Science.gov

Sample records for early phase ii

  1. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  2. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  3. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  4. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  5. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  6. Auto-inhibitory regulation of angiotensin II functionality in hamster aorta during the early phases of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Cristina; Pernomian, Larissa; Côco, Hariane; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Franco, João José; Marchi, Kátia Colombo; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2016-06-15

    Emerging data point the crosstalk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Advanced dyslipidemia is described to induce RAS activation in the vasculature. However, the interplay between early dyslipidemia and the RAS remains unexplored. Knowing that hamsters and humans have a similar lipid profile, we investigated the effects of early and advanced dyslipidemia on angiotensin II-induced contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II (1.0pmol/l to 1.0µmol/l) were obtained in the hamster thoracic aorta. We also investigated the modulatory action of NAD(P)H oxidase on angiotensin II-induced contraction using ML171 (Nox-1 inhibitor, 0.5µmol/l) and VAS2870 (Nox-4 inhibitor, 5µmol/l). Early dyslipidemia was detected in hamsters treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. Early dyslipidemia decreased the contraction induced by angiotensin II and the concentration of Nox-4-derived hydrogen peroxide. Advanced dyslipidemia, observed in hamsters treated with cholesterol-rich diet for 30 days, restored the contractile response induced by angiotensin II by compensatory mechanism that involves Nox-4-mediated oxidative stress. The hyporresponsiveness to angiotensin II may be an auto-inhibitory regulation of the angiotensinergic function during early dyslipidemia in an attempt to reduce the effects of the upregulation of the vascular RAS during the advanced stages of atherogenesis. The recovery of vascular angiotensin II functionality during the advanced phases of dyslipidemia is the result of the upregulation of redox-pro-inflammatory pathway that might be most likely involved in atherogenesis progression rather than in the recovery of vascular function. Taken together, our findings show the early phase of dyslipidemia may be the most favorable moment for effective atheroprotective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-stage phase II oncology designs using short-term endpoints for early stopping.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Cornelia U; Wason, James Ms; Kieser, Meinhard

    2017-08-01

    Phase II oncology trials are conducted to evaluate whether the tumour activity of a new treatment is promising enough to warrant further investigation. The most commonly used approach in this context is a two-stage single-arm design with binary endpoint. As for all designs with interim analysis, its efficiency strongly depends on the relation between recruitment rate and follow-up time required to measure the patients' outcomes. Usually, recruitment is postponed after the sample size of the first stage is achieved up until the outcomes of all patients are available. This may lead to a considerable increase of the trial length and with it to a delay in the drug development process. We propose a design where an intermediate endpoint is used in the interim analysis to decide whether or not the study is continued with a second stage. Optimal and minimax versions of this design are derived. The characteristics of the proposed design in terms of type I error rate, power, maximum and expected sample size as well as trial duration are investigated. Guidance is given on how to select the most appropriate design. Application is illustrated by a phase II oncology trial in patients with advanced angiosarcoma, which motivated this research.

  8. Feasibility study for early removal of HEU from CPP-651-Phase II

    SciT

    Smith, C.V.; Henry, R.; Milligan, C.

    1997-09-01

    A two-phase feasibility study was initiated in late 1996 to identify a way to expedite the removal of SNM from the CPP-651 vault. The first phase of this study provided preliminary information that appeared promising, but needed additional detailed planning and evaluate to validate the concepts and conclusions. The focus of Phase 2 was to provide the validation via resource-loaded schedules and more detailed cost estimates. Section 1 describes the purpose and objectives of the Phase 2 tasks and the programmatic drivers that influence related CPP-651 high-enriched uranium (HEU) management issues. Section 2 identifies the evaluation criteria and methodology andmore » the transfer issues and barriers preventing shipment. Section 3 provides site-specific background information for the CPP-651 facility and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and describes the development of the basic material removal schedule, the proposed base case plan for removal of SNM, and the proposed HEU material management/shipping issues and strategies. Section 4 identifies the proposed options for accelerated removal of SNM and how they were evaluated via detailed scheduling, resource histograms, and cost analysis. Section 5 summarizes principal tasks for implementing this plan and other related HEU CPP-651 management issues that require continued planning efforts to assure successful implementation of this proposed early removal strategy.« less

  9. Doxycycline in early CJD: a double-blinded randomised phase II and observational study.

    PubMed

    Varges, Daniela; Manthey, Henrike; Heinemann, Uta; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Krasnianski, Anna; Breithaupt, Maren; Fincke, Fabian; Kramer, Katharina; Friede, Tim; Zerr, Inga

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of the present study is to study the therapeutic efficiency of doxycycline in a double-blinded randomised phase II study in a cohort of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). From the National Reference Center of TSE Surveillance in Germany, patients with probable or definite sCJD were recruited for a double-blinded randomised study with oral doxycycline (EudraCT 2006-003934-14). In addition, we analysed the data from patients with CJD who received compassionate treatment with doxycycline in a separate group. Potential factors which influence survival such as age at onset, gender, codon 129 polymorphism and cognitive functions were evaluated. The primary outcome measure was survival. Group 1: in the double-blinded randomised phase II study, 7 patients in the treatment group were compared with 5 controls. Group 2: 55 patients with sCJD treated with oral doxycycline were analysed and compared with 33 controls by a stratified propensity score applied to a Cox proportional hazard analysis. The results of both studies were combined by means of a random-effects meta-analysis. A slight increase in survival time in the doxycycline treatment group was observed (p=0.049, HR=0.63 (95% CI 0.402 to 0.999)). On the basis of our studies, a larger trial of doxycycline should be performed in persons in the earliest stages of CJD. EudraCT 2006-003934-14; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Phase II Validation of a New Panel of Biomarkers for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    While all cancer patients could potentially benefit from earlier detection and prevention, the development of new screening technologies and chemoprevention for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unique in this regard. EOC is characterized by few early symptoms, presentation at an advanced stage, and poor survival. Presently there is no commercially available test that is diagnostic for either early or advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. The most commonly used marker, CA125, identifies a group of cell surface glycoproteins, which have uncertain biological behavior and very limited clinical utility for the detection of early stage disease. In recent years, several approaches have been used in order to develop a test for early detection, including the analysis of serum samples by SELDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF to find proteins or protein fragments of unknown identity that detect the presence/absence of cancer. Unfortunately, at the present time, none of these techniques have been shown to be adequate. Therefore, the development of a test that can detect early stages of the disease could dramatically improve treatment success and long-term survival. We have developed a new blood test based on a different approach: 1) we used known proteins related to cancer biology, 2) we characterized these proteins with several different screening steps using samples obtained from both healthy and cancer patient populations, and 3) validated the results with different techniques. Using split point analysis with four markers, 96 out of 100 EOC patients (96%) were correctly diagnosed with ovarian cancer (including 23 of 24 patients with Stage I/II EOC). In the healthy group, 6 out of 106 individuals were diagnosed incorrectly (5.6%). Working in collaboration with the Early Detection Network (EDRN/NCI/NIH), we performed Phase I discovery study confirming the potential application of this test for early detection of ovarian cancer (Preliminary results). The main objective of this pr

  11. Project 1946: Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    History (Project 1946 - Phase II),” for the National Intelligence Council. The views, opinions, and findings should not be construed as representing...29 Section 1: Senior Leadership  Foreign Assistance  Officer Corps  Saddam‘s Personality ...45 Section 3: Personal Interactions with Saddam  Senior Leadership

  12. GeoGIS : phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-12-01

    A new web-based geotechnical Geographic Information System (GeoGIS) was developed and tested for the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) during Phase II of this research project. This web-based system stores geotechnical information about tr...

  13. A phase II trial for the efficacy of physiotherapy intervention for early-onset hip osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Joanne L; Moore, Kate; Fransen, Marlene; Russell, Trevor G; Crossley, Kay M

    2015-01-27

    Early-onset hip osteoarthritis is commonly seen in people undergoing hip arthroscopy and is associated with increased pain, reduced ability to participate in physical activity, reduced quality of life and reduced range of motion and muscle strength. Despite this, the efficacy of non-surgical interventions such as exercise therapies remains unknown. The primary aim is to establish the feasibility of a phase III randomised controlled trial investigating a targeted physiotherapy intervention for people with early-onset hip osteoarthritis. The secondary aims are to determine the size of treatment effects of a physiotherapy intervention, targeted to improve hip joint range and hip-related symptoms in early-onset hip osteoarthritis following hip arthroscopy, compared to a health-education control. This protocol describes a randomised, assessor- and participant-blind, controlled clinical trial. We will include 20 participants who are (i) aged between 18 and 50 years; (ii) have undergone hip arthroscopy during the past six to 12 months; (iii) have early-onset hip osteoarthritis (defined as chondrolabral pathology) at the time of hip arthroscopy; and (iv) experience hip-related pain during activities. Primary outcome will be the feasibility of a phase III clinical trial. Secondary outcomes will be (i) perceived global change score; (ii) hip-related symptoms (measured using the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) pain subscale, activity subscale, and sport and recreation subscale); (iii) hip quality of life (measured using the HOOS quality of life subscale and International Hip Outcome tool; (iv) hip muscle strength and (v) hip range of motion. The physiotherapy intervention is semi-standardised, including joint and soft tissue mobilisation and stretching, hip and trunk muscle retraining and functional and activity-specific retraining and education. The control intervention encompasses individualised health education, with the same frequency and duration

  14. Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    SciT

    Freedman, Gary M., E-mail: Gary.Freedman@uphs.upenn.edu; Anderson, Penny R.; Bleicher, Richard J.

    Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and themore » tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.« less

  15. A phase II study in advanced cancer patients to evaluate the early transition to palliative care (the PREPArE trial): protocol study for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Thamires Monteiro; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Siqueira, Milena Ruas; da Rosa, Luciana de Toledo Bernardes; de Oliveira, Cleyton Zanardo; Nascimento, Maria Salete de Angelis; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-04-12

    Previous studies have demonstrated the benefit of early integration of palliative care (PC) in oncology. However, patients continue to receive late referrals to PC even in comprehensive cancer centers. Patients and health professionals may perceive PC as 'a place to die,' and this stigma is a barrier to timely referrals and to patient acceptance of treatment. The primary objective is to evaluate the feasibility of psychosocial intervention and PC in patients with advanced cancer. The patients will be submitted to a series of brief psychosocial interventions that are based on cognitive behavioral therapy, and patient acceptance and satisfaction will be assessed. In addition, the impact of these interventions on depressive symptoms will be evaluated. A randomized, open-label, phase II trial with two intervention arms and a control group will be conducted. Patients who are started on palliative chemotherapy and who meet the inclusion criteria will be enrolled. The study participants will be recruited from the outpatient oncology clinics at Barretos Cancer Hospital and will be randomized into one of the following three treatment arms: Arm A, which will include five weekly psychosocial interventions based on CBT in combination with early PC; Arm B, which will include early PC only; and Arm C, which will include standard oncologic care. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS-br), the Family Satisfaction with End-of-Life Care (FAMCARE)-Patient scale, and the Disease Understanding Protocol will be used for data collection. The patients will answer these questionnaires at baseline and 45, 90, 120 and 180 days after randomization. Despite evidence of the positive impact of early PC, it is often provided to patients only at later stages. The inadequate awareness and stigmatization of PC as a place to die are barriers that complicate the early referral. Patients with advanced

  16. Final report of evaluation of masonry coatings : phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-11-01

    This research project was undertaken to evaluate several coating systems for concrete masonry to replace the presently used Class 2 rubbed finish. This is the report of Phase II, the field evaluation, of that project. : In early October 1970, applica...

  17. Long-term outcome of phase I/II prospective study of dose-escalated proton therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joe Y; Zhang, Wencheng; Komaki, Ritsuko; Choi, Noah C; Chan, Shen; Gomez, Daniel; O'Reilly, Michael; Jeter, Melenda; Gillin, Michael; Zhu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Mohan, Radhe; Swisher, Stephen; Hahn, Stephen; Cox, James D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this phase I/II study was to assess the long-term clinical benefits and toxicities of proton beam therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From June 2006 to September 2011, 35 patients with medically inoperable T1N0M0 (central or superior location, 12 patients) or T2-3N0M0 (any location, 23 patients) NSCLC were treated with 87.5Gy at 2.5Gy/fraction of proton therapy. Toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The median follow-up time was 83.1months (95% CI: 69.2-97.1months). For all 35 patients, the 1, 3, and 5-year overall survival rates were 85.7%, 42.9%, and 28.1%, respectively. The 5-year local recurrence-free, regional recurrence-free, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 85.0%, 89.2%, and 54.4%, respectively. Different T stages had no effect on local and regional recurrence (p=0.499, p=1.00). However, with the increase in T stages, the distant metastasis rate increased significantly (p=0.006). The most common adverse effects were dermatitis (grade 2, 51.4%; grade 3, 2.9%) and radiation pneumonitis (grade 2, 11.4%; grade 3, 2.9%). Other grade 2 toxicities included esophagitis (2.9%), rib fracture (2.9%), heart toxicities (5.7%), and chest wall pain (2.9%). According to our long-term follow-up data, proton therapy with ablative doses is well tolerated and effective in medically inoperable early-stage NSCLC. Systemic therapy should be considered to reduce the rate of distant metastasis in cases of T2 and T3 lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ≥0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated. PMID:22252927

  19. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Blinkhorn, Fiona; Brown, Ngiare; Freeman, Ruth; Humphris, Gerry; Martin, Andrew; Blinkhorn, Anthony

    2012-08-21

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. ACTRN12612000712808.

  20. A phase II clinical trial of a dental health education program delivered by aboriginal health workers to prevent early childhood caries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a widespread problem in Australian Aboriginal communities causing severe pain and sepsis. In addition dental services are difficult to access for many Aboriginal children and trying to obtain care can be stressful for the parents. The control of dental caries has been identified as a key indictor in the reduction of Indigenous disadvantage. Thus, there is a need for new approaches to prevent ECC, which reflect the cultural norms of Aboriginal communities. Methods/Design This is a Phase II single arm trial designed to gather information on the effectiveness of a dental health education program for Aboriginal children aged 6 months, followed over 2 years. The program will deliver advice from Aboriginal Health Workers on tooth brushing, diet and the use of fluoride toothpaste to Aboriginal families. Six waves of data collection will be conducted to enable estimates of change in parental knowledge and their views on the acceptability of the program. The Aboriginal Health Workers will also be interviewed to record their views on the acceptability and program feasibility. Clinical data on the child participants will be recorded when they are 30 months old and compared with a reference population of similar children when the study began. Latent variable modeling will be used to interpret the intervention effects on disease outcome. Discussion The research project will identify barriers to the implementation of a family centered Aboriginal oral health strategy, as well as the development of evidence to assist in the planning of a Phase III cluster randomized study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000712808 PMID:22909327

  1. Upgrades for GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) of 76Ge. It is a process that violates lepton number conservation and is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. GERDA is located underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. An array of bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge is operated in a cryostat with 64 m3 of liquid argon supplemented by a 3 m thick shield of water. The experiment aims at exploring the 0 νββ decay up to a half life of 2 .1026 yr in two phases: Phase I of the experiment has been concluded last year. No signal is observed and the so far best limit is derived for the half life of the 0 νββ decay of 76Ge, T1/20ν <= 2 . 1 .1025 yr (90% C.L.), after an exposure of 21 . 6 kg .yr. The result refutes an earlier claim of discovery with high probability. The background index of 1 .10-2 cts/(keV .kg .yr) is lower by about one order of magnitude compared to previous experiments. At present the experiment is being upgraded to Phase II. The aim is to collect an exposure of 100kg .yr and further reduce the background by another order of magnitude to a level of <=10-3 cts/(keV .kg .yr). The detector mass will be increased by ~20 kg of new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors from enriched 76Ge, which exhibit superior pulse shape discrimination and hence background rejection power. Low mass detector holders, cold front-end electronics, contacting and cabling schemes are redesigned for ultra low mass and radiopurity. In addition, a retractable liquid argon veto will be installed to efficiently suppress background events that induce scintillation in the liquid argon. A hybrid solution of photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultipliers coupled to scintillating fibres was chosen. This talk gives an account of the results and these challenging modifications to meet our design goals. The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA

  2. Reading Treasures. Phase I and Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Based on the premise that a school reading program must focus on the learner and the text, this guidebook is designed to serve as a resource for school districts, groups, or individuals involved in planning, implementing, and evaluating reading programs. The guidebook is divided into two phases. Phase 1, "Guidelines for Developing and…

  3. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    SciT

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey tomore » evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.« less

  4. Molecular gas in the H II-region complex RCW 166: Possible evidence for an early phase of cloud-cloud collision prior to the bubble formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohama, Akio; Kohno, Mikito; Fujita, Shinji; Tsutsumi, Daichi; Hattori, Yusuke; Torii, Kazufumi; Nishimura, Atsushi; Sano, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    Young H II regions are an important site for the study of O star formation based on distributions of ionized and molecular gas. We reveal that two molecular clouds at ˜48 km s-1 and ˜53 km s-1 are associated with the H II regions G018.149-00.283 in RCW 166 by using the JCMT CO High-Resolution Survey (COHRS) of the 12CO(J = 3-2) emission. G018.149-00.283 comprises a bright ring at 8 μm and an extended H II region inside the ring. The ˜48 km s-1 cloud delineates the ring, and the ˜53 km s-1 cloud is located within the ring, indicating a complementary distribution between the two molecular components. We propose a hypothesis that high-mass stars within G018.149-00.283 were formed by triggering during cloud-cloud collision at a projected velocity separation of ˜5 km s-1. We argue that G018.149-00.283 is in an early evolutionary stage, ˜0.1 Myr after the collision according to the scheme detailed by Habe and Ohta (1992, PASJ, 44, 203), which will be followed by a bubble formation stage like RCW 120. We also suggest that nearby H II regions N21 and N22 are candidates for bubbles possibly formed by cloud-cloud collision. Inoue and Fukui (2013, ApJ, 774, L31) showed that the interface gas becomes highly turbulent and realizes a high-mass accretion rate of 10-3-10-4 M⊙ yr-1 by magnetohydrodynamical numerical simulations, which offers an explanation of the O-star formation. The fairly high frequency of cloud-cloud collision in RCW 166 is probably due to the high cloud density in this part of the Scutum arm.

  5. Pavement performance evaluation, phase II : data collection.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    Phase I and II of this study tested approximately 1500 rehabilitated pavements (asphalt and PCC) : throughout the State. These pavements ranged from 5 to 15 years old and were intended to develop a : snapshot of how various rehabilitations were perfo...

  6. Morristown Alternative Transportation Study Phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-10-14

    This report summarizes the Phase II planning effort conducted by the park and the US Department of Transportation's Volpe Center (the Volpe Center) to articulate a viable park-community pilot transit service for Morristown National Historical Park. M...

  7. Assessment of Correlation Between Early and Late Efficacy Endpoints to Identify Potential Surrogacy Relationships in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: a Literature-Based Meta-analysis of 108 Phase II and Phase III Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui; Lu, Dan; Chu, Yu-Waye; Chai, Akiko; Green, Michelle; Zhang, Nancy; Jin, Jin Yan

    2017-05-01

    Correlations between early and late efficacy endpoints were assessed to identify potential surrogate endpoints for overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) with clinical trial-level data in three non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). One hundred and eight phase II-III trials (129 trial arms) in DLBCL, FL, and MCL were identified and included in the database. Correlations between efficacy endpoints were analyzed using weighted linear regression and Pearson's coefficient of determination (R 2 ). In newly diagnosed DLBCL, 6-month PFS was strongly correlated with 2-year OS (R 2  = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.96). Six-month PFS was strongly correlated with 3-year PFS (R 2  = 0.89, 95% CI 0.62-0.96) in FL and was moderately correlated with 2-year OS (R 2  = 0.69, 95% CI 0.40-0.91) in MCL trials. Linear regression determined that a 10% increase in 6-month PFS would yield a 13% ± 1.2% increase in 2-year OS in DLBCL, a 23% ± 1.1% increase in 3-year PFS in FL, or a 6.7% ± 1.0% increase in 2-year OS in MCL. Both 6-month PFS and complete response (CR) rate were moderately correlated with median PFS in FL trials with R 2  = 0.66 (95% CI 0.52-0.98) and R 2  = 0.69 (95% CI 0.22-0.89), respectively. Six-month PFS is a potential surrogate endpoint for 2-year OS in newly diagnosed DLBCL and MCL and for 3-year PFS in FL. Both 6-month PFS and CR rate are potential surrogate endpoints for median PFS in FL patients. Confirmation and validation of these correlations may facilitate early interpretation of NHL trials.

  8. Small Business Innovation Research GRC Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment for 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) for NASA Glenn Research Center. The report also highlights the number of Phase I, Phase II, and Post-Phase II contracts awarded by mission directorate. The 2015 Phase I contract awards to companies in Ohio and their corresponding technologies are also discussed.

