with an experimental vinyl polysiloxane impression material recorded maximum intercuspation. Three-dimensional virtual models of the casts and interocclusal records were made using custom software and an optical scanner. Contacts were calculated between virtual casts aligned manually (CM), aligned with interocclusal records scanned seated on the mandibular casts (C1) or scanned independently (C2), and directly from virtual interocclusal records (IR). Sensitivity and specificity calculations used the marked contacts as the standard. Contact parameters were compared between method pairs. Statistical comparisons used analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (P=<.05). Sensitivities (range 0.76-0.89) did not differ significantly among the 4 methods (P=.14); however, specificities (range 0.89-0.98) were significantly lower for IR (P=.0001). Contact parameters of methods CM, C1, and C2 differed significantly from those of method IR (P<.02). The ranking based on method pair comparisons was C2/C1 > CM/C1 = CM/C2 > C2/IR > CM/IR > C1/IR, where ">" means "closer than." Within the limits of this study, occlusal contacts calculated from aligned virtual casts accurately reproduce articulator contacts.

  14. Comparison Between Bandage Contact Lenses and Pressure Patching on the Erosion Area and Pain Scale in Patients With Corneal Erosion.

    PubMed

    Triharpini, Ni Nyoman; Gede Jayanegara, I Wayan; Handayani, Ariesanti Tri; Widiana, I Gde Raka

    2015-01-01

    Corneal erosion is common in eye emergency cases. Extensive corneal erosions result in severe pain and prolonged healing time. This study aimed to compare bandage contact lenses with pressure patching in terms of reducing the size of the erosion area, pain scale in patients with corneal erosion and its complications. A randomized open-label clinical trial was conducted. Subjects with mechanical corneal erosion were selected to use either bandage contact lenses or pressure patching. All subjects received antibiotic eye drops and 0.5% tropicamide eye drops. Evaluations were done 24 and 72 hours after treatment. The size of the corneal erosion area, pain scale, and complications were assessed. A total of 32 eyes (16 eyes in each group) were studied. The change in the size of the corneal erosion area was greater in the bandage contact lens group than in the pressure patching group, although there was no significant difference. In the bandage contact lens group, 56.25% of the eyes were healed at 24 hours and 43.75% were healed at 72 hours. In the pressure patching group, 62.50% were healed at 24 hours and 12.50% were healed at 72 hours. The change in pain scale was significantly greater in the bandage contact lens group than in the pressure patching group. No complications were found in both groups. Bandage contact lenses are an effective alternative to treating mechanical corneal erosion because of their effect in reducing pain without causing any complications.

  15. Hip contact forces in asymptomatic total hip replacement patients differ from normal healthy individuals: Implications for preclinical testing.

    PubMed

    Li, Junyan; Redmond, Anthony C; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John; Stone, Martin H; Stewart, Todd D

    2014-08-01

    Preclinical durability testing of hip replacement implants is standardised by ISO-14242-1 (2002) which is based on historical inverse dynamics analysis using data obtained from a small sample of normal healthy individuals. It has not been established whether loading cycles derived from normal healthy individuals are representative of loading cycles occurring in patients following total hip replacement. Hip joint kinematics and hip contact forces derived from multibody modelling of forces during normal walking were obtained for 15 asymptomatic total hip replacement patients and compared to 38 normal healthy individuals and to the ISO standard for pre-clinical testing. Hip kinematics in the total hip replacement patients were comparable to the ISO data and the hip contact force in the normal healthy group was also comparable to the ISO cycles. Hip contact forces derived from the asymptomatic total hip replacement patients were comparable for the first part of the stance period but exhibited 30% lower peak loads at toe-off. Although the ISO standard provides a representative kinematic cycle, the findings call into question whether the hip joint contact forces in the ISO standard are representative of those occurring in the joint following total hip replacement. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Early and Late Acute Kidney Injury in Severely Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Klimm, Wojciech; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated factors influencing early and late occurrence of AKI in severely burned patients and assessed the relationship between time of occurrence of AKI and mortality of AKI patients. Material/Methods Renal function was evaluated at 3 time points: at admission, at the critical point or middle point of hospitalization, and at the endpoint for which death or a discharge from the center was considered. AKI criteria were: decrease in GFR of less than 60 ml/min at admission, decrease in GFR of more than 75% compared to baseline, and decrease in the daily diuresis of less than 500 ml/24 h. Results At admission, 15.1% of the patients had eGFR <60 ml/min. AKI occurred in 38.5% of cases. The occurrence of AKI was associated with: elderly age (p<0.001), female sex (p=0.017), overweight and obesity (p=0.055); extent and depth of burns, respiratory failure, low protein concentration (for all p<0.001), low blood pressure (p=0.014), and high WBC (p=0.010). Early AKI was detected in 28% of patients. Mortality was 100% with the initial GFR ≥60, 100% with the initial GFR <60 and early deterioration of renal function, 80% with the initial GFR <60 and late worsening, and 60% with the initial GFR <60 and no worsening. Late AKI was observed in 10% of patients and mortality in this group was 79.2%. Mortality in the entire group with AKI was 88.0% versus 24.5%. Conclusions The frequent occurrence of AKI, especially early, worsens the prognosis for survival. Assessment of renal function should be included in the prognostic scales for burned patients. PMID:27746455

  17. Contact Heat Evoked Potentials (CHEPs) in Patients with Mild-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease and Matched Control--A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Madsen, Caspar Skau; Waldemar, Gunhild; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Johnsen, Birger; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2016-04-01

    Clinical studies have found that patients with Alzheimer's disease report pain of less intensity and with a lower affective response, which has been thought to be due to altered pain processing. The authors wished to examine the cerebral processing of non-painful and painful stimuli using somatosensory evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in healthy elderly controls. Case-control study Twenty outpatients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease and in 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included Contact heat evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in all subjects. Furthermore, warmth detection threshold and heat pain threshold were assessed. Patients and controls also rated quality and intensity of the stimuli. The authors found no difference on contact heat evoked potential amplitude (P = 0.59) or latency of N2 or P2 wave (P = 0.62 and P = 0.75, respectively) between patients and controls. In addition, there was no difference in regard to pain intensity scores or pain quality. The patients and controls had similar warmth detection threshold and heat pain threshold. Somatosensory evoked potentials, amplitude, and latency were within normal range and similar for the two groups. The findings suggest that the processing of non-painful and painful stimuli is preserved in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Contact tracing and antiviral prophylaxis in the early stages of a pandemic: the probability of a major outbreak.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joshua V; Black, Andrew J

    2015-09-01

    Antiviral prophylaxis forms a significant component of health management plans for many countries around the world. A number of studies have shown that the delays typically encountered in distributing these antivirals to households, following the first infectious case, can result in their efficacy being severely reduced. Here, we investigate the use of contact tracing as a method to reduce the delays and hence mitigate the reduction in efficacy of antivirals. We assess the usefulness of contact tracing in terms of the probability of a major outbreak. It is found, with parameter distributions appropriate to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and distributions reflecting commonly experienced delays, that standard contact tracing renders an outbreak impossible approximately one in five times compared with approximately one in ten times in its absence. A contact-tracing efficiency of 50% would see further improvements with an outbreak being impossible approximately one in four times, and a reduction of the median probability of a major outbreak from 0.41 to below 0.27. © The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of life and voice assessment in patients with early-stage glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Arias, Fernando; Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Asin, Gemma; Uzcanga, María Itziar; Maraví, Enrique; Chicata, Volker; Eito, Clara; Zarandona, Uxue; Mora, Itxaso; Vila, Meritxell; Domínguez, Miguel Angel

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and voice handicap in a sample of disease-free patients who had been treated at our center with radiotherapy (RT) or surgery for early glottic cancer. QOL and voice handicap were assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaires Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30-questions (QLQ-C30) and Quality of Life Questionnaire-Head and Neck 35-questions (QLQ-H&N35) and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). Ninety-one patients completed the questionnaires. Fifty-nine patients (65%) were treated with RT and 32 (35%) with surgery. QOL scores for the sample recorded, moderate limitations in 6 areas, and more than moderate limitations (>30 of 100) in 2 areas. Significant differences were found in emotional functioning (88.5 vs 76.6) and social contact (4.6 vs 12.1) on the EORTC questionnaires and on the VHI (6.1 vs 12.8), which favored the RT group. In this cross-sectional study, voice quality, emotional functioning, and social contact were better in the RT group. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Personality traits and career choices among physicians in Finland: employment sector, clinical patient contact, specialty and change of specialty.

    PubMed

    Mullola, Sari; Hakulinen, Christian; Presseau, Justin; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Jokela, Markus; Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko

    2018-03-27

    Personality influences an individual's adaptation to a specific job or organization. Little is known about personality trait differences between medical career and specialty choices after graduating from medical school when actually practicing different medical specialties. Moreover, whether personality traits contribute to important career choices such as choosing to work in the private or public sector or with clinical patient contact, as well as change of specialty, have remained largely unexplored. In a nationally representative sample of Finnish physicians (N = 2837) we examined how personality traits are associated with medical career choices after graduating from medical school, in terms of employment sector, patient contact, medical specialty and change of specialty. Personality was assessed using the shortened version of the Big Five Inventory (S-BFI). An analysis of covariance with posthoc tests for pairwise comparisons was conducted, adjusted for gender and age with confounders (employment sector, clinical patient contact and medical specialty). Higher openness was associated with working in the private sector, specializing in psychiatry, changing specialty and not practicing with patients. Lower openness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in general practice as well as ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology. Higher conscientiousness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in surgery and other internal medicine specialties. Lower conscientiousness was associated with specializing in psychiatry and hospital service specialties. Higher agreeableness was associated with working in the private sector and specializing in general practice and occupational health. Lower agreeableness and neuroticism were associated with specializing in surgery. Higher extraversion was associated with specializing in pediatrics and change of specialty. Lower extraversion was associated with not practicing with

  1. Genomic Analyses of Patients With Unexplained Early-Onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaochong; Gotway, Garrett; Rathjen, Karl; Johnston, Charles; Sparagana, Steven; Wise, Carol A

    2014-09-01

    To test for rare genetic mutations, a cohort of patients with unexplained early-onset scoliosis (EOS) was screened using high-density microarray genotyping. A cohort of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was similarly screened and the results were compared. Patients with scoliosis in infancy or early childhood (EOS) are at high risk for progressive deformity and associated problems including respiratory compromise. Early-onset scoliosis is frequently associated with genetic disorders but many patients present with nonspecific clinical features and without an associated diagnosis. The authors hypothesized that EOS in these patients may be caused by rare genetic mutations detectable by next-generation genomic methods. The researchers identified 24 patients with unexplained EOS from pediatric orthopedic clinics. They genotyped them, along with 39 connecting family members, using the Illumina OmniExpress-12, version 1.0 beadchip. Resulting genotypes were analyzed for chromosomal changes, specifically copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity. They screened 482 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and 744 healthy controls, who were similarly genotyped with the same beadchip, for chromosomal changes identified in the EOS cohort. Copy number variation and absence of heterozygosity analyses revealed a genetic diagnosis of chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome in 1 patient and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 in a second one. Prior genetic testing and clinical evaluations had been negative in both cases. A large novel chromosome 10 deletion was likely causal in a third EOS patient. These mutations identified in the EOS patients were absent in AIS patients and controls, and thus were not associated with AIS or found in asymptomatic individuals. These data underscore the usefulness of updated genetic evaluations including high-density microarray-based genotyping and other next-generation methods in patients with unexplained

  2. Ginkgo biloba Extract for Patients with Early Diabetic Nephropathy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Mao, Wei; Guo, Xinfeng; Wu, Yifan; Li, Chuang; Lu, Zhaoyu; Su, Guobin; Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhuangzhu; Guo, Rong; Jie, Xina; Wen, Zehuai; Liu, Xusheng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a Ginkgo biloba extract for patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted on adults with early diabetic nephropathy which used Gingko biloba extract were included. The major databases were searched, and manufacturers of Gingko biloba products were contacted for information on any published or unpublished studies. Two authors independently extracted the data from the included studies. Data analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.0 software. Results. Sixteen RCTs were included. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum creatinine (SCR), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The extract also improved hemorheology. The methodological quality in the included studies was low. The explicit generation of the allocation sequence was described in only 6 trials. None of the included trials were confirmed to use blinding. Three studies had observed adverse events. One study using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) reported mild cough in both groups. No serious adverse effects were reported. Conclusions. Gingko biloba extract is a valuable drug which has prospect in treating early diabetic nephropathy, especially with high UAER baseline level. The safety for early diabetic nephropathy is uncertain. Long-term, double-blinded RCTs with large sample sizes are still needed to provide stronger evidence. PMID:23533513

  3. Are undesirable contact kinematics minimized after kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty? An intersurgeon analysis of consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Howell, Stephen M; Hodapp, Esther E; Vernace, Joseph V; Hull, Maury L; Meade, Thomas D

    2013-10-01

    Tibiofemoral contact kinematics or knee implant motions have a direct influence on patient function and implant longevity and should be evaluated for any new alignment technique such as kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Edge loading of the tibial liner and external rotation (reverse of normal) and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component are undesirable contact kinematics that should be minimized. Accordingly, this study determined whether the overall prevalence of undesirable contact kinematics during standing, mid kneeling near 90 degrees and full kneeling with kinematically aligned TKA are minimal and not different between groups of consecutive patients treated by different surgeons. Three surgeons were asked to perform cemented, kinematically aligned TKA with patient-specific guides in a consecutive series of patients with their preferred cruciate-retaining (CR) implant. In vivo tibiofemoral contact positions were obtained using a 3- to 2-dimensional image registration technique in 69 subjects (Vanguard CR-TKA N = 22, and Triathlon CR-TKA N = 47). Anterior or posterior edge loading of the tibial liner was not observed. The overall prevalence of external rotation of the tibial component on the femoral component of 6 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). The overall prevalence of adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component of 4 % was low and not different between surgeons (n.s.). Kinematically aligned TKA minimized the undesirable contact kinematics of edge loading of the tibial liner, and external rotation and adduction of the tibial component on the femoral component during standing and kneeling, which suggests an optimistic prognosis for durable long-term function. III.

  4. The management of patients with early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rascol, O; Payoux, P; Ferreira, J; Brefel-Courbon, C

    2002-10-01

    A major problem in the management of early Parkinson's disease is to choose the first medication to prescribe. This decision should rely on the level of available clinical evidence, largely based, at least for efficacy, on the results of randomised clinical trials. Safety and costs are also crucial to consider. Other factors like for example pathophysiological concepts, individual experience, marketing pressure, socio-economical environment, patients needs and expectations have, however, also their own influence. Levodopa is efficacious and cheap, but induces long-term motor complications. The early use of dopamine agonists is more and more frequently promoted, because large prospective L-dopa-controlled trials demonstrated that this strategy reduces the risk of such long-term complications. Integrating individual clinical expertise to the best available external clinical evidence (evidence-based medicine) is the best strategy in making decisions about the care of individual patients. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. Common Allergens Identified Based on Patch Test Results in Patients with Suspected Contact Dermatitis of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Aleid, Nouf M.; Fertig, Raymond; Maddy, Austin; Tosti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Background Contact dermatitis of the scalp is common and might be caused by many chemicals including metals, ingredients of shampoos and conditioners, dyes, or other hair treatments. Eliciting a careful history and patch tests are necessary to identify the responsible allergen and prevent relapses. Objectives To identify allergens that may cause contact dermatitis of the scalp by reviewing patch test results. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,015 patients referred for patch testing at the Dermatology Department of the University of Miami. A total of 226 patients (205 females and 21 males) with suspected scalp contact dermatitis were identified, and the patch test results and clinical data for those patients were analyzed. Most patients were referred for patch testing from a specialized hair clinic at our institution. Results The most common allergens in our study population were nickel (23.8%), cobalt (21.0%), balsam of Peru (18.2%), fragrance mix (14.4%), carba mix (11.6%), and propylene glycol (PG) (8.8%). The majority of patients were females aged 40–59 years, and scalp itching or burning were reported as the most common symptom. Conclusion Frequent sources of allergens for metals include hair clasps, pins, and brushes, while frequent sources of allergens for preservatives, fragrance mix, and balsam of Peru include shampoos, conditioners, and hair gels. Frequent sources of allergens for PG include topical medications. PMID:28611994

  6. Diabetic Foot Ulcers: The Importance of Patient Comorbidity Recognition and Total Contact Casting in Successful Wound Care.

    PubMed

    Jagadish, Mayuri; McNally, Michael M; Heidel, R Eric; Teffeteller, Susan; Arnold, Joshua D; Freeman, Michael; Stevens, Scott L; Grandas, Oscar H; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a major burden on the health-care system. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors affecting the healing rate of DFU in a university wound care center. Records of DFU patients treated between July 2013 and February 2015 were reviewed. Demographics, comorbidities, wound characteristics, and treatment modalities including offloading, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, total contact casting, and bioengineered skin were investigated. All patients underwent weekly debridement regardless of treatment modality. A total of 114 patients ages 18 to 98 comprised the study population. Total contact casting was the only treatment associated with increased healing (P = 0.02). Smoking (P = 0.004) and deep vein thrombosis history (P = 0.001) significantly decreased the likelihood of wound healing. Patients with past vascular event trended toward longer healing times (P = 0.07). Total contact casting in combination with weekly wound debridement showed benefit in DFU wound healing, whereas patients with a history of deep vein thrombosis and smoking were less likely to heal.

  7. Early retirement and income loss in patients with early and advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Scott; Davis, Matthew; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Birnbaum, Howard; Grubb, Elizabeth; Tarrants, Marcy; Siderowf, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    The indirect costs of Parkinson's disease (PD) may be larger than direct healthcare costs, and the largest component of indirect costs is income loss related to early retirement. No recent retrospective analysis details PD-related early retirement and income loss in the US. We used an observational, matched cohort to study wages and labour force participation over 4 years and to simulate lifetime income losses conditional on being newly diagnosed with PD (naive) or having evidence of increasing disability. Actively employed primary beneficiaries of private insurance policies aged 18-64 years with more than two PD diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM]: 332.x) or one diagnosis and a prescription of an antiparkinsonian drug were selected from a privately insured claims database. Continuous health coverage during analysis periods was required. Naive patients were defined as having no claims history indicative of PD during the year prior to first diagnosis or prescription use. A PD with ambulatory assistance devices (PDAAD) cohort was also followed from the date of first evidence of a wheelchair or walker. Controls without PD were matched on age, sex and region. Survival analysis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare rates of early retirement and income loss. A simulation of projected economic loss was conducted for PD cohorts diagnosed at different ages using Bureau of Labor Statistics labour force participation and income data. Naive PD patients (n = 278) and PDAAD patients (n = 28) were on average aged 53 years and had significantly higher rates of co-morbidities at baseline versus controls. Conditional on being employed, there was no statistical difference in earnings. However, the hazard of early retirement associated with PD was 2.08 (p < 0.001) for the naive cohort and 5.01 (p < 0.001) for the PDAAD cohort. From age 40 to 79 years, earnings losses in year 2009 values were

  8. The early detection of antral malignancy in the postmaxillectomy patient

    SciT

    Som, P.M.; Shugar, J.M.; Biller, H.F.

    1982-05-01

    A protocol was developed for the radiographic evaluation of the postmaxillectomy patient that called for a six- to eight-week postoperative, baseline computed tomography (CT) scan, followed by CT scans at four- to six-month intervals for at least three years. This protocol allowed for an early, more complete assessment of clinically discovered recurrences and the detection of clinically occult recurrences in three out of 18 patients who followed the protocol. The CT appearance of the normal partial and total maxillectomy is discussed, as well as the focal nodular soft-tissue findings suggestive of recurrent disease.

  9. Application of Early Nutrition Support in Neurosurgical Coma Patients.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guoqin

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy of early parenteral and enteral nutrition (PN + EN) support in neurosurgical coma patients. Eighty cases of neurosurgical coma patients were randomly divided into intervention group and control group. The intervention group received early PN + EN support, and the control group received only total enteral nutritional (TEN) support. The levels of hemoglobin (HGB), serum albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in two groups on days 1, 10, and 20 were observed. The incidences of pneumonia, stress ulcer, abnormal liver function, abdominal distension, and diarrhea between two groups were also compared. Results found that, on day 10, compared with the control group, the levels of HGB, PA, and RBP in the intervention group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). On day 20, ALB in the intervention group significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the incidences of pneumonia, abdominal distension, and diarrhea in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with only TEN support, early PN + EN support can obviously improve the nutritional status of neurosurgical coma patients and reduce the occurrence of complications.

  10. What keeps family physicians busy in Portugal? A multicentre observational study of work other than direct patient contacts

    PubMed Central

    Granja, Mónica; Ponte, Carla; Cavadas, Luís Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the time spent by family physicians (FP) on tasks other than direct patient contact, to evaluate job satisfaction, to analyse the association between time spent on tasks and physician characteristics, the association between the number of tasks performed and physician characteristics and the association between time spent on tasks and job satisfaction. Design Cross-sectional, using time-and-motion techniques. Two workdays were documented by direct observation. A significance level of 0.05 was adopted. Setting Multicentric in 104 Portuguese family practices. Participants A convenience sample of FP, with lists of over 1000 patients, teaching senior medical students and first-year family medicine residents in 2012, was obtained. Of the 217 FP invited to participate, 155 completed the study. Main outcomes measured Time spent on tasks other than direct patient contact and on the performance of more than one task simultaneously, the number of direct patient contacts in the office, the number of indirect patient contacts, job satisfaction, demographic and professional characteristics associated with time spent on tasks and the number of different tasks performed, and the association between time spent on tasks and job satisfaction. Results FP (n=155) spent a mean of 143.6 min/day (95% CI 135.2 to 152.0) performing tasks such as prescription refills, teaching, meetings, management and communication with other professionals (33.4% of their workload). FP with larger patient lists spent less time on these tasks (p=0.002). Older FP (p=0.021) and those with larger lists (p=0.011) performed fewer tasks. The mean job satisfaction score was 3.5 (out of 5). No association was found between job satisfaction and time spent on tasks. Conclusions FP spent one-third of their workday in coordinating care, teaching and managing. Time devoted to these tasks decreases with increasing list size and physician age. PMID:24934208

  11. Benefits of early specialized nutritional support in malnourished patients.

    PubMed

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Beneítez Moralejo, Belén; Piedra León, María; Enciso Izquierdo, Fidel Jesús; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Amado Señaris, José Antonio

    2017-04-07

    Disease related malnutrition (DRM) is highly prevalent in Spain, affecting 23% of in-hospital patients, and is associated with clinical complications. Specialized nutritional support (SNS) can reduce these complications. Prospective study carried out in standard clinical practice conditions to test if SNS during the first 5 days of hospitalization, or subsequently, was associated to a lower length of stay or reduced complications in patients with a NRS-2002 score≥3 points. In the group of patients who initiated early SNS, the length of stay was 8.83 days shorter than in the group with a later introduction (95% CI 3.55-14.10); nevertheless, the higher prevalence of male and oncological patients in this group could have impacted the results. A tendency towards a statistically significant lower mortality rate and a reduced amount of total complications was described. The early introduction of SNS (within the first 5 days of hospitalization) in patients with DRM was associated with a 32.4% reduction in the length of stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors influencing early referral, early diagnosis and management in patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Distler, Oliver; Allanore, Yannick; Denton, Christopher P; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Pope, Janet E; Hinzmann, Barbara; Davies, Siobhan; de Oliveira Pena, Janethe; Khanna, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    To gain insight into clinical practice regarding referral, early diagnosis and other aspects of the management of patients with dcSSc in Europe and the USA. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 84 rheumatologists (or internal medicine physicians) and 40 dermatologists in different countries (the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA). Physicians were asked to identify key steps in the patient pathway relating to patient presentation, diagnosis and referral, in addition to other treatment and follow-up processes. The interviewed physicians reported that late presentation with dcSSc was common, with some patients presenting to primary care physicians after symptoms had persisted for up to 1 year. Awareness of dcSSc is reported to vary widely among primary care physicians. Final diagnosis, generally following guideline-based recommendations, was by rheumatologists in most cases (or internal medicine physicians in France) and they remained responsible for global patient management, with lesser involvement in diagnosis and management by dermatologists. Specialist centres were not well defined and did not exist in all countries. Patients and primary healthcare providers can be unaware of the symptoms of dcSSc, therefore presentation and referral to specialist care are often late. Thus, improved awareness among patients and primary care physicians is necessary to facilitate earlier referral and diagnosis. Once referred, more consistent use of the modified Rodnan skin score at diagnosis and follow-up may help to monitor disease progression. Furthermore, establishing specialist centres may help to promote such changes and improve patient care.

  13. Patients' perspectives on aerobic exercise early after stroke.

    PubMed

    Prout, Erik C; Mansfield, Avril; McIlroy, William E; Brooks, Dina

    2017-04-01

    To describe patient perspectives of aerobic exercise during inpatient stroke rehabilitation, including their self-efficacy and beliefs towards exercise, as well as their perceptions of barriers. A survey was conducted at three Canadian rehabilitation centres to evaluate individuals' (N = 33) self-efficacy and outcome expectations for exercise. In addition, patient perceptions of other people recovering from stroke, social support, and aerobic exercise as part of rehabilitation were assessed. Thirty-two people completed the survey. Of these, 97% were willing to participate in aerobic exercise 5.9 ± 8.8 days after admission to inpatient rehabilitation. While outcome expectations for exercise were high, participants reported lower self-efficacy for exercise. Patients reported barriers related to the ability to perform exercise (other health problems (i.e., arthritis), not being able to follow instructions and physical impairments) more often than safety concerns (fear of falling). The lack of support from a spouse and family were commonly identified, as was a lack of information on how to perform aerobic exercise. Patients with stroke are willing to participate in aerobic exercise within a week after admission to inpatient rehabilitation. However, they perceive a lack of ability to perform aerobic exercise, social support from family and information as barriers. Implications for rehabilitation Aerobic exercise is recognized as part of comprehensive stroke rehabilitation. There is a need to better understand patient perspectives to develop and implement more effective interventions early after stroke. Patients lack confidence in their ability to overcome barriers early after stroke. Patients are concerned with their ability to perform exercise, fall risk, lack of support from a spouse and family, and limited information on aerobic exercise. There is a need to reinforce education with practical experience in structured aerobic exercise programs that show

  14. Contacts to general practice and antidepressant treatment initiation after screening for anxiety and depression in patients with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Schougaard, Liv Marit Valen; Larsen, Louise Pape; Jessen, Anne; May, Ole; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety and depression are found in 20-30% of all persons with heart disease, and depression is known to impact mortality. This paper aimed to describe the effect of systematic screening of this population in terms of use of general practice, psychological therapy and antidepressant treatment. A population-based cohort study was conducted in 2011-2013 comprising 1,658 people with heart disease treated at a Danish regional hospital. Collected data were based on Danish national registers and patient questionnaires. Patients with heart disease and anxiety or depressive symptoms had more general practitioner (GP) contact rates than patients without anxiety or depressive symptoms both before and after the screening. Furthermore, patients with depressive symptoms increased their GP contact rate significantly in the first month after the screening, while this was not the case for patients with anxiety symptoms. Finally, patients with heart disease and anxiety or depressive symptoms more frequently initiated treatment with antidepressants than patients with heart disease without anxiety or depressive symptoms, whereas therapy sessions with a psychologist were rarely used. Heart patients with depressive symptoms may benefit from screening for depression, information about the screening result and a subsequent recommendation to consult their GP in case of signs of depression. -However, the observed effect seems to be modest. The study was supported by an unrestricted grant from the Lundbeck Foundation (grant number: R155-2012-11280). none.

  15. Knee Contact Force Asymmetries in Patients Who Failed Return-to-Sport Readiness Criteria 6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gardinier, Emily S.; Di Stasi, Stephanie; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, contact forces are decreased in the injured knee when compared with the uninjured knee. The persistence of contact force asymmetries after ACL reconstruction may increase the risk of reinjury and may play an important role in the development of knee osteoarthritis in these patients. Functional performance may also be useful in identifying patients who demonstrate potentially harmful joint contact force asymmetries after ACL reconstruction. Hypothesis Knee joint contact force asymmetries would be present during gait after ACL reconstruction, and performance on a specific set of validated return-to-sport (RTS) readiness criteria would discriminate between those who demonstrated contact force asymmetries and those who did not. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods A total of 29 patients with ACL ruptures participated in gait analysis and RTS readiness testing 6 months after reconstruction. Muscle and joint contact forces were estimated using an electromyography (EMG)–driven musculoskeletal model of the knee. The magnitude of typical limb asymmetry in uninjured controls was used to define limits of meaningful limb asymmetry in patients after ACL reconstruction. The RTS testing included isometric quadriceps strength testing, 4 unilateral hop tests, and 2 self-report questionnaires. Paired t tests were used to assess limb symmetry for peak medial and tibiofemoral contact forces in all patients, and a mixed-design analysis of variance was used to analyze the effect of passing or failing RTS testing on contact force asymmetry. Results Among all patients, neither statistically significant nor meaningful contact force asymmetries were identified. However, patients who failed RTS testing exhibited meaningful contact force asymmetries, with tibiofemoral contact force being significantly lower for the involved knee. Conversely, patients who passed RTS testing exhibited neither significant nor meaningful

  16. Corneal oedema in a unilateral corneal graft patient induced by high Dk mini-scleral contact lens.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Natalie C; Godfrey, Andrew; Hammond, David S

    2018-05-24

    Scleral contact lenses are increasingly becoming accepted as the method of choice for visual correction of the irregular cornea. As such, cases have surfaced which demonstrate complications arising from mini-scleral lenses. Identification of these issues and adjusting fitting techniques accordingly is necessary for reducing the risks associated with mini-scleral lens wear. A 58 year old Caucasian female was referred for rigid gas permeable contact lens fitting for correction of right irregular astigmatism post penetrating keratoplasty. After four months of successful mini-scleral contact lens wear, the patient experienced a graft rejection episode and treated accordingly, then refit with a new mini-scleral lens. Five months after the lens refit, the patient presented with complaints of hazy vision, and a diagnosis of lens-induced corneal oedema made. Increased awareness of the potential complications of mini-scleral lenses is necessary to encourage and enforce mini-scleral lens fitting techniques that meet the requirements of minimum vault but adequate protection of the compromised cornea. Copyright © 2018 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (P<0.0001) and in positive (P<0.0001), negative (P<0.0001), and general subscale scores (P<0.0001). In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores) were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and 51.6%, respectively. Our results suggest that the blonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8.

  18. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Background Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. Methods An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Results Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (P<0.0001) and in positive (P<0.0001), negative (P<0.0001), and general subscale scores (P<0.0001). In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores) were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest that the blonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8. PMID:25285009

  19. Sentinel lymph node detection in patients with early cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Acharya, B C; Jihong, L

    2009-01-01

    Lymph node status is the most important independent prognostic factor in early stage cervical cancer. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node detection have been increasingly evaluated in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors, particularly breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma. This study evaluated the feasibility of these procedures in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for early cervical cancer. A total of 30 patients with histologically diagnosed FIGO stage IA to IIA cervical cancer were enrolled to this study. They were scheduled to undergo radical abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy after injecting patent blue dye in cervix. A total of 60 SLNs (mean 2.5) were detected in 24 patients with detection rate of 80%. Bilateral SLNs were detected in 70.1% of cases. SLNs were identified in obturator and external iliac areas in 50% and 31.7%, respectively; no SLNs were discovered in the common iliac region. Seven patients (23.3%) had lymph node metastases; one of these had false negative SLN.The false negative rate and negative predictive value were 14.3% and 94.4%, respectively. SLN detection procedure with blue dye technique is a feasible procedure in cervical cancer. Patent blue dye is cheap, safe and effective tracer to detect sentinel node in carcinoma of cervix.

  20. Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact after delivery results in early recognition of own mother's milk odour.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Mizuno, N; Shinohara, T; Noda, M

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effects of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth on infant recognition of their own mother's milk odour and breastfeeding duration until 1 y of age. Sixty healthy, full-term neonates were randomly assigned to group A with skin-to-skin contact and group B without. One and 4 d after birth, infant responses to the following odour stimuli were observed: own mother's milk, another mother's milk, formula, orange juice and distilled water. Infant facial action was videotaped and the frequency of mouthing movements was evaluated for each stimulus. Nutritional assessment, focused particularly on breastfeeding, was performed every 3 mo on participating infants. Statistical analysis comparing the frequency of mouthing movements with the aforementioned five different odour exposures was performed by ANOVA with Fisher's PLSD. Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test was used to compare breastfeeding rates between groups. Infants in both groups responded differently to mother's milk odour (either their own or another mother's milk) compared to the other stimuli on days 1 and 4. However, infants in group A demonstrated a larger difference in mouthing movements between their own and another mother's milk odour at 4 d of age (2.6 +/- 1.6) compared to infants in group B (0.9 +/- 2.0, p = 0.01). Infants in group A were breastfed an average of 1.9 mo longer than the others. Our study provides evidence that mother-infant skin-to-skin contact for more than 50 min immediately after birth results in enhanced infant recognition of their own mother's milk odour and longer breastfeeding duration.

  1. Early onset primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Tarai, B; Kher, V; Kotru, P; Sabhikhi, A; Barman, P; Rattan, A

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of primary pulmonary cryptococcosis in a post-renal transplant patient. A 65-year-old male renal transplant patient was admitted to the hospital with a low grade fever of 1 month, radiologically mimicking tuberculosis (TB). Broncho-alveolar fluid (BAL) shows capsulated yeast, and Cryptococcus neoformans was grown on culture supported by cytology and histopathological examination. Cryptococcal antigen was positive (32-fold) in serum and was negative in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The patient was given amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine and clinical improvement was seen on a weekly follow up. The serum cryptococcal antigen test might contribute to the early detection and treatment of pulmonary cryptococcosis. The results of antifungal susceptibility were aid in selecting the drug of choice for treatment.

  2. Staff experiences of an early warning indicator for unstable patients in Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Anna; Williams, Allison; Allison, William

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore nursing and medical staff's perceptions of a clinical marker referral tool implemented to assist in the early identification of unstable patients in the general surgical and medical ward environment. A descriptive, exploratory survey design was undertaken 6 months after the implementation of a clinical marker referral tool. The target population for the survey was all ward nursing, junior medical staff and intensive care unit (ICU) registrars in a metropolitan tertiary referral hospital in Australia. The survey consisted of open-ended and closed-ended questions, as well as statements asking participants to explore their perceptions, attitudes and perceived understanding of the clinical marker referral tool. The surveys were sent to all targeted staff in a personally addressed envelope via the internal mail system. Overall, nursing and medical staff (n = 178) responses were positive to the clinical marker project/tool, offering clear guidelines for staff to respond to the patient's clinical condition and contact the medical staff and the ICU liaison team as appropriate. Furthermore, comments were made in relation to the ICU liaison team acting as a 'support' and 'prompt back-up' for nursing staff when needed. However, ward medical staff had reservations with the clinical markers chosen and with ward nurses being able to contact the ICU registrar after hours. Additionally, the ICU registrars commented on an increase to their workload in having to review unstable patients after hours. These results suggest that the ward nurses required additional support and guidance in caring for the unstable patient in the ward which may improve patient outcomes. Further research investigating the less-favourable responses of the ward medical staff and ICU medical staff is warranted.

  3. Isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci from extended-wear soft contact lenses in asymptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Faghri, Jamshid

    2008-05-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci and diphtheroids are normal inhabitants of the outer surface of the human eye. These microorganisms serve as part of the defense mechanism of the ocular anatomy in preventing colonization and infection by pathogenic bacteria. Nevertheless, infections associated with contaminated solutions and cases became serious problems for people who wear soft contact lenses. The aim of this study is to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria, particularly, gram-negative species associated with the use of extended-wear soft contact lenses. Extended-wear contact lenses were collected, using aseptic technique, from the eyes of individuals after 30 days of extended wear (5-7 day intermittent periods) and were examined for adhered aerobic bacteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 74% of the lenses. Serratia marcescens was found at an incidence of 10% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at an incidence of 6%. The presence of species of bacteria, including P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens, which have been associated with daily wear soft contact lenses, solutions, and cases also seem to be associated with extended-wear lenses.