  9. A phase I/II trial of AT9283, a selective inhibitor of aurora kinase in children with relapsed or refractory acute leukemia: challenges to run early phase clinical trials for children with leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vormoor, B; Veal, G J; Griffin, M J; Boddy, A V; Irving, J; Minto, L; Case, M; Banerji, U; Swales, K E; Tall, J R; Moore, A S; Toguchi, M; Acton, G; Dyer, K; Schwab, C; Harrison, C J; Grainger, J D; Lancaster, D; Kearns, P; Hargrave, D; Vormoor, J

    2017-06-01

    Aurora kinases regulate mitosis and are commonly overexpressed in leukemia. This phase I/IIa study of AT9283, a multikinase inhibitor, was designed to identify maximal tolerated doses, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic activity in children with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. The trial suffered from poor recruitment and terminated early, therefore failing to identify its primary endpoints. AT9283 caused tolerable toxicity, but failed to show clinical responses. Future trials should be based on robust preclinical data that provide an indication of which patients may benefit from the experimental agent, and recruitment should be improved through international collaborations and early combination with established treatment strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Induction of a pathological complete response by four courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer: early results of the randomized phase II COMPASS trial.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takaki; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yuichi; Matsui, Takanori; Kimura, Yutaka; Hirabayashi, Naoki; Mikata, Shoki; Iwahashi, Makoto; Fukushima, Ryoji; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Morita, Satoshi; Miyashita, Yumi; Tsuburaya, Aakira; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis for stage 3 gastric cancer is not satisfactory, even with S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy. A randomized phase II trial was conducted to compare two and four courses of neoadjuvant S-1/cisplatin (SC) and paclitaxel/cisplatin (PC) using a two-by-two factorial design for locally advanced gastric cancer. The primary endpoint was overall survival. We clarified the impact of these regimens on the secondary endpoints, including the clinical and pathological responses, chemotherapy-related toxicities, and surgical results. Patients received S-1 (80 mg/m(2) for 21 days with 1 week's rest)/cisplatin (60 mg/m(2) at day 8) or paclitaxel/cisplatin (80 and 25 mg/m(2), respectively, on days 1, 8, and 15 with 1 week's rest) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Eighty-three patients were assigned to arm A (two courses of SC, n = 21), arm B (four courses of SC, n = 20), arm C (two courses of PC, n = 21), and arm D (four courses of PC, n = 21). Pathological response rate was 43 % in arm A, 40 % in arm B, 29 % in arm C, and 38 % in arm D. Pathological complete response was only observed in arms B (10 %) and D (10 %). Most bone marrow toxicities, nausea, vomiting, alopecia, and fatigue were slightly higher but acceptable in arms B and D. Grade 3/4 surgical morbidities were not commonly observed in all four arms. Pathological complete response could be induced by four courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy without a marked increase of toxicities, regardless of a SC or PC regimen.

  11. Early results of multicenter phase II trial of perioperative oxaliplatin and capecitabine without radiotherapy for high-risk rectal cancer: CORONA I study.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, T; Uehara, K; Nakayama, G; Ishigure, K; Kobayashi, S; Hiramatsu, K; Nakayama, H; Yamashita, K; Sakamoto, E; Tojima, Y; Kawai, S; Kodera, Y; Nagino, M

    2016-06-01

    Perioperative introduction of developed chemotherapy into the treatment strategy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) may be a promising option. However, the most prevalent treatment for high-risk LARC remains preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in Western countries. A phase II trial was undertaken to evaluate safety and efficacy of perioperative XELOX without radiotherapy (RT) for patients with high-risk LARC. Patients received 4 cycles of XELOX before and after surgery, respectively. Primary endpoint was disease-free survival. We enrolled 41 patients between June 2012 and April 2014. The completion rate of the preoperative XELOX was 90.3%. Twenty-nine patients (70.7%) could start postoperative XELOX, 15 of these patients (51.7%) completed 4 cycles. Allergic reaction to oxaliplatin was experienced by 5 patients (17.2%) during postoperative XELOX. One patient received additional RT after preoperative XELOX. Consequently, the remaining 40 patients underwent primary resection. Major complications occurred in 6 of 40 patients (15.0%). Pathological complete response (pCR) rate was 12.2%, and good tumor regression was exhibited in 31.7%. N down-staging (cN+ to ypN0) and T down-staging were detected in 56.7% and 52.5%, respectively. Clinical T4 tumor was a predictor of poor pathological response (p < 0.001). We could show the favorable pCR rate after preoperative XELOX alone. However, the T and N down-staging rate was likely to be insufficient. When tumor regression is essential for curative resection, the use of preoperative CRT is likely to be recommended. For patients with massive LN metastasis, the additional Bev to NAC might be a promising option. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Phase II pilot trial to evaluate safety and efficacy of ferroquine against early Plasmodium falciparum in an induced blood-stage malaria infection study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James S; Rückle, Thomas; Djeriou, Elhadj; Cantalloube, Cathy; Ter-Minassian, Daniel; Baker, Mark; O'Rourke, Peter; Griffin, Paul; Marquart, Louise; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Möhrle, Jörg J

    2016-09-13

    Ferroquine (SSR97193) is a candidate anti-malarial currently undergoing clinical trials for malaria. To better understand its pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters the compound was tested in the experimentally induced blood stage malaria infection model in volunteers. Male and non-pregnant female aged 18-50 years were screened for this phase II, controlled, single-centre clinical trial. Subjects were inoculated with ~1800 viable Plasmodium falciparum 3D7A-infected human erythrocytes, and treated with a single-dose of 800 mg ferroquine. Blood samples were taken at defined time-points to measure PK and PD parameters. The blood concentration of ferroquine and its active metabolite, SSR97213, were measured on dry blood spot samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Parasitaemia and emergence of gametocytes were monitored by quantitative PCR. Safety was determined by recording adverse events and monitoring clinical laboratory assessments during the course of the study. Eight subjects were enrolled into the study, inoculated with infected erythrocytes and treated with 800 mg ferroquine. Ferroquine was rapidly absorbed with maximal exposure after 4-8 and 4-12 h exposure for SSR97213. Non-compartmental PK analysis resulted in estimates for half-lives of 10.9 and 23.8 days for ferroquine and SSR97213, respectively. Parasite clearance as reported by parasite reduction ratio was 162.9 (95 % CI 141-188) corresponding to a parasite clearance half-life of 6.5 h (95 % CI: 6.4-6.7 h). PK/PD modelling resulted in a predicted minimal parasiticidal concentration of 20 ng/mL, and the single dosing tested in this study was predicted to maintain an exposure above this threshold for 454 h (37.8 days). Although ferroquine was overall well tolerated, transient elevated transaminase levels were observed in three subjects. Paracetamol was the only concomitant treatment among the two out of these three subjects

  13. First results from GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    Gerda is designed for a background-free search of 76Ge neutrinoless double-β decay, using bare Ge detectors in liquid Ar. The experiment was upgraded after the successful completion of Phase I to double the target mass and further reduce the background. Newly-designed Ge detectors were installed along with LAr scintillation sensors. Phase II of data-taking started in Dec 2015 with approximately 36 kg of Ge detectors and is currently ongoing. The first results based on 10.8 kg· yr of exposure are presented. The background goal of 10-3 cts/(keV· kg· yr) is achieved and a search for neutrinoless double-β decay is performed by combining Phase I and II data. No signal is found and a new limit is set at T1/20ν > 5.3 \\cdot {1025} yr (90% C.L.).

  14. SAGE II measurements of early Pinatubo aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    SAGE II satellite measurements of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption cloud in the stratosphere during June, July, and early August 1991 show that aerosols in the tropics reached as high as 29 km altitude with most of the cloud between 20 and 25 km. The most optically thick portions of the cloud covered latitudes from 10 deg S to 30 deg N during the early part of this period. By late July, high stratospheric optical depths were observed to at least 70 deg N, with the high values north of about 30 deg N from layers below 20 km. High pressure systems in both hemispheres were observed to be correlated with the movement of volcanic material at 21 km into the westerly jet stream at high southern latitudes and similarly to high northern latitudes at 16 km. By August, the entire Southern Hemisphere had experienced a 10-fold increase in optical depth relative to early July due to layers above 20 km. Initial mass calculations using SAGE II data place the aerosol produced from this eruption at 20 to 30 megatons, well above the 12 megatons produced by El Chichon.

  15. JWST Operations and the Phase I and II Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Tracy L.

    2010-07-01

    The JWST operations and Phase I and Phase II process will build upon our knowledge on the current system in use for HST. The primary observing overheads associated with JWST observations, both direct and indirect, are summarized. While some key operations constraints for JWST may cause deviations from the HST model for proposal planning, the overall interface to JWST planning will use the APT and will appear similar to the HST interface. The requirement is to have a proposal planning model simlar to HST, where proposals submitted to the TAC must have at least the minimum amount of information necessary for assessment of the strength of the science. However, a goal of the JWST planning process is to have the submitted Phase I proposal in executable form, and as complete as possible for many programs. JWST will have significant constraints on the spacecraft pointing and orient, so it is beneficial for the planning process to have these scheduling constraints on programs defined as early as possible. The guide field of JWST is also much smaller than the HST guide field, so searches for available guide stars for JWST science programs must be done at the Phase I deadline. The long range observing plan for each JWST cycle will be generated intially from the TAC accepted programs at the Phase I deadline, and the LRP will be refined after the Phase II deadline when all scheduling constraints are defined.

  16. Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Archive Home Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings share Posted on December 6, 2013 | Assessment and Early Restoration Restoration Area Title: Phase III Early on the draft plan for the third phase of Early Restoration, which proposes more than $625 million in

  17. M15. Early Intervention in Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome: A Phase II Study Evaluating Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Oral BI 409306

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Richard; Woods, Scott; Cannon, Tyrone; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Mathalon, Daniel; McGuire, Philip; Fillon, Gwenaëlle; Rosenbrock, Holger; Sand, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) represents a patient subgroup (often adolescents), who exhibit motor, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral alterations between those of healthy individuals and those with psychotic disorders. There is no approved pharmacologic treatment for prevention of first episode psychosis (FEP) in this population. BI 409306, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-9 inhibitor that may improve N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) signaling, is in development for early intervention in APS. Methods: We describe the design of a 52-week proof-of-concept study to investigate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of BI 409306 vs placebo in patients with APS (BI study 1289.32). Results: This will be a multinational, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study. Eligible patients with APS (determined by the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes [SIPS]) will be 16–30 years of age, with a screening risk profile based on the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS) algorithm [1] indicative of >35% risk of conversion to psychosis within the next 52 weeks. In total, 300 patients are planned for randomization (1:1) to oral BI 409306 or placebo for 52 weeks, with a 4-week follow-up. The primary endpoint will be time to FEP, assessed by positive symptoms (Scale of Prodromal Symptoms [SOPS] criteria) in the psychotic range. Secondary endpoints include change from baseline on the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) total and the composite score of Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) after 24 and 52 weeks of treatment. Change from baseline in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores (positive and negative item scores and total score), Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scale score, and Patient Global Impressions-Improvements (PGI-I) score will also be assessed after 52 weeks of treatment. Functional measures

  18. 78 FR 76789 - Additional Connect America Fund Phase II Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... inspection and copying during normal business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Portals II, 445... Phase I to Phase II. 2. Timing of Phase II Support Disbursements. In the USF/ICC Transformation Order... language in paragraph 180 of the USF/ICC Transformation Order. We now seek to more fully develop the record...

  19. The Use of Satellite Imagery in the Monitoring and Forecasting of Sargassum Seaweed in the Caribbean Phase II of the Sargassum Early Advisory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, J.; Webster, R.; Linton, T.; Hill, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the Southern Caribbean was plagued by an unusually massive amount of seaweed wrack, an event so rare that locals couldn't think of a season where Sargassum had been that abundant, for sixty years. At this time, the SEAS program had been created, however the path of the seaweed from the Atlantic to the beaches of Texas had yet to be determined. This event sparked the idea that seaweed migrated through the Caribbean then North through the Yucatan Peninsula. While this idea was only partially correct, it did initiate the second phase of the SEAS Program. As it turns out, the seaweed drifts through the Northern passages of the Caribbean (Windward, Mona, and Anegada Passages) and migrates westward, rather than entering the Caribbean from the Southeastern islands (the Virgin Islands down to Granada). Monitoring these passes using ground-truthing and local reports has proven difficult, so in order to determine the presence of seaweed, one can use remote sensing. NASA's satellite Landsat 7 produces images of the passes every eight days, allowing the SEAS Team to monitor the Sargassum. These images have a sufficient resolution to see seaweed mats in the ocean. Based on several factors, such as ocean and wind currents, time of the year, and size of seaweed mats, one can ultimately forecast Sargassum as it makes its journey through the loop system. The seaweed is monitored as it migrates westward, and eventually gets pushed North in massive blooms as a result of neritic waters. These blooms can travel North in warm water gyres. The Sargassum can then break off and wash up on the beaches of Texas or get caught in the Gulf Stream where it is flushed out the Florida Straits back into the Atlantic. Remote sensing makes the first ever system of monitoring Sargassum possible and allows for advanced warning of these troublesome seaweed wracks up and down the coast.

  20. Status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index of 10-2 cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. A lower limit on the half-life of the 0νββ decay of 76Ge was set to 2.1.1025 yr (at 90% C.L.). The aim of Phase II is to reach a sensitivity of the half-life of about 1026 yr. To increase the exposure thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by a light instrumentation to read out argon scintillation light. In April 2015 the light instrumentation together with eight BEGe detectors has been successfully deployed in the GERDA cryostat. In a commissioning run it was shown that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from 214Bi and 208Tl decays, were suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. We are confident to reach a background index of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr) which is the design goal for GERDA Phase II.

  1. High-precision broad-band linear polarimetry of early-type binaries. II. Variable, phase-locked polarization in triple Algol-type system λ Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Sakanoi, T.; Kagitani, M.; Yoneda, M.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. To study the binary geometry of the classic Algol-type triple system λ Tau, we have searched for polarization variations over the orbital cycle of the inner semi-detached binary, arising from light scattering in the circumstellar material formed from ongoing mass transfer. Phase-locked polarization curves provide an independent estimate for the inclination i, orientation Ω, and the direction of the rotation for the inner orbit. Methods: Linear polarization measurements of λ Tau in the B, V , and R passbands with the high-precision Dipol-2 polarimeter have been carried out. The data have been obtained on the 60 cm KVA (Observatory Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain) and Tohoku 60 cm (Haleakala, Hawaii, USA) remotely controlled telescopes over 69 observing nights. Analytic and numerical modelling codes are used to interpret the data. Results: Optical polarimetry revealed small intrinsic polarization in λ Tau with 0.05% peak-to-peak variation over the orbital period of 3.95 d. The variability pattern is typical for binary systems showing strong second harmonic of the orbital period. We apply a standard analytical method and our own light scattering models to derive parameters of the inner binary orbit from the fit to the observed variability of the normalized Stokes parameters. From the analytical method, the average for three passband values of orbit inclination i = 76° + 1°/-2° and orientation Ω = 15°(195°) ± 2° are obtained. Scattering models give similar inclination values i = 72-76° and orbit orientation ranging from Ω = 16°(196°) to Ω = 19°(199°), depending on the geometry of the scattering cloud. The rotation of the inner system, as seen on the plane of the sky, is clockwise. We have found that with the scattering model the best fit is obtained for the scattering cloud located between the primary and the secondary, near the inner Lagrangian point or along the Roche lobe surface of the secondary facing the primary. The inclination i

  2. Identifying Functional Neighborhoods within the Cell Nucleus: Proximity Analysis of Early S-Phase Replicating Chromatin Domains to Sites of Transcription, RNA Polymerase II, HP1γ, Matrin 3 and SAF-A

    PubMed Central

    Malyavantham, Kishore S; Bhattacharya, Sambit; Barbeitos, Marcos; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Xu, Jinhui; Fackelmayer, Frank O; Berezney, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Higher order chromatin organization in concert with epigenetic regulation is a key process that determines gene expression at the global level. The organization of dynamic chromatin domains and their associated protein factors is intertwined with nuclear function to create higher levels of functional zones within the cell nucleus. As a step towards elucidating the organization and dynamics of these functional zones, we have investigated the spatial proximities among a constellation of functionally related sites that are found within euchromatic regions of the cell nucleus including: HP1γ, nascent transcript sites (TS), active DNA replicating sites in early S phase (PCNA) and RNA polymerase II sites. We report close associations among these different sites with proximity values specific for each combination. Analysis of matrin 3 and SAF-A sites demonstrates that these nuclear matrix proteins are highly proximal with the functionally related sites as well as to each other and display closely aligned and overlapping regions following application of the minimal spanning tree (MST) algorithm to visualize higher order network-like patterns. Our findings suggest that multiple factors within the nuclear microenvironment collectively form higher order combinatorial arrays of function. We propose a model for the organization of these functional neighborhoods which takes into account the proximity values of the individual sites and their spatial organization within the nuclear architecture. PMID:18618731

  3. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    SciT

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Incmore » developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.« less

  4. Pretest Predictions for Phase II Ventilation Tests

    SciT

    Yiming Sun

    The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, and concrete pipe walls that will be developed during the Phase II ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as inputs to validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation, and be used to support the repository subsurface design. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the Phase II ventilation tests, and describe numerical methods that are used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. The calculation is limitedmore » to thermal effect only. This engineering work activity is conducted in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Subsurface Performance Testing for License Application (LA) for Fiscal Year 2001'' (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This technical work plan (TWP) includes an AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', activity evaluation (CRWMS M&O 2000d, Addendum A) that has determined this activity is subject to the YMP quality assurance (QA) program. The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12Q procedure, ''Calculations''. Additional background information regarding this activity is contained in the ''Development Plan for Ventilation Pretest Predictive Calculation'' (DP) (CRWMS M&O 2000a).« less

  5. Assessment of Operational Automated Guideway Systems - Airtrans (Phase II)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-01-01

    This study, Phase II, completes the assessment of AIRTRANS, the automated guideway system located at the Dallas-Fort Worth Airport. The Phase I assessment report: "Assessment of Operational Automated Guideway Systems--AIRTRANS (Phase I)" (PB-261 339)...

  6. Beryllium and boron constraints on an early Galactic bright phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal-deficient halo dwarfs are used to constrain a 'bright phase' of enhanced cosmic-ray flux in the early Galaxy. Assuming that this Be and B arises from cosmic-ray spallation in the early Galaxy, limits are placed on the intensity of the early (Population II) cosmic-ray flux relative to the present (Population I) flux. A simple estimate of bounds on the flux ratio is 1 - 40. This upper bound would restrict galaxies like our own from producing neutrino fluxes that would be detectable in any currently proposed detectors. It is found that the relative enhancement of the early flux varies inversely with the relative time of enhancement. It is noted that associated gamma-ray production via pp - pi sup 0 pp may be a significant contribution to the gamma-ray background above 100 MeV.

  7. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II--Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    four phases. Phase I, Initial Assessment/ Records Search, is designed to identify possible hazardous waste contami- nated sites and potential...7 71 -. - - IL’ -, 1% 33 AihlIII Is 33 n~iL t iiC UII! ii CL C LU 1-3, Phase II, Confirmation and Quantification, is designed to confirm the...additional monitoring data upon which design of mitigative actions are based. In Phase III, Technology Base Development, appropriate technology is selected and

  8. Gray's Ferry project: Phase II. Final report

    SciT

    Not Available

    A three-story rowhouse building was retrofitted to demonstrate solar heating and energy conservation in the Philadelphia, PA area. The retrofit included a solar greenhouse, a Trombe wall, and a solar hot water system. The Phase II Project funding was used for four specific endeavors: (1) tours; (2) brochures/literature; (3) a slide show presentation; and (4) signage showing the design of the active and passive solar systems. Three special workshops and more than fifteen tours of the building were given. A DOE funded study showed that a Trombe wall was the most cost-effective solar application for the 183,000 two-story brick rowmore » houses in the city. (BCS)« less

  9. Electrodeless Plasma Source: Phase II Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth

    2012-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies, in collaboration with the University of Washington, has developed a low-impurity, electrode-less plasma source (EPS) for start-up and source plasma injection for fusion science applications. In order to not interfere with the experiment, a pre-ionizer/plasma source must meet a few critical criteria including low impurity production, low electromagnetic interference (EMI), and minimal disruption to the magnetic geometry of the experiment. This system was designed to be UHV compatible and bakable. Here we present the results of the EPS Phase II upgrade. The output plasma density was increased by two orders of magnitude to >10^17 m-3 in hydrogen with no magnetic field injected. EPS system integration with the HIT-SI experiment has begun.

  10. MesoNAM Verification Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2011-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron Launch Weather Officers use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts to support launch weather operations. In Phase I, the performance of the model at KSC/CCAFS was measured objectively by conducting a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature, and dew point to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. In Phase II, the AMU modified the current tool by adding an additional 15 months of model output to the database and recalculating the verification statistics. The bias, standard deviation of bias, Root Mean Square Error, and Hypothesis test for bias were calculated to verify the performance of the model. The results indicated that the accuracy decreased as the forecast progressed, there was a diurnal signal in temperature with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, and there was a diurnal signal in dewpoint temperature with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night.

  11. The VRT gas turbine combustor - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melconian, Jerry O.; Mongia, Hukam C.; Nguyen, Hung L.

    1992-01-01

    An innovative annular combustor configuration is being developed for aircraft and other gas turbine engines. This design has the potential of permitting higher turbine inlet temperatures by reducing the pattern factor and providing a major reduction in NO(x) emission. The design concept is based on a Variable Residence Time (VRT) technique which allows large fuel particles adequate time to completely burn in the circumferentially mixed primary zone. High durability of the combustor is achieved by dual-function use of the incoming air. In Phase I, the feasibility of the concept was demonstrated by water analogue tests and 3D computer modeling. The flow pattern within the combustor was as predicted. The VRT combustor uses only half the number of fuel nozzles of the conventional configuration. In Phase II, hardware was designed, procured, and tested under conditions simulating typical supersonic civil aircraft cruise conditions to the limits of the rig. The test results confirmed many of the superior performance predictions of the VRT concept. The Hastelloy X liner showed no signs of distress after nearly six hours of tests using JP5 fuel.