  4. Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss in patients with a history of sulfur mustard contact: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Seyyed Masoud; Keshavarz, Saeed; Sadr, Bardia; Shohrati, Majid; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Farsinejad, Khalil; Rashighi-Firouzabadi, Mehdi; Zartab, Hamed; Firooz, Alireza

    2009-08-01

    Skin lesions are among the most common complications of contact with sulfur mustard. This study was aimed to measure skin water content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in patients with a history of sulfur mustard contact. Three hundred ten male participants were included in this study: 87 (28.1%) sulfur mustard-exposed patients with current skin lesions (group 1), 71 (22.9%) sulfur mustard-exposed patients without skin lesions (group 2), 78 (25.2%) patients with dermatitis (group 3) and 74 (23.8%) normal controls (group 4) The water content and TEWL of skin was measured at four different locations of the body: forehead, suprasternal, palm and dorsum of hand. Nonparametric statistical tests (Kruskal-Wallis) were used to compare the four groups, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of participants were 44.0 +/- 6.7, 41.9 +/- 5.9, 43.8 +/- 9.3 and 44.8 +/- 8.9 years in groups 1 to 4, respectively (P = 0.146). Xerosis, post-lesional hyperpigmentation and lichenification were significantly more common in either sulfur mustard-exposed participants or non-exposed participants with dermatitis (P < 0.05). Skin hydration was higher in subjects with sulfur mustard contact than in non-injured participants (P < 0.05) in the dorsum and palm of hands and forehead. TEWL was significantly higher in participants only in suprasternal area and dorsum of hand. Contact with sulfur mustard agent can alter biophysical properties of the skin--especially the function of stratum corneum as a barrier to water loss-several years after exposure.

  5. Early Identification of Patients at Risk of Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gajic, Ognjen; Dabbagh, Ousama; Park, Pauline K.; Adesanya, Adebola; Chang, Steven Y.; Hou, Peter; Anderson, Harry; Hoth, J. Jason; Mikkelsen, Mark E.; Gentile, Nina T.; Gong, Michelle N.; Talmor, Daniel; Bajwa, Ednan; Watkins, Timothy R.; Festic, Emir; Yilmaz, Murat; Iscimen, Remzi; Kaufman, David A.; Esper, Annette M.; Sadikot, Ruxana; Douglas, Ivor; Sevransky, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Accurate, early identification of patients at risk for developing acute lung injury (ALI) provides the opportunity to test and implement secondary prevention strategies. Objectives: To determine the frequency and outcome of ALI development in patients at risk and validate a lung injury prediction score (LIPS). Methods: In this prospective multicenter observational cohort study, predisposing conditions and risk modifiers predictive of ALI development were identified from routine clinical data available during initial evaluation. The discrimination of the model was assessed with area under receiver operating curve (AUC). The risk of death from ALI was determined after adjustment for severity of illness and predisposing conditions. Measurements and Main Results: Twenty-two hospitals enrolled 5,584 patients at risk. ALI developed a median of 2 (interquartile range 1–4) days after initial evaluation in 377 (6.8%; 148 ALI-only, 229 adult respiratory distress syndrome) patients. The frequency of ALI varied according to predisposing conditions (from 3% in pancreatitis to 26% after smoke inhalation). LIPS discriminated patients who developed ALI from those who did not with an AUC of 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.78–0.82). When adjusted for severity of illness and predisposing conditions, development of ALI increased the risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.9–5.7). Conclusions: ALI occurrence varies according to predisposing conditions and carries an independently poor prognosis. Using routinely available clinical data, LIPS identifies patients at high risk for ALI early in the course of their illness. This model will alert clinicians about the risk of ALI and facilitate testing and implementation of ALI prevention strategies. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00889772). PMID:20802164

  6. Non-contact procedure to measure heart and lung activities in preterm pediatric patients with skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchionni, P.; Scalise, L.; Antognoli, L.; Nobile, S.; Carnielli, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    Preterm patients can have an higher risk of fatalities and can be subjected to long-term disability. With many organs still in the phase of development, the earlier the delivery, the higher the risk and they are therefore hospitalized in specialized neonatal intensive care units) where heart rate and lungs activity are continuously assessed. These are mostly monitored by set of electrodes placed in contact with skin (two in thorax area and one in abdominal area). This paper address the problem of preterm cardiac and respiratory monitoring in a patient with severe skin disorders who can not monitored with standard electrodes because of his dry, thickened, scaly skin. As a solution, we propose a fully non-contact measurement method, based on laser Doppler vibrometry, able to continuously record the movements of wall-chest and extract from this signal, the heart rate and the respiratory activity of the patient. The results show a good agreement between the standard contact measurement methods and the proposed one (no statistical difference between data) with a data uncertainty of 2.9% for the heart rate data and of 9.5% for the respiration rate (k=2), in line with the classical measurement methods.

  7. Effectiveness of Total Contact Orthosis for Plantar Pressure Redistribution in Neuropathic Diabetic Patients During Different Walking Activities.

    PubMed

    Nouman, Muhammad; Leelasamran, Wipawan; Chatpun, Surapong

    2017-08-01

    Using a total contact orthosis (TCO) is an effective method to offload in diabetic patients with foot neuropathy. However, the redistribution of peak plantar pressure is mostly observed during level walking, which may differ from other walking activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the plantar pressure from 4 regions of the foot during different walking activities (level walking, ramp ascending, ramp descending, stair ascending, and stair descending) in neuropathic diabetic patients with and without a TCO. Sixteen neuropathic diabetic patients aged 40 to 60 years with calluses and hallux valgus were included in this study and were provided with TCOs made up of multifoam, Plastazote, and microcellular rubber. The plantar pressure and contact area with the TCO and without the TCO were recorded using the Pedar X system during different walking activities. A significant reduction of plantar pressure during different walking activities at the toes and forefoot regions was observed while walking with the TCO compared with walking without the TCO (control condition). Plantar pressure increased at the midfoot region when walking with the TCO, and no significant difference was observed at the hindfoot region between the control and TCO conditions. Furthermore, maximum contact area was observed during level walking with the TCO compared with other walking activities. The TCO significantly reduced and redistributed the peak plantar pressure from the sites where the ulceration rate is higher at the toes and forefoot compared with the other regions of the foot. Therapeutic level II, lesser quality randomized controlled trial.

  8. Early graft function and carboxyhemoglobin level in liver transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Yasser; Negmi, H; Elmasry, N; Sadek, M; Riaz, A; Al Ouffi, H; Khalaf, H

    2007-10-01

    Heme-Oxygenase-1 catalyzes hemoglobin into bilirubin, iron, and carbon monoxide, a well known vasodilator. Heme-Oxygenase-1 expression and carbon monoxide production as measured by blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, increase in end stage liver disease patients. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between carboxyhemoglobin level and early graft function in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries. In a descriptive retrospective study, 39 patients who underwent liver transplantation between the year 2005 and 2006 at KFSH&RC, are included in the study. All patients received general anesthesia with isoflurane in 50% oxygen and air. Levels of oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin concentration in percentage were recorded at preoperative time, anhepatic phase, end of surgery, ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The level of lactic acid, prothrombin time (PT), partial thrombin time (PTT), serum total bilirubin and ammonia were also recorded at ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The numbers of blood units transfused were recorded. 39 patients were included in the study with 13/39 for living donor liver transplant (LDLT) compared to 26/39 patients scheduled for deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT). The mean age was 35.9 +/- 16.9 years while the mean body weight was 60.3 +/- 20.9 Kg. Female to male ratio was 21/18. The median packed red blood cell (PRBC) units was 4 (Rang 0-40). There was a significant increase in carboxyhemoglobin level during the anhepatic phase, end of surgery and on ICU admission compared with preoperative value (p<0.005). However, there was insignificant changes in methemoglobin level and significant decrease in oxyhemoglobin levels throughout the study period compared to the preoperative value (p<0.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin level on ICU admission and 24 hrs postoperatively were positively correlated with the changes in serum total bilirubin and prothrombin time (R = 0.35, 0.382, 0.325 and 0

  9. The (in)stability of 21st century orthopedic patient contact information and its implications on clinical research: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    London, Daniel A; Stepan, Jeffrey G; Goldfarb, Charles A; Boyer, Martin I; Calfee, Ryan P

    2017-04-01

    In clinical research, minimizing patients lost to follow-up is essential for data validity. Researchers can employ better methodology to prevent patient loss. We examined how orthopedic surgery patients' contact information changes over time to optimize data collection for long-term outcomes research. Patients presenting to orthopedic outpatient clinics completed questionnaires regarding methods of contact: home phone, cell phone, mailing address, and e-mail address. They reported currently available methods of contact, if they changed in the past 5 and 10 years, and when they changed. Differences in the rates of change among methods were assessed via Fisher's exact tests. Whether participants changed any of their contact information in the past 5 and 10 years was determined via multivariate modeling, controlling for demographic variables. Among 152 patients, 51% changed at least one form of contact information within 5 years, and 66% changed at least one form within 10 years. The rate of change for each contact method was similar over 5 (15%-28%) and 10 years (26%-41%). One patient changed all four methods of contact within the past 5 years and seven within the past 10 years. Females and younger patients were more likely to change some type of contact information. The type of contact information least likely to change over 5-10 years is influenced by demographic factors such as sex and age, with females and younger participants more likely to change some aspect of their contact information. Collecting all contact methods appears necessary to minimize patients lost to follow-up, especially as technological norms evolve.

  10. Relationship of supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: an exploratory study from India.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Patra, Bichitra N; Aggarwal, Munish; Avasthi, Ajit; Chakrabarti, Subho; Malhotra, Savita

    2014-12-01

    The etiology of mental illness has been attributed to many different causes by people of various cultural backgrounds, including supernatural beliefs. This in turn affects the help-seeking behavior. Aim of this study was to explore the supernatural belief and pathways of care in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) attending a tertiary care hospital located in north India. In all, 89 consecutive patients diagnosed with OCD (according to the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10)) and ≥ 15 years of age were evaluated for their supernatural belief and help seeking. More than half of the patients (54%) believed in supernatural causes and 57.3% attributed their illness to supernatural causes. In addition to supernatural causes, many patients also attributed their illness to stress (household/work-related stress) or chemical imbalance in the body and or mind. About two-thirds of the patients (n = 58; 65.2%) first contacted a psychiatrist for their symptoms of OCD. Those who first contacted faith healers believed in one of the supernatural causations. Patients with OCD hold multiple beliefs regarding the etiology and treatment of mental illness which can affect their pathways to care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Borghammer, Per; Cumming, Paul; Østergaard, Karen; Gjedde, Albert; Rodell, Anders; Bailey, Christopher J; Vafaee, Manoucher S

    2012-02-15

    Decreased activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). This model would most likely predict a decrease in the rate of cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)). To test this hypothesis, we compared CMRO(2) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) PET scans from PD patients and healthy controls. Nine early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy age-matched controls underwent PET scans for quantitative mapping of CMRO(2) and CBF. Between-group differences were evaluated for absolute data and intensity-normalized values. No group differences were detected in regional magnitudes of CMRO(2) or CBF. Upon normalization using the reference cluster method, significant relative CMRO(2) decreases were evident in widespread prefrontal, parieto-occipital, and lateral temporal regions. Sensory-motor and subcortical regions, brainstem, and the cerebellum were spared. A similar pattern was evident in normalized CBF data, as described previously. While the data did not reveal substantially altered absolute CMRO(2) in brain of PD patients, employing data-driven intensity normalization revealed widespread relative CMRO(2) decreases in cerebral cortex. The detected pattern was very similar to that reported in earlier CBF and CMRglc studies of PD, and in the CBF images from the same subjects. Thus, the present results are consistent with the occurrence of parallel declines in CMRO(2), CBF, and CMRglc in spatially contiguous cortical regions in early PD, and support the hypothesis that ETC dysfunction could be a primary pathogenic mechanism in early PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contact reactions to fragrances.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, A; Armenaka, M; Kalogeromitros, D; Koufou, V; Georgala, S

    1999-05-01

    The most common reaction to fragrances is contact dermatitis, a delayed hypersensitivity reaction; however, other reactions include immediate contact reactions (contact urticaria) and photo-allergic reactions. Fragrance mix (FM) and balsam of Peru (BP) are used to screen for fragrance allergy. To study the different types of allergic skin reactions to fragrance compounds. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions to FM and BP were studied in 4,975 patients with suspected contact dermatitis by routine patch testing interpreted at 48 and 96 hours. In 664 of the patients, patch tests were read at 30 minutes to evaluate for immediate (wheal-and-flare) contact reactions and again at 48 and 96 hours. Photopatch tests to FM were performed in 111 patients with suspected photo-allergic dermatitis. Delayed contact reactions to FM occurred in 6.6% of females and 5.4% of males and to BP in 3.9% of females and 4.1% of males. Analysis of data over time (12 study years) showed an increased trend for reactions to fragrances, particularly in males. Sensitivity to other contact allergens (polysensitivity) was found in 62% of patients and polysensitivity presented more often with generalized contact dermatitis. The most sensitizing components of the fragrance mix that were tested in 38 patients were cinnamic alcohol, oak moss, and cinnamic aldehyde. There were 112 immediate patch test reactions to FM and 113 to BP in 664 patients. Immediate contact reactions were followed by delayed contact reactions in 13.4% of patients for FM and 8.8% for BP, representing a significant increase in the frequency of delayed contact reactions. Patients with immediate contact reactions to fragrances did not have a higher incidence of atopy (25.9%). No cases of positive photopatch test reactions to FM were seen. Fragrances commonly cause both delayed and immediate patch test reactions and patients with immediate contact reactions have an increase in delayed contact reactions to the same allergen.

  13. Enhanced Personal Contact With HIV Patients Improves Retention in Primary Care: A Randomized Trial in 6 US HIV Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Lytt I.; Giordano, Thomas P.; Marks, Gary; Wilson, Tracey E.; Craw, Jason A.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Rodriguez, Allan E.; Malitz, Faye; Moore, Richard D.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Holman, Susan; Rose, Charles E.; Girde, Sonali; Sullivan, Meg; Metsch, Lisa R.; Saag, Michael; Mugavero, Michael J.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Ferreira, Cintia; Koppelman, Lisa; McDoom, Maya; Naisteter, Michal; Osella, Karina; Ruiz, Glory; Skolnik, Paul; Sullivan, Meg; Gibbs-Cohen, Sophia; Desrivieres, Elana; Frederick, Mayange; Gravesande, Kevin; Holman, Susan; Johnson, Harry; Taylor, Tonya; Wilson, Tracey; Cheever, Laura; Malitz, Faye; Mills, Robert; Craw, Jason; Gardner, Lytt; Girde, Sonali; Marks, Gary; Batey, Scott; Gaskin, Stephanie; Mugavero, Michael; Murphree, Jill; Raper, Jim; Saag, Michael; Thogaripally, Suneetha; Willig, James; Zinski, Anne; Arya, Monisha; Bartholomew, David; Biggs, Tawanna; Budhwani, Hina; Davila, Jessica; Giordano, Tom; Miertschin, Nancy; Payne, Shapelle; Slaughter, William; Jenckes, Mollie; Keruly, Jeanne; McCray, Angie; McGann, Mary; Moore, Richard; Otterbein, Melissa; Zhou, Liming; Garzon, Carolyn; Jean-Simon, Jesline; Mercogliano, Kathy; Metsch, Lisa; Rodriguez, Allan; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Shika, Marvin; Bradley-Springer, Lucy; Corwin, Marla

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to determine whether enhanced personal contact with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients across time improves retention in care compared with existing standard of care (SOC) practices, and whether brief skills training improves retention beyond enhanced contact. Methods. The study, conducted at 6 HIV clinics in the United States, included 1838 patients with a recent history of inconsistent clinic attendance, and new patients. Each clinic randomized participants to 1 of 3 arms and continued to provide SOC practices to all enrollees: enhanced contact with interventionist (EC) (brief face-to-face meeting upon returning for care visit, interim visit call, appointment reminder calls, missed visit call); EC + skills (organization, problem solving, and communication skills); or SOC only. The intervention was delivered by project staff for 12 months following randomization. The outcomes during that 12-month period were (1) percentage of participants attending at least 1 primary care visit in 3 consecutive 4-month intervals (visit constancy), and (2) proportion of kept/scheduled primary care visits (visit adherence). Results. Log-binomial risk ratios comparing intervention arms against the SOC arm demonstrated better outcomes in both the EC and EC + skills arms (visit constancy: risk ratio [RR], 1.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.09–1.36] and 1.22 [95% CI, 1.09–1.36], respectively; visit adherence: RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05–1.11] and 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02–1.09], respectively; all Ps < .01). Intervention effects were observed in numerous patient subgroups, although they were lower in patients reporting unmet needs or illicit drug use. Conclusions. Enhanced contact with patients improved retention in HIV primary care compared with existing SOC practices. A brief patient skill-building component did not improve retention further. Additional intervention elements may be needed for patients reporting illicit

  14. Enhanced personal contact with HIV patients improves retention in primary care: a randomized trial in 6 US HIV clinics.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lytt I; Giordano, Thomas P; Marks, Gary; Wilson, Tracey E; Craw, Jason A; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Keruly, Jeanne C; Rodriguez, Allan E; Malitz, Faye; Moore, Richard D; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A; Holman, Susan; Rose, Charles E; Girde, Sonali; Sullivan, Meg; Metsch, Lisa R; Saag, Michael; Mugavero, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether enhanced personal contact with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients across time improves retention in care compared with existing standard of care (SOC) practices, and whether brief skills training improves retention beyond enhanced contact. The study, conducted at 6 HIV clinics in the United States, included 1838 patients with a recent history of inconsistent clinic attendance, and new patients. Each clinic randomized participants to 1 of 3 arms and continued to provide SOC practices to all enrollees: enhanced contact with interventionist (EC) (brief face-to-face meeting upon returning for care visit, interim visit call, appointment reminder calls, missed visit call); EC + skills (organization, problem solving, and communication skills); or SOC only. The intervention was delivered by project staff for 12 months following randomization. The outcomes during that 12-month period were (1) percentage of participants attending at least 1 primary care visit in 3 consecutive 4-month intervals (visit constancy), and (2) proportion of kept/scheduled primary care visits (visit adherence). Log-binomial risk ratios comparing intervention arms against the SOC arm demonstrated better outcomes in both the EC and EC + skills arms (visit constancy: risk ratio [RR], 1.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.09-1.36] and 1.22 [95% CI, 1.09-1.36], respectively; visit adherence: RR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.11] and 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.09], respectively; all Ps < .01). Intervention effects were observed in numerous patient subgroups, although they were lower in patients reporting unmet needs or illicit drug use. Enhanced contact with patients improved retention in HIV primary care compared with existing SOC practices. A brief patient skill-building component did not improve retention further. Additional intervention elements may be needed for patients reporting illicit drug use or who have unmet needs. CDCHRSA9272007. Published by

  15. In Vivo Knee Contact Force Prediction Using Patient-Specific Musculoskeletal Geometry in a Segment-Based Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ziyun; Nolte, Daniel; Kit Tsang, Chui; Cleather, Daniel J; Kedgley, Angela E; Bull, Anthony M J

    2016-02-01

    Segment-based musculoskeletal models allow the prediction of muscle, ligament, and joint forces without making assumptions regarding joint degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The dataset published for the "Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in vivo Knee Loads" provides directly measured tibiofemoral contact forces for activities of daily living (ADL). For the Sixth Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in vivo Knee Loads, blinded results for "smooth" and "bouncy" gait trials were predicted using a customized patient-specific musculoskeletal model. For an unblinded comparison, the following modifications were made to improve the predictions: further customizations, including modifications to the knee center of rotation; reductions to the maximum allowable muscle forces to represent known loss of strength in knee arthroplasty patients; and a kinematic constraint to the hip joint to address the sensitivity of the segment-based approach to motion tracking artifact. For validation, the improved model was applied to normal gait, squat, and sit-to-stand for three subjects. Comparisons of the predictions with measured contact forces showed that segment-based musculoskeletal models using patient-specific input data can estimate tibiofemoral contact forces with root mean square errors (RMSEs) of 0.48-0.65 times body weight (BW) for normal gait trials. Comparisons between measured and predicted tibiofemoral contact forces yielded an average coefficient of determination of 0.81 and RMSEs of 0.46-1.01 times BW for squatting and 0.70-0.99 times BW for sit-to-stand tasks. This is comparable to the best validations in the literature using alternative models.

  16. The (in)stability of 21st century orthopedic patient contact information and its implications on clinical research: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    London, Daniel A; Stepan, Jeffrey G; Goldfarb, Charles A; Boyer, Martin I; Calfee, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Background In clinical research, minimizing patients lost to follow-up is essential for data validity. Researchers can employ better methodology to prevent patient loss. We examined how orthopedic surgery patients’ contact information changes over time to optimize data collection for long-term outcomes research. Methods Patients presenting to orthopedic outpatient clinics completed questionnaires regarding methods of contact: home phone, cell phone, mailing address, and e-mail address. They reported currently available methods of contact, if they changed in the past five and ten years, and when they changed. Differences in the rates of change amongst methods were assessed via Fisher exact tests. Whether participants changed any of their contact information in the past five and ten years was determined via multivariate modeling, controlling for demographic variables. Results Among 152 patients, 51% changed at least one form of contact information within 5 years, and 66% changed at least one form within 10 years. The rate of change for each contact method was similar over five (15-28%) and ten years (26-41%). One patient changed all 4 methods of contact within the past five years, and seven within the past ten years. Females and younger patients were more likely to change some type of contact information. Conclusions The type of contact information least likely to change over five to ten years is influenced by demographic factors such as sex and age, with females and younger participants more likely to change some aspect of their contact information. Collecting all contact methods appears necessary to minimize patients lost to follow-up, especially as technological norms evolve. PMID:28359191

  17. Contacts between health care workers and patients in a short-stay geriatric unit during the peak of a seasonal influenza epidemic compared with a nonepidemic period.

    PubMed

    Oussaid, Nadia; Voirin, Nicolas; Régis, Corinne; Khanafer, Nagham; Martin-Gaujard, Géraldine; Vincent, Adélaïde; Comte, Brigitte; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Patterns of contacts between health care workers and patients during seasonal epidemics are unknown. Our study objective was to compare the number and duration of contacts between health care workers and patients during a nonepidemic period versus a community influenza epidemic, and to identify supercontactors. Our observational study was conducted in a short-stay geriatric unit of a university hospital. Contacts between individuals were recorded by active radio frequency identification devices. Contact patterns were compared between 2 periods according to contact number and duration. Each care period lasted 5 days in the nonepidemic and influenza epidemic periods. The study included 21 medical doctors, 43 nurses, and 56 patients. In total, 3,200 contacts (61.4%; 152,700 seconds) were recorded during the nonepidemic period, with 2,013 contacts (38.6%; 92,740 seconds) in the epidemic period (P = .007). More cumulative contacts occurred during the nonepidemic period between nurses and patients (n = 2,638 [82%] vs n = 1,599 [79%]), but not between patients (n = 56 [18%] vs n = 414 [21%]). Contact duration between nurses and patients lasted longer during the nonepidemic period (P = .04). During the epidemic period, 6 nurses (15%) considered to be supercontactors accounted for 44.3% of the total number of contacts with patients. The pattern of contacts between individuals differed according to the presence or not of the community influenza peak that might have influenced the risk of nosocomial influenza. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Somatic hospital contacts, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality from heart disease in patients with severe mental disorder.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben; Gasse, Christiane; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2009-07-01

    Excess mortality from heart disease is observed in patients with severe mental disorder. This excess mortality may be rooted in adverse effects of pharmacological or psychotropic treatment, lifestyle factors, or inadequate somatic care. To examine whether persons with severe mental disorder, defined as persons admitted to a psychiatric hospital with bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophrenia, are in contact with hospitals and undergoing invasive procedures for heart disease to the same degree as the nonpsychiatric general population, and to determine whether they have higher mortality rates of heart disease. A population-based cohort of 4.6 million persons born in Denmark was followed up from 1994 to 2007. Rates of mortality, somatic contacts, and invasive procedures were estimated by survival analysis. Incidence rate ratios of heart disease admissions and heart disease mortality as well as probability of invasive cardiac procedures. The incidence rate ratio of heart disease contacts in persons with severe mental disorder compared with the rate for the nonpsychiatric general population was only slightly increased, at 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.14). In contrast, their excess mortality rate ratio from heart disease was 2.90 (95% confidence interval, 2.71-3.10). Five years after the first contact for somatic heart disease, the risk of dying of heart disease was 8.26% for persons with severe mental disorder (aged <70 years) but only 2.86% in patients with heart disease who had never been admitted to a psychiatric hospital. The fraction undergoing invasive procedures within 5 years was reduced among patients with severe mental disorder as compared with the nonpsychiatric general population (7.04% vs 12.27%, respectively). Individuals with severe mental disorder had only negligible excess rates of contact for heart disease. Given their excess mortality from heart disease and lower rates of invasive procedures after first contact, it

  19. Early Predictors of Fever in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rocha Ferreira da Silva, Ivan; Rodriguez de Freitas, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Fever is commonly observed in patients who have had aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and it has been associated with the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia and worse outcomes in previous studies. Frequently, fever is not the result of bacterial infections, and distinction between infection-related fever and fever secondary to brain injury (also referred as central fever) can be challenging. The current study aimed to identify risk factors on admission for the development of central fever in patients with SAH. Databank analysis was performed using information from demographic data (age, gender), imaging (transcranial Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, and cerebral angiogram), laboratory (white blood cell count, hemoglobin, renal function, and electrolytes), and clinical assessment (Hunt-Hess and modified Fisher scales on admission, occurrence of fever). A multivariate logistic regression model was created. Of 55 patients, 32 developed fever during the first 7 days of hospital stay (58%). None of the patients had identifiable bacterial infections during their first week in the neurocritical care unit. Hunt-Hess scale >2 and leukocytosis on admission were associated to the development of central fever, even after correction in a logistic regression model. Leukocytosis and a poor neurologic examination on admission might help predict which subset of patients with SAH are at higher risk of developing central fever early in their hospital stay. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from medical adhesive bandages in patients who report having a reaction to medical bandages.

    PubMed

    Widman, Travis J; Oostman, Holly; Storrs, Frances J

    2008-01-01

    Medical adhesive bandages are extensively used in both inpatient and outpatient medicine. However, few reports describing proven allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from medical adhesive bandages exist in the literature. These reports do not adequately correspond to the frequency that patients report having an "allergy" to medical adhesive bandages. To determine if there is a chemical present in medical adhesive bandages that causes ACD in people who identify themselves as having an "allergy" to medical adhesive bandages. Twenty-six patients were enrolled and underwent patch testing with our standard trays (104 chemicals) and a customized adhesive tray (54 chemicals and 10 tapes and bandages in their whole form). We were able to identify an allergen in four patients that was related to their presumed adhesive allergy (Mastisol, neomycin/bacitracin [two different patients], and cortisone-10 cream, respectively). However, there were no positive allergic reactions to the tapes or bandages or any relevant allergic reactions to our customized adhesive tray. Eight (73%) of the 11 patients who had the bandage or tape left on for 7 days had an irritant reaction. We feel that the perceived reactions are not secondary to ACD but instead are due to an irritant contact dermatitis.

  1. Language Contact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  2. Acquired initiating mutations in early hematopoietic cells of CLL patients.

    PubMed

    Damm, Frederik; Mylonas, Elena; Cosson, Adrien; Yoshida, Kenichi; Della Valle, Véronique; Mouly, Enguerran; Diop, M'boyba; Scourzic, Laurianne; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Davi, Frederick; Lambert, Jérôme; Gautheret, Daniel; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Sutton, Laurent; Dessen, Philippe; Solary, Eric; Akashi, Koichi; Vainchenker, William; Mercher, Thomas; Droin, Nathalie; Ogawa, Seishi; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Bernard, Olivier A

    2014-09-01

    Appropriate cancer care requires a thorough understanding of the natural history of the disease, including the cell of origin, the pattern of clonal evolution, and the functional consequences of the mutations. Using deep sequencing of flow-sorted cell populations from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we established the presence of acquired mutations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Mutations affected known lymphoid oncogenes, including BRAF, NOTCH1, and SF3B1. NFKBIE and EGR2 mutations were observed at unexpectedly high frequencies, 10.7% and 8.3% of 168 advanced-stage patients, respectively. EGR2 mutations were associated with a shorter time to treatment and poor overall survival. Analyses of BRAF and EGR2 mutations suggest that they result in deregulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) intracellular signaling. Our data propose disruption of hematopoietic and early B-cell differentiation through the deregulation of pre-BCR signaling as a phenotypic outcome of CLL mutations and show that CLL develops from a pre-leukemic phase. The origin and pathogenic mechanisms of CLL are not fully understood. The current work indicates that CLL develops from pre-leukemic multipotent hematopoietic progenitors carrying somatic mutations. It advocates for abnormalities in early B-cell differentiation as a phenotypic convergence of the diverse acquired mutations observed in CLL. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Patch test results of the European baseline series among patients with occupational contact dermatitis across Europe - analyses of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy network, 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maria; Jolanki, Riitta; Larese Filon, Francesca; Wilkinson, Mark; Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; John, Swen M; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop effective preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to allergens in the European baseline series of patients with occupational contact dermatitis in different occupations. We analysed data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy (ESSCA) network from 2002 to 2010, from 11 European countries. Allergens in the European baseline series associated with an at least doubled risk of occupational contact dermatitis include: thiuram rubber chemical accelerators, epoxy resin, and the antimicrobials methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and formaldehyde. The highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis was found in occupations classified as 'other personal services workers', which includes hairdressers, nursing and other healthcare professionals, precision workers in metal and related materials, and blacksmiths, tool-makers and related trades workers. In the planning and implementation of measures aimed at preventing occupational contact dermatitis, the focus should be on the identified high-risk occupational groups and the most common occupational allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of the rigid gas permeable contact lense use on tear and ocular surface among keratoconus patients.

    PubMed

    Yuksel Elgin, Cansu; Iskeleli, Guzin; Aydin, Ovgu

    2018-06-01

    To investigate changes in tear and ocular surface of patients with keratoconus using rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGPCL) and compare them against keratoconus patients who were not using lenses as well as a control group of healthy subjects. 24 keratoconus patients using RGPCL (Group 1) 22 patients who were not using lenses (Group 3) and 21 healthy subjects (Group 3) were included in the study. Subjective complaints about the subjects' eyes have been investigated using the ocular-surface disease index (OSDI). After the control of best-corrected visual acuity, anterior chamber and fundus examinations were performed. Schirmer (p-value=0.01) and tear break up mean comparison tests (p-value=0.002) revealed significant differences across different groups but tear osmolarity analysis did not (p-value >0.05). Oxford and OSDI scores were compatible with Schirmer and tear break up test comparisons. (for both p-value=0.001) Moreover, no statistical differences were seen in impression cytology measures between groups. (p-value >0.05) CONCLUSIONS: The erosion in the tear film stability is in line with the erosion in the ocular surface epithelium. Taking into account the statistical indifference between the impression cytology measures across groups, the break up time differences may be attributed to the collagen destruction in tear. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Knee Joint Contact Mechanics during Downhill Gait and its Relationship with Varus/Valgus Motion and Muscle Strength in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Group differences in contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion excursions were compared using analysis of covariance with adjustments for body mass index. Differences in strength were compared using independent sample t-tests. Additionally, linear associations between contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee motion and muscle strength were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p<0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p<0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p=0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p=0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Conclusion Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with

  6. Effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis in preventing leprosy in patient contacts: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Silvana Margarida Benevides; Yonekura, Tatiana; Ignotti, Eliane; Oliveira, Larissa Bertacchini de; Takahashi, Juliana; Soares, Cassia Baldini

    2017-10-01

    Individuals in contact with patients who have leprosy have an increased risk of disease exposure, which reinforces the need for chemoprophylactic measures, such as the use of rifampicin. The objective of the review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis for contacts with patients with leprosy, and to synthesize the best available evidence on the experience and acceptability of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis as reported by the contacts and health professionals involved in the treatment of leprosy or Hansen's disease. In the quantitative component, individuals in contact with leprosy patients were included. In the qualitative component, in addition to contacts, health professionals who were in the practice of treating leprosy were included. The quantitative component considered as an intervention rifampicin at any dose, frequency and mode of administration, and rifampicin combination regimens.The qualitative component considered as phenomena of interest the experience and acceptability of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis. The quantitative component considered experimental and observational studies whereas the qualitative component considered studies that focused on qualitative data, including but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography and action-research. The quantitative component considered studies that reported on outcomes such as the development of clinical leprosy in the contacts of patients who had leprosy, incidence rates, adverse effects and safety/harmful effects of the intervention. A three-step strategy for published and unpublished literature was used. The search for published studies included: PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature; and Google Scholar and EVIPnet for unpublished

  7. Risk Factors for Carbapenemase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) Acquisition Among Contacts of Newly Diagnosed CP-CRE Patients.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Neiderman, Anat; Braun, Tali; Fallach, Noga; Schwartz, David; Carmeli, Yehuda; Schechner, Vered

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are extremely drug-resistant pathogens. Screening of contacts of newly identified CP-CRE patients is an important step to limit further transmission. We aimed to determine the risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among patients exposed to a CP-CRE index patient. METHODS A matched case-control study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in Israel. The study population was comprised of patients who underwent rectal screening for CP-CRE following close contact with a newly identified CP-CRE index patient. Cases were defined as positive tests for CP-CRE. For each case patient, 2 matched controls were randomly selected from the pool of contacts who tested negative for CP-CRE following exposure to the same index case. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS In total, 53 positive contacts were identified in 40 unique investigations (896 tests performed on 735 contacts) between October 6, 2008, and June 7, 2012. bla KPC was the only carbapenemase identified. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts were (1) contact with an index patient for ≥3 days (odds ratio [OR], 9.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-48.9), (2) mechanical ventilation (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.4-11.9), and (3) carriage or infection with another multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-7.1). Among patients who received antibiotics, cephalosporins were associated with a lower risk of acquisition. CONCLUSIONS Patient characteristics (ventilation and carriage of another MDRO) as well as duration of contact are risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among contacts. The role of cephalosporins requires further study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-7.

  8. Comparison of salivary cortisol, heart rate, and oxygen saturation between early skin-to-skin contact with different initiation and duration times in healthy, full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Matsushima, Miyoko; Kawabe, Tsutomu

    2011-03-01

    There are few studies that compare the physiological and biological efficacies between different early skin-to-skin contacts (SSC) post birth. To investigate physiologically and biochemically how early SSC with different initiation and duration time influence the stress post birth for full-term infants. Non-experimental study. Study I; Thirty-two infants who began SSC 5 min or less [birth SSC, mean initiation time (standard deviation): 1.6 (1.1) min] after birth and 36 infants who did so more than 5 min [very early SSC, 26.3 (5.0) min] in heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) analysis. Study II; Eighteen infants who underwent SSC for 60 min or less [mean initiation time: 7.5 (12.2) min] and 61 infants who did so for more than 60 min [15.3 (12.5) min] in salivary cortisol analysis. HR and SpO(2) measured for 30 min post birth. Salivary cortisol concentration measured at 1 min, 60 min, and 120 min post birth. Birth SSC group reached HR stability of 120-160 bpm significantly faster than very early SSC group by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P=0.001 by log-rank test). As for SpO(2) stability of 92% and 96%, no significantly between-group difference was found. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly lower between 60 and 120 min after birth in SSC group, continuing for more than 60 min compared with SSC group for 60 min or less after adjustment for salivary cortisol level at 1 min besides the infant stress factors (P=0.046). Earlier SSC beginning within 5 min post birth and longer SSC continuing for more than 60 min within 120 min post birth are beneficial for stability of cardiopulmonary dynamics and the reduction of infant stress during the early period post birth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Importance of early nutritional screening in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gavazzi, Cecilia; Colatruglio, Silvia; Sironi, Alessandro; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Miceli, Rosalba

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between nutritional status, disease stage and quality of life (QoL) in 100 patients recently diagnosed with gastric carcinoma. The patients' nutritional status was investigated with anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables; and we also evaluated the nutritional risk with the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. Oncological staging was standard. QoL was evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy questionnaire. The statistical correlation between nutritional risk score (NRS) and oncological characteristics or QoL was evaluated using both univariable and multivariable analyses. Weight loss and reduction of food intake were the most frequent pathological nutritional indicators, while biochemical, inflammatory and functional variables were in the normal range. According to NRS, thirty-six patients were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition. Patients with NRS ≥ 3 presented a significantly greater percentage of stage IV gastric cancer and pathological values of C-reactive protein, while no correlation was found with the site of tumour. NRS was negatively associated with QoL (P < 0·001) and this relation was independent from oncological and inflammatory variables as confirmed by multivariable analysis. In the present study, we found that in patients with gastric cancer malnutrition is frequent at diagnosis and this is likely due to reduction in food intake. Moreover, NRS is directly correlated with tumour stage and inversely correlated with QoL, which makes it a useful tool to identify patients in need of an early nutritional intervention during oncological treatments.