  12. Antimalarial compounds in Phase II clinical development.

    PubMed

    Held, Jana; Jeyaraj, Sankarganesh; Kreidenweiss, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Malaria is a major health problem in endemic countries and chemotherapy remains the most important tool in combating it. Treatment options are limited and essentially rely on a single drug class - the artemisinins. Efforts are ongoing to restrict the evolving threat of artemisinin resistance but declining sensitivity has been reported. Fueled by the ambitious aim of malaria eradication, novel antimalarial compounds, with improved properties, are now in the progressive phase of drug development. Herein, the authors describe antimalarial compounds currently in Phase II clinical development and present the results of these investigations. Thanks to recent efforts, a number of promising antimalarial compounds are now in the pipeline. First safety data have been generated for all of these candidates, although their efficacy as antimalarials is still unclear for most of them. Of particular note are KAE609, KAF156 and DSM265, which are of chemical scaffolds new to malaria chemotherapy and would truly diversify antimalarial options. Apart from SAR97276, which also has a novel chemical scaffold that has had its development stopped, all other compounds in the pipeline belong to already known substance classes, which have been chemically modified. At this moment in time, there is not one standout compound that will revolutionize malaria treatment but several compounds that will add to its control in the future.

  13. Immediately Outcomes of Lower-Income Participants in Minnesota's Universal Access Early Childhood Family Education. Early Childhood Family Education (ECFC) Evaluation Series; Changing Times, Changing Families-Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Marsha R.

    The Minnesota Early Childhood Family Education (ECFE) program is a voluntary public school family support and education program for parents of children from birth to kindergarten, and is offered in 360 school districts and the four tribal schools. An evaluation was conducted to learn what types of immediate outcomes could be expected for…

  14. Phase V of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment. The project will acquire land along Florida million. Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (pdf, 10 MB) Draft Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (Executive Summary) (2 MB) Phase V Fact Sheet (pdf, 2 MB) Gulf

  15. Accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3 Gy/fraction) combined with concurrent chemotherapy for patients with unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer: preliminary results of an early terminated phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Cang; Wang, Quan-Yu; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Xue-Ji; Wang, Na; Liu, Yue-E; Zong, Jie; Guo, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Dong-Ying; Lin, Qiang

    2016-04-23

    Increasing the biological effective dose (BED) of radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can increase local control rates and improve overall survival. Compared with conventional fractionated radiotherapy, accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy can yield higher BED, shorten the total treatment time, and theoretically obtain better efficacy. However, currently, there is no optimal hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen. Based on phase I trial results, we performed this phase II trial to further evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy(3-DCRT) combined with concurrent chemotherapy for patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC. Patients with previously untreated unresectable stage III NSCLC received 3-DCRT with a total dose of 69 Gy, delivered at 3 Gy per fraction, once daily, five fractions per week, completed within 4.6 weeks. At the same time, platinum doublet chemotherapy was applied. After 12 patients were enrolled in the group, the trial was terminated early. There were five cases of grade III radiation esophagitis, of which four cases completed the radiation doses of 51 Gy, 51 Gy, 54 Gy, and 66 Gy, and one case had 16 days of radiation interruption. The incidence of grade III acute esophagitis in patients receiving an irradiation dose per fraction ≥2.7 Gy on the esophagus was 83.3% (5/6). The incidence of symptomatic grade III radiation pneumonitis among the seven patients who completed 69 Gy according to the plan was 28.6% (2/7). The median local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were not achieved; the 1-year LC rate was 59.3%, and the 1-year OS rate was 78.6%. For unresectable stage III NSCLC, the accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy with a total dose of 69 Gy (3 Gy/f) combined with concurrent chemotherapy might result in severe radiation esophagitis and pneumonitis to severely affect the completion of the radiotherapy. Therefore, we considered that

  16. Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) offers the promise of utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict individual responses to drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Early-phase clinical trial PGx applications can identify human genome variations that are meaningful to study design, selection of participants, allocation of resources and clinical research ethics. Results can inform later-phase study design and pipeline developmental decisions. Nevertheless, our review of the clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that PGx is rarely used by drug developers. Of the total 323 trials that included PGx as an outcome, 80% have been conducted by academic institutions after initial regulatory approval. Barriers for the application of PGx are discussed. We propose a framework for the role of PGx in early-phase drug development and recommend PGx be universally considered in study design, result interpretation and hypothesis generation for later-phase studies, but PGx results from underpowered studies should not be used by themselves to terminate drug-development programs. PMID:23837482

  17. Phase III of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    information about this phase of Early Restoration, including fact sheets on each project. The final Phase III 44 projects are documented in a final Record of Decision. Information about Phase III of Early Archive Home Phase III of Early Restoration Phase III of Early Restoration Beach habitat would be restored

  18. Design of Phase II Non-inferiority Trials.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the development of inexpensive treatment regimens and less invasive surgical procedures, we are confronted with non-inferiority study objectives. A non-inferiority phase III trial requires a roughly four times larger sample size than that of a similar standard superiority trial. Because of the large required sample size, we often face feasibility issues to open a non-inferiority trial. Furthermore, due to lack of phase II non-inferiority trial design methods, we do not have an opportunity to investigate the efficacy of the experimental therapy through a phase II trial. As a result, we often fail to open a non-inferiority phase III trial and a large number of non-inferiority clinical questions still remain unanswered. In this paper, we want to develop some designs for non-inferiority randomized phase II trials with feasible sample sizes. At first, we review a design method for non-inferiority phase III trials. Subsequently, we propose three different designs for non-inferiority phase II trials that can be used under different settings. Each method is demonstrated with examples. Each of the proposed design methods is shown to require a reasonable sample size for non-inferiority phase II trials. The three different non-inferiority phase II trial designs are used under different settings, but require similar sample sizes that are typical for phase II trials.

  19. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved repowering...

  20. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved repowering...

  1. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved repowering...

  2. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved repowering...

  3. 40 CFR 72.44 - Phase II repowering extensions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Compliance Plan and Compliance Options § 72.44 Phase II repowering... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section may include in the unit's Phase II Acid Rain... authority shall issue the Acid Rain portion of the operating permit including: (A) The approved repowering...

  4. A prospective phase II trial of response adapted whole brain radiotherapy after high dose methotrexate based chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed primary central nervous system lymphoma-analysis of acute toxicity profile and early clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Narayan; Biswas, Ahitagni; Gogia, Ajay; Sahoo, Ranjit Kumar; Garg, Ajay; Nehra, Ashima; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Bhasker, Suman; Singh, Manmohan; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Chawla, Rohan; Joshi, Garima; Kumar, Lalit; Chander, Subhash

    2018-04-09

    The treatment of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) comprises high dose methotrexate (HDMTX) based chemotherapy followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), the major drawback of which is long term neurotoxicity. We intended to assess the feasibility of response adapted WBRT in PCNSL in the Indian setting. We screened 32 patients and enrolled 22 eligible patients with PCNSL from 2015 to 2017 in a prospective phase II trial. The patients underwent five 2-weekly cycles of induction chemotherapy with rituximab, methotrexate, vincristine, procarbazine. Patients with complete response(CR) to induction chemotherapy were given reduced dose WBRT 23.4 Gy/13 fractions/2.5 weeks while those with partial response (PR), stable or progressive disease (SD or PD) were given standard dose WBRT 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks. Thereafter two cycles of consolidation chemotherapy with cytarabine were given. The primary endpoints of the study were assessment of response rate (RR) and progression free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints of the study were assessment of overall survival (OS), toxicity profile of treatment and serial changes in quality of life and neuropsychological parameters. Out of 19 patients who completed HDMTX based chemotherapy, 10 (52.63%) patients achieved CR, 8 (42.11%) patients had PR and 1 patient had PD. After a median follow-up period of 11.25 months, the estimated median OS was 19 months. The actuarial rates of PFS and OS were respectively 94.1 and 68.2% at 1 year and 50.2 and 48.5% at 2 years. Three patients in reduced dose WBRT arm had recurrence and two of them died of progressive disease, whereas there was no recurrence or disease related death in standard dose WBRT arm. On univariate analysis of PFS, age ≤ 50 years and use of standard dose WBRT (45 Gy) led to significantly improved outcome (p value 0.03 and 0.02 respectively). In patients with PCNSL, reduced dose WBRT after CR to HDMTX based chemotherapy may lead to suboptimal clinical outcome due

  5. Phase IV of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Trustees published the Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments. The plan habitats. Useful Links: Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments (pdf, 4.8 MB ) Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments Executive Summary (pdf, 729 KB

  6. The National Geographic Names Data Base: Phase II instructions

    Orth, Donald J.; Payne, Roger L.

    1987-01-01

    not recorded on topographic maps be added. The systematic collection of names from other sources, including maps, charts, and texts, is termed Phase II. In addition, specific types of features not compiled during Phase I are encoded and added to the data base. Other names of importance to researchers and users, such as historical and variant names, are also included. The rules and procedures for Phase II research, compilation, and encoding are contained in this publication.

  7. New Round of Studies Begin in Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Division of Cancer Prevention’s Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program, also known as the Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials, is beginning a new round of studies in the effort toward systematic early clinical development of promising preventive agents for people at increased risk of developing cancer. |

  8. Using phase II data for the analysis of phase III studies: An application in rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Simon; Neuenschwander, Beat; Röver, Christian; Friede, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Clinical research and drug development in orphan diseases are challenging, since large-scale randomized studies are difficult to conduct. Formally synthesizing the evidence is therefore of great value, yet this is rarely done in the drug-approval process. Phase III designs that make better use of phase II data can facilitate drug development in orphan diseases. A Bayesian meta-analytic approach is used to inform the phase III study with phase II data. It is particularly attractive, since uncertainty of between-trial heterogeneity can be dealt with probabilistically, which is critical if the number of studies is small. Furthermore, it allows quantifying and discounting the phase II data through the predictive distribution relevant for phase III. A phase III design is proposed which uses the phase II data and considers approval based on a phase III interim analysis. The design is illustrated with a non-inferiority case study from a Food and Drug Administration approval in herpetic keratitis (an orphan disease). Design operating characteristics are compared to those of a traditional design, which ignores the phase II data. An analysis of the phase II data reveals good but insufficient evidence for non-inferiority, highlighting the need for a phase III study. For the phase III study supported by phase II data, the interim analysis is based on half of the patients. For this design, the meta-analytic interim results are conclusive and would justify approval. In contrast, based on the phase III data only, interim results are inconclusive and require further evidence. To accelerate drug development for orphan diseases, innovative study designs and appropriate methodology are needed. Taking advantage of randomized phase II data when analyzing phase III studies looks promising because the evidence from phase II supports informed decision-making. The implementation of the Bayesian design is straightforward with public software such as R.

  9. Durability of lightweight concrete : Phase II : wetting and drying tests, Phase III : freezing and thawing tests.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1966-12-01

    This report describes a laboratory research program on the durability of lightweight concrete. Two phases of a three phase study are covered by this report, while the remaining phase is still under study. The two phases being reported are Phase II - ...

  10. Carbon footprint estimator, phase II : volume II - technical appendices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    The GASCAP model was developed to provide a software tool for analysis of the life-cycle GHG : emissions associated with the construction and maintenance of transportation projects. This phase : of development included techniques for estimating emiss...

  11. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in thismore » issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.« less

  12. Planning Targets for Phase II Watershed Implementation Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On August 1, 2011, EPA provided planning targets for nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment for the Phase II Watershed Implementation Plans (WIPs) of the Chesapeake Bay TMDL. This page provides the letters containing those planning targets.

  13. North Carolina "Sealed Corridor" Phase I, II, and III Assessment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-10-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) tasked the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center to document the further success of the North Carolina DOT "Sealed Corridor" project through Phases I, II, and III. The Sealed Corridor is the se...

  14. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  16. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  17. Improving traffic safety culture in Iowa : phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    Phase II of Improving Traffic Safety Culture in Iowa focuses on producing actions that will improve the traffic safety culture across the state, and involves collaboration among the three large public universities in Iowa: Iowa State University, Univ...

  18. AI And Early Vision - Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1989-08-01

    A quarter of a century ago I introduced two paradigms into psychology which in the intervening years have had a direct impact on the psychobiology of early vision and an indirect one on artificial intelligence (AI or machine vision). The first, the computer-generated random-dot stereogram (RDS) paradigm (Julesz, 1960) at its very inception posed a strategic question both for AI and neurophysiology. The finding that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis) is possible without the many enigmatic cues of monocular form recognition - as assumed previously - demonstrated that stereopsis with its basic problem of finding matches between corresponding random aggregates of dots in the left and right visual fields became ripe for modeling. Indeed, the binocular matching problem of stereopsis opened up an entire field of study, eventually leading to the computational models of David Marr (1982) and his coworkers. The fusion of RDS had an even greater impact on neurophysiologists - including Hubel and Wiesel (1962) - who realized that stereopsis must occur at an early stage, and can be studied easier than form perception. This insight recently culminated in the studies by Gian Poggio (1984) who found binocular-disparity - tuned neurons in the input stage to the visual cortex (layer IVB in V1) in the monkey that were selectively triggered by dynamic RDS. Thus the first paradigm led to a strategic insight: that with stereoscopic vision there is no camouflage, and as such was advantageous for our primate ancestors to evolve the cortical machinery of stereoscopic vision to capture camouflaged prey (insects) at a standstill. Amazingly, although stereopsis evolved relatively late in primates, it captured the very input stages of the visual cortex. (For a detailed review, see Julesz, 1986a)

  19. Barriers to participation in a phase II cardiac rehabilitation programme.

    PubMed

    Mak, Y M W; Chan, W K; Yue, C S S

    2005-12-01

    To identify barriers to participation in a phase II cardiac rehabilitation programme and measures that may enhance participation. Prospective study. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. Cardiac patients recruited for a phase I cardiac rehabilitation programme from July 2002 to January 2003. Reasons for not participating in a phase II cardiac rehabilitation programme. Of the 193 patients recruited for a phase I cardiac rehabilitation programme, 152 (79%) patients, with a mean age of 70.3 years (standard deviation, 11.9 years), did not proceed to phase II programme. Eleven (7%) deaths occurred before commencement of phase II and 74 (49%) patients were considered physically unfit. Reasons for the latter included fractures, pain, or degenerative changes in the lower limbs (24%), and co-morbidities such as cerebrovascular accident (19%), chronic renal failure (11%), congestive heart failure (9%), and unstable angina (8%). Phase II rehabilitation was postponed until after completion of scheduled cardiac interventions in 13% of patients. Failure of physicians to arrange the pre-phase II exercise stress test as per protocol was reported in 7% of patients. Other reasons were reported: work or time conflicts (16%), non-compliance with cardiac treatment (5%), financial constraints (4%), self-exercise (3%), fear after exercise stress testing (3%), and patients returning to their original cardiologists for treatment (3%). A significant (79%) proportion of patients did not proceed to a phase II cardiac rehabilitation programme for a variety of reasons. These included physical unfitness, work or time conflicts, and need to attend scheduled cardiac interventions. Further studies are required to determine how to overcome obstacles to cardiac rehabilitation.

  20. Upgrade for Phase II of the Gerda experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Gerda collaboration is performing a sensitive search for neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The upgrade of the Gerda experiment from Phase I to Phase II has been concluded in December 2015. The first Phase II data release shows that the goal to suppress the background by one order of magnitude compared to Phase I has been achieved. Gerda is thus the first experiment that will remain "background-free" up to its design exposure (100 kg year). It will reach thereby a half-life sensitivity of more than 10^{26} year within 3 years of data collection. This paper describes in detail the modifications and improvements of the experimental setup for Phase II and discusses the performance of individual detector components.

  1. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News Publications Press Releases Story programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  2. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Pensacola, FL (rescheduled) | NOAA

    Restoration Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  3. Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA) project - Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, C.; Stephany, S.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.

    2010-02-01

    The configuration of the second phase of the Brazilian Decimetric Array (BDA), installed at Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil (Longitude 45° 0‧ 20″ W and Latitude 22° 41‧ 19″ S), is a T-shaped array where 21 antennas are being added to existing 5 antennas of the first phase. In the third phase, in each arm of the T array, four more antennas will be added and baselines will be increased to 2.5 × 1.25 km in east-west and south directions, respectively. The antennas will be equally spaced at the distances of 250 meters from the central antenna of the T-array. Also, the frequency range will be increased to 1.2-1.7, 2.8 and 5.6 GHz. The Second phase of the BDA should be operational by the middle of 2010 and will operate in the frequency range of (1.2-1.7) GHz for solar and non solar observations. Here, we present the characteristics of the second phase of the BDA project, details of the array configuration, the u-v coverage, the synthesized beam obtained for the proposed configuration.

  4. U10 : Trusted Truck(R) II (phase B).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    Phase B of the Trusted Truck II project built on the system developed in Phase A (or Year 1). For the implementation portion of the project, systems were added to the trailer to provide additional diagnostic trailer data that can be sent to the TTM...

  5. Cement study : phases I, II, and III.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-06-01

    This report is the result of a three phase research program in which cements and aggregates from various supplier were studied in an effort to evaluate and improve various constitutents in concrete mixes. The major emphasis of this study has been on ...

  6. Advanced Traffic Signal Control Algorithms Phase II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-15

    The goal of the project was to design and implement an in-vehicle system that calculates and provide speed advice to the driver of the vehicle, using Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) and Geometric Information Description (GID) information of the signal...

  7. Digitizing Images for Curriculum 21: Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice D.

    Although visual databases exist for the study of art, architecture, geography, health care, and other areas, readily accessible sources of quality images are not available for engineering faculty interested in developing multimedia modules or for student projects. Presented here is a brief review of Phase I of the Engineering Visual Database…

  8. Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative, Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Johnson, Ryan; Kornreich, Toby; Klym, Mark; Leland, Karen

    In 1996, drawing from religious, educational, social services, media, neighborhoods, nonprofits, and health-providing sectors of the community, the Phoenix Violence Prevention Initiative (PVPI) was conceived. During Phase One of the initiative, the following seven points regarding prevention and prevention design strategies were assembled: (1)…

  9. School Library Certification Requirements - Phase II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ann Y.

    1973-01-01

    All states and the District of Columbia were asked for information on revised certification requirements for school librarians or media specialists within each state. The requirements, frequently in the original wording, are reported. (See SLJ p.22, December 1972, LJ p.4043, December 15, 1972, for Phase I.) (5 references) (Author/SM)

  10. Fire Fighter Trainer Environmental Considerations. Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-31

    NL* 2ffffffffffff m0 h~ hEhI J- L 2 2 * S * MICROCOP Y RI SOLM IION Ii SI CI AN I ’If Conrct No. 1111339-79-C-10011, Mod. No. P0007( i SFIRE FIGHTER...Phosphoric and polyphosphoric acids pose a disposal problem because phosphate compounds are environmentally controlled. Because these compounds do not meet the...acidity from use of these compounds in-a firefight- ing situation do not meet the health and safety criteria for an AFFF substitute; therefore, we

  11. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    PubMed

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. 77 FR 36958 - Proposed Requirements-Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter II DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Subtitle... Requirements--Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education and Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Proposed requirements. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education and...

  13. SELDI Validation Study Phase II — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    This project –A Comprehensive Program for the Validation of Prostate Cancer Early Detection with Novel Protein Identification Techniques -- is divided into three phases. The goal of Phase I was to assess the reproducibility and portability of Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) using protein profiles generated from serum. Phase I was recently successfully completed at six institutions using a single source of pooled sera.

  14. Mixed response and time-to-event endpoints for multistage single-arm phase II design.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xin; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying

    2015-06-04

    The objective of phase II cancer clinical trials is to determine if a treatment has sufficient activity to warrant further study. The efficiency of a conventional phase II trial design has been the object of considerable debate, particularly when the study regimen is characteristically cytostatic. At the time of development of a phase II cancer trial, we accumulated clinical experience regarding the time to progression (TTP) for similar classes of drugs and for standard therapy. By considering the time to event (TTE) in addition to the tumor response endpoint, a mixed-endpoint phase II design may increase the efficiency and ability of selecting promising cytotoxic and cytostatic agents for further development. We proposed a single-arm phase II trial design by extending the Zee multinomial method to fully use mixed endpoints with tumor response and the TTE. In this design, the dependence between the probability of response and the TTE outcome is modeled through a Gaussian copula. Given the type I and type II errors and the hypothesis as defined by the response rate (RR) and median TTE, such as median TTP, the decision rules for a two-stage phase II trial design can be generated. We demonstrated through simulation that the proposed design has a smaller expected sample size and higher early stopping probability under the null hypothesis than designs based on a single-response endpoint or a single TTE endpoint. The proposed design is more efficient for screening new cytotoxic or cytostatic agents and less likely to miss an effective agent than the alternative single-arm design.

  15. Short report: interim safety results for a phase II trial measuring the integration of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) plus surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (MISSILE-NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Palma, David A; Nguyen, Timothy K; Kwan, Keith; Gaede, Stewart; Landis, Mark; Malthaner, Richard; Fortin, Dalilah; Louie, Alexander V; Frechette, Eric; Rodrigues, George B; Yaremko, Brian; Yu, Edward; Dar, A Rashid; Lee, Ting-Yim; Gratton, Al; Warner, Andrew; Ward, Aaron; Inculet, Richard

    2017-01-27

    A phase II trial was launched to evaluate if neoadjuvant stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) before surgery improves oncologic outcomes in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report a mandated interim safety analysis for the first 10 patients who completed protocol treatment. Operable patients with biopsy-proven T1-2 N0 NSCLC were eligible. SABR was delivered using a risk-adapted fractionation (54Gy/3 fractions, 55/5 or 60/8). Surgical resection was planned 10 weeks later at a high-volume center (>200 lung cancer resections annually). Patients were imaged with dynamic positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans using 18 F-fludeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG-PET CT) and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT before SABR and again before surgery. Toxicity was recorded using CTCAE version 4.0. Twelve patients were enrolled between 09/2014 and 09/2015. Two did not undergo surgery, due to patient or surgeon preference; neither patient has developed toxicity or recurrence. For the 10 patients completing both treatments, median age was 70 (range: 54-76), 60% had T1 disease, and 60% had adenocarcinoma. Median FEV 1 was 73% predicted (range: 54-87%). Median time to surgery post-SABR was 10.1 weeks (range: 9.3-15.6 weeks). Surgery consisted of lobectomy (n = 8) or wedge resection (n = 2). Median follow-up post-SABR was 6.3 months. After combined treatment, the rate of acute grade 3-4 toxicity was 10%. There was no post-operative mortality at 90 days. The small sample size included herein precludes any definitive conclusions regarding overall toxicity rates until larger datasets are available. However, these data may inform others who are designing or conducting similar trials. NCT02136355 . Registered 8 May 2014.

  16. Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project. Phase II: Internal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundmark, Dana

    This report is based on the Alberta Education Energy Conservation Project - Phase II. The project was a follow-up to an earlier study, extending from June 1980 to June 1983, in which government funding and engineering manpower were used to conduct an energy management program in 52 selected pilot schools in 5 areas of the province. The report…

  17. World War II Radar and Early Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.

    2005-08-01

    The pattern of radio astronomy which developed in Europe and Australia followed closely the development of metre wave radar in World War II. The leading pioneers, Ryle, Lovell, Hey and Pawsey, were all in radar research establishments in the UK and Australia. They returned to universities, recruited their colleagues into research groups and immediately started on some basic observations of solar radio waves, meteor echoes, and the galactic background. There was at first little contact with conventional astronomers. This paper traces the influence of the radar scientists and of several types of radar equipment developed during WW II, notably the German Wurzburg, which was adapted for radio research in several countries. The techniques of phased arrays and antenna switching were used in radar and aircraft installations. The influence of WW II radar can be traced at least up to 10 years after the War, when radio astronomy became accepted as a natural discipline within astronomy.

  18. Phase II Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue Engineered Oral Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    experimental arm subject in the small defect study. A protocol amendment in early 2017revised the study inclusionary criteria to include all non ...construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...group phase II study to assess the safety and efficacy for use of human EVPOME for soft tissue intraoral grafting procedures compared to the “gold

  19. A two-stage patient enrichment adaptive design in phase II oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Song, James X

    2014-01-01

    Illustrated is the use of a patient enrichment adaptive design in a randomized phase II trial which allows the evaluation of treatment benefits by the biomarker expression level and makes interim adjustment according to the pre-specified rules. The design was applied to an actual phase II metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) trial in which progression-free survival (PFS) in two biomarker-defined populations is evaluated at both interim and final analyses. As an extension, a short-term biomarker is used to predict the long-term PFS in a Bayesian model in order to improve the precision of hazard ratio (HR) estimate at the interim analysis. The characteristics of the extended design are examined in a number of scenarios via simulations. The recommended adaptive design is shown to be useful in a phase II setting. When a short-term maker which correlates with the long-term PFS is available, the design can be applied in smaller early phase trials in which PFS requires longer follow-up. In summary, the adaptive design offers flexibility in randomized phase II patient enrichment trials and should be considered in an overall personalized healthcare (PHC) strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A phase II trial of tideglusib in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lovestone, Simon; Boada, Mercè; Dubois, Bruno; Hüll, Michael; Rinne, Juha O; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Calero, Miguel; Andrés, María V; Gómez-Carrillo, Belén; León, Teresa; del Ser, Teodoro

    2015-01-01

    The ARGO study was a phase II, double-blind, placebo controlled, four parallel arm trial of tideglusib in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To prove the clinical efficacy of an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), in AD. Mild to moderate (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, 14-26) AD patients on cholinesterase inhibitor and/or memantine treatment were administered tideglusib or placebo for 26 weeks. The ADAS-cog15 was the primary efficacy measure; function, cognition, behavior, and quality of life were assessed as secondary measures; cerebral atrophy in MRI and the levels of tau, amyloid-β, and BACE1 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were exploratory endpoints. 306 AD patients were randomized to active (1000 mg QD: n = 86, 1000 mg QOD: n = 90, and 500 mg QD: n = 50) or placebo (n = 85) in 55 sites in four European countries. There were no statistically significant differences between either active and placebo arms in the efficacy variables. However, BACE1 in CSF significantly decreased with treatment in a small subgroup of patients. Participants with mild AD in the 500 mg QD group showed significant responses on ADAS-cog15, MMSE, and word fluency. Diarrhea (14-18% in active, 11% placebo) and dose-dependent, mild to moderate, and fully reversible transaminase increase (9-16% in active, 3.5% placebo) were the most frequent adverse events. Short term (26 weeks) tideglusib was acceptably safe but produced no clinical benefit in this trial. However, given the non-linear dose response, especially in mildly affected patients, further dose finding studies in early disease stages and for longer duration are warranted to examine GSK-3 inhibition in AD patients.

  1. Status report of the Gerda Phase II startup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, Valerio; Gerda Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN, searches for 0νββ of 76Ge . Germanium diodes enriched to ˜ 86 % in the double beta emitter 76Ge ( enrGe are exposed being both source and detector of 0νββ decay. This process is considered a powerful probe to address still open issues in the neutrino sector of the (beyond) Standard Model of particle Physics. Since 2013, at the completion of the first experimental phase (Phase I), the GERDA setup has been upgraded to perform its next step (Phase II). The aim is to reach a sensitivity to the 0νββ decay half-life larger than 10^{26} yr in about 3 years of physics data taking, exposing a detector mass of about 35 kg of enrGe with a background index of about 10^{-3} cts/(keV . kg . yr). One of the main new implementations is the liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light read-out, to veto those events that only partially deposit their energy both in Ge and in the surrounding LAr. In this paper the GERDA Phase II expected goals, the upgraded items and few selected features from the first 2016 physics and calibration runs will be presented. The main Phase I achievements will be also reviewed.

  2. Phase II cancer clinical trials for biomarker-guided treatments.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The design and analysis of cancer clinical trials with biomarker depend on various factors, such as the phase of trials, the type of biomarker, whether the used biomarker is validated or not, and the study objectives. In this article, we demonstrate the design and analysis of two Phase II cancer clinical trials, one with a predictive biomarker and the other with an imaging prognostic biomarker. Statistical testing methods and their sample size calculation methods are presented for each trial. We assume that the primary endpoint of these trials is a time to event variable, but this concept can be used for any type of endpoint.

  3. Study of the GERDA Phase II background spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The Gerda experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN in Italy, searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. Gerda Phase II is aiming to reach a sensitivity for the 0νββ half life of 1026 yr in ˜ 3 years of physics data taking with 100 kg·yr of exposure and a background index of ˜ 10-3 cts/(keV·kg·yr). After 6 months of acquisition a first data release with 10.8 kg·yr of exposure is performed, showing that the design background is achieved. In this work a study of the Phase II background spectrum, the main spectral structures and the background sources will be presented and discussed.

  4. Small Business Innovation Research, Post-Phase II Opportunity Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines current Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Post-Phase II opportunity contract award results for the SBIR technology program from 2007 to 2011 for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD). The report provides guidelines for incorporating SBIR technology into NASA programs and projects and provides a quantitative overview of the post-Phase II award patterns that correspond with each mission directorate at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). In recent years, one of NASA's goals has been to not only transfer SBIR technologies to commercial industries, but to ensure that NASA mission directorates incorporate SBIR technologies into their program and project activities. Before incorporating technologies into MD programs, it is important to understand each mission directorate structure because each directorate has different objectives and needs. The directorate program structures follow.

  5. A phase II study of mitoxantrone in advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pronzato, P; Ardizzoni, A; Conte, P F; Gulisano, M; Lionetto, R; Repetto, L; Scornavacche, V; Sertoli, M R; Rosso, R

    1986-06-01

    A phase II study with mitoxantrone has been carried out in 30 metastatic breast cancer patients. Of 26 evaluable patients 7 (26.9%) experienced a partial response; 7 (26.9%) patients had stable disease and 12 (46.1%) had progression. Major toxicity observed was: nausea and vomiting in 52% of patients, moderate hair loss in 53% of patients and leukopenia in 53%.

  6. Preliminary SPE Phase II Far Field Ground Motion Estimates

    SciT

    Steedman, David W.

    2014-03-06

    Phase II of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) program will be conducted in alluvium. Several candidate sites were identified. These include existing large diameter borehole U1e. One criterion for acceptance is expected far field ground motion. In June 2013 we were requested to estimate peak response 2 km from the borehole due to the largest planned SPE Phase II experiment: a contained 50- Ton event. The cube-root scaled range for this event is 5423 m/KT 1/3. The generally accepted first order estimate of ground motions from an explosive event is to refer to the standard data base for explosive eventsmore » (Perrett and Bass, 1975). This reference is a compilation and analysis of ground motion data from numerous nuclear and chemical explosive events from Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site, or NTS) and other locations. The data were compiled and analyzed for various geologic settings including dry alluvium, which we believe is an accurate descriptor for the SPE Phase II setting. The Perrett and Bass plots of peak velocity and peak yield-scaled displacement, both vs. yield-scaled range, are provided here. Their analysis of both variables resulted in bi-linear fits: a close-in non-linear regime and a more distant linear regime.« less

  7. Reassessing Phase II Heart Failure Clinical Trials: Consensus Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Javed; Hamo, Carine E.; Udelson, James E.; O’Connor, Christopher; Sabbah, Hani N.; Metra, Marco; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Teerlink, John; Bernstein, Harold S.; Brooks, Gabriel; Depre, Christophe; DeSouza, Mary M.; Dinh, Wilfried; Donovan, Mark; Frische-Danielson, Regina; Frost, Robert J.; Garza, Dahlia; Gohring, Udo-Michael; Hellawell, Jennifer; Hsia, Judith; Ishihara, Shiro; Kay-Mugford, Patricia; Koglin, Joerg; Kozinn, Marc; Larson, Christopher J.; Mayo, Martha; Gan, Li-Ming; Mugnier, Pierrre; Mushonga, Sekayi; Roessig, Lothar; Russo, Cesare; Salsali, Afshin; Satler, Carol; Shi, Victor; Ticho, Barry; van der Laan, Michael; Yancy, Clyde; Stockbridge, Norman; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2017-01-01

    The increasing burden and the continued suboptimal outcomes for patients with heart failure underlines the importance of continued research to develop novel therapeutics for this disorder. This can only be accomplished with successful translation of basic science discoveries into direct human application through effective clinical trial design and execution that results in a substantially improved clinical course and outcomes. In this respect, phase II clinical trials play a pivotal role in determining which of the multitude of potential basic science discoveries should move to the large and expansive registration trials in humans. A critical examination of the phase II trials in heart failure reveals multiple shortcomings in their concept, design, execution, and interpretation. To further a dialogue regarding the challenges and potential for improvement and the role of phase II trials in patients with heart failure, the Food and Drug Administration facilitated a meeting on October 17th 2016 represented by clinicians, researchers, industry members, and regulators. This document summarizes the discussion from this meeting and provides key recommendations for future directions. PMID:28356300

  8. Malignant pleural mesothelioma: a phase II trial with docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Vorobiof, D A; Rapoport, B L; Chasen, M R; Abratt, R P; Cronje, N; Fourie, L; McMichael, G; Hacking, D

    2002-03-01

    Current cytotoxic therapy has been of limited benefit to patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Single agent chemotherapy has been extensively evaluated in small series of phase II clinical trials, with disappointing responses. Docetaxel, an effective taxane in the treatment of advanced breast cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, was administered intravenously at a dose of 100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks to 30 chemotherapy naive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma in a prospective multi-institutional phase II clinical trial. An objective response rate (partial responses) of 10% was documented. Additionally, 21% of the patients had minor responses (intention-to-treat analysis). Three patients died within 2 weeks post-first cycle of therapy, although only one patient's death was directly attributed to the investigational drug, whilst in the majority of the patients, manageable and treatable toxicities were encountered. In this phase II clinical trial, docetaxel proved to be mildly effective in the treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  9. Chandra Catches Early Phase of Cosmic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    A NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory image has revealed a complex of several intergalactic hot gas clouds in the process of merging. The superb Chandra spatial resolution made it possible to distinguish individual galaxies from the massive clouds of hot gas. One of the clouds, which that envelops hundreds of galaxies, has an extraordinarily low concentration of iron atoms, indicating that it is in the very early stages of cluster evolution. "We may be seeing hot intergalactic gas in a relatively pristine state before it has been polluted by gas from galaxies," said Q. Daniel Wang of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, and lead author on an upcoming Astrophysical Journal article describing the study. "This discovery should provide valuable insight into how the most massive structures in the universe are assembled." 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 The complex, known as Abell 2125,is about 3 billion light years from Earth, and is seen at a time about 11 billion years after the Big Bang, when many galaxy clusters are believed to have formed. The Chandra Abell 2125 image shows several huge elongated clouds of multimillion degree gas coming together from different directions. These hot gas clouds, each of which contains hundreds of galaxies, appear to be in the process of merging to form a single massive galaxy cluster. Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope, and Very Large Array radio telescope data show that several galaxies in the Abell 2125 core cluster are being stripped of their gas as they fall through surrounding high-pressure hot gas. This stripping process has enriched the core cluster's gas in heavy elements such as iron. Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 The gas in the pristine cloud, which is still several million light years away from the core cluster, is conspicuous for its lack of iron atoms. This anemic cloud must be in a very early evolutionary stage. The

  10. Probability of success for phase III after exploratory biomarker analysis in phase II.

    PubMed

    Götte, Heiko; Kirchner, Marietta; Sailer, Martin Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The probability of success or average power describes the potential of a future trial by weighting the power with a probability distribution of the treatment effect. The treatment effect estimate from a previous trial can be used to define such a distribution. During the development of targeted therapies, it is common practice to look for predictive biomarkers. The consequence is that the trial population for phase III is often selected on the basis of the most extreme result from phase II biomarker subgroup analyses. In such a case, there is a tendency to overestimate the treatment effect. We investigate whether the overestimation of the treatment effect estimate from phase II is transformed into a positive bias for the probability of success for phase III. We simulate a phase II/III development program for targeted therapies. This simulation allows to investigate selection probabilities and allows to compare the estimated with the true probability of success. We consider the estimated probability of success with and without subgroup selection. Depending on the true treatment effects, there is a negative bias without selection because of the weighting by the phase II distribution. In comparison, selection increases the estimated probability of success. Thus, selection does not lead to a bias in probability of success if underestimation due to the phase II distribution and overestimation due to selection cancel each other out. We recommend to perform similar simulations in practice to get the necessary information about the risk and chances associated with such subgroup selection designs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A phased approach to clinical testing: criteria for progressing from Phase I to Phase II to Phase III studies.

    PubMed

    André, F E; Foulkes, M A

    1998-01-01

    The overall intent of clinical testing is to establish, in a series of phased studies, the clinical tolerance and acceptable "safety" of the candidate vaccine, as well as the type, level and persistence of the immune response after its inoculation, to a representative target population, according to a convenient administration schedule. The final stages involve the direct or indirect demonstration of protective efficacy, if possible in the population(s) for which the vaccine is intended. In addition, consistency of production must be demonstrated. At all these stages, the amount of prior information from preclinical and other studies affects and informs the objectives and design of subsequent studies. Progression from one testing phase to the next is dependent upon attaining the pre-set objectives of each series of studies. The precise objectives to be met will be decided on a case-by-case basis. The earliest assessments in humans (Phase I) involve evaluation of short-term clinical tolerance as measured by local and general reactogenicity, and gross assessments of immunogenicity, in a small number of highly selected individuals in an idealised situation. The selection of "optimal" dose and schedule are the result of further dose-ranging investigations (Phase II), involving more volunteers, with longer, more detailed follow-up assessments. It is at this stage that the accumulated evidence on its immunogenicity profile should be sufficient to assess whether or not the vaccine is worthy of further development. The next level of investigation (Phase III) aims to measure with greater precision the vaccine protective efficacy in the intended target population(s) by comparison of infection and/or disease attack rates in vaccine and placebo recipients. In consistency studies different production lots, manufactured at commercial scale, are tested to demonstrate consistency of manufacture. Additional bridging studies to establish similarity of lots at different production

  12. Analysis of phase II studies on targeted agents and subsequent phase III trials: what are the predictors for success?

    PubMed

    Chan, John K; Ueda, Stefanie M; Sugiyama, Valerie E; Stave, Christopher D; Shin, Jacob Y; Monk, Bradley J; Sikic, Branimir I; Osann, Kathryn; Kapp, Daniel S

    2008-03-20

    To identify the characteristics of phase II studies that predict for subsequent "positive" phase III trials (those that reached the proposed primary end points of study or those wherein the study drug was superior to the standard regimen investigating targeted agents in advanced tumors. We identified all phase III clinical trials of targeted therapies against advanced cancers published from 1985 to 2005. Characteristics of the preceding phase II studies were reviewed to identify predictive factors for success of the subsequent phase III trial. Data were analyzed using the chi(2) test and logistic regression models. Of 351 phase II studies, 167 (47.6%) subsequent phase III trials were positive and 184 (52.4%) negative. Phase II studies from multiple rather than single institutions were more likely to precede a successful trial (60.4% v 39.4%; P < .001). Positive phase II results were more likely to lead to a successful phase III trial (50.8% v 22.5%; P = .003). The percentage of successful trials from pharmaceutical companies was significantly higher compared with academic, cooperative groups, and research institutes (89.5% v 44.2%, 45.2%, and 46.3%, respectively; P = .002). On multivariate analysis, these factors and shorter time interval between publication of phase II results and III study publication were independent predictive factors for a positive phase III trial. In phase II studies of targeted agents, multiple- versus single-institution participation, positive phase II trial, pharmaceutical company-based trials, and shorter time period between publication of phase II to phase III trial were independent predictive factors of success in a phase III trial. Investigators should be cognizant of these factors in phase II studies before designing phase III trials.

  13. Fluctuation-driven electroweak phase transition. [in early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  14. 47 CFR 90.769 - Construction and implementation of Phase II nationwide licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Use of Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide Systems § 90.769 Construction and implementation of Phase II nationwide licenses...

  15. Metacognition in Early Phase Psychosis: Toward Understanding Neural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Jenifer L.; Hummer, Tom A.; Yung, Matthew G.; Francis, Michael M.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis. PMID:26132568

  16. 48 CFR 1852.219-81 - Limitation on subcontracting-SBIR Phase II program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subcontracting-SBIR Phase II program. 1852.219-81 Section 1852.219-81 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.219-81 Limitation on subcontracting—SBIR Phase II program. As prescribed in 1819.7302(b), insert the following clause: Limitation on Subcontracting—SBIR Phase II Program...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.219-81 - Limitation on subcontracting-SBIR Phase II program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subcontracting-SBIR Phase II program. 1852.219-81 Section 1852.219-81 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.219-81 Limitation on subcontracting—SBIR Phase II program. As prescribed in 1819.7302(b), insert the following clause: Limitation on Subcontracting—SBIR Phase II Program...

  18. 48 CFR 1852.219-81 - Limitation on subcontracting-SBIR Phase II program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subcontracting-SBIR Phase II program. 1852.219-81 Section 1852.219-81 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.219-81 Limitation on subcontracting—SBIR Phase II program. As prescribed in 1819.7302(b), insert the following clause: Limitation on Subcontracting—SBIR Phase II Program...

  19. 47 CFR 54.309 - Connect America Fund Phase II Public Interest Obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Connect America Fund Phase II Public Interest Obligations. 54.309 Section 54.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Connect America Fund Phase II Public Interest Obligations. (a) A price cap carrier electing Phase II model...