  10. Serum proteomics of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Li, Shi-Zhong; Feng, Chun-Sheng; Qu, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xue-Na; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yun; Wu, An-Shi; Yue, Yun

    2012-07-01

    Studies on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) have attracted extensive attention and achieved significant progress. However, the diagnosis of POCD is not very satisfactory as no specific biomarkers have been classified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in serum protein composition between POCD and Non-POCD patients, identify potential biomarkers associated with early POCD, and study the mechanism underlying POCD. Sixty-eight elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) received isoflurane inhalation anesthesia for arthroplasty surgeries. One day before and seven days after the surgery, these patients were subjected to a neuropsychological test and venous blood sample collection. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was determined using Z test scores. Based on the results, the patients were divided into POCD and non-POCD groups. Twenty-five randomly chosen blood samples obtained seven days after the surgery from each group were analyzed on a Bruker ultraFlex(TM) time of flight (TOF)/TOF mass spectrophotometer. The resulting peptide fingerprints were compared with those from the pre-surgery samples to identify differences in serum protein composition. The model designed to distinguish between a non-POCD group and a POCD group were established and validated. Three proteins with the most significant changes were selected for further characterization. Thirty-three cases were diagnosed as POCD. Using the Clinprotools software, 58 polypeptides were found to display differential expression (P < 0.05). Using a support vector algorithm method, seven differential peaks were isolated to establish a diagnostic model to distinguish POCD patients from normal individuals. The prediction rate and recognition rate were 96.89% and 100%, respectively. Validation of this model showed that the accuracy rates were 100% and 85% using samples from the POCD and non-POCD groups, respectively. Protein analysis also led to the identification of fibrinopeptide A (FPA) as a

  11. Early skin-to-skin contact or incubator for very preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Laila; Støen, Ragnhild; Rygh, Hilde; Sognnæs, Margunn; Follestad, Turid; Mohn, Hilde S; Nissen, Ingrid; Bergseng, Håkon

    2016-12-12

    Skin-to-skin care immediately following delivery is a common practice for term infants and has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory stability, facilitate early bonding, and promote breastfeeding. Since 2007, the use of skin-to-skin care has been practiced for preterm infants from 32 weeks of gestation in the delivery room at St. Olav's University Hospital. In the present study we aim to investigate whether skin-to-skin care following delivery is safe, and how it affects early and late outcomes compared to standard care for very preterm infants. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of skin-to-skin care in the delivery room for very preterm infants born at gestational age 28 0 -31 6 weeks with birth weight >1000 grams. Infants with severe congenital malformations or need of intubation in the delivery room are excluded. A detailed checklist and a flowchart were prepared for the study, and all involved professionals (neonatologists, neonatal nurses, obstetricians, anesthesiologists, midwives) participated in medical simulation training prior to study start on February 1, 2014. A consultant in neonatology and a neonatal nurse are present at all deliveries. Infants with birth weight <1500 grams receive an intravenous line with glucose, amino acids, and caffeine citrate in the delivery room. Infants with gestational age <30 weeks are routinely put on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). After initial stabilization, infants are randomized to skin-to-skin care or are transferred to the nursery in an incubator. Primary outcome is cognitive development at 2 years measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition. Secondary outcomes are safety defined as hypothermia, respiratory failure, and/or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, physiological stability after birth and motor, language and cognitive development at 1 year for the child, and mental health measured with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at discharge, and at 3 months and 2

  12. A comparison of central lines in pediatric oncology patients: Early removal and patient centered outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mangum, David Spencer; Verma, Anupam; Weng, Cindy; Sheng, Xiaoming; Larsen, Ryan; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Druzgal, Colleen; Fluchel, Mark

    2013-11-01

    While there is increasing evidence supporting the choice of subcutaneous ports (SPs) over external venous catheters (EVCs) in pediatric oncology patients, prior conflicting studies exist and little data have been gathered as to which type of central line is preferred from the patient/family perspective. We performed a single institution, 10 years, retrospective analysis of central lines in pediatric oncology patients (n = 878) to evaluate unplanned early removal and cause of removal while simultaneously obtaining a cross sectional survey of 143 of the primary caretakers/parents of these patients to evaluate their overall satisfaction with the line. EVCs have significantly higher odds of unplanned early removal in comparison to SPs (6.7% of SPs vs. 27.3% of EVCs, odds ratio (OR) = 6.3, P < 0.0001 when controlling for age and diagnosis) secondary to increased infection, malfunction and patient preference. Patients with SPs felt like their central line was easier to care for, had less daily impact in their life, and were overall more satisfied with their central line compared to patients with EVCs, even when controlling for early removal (P < 0.0001 for all). SP patients were much more likely to state that they would choose the same type of line again (OR = 15, P < 0.0001) than EVC patients. SPs demonstrated lower removal rates and greater patient satisfaction than EVCs. These data should be considered when choosing a central line for pediatric cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Adhesive capabilities of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from tears of HIV/AIDS patients to soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, B O; Kio, F E; Otajevwo, F D

    2012-01-01

    Fifty conjunctival swab samples collected from ELISA confirmed HIV/AIDS seropositive patients who were referred to the HIV/AIDS laboratories of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital both based in Benin City, Nigeria were aseptically cultured on appropriate media by standard methods. The resulting isolates/strains, after identification by standard methods, were tested for their ability to adhere to two hydrophobic non-ionic daily wear silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses (i.e. lotrafilcon B, WC 33% and polymacon, WC 38%) as well as to two hydrophilic ionic conventional extended wear silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses (i.e. methafilcon A, WC 55% and omafilcon A, WC 60%) by the adhesiveness/slime production modified vortex/Robin device method. Evidence of adhesiveness/slime production was indicated by presence of a visible stained film lining the surface of the contact lens which was measured and recorded as strong or weak according to the density of the adhered bacterial film. Fourteen (28.0%) Staphylococcus aureus strains and 10 (20.0%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were obtained among other organisms. Staphylococcus aureus strains adhered in decreasing order to lotrafilcon B (55.4 ± 4.7), polymacon (46.4 ± 8.4), methfilcon A (46.4 ± 8.4) and omafilcon A (25.0 ± 6.4) with no significant difference in adhesive strengths of individual strains (P > 0.05). Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains also recorded decreasing adhesive strengths to lotrafilcon B (37.5 ± 8.2), polymacon (28.6 ± 6.3), methafilcon A (26.8 ± 5.5) and omafilcon A (23.2 ± 5.5) also with no significant difference in adhesive strengths of individual strains (P > 0.05). Attachment strengths of Staph. aureus strains to all four contact lenses were higher than those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Both organisms adhered most to hydrophobic lotrafilcon B and least to hydrophilic omafilcon A. This invitro adhesion studies revealed that daily wear silicone hydrogel low water

  14. Adhesive Capabilities of Staphylococcus Aureus and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated from Tears of HIV/AIDS Patients to Soft Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    B. O., Ajayi; F.E., Kio; F.D., Otajevwo

    2012-01-01

    Fifty conjunctival swab samples collected from ELISA confirmed HIV/AIDS seropositive patients who were referred to the HIV/AIDS laboratories of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital both based in Benin City, Nigeria were aseptically cultured on appropriate media by standard methods. The resulting isolates/strains, after identification by standard methods, were tested for their ability to adhere to two hydrophobic non-ionic daily wear silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses (i.e. lotrafilcon B, WC 33% and polymacon, WC 38%) as well as to two hydrophilic ionic conventional extended wear silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses (i.e. methafilcon A, WC 55% and omafilcon A, WC 60%) by the adhesiveness/slime production modified vortex/Robin device method. Evidence of adhesiveness/slime production was indicated by presence of a visible stained film lining the surface of the contact lens which was measured and recorded as strong or weak according to the density of the adhered bacterial film. Fourteen (28.0%) Staphylococcus aureus strains and 10 (20.0%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were obtained among other organisms. Staphylococcus aureus strains adhered in decreasing order to lotrafilcon B (55.4 ± 4.7), polymacon (46.4 ± 8.4), methfilcon A (46.4 ± 8.4) and omafilcon A (25.0 ± 6.4) with no significant difference in adhesive strengths of individual strains (P > 0.05). Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains also recorded decreasing adhesive strengths to lotrafilcon B (37.5 ± 8.2), polymacon (28.6 ± 6.3), methafilcon A (26.8 ± 5.5) and omafilcon A (23.2 ± 5.5) also with no significant difference in adhesive strengths of individual strains (P > 0.05). Attachment strengths of Staph. aureus strains to all four contact lenses were higher than those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Both organisms adhered most to hydrophobic lotrafilcon B and least to hydrophilic omafilcon A. This invitro adhesion studies revealed that daily wear silicone hydrogel low water

  15. Physicians' contact with families after the death of pediatric patients: a survey of pediatric critical care practitioners' beliefs and self-reported practices.

    PubMed

    Borasino, Santiago; Morrison, Wynne; Silberman, Jordan; Nelson, Robert M; Feudtner, Chris

    2008-12-01

    Although research with bereaved families has shown that they appreciate contact with clinicians after the child's death, this realm of clinical practice remains empirically uncharted. The objective of this study was to describe pediatric critical care practitioners' attitudes and self-reported practices regarding contacting families after a patient's death. A total of 376 board-certified members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section of Critical Care received e-mail invitations to complete a Web-based questionnaire; 204 members responded (effective response rate: 54.3%). Most (95%) participants reported 0 to 1 patient deaths per week. A total of 79% of the respondents reported contacting families at least sometimes, 71.9% had attended funerals, and only 2.5% thought that it was inappropriate for clinicians to attend funerals. A total of 75.9% agreed that follow-up contact helps the family, whereas 47.3% agreed that follow-up contact helps the physicians. The most common methods of follow-up contact included the passive measures of providing contact information; active methods such as meeting with the family, calling them by telephone, or writing a letter or note were used less often. In multivariable analysis, respondents were more likely to report contact with a family after the death of a child when they affirmed the belief that such contact was useful to the family or to the physician or when they were female physicians. Regarding reported funeral attendance after the death of a patient, multivariable analysis revealed similar patterns of association but to an attenuated and nonstatistically significant degree. A high proportion of pediatric critical care physicians have contacted bereaved families and attended funerals after the death of a child patient. These practices were consistently associated with the belief that such follow-up contact helps the family or the practitioner.

  16. Early prognostication markers in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Karapetkova, M; Koenig, M A; Jia, X

    2016-03-01

    Established prognostication markers, such as clinical findings, electroencephalography (EEG) and biochemical markers, used by clinicians to predict neurological outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) are altered under therapeutic hypothermia (TH) conditions and their validity remains uncertain. MEDLINE and Embase were searched for evidence on the current standards for neurological outcome prediction for out-of-hospital CA patients treated with TH and the validity of a wide range of prognostication markers. Relevant studies that suggested one or several established biomarkers and multimodal approaches for prognostication are included and reviewed. Whilst the prognostic accuracy of various tests after TH has been questioned, pupillary light reflexes and somatosensory evoked potentials are still strongly associated with negative outcome for early prognostication. Increasingly, EEG background activity has also been identified as a valid predictor for outcome after 72 h after CA and a preferred prognostic method in clinical settings. Neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography, can identify functional and structural brain injury but are not readily available at the patient's bedside because of limited availability and high costs. A multimodal algorithm composed of neurological examination, EEG-based quantitative testing and somatosensory evoked potentials, in conjunction with newer magnetic resonance imaging sequences, if available, holds promise for accurate prognostication in CA patients treated with TH. In order to avoid premature withdrawal of care, prognostication should be performed more than 72 h after CA. © 2015 EAN.

  17. Should we question early feminizing genitoplasty for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and XX karyotype?

    PubMed

    Binet, A; Lardy, H; Geslin, D; Francois-Fiquet, C; Poli-Merol, M L

    2016-03-01

    There is a wide difference of opinion between the medical-surgical community and advocacy group regarding Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD) secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) being ranked in the intersex category. This rupture is even more evident when the issue of genitoplasty is brought up. For physicians it is obvious and unequivocal that a person with CAH and an XX karyotype has a female gender identity, whereas associations tend to rank persons with CAH in the intersex category and advocate holding-off on surgical management. A retrospective case study vs. control group, spanning over 40years, included 21 patients who were treated in 3 different centers. Each patient and their parents were contacted independently and interviewed regarding interpersonal relationships, psychological impact of genitoplasty, gender identity and opinion on optimal care management for this disorder. Three couples controls (parent-child) per CAH patients were used and matched according to age, sex assigned at birth and ethnic origin. Sex assigned at birth seemed to concord with the gender identity perceived by the patients in 85.7% of cases. In fact, 89.7% of patients and 100% of parents felt that feminizing genitoplasty should be performed within the first year of life. There is however a significant difference compared to controls who felt that surgical management should occur later on in life. No difference was highlighted during childhood regarding parents-child relationships or social integration. However, during adolescence, the parents-child relationship tended to be significantly more painful for the CAH group. Integrating their parenting role was significantly harder for patients in the CAH-DSD group. In the population of CAH-DSD patients who had genitoplasty the level of sexual fulfillment was not lower to the one reported by the control group. Female sex assignment seems legitimate according to this study and the development of gender identity in these

  18. Additive-manufactured patient-specific titanium templates for thoracic pedicle screw placement: novel design with reduced contact area.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Ota, Eigo; Otsuki, Bungo; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Futami, Tohru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Neo, Masashi; Matsuda, Shuich

    2016-06-01

    Image-based navigational patient-specific templates (PSTs) for pedicle screw (PS) placement have been described. With recent advances in three-dimensional computer-aided designs and additive manufacturing technology, various PST designs have been reported, although the template designs were not optimized. We have developed a novel PST design that reduces the contact area without sacrificing stability. It avoids susceptibility to intervening soft tissue, template geometric inaccuracy, and difficulty during template fitting. Fourteen candidate locations on the posterior aspect of the vertebra were evaluated. Among them, locations that had high reproducibility on computed tomography (CT) images and facilitated accurate PS placement were selected for the final PST design. An additive manufacturing machine (EOSINT M270) fabricated the PSTs using commercially pure titanium powder. For the clinical study, 36 scoliosis patients and 4 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) were treated with thoracic PSs using our newly developed PSTs. We intraoperatively and postoperatively evaluated the accuracy of the PS hole created by the PST. Based on the segmentation reproducibility and stability analyses, we selected seven small, round contact points for our PST: bilateral superior and inferior points on the transverse process base, bilateral inferior points on the laminar, and a superior point on the spinous process. Clinically, the success rates of PS placement using this PST design were 98.6 % (414/420) for scoliosis patients and 100 % (46/46) for OPLL patients. This study provides a useful design concept for the development and introduction of patient-specific navigational templates for placing PSs.

  19. [Individual prevention of occupational contact dermatitis: protective gloves and skin protection recommendations as part of the patient management scheme by the public statutory employers' liability insurance].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Skudlik, C; Sonsmann, F K

    2018-05-02

    The dermatologist's procedure is a pivotal tool for early recognition of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), for reporting OCD cases to the statutory accident insurance and for treating the diseases. The employer is in charge of implementing skin protection measures at the workplace. However, in terms of an individual prevention approach it may be necessary to propose targeted skin protection recommendations in specific patient cases. The patient's own skin protection behavior significantly contributes to regenerating and maintaining healthy skin. This behavior includes the use of occupational skin products, and in particular the correct use of appropriately selected protective gloves. Protective gloves are the most important personal protective measure in the prevention of OCD. Prevention services, occupational health and safety specialists, occupational physicians and centers specialized in occupational dermatology can support the identification of suitable protective measures. Nowadays, suitable protective gloves exist for (almost) every occupational activity and exposure. However, improper use in practice can become a risk factor by itself for the skin (e. g., incorrectly used gloves). Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify application errors, to educate patients in terms of skin protection and to motivate them to perform an appropriate skin protection behavior. With particular focus on protective gloves, this article gives an overview of various types, materials and potentially glove-related allergens, presents strategies for reducing occlusion effects and discusses some typical application errors and solutions.

  20. The Early Patient-Oriented Care Program as an Educational Tool and Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Darren W.; Bailie, George R.; Manley, Harold J.; Yeaw, Barbara F.

    1998-01-01

    The Early Patient-Oriented Care Program provides early clinical education for pharmacy students and clinical services for patients. Six students were assigned to visit 12-15 hemodialysis patients monthly under preceptor supervision. Topics covered include approach to patient, medical information retrieval, pharmaceutical care philosophy,…

  1. Sleep disturbance in cancer patients and caregivers who contact telephone-based help services.

    PubMed

    Morris, Bronwyn A; Thorndike, Frances P; Ritterband, Lee M; Glozier, Nick; Dunn, Jeff; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is highly prevalent in people who are affected by cancer. However, options available to receive support for insomnia are limited. Telephone-based help services, such as cancer helplines, may be ideally placed to meet unmet needs regarding insomnia after cancer. The present study describes the prevalence and predictors of insomnia in patients and caregivers who call cancer helplines seeking support. Participants (N = 500 patients, N = 234 caregivers) were recruited through an Australian state-based telephone-delivered cancer helpline. In addition to routine screening with the Distress Thermometer, participants were administered the Insomnia Severity Index. Most participants were female, older than 50 years of age, and were three (caregivers) to four (patients) months post-diagnosis. Insomnia symptoms were reported by 59.4 % of patients and 62.9 % of caregivers, with moderate to severe levels of insomnia reported by 27 % of patients and 30 % of caregivers. Insomnia was predicted by distress level for both patients (β = .31, p < .001) and caregivers (β = .32, p < .001) and age for patients only (β = -.13, p < .01). Insomnia symptoms are common in patients and caregivers who call cancer helplines and appear to be related to distress. Telephone-based helplines have the potential to act as the first line of support in a stepped care approach addressing insomnia.

  2. VA OpenNotes: exploring the experiences of early patient adopters with access to clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Klein, Dawn M; Hogan, Timothy P; Woods, Susan S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the experience of early patient adopters who accessed their clinical notes online using the Blue Button feature of the My HealtheVet portal. A web-based survey of VA patient portal users from June 22 to September 15, 2013. 33.5% of respondents knew that clinical notes could be viewed, and nearly one in four (23.5%) said that they had viewed their notes at least once. The majority of VA Notes users agreed that accessing their notes will help them to do a better job of taking medications as prescribed (80.1%) and be better prepared for clinic visits (88.6%). Nine out of 10 users agreed that use of visit notes will help them understand their conditions better (91.8%), and better remember the plan for their care (91.9%). In contrast, 87% disagreed that VA Notes will make them worry more, and 88.4% disagreed that access to VA Notes will be more confusing than helpful. Users who had either contacted their provider or healthcare team (11.9%) or planned to (13.5%) primarily wanted to learn more about a health issue, medication, or test results (53.7%). Initial assessment of the patient experience within the first 9 months of availability provides evidence that patients both value and benefit from online access to clinical notes. These findings are congruent with OpenNotes study findings on a broader scale. Additional outreach and education is needed to enhance patient awareness. Healthcare professionals should author notes keeping in mind the opportunity patient access presents for enhanced communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Objective and subjective responses in patients refitted to daily-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Dumbleton, Kathryn; Keir, Nancy; Moezzi, Amir; Feng, Yunwei; Jones, Lyndon; Fonn, Desmond

    2006-10-01

    Silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses offer many physiological advantages for daily wear (DW) in addition to the continuous-wear modality for which they were originally developed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance and physiological responses in a group of successful long-term wearers of conventional hydrogel lenses when refitted with DW SiH contact lenses. Eighty-seven successful soft lens wearers (8.4+/-4.7 years of prior lens wear) participated in this study. Bulbar and limbal hyperemia were subjectively graded and digitally photographed for subsequent masked objective evaluation. Subjective symptoms were scored using visual analog scales. In addition, refractive error, corneal curvature, and corneal thickness were measured. All subjects were refitted with Focus Night & Day (lotrafilcon A) SiH lenses; however, to reduce the potential for bias, they were informed that they were being randomly assigned to wear either low oxygen permeability (Dk) lenses or high Dk SiH lenses and were "masked" as to their lens assignment. Subjects returned after 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months of DW, at which time all gradings, photographs, and measurements were repeated. End-of-day subjective symptoms were also graded periodically during the study. Ninety-three percent of subjects were successfully refitted. Both objective and subjective evaluations showed that bulbar and limbal hyperemia decreased significantly in all quadrants during the study (p<0.001), particularly for those subjects with greater baseline hyperemia (p<0.001). Subjects reported a concurrent reduction in end-of-day dryness and improved end-of-day comfort compared with their habitual lenses (p<0.001). No significant changes in refractive error, tarsal papillary response, corneal curvature, or corneal thickness were found during the study. Hyperemia in contact lens wearers may be attributed to a number of factors, including hypoxia. Refitting existing low Dk lens wearers with SiH lenses on

  4. Early Prognostication Markers in Cardiac Arrest Patients Treated with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Karapetkova, Maria; Koenig, Matthew A.; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Established prognostication markers, such as clinical findings, electroencephalography (EEG), and biochemical markers, used by clinicians to predict neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) are altered under therapeutic hypothermia (TH) conditions and their validity remains uncertain. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for evidence on the current standards for neurologic outcome prediction for out-of-hospital CA patients treated with TH and the validity of a wide range of prognostication markers. Relevant studies that suggested one or several established biomarkers, and multimodal approaches for prognostication were included and reviewed. Results While the prognostic accuracy of various tests has been questioned after TH, pupillary light reflexes and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) are still strongly associated with negative outcome for early prognostication. Increasingly, EEG background activity has also been identified as a valid predictor for outcome after 72 hours after CA and a preferred prognostic method in clinical settings. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and CT, can identify functional and structural brain injury, but are not readily available at the patient’s bedside because of limited availability and high costs. Conclusions A multimodal algorithm composed of neurological examination, EEG-based quantitative testing, and SSEP, in conjunction with newer MRI sequences, if available, holds promise for accurate prognostication in CA patients treated with TH. In order to avoid premature withdrawal of care, prognostication should be performed later than 72 hours after CA. PMID:26228521

  5. Diabetes and pre-diabetes among household contacts of tuberculosis patients in India: is it time to screen them all?

    PubMed

    Shivakumar, S V B Y; Chandrasekaran, P; Kumar, A M V; Paradkar, M; Dhanasekaran, K; Suryavarshini, N; Thomas, B; Kohli, R; Thiruvengadam, K; Kulkarni, V; Hannah, L E; Sivaramakrishnan, G N; Pradhan, N; Dolla, C; Gupte, A; Ramachandran, G; DeLuca, A; Meshram, S; Bhardawaj, R; Bollinger, R C; Golub, J; Selvaraj, K; Gupte, N; Swaminathan, S; Mave, V; Gupta, A

    2018-06-01

    Pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM) and DM increase the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Screening contacts of TB patients for pre-DM/DM and linking them to care may mitigate the risk of developing TB and improve DM management. To measure the prevalence of pre-DM/DM and associated factors among the adult household contacts (HHCs) of pulmonary TB patients. Between August 2014 and May 2017, adult HHCs of newly diagnosed adult PTB patients in Pune and Chennai, India, had single blood samples tested for glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at enrolment. DM was defined as previously diagnosed, self-reported DM or HbA1c 6.5%, and pre-DM as HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%. Latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) was defined as a positive tuberculin skin test (5 mm induration) or QuantiFERON® Gold In-Tube (0.35 international units/ml). Of 652 adult HHCs, 175 (27%) had pre-DM and 64 (10%) had DM. Forty (64%) HHCs were newly diagnosed with DM and 48 (75%) had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c 7.0%). Sixty-eight (22%) pre-DM cases were aged 18-34 years. Age 35 years, body mass index 25 kg/m2, chronic disease and current tobacco smoking were significantly associated with DM among HHCs. Adult HHCs of TB patients in India have a high prevalence of undiagnosed DM, pre-DM and LTBI, putting them at high risk for developing TB. Routine DM screening should be considered among all adult HHCs of TB.

  6. Knee joint contact mechanics during downhill gait and its relationship with varus/valgus motion and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A; Gustafson, Jonathan A; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p < 0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p < 0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p = 0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p = 0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with deficits in muscle strength.

  7. Early supported discharge services for stroke patients: a meta-analysis of individual patients' data.

    PubMed

    Langhorne, Peter; Taylor, Gillian; Murray, Gordon; Dennis, Martin; Anderson, Craig; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Dey, Paola; Indredavik, Bent; Mayo, Nancy; Power, Michael; Rodgers, Helen; Ronning, Ole Morten; Rudd, Anthony; Suwanwela, Nijasri; Widen-Holmqvist, Lotta; Wolfe, Charles

    Stroke patients conventionally undergo a substantial part of their rehabilitation in hospital. Services have been developed that offer patients early discharge from hospital with rehabilitation at home (early supported discharge [ESD]). We have assessed the effects and costs of such services. We did a meta-analysis of data from individual patients who took part in randomised trials that recruited patients with stroke in hospital to receive either conventional care or any ESD service intervention that provided rehabilitation and support in a community setting with the aim of shortening the duration of hospital care. The primary outcome was death or dependency at the end of scheduled follow-up. Outcome data were available for 11 trials (1597 patients). ESD services were mostly provided by specialist multidisciplinary teams to a selected group (median 41%) of stroke patients admitted to hospital. There was a reduced risk of death or dependency equivalent to six (95% CI one to ten) fewer adverse outcomes for every 100 patients receiving an ESD service (p=0.02). The hospital stay was 8 days shorter for patients assigned ESD services than for those assigned conventional care (p<0.0001). There were also significant improvements in scores on the extended activities of daily living scale and in the odds of living at home and reporting satisfaction with services. The greatest benefits were seen in the trials evaluating a coordinated multidisciplinary ESD team and in stroke patients with mild to moderate disability. Appropriately resourced ESD services provided for a selected group of stroke patients can reduce long-term dependency and admission to institutional care as well as shortening hospital stays.

  8. [Initial contact in clinical interview with patients suffering from chronic insomnia].

    PubMed

    Gaillard, J M

    1994-01-01

    One of the most controversial issue concerning chronic insomnia is its association with psychopathology. Many patients tend to present their sleep disturbances as isolated, whereas others admit that they have difficulties in other sectors of their life too. If psychopathology exists in chronic insomnia, it should manifest itself in the form of defensive mechanisms which can be clinically observed. In order to have information concerning this problem, the initial interview of patients with chronic insomnia has been analysed in every details, in order to detect behavioural features and characteristics of verbal expression, indicating that defense mechanisms are working. A group of 100 patients from the specialized consultation for sleep disorders has been studied They were referred by their physicians. The patients with a somatic disease or a psychiatric condition corresponding to a diagnostic on axis I of DSM III-R were not included. The patients with a form of insomnia corresponding to psychophysiological insomnia, idiopathic insomnia or sleep state misperception of the international classification were included in this sample. For all patients except 2 of them, the initial interview was audiovisually recorded. This interview aimed at establishing the clinical features of the disturbance, the psychiatric and somatic condition as well as the history of the trouble and the treatment taken at the time or attempted in the past. After an initial open query: "what seems to be the problem?", a semi-structured interview was conducted to obtain information about nocturnal sleep, daytime condition, dream and parasomnia, the history of the disturbance and the treatment. Anxiety and depression, as well as other psychiatric conditions were systematically investigated. Under these conditions, the patients showed from the very beginning of the interview, noticeable characteristics in their behaviour and verbal expression. Therefore, it is essentially the first 10 minutes of the

  9. Affect of Early Skin-to-Skin Mother-Infant Contact in the Maintenance of Exclusive Breastfeeding: Experience in a Health Department in Spain.

    PubMed

    Vila-Candel, Rafael; Duke, Kiri; Soriano-Vidal, F Javier; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    Breastfeeding has been shown to result in extensive physical and psychological benefits for both the mother and the newborn. However, the rate and duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low worldwide. Mother-infant skin-to-skin contact (SSC) immediately after birth has demonstrated results that support the argument for breastfeeding continuation. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of EBF 3 months postpartum and the effect of early SSC in maintaining optimal EBF practices for mothers and their healthy newborns. We conducted an observational, retrospective study in Spain from 2013 to 2015. Pregnant women were interviewed immediately postpartum and again at 3 months postpartum regarding variables associated with breastfeeding initiation and continuation. There were 1,071 women recruited. Early SSC was performed in 92% of vaginal births but only 57% of urgent cesarean births. Of women breastfeeding at discharge, 69.5% performed SSC with their newborn. We found that 68.6% of women were exclusively breastfeeding by discharge and 46.7% by 3 months postpartum. Type of feeding at discharge, country of origin, and parity were found to be associated with each other ( p = .003, p = .001, respectively). Early SSC was also significantly associated with type of feeding at discharge, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months postpartum ( p < .001). Hypogalactia (19.8%) was the most frequently reported factor for breastfeeding discontinuation. Breastfeeding promotion interventions are likely to improve breastfeeding rates at 3 months postpartum. Social and economic factors should be taken into account when such programs are planned to be implemented.

  10. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  11. System implications of the ambulance arrival-to-patient contact interval on response interval compliance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J P; Gratton, M C; Salomone, J A; Lindholm, D J; Watson, W A

    1994-01-01

    In some emergency medical services (EMS) system designs, response time intervals are mandated with monetary penalties for noncompliance. These times are set with the goal of providing rapid, definitive patient care. The time interval of vehicle at scene-to-patient access (VSPA) has been measured, but its effect on response time interval compliance has not been determined. To determine the effect of the VSPA interval on the mandated code 1 (< 9 min) and code 2 (< 13 min) response time interval compliance in an urban, public-utility model system. A prospective, observational study used independent third-party riders to collect the VSPA interval for emergency life-threatening (code 1) and emergency nonlife-threatening (code 2) calls. The VSPA interval was added to the 9-1-1 call-to-dispatch and vehicle dispatch-to-scene intervals to determine the total time interval from call received until paramedic access to the patient (9-1-1 call-to-patient access). Compliance with the mandated response time intervals was determined using the traditional time intervals (9-1-1 call-to-scene) plus the VSPA time intervals (9-1-1 call-to-patient access). Chi-square was used to determine statistical significance. Of the 216 observed calls, 198 were matched to the traditional time intervals. Sixty-three were code 1, and 135 were code 2. Of the code 1 calls, 90.5% were compliant using 9-1-1 call-to-scene intervals dropping to 63.5% using 9-1-1 call-to-patient access intervals (p < 0.0005). Of the code 2 calls, 94.1% were compliant using 9-1-1 call-to-scene intervals. Compliance decreased to 83.7% using 9-1-1 call-to-patient access intervals (p = 0.012). The addition of the VSPA interval to the traditional time intervals impacts system response time compliance. Using 9-1-1 call-to-scene compliance as a basis for measuring system performance underestimates the time for the delivery of definitive care. This must be considered when response time interval compliances are defined.

  12. Contact us

    DCIO R&A DCIO CS In the News Library Contact us contact us Contact the Department of Defense Public Queries for DOD General questions or comments concerning the DOD Veteran Affairs Public questions or comments concerning the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Army Public questions or comments concerning

  13. Five-year evolution of reperfusion strategies and early mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in France.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Carlos; Bochaton, Thomas; Flocard, Elodie; Serre, Patrice; Tomasevic, Danka; Mewton, Nathan; Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric

    2017-10-01

    To assess 5-year evolutions in reperfusion strategies and early mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Using data from the French RESCUe network, we studied patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated in mobile intensive care units between 2009 and 2013. Among 2418 patients (median age 62 years; 78.5% male), 2119 (87.6%) underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and 299 (12.4%) pre-hospital thrombolysis (94.0% of whom went on to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention). Use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention increased from 78.4% in 2009 to 95.9% in 2013 ( P trend <0.001). Median delays included: first medical contact to percutaneous coronary intervention centre 48 minutes; first medical contact to balloon inflation 94 minutes; and percutaneous coronary intervention centre to balloon inflation 43 minutes. Times from symptom onset to first medical contact and first medical contact to thrombolysis remained stable during 2009-2013, but times from symptom onset to first balloon inflation, and first medical contact to percutaneous coronary intervention centre to first balloon inflation decreased ( P<0.001). Among patients with known timings, 2146 (89.2%) had a first medical contact to percutaneous coronary intervention centre delay ⩽90 minutes, while 260 (10.8%) had a longer delay, with no significant variation over time. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention use increased over time in both delay groups, but was consistently higher in the ⩽90 versus >90 minutes delay group (83.0% in 2009 to 97.7% in 2013; P trend <0.001 versus 34.1% in 2009 to 79.2% in 2013; P trend <0.001). In-hospital (4-6%) and 30-day (6-8%) mortalities remained stable from 2009 to 2013. In the RESCUe network, the use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention increased from 2009 to 2013, in line with guidelines, but there was no evolution in early mortality.

  14. Comparing goblet cell densities in patients wearing disposable hydrogel contact lenses versus silicone hydrogel contact lenses in an extended-wear modality.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Christopher W; Connor, Charles G; Murphy, Heather

    2003-10-01

    The current study evaluates the response of the ocular surface to extended contact lens wear by comparing a new silicone hydrogel lens to an ACUVUE 2 lens. Twenty subjects with an average age of 28 years were randomly assigned to a fitting with ACUVUE 2 or PureVision lenses. Ocular surface assessment by impression cytology was performed at baseline and for the 6 months after initiation of lens wear. Although goblet cell density significantly increased with wear time, no statistically significant difference was observed between the contact lens groups. The average baseline goblet cell percentages were as follows: ACUVUE 2 group, 1.44; PureVision group, 1.11. The 6-month averages were as follows: ACUVUE 2 group, 3.16; PureVision group, 2.22. It appears that silicone hydrogel lenses may be slightly less irritating to the ocular surface than lenses not containing silicone. This could be a promising indicator for successful 30-day continuous wear.

  15. Contact lens complications.

    PubMed

    Suchecki, Jeanine K; Donshik, Peter; Ehlers, William H

    2003-09-01

    Complications associated with contact lenses range from mild to severe and occur with all lens modalities. Contact lens wear can cause a change in corneal physiology, which can lead to epithelial, stromal, and endothelial compromise. Other complications include lens deposition, allergic conjunctivitis, giant papillary conjunctivitis, peripheral infiltrates, microbial keratitis, and neovascularization. Pre-existing conditions can contribute to these complications, or they can occur in association with contact lens wear and care regimens. Patient-related factors, such as alteration of the recommended wearing or replacement schedules and noncompliance with recommended contact lens care regimens for economic reasons, convenience, or in error, contribute to contact lens-related complications and have led to difficulty in accurate determination of complication rates among the various lens wear modalities. Complications may require discontinuation of contact lenses, topical therapy, and changes in contact lens wearing schedules, materials, and care solutions. On initial lens fitting and follow-up evaluations, practitioners should review contact lens replacement and cleaning regimens with patients and discuss complications. To avoid serious complications, patients should be reminded to remove their contact lenses as soon as ocular irritation occurs, and to call their eye care practitioner immediately if symptoms persist.

  16. Efficacy of early skin-to-skin contact on the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Despite multiple benefits of breast milk, the rates of exclusive breastfeeding in developing countries are low. To evaluate the efficacy of early skin -to -skin contact (SSC) on the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 6 weeks of age among term neonates born by vaginal delivery. Term neonates born by vaginal delivery and did not require any resuscitation were randomized at birth to SSC (n=100) and control (n=100) group. Immediately after clamping the umbilical cord, SSC group neonates were placed on the bare bosom of mother and control group neonates were placed under a radiant warmer for a period of 45 minutes each while mothers underwent management of the third stage of labor and episiotomy repair. Pain experienced by mother during episiotomy repair was recorded using a numerical pain scale The primary outcome evaluated was the rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks of postnatal age. A significantly higher proportion of neonates were exclusively breastfeed at 6 weeks of age in the SSC group than in the control group (72% vs. 57.6%, p=0.04, relative risk: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.0 -1.6). The pain score during episiotomy repair in mothers of the SSC group was significantly lower than the control group (4.74±0.85 versus 5.34±0.81; P <0.01). Early SSC significantly improved the rate of exclusively breastfeeding at 6 weeks of age among healthy term neonates. An important additional effect was a decrease in the amount of pain that mothers in the SSC group experienced during episiotomy repair.