  20. A proof of concept phase II non-inferiority criterion.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Beat; Rouyrre, Nicolas; Hollaender, Norbert; Zuber, Emmanuel; Branson, Michael

    2011-06-15

    Traditional phase III non-inferiority trials require compelling evidence that the treatment vs control effect bfθ is better than a pre-specified non-inferiority margin θ(NI) . The standard approach compares this margin to the 95 per cent confidence interval of the effect parameter. In the phase II setting, in order to declare Proof of Concept (PoC) for non-inferiority and proceed in the development of the drug, different criteria that are specifically tailored toward company internal decision making may be more appropriate. For example, less evidence may be needed as long as the effect estimate is reasonably convincing. We propose a non-inferiority design that addresses the specifics of the phase II setting. The requirements are that (1) the effect estimate be better than a critical threshold θ(C), and (2) the type I error with regard to θ(NI) is controlled at a pre-specified level. This design is compared with the traditional design from a frequentist as well as a Bayesian perspective, where the latter relies on the Level of Proof (LoP) metric, i.e. the probability that the true effect is better than effect values of interest. Clinical input is required to establish the value θ(C), which makes the design transparent and improves interactions within clinical teams. The proposed design is illustrated for a non-inferiority trial for a time-to-event endpoint in oncology. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay with GERDA phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knies, J.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Reissfelder, M.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Seitz, H.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-10-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (gerda) experiment, located at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy, is one of the leading experiments for the search of 0νββ decay. In Phase II of the experiment 35.6 kg of enriched germanium detectors are operated. The application of active background rejection methods, such as a liquid argon scintillation light read-out and pulse shape discrimination of germanium detector signals, allowed to reduce the background index to the intended level of 10-3 cts/(keV.kg.yr). In the first five month of data taking 10.8 kg yr of exposure were accumulated. No signal has been found and together with data from Phase I a new limit for the neutrinoless double beta decay half-life of 76Ge of 5.3 . 1025 yr at 90% C.L. was established in June 2016. Phase II data taking is ongoing and will allow the exploration of half-lifes in the 1026 yr regime. The current status of data taking and an update on the background index are presented.

  2. Searching Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Comellato, T.; D’Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giordano, M.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hahne, C.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, P.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaidic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Marissens, G.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Reissfelder, M.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Sala, E.; Salamida, F.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schweisshelm, B.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Schütz, A.-K.; Seitz, H.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zschocke, A.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    An observation of neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay would allow to shed light onto the nature of neutrinos. GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) aims to discover this process in a background-free search using 76Ge. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy. Bare, isotopically enriched, high purity germanium detectors are operated in liquid argon. GERDA follows a staged approach. In Phase II 35.6 kg of enriched germanium detectors are operated since December 2015. The application of active background rejection methods, such as a liquid argon scintillation light read-out and pulse shape discrimination of germanium detector signals, allows to reduce the background index to the intended level of 10‑3 cts/(keVṡkgṡyr). No evidence for the 0νββ decay has been found in 23.2 kgṡyr of Phase II data, and together with data from Phase I the up-to-date most stringent half-life limit for this process in 76Ge has been established, at a median sensitivity of 5.8ṡ1025yr the 90% C.L. lower limit is 8.0ṡ1025yr.

  3. Assessment of early response biomarkers in relation to long‐term survival in patients with HER2‐negative breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus bevacizumab: Results from the Phase II PROMIX trial

    PubMed Central

    Kimbung, Siker; Markholm, Ida; Bjöhle, Judith; Lekberg, Tobias; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Azavedo, Edward; Saracco, Ariel; Hellström, Mats; Veerla, Srinivas; Paquet, Eric; Bendahl, Pär‐Ola; Fernö, Mårten; Bergh, Jonas; Loman, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Pathologic complete response (pCR) is a predictor for favorable outcome after neoadjuvant treatment in early breast cancer. Modulation of gene expression may also provide early readouts of biological activity and prognosis, offering the possibility for timely response‐guided treatment adjustment. The role of early transcriptional changes in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus bevacizumab was investigated. One‐hundred‐and‐fifty patients with large, operable and locally advanced HER2‐negative breast cancer received epirubicin and docetaxel, with the addition of bevacizumab. Patients underwent tumor biopsies at baseline, after Cycle 2 and at the time of surgery. The primary end point, pCR, and its relation with the secondary endpoints event‐free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS) and gene expression profiles, are reported. The pCR rate was 13% (95% CI 8.6–20.2), with significantly more pCRs among triple‐negative [28% (95% CI 14.8–45.4)] than among hormone receptor positive (HR+) tumors [9% (95% CI 4.6–16.3); (OR = 3.9 [CI = 1.5–10.3])]. pCR rates were not associated with EFS or OS. PAM50 subtypes significantly changed after Cycle 2 (p = 0.03) and an index of absolute changes in PAM50 correlations between these time‐points was associated with EFS [HR = 0.62 (CI = 0.3–1.1)]. In univariable analyses, signatures for angiogenesis, proliferation, estrogen receptor signaling, invasion and metastasis, and immune response, measured after Cycle 2, were associated with pCR in HR+ tumors. Evaluation of changes in molecular subtypes and other signatures early in the course of neoadjuvant treatment may be predictive of pCR and EFS. These factors may help guide further treatment and should be considered when designing neoadjuvant trials. PMID:28940389

  4. Enhanced Night Visibility Series, Volume XII : Overview of Phase II and Development of Phase III Experimental Plan

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-12-01

    This volume provides an overview of the six studies that compose Phase II of the Enhanced Night Visibility project and the experimental plan for its third and final portion, Phase III. The Phase II studies evaluated up to 12 vision enhancement system...

  5. Research safety vehicle. Phase II. Volume II. comprehensive technical results. Final report July 1975--December 1976

    SciT

    DiNapoli, N.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Strother, C.

    1977-11-01

    Phase I identified trends leading to the desired national social goals of the mid-1980's in vehicle crashworthiness, crash avoidance, damageability, pedestrian safety, fuel economy, emissions and cost, and characterized an RSV to satisfy them. In Phase II an RSV prototype was designed, developed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of meeting these goals simultaneously. Although further refinement is necessary to assure operational validity, in all categories the results meet or exceed the most advanced performance specified by The Presidential Task Force on Motor Vehicle Goals beyond 1980.

  6. Polarization Mechanisms in Phase II Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-12

    34 OdRO a mnk W) Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride), x-rays, piezelectricity, polarization, poling FAWWRmCT ffls~ -ew nam 9 Uf"Oo me..Mv £*mM NOWsA Unoriented...phase II films were poled with fields up to 3.2 MV/cm at room o) temperature. A determination of the piezoelectric strain coefficient provided a measure...sT. VW OtU.4LF-41U.4" ". . -. I u CIImVP CLAI IaICATIOM OV- VPI PU.I (Ul... O111 111..41 the poling field and different polarization mechanisms appear

  7. Standards Improvement Project-Phase II. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-01-05

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) through this final rule is continuing to remove and revise provisions of its standards that are outdated, duplicative, unnecessary, or inconsistent, or can be clarified or simplified by being written in plain language. The Agency completed Phase I of the Standards Improvement Project in June 1998. In this Phase II of the Standards Improvement Project, OSHA is again revising or removing a number of health provisions in its standards for general industry, shipyard employment, and construction. The Agency believes that the changes streamline and make more consistent the regulatory requirements in OSHA health and safety standards. In some cases, OSHA has made substantive revisions to requirements because they are outdated, duplicative, unnecessary, or inconsistent with more recently promulgated health standards. The Agency believes these revisions will reduce regulatory requirements for employers without reducing employee protection.

  8. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Galveston, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  9. Randomized, Noncomparative, Phase II Trial of Early Switch From Docetaxel to Cabazitaxel or Vice Versa, With Integrated Biomarker Analysis, in Men With Chemotherapy-Naïve, Metastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tagawa, Scott T.; Galletti, Giuseppe; Worroll, Daniel; Ballman, Karla; Vanhuyse, Marie; Sonpavde, Guru; North, Scott; Albany, Costantine; Tsao, Che-Kai; Stewart, John; Zaher, Atef; Szatrowski, Ted; Zhou, Wei; Gjyrezi, Ada; Tasaki, Shinsuke; Portella, Luigi; Bai, Yang; Lannin, Timothy B.; Suri, Shalu; Gruber, Conor N.; Pratt, Erica D.; Kirby, Brian J.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Nanus, David M.; Saad, Fred; Giannakakou, Paraskevi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The TAXYNERGY trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01718353) evaluated clinical benefit from early taxane switch and circulating tumor cell (CTC) biomarkers to interrogate mechanisms of sensitivity or resistance to taxanes in men with chemotherapy-naïve, metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to docetaxel or cabazitaxel. Men who did not achieve ≥ 30% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline by cycle 4 (C4) switched taxane. The primary clinical endpoint was confirmed ≥ 50% PSA decline versus historical control (TAX327). The primary biomarker endpoint was analysis of post-treatment CTCs to confirm the hypothesis that clinical response was associated with taxane drug-target engagement, evidenced by decreased percent androgen receptor nuclear localization (%ARNL) and increased microtubule bundling. Results Sixty-three patients were randomly assigned to docetaxel (n = 41) or cabazitaxel (n = 22); 44.4% received prior potent androgen receptor–targeted therapy. Overall, 35 patients (55.6%) had confirmed ≥ 50% PSA responses, exceeding the historical control rate of 45.4% (TAX327). Of 61 treated patients, 33 (54.1%) had ≥ 30% PSA declines by C4 and did not switch taxane, 15 patients (24.6%) who did not achieve ≥ 30% PSA declines by C4 switched taxane, and 13 patients (21.3%) discontinued therapy before or at C4. Of patients switching taxane, 46.7% subsequently achieved ≥ 50% PSA decrease. In 26 CTC-evaluable patients, taxane-induced decrease in %ARNL (cycle 1 day 1 v cycle 1 day 8) was associated with a higher rate of ≥ 50% PSA decrease at C4 (P = .009). Median composite progression-free survival was 9.1 months (95% CI, 4.9 to 11.7 months); median overall survival was not reached at 14 months. Common grade 3 or 4 adverse events included fatigue (13.1%) and febrile neutropenia (11.5%). Conclusion The early taxane switch strategy was associated with improved PSA response rates

  10. Volunteering for early phase gene transfer research in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y H; Holloway, R G; Frank, S; Beck, C A; Zimmerman, C; Wilson, R; Kieburtz, K

    2006-04-11

    For early phase trials of novel interventions-such as gene transfer for Parkinson disease (PD)--whose focus is primarily on safety and tolerability, it is important that participants have a realistic understanding of the goals of such research. Recently, some have expressed concern that patients with PD may have unrealistic expectations. The authors examined why patients with PD might volunteer for invasive early phase research by interviewing 92 patients with PD and comparing those who would (n = 46) and those who would not (n = 46) participate in a hypothetical phase I gene-transfer study. The two groups' demographic, clinical, functional, and quality of life measures, as well as their understanding of the research protocol, were similar. The groups did not differ on their perception of potential for personal benefit nor on the level of likelihood of benefit they saw as a precondition for volunteering. However, those willing to participate tended to perceive lower probability of risk, were tolerant of greater probability of risk, and were more optimistic about the phase I study's potential benefits to society. They also appeared more decisive and action-oriented than the unwilling group. It is likely that the decision whether to participate in early phase PD gene transfer studies will depend mostly on patients' attitudes regarding risk, optimism about science, and an action orientation, rather than on their clinical, functional, or demographic characteristics.

  11. Bayesian adaptive phase II screening design for combination trials.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chunyan; Yuan, Ying; Johnson, Valen E

    2013-01-01

    Trials of combination therapies for the treatment of cancer are playing an increasingly important role in the battle against this disease. To more efficiently handle the large number of combination therapies that must be tested, we propose a novel Bayesian phase II adaptive screening design to simultaneously select among possible treatment combinations involving multiple agents. Our design is based on formulating the selection procedure as a Bayesian hypothesis testing problem in which the superiority of each treatment combination is equated to a single hypothesis. During the trial conduct, we use the current values of the posterior probabilities of all hypotheses to adaptively allocate patients to treatment combinations. Simulation studies show that the proposed design substantially outperforms the conventional multiarm balanced factorial trial design. The proposed design yields a significantly higher probability for selecting the best treatment while allocating substantially more patients to efficacious treatments. The proposed design is most appropriate for the trials combining multiple agents and screening out the efficacious combination to be further investigated. The proposed Bayesian adaptive phase II screening design substantially outperformed the conventional complete factorial design. Our design allocates more patients to better treatments while providing higher power to identify the best treatment at the end of the trial.

  12. [Fungal community structure in phase II composting of Volvariella volvacea].

    PubMed

    Chen, Changqing; Li, Tong; Jiang, Yun; Li, Yu

    2014-12-04

    To understand the fungal community succession during the phase II of Volvariella volvacea compost and clarify the predominant fungi in different fermentation stages, to monitor the dynamic compost at the molecular level accurately and quickly, and reveal the mechanism. The 18S rDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing methods were used to analyze the fungal community structure during the course of compost. The DGGE profile shows that there were differences in the diversity of fungal community with the fermentation progress. The diversity was higher in the stages of high temperature. And the dynamic changes of predominant community and relative intensity was observed. Among the 20 predominant clone strains, 9 were unknown eukaryote and fungi, the others were Eurotiales, Aspergillus sp., Melanocarpus albomyces, Colletotrichum sp., Rhizomucor sp., Verticillium sp., Penicillium commune, Microascus trigonosporus and Trichosporon lactis. The 14 clone strains were detected in the stages of high and durative temperature. The fungal community structure and predominant community have taken dynamic succession during the phase II of Volvariella volvacea compost.

  13. Bayesian adaptive phase II screening design for combination trials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chunyan; Yuan, Ying; Johnson, Valen E

    2013-01-01

    Background Trials of combination therapies for the treatment of cancer are playing an increasingly important role in the battle against this disease. To more efficiently handle the large number of combination therapies that must be tested, we propose a novel Bayesian phase II adaptive screening design to simultaneously select among possible treatment combinations involving multiple agents. Methods Our design is based on formulating the selection procedure as a Bayesian hypothesis testing problem in which the superiority of each treatment combination is equated to a single hypothesis. During the trial conduct, we use the current values of the posterior probabilities of all hypotheses to adaptively allocate patients to treatment combinations. Results Simulation studies show that the proposed design substantially outperforms the conventional multiarm balanced factorial trial design. The proposed design yields a significantly higher probability for selecting the best treatment while allocating substantially more patients to efficacious treatments. Limitations The proposed design is most appropriate for the trials combining multiple agents and screening out the efficacious combination to be further investigated. Conclusions The proposed Bayesian adaptive phase II screening design substantially outperformed the conventional complete factorial design. Our design allocates more patients to better treatments while providing higher power to identify the best treatment at the end of the trial. PMID:23359875

  14. Isac Sc-Linac Phase-II Helium Refrigerator Commissioning and First Operational Experience at Triumf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekachev, I.; Kishi, D.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2010-04-01

    ISAC Phase-II is an upgrade of the radioactive isotope superconducting linear accelerator, SC-linac, at TRIUMF. The Phase-I section of the accelerator, medium-beta, is operational and is cooled with a 600 W helium refrigerator, commissioned in March 2005. An identical refrigerator is being used with the Phase-II segment of the accelerator; which is now under construction. The second refrigerator has been commissioned and tested with the Phase-I section of the linac and is used for Phase-II linac development, including new SC-cavity performance tests. The commissioning of the Phase-II refrigeration system and recent operational experience is presented.

  15. De-Escalation Strategies in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-Positive Early Breast Cancer (BC): Final Analysis of the West German Study Group Adjuvant Dynamic Marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy Trial Optimizing Risk Assessment and Therapy Response Prediction in Early BC HER2- and Hormone Receptor-Positive Phase II Randomized Trial-Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Markers for 12 Weeks of Neoadjuvant Trastuzumab Emtansine With or Without Endocrine Therapy (ET) Versus Trastuzumab Plus ET.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Nadia; Gluz, Oleg; Christgen, Matthias; Kates, Ronald Ernest; Braun, Michael; Küemmel, Sherko; Schumacher, Claudia; Potenberg, Jochem; Kraemer, Stefan; Kleine-Tebbe, Anke; Augustin, Doris; Aktas, Bahriye; Forstbauer, Helmut; Tio, Joke; von Schumann, Raquel; Liedtke, Cornelia; Grischke, Eva-Maria; Schumacher, Johannes; Wuerstlein, Rachel; Kreipe, Hans Heinrich; Nitz, Ulrike Anneliese

    2017-09-10

    Purpose Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive/hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer is a distinct subgroup associated with lower chemotherapy sensitivity and slightly better outcome than HER2-positive/HR-negative disease. Little is known about the efficacy of the combination of endocrine therapy (ET) with trastuzumab or with the potent antibody-cytotoxic, anti-HER2 compound trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) with or without ET for this subgroup. The West German Study Group trial, ADAPT (Adjuvant Dynamic Marker-Adjusted Personalized Therapy Trial Optimizing Risk Assessment and Therapy Response Prediction in Early Breast Cancer) compares pathologic complete response (pCR) rates of T-DM1 versus trastuzumab with ET in early HER2-positive/HR-positive breast cancer. Patients and Methods In this prospective, neoadjuvant, phase II trial, 375 patients with early breast cancer with HER2-positive and HR-positive status (n = 463 screened) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of T-DM1 with or without ET or to trastuzumab with ET. The primary end point was pCR (ypT0/is/ypN0). Early response was assessed in 3-week post-therapeutic core biopsies (proliferation decrease ≥ 30% Ki-67 or cellularity response). Secondary end points included safety and predictive impact of early response on pCR. Adjuvant therapy followed national standards. Results Baseline characteristics were well balanced among the arms. More than 90% of patients completed the therapy per protocol. pCR was observed in 41.0% of patients treated with T-DM1, 41.5% of patients treated with T-DM1 and ET, and 15.1% with trastuzumab and ET ( P < .001). Early responders (67% of patients with assessable response) achieved pCR in 35.7% compared with 19.8% in nonresponders (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.19). T-DM1 was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of grade 1 to 2 toxicities, especially thrombocytopenia, nausea, and elevation of liver enzymes. Overall toxicity was low; seventeen

  16. [Clinical Practice Guide for Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence: Part II: Evaluation and Management of Patients with Acute Alcohol Intoxication].

    PubMed

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Zárate, Alina Uribe-Holguín; Lee, Patricia Rodríguez; Menéndez, Miguel Cote; Rentería, Ana María Cano; Hernández, Delia Cristina; Cardeño, Carlos; Barré, Michelle Cortés; Kunzel, Gabriel Hernández; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, alcohol is the second most-used psychotropic substance and the third risk factor for early death and disability. Its noxious use is a world public health problem given its personal, labor, family, economic and social impact. The identification of acute alcohol intoxication is extremely important, as well as the alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications, such as delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy in order to grant a timely treatment for those patients. This article introduces the evidence found so as to face and treat these clinic manifestations. Systematic revision of the evidence available together with an evaluation of pertinent guidelines found in literature so as to decide whether to adopt or adapt the existing recommendation for each question or to develop de novo recommendations. For de novo recommendations as well as those adapted, it was carried out an evidence synthesis, together with evidence tables and formulation of recommendations based on the evidence. Evidence was found and recommendations were made for the diagnosis and treatment of acute alcohol intoxication, withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II: Stage 1 Problem Confirmation Study, Duluth International Airport, Duluth, Minnesota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    8 iii "i t-. Table of Contents (cont.) Section Title Page -APPENDIX A Acronyms, Definitions, Nomenclature and Units of Measure B Scope of Work, Task...Identification/Records Search Phase II - Problem Confirmation and Quantification Phase III - Technology Base Development Phase IV - Corrective Action Only...Problem Identification/Records Search Phase II - Problem Confirmation and Quantification Phase III - Technology Base Development Phase IV - Corrective

  18. Pipe Overpack Container Fire Testing: Phase I II & III.

    SciT

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Ammerman, Douglas J.; Lopez, Carlos

    The Pipe Overpack Container (POC) was developed at Rocky Flats to transport plutonium residues with higher levels of plutonium than standard transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. In 1996 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a series of tests to determine the degree of protection POCs provided during storage accident events. One of these tests exposed four of the POCs to a 30-minute engulfing pool fire, resulting in one of the 7A drum overpacks generating sufficient internal pressure to pop off its lid and expose the top of the pipe container (PC) to the firemore » environment. The initial contents of the POCs were inert materials, which would not generate large internal pressure within the PC if heated. POCs are now being used to store combustible TRU waste at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At the request of DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), starting in 2015 SNL conducted a series of fire tests to examine whether PCs with combustibles would reach a temperature that would result in (1) decomposition of inner contents and (2) subsequent generation of sufficient gas to cause the PC to over-pressurize and release its inner content. Tests conducted during 2015 and 2016 were done in three phases. The goal of the first phase was to see if the PC would reach high enough temperatures to decompose typical combustible materials inside the PC. The goal of the second test phase was to determine under what heating loads (i.e., incident heat fluxes) the 7A drum lid pops off from the POC drum. The goal of the third phase was to see if surrogate aerosol gets released from the PC when the drum lid is off. This report will describe the various tests conducted in phase I, II, and III, present preliminary results from these tests, and discuss implications for the POCs.« less

  19. Effect of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Sacral Chordoma: Results of Phase I-II and Phase II Clinical Trials

    SciT

    Imai, Reiko, E-mail: r_imai@nirs.go.j; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To summarize the results of treatment for sacral chordoma in Phase I-II and Phase II carbon ion radiotherapy trials for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 38 patients with medically unresectable sacral chordomas treated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan between 1996 and 2003. Of the 38 patients, 30 had not received previous treatment and 8 had locally recurrent tumor after previous resection. The applied carbon ion dose was 52.8-73.6 Gray equivalents (median, 70.4) in a total of 16 fixed fractions within 4 weeks. Results: The median patient agemore » was 66 years. The cranial tumor extension was S2 or greater in 31 patients. The median clinical target volume was 523 cm{sup 3}. The median follow-up period was 80 months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 86%, and the 5-year local control rate was 89%. After treatment, 27 of 30 patients with primary tumor remained ambulatory with or without supportive devices. Two patients experienced severe skin or soft-tissue complications requiring skin grafts. Conclusion: Carbon ion radiotherapy appears effective and safe in the treatment of patients with sacral chordoma and offers a promising alternative to surgery.« less