  17. Biometric Risk Factors for Corneal Neovascularization Associated with Hydrogel Soft Contact Lens Wear in Korean Myopic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae Seung; Wee, Won Ryang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the biometric risk factors for corneal surface complications associated with hydrogel soft contact lens (SCL) fitting in myopic patients in Korea. Methods This is a retrospective case-control study. The records of 124 subjects (124 eyes) who wore SCLs on a daily basis were reviewed. Thirty-one patients (31 eyes) who were diagnosed with corneal neovascularization (NV) while wearing SCLs were included in the complication group. Ninety-three age- and sex-matched patients (93 eyes) who wore SCLs, who did not have corneal NV and who visited our clinic for correction of refractive errors were included in the control group. The degree of spherical equivalent, astigmatism and corneal base curve radius (BCR) were compared in both groups. Results Patients with NV exhibited poorer best corrected visual acuity and more myopia than controls (p = 0.008 and 0.006, respectively). In univariate analysis, highly myopic patients (-9 diopters [D] or higher) were more likely to experience NV (odds ratio [OR], 2.232; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.602 to 3.105). High astigmatism (≥2 D) increased the risk of complications (OR, 2.717; 95% CI, 1.141 to 6.451). Steep cornea, in which BCR was <7.5 mm, also raised the risk of complications (OR, 4.000; 95% CI, 1.661 to 9.804). Flat cornea was not a risk factor for the development of NV. Conclusions High myopia, high astigmatism, and steep cornea seemed to be risk factors in the development of corneal NV in SCL wearers. PMID:25120337

  18. Biometric risk factors for corneal neovascularization associated with hydrogel soft contact lens wear in Korean myopic patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Seung; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the biometric risk factors for corneal surface complications associated with hydrogel soft contact lens (SCL) fitting in myopic patients in Korea. This is a retrospective case-control study. The records of 124 subjects (124 eyes) who wore SCLs on a daily basis were reviewed. Thirty-one patients (31 eyes) who were diagnosed with corneal neovascularization (NV) while wearing SCLs were included in the complication group. Ninety-three age- and sex-matched patients (93 eyes) who wore SCLs, who did not have corneal NV and who visited our clinic for correction of refractive errors were included in the control group. The degree of spherical equivalent, astigmatism and corneal base curve radius (BCR) were compared in both groups. Patients with NV exhibited poorer best corrected visual acuity and more myopia than controls (p = 0.008 and 0.006, respectively). In univariate analysis, highly myopic patients (-9 diopters [D] or higher) were more likely to experience NV (odds ratio [OR], 2.232; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.602 to 3.105). High astigmatism (≥2 D) increased the risk of complications (OR, 2.717; 95% CI, 1.141 to 6.451). Steep cornea, in which BCR was <7.5 mm, also raised the risk of complications (OR, 4.000; 95% CI, 1.661 to 9.804). Flat cornea was not a risk factor for the development of NV. High myopia, high astigmatism, and steep cornea seemed to be risk factors in the development of corneal NV in SCL wearers.

  19. Predisposing factors for early retirement in patients with schizophrenia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Reinhard; Friedel, Heiko; Erfurth, Andreas; Angermayer, Matthias; Clouth, Johannes; Eichmann, Florian

    2008-08-01

    Although early retirement causes major changes in the life of schizophrenic patients and is among the major cost factors to be covered by payers, the causes leading to early retirement of schizophrenic patients have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective non-interventional case-control study was to generate hypotheses on predisposing factors for early retirement in schizophrenia. Logistic regression was used to explore potential predisposing parameters with regard to their effect on the outcome early retirement. As the study results indicate, schizophrenia severity, assistance or care in the patient's everyday life, age and antipsychotic treatment with typical antipsychotics are linked to the occurrence of early retirement. Further research should be planned to confirm or refute the hypotheses determined in this retrospective analysis and to determine whether atypical antipsychotics could help to avoid early retirement and to improve the situation of schizophrenic patients.

  20. How do ED patients with criminal justice contact compare with other ED users? A retrospective analysis of ED visits in California.

    PubMed

    McConville, Shannon; Mooney, Alyssa C; Williams, Brie A; Hsia, Renee Y

    2018-06-21

    To assess the patterns of emergency department (ED) utilisation among those with and without criminal justice contact in California in 2014, comparing variation in ED use, visit frequency, diagnoses and insurance coverage. Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Analyses included ED visits to all licensed hospitals in California using statewide data on all ED encounters in 2014. Study participants included 3 757 870 non-elderly adult ED patients who made at least one ED visit in 2014. We assessed the patterns and characteristics of ED visits among those with criminal justice contact-patients who were either admitted to or discharged from the ED by a correctional institution-with patients who did not have criminal justice contact recorded during an ED visit. ED patients with criminal justice contact had higher proportions of frequent ED users (27.2% vs 9.4%), were at higher risk of an ED visit resulting in hospitalisation (26.6% vs 15.2%) and had higher prevalence of mental health conditions (52.8% vs 30.4%) compared with patients with no criminal justice contact recorded during an ED visit. Of the top 10, four primary diagnoses among patients with criminal justice contact were related to behavioural health conditions, accounting for 19.0% of all primary diagnoses in this population. In contrast, behavioural health conditions were absent from the top 10 primary diagnoses in ED patients with no observed criminal justice contact. Despite a high burden of disease, a lack of health insurance coverage was more common among those with criminal justice contact than those without (41.3% vs 14.1%). Given that a large proportion of ED patients with criminal justice contact are frequent users with considerable mental health conditions, current efforts in California's Medicaid programme to identify individuals in need of coordinated services could reduce costly ED utilisation among this group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  1. Heart rate profile during exercise in patients with early repolarization.

    PubMed

    Cay, Serkan; Cagirci, Goksel; Atak, Ramazan; Balbay, Yucel; Demir, Ahmet Duran; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2010-09-01

    Both early repolarization and altered heart rate profile are associated with sudden death. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate an association between early repolarization and heart rate profile during exercise. A total of 84 subjects were included in the study. Comparable 44 subjects with early repolarization and 40 subjects with normal electrocardiogram underwent exercise stress testing. Resting heart rate, maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and decrement were analyzed. Both groups were comparable for baseline characteristics including resting heart rate. Maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and heart rate decrement of the subjects in early repolarization group had significantly decreased maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and heart rate decrement compared to control group (all P < 0.05). The lower heart rate increment (< 106 beats/min) and heart rate decrement (< 95 beats/min) were significantly associated with the presence of early repolarization. After adjustment for age and sex, the multiple-adjusted OR of the risk of presence of early repolarization was 2.98 (95%CI 1.21-7.34) (P = 0.018) and 7.73 (95%CI 2.84-21.03) (P < 0.001) for the lower heart rate increment and heart rate decrement compared to higher levels, respectively. Subjects with early repolarization have altered heart rate profile during exercise compared to control subjects. This can be related to sudden death.

  2. Preventive malaria treatment for contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease in the context of the west Africa 2014-15 Ebola virus disease response: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Carias, Cristina; Greening, Bradford; Campbell, Caresse G; Meltzer, Martin I; Hamel, Mary J

    2016-04-01

    After the detection of an Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa in 2014, one of the elements of the response was to contact trace and isolate patients in specialised Ebola treatment units (ETUs) at onset of fever. We aimed to assess the economic feasibility of administering preventive malaria treatment to all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease, to prevent the onset of febrile malaria and subsequent admission to ETUs. We used a decision tree model to analyse the costs of preventive malaria treatment (artemisinin-based combination treatment [ACT]) for all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease (in terms of administration and averted ETU-stay costs) and benefits (in terms of averted ETU admissions) in west Africa, from a health-care provider perspective. The period of analyses was 1 year, which is roughly similar to the duration of the 2014-15 west Africa Ebola outbreak response. We calculated the intervention's cost per ETU admission averted (average cost-effectiveness ratio) by season (wet and dry), country (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea), and age of contact (<5 years, 5-14 years, and ≥15 years). We did sensitivity analyses to assess how results varied with malaria parasite prevalence (in children aged 2-10 years), daily cost of ETU stay (for Liberian malaria incidence levels), and compliance and effectiveness of preventive malaria treatment. Administration of ACTs to contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease was cost saving for contacts of all ages in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, in both seasons, from a health-care provider perspective. In the wet season, preventive malaria treatment was estimated to reduce the probability of a contact being admitted to an ETU by a maximum of 36% (in Guinea, for contacts aged <5 years), and a minimum of 10% (in Guinea and Sierra Leone, for those aged ≥15 years). Assuming 85% compliance and taking into account the African population pyramid, the intervention is expected to be cost saving in

  3. Contact Us

    J8 | Force Structure, Resources & Assessment Contact Home : Contact Chairman's Social Media Chairman's Flicker Chairman's Blog SEAC's Social Media SEAC's Facebook SEAC's Flicker SEAC's Twitter Joint Staff's Social Media Joint Staff's Facebook Joint Staff's Flicker Joint Staff 's Twitter Social Media

  4. [Early diagnosis and early treatment for liver cancer in Qidong: survival of patients and effectiveness of screening].

    PubMed

    Chen, J G; Zhang, Y H; Zhu, J; Lu, J H; Wang, J B; Sun, Y; Xue, X F; Lu, L L; Chen, Y S; Wu, Y; Jiang, X P; Ding, L L; Zhang, Q N; Zhu, Y R

    2017-12-23

    Objective: To evaluate the patients' survival and effectiveness of the live cancer screening for population at high risk for liver cancer in Qidong. Methods: According to the Expert Scheme proposed the Expert Committee of Early Detection and Early Treatment, China Cancer Foundation, diagnostical screening by using combined methods of alpha-fetoprotein and B ultrasound monitoring were carried out biannually in individuals with positive HBsAg who were screened from Qidong area. The evaluation indices of the effectiveness are task completion rate of screening, detection rate of liver cancer, early diagnosis rate, and treatment rate. The deadline of the follow-up for the surviving outcome was March 31, 2016. The life-table method was used to calculate the observed survival, and to make comparison and significant tests between survival rates in Group A (those found via repeated periodic screening) and Group B (those diagnosed without periodic screening). Results: Since 2007, 38 016 target population have been screened, and 3 703(9.74%) individuals with positive HBsAg were found. Except for 29 patients with liver cancer at the initial screening, 3 674 persons in the cohort were followed up; 268 patients with liver cancer were detected from the 33 199 person-times screening, with an annual detection rate of 1.61%. Of them, 186 patients were found in Group A(1.12%), in which 149 patients were the early cases, with an early detection rate of 80.11%; 167 out of 186(89.78%) patients received treatment after diagnosis. The incidence of liver cancer in this HBsAg (+ ) cohort of 25 452 person-years was 1 052.96 per 100 000 annually, 187 cases in males(1 488.45/100 000)and 81 cases in females(628.46/100 000). The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival of all patients with liver cancer were 64.55%, 40.50%, 32.54%, and 19.65%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 77.16%, 49.04%, 38.53%, and 24.25% in Group A, and were 36.25%, 21.21%, 21.21%, and 0% in Group B

  5. Web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic contact for patients with eating disorders: before-after study.

    PubMed

    ter Huurne, Elke D; Postel, Marloes G; de Haan, Hein A; Drossaert, Constance H C; DeJong, Cor A J

    2013-02-04

    Although eating disorders are common in the Netherlands, only a few patients are treated by mental health care professionals. To reach and treat more patients with eating disorders, Tactus Addiction Treatment developed a web-based treatment program with asynchronous and intensive personalized communication between the patient and the therapist. This pilot study evaluated the web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic contact in a population of 165 patients with an eating disorder. In a pre-post design with 6-week and 6-month follow-ups, eating disorder psychopathology, body dissatisfaction, Body Mass Index, physical and mental health, and quality of life were measured. The participant's satisfaction with the web-based treatment program was also studied. Attrition data were collected, and participants were classified as noncompleters if they did not complete all 10 assignments of the web-based treatment program. Differences in baseline characteristics between completers and noncompleters were studied, as well as reasons for noncompletion. Furthermore, differences in treatment effectiveness, treatment adherence, and baseline characteristics between participants of the three major eating disorder diagnostic groups EDNOS (n=115), BN purging (n=24), and BN nonpurging (n=24) were measured. Of the 165 participants who started the web-based treatment program, 89 participants (54%) completed all of the program assignments (completers) and 76 participants (46%) ended the program prematurely (noncompleters). Severe body dissatisfaction and physical and mental health problems seemed to have a negative impact on the completion of the web-based treatment program. Among the participants who completed the treatment program, significant improvements were found in eating disorder psychopathology (F=54.6, df = 68, P<.001, d=1.14). Body dissatisfaction, quality of life, and physical and mental health also significantly improved, and almost all of these positive effects

  6. Antibody responses to influenza viruses in paediatric patients and their contacts at the onset of the 2009 pandemic in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Novales, Guadalupe; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Herrera-Castillo, Cristina; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Valero-Pacheco, Nuriban; Pérez-Toledo, Marisol; Ferat-Osorio, Eduardo; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Vázquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Espitia-Pinzón, Clara; Zamudio-Lugo, Irma; Meza-Chávez, Abigail; Klenerman, Paul; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2015-03-15

    On April 2009, the Mexican Ministry of Health received notification of cases of severe pneumonia mostly affecting young healthy people; this was the beginning of the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The nature of the immune response to the influenza A(H1N1)2009 pandemic strain in Mexico at the beginning of the pandemic outbreak has not been completely defined. We describe the serological response to the 2009 pandemic influenza virus in paediatric patients with influenza-like illness, their household contacts (HHCs), and exposed health-care workers (HCWs) at the beginning of the pandemic outbreak in Mexico City. thirty pre-epidemic and 129 epidemic samples were collected and serum antibodies were measured against A(H1N1)2009 pandemic virus and two non-pandemic swine influenza viruses by an haemagglutination inhibition assay . 91% (29/32) of the convalescence samples from confirmed patients had an antibody titre ≥ 10 (GMT 25), 63% (41/65) of the HHCs (GMT 12), 41% of HCWs (GMT 6) and 13% (4/30) of pre-epidemic samples (GMT 6) for the pandemic influenza virus. Of the 32 confirmed cases, 60% had an antibody titre ≥ 40 for the pandemic strain, 53% for the A/swine/Iowa(H1N1) virus (GMT 62) and 43% for the A/swine/Texas(H3N2) virus (GMT 66). The antibody response to 2009 pandemic influenza virus was widespread in convalescence samples from patients with confirmed pandemic influenza infection but the GMT was below the protective titre. There was no evidence that antibodies to the swine influenza viruses had cross-protective effect against the 2009 pandemic influenza virus.

  7. Association between contact hip stress and RSA-measured wear rates in total hip arthroplasties of 31 patients.

    PubMed

    The, Bertram; Hosman, Anton; Kootstra, Johan; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Flivik, Gunnar; Verdonschot, Nico; Diercks, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The main concern in the long run of total hip replacements is aseptic loosening of the prosthesis. Optimization of the biomechanics of the hip joint is necessary for optimization of long-term success. A widely implementable tool to predict biomechanical consequences of preoperatively planned reconstructions still has to be developed. A potentially useful model to this purpose has been developed previously. The aim of this study is to quantify the association between the estimated hip joint contact force by this biomechanical model and RSA-measured wear rates in a clinical setting. Thirty-one patients with a total hip replacement were measured with RSA, the gold standard for clinical wear measurements. The reference examination was done within 1 week of the operation and the follow-up examinations were done at 1, 2 and 5 years. Conventional pelvic X-rays were taken on the same day. The contact stress distribution in the hip joint was determined by the computer program HIPSTRESS. The procedure for the determination of the hip joint contact stress distribution is based on the mathematical model of the resultant hip force in the one-legged stance and the mathematical model of the contact stress distribution. The model for the force requires as input data, several geometrical parameters of the hip and the body weight, while the model for stress requires as input data, the magnitude and direction of the resultant hip force. The stress distribution is presented by the peak stress-the maximal value of stress on the weight-bearing area (p(max)) and also by the peak stress calculated with respect to the body weight (p(max)/W(B)) which gives the effect of hip geometry. Visualization of the relations between predicted values by the model and the wear at different points in the follow-up was done using scatterplots. Correlations were expressed as Pearson r values. The predicted p(max) and wear were clearly correlated in the first year post-operatively (r = 0.58, p = 0

  8. Effectiveness of early adalimumab therapy in psoriatic arthritis patients from Reuma.pt - EARLY PsA.

    PubMed

    Santos, Helena; Eusébio, Mónica; Borges, Joana; Gonçalves, Diana; Ávila-Ribeiro, Pedro; Faria, Daniela Santos; Lopes, Carina; Rovisco, João; Águeda, Ana; Nero, Patrícia; Valente, Paula; Cravo, Ana Rita; Santos, Maria José

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients initiating adalimumab (ADA), with short- and long-term disease duration and to evaluate the potential effect of concomitant conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARD) or glucocorticoids. Methods Analyses included adult PsA patients registered in the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register (Reuma.pt) between June 2008-June 2016 who received ADA for ≥3 months. Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria (PsARC) response, tender and swollen joint count, inflammatory parameters, patient (PtGA) and physician global assessment (PhGA), Disease Activity Score-28 joints (DAS28), and Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) were compared between patients with <5 years of disease (early PsA) and those with ≥5 years of disease duration (late PsA). Time to achieving PsARC response was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of 135 PsA patients treated with ADA, 126 had information on disease duration (earlyPsA, n=41). PsARC response was achieved by 72.9% of the patients (88.0% early PsA vs 62.2% late PsA; P=0.022) after 3 months and by 85.4% after 24 months (100% early PsA vs 75.9% late PsA; P=0.044). Early PsA patients achieved significantly less painful joints (2.7 vs 6.7, p=0.006), lower mean C-reactive protein (0.5 mg/dL vs 1.3 mg/dL; P=0.011), and PhGA (18.3 vs 28.1; P=0.020) at 3 months. In the long term, early PsA patients also had fewer swollen joints (0.3 vs 1.7; P=0.030) and lower PhGA (6.3 vs 21.9; P<0.001), C-reactive protein (0.4 mg/dL vs 1.0 mg/dL; P=0.026), and DAS28 (2.2 vs 3.2; P=0.030). HAQ-DI decreased in both groups reaching a mean value at 24 months of 0.4 and 0.8 (P=ns) in early and late PsA, respectively. Early PsA patients obtained PsARC response more rapidly than late PsA (3.8 and 7.4 months, respectively; P=0.008). Concomitant csDMARDs showed clinical benefit (2-year PsARC response, 88.3% vs 60.0%; P=0.044). Concomitant glucocorticoids

  9. Early Exercise Rehabilitation of Muscle Weakness in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Michael J.; Morris, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Failure patients experience significant muscle weakness which contributes to prolonged hospitalization and functional impairments post-hospital discharge. Based on our previous work, we hypothesize that an exercise intervention initiated early in the intensive care unit aimed at improving skeletal muscle strength could decrease hospital stay and attenuate the deconditioning and skeletal muscle weakness experienced by these patients. Summary Early exercise has the potential to decrease hospital length of stay and improve function in Acute Respiratory Failure patients. PMID:23873130

  10. Evaluation of prolidase activity and oxidative stress in patients with oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid contact reactions.

    PubMed

    Batu, Şule; Ofluoğlu, Duygu; Ergun, Sertan; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Uslu, Ezel; Güven, Yegane; Tanyeri, Hakkı

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prolidase activity and oxidative stress in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid contact reactions (OLCR) using serum and salivary samples and to compare these biomarkers with each other as well as with a group of healthy subjects in order to be able to opine their role in the estimation of OLP and OLCR. Eighteen recently diagnosed patients with OLP, 32 patients with OLCR and 18 healthy controls with matched periodontal status were recruited to the study. Prolidase activity, lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), sialic acid (SA), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) levels in both serum and saliva were determined. Additionally, salivary flow rate and its buffering capacity were estimated. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. No statistically significant differences were observed between the study groups and the control group regarding to the basic characteristics and the periodontal status (P > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between OLP and OLCR groups regarding to the distribution of lesions' type, severity, and location (P > 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two study groups with regard to Prolidase activity, MDA, SA, and AOPPs (P ˃ 0.05), whereas statistically significant differences were found between the two study groups and the control group with regard to all evaluated parameters except of serum prolidase (P ˂ 0.01). Moderate correlation was found between salivary MDA and the OLP/OLCR lesion severity, whereas a weak correlation was observed between serum SA and the OLP/OLCR lesion severity (P ˂ 0.05). The findings of this study suggest an increased prolidase activity and oxidative stress and imbalance in the antioxidant defense system in biological fluids of patients with OLP and OLCR when compared with the healthy subjects

  11. Environmental contact factors in eczema and the results of patch testing Chinese patients with a modified European standard series of allergens.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Feng; Guo, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2004-07-01

    Environmental contact factors in eczema were investigated in China by clinical questionnaire and patch testing patients with a modified European standard series of allergens. 217 consecutive eczema patients were studied. Contact dermatitis (CD) was clinically diagnosed in 30% of the patients. Among the patients patch tested, 46 patients had clinically diagnosed allergic CD (ACD), 20 patients clinically had non-ACD (NACD) (including 16 cases of irritant contact dermatitis, 1 case of phototoxic contact reaction and 3 cases of asteatotic eczema) and 115 patients had clinically suspected ACD. 45 patients (98%) in the ACD group went on to have relevant patch test results. The most common ACD was from metals, fragrance materials, cosmetics and rubber materials. The most common contact allergens identified were nickel, fragrance mix, para-phenylenediamine (PPD), carba mix and thimerosal. No adverse reactions were observed to patch testing, except for pruritus in patch-test-positive patients. The positive rate of patch testing in ACD was much higher than that in NACD (98% versus 15%, P < 0.05, chi(2)-test). 60 (28%) patients had facial dermatitis (FD). Among these, 20 (33%) were confirmed as having ACD. 48 (22%) patients had hand dermatitis (HD). Among these, 7 (15%) were confirmed as having ACD. Fewer patients were confirmed as having ACD in the HD group than in the FD (15% versus 33%, P < 0.05, chi(2)-test). Although the difference was not significant, the total positivity rate in the HD group (55%) was lower than in the other groups. 65 (30%) patients had unclassified endogenous eczema (UEE). The total positive rate of patch testing in the UEE group (56%) was no different from that in the FD or HD groups. However, the relevance of positive patch tests was hard to determine in UEE. These results indicate that CD is common in eczema; relatively more patients with FD have ACD, while other factors, such as irritation, may play more of a role in HD. The total positive rate

  12. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 35. Usatine RP, Riojas M. Diagnosis and management of contact dermatitis. Am Fam Physician . 2010;82( ...

  13. [Immune system aging rate in patients with early forms of chronic cerebrovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, N G; Al'tman, D Sh; Teplova, S N

    2009-01-01

    Using the Bioage and Snake software the immune and cardiovascular system aging rate was diagnosed in patients having early forms of chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD). The indicators of biological, cardiopulmonary and immunological age were studied in patients showing early symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency and dyscirculatory encephalopathy of the 1st stage. The rate of age-dependent physiological changes was diagnosed compared to general body aging rate. Some specific patterns of immune system aging were found in patients with early forms of CCVDs, the cardinal aging symptoms (heterotropia, heterochronia) were verified.

  14. Early mobilization in critically ill patients: patients' mobilization level depends on health care provider's profession.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Serrano, Jaime; Ryan, Cheryl; Waak, Karen; Hirschberg, Ronald; Tully, Susan; Bittner, Edward A; Chipman, Daniel W; Schmidt, Ulrich; Kasotakis, Georgios; Benjamin, John; Zafonte, Ross; Eikermann, Matthias

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate whether the level of mobilization achieved and the barriers for progressing to the next mobilization level differ between nurses and physical therapists. Prospective, observational study. Twenty-bed surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Sixty-three critically ill patients. Physical therapists and nurses performed 179 mobilization therapies with 63 patients. Mobilization was defined as the process of enhancing mobility in the SICU, including bed mobility, edge of bed activities, transfers out of bed to a chair, and gait training; the mobilization level was measured on the SICU optimal mobilization scale, a 5-point (0-4) numerical rating scale. Patients' level of mobilization achieved by physical therapists was significantly higher compared with that achieved by nurses (2.3 ± 1.2 mean ± SD versus 1.2 ± 1.2, respectively P < .0001). Different barriers for mobilization were identified by physical therapists and nurses: hemodynamic instability (26% versus 12%, P = .03) and renal replacement therapy (12% versus 1%, P = .03) were barriers rated higher by nurses, whereas neurologic impairment was rated higher by physical therapists providers (18% versus 38%, P = .002). No mobilization-associated adverse events were observed in this study. This study showed that physical therapists mobilize their critically ill patients to higher levels compared with nurses. Nurse and physical therapists identify different barriers for mobilization. Routine involvement of physical therapists in directing mobilization treatment may promote early mobilization of critically ill patients. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of a commercially available plant allergen series in the assessment of suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plants in north Indian patients.

    PubMed

    De, Dipankar; Khullar, Geeti; Handa, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus is the leading cause of phytogenic allergic contact dermatitis in India. The Indian Standard Series currently supplied by Systopic Laboratories Ltd and manufactured by Chemotechnique Diagnostics ® contains parthenolide as the only allergen representing plant allergens. The study was conducted to assess the performance of the Chemotechnique plant series (PL-1000), consisting of 14 allergens, in patients with clinically suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plant allergens. Ninety patients were patch tested with the Chemotechnique plant series from 2011 to 2013. Demographic details, clinical diagnosis and patch test results were recorded in the contact dermatitis clinic proforma. Of 90 patients, 24 (26.7%) showed positive reactions to one or more allergens in the plant series. Positive patch tests were elicited most commonly by sesquiterpene lactone mix in 19 (78.6%) patients, followed by parthenolide in 14 (57.1%), Achillea millefolium in 10 (42.9%) and others in decreasing order. The plant allergen series prepared by Chemotechnique Diagnostics is possibly not optimal for diagnosing suspected allergic contact dermatitis to plants in north Indians. Sesquiterpene lactone mix should replace parthenolide as the plant allergen in the Indian Standard Series until relevant native plant extracts are commercially available for patch testing.

  16. "Patient Zero": the absence of a patient's view of the early North American AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed

    McKay, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    This article contextualizes the production and reception of And the Band Played On, Randy Shilts's popular history of the initial recognition of the American AIDS epidemic. Published over twenty-five years ago, the book and its most notorious character, "Patient Zero," are in particular need of a critical historical treatment. The article presents a more balanced consideration-a "patient's view"-of Gaétan Dugas's experience of the early years of AIDS. I oppose the assertion that Dugas, the so-called Patient Zero, ignored incontrovertible information about the condition and was intent on spreading his infection. Instead I argue that scientific ideas in 1982 and 1983 about AIDS and the transmissibility of a causative agent were later portrayed to be more self-evident than they were at the time. The article also traces how Shilts's highly selective-and highly readable-characterization of Dugas rapidly became embedded in discussions about the need to criminalize the reckless transmission of HIV.

  17. Differential Neurodevelopmental Trajectories in Patients With Early-Onset Bipolar and Schizophrenia Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Celso

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders share not only clinical features but also some risk factors such as genetic markers and childhood adversity, while other risk factors such as urbanicity and obstetric complications seem to be specific to schizophrenia. An intriguing question is whether the well-established abnormal neurodevelopment present in many children and adolescents who eventually develop schizophrenia is also present in bipolar patients. The literature on adult bipolar patients is controversial. We report data on a subgroup of patients with pediatric-onset psychotic bipolar disorder who seem to share some developmental trajectories with patients with early-onset schizophrenia. These early-onset psychotic bipolar patients have low intelligence quotient, more neurological signs, reduced frontal gray matter at the time of their first psychotic episode, and greater brain changes than healthy controls in a pattern similar to early-onset schizophrenia cases. However, patients with early-onset schizophrenia seem to have more social impairment, developmental abnormalities (eg, language problems), and lower academic achievement in childhood than early-onset bipolar patients. We suggest that some of these abnormal developmental trajectories are more related to the phenotypic features (eg, early-onset psychotic symptoms) of these 2 syndromes than to categorically defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders. PMID:24371326

  18. [Fitting Monocurve and Bicurve (Soper-McGuire design) rigid gas-permeable contact lenses in keratoconus patients: a prospective randomized comparative clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Coral-Ghanem, Cleusa; Alves, Milton Ruiz

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of Monocurve and Bicurve (Soper-McGuire design) rigid gas-permeable contact lens fitting in patients with keratoconus. A prospective and randomized comparative clinical trial was conducted with a minimum follow-up of six months in two groups of 63 patients. One group was fitted with Monocurve contact lenses and the other with Bicurve Soper-McGuire design. Study variables included fluoresceinic pattern of lens-to-cornea fitting relationship, location and morphology of the cone, presence and degree of punctate keratitis and other corneal surface alterations, topographic changes, visual acuity for distance corrected with contact lenses and survival analysis for remaining with the same contact lens design during the study. During the follow-up there was a decrease in the number of eyes with advanced and central cones fitted with Monocurve lenses, and an increase in those fitted with Soper-McGuire design. In the Monocurve group, a flattening of both the steepest and the flattest keratometric curve was observed. In the Soper-McGuire group, a steepening of the flattest keratometric curve and a flattening of the steepest keratometric curve were observed. There was a decrease in best-corrected visual acuity with contact lens in the Monocurve group. Survival analysis for the Monocurve lens was 60.32% and for the Soper-McGuire was 71.43% at a mean follow-up of six months. This study showed that due to the changes observed in corneal topography, the same contact lens design did not provide an ideal fitting for all patients during the follow-up period. The Soper-McGuire lenses had a better performance than the Monocurve lenses in advanced and central keratoconus.

  19. Response to Therapy Following Retreatment of Serofast Early Syphilis Patients With Benzathine Penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Seña, Arlene C.; Wolff, Mark; Behets, Frieda; Van Damme, Kathleen; Martin, David H.; Leone, Peter; McNeil, Linda; Hook, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent nontreponemal titers after treatment are common among patients with early syphilis. We retreated 82 human immunodeficiency virus–negative early syphilis participants who were serofast at 6 months using benzathine penicillin. Only 27% exhibited serological response after retreatment and after an additional 6 months of follow-up. PMID:23118269

  20. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  1. Effect of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine production and mRNA expression in tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus and their household contacts.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, Ponnana; Ramya, Sivangala; Lavanya, Joshi; Vijayalakshmi, Valluri; Sumanlatha, Gaddam

    2016-05-01

    The study was carried out to understand the influence of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine production and expression in tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus (TBDM) and their household contacts (HHC). The study involved a total of 300 subjects, 50 in each category of TBDM, TBDM HHC, pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTB), PTB HHC, DM and healthy controls (HC). TBDM, PTB and their HHC, 25 each were followed at different intervals to determine their immune responses in Ag85A stimulated culture supernatants by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). mRNA expression by TRIZOL method in 5 cases of each category and follow-up studies were performed. IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokine production markedly decreased and that of IL-10 increased after Ag85A M.tb stimulation, however anti TB treatment reconstituted the response in TBDM and PTB patients. The household contacts revealed cytokine gene expression similar to that of patients and two of them developed the disease during follow-up. Cytokine responses of the patients retained after treatment highlighting the antigen importance, hence further studies with recombinant cytokines may help in coming up with a biomarker. Analogous immune responses of household contacts with the TBDM and PTB patients may assist in recognizing the high risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contact allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Ljubojević Hadžavdić, Suzana; Pustišek, Nives; Žužul, Kristina; Švigir, Alen

    2018-06-01

    Contact allergies are common cause of eczema in all age groups and are one of the most common causes of occupational disability. Contact dermatitis (CD) can be divided into irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Distinguishing between irritant and allergic triggers of CD by clinical and histologic examinations can be challenging. The approach to patients with CD should consist of a detailed (work and leisure) history, skin examination, patch tests with allergens based on history, physical examination, education on materials that contain the allergen and adequate therapy and prevention.

  3. Effect of deferred or no treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with early primary biliary cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Hirohara, Junko; Nakano, Toshiaki; Yagi, Minami; Namisaki, Tadashi; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Takikawa, Hajime

    2018-02-06

    As primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a heterogeneous disease, we hypothesized that there is a population of patients with early PBC who do not require prompt treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In this study, we analyzed data from a large-scale PBC cohort in Japan, and retrospectively investigated whether outcomes of early PBC patients were affected with prompt or deferred/no UDCA treatment. We defined early PBC as asymptomatic, serum alkaline phosphatase <1.67-fold the upper limit of normal, normal bilirubin, and histological stages I-II at presentation. We compared the outcomes of early PBC patients between the treatment regimens; prompt treatment group (UDCA was initiated within 1 year after diagnosis) and deferred/no treatment group (UDCA initiated >1 year after diagnosis or never initiated). Furthermore, we examined the outcomes of early PBC patients alternatively defined only with symptomatology and biochemistry. We identified 562 early PBC patients (prompt: n = 509; deferred/no treatment: n = 53). Incidence rates (per 1000 patient-years) for liver-related mortality or liver transplantation and decompensating events were 0.5 and 5.4, respectively, in the prompt treatment group, and 0 and 8.7, respectively, in the deferred/no treatment group. Multivariate analyses showed that age and bilirubin were significantly associated with developing decompensating events, whereas the prompt and deferred/no treatments were not. We obtained similar results in early PBC patients defined without histological examination. We showed that deferred/no treatment for early PBC patients did not affect the outcomes. This study provides a rationale for a future prospective, randomized study. © 2018 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  4. Early plasmapheresis in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Nasa, Prashant; Alexander, George; Kulkarni, Amitabh; Juneja, Deven; Sehra, Sudhish; Agarwal, Rajesh; Koul, Kandy

    2015-08-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia can cause severe diseases such as acute pancreatitis (AP) and coronary artery disease. The routine management of hypertriglyceridemia is dietary restriction of fat and lipid-lowering medications to manage the secondary or precipitating causes of hypertriglyceridemia. However, in cases of AP with severe hypertriglyceridemia (SHTG) (triglycerides [TG] >1000 mg/dl) rapid reduction of TG levels to well below 1000 mg/dl can improve outcome and prevent further episodes of pancreatitis. Plasmapheresis is a therapeutic option in such medical emergencies. We discussed 2 cases of severe AP with SHTG where we used early plsmapheresis along with other supportive management.

  5. Early plasmapheresis in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia induced acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nasa, Prashant; Alexander, George; Kulkarni, Amitabh; Juneja, Deven; Sehra, Sudhish; Agarwal, Rajesh; Koul, Kandy

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia can cause severe diseases such as acute pancreatitis (AP) and coronary artery disease. The routine management of hypertriglyceridemia is dietary restriction of fat and lipid-lowering medications to manage the secondary or precipitating causes of hypertriglyceridemia. However, in cases of AP with severe hypertriglyceridemia (SHTG) (triglycerides [TG] >1000 mg/dl) rapid reduction of TG levels to well below 1000 mg/dl can improve outcome and prevent further episodes of pancreatitis. Plasmapheresis is a therapeutic option in such medical emergencies. We discussed 2 cases of severe AP with SHTG where we used early plsmapheresis along with other supportive management. PMID:26321811

  6. Patient-Specific Early Seizure Detection from Scalp EEG

    PubMed Central

    Minasyan, Georgiy R.; Chatten, John B.; Chatten, Martha Jane; Harner, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Develop a method for automatic detection of seizures prior to or immediately after clinical onset using features derived from scalp EEG. Methods This detection method is patient-specific. It uses recurrent neural networks and a variety of input features. For each patient we trained and optimized the detection algorithm for two cases: 1) during the period immediately preceding seizure onset, and 2) during the period immediately following seizure onset. Continuous scalp EEG recordings (duration 15 – 62 h, median 25 h) from 25 patients, including a total of 86 seizures, were used in this study. Results Pre-onset detection was successful in 14 of the 25 patients. For these 14 patients, all of the testing seizures were detected prior to seizure onset with a median pre-onset time of 51 sec and false positive rate was 0.06/h. Post-onset detection had 100% sensitivity, 0.023/hr false positive rate and median delay of 4 sec after onset. Conclusions The unique results of this study relate to pre-onset detection. Significance Our results suggest that reliable pre-onset seizure detection may be achievable for a significant subset of epilepsy patients without use of invasive electrodes. PMID:20461014

  7. Early rehabilitation outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Birol; Tok, Fatih; Yavuz, Ferdi; Yaşar, Evren; Alaca, Rıdvan

    2011-07-12

    Although important data on the prognosis and rehabilitation outcome in stroke patients have been reported, data on functional recovery according to stroke subtypes are limited. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke-the most common subtype of ischemic stroke. The records of stroke patients that underwent the rehabilitation program at our brain injury rehabilitation service between January 2007 and December 2008 were reviewed, and those with MCA stroke were included in the study. Patient demographic and clinical data, and Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores at admission and discharge were collected. The study included 80 MCA stroke patients with a mean age of 63.54 years. FIM and BI scores improved significantly post rehabilitation (P<0.05). Age was negatively correlated with both BI and FIM scores at admission and discharge. Length of stay was not correlated with improvement in BI or FIM scores during hospitalization. The patients that had ≤1 month of inpatient rehabilitation had similar outcomes as those that had >1 month of inpatient rehabilitation (P>0.05). Length of time after stroke onset was not correlated with BI or FIM scores at admission. Regardless of initial functional status, prediction of discharge functional status was misleading. Physiatrists should keep in mind that functional improvement does not always increase with duration of inpatient therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contact Lenses on Submarines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-29

    speculate why no medical eye problems occurred. There are two possible reasons. One is the degree of patient education and adherence to instructions...Management of this situation can only be accomplished through continuing patient education . Contact lens wearers should also be aware of the problem

  9. Prognosis of seronegative patients in a large prospective cohort of patients with early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barra, Lillian; Pope, Janet E; Orav, John E; Boire, Gilles; Haraoui, Boulos; Hitchon, Carol; Keystone, Edward C; Thorne, J Carter; Tin, Diane; Bykerk, Vivian P

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are believed to be associated with more severe rheumatoid arthritis; however, studies in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) have yielded conflicting results. Our study determined the prognosis of baseline ACPA-negative and RF-negative patients. Patients enrolled in the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort had IgM RF and IgG anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies 2 (anti-CCP2) measured at baseline. Remission was defined as a Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28) < 2.6 using logistic regression accounting for confounders at 12-month and 24-month followup. Of the 841 patients, 216 (26%) were negative for both RF and anti-CCP2. Compared to seropositive subjects, seronegative subjects were older (57 ± 15 vs 51 ± 14 yrs), more males proportionately (31% vs 23%), and had shorter length of symptoms (166 ± 87 vs 192 ± 98 days), and at baseline had higher mean swollen joint count (SJC; 8.8 ± 6.8 vs 6.5 ± 5.6), DAS28 (5.0 ± 1.6 vs 4.8 ± 1.5), and erosive disease (32% vs 24%, p < 0.05). Treatment was similar between the 2 groups. At 24-month followup, seronegative compared to seropositive subjects had greater mean change (Δ ± SD) in disease activity measures: ΔSJC counts (-6.9 ± 7.0 vs -5.1 ± 5.9), ΔDAS28 (-2.4 ± 2.0 vs -1.8 ± 1.8), and ΔC-reactive protein (-11.0 ± 17.9 vs -6.4 ± 17.5, p < 0.05). Accounting for confounders, antibody status was not significantly associated with remission. However, at 12-month followup, ACPA-positive subjects were independently more likely to have new erosive disease (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.45-5.94). Although seronegative subjects with EIA have higher baseline DAS28 compared to seropositive subjects, they have a good response to treatment and are less likely to develop erosive disease during followup.

  10. The Risk of Depressive Disorder Among Contacts of Tuberculosis Patients in a TB-endemic Area: A Population-based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Sheng-Wei; Yen, Yung-Feng; Feng, Jia-Yih; Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Kou, Yu Ru; Su, Wei-Juin

    2015-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) disease may be transmitted to close contacts of index cases, causing physical illness. No studies have investigated the risk of developing depressive disorder among TB contacts in a TB-endemic area.Adult participants with a new diagnosis of TB contact (ICD-9-CM codes V01.1 plus chest radiographic order) since January 1, 2008, were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A control cohort matched for age (±5 y), sex, enrolled years, and income level was selected. These 2 cohorts were followed until December 31, 2012, and observed for the development of depressive disorder. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were used to examine the difference in cumulative incidences of depressive disorder between groups. Cox proportional-hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for depressive disorder.The TB contact cohort consisted of 9046 patients and matched controls of 36,184 ones. The mean age of TB contacts was 44.7 years, and 56.0% of them were women. During a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years, 127 (1.40%) TB contacts and 521 (1.44%) matched controls developed depressive disorder. TB exposure was found to be an independent risk factor of depressive disorder in women (aHR 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.68), but not in men (aHR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48-1.06) after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and income levels. The risk of depression was significantly higher for female TB contacts than for matched controls in the first and second years (aHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03-2.14; and aHR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05-2.23, respectively), but not thereafter. Of note, 67 (0.74%) TB contacts and 88 (0.24%) matched controls developed active TB, but none of them had subsequent depressive disorder during follow-up periods.Female TB contacts had an increased risk of depression within the first 2 years after exposure. Clinicians should consider conducting depression evaluations in addition to routine TB contact

  11. Early diagnosis of septic arthritis in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Butler, Bennet A; Fitz, David W; Lawton, Cort D; Li, Daniel D; Balderama, Earvin S; Stover, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    Septic arthritis results in rapid joint destruction if not properly diagnosed and treated. A work up for septic arthritis includes a peripheral white blood cell count, inflammatory markers, and a joint aspiration. In the general population, the interpretation of these labs has been well-defined by prior studies. To this point, no study has determined how immunosuppressive states affect this work up. Patients with immunosuppressive conditions who received a joint aspiration for a painful joint were retrospectively identified. Laboratory results from their work up were gathered and analyzed. 216 patients were included in the study, 21 of whom were diagnosed with septic arthritis. The average aspiration WBC count was 74,190 with 88% PMNs. 81% had a positive gram stain. Laboratory values for immunosuppressed patients with septic arthritis were similar to those associated with septic arthritis in historical general population controls. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Strategies for early melanoma detection: approaches to the patient with nevi

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, Agnessa G.; Grossman, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Given its propensity to metastasize, and lack of effective therapies for most patients with advanced disease, early detection of melanoma is a clinical imperative. Although there are no non-invasive techniques for definitive diagnosis of melanoma, and the “gold standard” remains biopsy with histologic examination, a variety of modalities may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi. This article reviews general clinical principles of early melanoma detection, and various modalities that are currently available or on the horizon, providing the clinician with an up-to-date understanding of management strategies for their patients with numerous or atypical nevi. Learning objectives At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should: 1) understand the clinical importance of early melanoma detection; 2) appreciate the challenges of early melanoma diagnosis and which patients are at highest risk; 3) know general principles of early melanoma detection; 4) be familiar with current and emerging modalities that may facilitate early melanoma diagnosis and the detection of new and changing nevi; 5) know the advantages and limitations of each modality; and 6) be able to practice a combined approach to the patient with numerous or clinically atypical nevi. PMID:19389517

  13. Operative Outcome and Patient Satisfaction in Early and Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hokkam, Emad N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually associated with reduced hospital stay, sick leave, and health care expenditures. Early diagnosis and treatment of acute cholecystitis reduce both mortality and morbidity and the accurate diagnosis requires specific diagnostic criteria of clinical data and imaging studies. Objectives. To compare early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy regarding the operative outcome and patient satisfaction. Patients and Methods. Patients with acute cholecystitis were divided into two groups, early (A) and delayed (B) cholecystectomy. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was confirmed by clinical examination, laboratory data, and ultrasound study. The primary end point was operative and postoperative outcome and the secondary was patient's satisfaction. Results. The number of readmissions in delayed treatment group B was three times in 10% of patients, twice in 23.3%, and once in 66.7% while the number of readmissions was once only in patients in group A and the mean total hospital stays were higher in group B than in group A. The overall patient's satisfaction was 92.66 ± 6.8 in group A compared with 75.34 ± 12.85 in group B. Conclusion. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy resulted in significant reduction in length of hospital stay and accepted rate of operative complications and conversion rates when compared with delayed techniques. PMID:25197568

  14. Contact Us

    Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Contact Us NPIC staff Call us (toll free): 800-858-7378 We have trained pesticide specialists available to help you free of charge from 8:00am to 12:00pm

  15. Contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gurwood, A S; Altenderfer, D S

    2001-01-01

    Anatomically, the eyelid can be divided microscopically into (1) skin, which is made up of epidermis and dermis; (2) submucosa (3) muscular layer; (4) submuscular layer (dense connective tissue); (5) fibrous layer; and (6) palpebral conjunctiva. The thin nature of the eyelid makes it susceptible to inflammation resulting from allergy. Minimum levels of irritants contacting the adnexal area can penetrate the skin to initiate the allergic cascade. Allergic reactions that involve the eye may begin via contact to the skin, but often involve the conjunctiva. Eczema is the general term that describes the superficial inflammatory process involving the epidermis. Contact eczema is characterized by varying elements of epidermal erythema, papules, and vesicles. Allergic dermatoconjunctivitis connotes involvement of both the skin and conjunctiva. A 24-year-old man came to the clinic with a red, swollen left eye. Based on the history, the constellation of signs and symptoms (lack of diffuse or focal pain, presence of periorbital and conjunctival edema, absence of fever), and failed resolution after treatment with injectable antibiotics, the diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction secondary to toxic/chemical exposure was made. Speedy resolution was accomplished using a sequenced therapy, which included oral antihistamines, topical cycloplegics, topical antibiotics, topical steroids, and palliative therapies. Optometrists should be familiar with the signs and symptoms of contact eczema and allergic dermatoconjunctivitis. Treatment includes management of the skin and adnexae, as well as the ocular manifestations.

  16. Intensity of early correction of hyperglycaemia and outcome of critically ill patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Johan; Bailey, Michael; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian; Pilcher, David; Deane, Adam; Abdelhamid, Yasmine Ali; Crisman, Marco; Verma, Brij; MacIsaac, Christopher; Wigmore, Geoffrey; Shehabi, Yahya; Suzuki, Takafumi; French, Craig; Orford, Neil; Kakho, Nima; Prins, Johannes; Ekinci, Elif I; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2017-09-01

    To determine the impact of the intensity of early correction of hyperglycaemia on outcomes in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) admitted to the intensive care unit. We studied adult patients with DKA admitted to 171 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand from 2000 to 2013. We used their blood glucose levels (BGLs) in the first 24 hours after ICU admission to determine whether intensive early correction of hyperglycemia to ≤ 180 mg/dL was independently associated with hypoglycaemia, hypokalaemia, hypo-osmolarity or mortality, compared with partial early correction to > 180 mg/dL as recommended by DKA-specific guidelines. Among 8553 patients, intensive early correction of BGL was applied to 605 patients (7.1%). A greater proportion of these patients experienced hypoglycaemia (20.2% v 9.1%; P < 0.001) and/or hypo-osmolarity (29.4% v 22.0%; P < 0.001), but not hypokalaemia (16.7% v 15.6%; P = 0.47). Overall, 11 patients (1.8%) in the intensive correction group and 112 patients (1.4%) in the partial correction group died (P = 0.42). However, after adjustment for illness severity, partial early correction of BGL was independently associated with a lower risk of hypoglycaemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.30-0.48; P < 0.001), lower risk of hypo-osmolarity (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.98; P < 0.03) and lower risk of death (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.86; P = 0.02). In a large cohort of patients with DKA, partial early correction of BGL according to DKA-specific guidelines, when compared with intensive early correction of BGL, was independently associated with a lower risk of hypoglycaemia, hypo-osmolarity and death.

  17. Survival outcome of early versus delayed bevacizumab treatment in patients with recurrent glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Mohamed A.; Mandel, Jacob J.; Conrad, Charles A.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Puduvalli, Vinay K.; DeGroot, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab (BEV) is widely used for treatment of patients with recurrent glioblastoma. It is not known if there are differences in outcome between early versus delayed BEV treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. We examined the relationship between the time of starting BEV treatment and outcomes in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. In this retrospective chart review, we identified patients with recurrent glioblastoma diagnosed between 2005 and 2011 who were treated with BEV alone or BEV-containing regimens. Data was analyzed to determine overall survival (OS) from time of diagnosis and progression free survival (PFS) from time of starting BEV. A total of 298 patients were identified, 112 patients received early BEV, 133 patients received delayed BEV, and 53 patients were excluded because they either progressed within 3 months of radiation or received BEV at the time of diagnosis. There was no significant difference in PFS between patients that received early BEV and those that received delayed BEV (5.2 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.2). Patients treated with delayed BEV had longer OS when compared to those treated with early BEV (25.9 vs. 20.8 months, p = 0.005). In patients with recurrent glioblastoma, there was no significant difference in PFS from the time of starting BEV between early and delayed BEV. Although patients treated with delayed BEV seemed to have longer OS, a conclusion regarding OS outcome requires further prospective trials. These results may indicate that delaying treatment with BEV is not detrimental for survival of patients with recurrent glioblastoma. PMID:24803001

  18. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  19. Early complications after pneumonectomy: retrospective study of 168 patients.

    PubMed

    Alloubi, Ihsan; Jougon, Jacques; Delcambre, Frédéric; Baste, Jean Marc; Velly, Jean François

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the mortality and risk factors of complications after pneumonectomy for lung cancer. Between 1996 and 2001, we reviewed and analysed the demographic, clinical, functional, and surgical variables of 168 patients to identify risk factors of postoperative complications by univariate and multivariate analyses with Medlog software system. The mean age was 60+/-10 years, overall mortality and morbidity rates were 4.17% and 41.6%, respectively. All frequencies of respiratory complications were 1.2% for acute respiratory failure, 10.1% for pneumonia, 2.4% for acute pulmonary oedema, 4.17% for bronchopleural fistula, 2.4% for thoracic empyema and 18.5% for left recurrent nerve injuries. Postoperative arrhythmias developed in 46% of our patients. The risk factors for cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality with univariate analysis were advanced age (P<0.01), preoperative poor performance status (P<0.015), and chronic artery disease (P<0.008). Factors adversely affecting morbidity with multivariate analysis included age (P=0.0001), associated cardiovascular disease (P=0.001), and altered forced expiratory volume in 1 s (P=0.0005). Complications after pneumonectomy are associated with high mortality. Careful attention must be paid to patients with advanced age and heart disease. Chest physiotherapy is paramount to have uneventful outcomes.

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy: Early Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    DARA, Naghi; SAYYARI, Ali-Akbar; IMANZADEH, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Objective As acute liver failure (ALF) and chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) continue to increase in prevalence, we will see more cases of hepatic encephalopathy. Primary care physician are often the first to suspect it, since they are familiar with the patient’s usual physical and mental status. This serious complication typically occurs in patients with severe comorbidities and needs multidisciplinary evaluation and care. Hepatic encephalopathy should be considered in any patient with acute liver failure and cirrhosis who presents with neuropsychiatric manifestations, decrease level of consciousness (coma), change of personality, intellectual and behavioral deterioration, speech and motor dysfunction. Every cirrhotic patient may be at risk; potential precipitating factors should be addressed in regular clinic visits. The encephalopathy of liver disease may be prominent, or can be present in subtle forms, such as decline of school performance, emotional outbursts, or depression. “Subtle form” of hepatic encephalopathy may not be obvious on clinical examination, but can be detected by neurophysiologic and neuropsychiatric testing. PMID:24665321

  1. Early hyperglycaemia and the early-term death in patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, X; He, J; Li, L; Yang, G; Liu, H; Tang, S; Wang, Y

    2014-03-01

    Stroke is often accompanied by hyperglycaemia, and this has an important impact on prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between early hyperglycaemia and the outcome of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH). A systematic literature search on PubMed, Embase, Cochran, WANFANG DATA, VIP and CNKI databases was conducted, and eight eligible studies were retrieved. Relative risks and 95% confidence interval (CI) in the hyperglycaemia group compared with the non-hyperglycaemia group were calculated and meta-analysed when possible. Eight controlled trials and cohort studies totalling 3756 patients addressing early hyperglycaemia and the outcome of sICH were compiled for this meta-analysis. Cut-off points for defining hyperglycaemia was 6.1-8.3 mmol/L, and the median cut-off value was 7.5 mmol/L. Studies were assigned to one of the two subgroups: the group A (for studies with the values of glucose concentrations above the median cut-off) and the group B (for studies with the values of glucose concentrations below the median cut-off). The RR for short-term death associated with hyperglycaemia was 3.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) (3.08, 4.33); P < 0.0001). In the subgroup analysis, the relative risk values were 3.46 (95% CI (1.66, 7.20); P = 0.0009) and 3.53 (95% CI (2.92, 4.26); P < 0.00001) for the groups A and B respectively. The publication bias showed that Egger's test (P > 0.1), Begg's test (P > 0.05) and Nfs0.05 exceeded included studies. Early hyperglycaemia can significantly increase the rate of early-term death in patients with sICH, independent of the cut-off points for hyperglycaemia. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Early Palliative Care for Patients With Brain Metastases Decreases Inpatient Admissions and Need for Imaging Studies.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Akram; Wu, S Peter; Gorovets, Daniel; Sansosti, Alexandra; Kryger, Marc; Beaudreault, Cameron; Chung, Wei-Yi; Shelton, Gary; Silverman, Joshua; Lowy, Joseph; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    Early encounters with palliative care (PC) can influence health-care utilization, clinical outcome, and cost. To study the effect of timing of PC encounters on brain metastasis patients at an academic medical center. All patients diagnosed with brain metastases from January 2013 to August 2015 at a single institution with inpatient and/or outpatient PC records available for review (N = 145). Early PC was defined as having a PC encounter within 8 weeks of diagnosis with brain metastases; late PC was defined as having PC after 8 weeks of diagnosis. Propensity score matched cohorts of early (n = 46) and late (n = 46) PC patients were compared to control for differences in age, gender, and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) at diagnosis. Details of the palliative encounter, patient outcomes, and health-care utilization were collected. Early PC versus late PC patients had no differences in baseline KPS, age, or gender. Early PC patients had significantly fewer number of inpatient visits per patient (1.5 vs 2.9; P = .004), emergency department visits (1.2 vs 2.1; P = .006), positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies (1.2 vs 2.7, P = .005), magnetic resonance imaging scans (5.8 vs 8.1; P = .03), and radiosurgery procedures (0.6 vs 1.3; P < .001). There were no differences in overall survival (median 8.2 vs 11.2 months; P = .2). Following inpatient admissions, early PC patients were more likely to be discharged home (59% vs 35%; P = .04). Timely PC consultations are advisable in this patient population and can reduce health-care utilization.

  3. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Patients' views on early sensory relearning following nerve repair-a Q-methodology study.

    PubMed

    Vikström, Pernilla; Carlsson, Ingela; Rosén, Birgitta; Björkman, Anders

    2017-09-26

    Descriptive study. Early sensory relearning where the dynamic capacity of the brain is used has been shown to improve sensory outcome after nerve repair. However, no previous studies have examined how patients experience early sensory relearning. To describe patient's views on early sensory relearning. Statements' scores were analyzed by factor analysis. Thirty-seven consecutive adult patients with median and/or ulnar nerve repair who completed early sensory relearning were included. Three factors were identified, explaining 45% of the variance: (1) "Believe sensory relearning is meaningful, manage to get an illusion of touch and complete the sensory relearning"; (2) "Do not get an illusion of touch easily and need support in their sensory relearning" (3) "Are not motivated, manage to get an illusion of touch but do not complete sensory relearning". Many patients succeed in implementing their sensory relearning. However, a substantial part of the patient population need more support, have difficulties to create illusion of touch, and lack motivation to complete the sensory relearning. To enhance motivation and meaningfulness by relating the training clearly to everyday occupations and to the patient's life situation is a suggested way to proceed. The three unique factors indicate motivation and sense of meaningfulness as key components which should be taken into consideration in developing programs for person-centered early sensory relearning. 3. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Global and Temporal Cortical Folding in Patients with Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttila, Jani; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Burke, Lisa; Corrigall, Richard; Frangou, Sophia; Cachia, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the temporal lobes and alterations in cortical folding in adult on-set schizophrenia are studied using magnetic resonance T1 images of 51 patients. The study showed that patients with early on-set schizophrenia had lower global sulcal indices in both hemispheres and the left collateral sulcus has a lower sulcal index irrespective…

  6. What proportion of patients at the end of life contact out-of-hours primary care? A data linkage study in Oxfordshire

    PubMed Central

    Brettell, Rachel; Fisher, Rebecca; Hunt, Helen; Garland, Sophie; Hayward, Gail

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Out-of-hours (OOH) primary care services are a key element of community care at the end of life, yet there have been no previous attempts to describe the scope of this activity. We aimed to establish the proportion of Oxfordshire patients who were seen by the OOH service within the last 30 days of life, whether they were documented in a palliative phase of care and the demographic and clinical features of these groups. Design Population-based study linking a database of patient contacts with OOH primary care with the register of all deaths within Oxfordshire (600 000 population) during 13 months. Setting Oxfordshire. Participants Between 1 December 2014 and 30 November 2015 there were 102 877 OOH contacts made by 67 943 patients with the OOH service. Main outcome measures Proportion of patients dying in the Oxfordshire population who were seen by the OOH service within the last 30 days of life. Demographic and clinical features of these contacts. Results 29.5% of all population deaths were seen by the OOH service in the last 30 days of life. Among the 1530 patients seen, patients whose palliative phase was documented (n=577, 36.4%) were slightly younger (median age=83.5 vs 85.2 years, P<0.001) and were seen closer to death (median days to death=2 vs 8, P<0.001). More were assessed at home (59.8% vs 51.9%, P<0.001) and less were admitted to hospital (2.7% vs 18.0%, P<0.001). Conclusions OOH services see around one-third of all patients who die in a population. Most patients at the end of life are not documented as palliative by OOH services and are less likely to receive ongoing care at home. PMID:29712691

  7. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  8. [Early exercise training after exacerbation in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Molleyres, Sandrine; Dousse, Nicolas; Contal, Olivier; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-23

    Patients who suffered from an exacerbation of a chronic respiratory disorder are often very limited in terms of their exercise capacity because of severe dyspnea and amyotrophy of peripheral muscles. Early implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation may help these patients to avoid the complications of a prolonged bedridden period, and increase more rapidly their mobility. Early rehabilitation has become more frequent, but requires special skills from the care givers (chest therapists). Techniques which enhance muscular performance and motility of patients who are recovering from an exacerbation such as electromoystimulation or mobilisation under non-invasive ventilation, give encouraging results; their impact on length of hospital stay requires further studies.

  9. Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy: Differences in Clinical Characteristics between Patients with Early and Late Age of Onset.

    PubMed

    Silpa-Archa, Sukhum; Cao, Jennifer H; Boonsopon, Sutasinee; Lee, Joan; Preble, Janine M; Foster, C Stephen

    2017-10-01

    To describe differences in the clinical characteristics of birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC) patients diagnosed early and later in life. This is a retrospective cohort study. Age was primarily analyzed and 50 years of age at diagnosis was selected as a cut-off point. A total of 144 patients (288 eyes) were included; 68 with early-onset and 76 with late-onset BSRC. The younger group had a statistically significant higher rate of more severe iritis (p = 0.04); an average number of non-steroidal immunosuppressants and biologic agents (NSIB) (p = 0.04); and a prolonged time to initiation of NSIB (p = 0.01). There were only four patients (3%) who had >0.5+ cells in the anterior chamber. Patients with early-onset BSRC carried a higher risk for anterior segment inflammation, had a more prolonged delay to initiation of treatment with NSIB, and required a greater number of NSIBs to achieve remission.

  10. Long-term outcome for patients with early stage marginal zone lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Barzenje, Dlawer Abdulla; Holte, Harald; Fosså, Alexander; Ghanima, Waleed; Liestøl, Knut; Delabie, Jan; Kolstad, Arne

    2017-03-01

    In this study with prolonged follow up, we compared clinical outcome, including cause of death and incidence of second cancer, for patients with early stage extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL, 49 patients), nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL, nine patients) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL, 42 patients) with emphasis on potential benefit of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was given to 40 patients with EMZL (nine had surgery only) and all NMZL patients. MCL patients received radiotherapy (17 patients), chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (13 patients) or chemotherapy alone (12 patients). Compared to a matched control population no increased risk of second cancer or cardiovascular disease was observed. Radiotherapy alone was effective in EMZL and NMZL with low-relapse rates (20% and 33%) and a 10-year overall survival of 78% and 56%, respectively. High-relapse rate and inferior OS in MCL underline the need for extended staging with endoscopy and PET/CT and possibly for novel strategies.

  11. Early rehabilitation treatment combined with equinovarus foot deformity surgical correction in stroke patients: safety and changes in gait parameters.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Erika; Merlo, Andrea; Zerbinati, Paolo; Longhi, Maria; Prati, Paolo; Masiero, Stefano; Mazzoli, Davide

    2016-06-01

    Equinovarus foot deformity (EVFD) compromises several prerequisites of walking and increases the risk of falling. Guidelines on rehabilitation following EVFD surgery are missing in current literature. The aim of this study was to analyze safety and adherence to an early rehabilitation treatment characterized by immediate weight bearing with an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) in hemiplegic patients after EVFD surgery and to describe gait changes after EVFD surgical correction combined with early rehabilitation treatment. Retrospective observational cohort study. Inpatient rehabilitation clinic. Forty-seven adult patients with hemiplegia consequent to ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke (L/R 20/27, age 56±15 years, time from lesion 6±5 years). A specific rehabilitation protocol with a non-articulated AFO, used to allow for immediate gait training, started one day after EVFD surgery. Gait analysis (GA) data before and one month after surgery were analyzed. The presence of differences in GA space-time parameters, in ankle dorsiflexion (DF) values and peaks at initial contact (DF at IC), during stance (DF at St) and swing (DF at Sw) were assessed by the Wilcoxon Test while the presence of correlations between pre- and post-operative values by Spearman's correlation coefficient. All patients completed the rehabilitation protocol and no clinical complications occurred in the sample. Ankle DF increased one month after surgery at all investigated gait phases (Wilcoxon Test, P<0.0001), becoming neutral at IC. Significant (P<0.05) variations were found for stride length, stride width, anterior step length of the affected side and for the duration of the double support phase of the contralateral side. The postsurgery ankle DF at St was found to be correlated (R=0.81, P<0.0001) with its pre-surgery value, thus being predictable. Weaker significant correlations were found for DF at Sw and DF at IC, where contribution from the dorsiflexor muscles is required in addition to calf muscle

  12. The impact of early specialist management on outcomes of patients with in-hospital stroke.

    PubMed

    Manawadu, Dulka; Choyi, Jithesh; Kalra, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    Delays in treatment of in-hospital stroke (IHS) adversely affect patient outcomes. We hypothesised that early referral and specialist management of IHS patients will improve outcomes at 90 days. Baseline characteristics, assessment delays, thrombolysis eligibility, 90-day functional outcomes and all-cause mortality were compared between IHS patients referred for specialist stroke management within 3 hours of symptom onset (early referrals) and later referrals. Patients were identified from a prospective stroke registry between January 2009 and December 2010. Inclusion criteria were primary admission with a non-stroke diagnosis, onset of new neurological deficits after admission and early ischaemic changes on CT or MR imaging. Eighty four (4.6%) of 1836 stroke patients had IHS (mean age 74 year; 51% male, median NIHSS score 10). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between 53 (63%) early and 31 (37%) late referrals. Thrombolysis was performed in 29 (76%) of the 37/78 (47%) potentially eligible patients; 7 patients were excluded because specialist referral was delayed beyond 4.5 hours despite symptom recognition within 3 hours of onset. Early referral improved functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale 0-2 at 90 days 40% v 7%, p = 0.001) and was an independent predictor of mRS 0-2 at 90 days after adjusting for age, pre-morbid function, primary cause for hospital admission and stroke severity [OR 1.13 (95% C.I.  = 1.10-1.27), p = 0.002]. Early referral and specialist management of IHS patients that includes thrombolysis is associated with better functional outcomes at 90 days.

  13. Contact Us

    Naval History Contact Us Command Addresses (SNDL) FAQ Leadership Secretary of the Navy Under Secretary Chiefs of Staff Defense.gov U.S. Army U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine Corps U.S. Coast Guard Naval History https://awards.navy.mil Naval Heritage And History Command http://www.history.navy.mil/about-us

  14. TVDG Contacts

    for Sandy Fax By Fax: 1 631 344 4583 Attention Chuck Carlson EMail By E-Mail: Send E-Mail to Chuck Group Leader James Alessi Telephone: 1-631-344-4004 E-Mail: Peter Thieberger Information can be returned 1 631 344 4581. An organizational list of staff members and how to contact them. The BNL E-Mail and

  15. Difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal as early signs of psychosis in adolescents--the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    PubMed

    Mäki, P; Koskela, S; Murray, G K; Nordström, T; Miettunen, J; Jääskeläinen, E; Veijola, J M

    2014-08-01

    Social withdrawal is among the first signs of the prodromal state of psychosis seen in clinical samples. The aim of this prospective study was to find out whether difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal precede first episode psychosis in the young general population. The members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=6274) completed the PROD-screen questionnaire in 2001-2002. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to detect both new psychotic and non-psychotic disorders requiring hospitalisation during 2003-2008. Twenty-three subjects developed psychosis and 89 developed a non-psychotic mental disorder requiring hospitalisation during the follow-up. Of those who developed psychosis, 35% had reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others and 30% social withdrawal in adolescence. In hospitalised non-psychotic disorder, the corresponding precentages were 10 and 13% and in the control group without hospital-treated mental disorder 9 and 11%. The differences between psychotic and non-psychotic hospitalised subjects (P<0.01) as well as controls (P<0.001) were statistically significant regarding difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others. In this general population-based sample self-reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others in adolescence preceded psychosis specifically compared to hospitalised non-psychotic mental disorders and controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatitis B: how many patients are counselled on transmission prevention and how many contacts are offered vaccination?

    PubMed

    Miles, L; Roberts, R; Casey, D; Roberts, C; Williams, S

    2002-06-01

    The proportion of cases of hepatitis B who receive counselling on how to prevent transmission and for whom at-risk contacts are offered vaccination is low. A centralised arrangement under the management of the local CCDC can provide a comprehensive contract tracing service.

  17. Acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in contacts of patients newly identified as colonized or infected with MRSA in the immediate postexposure and postdischarge periods.

    PubMed

    Williams, Victoria R; Callery, Sandra; Vearncombe, Mary; Simor, Andrew E

    2017-03-01

    The acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) after exposure to patients colonized or infected with MRSA was assessed. Among contacts with complete surveillance screening, the rate of acquisition was 5.7% and was lower in those identified postdischarge (17/683, 2.5%) compared with those tested in the immediate postexposure period (62/706, 8.8%). Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stromal cell markers are differentially expressed in the synovial tissue of patients with early arthritis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ivy Y; Karpus, Olga N; Turner, Jason D; Hardie, Debbie; Marshall, Jennifer L; de Hair, Maria J H; Maijer, Karen I; Tak, Paul P; Raza, Karim; Hamann, Jörg; Buckley, Christopher D; Gerlag, Danielle M; Filer, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown increased expression of stromal markers in synovial tissue (ST) of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, ST expression of stromal markers in early arthritis in relationship to diagnosis and prognostic outcome was studied. ST from 56 patients included in two different early arthritis cohorts and 7 non-inflammatory controls was analysed using immunofluorescence to detect stromal markers CD55, CD248, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and podoplanin. Diagnostic classification (gout, psoriatic arthritis, unclassified arthritis (UA), parvovirus associated arthritis, reactive arthritis and RA), disease outcome (resolving vs persistent) and clinical variables were determined at baseline and after follow-up, and related to the expression of stromal markers. We observed expression of all stromal markers in ST of early arthritis patients, independent of diagnosis or prognostic outcome. Synovial expression of FAP was significantly higher in patients developing early RA compared to other diagnostic groups and non-inflammatory controls. In RA FAP protein was expressed in both lining and sublining layers. Podoplanin expression was higher in all early inflammatory arthritis patients than controls, but did not differentiate diagnostic outcomes. Stromal marker expression was not associated with prognostic outcomes of disease persistence or resolution. There was no association with clinical or sonographic variables. Stromal cell markers CD55, CD248, FAP and podoplanin are expressed in ST in the earliest stage of arthritis. Baseline expression of FAP is higher in early synovitis patients who fulfil classification criteria for RA over time. These results suggest that significant fibroblast activation occurs in RA in the early window of disease.

  19. Bipedicled strap muscle transposition for vocal fold deficit after laser cordectomy in early glottic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Chih-Ying; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chiu, Jeng-Fen

    2005-03-01

    In treating early glottic carcinomas, the outcomes of endoscopic laser cordectomy have been proven to be valuable in local control, survival, and vocal function preservation. In some extended cases, however, laser cordectomy may leave patients with poor vocal function because of vocal fold deficit. This work assesses the vocal outcome of medialization laryngoplasty with bipedicled strap muscle transposition for vocal fold deficit resulting from laser cordectomy in early glottic cancer patients. A prospective clinical series. Thirteen early glottic cancer patients who had vocal fold deficit caused by previous laser cordectomy underwent medialization laryngoplasty with bipedicled strap muscle transposition. The thyroid lamina on the cordectomy side was paramedially separated. The inner perichondrium was circumspectly raised from the overlying thyroid cartilage. After separating the thyrohyoid and cricothyroid membranes, the lamina was retracted laterally. A bipedicled strap muscle flap was then transposed into the area between the lamina and the paraglottic soft tissue. The thyroid cartilages were carefully sutured back in position. All patients received pre- and postoperative voice assessments comprising laryngostroboscopy and vocal function studies. Vocal enhancement was present in 92% (12/13) of patients after medialization laryngoplasty with strap muscle transposition. The glottal closure and maximal phonation time were noticeably improved by surgery. No dyspnea or other significant complications were observed in any patients. The outcomes show that bipedicled strap muscle transposition is a prosthesis-free, safe, and valuable laryngoplastic technique for correcting glottal incompetence caused by endoscopic laser cordectomy in early glottic cancer patients.

  20. The economic and clinical burden of early versus late initiation of celecoxib among patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shelbaya, Ahmed; Solem, Caitlyn T; Walker, Chris; Wan, Yin; Johnson, Courtney; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with early versus late initiation of celecoxib treatment after osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosis and whether economic and safety outcomes differ between patients with early versus late initiation of celecoxib. Methods Adults (≥18 years) with a confirmed OA diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modifications code: 715.XX), ≥12 months of continuous pre- and post-index enrollment, and ≥1 post-index claim for celecoxib were included from the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounter Database (2009–2013). Index date was defined as initial OA diagnosis. Patients were categorized as initiating celecoxib early (within 6 months of index date) or late (≥6 months after index date). Logistic regressions were used to assess characteristics associated with early versus late celecoxib initiation. Key outcomes included health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs post-index, and adverse event incidence post-celecoxib initiation. Unadjusted and adjusted comparisons (using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution for costs and Poisson distribution for event and resource utilization) were made between early and late celecoxib initiators. Results Of the 62,434 OA patients identified, 27,402 were early and 35,032 were late initiators. Post-index hospital admissions and length of stay did not differ statistically between early versus late initiators after controlling for pre-index event rates and covariates, but early patients had significantly fewer outpatient (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 0.97) and emergency room visits (IRR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.95). After adjustment for key covariates, early initiators (versus late initiators) had lower all-cause (US$12,909 versus US$13,781, P<0.001) and OA-related (US$4,988 versus US$5,178, P=0.015) costs per person-year. Early initiators had no statistically significant

  1. Presence of Mycobacterium leprae DNA and PGL-1 antigen in household contacts of leprosy patients from a hyperendemic area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinho, J D; Rivas, P M S; Mendes, M B P; Soares, R E P; Costa, G C; Nascimento, F R F; Paiva, M F L; Aquino, D M C; Figueireido, I A; Santos, A M; Pereira, S R F

    2015-11-19

    Leprosy is a highly infectious disease endemic to underdeveloped countries. In Maranhão State, Northeastern Brazil, the hyperendemic rate of 56.11 cases/100,000 inhabitants increased the necessity of better understanding the epidemiological profile of this population, particularly regarding efficient methods for evaluating individuals residing with diagnosed patients to understand disease transmission and the risk of infection. In this study, we examined the percentage of contacts with positive indices for Mycobacterium leprae DNA and phenol-glycolipid-1 antigen (PGL-1). PGL-1 was analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the ML-Flow test, and polymerase chain reaction of oral and nasal secretions of 808 leprosy contacts from Maranhão. PGL-1 was detected in 14.0% of patients and differed by operational classification of the index case (P < 0.05). Seropositive results of ML-Flow were 15.0% and identified individuals with and without Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine scars. Molecular diagnosis detected M. leprae DNA in 5.6% of oral samples and 4.6% of nasal tissues, and 87% of subjects resided with high bacillary load patients. This study reinforces the efficacy of combining molecular and serological techniques to identify potential bacillus carriers in the asymptomatic stage of infection, such as in household contacts, highlighting the importance of these meth-ods for monitoring hyperendemic populations.