  20. Early results of a randomized two-by-two factorial phase II trial comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with two and four courses of cisplatin/S-1 and docetaxel/cisplatin/S-1 as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, T; Nishikawa, K; Fujitani, K; Tanabe, K; Ito, S; Matsui, T; Miki, A; Nemoto, H; Sakamaki, K; Fukunaga, T; Kimura, Y; Hirabayashi, N; Yoshikawa, T

    2017-08-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a promising method of improving the survival of resectable gastric cancer. Cisplatin/S-1 (CS) and docetaxel/cisplatin/S-1 (DCS) are both effective against metastatic gastric cancer. This report clarified the impact of these regimens on early endpoints, including the pathological responses, chemotherapy-related toxicities, and surgical results. Patients with M0 and either T4 or T3 in case of junctional cancer or scirrhous type received two or four courses of cisplatin (60 mg/m2 at day 8)/S-1 (80 mg/m2 for 21 days with 1 week rest) or docetaxel (40 mg/m2 at day 1)/cisplatin (60 mg/m2 at day 1)/S-1 (80 mg/m2 for 14 days with 2 weeks rest) as NAC. Patients then underwent D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the 3-year overall survival. Between October 2011 and September 2014, 132 patients were assigned to receive CS (n = 66; 33 in 2 courses and 33 in 4 courses) or DCS (n = 66; 33 in 2 courses and 33 in 4 courses). The respective major grade 3 or 4 hematological toxicities (CS/DCS) were leukocytopenia (14.1%/26.2%), neutropenia (29.7%/47.7%), anemia (14.1%/12.3%), and platelet reduction (3.1%/1.5%). The rate of pathological response, defined as a complete response or < 10% residual cancer remaining, was 19.4% in the CS group and 15.4% in the DCS group, and 15.6% in the two-course group and 19.0% in the 4-course group. The R0 resection rate was 72.7% in the CS group and 81.8% in the DCS group and 80.3% in the two-course group and the 74.2% in the four-course group. No treatment-related deaths were observed. Our results do not support three-drug therapy with a taxane over two-drug therapy, or any further treatment beyond two cycles as an attractive candidate for the test arm of NAC. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Long-term efficacy analysis of the randomised, phase II TRYPHAENA cardiac safety study: Evaluating pertuzumab and trastuzumab plus standard neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing and anthracycline-free chemotherapy regimens in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Andreas; Chia, Stephen; Hickish, Tamas; Harvey, Vernon; Eniu, Alexandru; Waldron-Lynch, Maeve; Eng-Wong, Jennifer; Kirk, Sarah; Cortés, Javier

    2018-01-01

    We report long-term efficacy and cardiac safety outcomes in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant pertuzumab plus trastuzumab with anthracycline-containing or anthracycline-free chemotherapy. Descriptive efficacy analyses were conducted in patients randomised to group A (cycles 1-6: trastuzumab [8 mg/kg loading dose and 6 mg/kg maintenance] plus pertuzumab [840 mg loading dose and 420 mg maintenance], plus 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide [FEC] [cycles 1-3; 500 mg/m 2 5-fluorouracil/100 mg/m 2 epirubicin/600 mg/m 2 cyclophosphamide] then docetaxel [cycles 4-6; 75 mg/m 2 , escalated to 100 mg/m 2 if well tolerated]), B (cycles 1-3: FEC, cycles 4-6: trastuzumab plus pertuzumab plus docetaxel as mentioned previously) or C (cycles 1-6: trastuzumab plus pertuzumab plus docetaxel [75 mg/m 2 , without dose escalation], and carboplatin [AUC 6]), five years after randomisation of the last patient. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00976989. Three-year Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for disease-free survival (DFS) were 87% (95% confidence interval: 79-95), 88% (80-96) and 90% (82-97) in groups A-C, respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 89% (81-96), 89% (81-96) and 87% (80-95). DFS hazard ratio for total pathological complete response (tpCR) versus no tpCR was 0.27 (0.11-0.64). During post-treatment follow-up, 2/72 (2.8%), 3/75 (4.0%) and 4/76 (5.4%) patients in groups A-C had any-grade left ventricular systolic dysfunction; eight (11.1%), 12 (16.0%) and nine (11.8%) patients experienced left ventricular ejection fraction declines ≥10% from baseline to <50%. Long-term DFS and PFS were similar between groups. Patients who achieved tpCR had improved DFS. No new safety signals were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging of early acceleration phase of the 2013-2014 Boso slow slip event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J.; Kato, A.; Obara, K.; Miura, S.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Based on GPS and seismic data, we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of a slow slip event (SSE) and associated seismic activity that occurred off the Boso peninsula, central Japan, from December 2013 to January 2014. We use GPS data from 71 stations of the GEONET and 6 stations operated by Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University around the Boso peninsula. We apply a modified version of the Network Inversion Filter to the GPS time series at the 77 stations to estimate the spatiotemporal evolution of daily cumulative slip and slip rate on the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In addition, we create an improved earthquake catalog by applying a matched filter technique to continuous seismograms and examine the spatiotemporal relations between slow slip and seismicity. We find that the SSE started in early December 2013. The spatiotemporal evolution of slow slip and seismicity is divided into two distinct phases, an earlier slow phase from early to 30 December 2013 (Phase I) and a subsequent faster phase from 30 December 2013 to 9 January 2014 (Phase II). During Phase I, slip accelerated slowly up to a maximum rate of 1.6 m/yr with potentially accelerating along-strike propagation at speeds on the order of 1 km/day or less and no accompanying seismicity. On the other hand, during Phase II, slip accelerated rapidly up to a maximum rate of 4.5 m/yr and then rapidly decelerated. The slip front propagated along strike at a constant speed of ~10 km/day. During the Phase II, slow slip was accompanied by seismic swarm activity that was highly correlated in space and time with slip rate, suggesting that the swarm activity was triggered by stress loading due to slow slip. Early slow acceleration of slip has not been identified in the past Boso SSEs in 1996, 2002, 2007, and 2011. It is not clear at this point whether the past Boso SSEs started with slow acceleration similarly to the 2013-2014 SSE. The transition from the slow to the

  3. Pipe Overpack Container Fire Testing: Phase I & II

    SciT

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Ammerman, Douglas J.; Lopez, Carlos

    The Pipe Overpack Container (POC) was developed at Rocky Flats to transport plutonium residues with higher levels of plutonium than standard transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. In 1996 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a series of tests to determine the degree of protection POCs provided during storage accident events. One of these tests exposed four of the POCs to a 30-minute engulfing pool fire, resulting in one of the 7A drum overpacks generating sufficient internal pressure to pop off its lid and expose the top of the pipe container (PC) to the firemore » environment. The initial contents of the POCs were inert materials, which would not generate large internal pressure within the PC if heated. However, POCs are now being used to store combustible TRU waste at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At the request of DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), starting in 2015 SNL conducted a new series of fire tests to examine whether PCs with combustibles would reach a temperature that would result in (1) decomposition of inner contents and (2) subsequent generation of sufficient gas to cause the PC to over-pressurize and release its inner content. Tests conducted during 2015 and 2016, and described herein, were done in two phases. The goal of the first phase was to see if the PC would reach high enough temperatures to decompose typical combustible materials inside the PC. The goal of the second test phase was to determine under what heating loads (i.e., incident heat fluxes) the 7A drum lid pops off from the POC drum. This report will describe the various tests conducted in phase I and II, present preliminary results from these tests, and discuss implications for the POCs.« less

  4. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal and balance disorders in patients enrolled in phase II cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Kashish; Shen, Jennifer; Wolter, Anne D; Beck, Kathryn M; Leth, Shawn E; Thomas, Randal J; Squires, Ray W; Perez-Terzic, Carmen M

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal, neurological, and balance problems in patients enrolled in early outpatient (phase II) cardiac rehabilitation. Data were assessed retrospectively for 284 consecutive patients who attended the phase II Mayo Clinic Cardiac Rehabilitation program from April 2005 to August 2006. All participants completed a questionnaire that identified the presence of musculoskeletal pain, history of falls, joint replacements, osteoporosis, neurological disorders, and difficulties in performing activities of daily living. Balance assessment was evaluated using the single leg stance and the tandem gait tests. Of the total study population (mean age, 62.1 +/- 12.3 years), 25% reported musculoskeletal pain. A significantly higher prevalence of pain was noted in women than men (37% vs 20%, P = .004) and in those > 65 years than those < or = 65 years (35% vs 17%, P = .001). Back (29%), knee (17%), and hip (8%) pain were the most common symptoms, in order of decreasing frequency. Pain was worse with any activity in 32% of participants while 16% of participants had worsening at night. An abnormality in balance was present in 58% of the study participants and was significantly more common in women (71%) and those > 65 years (83%). Falls or gait instability or both were reported by 11% of participants. Musculoskeletal and balance limitations are common in persons enrolled in early outpatient cardiac rehabilitation, particularly in women and patients > 65 years. Cardiac rehabilitation programs should screen patients for musculoskeletal limitations and incorporate adaptations for treatment strategies of such patients.

  6. What Works in Oklahoma Schools: A Comprehensive Needs Assessment of Oklahoma Schools. Phase II State Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano Research Laboratory, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Phase II provides a more detailed examination of classroom variables important to achievement in Oklahoma schools. Where Phase I addressed all nine of the Oklahoma essential elements using survey data, Phase II focuses on what occurs in Oklahoma classrooms primarily using data from principal interviews, classroom observations (on-site), and video…

  7. Analysis of SBIR phase I and phase II review results at the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Vener, K J; Calkins, B M

    1991-09-01

    A cohort of phase I and phase II summary statements for the SBIR grant applications was evaluated to determine the strengths and weaknesses in approved and disapproved applications. An analysis of outcome variables (disapproval or unfunded status) was examined with respect to exposure variables (strengths or shortcomings). Logistic regression models were developed for comparisons to measure the predictive value of shortcomings and strengths to the outcomes. Disapproved phase I results were compared with an earlier 1985 study. Although the magnitude of the frequencies of shortcomings was greater in the present study, the relative rankings within shortcoming class were more alike than different. Also, the frequencies of shortcomings were, with one exception, not significantly different in the two studies. Differences in the summary statement review may have accounted for some differences observed between the 1985 data and results of the present study. Comparisons of Approved/Disapproved and Approved-Unfunded/Funded yielded the following observations. For phase I applicants, a lack of a clearly stated, testable hypothesis, a poorly qualified or described investigative team, and inadequate methodological approaches contributed significantly (in that order) to a rating of disapproval. A critical flaw for phase II proposals was failure to accomplish objectives of the phase I study. Methodological issues also dominate the distinctions in both comparison groups. A clear result of the data presented here and that published previously is that SBIR applicants need continuing assistance to improve the chances of their success. These results should serve as a guide to assist NIH staff as they provide information to prospective applicants focusing on key elements of the application. A continuing review of the SBIR program would be helpful to evaluate the quality of the submitted science.

  8. Participation in two phase II prophylactic HIV vaccine trials in the UK.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kimberly; Legg, K; Sharp, A; Mackie, N; Olarinde, F; De Souza, C; Weber, J; Peters, B

    2008-06-02

    There will be a continued imperative to recruit large numbers of healthy volunteers to early phase prophylactic HIV vaccine (PHV) trials. We studied mechanisms associated with participation in two related phase II PHV trials. The most cited reasons for volunteering were altruism and a personal connection to HIV. The most successful recruiting strategies targeted organisations dealing with HIV, health or social issues, or were directed to large audiences through the mass media. However, circulated emails and word of mouth were the most resource-effective approaches. Group discussions and the collection of a pool of potential volunteers were much less effective than one-to-one discussions and immediate screening after recruitment. We utilised our findings to devise key recommendations to assist PHV trial teams who are planning future studies.

  9. Overview of SBIR Phase II Work on Hollow Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Michael; Brantley, Lott W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Ultra-Lightweight materials are enabling for producing space based optical components and support structures. Heretofore, innovative designs using existing materials has been the approach to produce lighter-weight optical systems. Graphite fiber reinforced composites, because of their light weight, have been a material of frequent choice to produce space based optical components. Hollow graphite fibers would be lighter than standard solid graphite fibers and, thus, would save weight in optical components. The Phase I SBIR program demonstrated it is possible to produce hollow carbon fibers that have strengths up to 4.2 GPa which are equivalent to commercial fibers, and composites made from the hollow fibers had substantially equivalent composite strengths as commercial fiber composites at a 46% weight savings. The Phase II SBIR program will optimize processing and properties of the hollow carbon fiber and scale-up processing to produce sufficient fiber for fabricating a large ultra-lightweight mirror for delivery to NASA. Information presented here includes an overview of the strength of some preliminary hollow fibers, photographs of those fibers, and a short discussion of future plans.

  10. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    SciT

    Johnson, F. C.; Stone, M. E.; Miller, D. H.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) tomore » address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12 th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  11. A phase II study of ABT-510 (thrombospondin-1 analog) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Svetomir N; Suman, Vera J; Rao, Ravi A; Ingle, James N; Kaur, Judith S; Erickson, Lori A; Pitot, Henry C; Croghan, Gary A; McWilliams, Robert R; Merchan, Jaime; Kottschade, Lisa A; Nevala, Wendy K; Uhl, Cindy B; Allred, Jacob; Creagan, Edward T

    2007-06-01

    Thrombospondins are natural inhibitors of angiogenesis, tumor metastases, and tumor growth (melanoma). ABT-510 is a synthetic analog of thrombospondin-1, well tolerated in phase I studies. We conducted a phase II trial evaluating the clinical efficacy of ABT-510 and its effects on biomarkers of angiogenesis and immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma (MM). A 2-stage phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the clinical efficacy, safety, and pharmacodynamic effects (angiogenesis and immunity) of ABT-510 in patients with stage IV melanoma. The primary endpoint was 18-week treatment failure rate. Patients self-administered 100 mg of ABT-510 subcutaneously twice daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and every 3 weeks while on therapy. Eligible patients demonstrated measurable disease, good performance status and no evidence of intracranial metastases. Correlative laboratory studies evaluated biomarkers of angiogenesis and immunity. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. Most patients were stage M1c (71%) and all had prior therapy for MM. Only 3 of the first 20 patients enrolled were progression free and on treatment at 18 weeks resulting in early termination of the study. Decreases in peripheral blood VEGF-A levels and VEGF-C levels, and CD146 and CD34/133 counts relative to pretreatment were detected. Limited changes in antitumor T cell immunity were observed. ABT-510 therapy administered at 100 mg twice/day in patients with MM did not demonstrate definite clinical efficacy. Further dose escalation or combination with cytotoxic therapy may be more effective therapeutically.

  12. 40 CFR 73.20 - Phase II early reduction credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... utility, including generators that are not fossil fuel-fired) that has decreased its total coal-fired... reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions; and (2) A report listing all units in the utility system, each fossil... total electrical generation for calendar years 1980 and 1985 (including all generators, whether fossil...

  13. 40 CFR 73.20 - Phase II early reduction credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... utility, including generators that are not fossil fuel-fired) that has decreased its total coal-fired... reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions; and (2) A report listing all units in the utility system, each fossil... total electrical generation for calendar years 1980 and 1985 (including all generators, whether fossil...

  14. 40 CFR 73.20 - Phase II early reduction credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... utility, including generators that are not fossil fuel-fired) that has decreased its total coal-fired... reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions; and (2) A report listing all units in the utility system, each fossil... total electrical generation for calendar years 1980 and 1985 (including all generators, whether fossil...

  15. 40 CFR 73.20 - Phase II early reduction credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... utility, including generators that are not fossil fuel-fired) that has decreased its total coal-fired... reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions; and (2) A report listing all units in the utility system, each fossil... total electrical generation for calendar years 1980 and 1985 (including all generators, whether fossil...

  16. 40 CFR 73.20 - Phase II early reduction credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... utility, including generators that are not fossil fuel-fired) that has decreased its total coal-fired... quality of fuel being burned. (c) Initial certification of eligibility. The designated representative of a... reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions; and (2) A report listing all units in the utility system, each fossil...

  17. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II: Shallow Plus Retrofits

    SciT

    Sutherland, K.; Parker, D.; Martin, E.

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits duringmore » August 2013 - December 2013. A full account of Phase I of this project, including detailed home details and characterization, is found in Parker et al, 2015 (currently in draft). Phase II of this project, which is the focus of this report, applied the following additional retrofit measures to select homes that received a shallow retrofit in Phase I: a) Supplemental mini-split heat pump (MSHP) (6 homes); b) Ducted and space coupled Heat Pump Water Heater (8 homes); c) Exterior insulation finish system (EIFS) (1 homes); d) Window retrofit (3 homes); e) Smart thermostat (21 homes: 19 NESTs; 2 Lyrics); f) Heat pump clothes dryer (8 homes); g) Variable speed pool pump (5 homes).« less

  18. Evaluation of Deicer Impacts on Pervious Concrete Specimens (Phase II)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-05-01

    This research examined the chemical degradation of pervious concrete due to calcium chloride or magnesium chloride deicers. The project consisted of Phase I, Phase IIa, and Phase IIb. Phase I was previous work where a testing protocol was developed t...

  19. Reflective Cracking of Flexible Pavements Phase I and II Final Recommendations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-02-02

    This report summarizes all the findings and recommendations from the Phase I and Phase II of the Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT) study initiated in 2006 to mitigate reflective cracking in hot mix asphalt (HMA) overlays. Based on the analys...

  20. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase I and Phase II Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high temperature environmental barrier coating systems, deployable space structures, solid oxide fuel cells, and self-lubricating hard coatings for extreme temperatures. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  1. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Phase II and phase III.

    SciT

    Cilke, John F.; Parks, Raymond C.; Funkhouser, Donald Ray

    2004-04-01

    In Phase I of this project, reported in SAND97-1922, Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. The effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements and an economic analysis model for development of care pathway costs for two conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Phases II and III of this project, which are presented in this report, were directed at detailing the parameters of telemedicine that influence care deliverymore » costs and quality. These results were used to identify and field test the communication, interoperability, and security capabilities needed for cost-effective, secure, and reliable health care via telemedicine.« less

  2. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, p<0.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception. (Spearman r=−0.075, p=0.329). Dispositional optimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (p<0.0001) were independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  3. Background rejection of n+ surface events in GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for neutrinoless double beta (0vββ) decay in 76Ge using an array of high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment uses 30 new broad energy germanium (BEGe) detectors with superior pulse shape discrimination capabilities compared to the previously used semi-coaxial detector design. By far the largest background component for BEGe detectors in GERDA are n+-surface events from 42K β decays which are intrinsic in LAr. The β particles with up to 3.5 MeV can traverse the 0.5 to 0.9 mm thick electrode and deposit energy within the region of interest for the 0vββ decay. However, those events have particular pulse shape features allowing for a strong discrimination. The understanding and simulation of this background, showing a reduction by up to a factor 145 with pulse shape discrimination alone, is presented in this work.

  4. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used to determine compound effects on both neural function and cell health in primary cortical networks grown on mwMEA plates following exposure to ~1100 compounds from EPA’s Phase II ToxCast libraries. On DIV 13, baseline activity (40 min) was recorded prior to exposure to each compound at 40 µM. DMSO and the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (BIC) were included as controls on each mwMEA plate. Changes in spontaneous network activity (mean firing rate; MFR) and cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase; LDH and CellTiter Blue; CTB) were assessed within the same well following compound exposure. Activity calls (“hits”) were established using the 90th and 20th percentiles of the compound-induced change in MFR (medians of triplicates) across all tested compounds; compounds above (top 10% of compounds increasing MFR), and below (bottom 20% of compounds decreasing MFR) these thresholds, respectively were considered hits. MFR was altered beyond one of these thresholds by 322 compounds. Four compound categories accounted for 66% of the hits, including: insecticides (e.g. abamectin, lindane, prallethrin), pharmaceuticals (e.g. haloperidol, reserpine), fungicides (e.g. hexaconazole, fenamidone), and h

  5. A Bayesian-frequentist two-stage single-arm phase II clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gaohong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Moore, Dirk; Quan, Hui; Marcella, Stephen

    2012-08-30

    It is well-known that both frequentist and Bayesian clinical trial designs have their own advantages and disadvantages. To have better properties inherited from these two types of designs, we developed a Bayesian-frequentist two-stage single-arm phase II clinical trial design. This design allows both early acceptance and rejection of the null hypothesis ( H(0) ). The measures (for example probability of trial early termination, expected sample size, etc.) of the design properties under both frequentist and Bayesian settings are derived. Moreover, under the Bayesian setting, the upper and lower boundaries are determined with predictive probability of trial success outcome. Given a beta prior and a sample size for stage I, based on the marginal distribution of the responses at stage I, we derived Bayesian Type I and Type II error rates. By controlling both frequentist and Bayesian error rates, the Bayesian-frequentist two-stage design has special features compared with other two-stage designs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The multifaceted Type II-L supernova 2014G from pre-maximum to nebular phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terreran, G.; Jerkstrand, A.; Benetti, S.; Smartt, S. J.; Ochner, P.; Tomasella, L.; Howell, D. A.; Morales-Garoffolo, A.; Harutyunyan, A.; Kankare, E.; Arcavi, I.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kangas, T.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Turatto, M.; Valenti, S.; Wiggins, P.; Yuan, F.