  2. Estimating the effect of lay knowledge and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients, on health-belief model in a high-risk pulmonary TB transmission population.

    PubMed

    Zein, Rizqy Amelia; Suhariadi, Fendy; Hendriani, Wiwin

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the effect of lay knowledge of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients on a health-belief model (HBM) as well as to identify the social determinants that affect lay knowledge. Survey research design was conducted, where participants were required to fill in a questionnaire, which measured HBM and lay knowledge of pulmonary TB. Research participants were 500 residents of Semampir, Asemrowo, Bubutan, Pabean Cantian, and Simokerto districts, where the risk of pulmonary TB transmission is higher than other districts in Surabaya. Being a female, older in age, and having prior contact with pulmonary TB patients significantly increase the likelihood of having a higher level of lay knowledge. Lay knowledge is a substantial determinant to estimate belief in the effectiveness of health behavior and personal health threat. Prior contact with pulmonary TB patients is able to explain the belief in the effectiveness of a health behavior, yet fails to estimate participants' belief in the personal health threat. Health authorities should prioritize males and young people as their main target groups in a pulmonary TB awareness campaign. The campaign should be able to reconstruct people's misconception about pulmonary TB, thereby bringing around the health-risk perception so that it is not solely focused on improving lay knowledge.

  3. Contact Urticaria to Nickel: A Series of 11 Patients Who Were Prick Test Positive and Patch Test Negative to Nickel Sulfate 2.5% and 5.0.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Sandeep S; Davis, Crystal L; Chong, Tracie A; Powell, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    Nickel is the most common allergen found by patch testing; however, not all cases of nickel allergy are type 4 (delayed) allergies. Contact urticaria (CU) to nickel (immediate reaction) has been reported; however, few seem to evaluate it as per a recent published survey of American Contact Dermatitis Society members. The aim of the study was to present a series of patients who had clinical histories suggestive of nickel allergy and yet were patch test negative but prick test positive to nickel, thus demonstrating CU. We reviewed the charts of 11 patients who were patch test negative but prick test positive. All 11 patients demonstrated evidence of CU by prick testing (or closed chamber test in 1). None were patch test positive to nickel 2.5% or 5.0%. Four patients' histories mentioned reactions to various jewelry/earrings within minutes, whereas 2 histories mentioned reacting within a few hours. These histories are consistent with CU. Others (except 1 patient) recalled reacting to jewelry/earrings but did not recall a time frame. Our series suggests that CU to nickel may be far more common than anticipated and should be evaluated with prick testing when patients' history suggests nickel allergy and yet they are patch test negative.

  4. [Early symptoms of exacerbation of schizophrenia: views of patients, relatives and psychiatrists].

    PubMed

    Avedisova, A S; Iastrebov, D V; Kasimova, L N; Valeeva, A M; Bocharov, A V; Zakharova, K V

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out using focused interviews in three groups of responders - patients with several exacerbations of schizophrenia, their relatives and their psychiatrists. It has been shown that either patients or their relatives do not recognize the early symptoms of the exacerbation of psychosis. Three opposite approaches of responders to the issues related to awareness of disease and medical intervention were singled out: rational (in psychiatrists), autonomic (in patients) and emotional (in relatives). The authors substantiate the necessity of psychoeducational programs for patients aimed at bringing together interests of patients and psychiatrists with the following impact on the relatives who take the dualistic position with conformal readiness.

  5. [Contact allergy to dexpanthenol].

    PubMed

    Schulze-Dirks, A; Frosch, P J

    1988-06-01

    Eleven cases of contact allergy to dexpanthenol are reported (5 females, 6 males; mean age 62.4 years). Five patients suffered from a leg ulcer and/or stasis dermatitis. In five patients the sensitization occurred after the application of dexpanthenol-containing ointments to the face. Only one patient did not show sensitization to other common allergens. Three patients were sensitive to wool wax alcohols, which are present in a commonly used product. Dexpanthenol seems to be a rare sensitizer, yet clinically most relevant for patients with stasis dermatitis and multiple allergies.

  6. Radiotherapy-induced Early ECG Changes and Their Comparison with Echocardiography in Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tuohinen, Suvi Sirkku; Keski-Pukkila, Konsta; Skyttä, Tanja; Huhtala, Heini; Virtanen, Vesa; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Raatikainen, Pekka; Nikus, Kjell

    2018-04-01

    Early electrocardiogram (ECG) changes after breast cancer radiotherapy (RT) have been reported, but their characteristics and associated factors are largely unknown. This study aimed to explore early RT-induced ECG changes and to compare them with echocardiography changes. Sixty eligible patients with chemotherapy-naïve left-sided and 20 with right-sided breast cancer were evaluated with echocardiography, blood samples and ECG before and after RT. RT-induced ECG changes in the anterior leads. T-Wave changes were most frequent. T-Wave decline was associated independently with patient age (β=-0.245, p=0.005), mean heart radiation dose (β=1.252, p=0.001) and global systolic strain rate change (β=7.943, p=0.002). T-Wave inversion was associated independently with mean heart radiation dose (β=0.143, p<0.001), global longitudinal strain change (β=0.053, p=0.017) and posterior calibrated integrated backscatter (β=-0.022, p=0.049). RT-induced ECG changes were prevalent and associated with functional and structural changes in echocardiography. ECG could be used for post-RT cardiac screening. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Survival benefit of patients with early-stage ovarian carcinoma treated with paclitaxel chemotherapeutic regimens

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective Adjuvant chemotherapy was introduced in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (OC). The benefit of standard chemotherapeutic regimens including taxane has not been established. Methods Patients with early-stage OC from the National Health Insurance Research database of Taiwan who received platinum plus cyclophosphamide (CP) or platinum plus paclitaxel (PT) for 3–6 cycles were recruited, and the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined. Results A total of 1,510 early-stage OC patients, including 841 who received CP regimen and 699 who received PT regimen, were included. The 2 groups had a similar estimated probability of 5-year DFS (PT vs. CP, 79.0% vs. 77.6%; p=0.410) and OS (84.6% vs. 84.3%; p=0.691). Patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a lower 5-year DFS than the patients ≤50 years of age who received the CP (p<0.001) or PT regimens (p=0.001). Additionally, patients >50 years of age who received the CP regimen had a worse 5-year OS compared with the other 3 groups (p=0.019) (p=0.179 for patients >50 years of age in the PT group; p=0.002 for patients ≤50 years of age in the CP group; and p=0.061 for patients ≤50 years of age in the PT group). Patients with the CP or PT regimen for 3–5 cycles had a similar 5-year DFS and OS compared to 6 cycles (p>0.050). Conclusion Chemotherapeutic regimens with taxane could be recommended for early-stage OC patients >50 years of age. PMID:29185274

  8. Patient Satisfaction With an Early Smartphone-Based Cosmetic Surgery Postoperative Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Edoardo Dalla; D'Souza, Gehaan F; DeLeonibus, Anthony; Fabiani, Brianna; Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Zins, James E

    2017-12-13

    While prevalent in everyday life, smartphones are also finding increasing use as a medical care adjunct. The use of smartphone technology as a postoperative cosmetic surgery adjunct for care has received little attention in the literature. The purpose of this effort was to assess the potential efficacy of a smartphone-based cosmetic surgery early postoperative follow-up program. Specifically, could smartphone photography provided by the patient to the plastic surgeon in the first few days after surgery allay patient's concerns, improve the postoperative experience and, possibly, detect early complications? From August 2015 to March 2016 a smartphone-based postoperative protocol was established for patients undergoing cosmetic procedures. At the time of discharge, the plastic surgeon sent a text to the patient with instructions for the patient to forward a postoperative photograph of the operated area within 48 to 72 hours. The plastic surgeon then made a return call/text that same day to review the patient's progress. A postoperative questionnaire evaluated the patients' postoperative experience and satisfaction with the program. A total of 57 patients were included in the study. Fifty-two patients responded to the survey. A total of 50 (96.2%) patients reported that the process improved the quality of their postoperative experience. The protocol allowed to detect early complications in 3 cases. The physician was able to address and treat the complications the following day prior to the scheduled clinic follow up. The smartphone can be effectively utilized by the surgeon to both enhance the patient's postoperative experience and alert the surgeon to early postoperative problems. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. The use of early warning scores to recognise and respond to patient deterioration in district nursing.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Guy; Lusher, Adele

    2018-02-02

    This discussion article focuses on the literature surrounding early warning scoring systems and their use in primary care, specifically within district nursing. Patient deterioration is a global concern, associated with high mortality rates and avoidable deaths. Early recognition and response by nursing and other health care staff has been attributed to early warning scoring systems (EWSS) and tools. However, the use of equivalent tools in the community appears to be lacking. This review concludes that there is no consensus over the use of EWSS in district nursing and culture of practice is varied, rather than standardised.

  10. The HEART Pathway randomized trial: identifying emergency department patients with acute chest pain for early discharge.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Simon A; Riley, Robert F; Hiestand, Brian C; Russell, Gregory B; Hoekstra, James W; Lefebvre, Cedric W; Nicks, Bret A; Cline, David M; Askew, Kim L; Elliott, Stephanie B; Herrington, David M; Burke, Gregory L; Miller, Chadwick D

    2015-03-01

    The HEART Pathway is a decision aid designed to identify emergency department patients with acute chest pain for early discharge. No randomized trials have compared the HEART Pathway with usual care. Adult emergency department patients with symptoms related to acute coronary syndrome without ST-elevation on ECG (n=282) were randomized to the HEART Pathway or usual care. In the HEART Pathway arm, emergency department providers used the HEART score, a validated decision aid, and troponin measures at 0 and 3 hours to identify patients for early discharge. Usual care was based on American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. The primary outcome, objective cardiac testing (stress testing or angiography), and secondary outcomes, index length of stay, early discharge, and major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization), were assessed at 30 days by phone interview and record review. Participants had a mean age of 53 years, 16% had previous myocardial infarction, and 6% (95% confidence interval, 3.6%-9.5%) had major adverse cardiac events within 30 days of randomization. Compared with usual care, use of the HEART Pathway decreased objective cardiac testing at 30 days by 12.1% (68.8% versus 56.7%; P=0.048) and length of stay by 12 hours (9.9 versus 21.9 hours; P=0.013) and increased early discharges by 21.3% (39.7% versus 18.4%; P<0.001). No patients identified for early discharge had major adverse cardiac events within 30 days. The HEART Pathway reduces objective cardiac testing during 30 days, shortens length of stay, and increases early discharges. These important efficiency gains occurred without any patients identified for early discharge suffering MACE at 30 days. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01665521. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. HDL subfractions and very early CAD: novel findings from untreated patients in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Xu, Rui-Xia; Li, Sha; Li, Xiao-Lin; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Gao, Ying; Qing, Ping; Cui, Chuan-Jue; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-08-04

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) in very young individuals is a rare disease associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of specific lipoprotein subfractions in very young CAD patients (≤45 years) is not established yet. A total of 734 consecutive CAD subjects were enrolled and were classified as very early (n = 81, ≤45), early (n = 304, male: 45-55; female: 45-65), and late (n = 349, male: >55; female: >65) groups. Meanwhile, a group of non-CAD subjects were also enrolled as controls (n = 56, ≤45). The lipoprotein separation was performed using Lipoprint System. As a result, the very early CAD patients have lower large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction and higher small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfraction (p < 0.05). Although body mass index was inversely related to large HDL subfraction, overweight did not influence its association with very early CAD. In the logistic regression analysis, large HDL was inversely [OR 95% CI: 0.872 (0.825-0.922)] while small LDL was positively [1.038 (1.008-1.069)] related to very early CAD. However, after adjusting potential confounders, the association was only significant for large HDL [0.899 (0.848-0.954)]. This study firstly demonstrated that large HDL subfraction was negatively related to very early CAD suggestive of its important role in very early CAD incidence.

  12. Outcome of Early Initiation of Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kook-Hwan; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Mira; Ju, Kyung Don; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies reported that early initiation of hemodialysis may increase mortality. However, studies that assessed the influence of early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) yielded controversial results. In the present study, we evaluated the prognosis of early initiation of PD on the various outcomes of end stage renal failure patients by using propensity-score matching methods. Incident PD patients (n = 491) who started PD at SNU Hospital were enrolled. The patients were divided into 'early starters (n = 244)' and 'late starters (n = 247)' on the basis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the start of dialysis. The calculated propensity-score was used for one-to-one matching. After propensity-score-based matching (n = 136, for each group), no significant differences were observed in terms of all-cause mortality (P = 0.17), technique failure (P = 0.62), cardiovascular event (P = 0.96) and composite event (P = 0.86) between the early and late starters. Stratification analysis in the propensity-score quartiles (n = 491) exhibited no trend toward better or poorer survival in terms of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, early commencement of PD does not reduce the mortality risk and other outcomes. Although the recent guidelines suggest that initiation of dialysis at higher eGFR, physicians should not determine the time to initiate PD therapy simply rely on the eGFR alone. PMID:22323864

  13. Prevalence and clinical significance of respiratory viruses and bacteria detected in tuberculosis patients compared to household contact controls in Tanzania: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mhimbira, F; Hiza, H; Mbuba, E; Hella, J; Kamwela, L; Sasamalo, M; Ticlla, M; Said, K; Mhalu, G; Chiryamkubi, M; Schindler, C; Reither, K; Gagneux, S; Fenner, L

    2018-03-23

    To describe the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in tuberculosis (TB) patients and in their household contact controls, and to determine the clinical significance of respiratory pathogens in TB patients. We studied 489 smear-positive adult TB patients and 305 household contact controls without TB with nasopharyngeal swab samples within an ongoing prospective cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 2013 and 2015. We used multiplex real-time PCR to detect 16 respiratory viruses and seven bacterial pathogens from nasopharyngeal swabs. The median age of the study participants was 33 years; 61% (484/794) were men, and 21% (168/794) were HIV-positive. TB patients had a higher prevalence of HIV (28.6%; 140/489) than controls (9.2%; 28/305). Overall prevalence of respiratory viral pathogens was 20.4% (160/794; 95%CI 17.7-23.3%) and of bacterial pathogens 38.2% (303/794; 95%CI 34.9-41.6%). TB patients and controls did not differ in the prevalence of respiratory viruses (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.00, 95%CI 0.71-1.44), but respiratory bacteria were less frequently detected in TB patients (OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.53-0.94). TB patients with both respiratory viruses and respiratory bacteria were likely to have more severe disease (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.4; p 0.011). TB patients with respiratory viruses tended to have more frequent lung cavitations (aOR 1.6, 95%CI 0.93-2.7; p 0.089). Respiratory viruses are common for both TB patients and household controls. TB patients may present with more severe TB disease, particularly when they are co-infected with both bacteria and viruses. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patients' and Parents' Needs, Attitudes, and Perceptions About Early Palliative Care Integration in Pediatric Oncology.

    PubMed

    Levine, Deena R; Mandrell, Belinda N; Sykes, April; Pritchard, Michele; Gibson, Deborah; Symons, Heather J; Wendler, David; Baker, Justin N

    2017-09-01

    Early palliative care integration for cancer patients is now touted as the optimal care model, yet significant barriers often prevent its implementation. A perceived barrier, especially for pediatric oncology patients, is the notion that patients and their families may not need or want palliative care involvement early in the disease trajectory. To determine the perception of symptom burden early in treatment and assess attitudes toward early integration of palliative care in pediatric oncology patient-parent pairs. Novel but pretested survey tools were administered to 129 patient-parent dyads of hospital-based pediatric oncology ambulatory clinics and inpatient units between September 2011 and January 2015. All patient participants were aged between 10 and 17 years and were diagnosed as having an oncologic condition 1 month to 1 year before enrollment. Both the patient and the parent in the dyad spoke English, and all participating parents provided written informed consent. A convenience sample was used for selection, with participants screened when otherwise presenting at a participating site. A total of 280 eligible participants were approached for study inclusion, 258 of whom were enrolled in the study (92.1% positive response-rate). Degree of perceived suffering from early symptom-related causes, attitudes toward early palliative care integration, and patient-parent concordance. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, calculation of concordance, McNemar test results, and Cochran-Armitage trend test results. Of the 129 patients in the dyads, 68 were boys, and 61 girls; of the 129 parents, 15 were men, and 114 women. Patients reported the following symptoms in the first month of cancer therapy: nausea (n = 109; 84.5%), loss of appetite (n = 97; 75.2%), pain (n = 96; 74.4%), anxiety (n = 77; 59.7%), constipation (n = 69; 53.5%), depression (n = 64; 49.6%), and diarrhea (n = 52; 40.3%). A large proportion of those

  15. Early use of non invasive ventilation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: what benefits?

    PubMed

    Terzano, C; Romani, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of an early start of NIV in ALS patients, evaluating respiratory and ventilatory parameters. Functional respiratory parameters and arterial blood gas analysis were evaluated in forty-six patients. All patients were informed about the benefits and possible adverse effects of therapeutic support with NIV and divided in two groups based on the compliance to early start therapy with NIV (Group A) or not (Group B). Among 46 ALS patients consecutively visited in our Unit, we included 20 patients in the Group A and 16 in the Group B. We have emphasized the importance of the early use of NIV stressing the difference between two groups analyzed, particularly in terms of pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gas analysis. Significant correlation was observed between Vital Capacity (VC), Forced Expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and maximal inspiratory pressures (PImax). Our study highlights the importance of noninvasive mechanical ventilation as a treatment for ALS patients and also shows the early start of NIV as an important approach in order to postpone the functional decline and the decrease of respiratory muscle strength.

  16. Risk Factors for Early-Onset Peritonitis in Southern Chinese Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haishan; Huang, Rong; Yi, Chunyan; Wu, Juan; Guo, Qunying; Zhou, Qian; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Early peritonitis was confirmed to be associated with a higher risk of early technique failure. However, literature concerning peritonitis within the first 3 months of peritoneal dialysis (PD) initiation is scarce. The present study was to investigate risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, all incident PD patients from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2013, were recruited and followed up until December 31, 2014. According to time-to-first episode of peritonitis, patients were divided into early-onset (≤ 3 months) peritonitis and late-onset (> 3 months) peritonitis. Baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, as well as episodes of peritonitis, were collected. Risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis were evaluated using logistic regression model. ♦ RESULTS: Of 1,690 patients on PD, 503 (29.8%) developed at least 1 episode of peritonitis and 118 (7.0%) patients presented the first episodes of peritonitis within the first 3 months. A multivariate logistic analysis showed that higher body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 - 1.15, p = 0.034), hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.11 - 2.78, p = 0.017), and catheter exit-site infection (OR 4.14, 95% CI 2.45 - 7.00, p < 0.001) were risk factors independently associated with early-onset peritonitis. Compared to those with late-onset, patients with early-onset peritonitis had a higher overall peritonitis rate (0.76 vs 0.38 per patient-year, p < 0.001) and worse technique survival (p < 0.001), while patient survival did not differ significantly between the 2 groups during the long-term follow-up (p > 0.05). ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI, hypoalbuminemia, and catheter exit-site infection were the risk factors associated with early-onset peritonitis in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  17. Early Warning/Track-and-Trigger Systems to Detect Deterioration and Improve Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Ariel L; Lominadze, George; Gong, Michelle N; Savel, Richard H

    2016-02-01

    As a global effort toward improving patient safety, a specific area of focus has been the early recognition and rapid intervention in deteriorating ward patients. This focus on "failure to rescue" has led to the construction of early warning/track-and-trigger systems. In this review article, we present a description of the data behind the creation and implementation of such systems, including multiple algorithms and strategies for deployment. Additionally, the strengths and weaknesses of the various systems and their evaluation in the literature are emphasized. Despite the limitations of the current literature, the potential benefit of these early warning/track-and-trigger systems to improve patient outcomes remains significant. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Influence of muscle strength on early mobility in critically ill adult patients: Systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Audrey R; Starkweather, Angela; Grossman, Catherine; Acevedo, Edmund; Salyer, Jeanne

    Muscle strength may be one indicator of readiness to mobilize that can be used to guide decisions regarding early mobility efforts and to progressively advance mobilization. To provide a synthesis of current measures of muscle strength in the assessment of early mobilization in critically ill adult patients who are receiving MV therapy. Research studies conducted between 2000-2015 were identified using PubMed, CINHAL, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases using the search terms "muscle strength", "intensive care", "mechanical ventilation" and "muscle weakness". Nine articles used manual muscle testing, the Medical Research Council scale and/or hand-held dynamometer to provide objective measures for assessing muscle strength in the critically ill adult patient population. Further research is needed to examine the application of standardized measures of muscle strength for guiding decisions regarding early and progressive advancement of mobility goals in adult ICU patients on MV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the yield of tuberculosis among contacts of multidrug-resistant and drug-sensitive tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia using GeneXpert as a primary diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Hiruy, Nebiyu; Melese, Muluken; Habte, Dereje; Jerene, Degu; Gashu, Zewdu; Alem, Genetu; Jemal, Ilili; Tessema, Belay; Belayneh, Beza; Suarez, Pedro G

    2018-06-01

    This study compared the yield of tuberculosis (TB) among contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) index cases with that in drug-sensitive TB (DS-TB) index cases in a program setting. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among contacts of sputum smear-positive new DS-TB index cases and MDR-TB index cases. After contacts were screened, GeneXpert was used for the diagnosis of TB. The study included 111 MDR-TB and 119 DS-TB index cases. A total of 340 and 393 contacts of MDR-TB and DS-TB index cases, respectively, were traced, of whom 331 among MDR-TB contacts and 353 among DS-TB contacts were screened. There were 20 (6%) presumptive TB cases for MDR-TB contacts and 41 (11%) for DS-TB contacts. The prevalence of TB among MDR-TB contacts was 2.7% and among DS-TB contacts was 4.0%. The majority of the MDR-TB contacts diagnosed with TB had MDR-TB; the reverse was true for DS-TB. The yield of TB among contacts of MDR-TB and DS-TB patients using GeneXpert was high as compared to the population-level prevalence. The likelihood of diagnosing rifampicin-resistant TB among contacts of MDR-TB index cases was higher in comparison with contacts of DS-TB index cases. The use of GeneXpert in DS-TB contact investigation has the added advantage of diagnosing rifampicin-resistant TB cases when compared to the use of the nationally recommended acid-fast bacillus (AFB) microscopy for DS-TB contact investigation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Trust in the early chain of healthcare: lifeworld hermeneutics from the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Norberg Boysen, Gabriella; Nyström, Maria; Christensson, Lennart; Herlitz, Johan; Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta

    2017-12-01

    Patients must be able to feel as much trust for caregivers and the healthcare system at the healthcare centre as at the emergency department. The aim of this study is to explain and understand the phenomenon of trust in the early chain of healthcare, when a patient has called an ambulance for a non-urgent condition and been referred to the healthcare centre. A lifeworld hermeneutic approach from the perspective of caring science was used. Ten patients participated: seven female and three male. The setting is the early chain of healthcare in south-western Sweden. The findings show that the phenomenon of trust does not automatically involve medical care. However, attention to the patient's lifeworld in a professional caring relationship enables the patient to trust the caregiver and the healthcare environment. It is clear that the "voice of the lifeworld" enables the patient to feel trust. Trust in the early chain of healthcare entails caregivers' ability to pay attention to both medical and existential issues in compliance with the patient's information and questions. Thus, the patient must be invited to participate in assessments and decisions concerning his or her own healthcare, in a credible manner and using everyday language.

  1. Virulent T4 Acanthamoeba causing keratitis in a patient after swimming while wearing contact lenses in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fabres, Laura Fuhrich; Maschio, Vinicius José; Santos, Denise Leal Dos; Kwitko, Sergio; Marinho, Diane Ruschel; Araújo, Bruno Schneider de; Locatelli, Claudete Inês; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2018-06-26

    Several strains of free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba can cause a painful sight-threatening disease of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The numbers of AK cases keep rising worldwide mainly due to an increase in contact lens wearers and lack of hygiene in the maintenance of contact lenses and their cases. We report a case of AK in a healthy young woman admitted to the Hospital de Clinicas in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Corneal scrapings were examined for the presence of Acanthamoeba strains. The initial isolate was characterized by morphological and genotypic properties. The isolate belonged to group III according to Pussard and Pons' cyst morphology. Analysis of its 18S rDNA sequence identified the isolate as genotype T4. The T4 genotype is the most commonly reported among keratitis isolates and the most common in environmental samples.

  2. [Pulse wave velocity as an early marker of diastolic heart failure in patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Moczulska, Beata; Kubiak, Monika; Bryczkowska, Anna; Malinowska, Ewa

    2017-04-21

    According to the WHO, hypertension is one of the major causes of death worldwide. It leads to a number of severe complications. Diastolic heart failure, that is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is especially common. New, but simple, indices for the early detection of patients who have not yet developed complications or are in their early developmental stages are still searched for. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and markers of diastolic heart failure (DHF) assessed in echocardiography in patients with hypertension and no symptoms of heart failure. The study was comprised of 65 patients with treated hypertension. Patients with symptoms of heart failure, those with diabetes and smokers were excluded. Arterial stiffness was measured with the Mobil-O-Graph NG PWA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was estimated. The following markers of diastolic heart failure were assessed in the echocardiographic examination: E/A ratio - the ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, DT - decceleration time, E/E' - the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity E' in tissue Doppler echocardiography. PWV was statistically significantly higher in the DHF group. In the group of patients with heart failure, the average E/A ratio was significantly lower as compared to the group with no heart failure. Oscillometric measurement of pulse wave velocity is non-invasive, lasts a few minutes and does not require the presence of a specialist. It allows for an early detection of patients at risk of diastolic heart failure even within the conditions of primary health care.

  3. The Negative Impact of Early Peritonitis on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Wang, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Chu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Yang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritonitis rate has been reported to be associated with technique failure and overall mortality in previous literatures. However, information on the impact of the timing of the first peritonitis episode on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is sparse. The aim of this research is to study the influence of time to first peritonitis on clinical outcomes, including technique failure, patient mortality and dropout from peritoneal dialysis (PD). ♦ Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted over 10 years at a single PD unit in Taiwan. A total of 124 patients on CAPD with at least one peritonitis episode comprised the study subjects, which were dichotomized by the median of time to first peritonitis into either early peritonitis patients or late peritonitis patients. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the correlation of the timing of first peritonitis with clinical outcomes. ♦ Results: Early peritonitis patients were older, more diabetic and had lower serum levels of creatinine than the late peritonitis patients. Early peritonitis patients were associated with worse technique survival, patient survival and stay on PD than late peritonitis patients, as indicated by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test, p = 0.04, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate Cox regression model, early peritonitis was still a significant predictor for technique failure (hazard ratio (HR), 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30 - 0.98), patient mortality (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13 - 0.92) and dropout from PD (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30 - 0.82). In continuous analyses, a 1-month increase in the time to the first peritonitis episode was associated with a 2% decreased risk of technique failure (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97 - 0.99), a 3% decreased risk of patient mortality (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 - 0.99), and a 2% decreased risk of dropout from PD (HR, 98%; 95% CI, 0.97 - 0.99). Peritonitis rate was inversely

  4. [Interpretation of 2018 guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Fang, Bangjiang; Yu, Xuezhong; Li, Zhijun

    2018-04-01

    In 2018, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) has developed the latest 2018 guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), based on the latest evidences. The 2018 guidelines including recommendations on pre-hospital and in-hospital management treatment, has revised and add new recommendations from 2013 guideline. The major changes in 2018 guideline involve applications of brain imaging in early stage, intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy, et al. This review interprets the 2018 guidelines for clinicians to improve the clinical diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with AIS.

  5. A two-stage clinical decision support system for early recognition and stratification of patients with sepsis: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amland, Robert C; Lyons, Jason J; Greene, Tracy L; Haley, James M

    2015-10-01

    To examine the diagnostic accuracy of a two-stage clinical decision support system for early recognition and stratification of patients with sepsis. Observational cohort study employing a two-stage sepsis clinical decision support to recognise and stratify patients with sepsis. The stage one component was comprised of a cloud-based clinical decision support with 24/7 surveillance to detect patients at risk of sepsis. The cloud-based clinical decision support delivered notifications to the patients' designated nurse, who then electronically contacted a provider. The second stage component comprised a sepsis screening and stratification form integrated into the patient electronic health record, essentially an evidence-based decision aid, used by providers to assess patients at bedside. Urban, 284 acute bed community hospital in the USA; 16,000 hospitalisations annually. Data on 2620 adult patients were collected retrospectively in 2014 after the clinical decision support was implemented. 'Suspected infection' was the established gold standard to assess clinical decision support clinimetric performance. A sepsis alert activated on 417 (16%) of 2620 adult patients hospitalised. Applying 'suspected infection' as standard, the patient population characteristics showed 72% sensitivity and 73% positive predictive value. A postalert screening conducted by providers at bedside of 417 patients achieved 81% sensitivity and 94% positive predictive value. Providers documented against 89% patients with an alert activated by clinical decision support and completed 75% of bedside screening and stratification of patients with sepsis within one hour from notification. A clinical decision support binary alarm system with cross-checking functionality improves early recognition and facilitates stratification of patients with sepsis.

  6. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  7. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  8. Effectiveness and feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs for geriatric hospitalized patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Old adults admitted to the hospital are at severe risk of functional loss during hospitalization. Early in-hospital physical rehabilitation programs appear to prevent functional loss in geriatric patients. The first aim of this review was to investigate the effect of early physical rehabilitation programs on physical functioning among geriatric patients acutely admitted to the hospital. The second aim was to evaluate the feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs. Methods Two searches, one for physical functioning and one for feasibility, were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation tracking. To be included articles had to report on in-hospital early physical rehabilitation of patients aged 65 years and older with an outcome measure of physical functioning. Studies were excluded when the treatment was performed on specialized units other than geriatric units. Randomized controlled trials were included to examine the effect of early physical rehabilitation on physical functioning, length of stay and discharge destination. To investigate feasibility also non randomized controlled trials were added. Results Fifteen articles, reporting on 13 studies, described the effect on physical functioning. The early physical rehabilitation programs were classified in multidisciplinary programs with an exercise component and usual care with an exercise component. Multidisciplinary programs focussed more on facilitating discharge home and independent ADL, whereas exercise programs aimed at improving functional outcomes. At time of discharge patients who had participated in a multidisciplinary program or exercise program improved more on physical functional tests and were less likely to be discharged to a nursing home compared to patients receiving only usual care. In addition, multidisciplinary programs reduced the length of hospital stay significantly. Follow-up interventions improved

  9. Effectiveness and feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs for geriatric hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kosse, Nienke M; Dutmer, Alisa L; Dasenbrock, Lena; Bauer, Jürgen M; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2013-10-10

    Old adults admitted to the hospital are at severe risk of functional loss during hospitalization. Early in-hospital physical rehabilitation programs appear to prevent functional loss in geriatric patients. The first aim of this review was to investigate the effect of early physical rehabilitation programs on physical functioning among geriatric patients acutely admitted to the hospital. The second aim was to evaluate the feasibility of early physical rehabilitation programs. Two searches, one for physical functioning and one for feasibility, were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation tracking. To be included articles had to report on in-hospital early physical rehabilitation of patients aged 65 years and older with an outcome measure of physical functioning. Studies were excluded when the treatment was performed on specialized units other than geriatric units. Randomized controlled trials were included to examine the effect of early physical rehabilitation on physical functioning, length of stay and discharge destination. To investigate feasibility also non randomized controlled trials were added. Fifteen articles, reporting on 13 studies, described the effect on physical functioning. The early physical rehabilitation programs were classified in multidisciplinary programs with an exercise component and usual care with an exercise component. Multidisciplinary programs focussed more on facilitating discharge home and independent ADL, whereas exercise programs aimed at improving functional outcomes. At time of discharge patients who had participated in a multidisciplinary program or exercise program improved more on physical functional tests and were less likely to be discharged to a nursing home compared to patients receiving only usual care. In addition, multidisciplinary programs reduced the length of hospital stay significantly. Follow-up interventions improved physical functioning after

  10. Correlates and prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with early- and late-onset type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, M; Liu, X; Cui, W; Rampersad, S; Li, F; Lin, Z; Yang, P; Li, H; Sheng, C; Cheng, X; Qu, S

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism between male patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset type 2 diabetes. A total of 122 male patients with early-onset T2DM (diagnosis age ≤40 years) and 100 male patients with late-onset T2DM (diagnosis age >40 years) were recruited from our in-patient department between 1 January 2013 and 28 December 2015. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone. The mean onset age was 29.86 ± 6.31 and 54.47 ± 9.97 years old in the early-onset group and late-onset group, respectively. Compared with late-onset T2DM, those with early-onset T2DM had a higher proportion of new-onset diabetes, were more likely to be obese, and had worse glycemic control, lipid control, and lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The prevalence of hypogonadism was much higher in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group (48.0% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.05). The rate of secondary hypogonadism in the early-onset group and late-onset group were 44.3% and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.05). Obesity, waist circumference, and SHBG were significantly associated with serum total testosterone level in all, early-onset, and late-onset T2DM. Both all and early-onset T2DM groups had positive correlations between total testosterone and fasting C-peptide, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Our results indicate that in a population of admission to a large urban hospital in China, the prevalence of hypogonadism was higher in the patients with early-onset T2DM than that of late-onset T2DM. This prevalence might be attributable to greater obesity, worse lipid control, and lower SHBG levels in those patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Early introduction of direct oral anticoagulants in cardioembolic stroke patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cappellari, Manuel; Carletti, Monica; Danese, Alessandra; Bovi, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are superior to warfarin in reduction of the intracranial bleeding risk. The aim of the present study was to assess whether early DOAC introduction (1-3 days after onset) in stroke patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (nVAF) may be safe and effective, compared with DOAC introduction after 4-7 days. We conducted a prospective analysis based on data collected from 147 consecutive nVAF patients who started DOAC within 7 days after stroke onset. In all patients, we performed pre-DOAC CT scan 24-36 h after onset and follow-up CT scan at 7 days after DOAC introduction. Outcome measures were post-DOAC intracranial bleeding (new any intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with pre-DOAC infarct without hemorrhagic transformation (HT) or expansion of ICH in patients with pre-DOAC infarct with asymptomatic HT) and post-DOAC recurrent ischemic stroke (any new ischemic infarct) on follow-up CT scan. 97 patients started DOAC after 1-3 days and 50 patients started DOAC after 4-7 days. On pre-DOAC CT scan, 132 patients had an infarct without HT and 15 an infarct with asymptomatic HT. On follow-up CT scan, new any ICH was noted in seven patients (asymptomatic in 6) and asymptomatic expansion of ICH in one patient. We found no association between early DOAC introduction and intracranial bleeding. Large infarct remained the only independent predictor of post-DOAC intracranial bleeding. No patients suffered recurrent ischemic stroke after DOAC introduction. Early DOAC introduction might be safe in carefully selected patients with nVAF who experience small- and medium-sized cardioembolic ischemic strokes. Further investigation will be needed.