    2016-10-01

    We present multiband ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry, along with visual-wavelength spectroscopy, of supernova (SN) 2014G in the nearby galaxy NGC 3448 (25 Mpc). The early-phase spectra show strong emission lines of the high ionization species He II/N IV/C IV during the first 2-3 d after explosion, traces of a metal-rich circumstellar material (CSM) probably due to pre-explosion mass-loss events. These disappear by day 9 and the spectral evolution then continues matching that of normal Type II SNe. The post-maximum light curve declines at a rate typical of Type II-L class. The extensive photometric coverage tracks the drop from the photospheric stage and constrains the radioactive tail, with a steeper decline rate than that expected from the 56Co decay if γ-rays are fully trapped by the ejecta. We report the appearance of an unusual feature on the blue side of H α after 100 d, which evolves to appear as a flat spectral feature linking H α and the [O I] doublet. This may be due to interaction of the ejecta with a strongly asymmetric, and possibly bipolar CSM. Finally, we report two deep spectra at ˜190 and 340 d after explosion, the latter being arguably one of the latest spectra for a Type II-L SN. By modelling the spectral region around the [Ca II], we find a supersolar Ni/Fe production. The strength of the [O I] λλ6300,6363 doublet, compared with synthetic nebular spectra, suggests a progenitor with a zero-age main-sequence mass between 15 and 19 M⊙.

  7. Failsafe automation of Phase II clinical trial interim monitoring for stopping rules.

    PubMed

    Day, Roger S

    2010-02-01

    In Phase II clinical trials in cancer, preventing the treatment of patients on a study when current data demonstrate that the treatment is insufficiently active or too toxic has obvious benefits, both in protecting patients and in reducing sponsor costs. Considerable efforts have gone into experimental designs for Phase II clinical trials with flexible sample size, usually implemented by early stopping rules. The intended benefits will not ensue, however, if the design is not followed. Despite the best intentions, failures can occur for many reasons. The main goal is to develop an automated system for interim monitoring, as a backup system supplementing the protocol team, to ensure that patients are protected. A secondary goal is to stimulate timely recording of patient assessments. We developed key concepts and performance needs, then designed, implemented, and deployed a software solution embedded in the clinical trials database system. The system has been in place since October 2007. One clinical trial tripped the automated monitor, resulting in e-mails that initiated statistician/investigator review in timely fashion. Several essential contributing activities still require human intervention, institutional policy decisions, and institutional commitment of resources. We believe that implementing the concepts presented here will provide greater assurance that interim monitoring plans are followed and that patients are protected from inadequate response or excessive toxicity. This approach may also facilitate wider acceptance and quicker implementation of new interim monitoring algorithms.

  8. ASR-9 processor augmentation card (9-PAC) phase II scan-scan correlator algorithms

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-04-26

    The report documents the scan-scan correlator (tracker) algorithm developed for Phase II of the ASR-9 Processor Augmentation Card (9-PAC) project. The improved correlation and tracking algorithms in 9-PAC Phase II decrease the incidence of false-alar...

  9. MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF THE FORMATION OF NOX AND OTHER COMBUSTION POLLUTANTS. PHASE II. MODIFIED COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives Phase II results of a combined experimental/theoretical study to define the mechanisms and kinetics of the formation of NOx and other combustion pollutants. Two experimental devices were used in Phase II. A special flat-flame burner with a controlled-temperature ...

  10. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective in...

  11. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective in...

  12. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective in...

  13. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective in...

  14. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent the...

  15. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent the...

  16. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent the...

  17. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent the...

  18. 40 CFR 72.73 - State issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.73 State issuance of Phase II permits... permit program under part 70 of this chapter and that has a State Acid Rain program accepted by the Administrator under § 72.71 shall be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain permits effective in...

  19. 40 CFR 72.74 - Federal issuance of Phase II permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.74 Federal issuance of Phase II permits. (a)(1) The Administrator will be responsible for administering and enforcing Acid Rain... and enforcing Acid Rain permits for such sources under § 72.73(a). (2) After and to the extent the...

  20. Investing in Our Nation's Youth. National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Phase II (Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents the findings from an evaluation of Phase II of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. The number one goal of the campaign was to educate youth to reject illegal drugs. This report evaluates Phase II and focuses on the effect of paid television advertising on awareness of anti-drug messages among youth, teens, and…

  1. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Single Cell Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    SciT

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-04-15

    This Phase II final report documents the Phase II testing conducted from June 18, 1998 through November 13, 1998, and it focuses on the application of the siphon technology as a sub-component of the overall GeoSiphon Cell technology. [Q-TPL-T-00004

  2. 47 CFR 54.310 - Connect America Fund for Price Cap Territories-Phase II

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Connect America Fund for Price Cap Territories... Connect America Fund for Price Cap Territories—Phase II (a) Geographic areas eligible for support. Connect America Phase II support may be made available for census blocks or other areas identified as eligible by...

  3. Starting Strong II: Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This review of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in twenty OECD countries describes the social, economic, conceptual and research factors that influence early childhood policy. These include increasing women's labour market participation; reconciling work and family responsibilities on a more equitable basis for women; confronting the…

  4. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Phase II. MAP FOLIO. Biota Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    conditions. These were: 1) Base Average -- average freshwater inflow conditions. by increased water consumption projected for the year 2020. 3) Base Drought...RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS. 1963- A TAI m - ii J May 1982 Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study Phase II Biota Assessment Map...A PERIOD ZOVERED change was found to CIESAPEAKE BAY LOW FRESHWATER INFLOW STUDY FINAL BIOTA ASSESSMENT PHASE II: FINAL REPORT MAP FOLIO s PERFORMING

  5. Additive Manufacture of Plasma Diagnostic Components Final Report Phase II

    SciT

    Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; You, Setthivoine

    There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics (see e.g. [3]), but these remain some of the mostexpensive assemblies in fusion systems since for every system they have to be custom built, and time fordiagnostic development can pace the project. Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to decreaseproduction cost and significantly lower design time of fusion diagnostic subsystems, which would realizesignificant cost reduction for standard diagnostics. In some cases, these basic components can be additivelymanufactured for less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing.In our DOE Phase II SBIR, we examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnosticmore » cost bytaking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) tech-niques, then optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. The impact of AM techniques on cost isfound to be in several areas. First, the cost of materials falls because AM parts can be manufactured withlittle to no waste, and engineered to use less material than CM. Next, the cost of fabrication falls for AMparts relative to CM since the fabrication time can be computed exactly, and often no post-processing isrequired for the part to be functional. We find that AM techniques are well suited for plasma diagnosticssince typical diagnostic complexity comes at no additional cost. Cooling channels, for example, can be builtin to plasma-facing components at no extra cost. Fabrication costs associated with assembly are lower forAM parts because many components can be combined and printed as monoliths, thereby mitigating the needfor alignment or calibration. Finally, the cost of engineering is impacted by exploiting AM design tools thatallow standard components to be customized through web-interfaces. Furthermore, we find that conceptdesign costs can be impacted by scripting interfaces for online engineering design tools.« less

  6. Oral Sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Marc A.; Saxon, Andrew; Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cellular oxidative stress is an important factor in asthma and is thought to be the principle mechanism by which oxidant pollutants such as ozone and particulates mediate their pro-inflammatory effects. Endogenous Phase II enzymes abrogate oxidative stress through the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and metabolism of reactive chemicals. Objective We conducted a placebo-controlled dose escalation trial to investigate the in vivo effects of sulforaphane, a naturally occurring potent inducer of Phase II enzymes, on the expression of glutathione-s-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione-s-transferase P1 (GSTP1), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), and hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the upper airway of human subjects. Methods Study subjects consumed oral sulforaphane doses contained in a standardized broccoli sprout homogenate (BSH). RNA expression for selected Phase II enzymes was measured in nasal lavage cells by RT-PCR before and after sulforaphane dosing. Results All subjects tolerated oral sulforaphane dosing without significant adverse events. Increased Phase II enzyme expression in nasal lavage cells occurred in a dose-dependent manner with maximal enzyme induction observed at the highest dose of 200 grams broccoli sprouts prepared as BSH. Significant increases were seen in all sentinel Phase II enzymes RNA expression compared to baseline. Phase II enzyme induction was not seen with ingestion of non-sulforaphane containing alfalfa sprouts. Conclusion Oral sulforaphane safely and effectively induces mucosal Phase II enzyme expression in the upper airway of human subjects. This study demonstrates the potential of antioxidant Phase II enzymes induction in the human airway as a strategy to reduce the inflammatory effects of oxidative stress. Clinical Implications This study demonstrates the potential of enhancement of Phase II enzyme expression as a novel therapeutic strategy for oxidant induced airway disease. Capsule Summary A placebo-controlled dose

  7. SPORE/EDRN/PRE-PLCO Ovarian Phase II Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Create a new set of phase II specimens (160 cases with pre-operative bloods representing major histologic types and including 80 early-staged and 80 late-staged cases, 160 controls with benign disease, 480 general population controls, and a small set of serial Samples collected either at least 3 months apart, but not more than 6 months apart OR between 10 months apart and no more than 14 months apart in 40 healthy controls) will be used to evaluate markers identified in preliminary work. The top 5-10 markers, plus an expanded panel of Luminex markers, will comprise a “working consensus panel” for subsequent analysis in PLCO specimens.

  8. Improved healing of extraperitoneal intestinal anastomoses in the early phase when surrounded by omentum.

    PubMed

    Pierie, J P; de Graaf, P W; van Dijk, M; Renooij, W; van Vroonhoven, T J; Obertop, H

    2000-01-01

    The extra-anatomical position of a cervical oesophagogastrostomy is a reason for impaired anastomotic healing, but transposition of the omentum that is covered with mesothelial cells may be a way to improve that. This hypothesis was tested in a rat model. An end-to-end jejuno-jejunostomy was placed subcutaneously in group I (n = 29), subcutaneously surrounded by omentum in group II (n = 29) and intra-abdominally surrounded by omentum in group III (n = 20). After 3, 7 or 14 days, the rats were sacrificed and bursting pressure (BP) of the anastomosis or jejunum was measured and the hydroxyproline (HP) level was determined. In group I 5/29, in group II 2/29 and in group III 0/20 rats died following anastomotic leakage (nonsignificant) and were excluded from other measurements. BP was decreased after 3 days in group I (60+/-9 mm Hg) compared with group II (101+/-8 mm Hg) and group III (107+/-11 mm Hg) (p = 0.002). After 7 days, BP in groups I (122+/-10 mm Hg) and II (132+/-10 mm Hg) were lower as compared with group III (230+/-8 mm Hg) (p<0.001). Differences in HP levels were not statistically significant between the groups after 3, 7 and 14 days. The healing of intestinal anastomoses in an extraperitoneal position is improved in the early phase only when surrounded by omentum. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Geoeffectiveness during the early phase of Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Bimal

    Geoeffectiveness during the early phase of Solar Cycle 24 \\underline{} Abstract\\underline{} It is very important and interesting to understand the solar eruptions because it produces the geoeffectiveness in our Earth environment. In the rise phase of the solar cycle, geoeffective events are less frequent, thus this provide us better opportunity to study these events including the detection of their source regions. Keeping this in mind, we have analysed the data of rise phase of current solar cycle 24 ( 2009-2012). During above time period, we have selected 59 geoeffective events having Disturbance Storm Time (Dst) index < -50 nT. Based on the Dst index, we divided the events into two categories i.e. moderate (< -50 nT > -100 nT ) and intense ( <-100 nT). To locate the solar source regions of geoeffective and SEPs associated events, we have used available images, movies and Solar Geophysical data (SGD) list: for example movies from SOHO/EIT, images and movies from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). In this study, we will discuss and compare the different properties of associated CMEs, flares and their relation with geoeffectiveness.

  10. Solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cu(II) by Cu(II)-imprinted polymethacrylic microbeads.

    PubMed

    Dakova, Ivanka; Karadjova, Irina; Ivanov, Ivo; Georgieva, Ventsislava; Evtimova, Bisera; Georgiev, George

    2007-02-12

    Ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) particles are prepared by copolymerization of methacrylic acid as monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as crosslinking agent and 2,2'-azo-bis-isobutyronitrile as initiator in the presence of Cu(II), a Cu(II)-4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (Cu(II)-PAR) complex, and PAR only. A batch procedure is used for the determination of the characteristics of the Cu(II) solid phase extraction from the IIP produced. The results obtained show that the Cu(II)-PAR IIP has the greatest adsorption capacity (37.4 micromol g(-1) of dry copolymer) among the IIPs investigated. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration is 7, and full desorption is achieved by 1 M HNO(3). The selectivity coefficients (S(Cu/Me)) for Me=Ni(II), Co(II) are 45.0 and 38.5, respectively. It is established that Cu(II)-PAR IIPs can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The determination of Cu(II) ions in seawater shows that the interfering matrix does not influence the preconcentration and selectivity values of the Cu(II)-PAR IIPs. The detection and quantification limits are 0.001 micromol L(-1) (3sigma) and 0.003 micromol L(-1) (6sigma), respectively.

  11. Selecting promising treatments in randomized Phase II cancer trials with an active control.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ying Kuen

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of Phase II cancer trials is to evaluate the potential efficacy of a new regimen in terms of its antitumor activity in a given type of cancer. Due to advances in oncology therapeutics and heterogeneity in the patient population, such evaluation can be interpreted objectively only in the presence of a prospective control group of an active standard treatment. This paper deals with the design problem of Phase II selection trials in which several experimental regimens are compared to an active control, with an objective to identify an experimental arm that is more effective than the control or to declare futility if no such treatment exists. Conducting a multi-arm randomized selection trial is a useful strategy to prioritize experimental treatments for further testing when many candidates are available, but the sample size required in such a trial with an active control could raise feasibility concerns. In this study, we extend the sequential probability ratio test for normal observations to the multi-arm selection setting. The proposed methods, allowing frequent interim monitoring, offer high likelihood of early trial termination, and as such enhance enrollment feasibility. The termination and selection criteria have closed form solutions and are easy to compute with respect to any given set of error constraints. The proposed methods are applied to design a selection trial in which combinations of sorafenib and erlotinib are compared to a control group in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer using a continuous endpoint of change in tumor size. The operating characteristics of the proposed methods are compared to that of a single-stage design via simulations: The sample size requirement is reduced substantially and is feasible at an early stage of drug development.

  12. Early rheumatoid disease. II. Patterns of joint involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, A; Benn, R T; Corbett, M; Wood, P H

    1976-01-01

    Data from the first research clinic visit (Fleming and others, 1976) have been subjected to factor analysis to identify early patterns of joint involvement. Nine patterns emerged. Two patterns, if present early, were found to have prognostic significance. An eventually more severe disease was associated with a pattern of large joint involvement (shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee) and a pattern based on metatarsophalangeal joints I and III. PMID:970995

  13. Cediranib in patients with malignant mesothelioma: A phase II trial of the University of Chicago Phase II Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Nicholas P.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh; Leighl, Natasha; Vincent, Mark D.; Gandara, David R.; Koczywas, Marianna; Gitlitz, Barbara J.; Agamah, Edem; Thomas, Sachdev P.; Stadler, Walter M.; Vokes, Everett E.; Kindler, Hedy L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive disease with limited therapeutic options. In preclinical models, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates MM proliferation. In MM patients, higher plasma VEGF levels correlate inversely with survival. Cediranib is an orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGF receptors -1, -2, and -3. Methods We conducted a multi-center phase II trial of cediranib in patients with unresectable, histologically-confirmed MM who had received ≤1 prior regimen of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. Initial cediranib dosing was 45 mg daily during a 28-day cycle. Due to substantial toxicity, the starting dose was subsequently lowered to 30 mg daily. Results Fifty-one patients enrolled at 9 centers; 50 were evaluable for response. Partial responses were observed in 10% of patients; stable disease was seen in 34%. Disease control (PR + SD) was higher at the 45 mg cediranib dose level (67% vs. 34%, p=0.04). Median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (95% CI 0.1, 14.2); median overall survival (OS) was 4.4 months (95% CI 0.9, 41.7). The 1-year survival rate was 15%. Grade 3/4 toxicities were more frequent in the 45 mg dose level group (87% vs. 43%, p=0.002). These included fatigue, hypertension, pulmonary embolism, angioedema, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. Median OS was superior in patients who developed ≥ grade 3 hypertension (8.5 vs. 4.1 months, p=0.024). Conclusion This trial did not meet its pre-specified response endpoint. A higher cediranib dose level was associated with improved disease control, but this dose was poorly tolerated. PMID:22831987

  14. Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Early Restoration Plan. On April 20, 2011 we reached an agreement with BP to start restoration planning draft plan for the third phase of early restoration in December 2013. We are considering your comments : All Phase III information and documents Phase II Useful Links: Phase II Early Restoration Plan &

  15. Gene expression profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, L; Alter, T; Aho, T; Huehn, S

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio (V.) parahaemolyticus is an aquatic bacterium capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis. In the environment or the food chain, V. parahaemolyticus cells are usually forced into the stationary phase, the common phase for bacterial survival in the environment. So far, little is known about whole genomic expression of V. parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase compared with the exponential growth phase. We performed whole transcriptomic profiling of V. parahaemolyticus cells in both phases (exponential and early stationary phase). Our data showed in total that 172 genes were induced in early stationary phase, while 61 genes were repressed in early stationary phase compared with the exponential phase. Three functional categories showed stable gene expression in the early stationary phase. Eleven functional categories showed that up-regulation of genes was dominant over down-regulation in the early stationary phase. Although genes related to endogenous metabolism were repressed in the early stationary phase, massive regulation of gene expression occurred in the early stationary phase, indicating the expressed gene set of V. parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase impacts environmental survival. Vibrio (V.) parahaemolyticus is one of the main bacterial causes of foodborne intestinal infections. This bacterium usually is forced into stationary phase in the environment, which includes, e.g. seafood. When bacteria are in stationary phase, physiological changes can lead to a resistance to many stresses, including physical and chemical challenges during food processing. To the best of our knowledge, highlighting the whole genome expression changes in the early stationary phase compared with exponential phase, as well as the investigation of physiological changes of V. parahaemolyticus such as the survival mechanism in the stationary phase has been the very first study in this field. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Commissioning and Early Operation for the NSLS-II Booster RF System

    SciT

    Marques, C.; Cupolo, J.; Davila, P.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a third generation 3GeV, 500mA synchrotron light source. We discuss the booster synchrotron RF system responsible for providing power to accelerate an electron beam from 200MeV to 3GeV. The RF system design and construction are complete and is currently in the operational phase of the NSLS-II project. Preliminary operational data is also discussed.

  17. Court procedures for identifying problem drinkers : phase II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-11-30

    This report summarizes the studies conducted in the first phase of the project and describes the tasks completed in the second phase. The court procedures manual developed in Phase I was reviewed by a panel of experts and subsequently revised. Three ...

  18. Biomarker-Guided Adaptive Trial Designs in Phase II and Phase III: A Methodological Review

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Miranta; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi

    2016-01-01

    Background Personalized medicine is a growing area of research which aims to tailor the treatment given to a patient according to one or more personal characteristics. These characteristics can be demographic such as age or gender, or biological such as a genetic or other biomarker. Prior to utilizing a patient’s biomarker information in clinical practice, robust testing in terms of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility is necessary. A number of clinical trial designs have been proposed for testing a biomarker’s clinical utility, including Phase II and Phase III clinical trials which aim to test the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment; these designs can be broadly classified into adaptive and non-adaptive. While adaptive designs allow planned modifications based on accumulating information during a trial, non-adaptive designs are typically simpler but less flexible. Methods and Findings We have undertaken a comprehensive review of biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs proposed in the past decade. We have identified eight distinct biomarker-guided adaptive designs and nine variations from 107 studies. Substantial variability has been observed in terms of how trial designs are described and particularly in the terminology used by different authors. We have graphically displayed the current biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs and summarised the characteristics of each design. Conclusions Our in-depth overview provides future researchers with clarity in definition, methodology and terminology for biomarker-guided adaptive trial designs. PMID:26910238

  19. Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems

    1995-08-08

    Early Human Testing (EHT) Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems Laboratory (RLSSL). Nigel Packham activities in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber which he lived inside for 15 days. A crowd of well-wishers outside the test chamber, at the console are John Lewis, Ed Mohr and Marybeth Edeen (15577). Packham exiting the chamber (15578-81). Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters (15582-3). Don Henninger interviewed by reporters (15584). Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber (15585). Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants (15586-7, 15597). Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle (15588, 15592). Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta (15589-90). Group portrait of the team conducting the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems test and include, front row, from left: Jeff Dominick and Don Overton and back row, from left, unidentified member, Marybeth Edeen, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Ed Mohr, Dan Barta and Tim Monk (15591). Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham (15593). Packham displays a handful of wheat plants (15594). Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal (15595) and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator (15596). Packham retrieves a package from the airlock (15598). Packham packs up trash in plastic bag (15599-600) and sends it back through the airlock (15601). Packham gets a cup of water (15602) and heats it in the microwave (15603).