  12. POSTSURGICAL RECURRENT CUSHING DISEASE: CLINICAL BENEFIT OF EARLY INTERVENTION IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL URINARY FREE CORTISOL.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ty B; Javorsky, Bradley R; Findling, James W

    2016-10-01

    To assess the performance of biochemical markers in the detection of recurrent Cushing disease (CD), as well as the potential benefit of early intervention in recurrent CD patients with elevated late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) and normal urinary free cortisol (UFC). The design was a single-center, retrospective chart review. Patients treated by the authors from 2008-2013 were included. Recurrence was defined by postsurgical remission of CD with subsequent abnormal LNSC, UFC, or dexamethasone suppression test (DST). We identified 15 patients with postsurgical recurrent CD after initial remission; all but one underwent testing with LNSC, DST, and UFC. Although 12 of 15 patients had normal UFC at time of recurrence, DST was abnormal in 11 of 15, and all 14 patients with LNSC results had ≥1 elevated measurement. Nine patients (7 with normal UFC) showed radiologic evidence of a pituitary tumor at time of recurrence. Among the 14 patients with available follow-up data, 12 have demonstrated significant improvement since receiving treatment. Five patients underwent repeat pituitary surgery and 4 achieved clinical and biochemical remission. Eight patients received mifepristone or cabergoline, and 6 showed clinical and/or biochemical improvement. Three patients (2 with prior mifepristone) underwent bilateral adrenalectomy and 2 demonstrated significant clinical improvements. LNSC is more sensitive than UFC or DST for detection of CD recurrence. Prompt intervention when LNSC is elevated, despite normal UFC, may yield significant clinical benefit for many patients with CD. Early treatment for patients with recurrent CD should be prospectively evaluated, utilizing LNSC elevation as an early biochemical marker. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone CD = Cushing disease CS = Cushing syndrome CV = coefficient of variation DST = dexamethasone suppression test IPSS = inferior petrosal sinus sampling LNSC = late-night salivary cortisol QoL = quality of life TSS = transsphenoidal

  13. The effect of vertebral fracture on the early neurologic recovery in patients with central cord syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Hjelm, Nik; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Weinstein, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    To compare early changes in the ASIA Motor Score (AMS) between patients with central cord syndrome (CCS) from an acute fracture to patients without a fracture. Patients with CCS were identified and stratified based on the presence of a fracture. The AMS through the first week of the patients' hospitalization was obtained. Initial injury severity as well as early neurologic recovery was measured using the AMS. Analysis of variance was performed to determine if age, gender, rectal tone at presentation, congenital stenosis, or surgery within 24 h significantly effected the change in AMS. A strong trend (p = 0.0504) towards a more severe initial neurologic injury in patients with a fracture (AMS 59.7) than in patients without a fracture (AMS 70.2) was identified. However, in the week after injury, patients with a fracture had an improvement in their neurologic function (ΔAMS +4.8) while patients without a fracture demonstrated neurologic decline (ΔAMS -5.9). The change in AMS between patients with and without a fracture was nearly significant (p = 0.06). Patients with central cord syndrome present with similar symptoms, but injuries with and without a fracture may be associated with a different early neurologic recovery. Patients with a fracture have a more severe injury at initial presentation, but tend to have neurologic improvement in the first week; conversely patients without a fracture have a less severe initial neurologic injury, but tend to have a slight decline in neurologic function over the first week.

  14. [Clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Q H; Liang, J J; Chen, L X; Mo, Y Q; Wei, X N; Zheng, D H; Dai, L

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To investigate clinical characteristics and renal uric acid excretion in early-onset gout patients. Methods: Consecutive inpatients with primary gout were recruited between 2013 and 2017. The patients with gout onset younger than 30 were defined as early-onset group while the others were enrolled as control group. Clinical characteristics and uric acid (UA) indicators were compared between two groups. Results: Among 202 recruited patients, the early-onset group included 36 patients (17.8%). Compared with control group, the early-onset group presented more patients with obesity [13 patients (36.1%) vs. 22 patients (13.3%), P< 0.05], significantly higher serum UA level [(634±124)μmol/L vs.(527±169)μmol/L] and glomerular load of UA[(7.2±2.8)mg·min(-1)·1.73m(-2) vs. (4.4±2.2)mg·min(-1)·1.73m(-2)] and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [(83±21)ml·min(-1)·1.73m(-2) vs. (67±21)ml·min(-1)·1.73m(-2)] (all P< 0.05), lower fractional excretion of UA [4.4% (3.4%,6.1%) vs. 7.2% (5.2%,9.6%), P< 0.05], whereas 24h urinary UA excretion was comparable [(2 788±882)μmol/1.73m(2) vs. (2 645±1 140)μmol/1.73m(2), P= 0.274]. Subgroup analysis of patients without chronic kidney disease showed significantly lower fractional excretion of UA in the early-onset group [4.5%(3.3%,6.1%) vs. 6.7% (5.1%,8.7%), P< 0.05]. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity ( OR= 3.25) and fractional excretion of UA less than 7% ( OR= 9.01, all P< 0.05) were risk factors of gout early onset. Conclusion: The gout patients with early-onset younger than 30 present high serum and glomerular load of uric acid which might be due to obesity and relative under-excretion of renal uric acid.

  15. Early versus late parenteral nutrition in ICU patients: cost analysis of the EPaNIC trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The EPaNIC randomized controlled multicentre trial showed that postponing initiation of parenteral nutrition (PN) in ICU-patients to beyond the first week (Late-PN) enhanced recovery, as compared with Early-PN. This was mediated by fewer infections, accelerated recovery from organ failure and reduced duration of hospitalization. Now, the trial's preplanned cost analysis (N = 4640) from the Belgian healthcare payers' perspective is reported. Methods Cost data were retrieved from individual patient invoices. Undiscounted total healthcare costs were calculated for the index hospital stay. A cost tree based on acquisition of new infections and on prolonged length-of-stay was constructed. Contribution of 8 cost categories to total hospitalization costs was analyzed. The origin of drug costs was clarified in detail through the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. The potential impact of Early-PN on total hospitalization costs in other healthcare systems was explored in a sensitivity analysis. Results ICU-patients developing new infection (24.4%) were responsible for 42.7% of total costs, while ICU-patients staying beyond one week (24.3%) accounted for 43.3% of total costs. Pharmacy-related costs represented 30% of total hospitalization costs and were increased by Early-PN (+608.00 EUR/patient, p = 0.01). Notably, costs for ATC-J (anti-infective agents) (+227.00 EUR/patient, p = 0.02) and ATC-B (comprising PN) (+220.00 EUR/patient, p = 0.006) drugs were increased by Early-PN. Sensitivity analysis revealed a mean total cost increase of 1,210.00 EUR/patient (p = 0.02) by Early-PN, when incorporating the full PN costs. Conclusions The increased costs by Early-PN were mainly pharmacy-related and explained by higher expenditures for PN and anti-infective agents. The use of Early-PN in critically ill patients can thus not be recommended for both clinical (no benefit) and cost-related reasons. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00512122

  16. Radiological Evaluation of Strategic Structures in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nesteruk, Tomasz; Nesteruk, Marta; Styczyńska, Maria; Barcikowska-Kotowicz, Maria; Walecki, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of two measurement techniques in patients with cognitive impairment - automated volumetry of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, cortex of the temporal lobes and corpus callosum, and fractional anisotropy (FA) index measurement of the corpus callosum using diffusion tensor imaging. A total number of 96 patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain - 33 healthy controls (HC), 33 patients with diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in early stage. The severity of the dementia was evaluated with neuropsychological test battery. The volumetric measurements were performed automatically using FreeSurfer imaging software. The measurements of FA index were performed manually using ROI (region of interest) tool. The volumetric measurement of the temporal lobe cortex had the highest correct classification rate (68.7%), whereas the lowest was achieved with FA index measurement of the corpus callosum (51%). The highest sensitivity and specificity in discriminating between the patients with MCI vs. early AD was achieved with the volumetric measurement of the corpus callosum - the values were 73% and 71%, respectively, and the correct classification rate was 72%. The highest sensitivity and specificity in discriminating between HC and the patients with early AD was achieved with the volumetric measurement of the entorhinal cortex - the values were 94% and 100%, respectively, and the correct classification rate was 97%. The highest sensitivity and specificity in discriminating between HC and the patients with MCI was achieved with the volumetric measurement of the temporal lobe cortex - the values were 90% and 93%, respectively, and the correct classification rate was 92%. The diagnostic value varied depending on the measurement technique. The volumetric measurement of the atrophy proved to be the best

  17. Analysis of early accountable care organizations defines patient, structural, cost, and quality-of-care characteristics.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Arnold M; Jha, Ashish K; Orav, E John; Liebman, Daniel L; Audet, Anne-Marie J; Zezza, Mark A; Guterman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have attracted interest from many policy makers and clinical leaders because of their potential to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. Federal ACO programs for Medicare beneficiaries are now up and running, but little information is available about the baseline characteristics of early entrants. In this descriptive study we present data on the structural and market characteristics of these early ACOs and compare ACOs' patient populations, costs, and quality with those of their non-ACO counterparts at baseline. We found that ACO patients were more likely than non-ACO patients to be older than age eighty and had higher incomes. ACO patients were less likely than non-ACO patients to be black, covered by Medicaid, or disabled. The cost of care for ACO patients was slightly lower than that for non-ACO patients. Slightly fewer than half of the ACOs had a participating hospital. Hospitals that were in ACOs were more likely than non-ACO hospitals to be large, teaching, and not-for-profit, although there was little difference in their performance on quality metrics. Our findings can be useful in interpreting the early results from the federal ACO programs and in establishing a baseline to assess the programs' development.

  18. Effect of Early Statin Treatment in Patients with Cardiogenic Shock Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Doo Sun; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Shung Chull; Hong, Taek Jong; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Rha, Seung-Woon; Bae, Jang Ho; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The benefit of early statin treatment following acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated with cardiogenic shock (CS) has not been well studied. We sought to assess the effect of early statin therapy in patients with CS complicating acute MI. Subjects and Methods We studied 553 statin-naive patients with acute MI and CS (Killip class IV) who underwent revascularization therapy between November 2005 and January 2008 at 51 hospitals in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who received statins during hospitalization (n=280) and those who did not (n=273). The influence of statin treatment on a 12-month clinical outcome was examined using a matched-pairs analysis (n=200 in each group) based on the propensity for receiving statin therapy during hospitalization. Results Before adjustment, patients receiving statin, compared to those not receiving statin, had a more favorable clinical profile, were less likely to suffer procedural complications, and more likely to receive adequate medical therapy. Patients receiving statin had lower unadjusted in-hospital mortality and composite rate of mortality, MI, and repeat revascularization at 12 months, which remained significantly lower after adjustment for patient risk, procedural characteristics, and treatment propensity. Conclusion In CS patients with acute MI undergoing revascularization therapy, early statin treatment initiated during hospitalization was associated with lower rates of in-hospital death and 12-month adverse cardiac events. PMID:23508129

  19. Neurological soft signs in juvenile patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, María; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rapado, Marta; Leiva, Marta; Moreno, Carmen; Giráldez, Marisa; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2010-11-01

    The study of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with Asperger syndrome may help us to elucidate the neurological basis of this disorder and to clarify its relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of NSS in a sample of patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis and healthy controls. NSS were assessed by means of the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a sample of 29 patients with Asperger syndrome (mean age = 12.86 ± 2.58 years), 30 patients with first-episode early-onset psychoses (mean age 14.17 ± 1.02 years) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.33 ± 2.69 years). Significant group differences were found between Asperger syndrome patients and healthy controls both in all the Neurological Evaluation Scale subscales and in the Neurological Evaluation Scale total score. There were no significant differences between both groups of patients in any of the Neurological Evaluation Scale scores. NSS are more prevalent in Asperger syndrome than in healthy controls. The NSS profile was not disorder-specific in our samples of patients with Asperger syndrome and early-onset psychoses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Verbal and visual memory in patients with early Parkinson's disease: effect of levodopa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sumit; Behari, Madhuri

    2006-03-01

    The effect of initiation of levodopa therapy on the memory functions in patients with Parkinson's disease remains poorly understood. To evaluate the effect of initiation of levodopa therapy on memory, in patients with early Parkinson's disease. Prospective case control study. Seventeen patients with early Parkinson's disease were evaluated for verbal memory using Rey's auditory verbal learning test, and visual memory using the Benton's visual retention test and Form sequence learning test. UPDRS scores, Hoehn and Yahr's Staging and Schwab and England scores of Activities of daily living. Hamilton's depression rating scale and MMSE were also evaluated. Six controls were also evaluated according to similar study protocol. Levodopa was then prescribed to the cases. Same tests were repeated on all the subjects after 12 weeks. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 (+ 12.9 yrs); mean disease duration of 3.26 (+ 2.06 yrs). The mean UPDRS scores of patients were 36.52 (+ 15.84). Controls were of a similar age and sex distribution. A statistically significant improvement in the scores on the UPDRS, Hamilton's depression scale, Schwab and England scale, and a statistically significant deterioration in the scores of visual memory was observed in patients with PD after starting levodopa, as compared to their baseline scores. There was no correlation between degree of deterioration and the dose of levodopa. Initiation of levodopa therapy in patients with early and stable Parkinson's disease is associated with deterioration in visual memory functions, with relative preservation of the verbal memory.

  1. Contact allergy in cheilitis.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Susan M; Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2016-07-01

    Recalcitrant non-actinic cheilitis may indicate contact allergy. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) in patients with non-actinic cheilitis and to identify the most relevant allergens. We used an institutional database to identify patients with non-actinic cheilitis who underwent patch testing between January 1, 2001, and August 31, 2011, and conducted a retrospective review of patch test results in these patients. Additional data were obtained from institutional electronic medical records. Ninety-one patients (70 [77%] female; mean age: 51 years) were included in the study. Almost half (41 [45%]) had a final diagnosis of ACC. Patch testing was performed in line with universally accepted methods, with application on day 1, allergen removal and an initial reading on day 3, and the final reading on day 5. The allergens of most significance were fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae resin, dodecyl gallate, octyl gallate, and benzoic acid. Nickel was the most relevant metal allergen. Contact allergy is an important consideration in recalcitrant cheilitis. Fragrances, antioxidants, and preservatives dominated the list of relevant allergens in our patients. Nickel and gold were among the top 10 allergens. Almost half (45%) of these patients had a final diagnosis of ACC. Patch testing beyond the oral complete series should be undertaken in any investigation of non-actinic cheilitis. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Approximate entropy analysis of event-related potentials in patients with early vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Sheng, Hengsong; Lou, Wutao; Zhao, Songzhen

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated differences in event-related potential (ERP) parameters among early vascular dementia (VD) patients, healthy elder controls (ECs), and young controls (YCs). A visual "oddball" color identification task was performed while individuals' electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded. Approximate entropy (ApEn), a nonlinear measure, along with P300 latencies and amplitudes were used to analyze ERP data and compare these three groups. The patients with VD showed more complex ERP waveforms and higher ApEn values than did ECs while performing the visual task. It was further found that patients with VD showed reduced P300 amplitudes and increased latencies. The results indicate that patients with VD have fewer attention resources to devote to processing stimuli, lower speed of stimulus classification, and lower synchrony in their cortical activity during the response period. We suggest that ApEn, as a measure of ERP complexity, is a promising marker for early diagnosis of VD.

  3. Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Stolberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.

  4. Household contact with pets and birds and risk of lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bellizzi, Saverio; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zucca, Mariagrazia; D'Andrea, Ileana; Sesler, Simonetta; Monne, Maria; Onida, Angela; Piras, Giovanna; Uras, Antonella; Angelucci, Emanuele; Gabbas, Attilio; Rais, Marco; Nitsch, Dorothea; Ennas, Maria G

    2011-02-01

    Contact with household pets has been suggested to be inversely associated with lymphoma risk. We tested the hypothesis in a case-control study of lymphoma in the Sardinia region of Italy. Cases were 326 patients, first diagnosed with lymphoma in 1999-2003. Controls were 464 population controls, frequency matched to cases by age, gender, and area of residence. In person interviews included self-reported household contact with pets and birds, type of pet(s), and age at starting contact. Frequent contact with birds was inversely associated with lymphoma, and particularly B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.4, 0.9). Contact with chickens accounted for this inverse association, which was strongest for first contact occurring at age ≤8 years (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.0). No association was observed when first contact occurred at age 9 or older. Contact with any pets was inversely associated with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.0), but not other lymphoma subtypes. Our results support the hypothesis that early-life exposure to pets, birds and particularly with chickens might be associated with a reduced risk of lymphoma.

  5. Prospective Single-Center Observational Study of the Allergenic Potential of Mercromina Film and Other Common Antiseptics in Patients With Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Baltà Cruz, S; Moreno Ribera, N; Estrach Panella, M T

    Although Mercromina Film and other topical antiseptics are widely used, they are not included in the standard series recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group for testing suspected allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Furthermore, no recent studies have investigated the allergenic potential of merbromin. To determine the allergenic potential of merbromin and compare it with that of other topical antiseptics widely used in clinical practice, including povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, and eosin. Prospective single-center observational safety study of 105 patients with suspected ACD seen at the dermatology department of our hospital. Of the 105 patients studied, 1.9% had a positive patch test to merbromin and 12.4% were sensitized to povidone-iodine. The differences in the proportion of patients with ACD to Betadine Solución Dérmica (povidone-iodine) compared with the rest of the antiseptics was statistically significant (McNemar test, P<.05). No adverse reactions were observed in any of the patients. Based on the patch tests conducted, Mercromina Film has very low allergenic potential. The highest allergenic potential was observed for povidone-iodine. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Early primary care physician contact and health service utilisation in a large sample of recently released ex-prisoners in Australia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold-Reed, Diane; Preen, David; Bulsara, Max; Lennox, Nick; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between ex-prisoner primary care physician contact within 1 month of prison release and health service utilisation in the 6 months following release. Design A cohort from the Passports study with a mean follow-up of 219 (±44) days postrelease. Associations were assessed using a multivariate Andersen-Gill model, controlling for a range of other factors. Setting Face-to-face, baseline interviews were conducted in a sample of prisoners within 6 weeks of expected release from seven prisons in Queensland, Australia, from 2008 to 2010, with telephone follow-up interviews 1, 3 and 6 months postrelease. Participants From an original population-based sample of 1325 sentenced adult (≥18 years) prisoners, 478 participants were excluded due to not being released from prison during follow-up (n=7, 0.5%), loss to follow-up (n=257, 19.4%), or lacking exposure data (n=214, 16.2%). A total of 847 (63.9%) participants were included in the analyses. Exposure Primary care physician contact within 1 month of follow-up as a dichotomous measure. Main outcome measures Adjusted time-to-event hazard rates for hospital, mental health, alcohol and other drug and subsequent primary care physician service utilisations assessed as multiple failure time-interval data. Results Primary care physician contact prevalence within 1 month of follow-up was 46.5%. One-month primary care physician contact was positively associated with hospital (adjusted HR (AHR)=2.07; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.09), mental health (AHR=1.65; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.19), alcohol and other drug (AHR=1.48; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.90) and subsequent primary care physician service utilisation (AHR=1.47; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.72) over 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Engagement with primary care physician services soon after prison release increases health service utilisation during the critical community transition period for ex-prisoners. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical

  7. Relationship between early administration of abciximab and TIMI flow in STEMI patients undergoing primary angioplasty: findings from a large regional STEMI network.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Antonio; Rosiello, Renato; Lucchini, Giuseppe; Tomasi, Luca; Mantovani, Paola; Lettieri, Corrado; Baccaglioni, Nicola; Romano, Michele; Buffoli, Francesca; Izzo, Beatrice; Zanini, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether in S-T Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) a relationship between early administration of abciximab and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow before and after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 960 consecutive patients exists. From 1 February 2001 onward, in the Province of Mantua it has been operating a 'Cardiology Network for the Acute Infarction Care' having its Hub in the Central Coronary ICU/Cath Lab of Mantua Hospital and being its Spokes centers represented by the emergency rooms and Central Coronary ICUs of the four territorial hospitals. T1 (time from symptoms onset to first medical contact) and T2 (time from first medical contact to angioplasty) are shorter for patients rescued by first aid units rather than for those presented in emergency rooms as well as Ta (time from symptoms onset to abciximab administration). Furthermore, the patients that received abciximab before hospital arrival had less frequently a coronary occlusion [odds ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (0.57-0.96), P = 0.013]. The patients with T1 less than 4 h are 753/960 (78.4%). For this type of patients, there was a significant Ta difference between the pre-PCI TIMI-flow classes (F = 4.467, df = 3, P = 0.04). Planned contrasts revealed that mean time of TIMI flow 0 (M = 104.2) is statistically different from mean time of TIMI flow 3 (M = 85.7), P = 0.013. Our results suggest that the use of abciximab, free from pharmacokinetic limits of oral P2Y12 inhibitors, should be considered in STEMI patients with early presentation before primary PCI.

  8. What characteristics of primary care and patients are associated with early death in patients with lung cancer in the UK?

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Emma L; McKeever, Tricia M; Baldwin, David R; Anwar, Sadia; Powell, Helen A; Gibson, Jack E; Iyen-Omofoman, Barbara; Hubbard, Richard B

    2015-02-01

    The UK has poor lung cancer survival rates and high early mortality, compared to other countries. We aimed to identify factors associated with early death, and features of primary care that might contribute to late diagnosis. All cases of lung cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 were extracted from The Health Improvement Network database. Patients who died within 90 days of diagnosis were compared with those who survived longer. Standardised chest X-ray (CXR) and lung cancer rates were calculated for each practice. Of 20,142 people with lung cancer, those who died early consulted with primary care more frequently prediagnosis. Individual factors associated with early death were male sex (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.24), current smoking (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.28 to 1.61), increasing age (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.62 to 1.99 for age ≥80 years compared to 65-69 years), social deprivation (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.30 for Townsend quintile 5 vs 1) and rural versus urban residence (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.41). CXR rates varied widely, and the odds of early death were highest in the practices which requested more CXRs. Lung cancer incidence at practice level did not affect early deaths. Patients who die early from lung cancer are interacting with primary care prediagnosis, suggesting potentially missed opportunities to identify them earlier. A general increase in CXR requests may not improve survival; rather, a more timely and appropriate targeting of this investigation using risk assessment tools needs further assessment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Clinical Prediction and Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis in HIV-Infected Patients with Early Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Stéphanie; Gagnon, Simon; Serhir, Bouchra; Deligne, Benoît; Tremblay, Cécile; Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Fortin, Claude; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of neurosyphilis (NS) is a challenge, especially in HIV-infected patients, and the criteria for deciding when to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in HIV-infected patients with syphilis are controversial. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 122 cases of HIV-infected patients with documented early syphilis who underwent an LP to rule out NS, and we evaluated 3 laboratory-developed validated real-time PCR assays, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) assay, and the line immunoassay INNO-LIA Syphilis, for the diagnosis of NS from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of these patients. NS was defined by a reactive CSF-VDRL test result and/or a CSF white blood cell (WBC) count of >20 cells/μl. Thirty of the 122 patients (24.6%) had early NS. Headache, visual symptoms, a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl, and viremia, as defined by an HIV-1 RNA count of ≥50 copies/ml, were associated with NS in multivariate analysis (P = <0.001 for each factor). Blood serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were not associated with early NS (P = 0.575). For the diagnosis of NS, the PCR, FTA-ABS, TPPA, and INNO-LIA assays had sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 68%, and 100%, specificities of 67%, 12%, 49%, and 13%, and negative predictive values of 85%, 100%, 84%, and 100%, respectively. Visual disturbances, headache, uncontrolled HIV-1 viremia, and a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl were predictors of NS in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, while blood serum RPR titers were not; therefore, RPR titers should not be used as the sole criterion for deciding whether to perform an LP in early syphilis. When applied to CSF samples, the INNO-LIA Syphilis assay easily helped rule out NS. PMID:24088852

  10. Clinical prediction and diagnosis of neurosyphilis in HIV-infected patients with early Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Dumaresq, Jeannot; Langevin, Stéphanie; Gagnon, Simon; Serhir, Bouchra; Deligne, Benoît; Tremblay, Cécile; Tsang, Raymond S W; Fortin, Claude; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The diagnosis of neurosyphilis (NS) is a challenge, especially in HIV-infected patients, and the criteria for deciding when to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in HIV-infected patients with syphilis are controversial. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 122 cases of HIV-infected patients with documented early syphilis who underwent an LP to rule out NS, and we evaluated 3 laboratory-developed validated real-time PCR assays, the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) assay, and the line immunoassay INNO-LIA Syphilis, for the diagnosis of NS from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of these patients. NS was defined by a reactive CSF-VDRL test result and/or a CSF white blood cell (WBC) count of >20 cells/μl. Thirty of the 122 patients (24.6%) had early NS. Headache, visual symptoms, a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl, and viremia, as defined by an HIV-1 RNA count of ≥50 copies/ml, were associated with NS in multivariate analysis (P = <0.001 for each factor). Blood serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were not associated with early NS (P = 0.575). For the diagnosis of NS, the PCR, FTA-ABS, TPPA, and INNO-LIA assays had sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 68%, and 100%, specificities of 67%, 12%, 49%, and 13%, and negative predictive values of 85%, 100%, 84%, and 100%, respectively. Visual disturbances, headache, uncontrolled HIV-1 viremia, and a CD4 cell count of <500 cells/μl were predictors of NS in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis, while blood serum RPR titers were not; therefore, RPR titers should not be used as the sole criterion for deciding whether to perform an LP in early syphilis. When applied to CSF samples, the INNO-LIA Syphilis assay easily helped rule out NS.

  11. Impressions of Early Mobilization of Critically Ill Children-Clinician, Patient, and Family Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Katina; Sarti, Aimee; Boles, Sama; Cameron, Saoirse; Carlisi, Robert; Clark, Heather; Khawaji, Adeeb; Awladthani, Saif; Al-Harbi, Samah; Choong, Karen

    2018-04-11

    To understand patient, family caregiver, and clinician impressions of early mobilization, the perceived barriers and facilitators to its implementation, and the use of in-bed cycling as a method of mobilization. A qualitative study, conducted as part of the Early Exercise in Critically ill Youth and Children, a preliminary Evaluation (wEECYCLE) Pilot randomized controlled trial. McMaster Children's Hospital PICU, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Clinicians (i.e., physicians, nurses, and physiotherapists), family caregivers, and capable patients age greater than or equal to 8 years old who were enrolled in a clinical trial of early mobilization in critically ill children (wEECYCLE). Semistructured, face-to-face interviews using a customized interview guide for clinicians, caregivers, and patients respectively, conducted after exposure to the early mobilization intervention. Thirty-seven participants were interviewed (19 family caregivers, four patients, and 14 clinicians). Family caregivers and clinicians described similar interrelated themes representing barriers to mobilization, namely low prioritization of mobilization by the medical team, safety concerns, the lack of physiotherapy resources, and low patient motivation. Key facilitators were family trust in the healthcare team, team engagement, an a priori belief that physical activity is important, and participation in research. Increased familiarity and specific features such as the virtual reality component and ability to execute passive and or active mobilization helped to engage critically ill children in in-bed cycling. Clinicians, patients, and families were highly supportive of mobilization in critically ill children; however, concerns were identified with respect to how and when to execute this practice. Understanding key stakeholder perspectives enables the development of strategies to facilitate the implementation of early mobilization and in-bed cycling, not just in the context of a clinical trial but also

  12. Contact lens fitting in a patient with Alport syndrome and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Juliana Maria da Silva; Andrade Sobrinho, Marcelo Vicente de; Lipener, César

    2016-02-01

    Alport Syndrome is a hereditary disease that is caused by a gene mutation and affects the production of collagen in basement membranes; this condition causes hemorrhagic nephritis associated with deafness and ocular changes. The X-linked form of this disease is the most common and mainly affects males. Typical ocular findings are dot-and-fleck retinopathy, anterior lenticonus, and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy. Some cases involving polymorphous corneal dystrophy and corneal ectasia have been previously described. Here we present a case report of a 33-year-old female with Alport syndrome, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, and irregular astigmatism, whose visual acuity improved with a rigid gas permeable contact lens.

  13. The early use of PET-CT alters the management of patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, R N; Ubhi, S S; Sutton, C D; Thomas, A L; Entwisle, J J; Bowrey, D J

    2009-05-01

    The routine use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in the staging of patients with esophageal carcinoma remains contentious, with conflicting reports of its benefit. In our unit, PET-CT has been used routinely in the staging of all patients considered for radical therapy (surgery or chemoradiotherapy). Our aim was to determine the frequency with which PET-CT influenced decision making in the management of patients with carcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction. CT, PET-CT, and outcome information were collected on 38 patients considered for radical therapy. Patient proformas, with and without PET-CT findings, were constructed and each independently reviewed in a randomized and blinded fashion by five multidisciplinary team members (three surgeons, two oncologists) and a treatment strategy determined. PET-CT changed the staging for ten patients (26%). This translated into a change in management decision for seven patients (18%). The concordance between individual management plans and treatment intent was 79% for CT (150 of 190 decisions) and it was 92% for PET-CT (175 of 190 decisions). Full concordance between multidisciplinary team members was 66% with CT staging and 74% with the addition of PET-CT. The use of PET-CT early in the staging algorithm for esophageal carcinoma altered the staging for a quarter of patients and the management for a fifth of patients, supporting its inclusion early in the staging algorithm.

  14. Early Versus Delayed Colonoscopy in Hospitalized Patients With Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Neil; Tapper, Elliot B; Feuerstein, Joseph D

    2017-04-01

    Early colonoscopy is recommended for patients with severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB). There is limited data as to whether this is associated with improved outcomes. We performed a meta-analysis of studies comparing early (<24 h) versus delayed colonoscopy (>24 h). PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for manuscripts using colonoscopy as a diagnostic/treatment modality for patients hospitalized with LGIB. Studies were included if data were available on outcomes comparing early and delayed colonoscopy. Articles were reviewed for time to colonoscopy, rebleeding, mortality, length of stay (LOS), surgery, interventions, localization of LGIB, and number of packed red blood cells. Pooled measures were reported using the Mantel-Haenszel method. A total of 8491 studies were assessed of which 6 were included. There were 422 patients in the early arm and 479 in the delayed arm. There were no differences in age (64.2 vs. 65.7, P=0.85), admission hemoglobin (10.3 vs. 10.3 g/dL, P=0.96), LOS (5.21 vs. 6.09, P=0.52), and packed red blood cells transfusion (2.37 vs. 2.35, P=0.92) between the groups. In hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR), 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.51-5.32], rebleeding (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.85-2.23) and need for surgery (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.42-1.89) were not different in delayed versus early colonoscopy. Early colonoscopy was associated with a higher detection of bleeding source (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.11-4.19) and endoscopic intervention (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 2.59-6.13). Early colonoscopy is not associated with reduced rebleeding, LOS, or surgery but is associated with a higher rate of source localization and endoscopic intervention.

  15. A comparison between the 19th century early proposals and the 20th-21st centuries realized projects intended to contact other planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence; Bilodeau, Bénédicte

    2012-09-01

    Methods dealing with how to contact other planets that are supposed to be inhabited by “intelligent” civilizations have begun more than one century and a half ago. The historical question has been already treated in several studies and the aim of this paper is not to provide details on that aspect. On the other hand, it could be interesting to make a comparison between the different approaches to contact planets, formulated at different epochs (even if obviously techniques were not in the same state of advancement). The most important characteristics of the earliest messages, remained only on a theoretical form, will be presented. The main features of modern messages, which have been concretely realized, will also be emphasized. Drawing a parallel between these two series of projects could demonstrate what has been considered as unavoidable by both pioneer and modern messages creators, while it has not been proved that the first ones have had any influence on the second ones. The common points emerging from this comparison could then (perhaps) help to select adequate models for an intelligible message intended to ETs, particularly concerning the language forms. Besides this, the differences could illustrate the human cultural advances in the field of METI and underline the tendencies that have been chosen in that field since the last decades.

  16. Clinical outcome of critically ill patients with thrombocytopenia and hypophosphatemia in the early stage of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Schwartz, Andrei; Boniel, Avi; Koyfman, Leonid; Boyko, Matthew; Kutz, Ruslan; Klein, Moti

    2016-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia may both be independent risk factors for the development of multiple organ failure and correlate well with the severity of sepsis. In the present study we wanted to analyze the potential clinical role and prognostic significance of both early hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia on clinical outcomes of critically ill ICU patients with severe sepsis. We analyzed the clinical data, including the outcome of critically ill ICU patients with severe sepsis who presented during a 5 year period with early hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia.This study was retrospective and single centre. All clinical and laboratory data was collected from the patients' ICU and hospital electronic records. All laboratory measurements were done on admission and during the ICU stay. The included patients were distributed into one of three study groups based on the presence of hypophosphatemia and/or thrombocytopenia during the first 24 hours of admission to the ICU: group 1 - early hypophosphatemia; group 2 - early hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia and group 3 - early thrombocytopenia. The ICU mortality rate was significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 (25.9% and 22% vs. 9.3%, respectively, P = 0.034). An APACHE II > 27, a TISS > 25 following the first 24 hours of ICU stay , an age higher than 70, male gender and total parenteral nutrition were independent predictors of ICU and hospital mortality in this study population. It may be considered that hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia in the early stage of sepsis, even when severe and coexisting, reflect the degree of initial illness severity of sepsis. However, further investigations need to be done for a better understanding of the potential clinical role of these features in the septic critically ill population.

  17. Prognostic significance of number of nodes removed in patients with node-negative early cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Siyue; Dong, Jun; Li, Sheng; Wang, Yiqi; Wu, Peihong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the number of removed lymph nodes was associated with survival of patients with node-negative early cervical cancer and to analyze the prognostic significance of clinical and pathologic features in these patients. Patients with FIGO stage IA-IIB cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy without receiving preoperative therapy were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were all proved to have lymph-node-negative disease and classified into five groups based on the number of nodes removed. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazards regression model were used in prognostic analysis. The final dataset included 359 patients: 45 (12.5%) patients had ≤10 nodes removed, 93 (25.9%) had 11-15, 98 (27.3%) had 16-20, 64 (17.8%) had 21-25, and 59 (16.4%) had >25 nodes removed. There was no association between the number of nodes removed and survival of patients with node-negative early cervical cancer (χ 2  = 6.19, P = 0.185). Similarly, subgroup analyses for FIGO stage IB1-IIB also showed that the number of lymph nodes was not significantly related to survival in each stage. Multivariate analyses showed that histology and depth of invasion were independent prognostic factors for survival in these patients. If a standardized lymphadenectomy is performed, the number of lymph nodes removed is not an independent prognostic factor for patients with node-negative early cervical cancer. Our study suggests that there is inconclusive evidence to support survival benefit of complete lymphadenectomy among these patients. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Accuracy of blood culture for early diagnosis of mediastinitis in febrile patients after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    San Juan, R; Aguado, J M; López, M J; Lumbreras, C; Enriquez, F; Sanz, F; Chaves, F; López-Medrano, F; Lizasoain, M; Rufilanchas, J J

    2005-03-01

    Postsurgical mediastinitis (PSM) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery procedures. Although prompt diagnosis is crucial in these patients, neither clinical data nor imaging techniques have shown enough sensitivity or specificity for early diagnosis of PSM. The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of blood cultures as a diagnostic test for the early detection of PSM in patients who become febrile after cardiac surgery procedures. During a 4-year period (1999-2002), patients who developed fever (>37.8 degrees C) in the first 60 days after a cardiac surgery procedure were evaluated. Blood cultures were drawn from these patients. PSM was defined as deep infection involving retrosternal tissue and/or the sternal bone directly observed by the surgeon and confirmed microbiologically. Three criteria for positivity of blood cultures were applied: bacteremia, staphylococcal bacteremia, or Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. For purposes of the analysis, a positive blood culture in patients with PSM was considered a true-positive test and a negative blood culture a false-negative test. Otherwise, in febrile patients without PSM in the postsurgery period, a positive blood culture was considered a false-positive test and a negative blood culture a true-negative test. Blood cultures were drawn from 266 febrile patients in the postsurgery period. PSM occurred in 38 patients (26 cases due to S. aureus, 8 to Staphylococcus epidermidis, 3 to gram-negative enteric bacteria, and one to Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Within the 60-day postsurgical period, blood culture as a diagnostic test was most accurate in patients with S. aureus bacteremia, providing 68% sensitivity, 98% specificity, a positive predictive value of 87%, and a negative predictive value of 95%. If the analysis was limited to the period during which patients are at maximum risk for PSM (day 7-20), the values in patients with S. aureus bacteremia were as follows

  19. Impact of early complications on outcomes in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Ascoeta, Maria Soledad; Marijon, Eloi; Defaye, Pascal; Klug, Didier; Beganton, Frankie; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Gras, Daniel; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Fauchier, Laurent; Babuty, Dominique; Bordachar, Pierre; Sadoul, Nicolas; Boveda, Serge; Piot, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    The lifesaving benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) has been demonstrated. Their use has increased considerably in the past decade, but related complications have become a major concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and effect on outcomes of early (≤30 days) complications after ICD implantation for primary prevention in a large French population. We analyzed data from 5539 patients from the multicenter French DAI-PP (Défibrillateur Automatique Implantable-Prévention Primaire) registry (2002-2012) who had coronary artery disease or dilated cardiomyopathy and were implanted with an ICD for primary prevention. Overall, early complications occurred in 707 patients (13.5%), mainly related to lead dislodgment or hematoma (57%). Independent factors associated with occurrence of early complications were severe renal impairment (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.37, P = .02), age ≥75 years (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, P = .03), cardiac resynchronization therapy (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.16-2.17, P = .01), and anticoagulant therapy (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.61, P = .03). During a mean ± SD follow-up of 3.1 ± 2.3 years, 824 (15.8%) patients experienced ≥1 late complication (>30 days), and 782 (14.9%) patients died. After adjustment, early complications remained associated with occurrence of late complications (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.73-2.66, P < .0001) and mortality (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.34-2.17, P = .003). Early complications are common after ICD implantation for primary prevention, occurring in 1 in 7 patients, and are associated with an increased risk of late complications and overall mortality. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of such associations. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic model for survival in patients with early stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Biewenga, Petra; van der Velden, Jacobus; Mol, Ben Willem J; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Schilthuis, Marten S; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Burger, Matthé P M; Buist, Marrije R

    2011-02-15

    In the management of early stage cervical cancer, knowledge about the prognosis is critical. Although many factors have an impact on survival, their relative importance remains controversial. This study aims to develop a prognostic model for survival in early stage cervical cancer patients and to reconsider grounds for adjuvant treatment. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to identify the prognostic weight of clinical and histological factors for disease-specific survival (DSS) in 710 consecutive patients who had surgery for early stage cervical cancer (FIGO [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics] stage IA2-IIA). Prognostic scores were derived by converting the regression coefficients for each prognostic marker and used in a score chart. The discriminative capacity was expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic. The 5-year DSS was 92%. Tumor diameter, histological type, lymph node metastasis, depth of stromal invasion, lymph vascular space invasion, and parametrial extension were independently associated with DSS and were included in a Cox regression model. This prognostic model, corrected for the 9% overfit shown by internal validation, showed a fair discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.73). The derived score chart predicting 5-year DSS showed a good discriminative capacity (AUC, 0.85). In patients with early stage cervical cancer, DSS can be predicted with a statistical model. Models, such as that presented here, should be used in clinical trials on the effects of adjuvant treatments in high-risk early cervical cancer patients, both to stratify and to include patients. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  1. Thrombopoietin as Early Biomarker of Disease Severity in Patients With Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lupia, Enrico; Pigozzi, Luca; Pivetta, Emanuele; Bosco, Ornella; Vizio, Barbara; Loiacono, Maria; Lucchiari, Manuela; Battista, Stefania; Morello, Fulvio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Mengozzi, Giulio; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    To study the concentrations of thrombopoietin (TPO), a growth factor recently involved in the pathogenesis of experimental acute pancreatitis (AP), and its potential role as an early diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in patients with AP. Thrombopoietin was measured in 44 AP patients, 18 patients with nonpancreatic acute abdominal pain, and 18 healthy volunteers. Acute pancreatitis severity was classified on the basis of the 2012 International Atlanta Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis criteria. Thrombopoietin levels did not differ between AP patients and control subjects, whereas these were higher in patients with moderately severe or severe AP compared with those with mild AP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of TPO for severe AP diagnosis showed an area under the curve of 0.80. A cutoff value of 31.48 pg/mL showed the highest sensitivity, allowing to rule out severe AP when TPO was lower, whereas TPO higher than 98.23 pg/mL was associated with severe AP with high specificity (93.5%). Furthermore, TPO levels were greater in AP patients developing organ dysfunction or sepsis and in nonsurvivors compared with survivors. Our data provide the first evidence for TPO as potential early prognostic biomarker in AP patients. High TPO levels at hospital admission may predict organ dysfunction, sepsis, and fatal outcome in AP patients.

  2. Persistence of increased Eotaxin-1 (CCL11) level in tears of patients wearing contact lenses: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tran, H V; Eperon, S; Guex-Crosier, Y

    2011-04-01

    Eotaxin-1 (CCL11) is a potent eosinophil chemotactic and activating peptide that may be implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic allergic eye disease and has been associated with the wearing of contact lenses (CL) in patients with contact lens papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC). The purpose of this study was to study eotaxin-1 expression in the tears of long-term CL wearers. Tears were collected with glass capillaries from 15 patients (2 male, 13 female) with various degree of CLPC at 2-year intervals. CLPC severity was graded from 0 to 4 with reference to standard slit-lamp photographs of the superior tarsal conjunctiva. The eotaxin-1 level in the tears was measured by an ELISA, using mouse anti-human eotaxin monoclonal antibodies. The mean age was 32.5 ± 13.3 years (range: 17 - 69 years). The mean interval between the tear collections was 30 ± 4.8 months. The mean concentration of eotaxin was 2150 ± 477 pg/mL and 2486 ± 810 pg/mL for the first and second series, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (paired Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.803). The mean score of papilla grade was 1.26 ± 0.18 for the first sample and 1.40 ± 0.19 two years later. There was no significant difference of grading between the two time periods (paired Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.751). the eotaxin-1 level remains up-regulated over a long time period in patients wearing CL, most of them with chronic CLPC. Eotaxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of contact lens intolerance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. In-hospital and 1-year mortality in patients undergoing early surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Tahaniyat; Chu, Vivian H; Park, Lawrence P; Cecchi, Enrico; Corey, G Ralph; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fowler, Vance G; Gordon, David; Grossi, Paolo; Hannan, Margaret; Hoen, Bruno; Muñoz, Patricia; Rizk, Hussien; Kanj, Souha S; Selton-Suty, Christine; Sexton, Daniel J; Spelman, Denis; Ravasio, Veronica; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Wang, Andrew

    2013-09-09

    There are limited prospective, controlled data evaluating survival in patients receiving early surgery vs medical therapy for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). To determine the in-hospital and 1-year mortality in patients with PVE who undergo valve replacement during index hospitalization compared with patients who receive medical therapy alone, after controlling for survival and treatment selection bias. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006 in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS), a prospective, multinational, observational cohort of patients with infective endocarditis. Patients hospitalized with definite right- or left-sided PVE were included in the analysis. We evaluated the effect of treatment assignment on mortality, after adjusting for biases using a Cox proportional hazards model that included inverse probability of treatment weighting and surgery as a time-dependent covariate. The cohort was stratified by probability (propensity) for surgery, and outcomes were compared between the treatment groups within each stratum. Valve replacement during index hospitalization (early surgery) vs medical therapy. In-hospital and 1-year mortality. Of the 1025 patients with PVE, 490 patients (47.8%) underwent early surgery and 535 individuals (52.2%) received medical therapy alone. Compared with medical therapy, early surgery was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in the unadjusted analysis and after controlling for treatment selection bias (in-hospital mortality: hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.38-0.52] and lower 1-year mortality: HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.49-0.67]). The lower mortality associated with surgery did not persist after adjustment for survivor bias (in-hospital mortality: HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.76-1.07] and 1-year mortality: HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.89-1.23]). Subgroup analysis indicated a lower in-hospital mortality with early surgery in the highest surgical propensity quintile (21

  4. Positive lymphocyte transformation test in a patient with allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp after short-term use of topical minoxidil solution.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Tobias; Schlütter-Böhmer, Brigitte; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Bieber, Thomas; Novak, Natalija

    2005-07-01

    Topical 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) solution has been widely used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia for over 15 years now and the substance is currently approved for this indication in 2% and 5% formulation. Typical side effects of this topical treatment include irritative dermatitis going along with pruritus, erythema, scaling and dryness, which occur especially at the onset of the therapy. In some cases, allergic contact dermatitis or exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis has been reported. While most of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis described in the literature showed a positive sensitization to the vehicle substance propylene glycol evaluated by patch testing, reactions to the active ingredient minoxidil are rare. Here, we report a case of allergic sensitization to minoxidil, which we evaluated and differentiated from an irritative reaction by a combination of patch testing and lymphocyte transformation test. The differentiation of allergic and irritative adverse effects and the identification of the causative allergen are of major relevance for the proceeding and adjustment of the therapy. Patients with sensitizations against propylene glycol are candidates for preparations with alternative solvents but can proceed treatment with minoxidil. In contrast, patients with allergies to the active ingredient itself are no longer candidates for treatment with minoxidil and should undergo alternative therapeutic options.

  5. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. PMID:29024974

  6. Early visual cortical structural changes in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fábio S; Pereira, João M S; Reis, Aldina; Sanches, Mafalda; Duarte, João V; Gomes, Leonor; Moreno, Carolina; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    It is known that diabetic patients have changes in cortical morphometry as compared to controls, but it remains to be clarified whether the visual cortex is a disease target, even when diabetes complications such as retinopathy are absent. Therefore, we compared type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy with control subjects using magnetic resonance imaging to assess visual cortical changes when retinal damage is not yet present. We performed T1-weighted imaging in 24 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy and 27 age- and gender-matched controls to compare gray matter changes in the occipital cortex between groups using voxel based morphometry. Patients without diabetic retinopathy showed reduced gray matter volume in the occipital lobe when compared with controls. Reduced gray matter volume in the occipital cortex was found in diabetic patients without retinal damage. We conclude that cortical early visual processing regions may be affected in diabetic patients even before retinal damage occurs.

  7. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described previously in only 3 patients. The allergen(s) is/are unknown.

  8. Social Dominance Orientation, Dispositional Empathy, and Need for Cognitive Closure Moderate the Impact of Empathy-Skills Training, but Not Patient Contact, on Medical Students' Negative Attitudes toward Higher-Weight Patients.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Angela; Higgs, Suzanne; Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; van Ryn, Michelle; Phelan, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated. The present study explored the effect on general and patient-specific anti-fat attitudes of (1) contact with higher-weight individuals prior to and during medical school; and (2) training designed to increase medical students' empathy toward patients by encouraging them to take the patient's perspective during clinical encounters. The moderating role of individual difference factors on effectiveness of contact and student-reported hours of empathy training on patient-specific attitudes was assessed. A total of 3,576 students enrolled across 49 US medical schools completed an online survey at the start of their first year of medical school and at the end of their fourth year. Favorable contact experience with higher-weight patients predicted improved attitudes toward heavier patients after 4 years of medical school, and appeared sufficient to partially offset the effects of dislike of higher-weight individuals at baseline. The impact of favorable contact on general anti-fat attitudes was less strong, highlighting the importance of using target-specific outcome measures. The positive effects of favorable contact on attitudes toward higher-weight patients did not differ based on students' baseline levels of social dominance orientation, dispositional empathy, or need for cognitive closure. In contrast, the effectiveness of

  9. Social Dominance Orientation, Dispositional Empathy, and Need for Cognitive Closure Moderate the Impact of Empathy-Skills Training, but Not Patient Contact, on Medical Students' Negative Attitudes toward Higher-Weight Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Angela; Higgs, Suzanne; Burke, Sara E.; Dovidio, John F.; van Ryn, Michelle; Phelan, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated. The present study explored the effect on general and patient-specific anti-fat attitudes of (1) contact with higher-weight individuals prior to and during medical school; and (2) training designed to increase medical students' empathy toward patients by encouraging them to take the patient's perspective during clinical encounters. The moderating role of individual difference factors on effectiveness of contact and student-reported hours of empathy training on patient-specific attitudes was assessed. A total of 3,576 students enrolled across 49 US medical schools completed an online survey at the start of their first year of medical school and at the end of their fourth year. Favorable contact experience with higher-weight patients predicted improved attitudes toward heavier patients after 4 years of medical school, and appeared sufficient to partially offset the effects of dislike of higher-weight individuals at baseline. The impact of favorable contact on general anti-fat attitudes was less strong, highlighting the importance of using target-specific outcome measures. The positive effects of favorable contact on attitudes toward higher-weight patients did not differ based on students' baseline levels of social dominance orientation, dispositional empathy, or need for cognitive closure. In contrast, the effectiveness of

  10. Clinical Practice of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Early-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Frielink, Lindy M J; Pijlman, Brenda M; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy improves survival in women with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Yet, there is a wide variety in clinical practice. All patients diagnosed with FIGO I and IIa EOC (2006-2010) in the south of the Netherlands were analyzed. The percentage of patients that received adjuvant chemotherapy was determined as well as the comprehensiveness of staging and outcome. Forty percent (54/135) of the patients with early-stage EOC received adjuvant chemotherapy. Treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with FIGO stage, clear-cell histology and nonoptimal staging. Optimal staging was achieved in 50%, and nonoptimal staging was associated with advanced age, comorbidity and treatment in a non-referral hospital. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy. Yet, in grade 3 tumors, adjuvant chemotherapy seems beneficial. Selective treatment of patients with early-stage EOC might reduce adjuvant chemotherapy without compromising outcome. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Brain volume in early MS patients with and without IgG oligoclonal bands in CSF.

    PubMed

    Fenu, G; Lorefice, L; Sechi, V; Loi, L; Contu, F; Cabras, F; Coghe, G; Frau, J; Secci, M A; Melis, C; Schirru, L; Costa, G; Melas, V; Arru, M; Barracciu, M A; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2018-01-01

    Oligoclonal bands of IgG (OB) are proposed as an early prognostic factor of the disease. Growing attention is directed towards brain volume evaluation as a possible marker of the severity of MS. Previous studies found that MS patients lacking OB have less brain atrophy. to evaluate a possible relationship between OB and cerebral volume in a cohort of early MS patients. Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS; CSF analysis and MRI acquired simultaneously and within 12 months from clinical onset. A total of 15 healthy controls underwent MRI. In 20 MS patients, CSF analysis did not show OB synthesis (OB negative group). A control group of 25 MS patients in whom OB was detected was also randomly recruited (OB positive group). T test showed a significant difference in NWV between the OB positive and OB negative groups (P value = 0.01), and between the OB positive group and the healthy controls (P value = 0.001). No differences were detected between OB negative group and healthy controls. Multivariable linear regression showed a relationship between NWV and OB synthesis (P value = 0.02) controlling for age, gender, and EDSS. Our preliminary results suggest that OB positive patients show more atrophy of white matter since early phases of the disease, supporting the role of CSF analysis as a prognostic factor in MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuropsychological correlates of theory of mind in patients with early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Vitale, Carmine; Trojano, Luigi; Errico, Domenico; Amboni, Marianna; Barbarulo, Anna Maria; Grossi, Dario; Barone, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires and intentions different from one's own. The aim of the study was to explore the neuropsychological correlates of theory of mind in patients affected by early Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-three PD patients and 33 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects underwent the Frontal Assessment Battery, as well as tasks assessing "cognitive" and "affective" theory of mind, and memory abilities; questionnaires evaluating behavioral disorders and quality of life were also administrated. Although the 2 groups did not differ on neuropsychological tasks, PD patients' performance on tasks assessing cognitive and affective theory of mind was significantly worse than controls. Moreover, PD patients had more behavioral disorders and worse quality of life than controls. After covarying for behavioral and quality of life scores, the differences between patients and controls on theory of mind tasks remained significant. "Cognitive" theory of mind was associated with Frontal Assessment Battery score and 2 domains of quality of life scale, whereas "affective" theory of mind scores correlated only with behavioral scales such as the Frontal Behavioral Inventory and Apathy Evaluation Scale. The results demonstrate that both affective and cognitive aspects of theory of mind are simultaneously impaired in early PD and suggest that deficits in the 2 subcomponents of theory of mind may be linked to dysfunction of different frontosubcortical circuitries in early PD. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  13. [Operative treatment strategies for multiple trauma patients : early total care versus damage control].

    PubMed

    Klüter, T; Lippross, S; Oestern, S; Weuster, M; Seekamp, A

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of multiple trauma patients is a great challenge for an interdisciplinary team. After preclinical care and subsequent treatment in the emergency room the order of the interventions is prioritized depending of the individual risk stratification. For planning the surgery management it is essential to distinguish between absolutely essential operations to prevent life-threatening situations for the patient and interventions with shiftable indications, depending on the general condition of the patient. All interventions need to be done without causing significant secondary damage to prohibit hyperinflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The challenge consists in determination of the appropriate treatment at the right point in time. In general the early primary intervention, early total care, is differentiated from the damage control concept.

  14. Pressure Ulcer Preventive Device Use Among Elderly Patients Early in the Hospital Stay

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Shayna E.; Shardell, Michelle; Margolis, David; Baumgarten, Mona

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines for the prevention of pressure ulcers advise that pressure-reducing devices should be used for all patients at risk of or with pressure ulcers and that all pressure ulcers should be documented in the patient record. Adherence to these guidelines among elderly hospital patients early in the hospital stay has not been examined in prior studies. Objective The objective of this study was to examine adherence to guidelines by determining the frequency and correlates of use of preventive devices early in the hospital stay of elderly patients and by determining the frequency and correlates of recording pressure ulcers in the patient record. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 792 patients aged 65 years or older admitted through the emergency department to the inpatient medical service at two teaching hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, between 1998 and 2001. Patients were examined by a research nurse on Hospital Day 3 (median of 48 hours after admission) to determine the use of preventive devices, presence of pressure ulcers, and risk of pressure ulcers (by Norton scale). Data on additional risk factors were obtained from the admission nursing assessment in the patient record. Data on documentation of pressure ulcers were obtained by chart abstraction. Results Only 15% of patients had any preventive devices in use at the time of the examination. Among patients considered at risk of pressure ulcers (Norton score ≤14), only 51% had a preventive device. In multivariable analyses, high risk of pressure ulcers was associated with use of preventive devices (odds ratio = 41.8, 95% confidence interval = 14.0–124.6), whereas the type and stage of pressure ulcer were not. Documentation of a pressure ulcer was present for only 68% of patients who had a pressure ulcer according to the research examination. Discussion Use of preventive devices and documentation of pressure ulcers are suboptimal even among patients at high risk. PMID

  15. A Sickle Cell Disease Patient with Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation and Early Developed Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Gaurang; Sarwar, Muhammad; Sun, Zongxia; Wei, Tiemin; Liu, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) worsens the mortality of the patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The exact mechanism of PH development/progression in SCD, including the role of tricuspid regurgitation (TR), remains unclear. We herein report an unusual SCD case, complicated by chronic thromboembolic disorder, who developed severe TR and an accelerated progression of PH. Tricuspid valve surgery significantly ameliorated the patient's symptoms and reduced hospital readmission. The early detection and management of the reversible disorder accelerating the PH development in SCD patients may alter the clinical course, improve the quality of life, and potentially affect the long-term outcome.

  16. An accelerated diagnostic protocol for the early, safe discharge of low-risk chest pain patients.

    PubMed

    Altherwi, Tawfeeq; Grad, Willis B

    2015-07-01

    Can an accelerated 2-hour diagnostic protocol using the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measurement as the only biomarker be implemented to allow an earlier and safe discharge of low-risk chest pain patients? Than M, Cullen L, Aldous S, et al. 2-Hour accelerated diagnostic protocol to assess patients with chest pain symptoms using contemporary troponins as the only biomarker: the ADAPT trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59(23):2091-8. To determine whether an accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP) for possible cardiac chest pain could identify low-risk patients suitable for early discharge using cTnI as the sole biomarker.

  17. Elevated levels of circulating IL-7 and IL-15 in patients with early stage prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation has been suggested to favour prostate cancer (PCA) development. Interleukins (IL) represent essential inflammation mediators. IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21, sharing a common receptor γ chain (c-γ), control T lymphocyte homeostasis and proliferation and play major roles in regulating cancer-immune system interactions. We evaluated local IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 and IL-21 gene expression in prostate tissues from patients with early stage PCA or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). As control, we used IL-6 gene, encoding an IL involved in PCA progression. IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 titres were also measured in patients' sera. Methods Eighty patients with BPH and 79 with early (1 to 2c) stage PCA were enrolled. Gene expression in prostate tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Serum IL concentrations and acute phase protein titres were evaluated by ELISA. Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and χ2 tests were used to compare IL gene expression and serum titers in the two groups of patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the possibility to distinguish sera from different groups of patients based on IL titers. Results IL-2 and IL-21 gene expression was comparably detectable, with low frequency and at low extents, in PCA and BPH tissues. In contrast, IL-6, IL-7 and IL-15 genes were expressed more frequently (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0047 and p = 0.0085, respectively) and to significantly higher extents (p = 0.0051, p = 0.0310 and p = 0.0205, respectively) in early stage PCA than in BPH tissues. Corresponding proteins could be detected to significantly higher amounts in sera from patients with localized PCA, than in those from patients with BPH (p = 0.0153, p = 0.0174 and p = 0.0064, respectively). Analysis of ROC curves indicates that IL-7 (p = 0.0039), but not IL-6 (p = 0.2938) or IL-15 (p = 0.1804) titres were able to distinguish sera from patients with malignancy from those from patients with benign

  18. Whither papillon? Future directions for contact radiotherapy in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lindegaard, J; Gerard, J P; Sun Myint, A; Myerson, R; Thomsen, H; Laurberg, S

    2007-11-01

    Although contact radiotherapy was developed 70 years ago, and is highly effective with cure rates of over 90% for early rectal cancer, there are few centres that offer this treatment today. One reason is the lack of replacement of ageing contact X-ray machines, many of which are now over 30 years old. To address this problem, the International Contact Radiotherapy Evaluation (ICONE) group was formed at a meeting in Liverpool in 2005 with the aim of developing a new contact X-ray unit and to establish clinical protocols that would enable the new machine to safely engage in the treatment of rectal cancer. As a result of these efforts, a European company is starting production of the new Papillon RT-50 machine, which will be available shortly. In addition, the ICONE group is planning an observational study on contact X-ray and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (CONTEM) for curative treatment of rectal cancer. This protocol will ensure standardised diagnostic procedures, patient selection and treatment in centres across the world and the data will be collected prospectively for analysis and audit. It is hoped that the CONTEM trial will provide the scientific evidence that is needed to obtain a broader acceptance of local contact radiotherapy as a treatment option for selected cases with early stage rectal cancer.

  19. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Increased expression of neutrophil-related genes in patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS.

    PubMed

    Kangelaris, Kirsten Neudoerffer; Prakash, Arun; Liu, Kathleen D; Aouizerat, Bradley; Woodruff, Prescott G; Erle, David J; Rogers, Angela; Seeley, Eric J; Chu, Jeffrey; Liu, Tom; Osterberg-Deiss, Thomas; Zhuo, Hanjing; Matthay, Michael A; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2015-06-01

    The early sequence of events leading to the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with sepsis remains inadequately understood. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in gene expression early in the course of illness, when mechanisms of injury may provide the most relevant treatment and prognostic targets. We collected whole blood RNA in critically ill patients admitted from the Emergency Department to the intensive care unit within 24 h of admission at a tertiary care center. Whole genome expression was compared in patients with sepsis and ARDS to patients with sepsis alone. We selected genes with >1 log2 fold change and false discovery rate <0.25, determined their significance in the literature, and performed pathway analysis. Several genes were upregulated in 29 patients with sepsis with ARDS compared with 28 patients with sepsis alone. The most differentially expressed genes included key mediators of the initial neutrophil response to infection: olfactomedin 4, lipocalin 2, CD24, and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. These gene expression differences withstood adjustment for age, sex, study batch, white blood cell count, and presence of pneumonia or aspiration. Pathway analysis demonstrated overrepresentation of genes involved in known respiratory and infection pathways. These data indicate that several neutrophil-related pathways may be involved in the early pathogenesis of sepsis-related ARDS. In addition, identifiable gene expression differences occurring early in the course of sepsis-related ARDS may further elucidate understanding of the neutrophil-related mechanisms in progression to ARDS. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Increased expression of neutrophil-related genes in patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Arun; Liu, Kathleen D.; Aouizerat, Bradley; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Erle, David J.; Rogers, Angela; Seeley, Eric J.; Chu, Jeffrey; Liu, Tom; Osterberg-Deiss, Thomas; Zhuo, Hanjing; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2015-01-01

    The early sequence of events leading to the development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with sepsis remains inadequately understood. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in gene expression early in the course of illness, when mechanisms of injury may provide the most relevant treatment and prognostic targets. We collected whole blood RNA in critically ill patients admitted from the Emergency Department to the intensive care unit within 24 h of admission at a tertiary care center. Whole genome expression was compared in patients with sepsis and ARDS to patients with sepsis alone. We selected genes with >1 log2 fold change and false discovery rate <0.25, determined their significance in the literature, and performed pathway analysis. Several genes were upregulated in 29 patients with sepsis with ARDS compared with 28 patients with sepsis alone. The most differentially expressed genes included key mediators of the initial neutrophil response to infection: olfactomedin 4, lipocalin 2, CD24, and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. These gene expression differences withstood adjustment for age, sex, study batch, white blood cell count, and presence of pneumonia or aspiration. Pathway analysis demonstrated overrepresentation of genes involved in known respiratory and infection pathways. These data indicate that several neutrophil-related pathways may be involved in the early pathogenesis of sepsis-related ARDS. In addition, identifiable gene expression differences occurring early in the course of sepsis-related ARDS may further elucidate understanding of the neutrophil-related mechanisms in progression to ARDS. PMID:25795726

  2. Poor prognosis of uterine serous carcinoma compared with grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma in early stage patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Sohn, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Wha; Sung, Chang Ohk; Kim, Kyu-Rae

    2013-03-01

    Difference in prognosis between grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma (G3EC) of the endometrium and uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is controversial. In this study, we further evaluated the difference in prognosis, if any, between G3EC (n = 61) and USC (n = 47) on a total of 565 patients with endometrial cancer. In addition, meta-analysis was performed using data from seven previous publications (n = 8,637) and from the Asan Medical Center (n = 108). Regarding the cases from our institution, USC tended to occur in older patients (≥65 years) than G3EC (P = 0.011). Deep myometrial invasion (more than or equal to half) was more frequently identified in G3EC (36/61, 59.0 %) than in USC (17/47, 36.2 %) (P = 0.021). Between patients with early stage G3EC and USC (stages I and II), there were no significant differences in any clinicopathological parameter, but there was a significant difference in overall survival (P = 0.017) that was not found in advanced stage (P = 0.588). USC was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.125; P = 0.030) in early stage patients. In the meta-analysis on 5-year survival in patients with early stage cancers, which also included our study results, a higher relative risk (1.92, 95 % CI 1.62-2.27) was demonstrated in USC than in G3EC (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our study reveals that USC is associated with a poorer prognosis compared with G3EC, only in patients with early stage carcinoma, suggesting that different treatment strategies should be considered according to the histologic type in order to improve treatment outcome.

  3. Can we make an early 'do not resuscitate' decision in severe burn patients?

    PubMed

    Yüce, Yücel; Acar, Hakan Ahmet; Erkal, Kutlu Hakan; Tuncay, Erhan

    2017-03-01

    The present study was conducted to examine topic of issuing early do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order at first diagnosis of patients with severe burn injuries in light of current law in Turkey and the medical literature. DNR requires withholding cardiopulmonary resuscitation in event of respiratory or cardiac arrest and allowing natural death to occur. It is frequently enacted for terminal cancer patients and elderly patients with irreversible neurological disorders. Between January 2009 and December 2014, 29 patients (3.44%) with very severe burns were admitted to burn unit. Average total burn surface area (TBSA) was 94.24% (range: 85-100%), and in 10 patients, TBSA was 100%. Additional inhalation burns were present in 26 of the patients (89.65%). All of the patients died, despite every medical intervention. Mean survival was 4.75 days (range: 1-24 days). Total of 17 patients died within 72 hours. Lethal dose 50 (% TBSA at which certain group has 50% chance of survival) rate of our burn center is 62%. Baux indices were used for prognostic evaluation of the patients; mean total Baux score of the patients was 154.13 (range: 117-183). It is well known that numerous problems may be encountered during triage of severely burned patients in Turkey. These patients are referred to burn centers and are frequently transferred via air ambulance between cities, and even countries. They are intubated and mechanical ventilation is initiated at burn center. Many interventions are performed to treat these patients, such as escharotomy, fasciotomy, tangential or fascial excision, central venous catheterization and tracheostomy, or hemodialysis. Yet despite such interventions, these patients die, typically within 48 to 96 hours. Integrity of the body is often lost as result of aggressive intervention with no real benefit, and there are also economic costs to hospital related to use of materials, bed occupancy, and distribution of workforce. For these reasons, as well as patient comfort

  4. Is Early Enteral Nutrition Better for Postoperative Course in Esophageal Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Koyama, Yu; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamoto, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively examined esophageal cancer patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) to clarify the validity of early EN compared with delayed EN. A total of 103 patients who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer were entered. Patients were divided into two groups; Group E received EN within postoperative day 3, and Group L received EN after postoperative day 3. The clinical factors such as days for first fecal passage, the dose of postoperative albumin infusion, differences of serum albumin value between pre- and postoperation, duration of systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), incidence of postoperative infectious complication, and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were compared between the groups. The statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi square test. The statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Group E showed fewer days for the first fecal passage (p < 0.01), lesser dose of postoperative albumin infusion (p < 0.01), less use of TPN (p < 0.01), and shorter duration of SIRS (p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in postoperative complications between the two groups. Early EN started within 3 days after esophagectomy. It is safe and valid for reduction of albumin infusion and TPN, for promoting early recovery of intestinal movement, and for early recovery from systemic inflammation. PMID:24067386

  5. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was <7.5% (sensitivity and specificity 88.99% and 81.4% respectively). Compared with group achieving lactate clearance target, group not achieving lactate clearance target had to increase early mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 13.42; 95%CI 7.19-25.07). In conclusion, the best lactate clearance cut off as anearly mortality predictor in sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  6. Early and late fracture following extensive limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Kitoh, H; Mishima, K; Matsushita, M; Nishida, Y; Ishiguro, N

    2014-09-01

    Two types of fracture, early and late, have been reported following limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH). We reviewed 25 patients with these conditions who underwent 72 segmental limb lengthening procedures involving the femur and/or tibia, between 2003 and 2011. Gender, age at surgery, lengthened segment, body mass index, the shape of the callus, the amount and percentage of lengthening and the healing index were evaluated to determine predictive factors for the occurrence of early (within three weeks after removal of the fixation pins) and late fracture (> three weeks after removal of the pins). The Mann‑Whitney U test and Pearson's chi-squared test for univariate analysis and stepwise regression model for multivariate analysis were used to identify the predictive factor for each fracture. Only one patient (two tibiae) was excluded from the analysis due to excessively slow formation of the regenerate, which required supplementary measures. A total of 24 patients with 70 limbs were included in the study. There were 11 early fractures in eight patients. The shape of the callus (lateral or central callus) was the only statistical variable related to the occurrence of early fracture in univariate and multivariate analyses. Late fracture was observed in six limbs and the mean time between removal of the fixation pins and fracture was 18.3 weeks (3.3 to 38.4). Lengthening of the tibia, larger healing index, and lateral or central callus were related to the occurrence of a late fracture in univariate analysis. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the shape of the callus was the strongest predictor for late fracture (odds ratio: 19.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.91 to 128). Lateral or central callus had a significantly larger risk of fracture than fusiform, cylindrical, or concave callus. Radiological monitoring of the shape of the callus during distraction is important to prevent early and late fracture of lengthened

  7. The significance of fluorescein angiography in the early diagnosis of lesions on ocular fundus at pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowski, T; Gluza, J; Rasiewicz, D

    1977-05-27

    The role of fluorescein angiography in early diagnosis of lesions on fundus of the eye at pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients has been shown. The authors show angiographic changes on the basis of three cases of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients.

  8. Results of a prospective randomized controlled trial of early ambulation for patients with lower extremity autografts.

    PubMed

    Lorello, David John; Peck, Michael; Albrecht, Marlene; Richey, Karen J; Pressman, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to keep those patients with lower extremity autografts immobile until post-operative day (POD) 5. There is however inherent risks associated with even short periods of immobility. As of now there are no randomized controlled trials looking at early ambulation of patients with lower extremity autografts in the burn community.The objective of this study was to show that patients who begin ambulation within 24 hours of lower extremity autografting will have no increased risk of graft failure than those patients who remain immobile until POD 5. Thirty-one subjects who received autografts to the lower extremity were randomized after surgery into either the early ambulation group (EAG;17 subjects) or the standard treatment group (STG;14 subjects). Those subjects randomized to the EAG began ambulating with physical therapy on POD 1. Subjects in the STG maintained bed rest until POD 5. There was no difference in the number of patients with graft loss in either the EAG or STG on POD 5, and during any of the follow-up visits. No subjects required regrafting. There was a significant difference in the mean minutes of ambulation, with the EAG ambulating longer than the STG (EAG 23.4 minutes [SD 12.03], STG 14.1 [SD 9.00], P=.0235) on POD 5. Burn patients with lower extremity autografts can safely ambulate on POD 1 without fear of graft failure compared with those patients that remain on bed rest for 5 days.

  9. Early- and Middle-Term Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Heterotaxy Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weidan; Ma, Li; Cui, Hujun; Yang, Shengchun; Xia, Yuansheng; Zou, Minghui; Chen, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    Heterotaxy syndrome is a recognized risk factor for surgical cardiac interventions. We evaluated the early- and middle-term results of a surgical intervention for patients with heterotaxy syndrome. A total of 42 patients with heterotaxy syndrome were enrolled (September 2008 to March 2015). Left and right atrial isomerism were identified in 26% (11 out of 42) and 74% of patients (31 out of 42), respectively. The median age of the patients at the time of surgery was 6.8 months (range: 5 days to 22.3 years). Biventricular repair was completed in 3 patients with left atrial isomerism. Seventeen out of 39 patients who were scheduled for single ventricular repair completed a modified Fontan procedure. The hospital mortality rate was 4.7% (2 out of 42). Another 5 deaths occurred in the remaining survivors following hospital discharge with a follow-up duration of 45.8 ± 23.6 months (range: 13-111 months). The 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 88.1% (37/42) and 83.3% (35/42), respectively. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis identified pulmonary venous obstruction and atrioventricular valve replacement as additional risk factors for mortality. Right ventricular bypass surgery remains the preferred palliative procedure for patients with heterotaxy syndrome. Based on the current results, the early- and middle-term outcomes are satisfactory. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Hypokalemia during the early phase of refeeding in patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Simona; Ferro, Yvelise; Migliaccio, Valeria; Mazza, Elisa; Rotundo, Stefania; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Refeeding syndrome occurs in patients with severe malnutrition when refeeding begins after a long period of starvation. This syndrome increases the risk of clinical complications and mortality. Hypophosphatemia is considered the primary characteristic of the syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of other electrolyte alterations in patients with cancer during the early stage of refeeding. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled 34 patients with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract receiving upfront radiotherapy who were also enrolled in a nutrition program. A caloric intake assessment, anthropometric measurements and biochemical laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant weight loss (∼20%) was found in these patients. In the patients receiving artificial nutrition, we found lower levels of potassium and total protein compared with those who were fed orally (p = 0.03 for potassium and 0.02 for protein, respectively). Patients on enteral tube feeding had a higher caloric intake compared with those who were fed orally (25±5 kcal/kg/day vs. 10±2 kcal/kg/day). CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia, like hypophosphatemia, could be a complication associated with refeeding in patients with cancer. Hypokalemia was present in the early stages of high-calorie refeeding. PMID:24270952

  11. Prevalence of Asperger syndrome among patients of an Early Intervention in Psychosis team.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Conor; Greenwood, Nick; Stansfield, Alison; Wright, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    There is a lack of systematic studies into comorbidity of Asperger syndrome and psychosis. To determine the prevalence of Asperger syndrome among patients of an early intervention in psychosis service. This study was a cross-sectional survey consisting of three phases: screening, case note review and diagnostic interviews. All patients on caseload (n = 197) were screened using the Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults Screening Questionnaire. The case notes of patients screened positive were then reviewed for information relevant to Asperger syndrome. Those suspected of having Asperger syndrome were invited for a diagnostic interview. Thirty patients were screened positive. Three of them already had a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome made by child and adolescent mental health services. After case note review, 13 patients were invited to interview. Four did not take part, so nine were interviewed. At interview, four were diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. In total, seven patients had Asperger syndrome. Thus, the prevalence rate in this population is at least 3.6%. The results suggest that the prevalence of Asperger syndrome in first-episode psychosis is considerably higher than that in the general population. Clinicians working in early intervention teams need to be alert to the possibility of Asperger syndrome when assessing patients. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. The use of iloprost in early pregnancy in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Elliot, C A; Stewart, P; Webster, V J; Mills, G H; Hutchinson, S P; Howarth, E S; Bu'lock, F A; Lawson, R A; Armstrong, I J; Kiely, D G

    2005-07-01

    In patients with pulmonary hypertension, pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal death. Such patients are counselled to avoid pregnancy, or if it occurs, are offered early interruption. Some patients, however, decide to continue with their pregnancy and others may present with symptoms for the first time whilst pregnant. Pulmonary vasodilator therapy provides a treatment option for these high-risk patients. The present study describes three patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension of various aetiologies who were treated with the prostacyclin analogue iloprost during pregnancy, and the post-partum period. Nebulised iloprost commenced as early as 8 weeks of gestation and patients were admitted to hospital between 24-36 weeks of gestation. All pregnancies were completed with a duration of between