  20. The Phase-II ATLAS ITk pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzo, S.

    2017-07-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase-II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the ``ITk'' (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and ring-shaped supports in the end-cap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation levels. The new pixel system could include up to 14 m2 of silicon, depending on the final layout, which is expected to be decided in 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel end-cap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as |eta| <4. Supporting structures will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide circulated in thin-walled titanium pipes embedded in the structures. Planar, 3D, and CMOS sensors are being investigated to identify the optimal technology, which may be different for the various layers. The RD53 Collaboration is developing the new readout chip. The pixel off-detector readout electronics will be implemented in the framework of the general ATLAS trigger and DAQ system. A readout speed of up to 5 Gb/s per data link will be needed in the innermost layers going down to 640 Mb/s for the outermost. Because of the very high radiation level inside the detector, the first part of the transmission has to be implemented electrically, with signals converted for optical transmission at larger radii. Extensive tests are being carried out to prove the feasibility of implementing serial powering, which has been chosen as the baseline for the ITk pixel system due to the reduced

  1. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Current Topics in Early Childhood Education. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G., Ed.; And Others

    The ten papers in this volume present integrative reviews, analyses and syntheses of research and development of current concern to early childhood educators. Four papers represent investigations and reports of programmatic or educational activities. House and Hutchins critically analyze Abt Associates' national evaluation of Project Follow…

  3. Development of a D SIGHT aircraft inspection system : phase II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-03-01

    Word document. This report presents Phsase II results on an international Project Arrangement between the Federal Aviation Administration and Transport Canada Aviation for the development and testing of a nondestructive inspection system for aircraft...

  4. Single-arm phase II trial design under parametric cure models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The current practice of designing single-arm phase II survival trials is limited under the exponential model. Trial design under the exponential model may not be appropriate when a portion of patients are cured. There is no literature available for designing single-arm phase II trials under the parametric cure model. In this paper, a test statistic is proposed, and a sample size formula is derived for designing single-arm phase II trials under a class of parametric cure models. Extensive simulations showed that the proposed test and sample size formula perform very well under different scenarios. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. U.S.-China Strategic Dialogue, Phase II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-12

    Chinese Presentation 12:00-1:30p Lunch – Hibiscus Suite (Kalia Tower-2nd floor) 1:30p Panel II: Crisis Escalation in Theory and History Paper...Lunch Hibiscus Suite (Kalia Tower-2nd floor) 1:30p Panel IV: Nuclear Weapons Safety and Security: Comparing national approaches and discussing... Hibiscus Suite (Kalia Tower-2nd floor) 25 APPENDIX II: CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS 26 China Rear Admiral Yang Yi Director Institute of

  6. Turbulent transport of He II in active and passive phase separators using slit devices and porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1988-01-01

    The turbulent transport mode of vapor liquid phase separators (VLPS) for He II has been investigated comparing passive porous plug separators with active phase separators (APS) using slits of variable flow paths within a common frame of reference. It is concluded that the basic transport regimes in both devices are identical. An integrated Gorter-Mellink (1949) equation, found previously to predict VLPS results of porous plugs, is employed to analyze APS data published in the literature. It is found that the Gorter-Mellink flow rate parameter for 9-micron and 14-micron APS slit widths are relatively independent of the slit width, having a rate constant of about 9 + or - 10 percent. This agrees with the early heat flow results for He II entropy transport at zero net mass flow in wide capillaries and slits.

  7. Distinct expression patterns for type II topoisomerases IIA and IIB in the early foetal human telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Harkin, Lauren F; Gerrelli, Dianne; Gold Diaz, Diana C; Santos, Chloe; Alzu'bi, Ayman; Austin, Caroline A; Clowry, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    TOP2A and TOP2B are type II topoisomerase enzymes that have important but distinct roles in DNA replication and RNA transcription. Recently, TOP2B has been implicated in the transcription of long genes in particular that play crucial roles in neural development and are susceptible to mutations contributing to neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism and schizophrenia. This study maps their expression in the early foetal human telencephalon between 9 and 12 post-conceptional weeks. TOP2A immunoreactivity was restricted to cell nuclei of the proliferative layers of the cortex and ganglionic eminences (GE), including the ventricular zone and subventricular zone (SVZ) closely matching expression of the proliferation marker KI67. Comparison with sections immunolabelled for NKX2.1, a medial GE (MGE) marker, and PAX6, a cortical progenitor cell and lateral GE (LGE) marker, revealed that TOP2A-expressing cells were more abundant in MGE than the LGE. In the cortex, TOP2B is expressed in cell nuclei in both proliferative (SVZ) and post-mitotic compartments (intermediate zone and cortical plate) as revealed by comparison with immunostaining for PAX6 and the post-mitotic neuron marker TBR1. However, co-expression with KI67 was rare. In the GE, TOP2B was also expressed by proliferative and post-mitotic compartments. In situ hybridisation studies confirmed these patterns of expression, except that TOP2A mRNA is restricted to cells in the G2/M phase of division. Thus, during early development, TOP2A is likely to have a role in cell proliferation, whereas TOP2B is expressed in post-mitotic cells and may be important in controlling expression of long genes even at this early stage. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Anatomical Society.

  8. Medulloblastoma in children and adolescents: a systematic review of contemporary phase I and II clinical trials and biology update.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Francisco; Fioravantti, Victoria; de Rojas, Teresa; Carceller, Fernando; Madero, Luis; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Moreno, Lucas

    2017-11-01

    Survival rates for patients with medulloblastoma have improved in the last decades but for those who relapse outcome is dismal and new approaches are needed. Emerging drugs have been tested in the last two decades within the context of phase I/II trials. In parallel, advances in genetic profiling have permitted to identify key molecular alterations for which new strategies are being developed. We performed a systematic review focused on the design and outcome of early-phase trials evaluating new agents in patients with relapsed medulloblastoma. PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov, and references from selected studies were screened to identify phase I/II studies with reported results between 2000 and 2015 including patients with medulloblastoma aged <18 years. A total of 718 studies were reviewed and 78 satisfied eligibility criteria. Of those, 69% were phase I; 31% phase II. Half evaluated conventional chemotherapeutics and 35% targeted agents. Overall, 662 patients with medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors were included. The study designs and the response assessments were heterogeneous, limiting the comparisons among trials and the correct identification of active drugs. Median (range) objective response rate (ORR) for patients with medulloblastoma in phase I/II studies was 0% (0-100) and 6.5% (0-50), respectively. Temozolomide containing regimens had a median ORR of 16.5% (0-100). Smoothened inhibitors trials had a median ORR of 8% (3-8). Novel drugs have shown limited activity against relapsed medulloblastoma. Temozolomide might serve as backbone for new combinations. Novel and more homogenous trial designs might facilitate the development of new drugs. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The peculiar type II supernova 1993J in M81: Transition to the nebular phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filippenko, Alexei V.; Matheson, Thomas; Barth, Aaron J.

    1994-01-01

    We present optical spectra of the bright, peculiar Type II supernova 1993J in M81 spanning the first 14 months of its existence, revealing its transition to the nebular phase. Unlike the case in normal Type II supernovae, during the first 2-10 months the H-alpha emission line gradually becomes less prominent relative to other features such as (O I) lambda lambda 6300, 6364 and (Ca II) lambda lambda 7291, 7324, as we had predicted based on early-time (tau less than or approximately equal to 2 months) spectra. The nebular spectrum resembles those of the Type Ib/Ic supernovae 1985F and 1987M, although weak H-alpha emission is easily visible even at late times in SN 1993J. At tau = 8 months a close similarity is found with the spectrum of SN 1987K, the only other Type II supernova known to have undergone such a metamorphosis. The emission lines are considerably broader than those of normal Type II supernovae at comparable phases, consistent with the progenitor having lost a majority of its hydrogen envelope prior to exploding. Consequently, there is now little doubt that Type Ib, and probably Type Ic, supernovae result from core collapse in stripped, massive stars; models of the chemical evolution of galaxies in which these subtypes are ascribed to exploding white dwarfs must be appropriately modified. Although all of the emission lines in spectra of SN 1993J fade roughly exponentially for a considerable time, the fading of H-alpha begins to slow down at tau approximately = 8 months, and in the interval tau = 10-14 months its flux is constant, or even slightly rising in the wings of the line. This behavior, together with the box-like shape and great breadth (full width at half maximum (FWHM) approximately = 17 000 km/s) of the line profile, suggests that the H-alpha emission is being produced by the high-velocity outer layer of hydrogen ejecta interacting with circumstellar gas released by the progenitor prior to its explosion. A similar phenomenon has previously been

  10. Distinct requirements for C.elegans TAF(II)s in early embryonic transcription.

    PubMed

    Walker, A K; Rothman, J H; Shi, Y; Blackwell, T K

    2001-09-17

    TAF(II)s are conserved components of the TFIID, TFTC and SAGA-related mRNA transcription complexes. In yeast (y), yTAF(II)17 is required broadly for transcription, but various other TAF(II)s appear to have more specialized functions. It is important to determine how TAF(II)s contribute to transcription in metazoans, which have larger and more diverse genomes. We have examined TAF(II) functions in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, which can survive without transcription for several cell generations. We show that taf-10 (yTAF(II)17) and taf-11 (yTAF(II)25) are required for a significant fraction of transcription, but apparently are not needed for expression of multiple developmental and other metazoan-specific genes. In contrast, taf-5 (yTAF(II)48; human TAF(II)130) seems to be required for essentially all early embryonic mRNA transcription. We conclude that TAF-10 and TAF-11 have modular functions in metazoans, and can be bypassed at many metazoan-specific genes. The broad involvement of TAF-5 in mRNA transcription in vivo suggests a requirement for either TFIID or a TFTC-like complex.

  11. Marin County Teacher Learning Cooperative: Phase II, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balzan, Robert A.

    This report describes the second phase of a teacher learning cooperative project designed to coordinate the economic, physical, and human resources of a number of small elementary school districts in California and the Marin County Superintendent of Schools Office. Whereas the first phase dealt with the formation and implementation of the…

  12. Marin County Teacher Learning Cooperative: Phase II, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balzan, Robert A.

    This report describes the second phase of a teacher learning cooperative project designed to coordinate the economic, physical, and human resources of a number of small elementary school districts in California and the Marin County Superintendent of Schools Office. Whereas the first phase dealt with the formation and implementation of the…

  13. SmartPark Technology Demonstration Project, Phase II: Final Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of FMCSA's SmartPark project was to determine the feasibility of a technology for providing truck parking space availability information in real time to truckers on the road. SmartPark consisted of two phases. Phase I was a field operatio...

  14. Magnetic sensor for nondestructive evaluation of deteriorated prestressing strand : phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-08-01

    This report gives an account of the execution and achievements in Phase II of the project completed through August 2011. The main objective of this project is to advance the practical development of a nondestructive testing and evaluation method usin...

  15. 47 CFR 90.765 - Licenses term for Phase II licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide...(a), EA and Regional licenses authorized pursuant to § 90.761, and non-nationwide licenses authorized...

  16. 47 CFR 90.765 - Licenses term for Phase II licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 220-222 MHz Band Policies Governing the Licensing and Use of Phase II Ea, Regional and Nationwide...(a), EA and Regional licenses authorized pursuant to § 90.761, and non-nationwide licenses authorized...

  17. Roadway lighting and safety : phase II--monitoring quality, durability and efficiency.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    This Phase II project follows a previous project titled Strategies to Address Nighttime Crashes at Rural, Unsignalized Intersections. Based on the results of the previous study, the Iowa Highway Research Board (IHRB) indicated interest in pursuing fu...

  18. Field testing of hand-held infrared thermography, phase II TPF-5(247) : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-05-01

    This report is the second of two volumes that document results from the pooled fund study TPF-5 (247), Development of : Handheld Infrared Thermography, Phase II. The interim report (volume I) studied the implementation of handheld thermography : by p...

  19. Evaluation of Phase II of the SmarTraveler advanced traveler information system : operational test

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-07-31

    Under contract to the Massachusetts Highway Department, the Central Transportation : Planning Staff (technical staff to the Boston MPO) chose Multisystems, Inc. of : Cambridge, Massachusetts, to perform an evaluation of Phase II of the SmarTraveler :...

  20. System design and architecture for the IDTO prototype : phase II demonstration site (central Florida).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    This report documents the System Design and Architecture for the Phase II implementation of the Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations (IDTO) Prototype bundle within the Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) portion of the Connected Vehicle Program. Thi...

  1. Dasatinib in Pediatric Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Chronic Phase: Results From a Phase II Trial.

    PubMed

    Gore, Lia; Kearns, Pamela R; de Martino, Maria Lucia; Lee; De Souza, Carmino Antonio; Bertrand, Yves; Hijiya, Nobuko; Stork, Linda C; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Cardos, Rocio Cardenas; Saikia, Tapan; Fagioli, Franca; Seo, Jong Jin; Landman-Parker, Judith; Lancaster, Donna; Place, Andrew E; Rabin, Karen R; Sacchi, Mariana; Swanink, Rene; Zwaan, C Michel

    2018-05-01

    Purpose Safe, effective treatments are needed for pediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). Dasatinib is approved for treatment of adults and children with CML-CP. A phase I study determined suitable dosing for children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemias. Methods CA180-226/NCT00777036 is a phase II, open-label, nonrandomized prospective trial of patients < 18 years of age receiving dasatinib. There are three cohorts: (1) imatinib-resistant/intolerant CML-CP, (2) imatinib-resistant/intolerant CML in accelerated/blast phase or Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 17), and (3) newly diagnosed CML-CP treated with tablets or powder for oral suspension. Major cytogenetic response > 30% for imatinib-resistant/intolerant patients and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) > 55% for newly diagnosed patients were of clinical interest. Results Of 113 patients with CML-CP, 14 (48%) who were imatinib-resistant/intolerant and 61 (73%) who were newly diagnosed remained on treatment at time of analysis. Major cytogenetic response > 30% was reached by 3 months in the imatinib-resistant/intolerant group and CCyR > 55% was reached by 6 months in the newly diagnosed CML-CP group. CCyR and major molecular response by 12 months, respectively, were 76% and 41% in the imatinib-resistant/intolerant group and 92% and 52% in newly diagnosed CML-CP group. Progression-free survival by 48 months was 78% and 93% in the imatinib-resistant/intolerant and newly diagnosed CML-CP groups, respectively. No dasatinib-related pleural or pericardial effusion, pulmonary edema, or pulmonary arterial hypertension were reported. Bone growth and development events were reported in 4% of patients. Conclusion In the largest prospective trial to date in children with CML-CP, we demonstrate that dasatinib is a safe, effective treatment of pediatric CML-CP. Target responses to first- or second-line dasatinib were met early, and deep molecular responses were

  2. Early Tests of Piagetian Theory Through World War II.

    PubMed

    Beins, Bernard C

    2016-01-01

    Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed. Nonetheless, the theory ultimately gained traction to become the bedrock of developmental psychology. Reasons for its persistence may include a possible lack of awareness by psychologists about the lack of empirical support, its breadth and complexity, and a lack of a viable alternate theory. As a result, the theory still exerts influence in psychology even though its dominance has diminished.

  3. Intermediate Photovoltaic System Application Experiment. Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts. Phase II. Final report

    SciT

    Not Available

    This report presents the key results of the Phase II efforts for the Intermediate PV System Applications Experiment at the Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts (OCSA). This phase of the project involved fabrication, installation and integration of a nominal 140 kW flat panel PV system made up of large, square polycrystalline-silicon solar cell modules, each nominally 61 cm x 122 cm in size. The output of the PV modules, supplied by Solarex Corporation, was augmented, 1.35 to 1 at peak, by a row of glass reflectors, appropriately tilted northward. The PV system interfaces with the Oklahoma Gas and Electricmore » Utility at the OCSA main switchgear. Any excess power generated by the system is fed into the utility under a one to one buyback arrangement. Except for a shortfall in the system output, presently suspected to be due to the poor performance of the modules, no serious problems were encountered. Certain value engineering changes implemented during construction and early operational failure events associated with the power conditioning system are also described. The system is currently undergoing extended testing and evaluation.« less

  4. Acute lipophilicity-dependent effect of intravascular simvastatin in the early phase of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Beretta, S; Pastori, C; Sala, G; Piazza, F; Ferrarese, C; Cattalini, A; de Curtis, M; Librizzi, L

    2011-05-01

    The acute effects of simvastatin lactone (lipophilic) and simvastatin acid (hydrophilic) on transient focal ischemia were assessed using the isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion. This new model of cerebral ischemia allows the assessment of the very early phase of the ischemic process, with the functional preservation of the vascular and neuronal compartments and the blood-brain barrier (bbb). The middle cerebral artery was transiently tied for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. Statins (nanomolar doses) were administered by intravascular continuous infusion starting 60 min before ischemia induction. Brain cortical activity and arterial vascular tone were continuously recorded. At the end of the experiment immunoreactivity for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), expression of survival kinases (ERK and Akt) and total anti-oxidant capacity were assayed. Brains treated with simvastatin lactone showed i) reduced amplitude and delayed onset of ischemic depressions, ii) preservation of MAP-2 immunoreactivity, iii) activation of ERK signaling in the ischemic hemisphere and iv) increase in whole-brain anti-oxidant capacity. Treatment with the bbb-impermeable simvastatin acid was ineffective on the above-mentioned parameters. Vascular resistance recordings and Akt signaling were unchanged by any statin treatment. Our findings suggest that intravascular-delivered simvastatin exerts an acute lipophilicity-dependent protective effect in the early phase of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-Lift Flight Tunnel - Phase II Report. Phase 2 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofftus, David; Lund, Thomas; Rote, Donald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The High-Lift Flight Tunnel (HiLiFT) concept is a revolutionary approach to aerodynamic ground testing. This concept utilizes magnetic levitation and linear motors to propel an aerodynamic model through a tube containing a quiescent test medium. This medium (nitrogen) is cryogenic and pressurized to achieve full flight Reynolds numbers higher than any existing ground test facility world-wide for the range of 0.05 to 0.50 Mach. The results of the Phase II study provide excellent assurance that the HiLiFT concept will provide a valuable low-speed, high Reynolds number ground test facility. The design studies concluded that the HiLiFT facility is feasible to build and operate and the analytical studies revealed no insurmountable difficulties to realizing a practical high Reynolds number ground test facility. It was determined that a national HiLiFT facility, including development, would cost approximately $400M and could be operational by 2013 if fully funded. Study participants included National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center as the Program Manager and MSE Technology Applications, Inc., (MSE) of Butte, Montana as the prime contractor and study integrator. MSE#s subcontractors included the University of Texas at Arlington for aerodynamic analyses and the Argonne National Laboratory for magnetic levitation and linear motor technology support.

  6. Job Aids: Descriptive Authoring Flowcharts for Phase II--DESIGN of the Instructional Systems Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.; Farrell, Jean R.

    This resource guide for the use of job aids ("how-to-do-it" guidance) for activities identified in the second phase of the Instructional Systems Development Model (ISD) contains an introduction to the use of job aids, as well as descriptive authoring flowcharts for Blocks II.1 through II.4. The introduction includes definitions;…

  7. New York State Educational Information System (NYSEIS) Systems Design. Volume I, Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price Waterhouse and Co., New York, NY.

    This volume on Phase II of the New York State Educational Information System (NYSEIS) describes the Gross Systems Analysis and Design, which includes the general flow diagram and processing chart for each of the student, personnel, and financial subsystems. Volume II, Functional Specifications, includes input/output requirements and file…

  8. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Corpus Christi, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  9. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Lake Charles, LA | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 5:30pm Public

  10. First results of GERDA Phase II and consistency with background models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode1, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) is an experiment for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge, located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN (Italy). GERDA operates bare high purity germanium detectors submersed in liquid Argon (LAr). Phase II of data-taking started in Dec 2015 and is currently ongoing. In Phase II 35 kg of germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge including thirty newly produced Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors is operating to reach an exposure of 100 kg·yr within about 3 years data taking. The design goal of Phase II is to reduce the background by one order of magnitude to get the sensitivity for T1/20ν = O≤ft( {{{10}26}} \\right){{ yr}}. To achieve the necessary background reduction, the setup was complemented with LAr veto. Analysis of the background spectrum of Phase II demonstrates consistency with the background models. Furthermore 226Ra and 232Th contamination levels consistent with screening results. In the first Phase II data release we found no hint for a 0νββ decay signal and place a limit of this process T1/20ν > 5.3 \\cdot {1025} yr (90% C.L., sensitivity 4.0·1025 yr). First results of GERDA Phase II will be presented.

  11. Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis, Phase II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-04-24

    The Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis includes an LCA Learning Module Series, case studies, and analytics on the use of the modules. The module series is a set of narrated slideshows on topics related to environmental LCA. Phase I ...

  12. Field evaluation of Wisconsin modified binder selection guidelines - phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to continue phase I of the study with the objective of identifying promising procedures and applicable modified binder specification criteria for use in Wisconsin, based on comparison of test results to field performan...

  13. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) analysis : Phase II field evaluation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    "The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility and value of expanding the MDT's Ground : Penetrating Radar (GPR) program to pavement design and rehabilitation, and to network level : evaluation. Phase I of this project concluded that in ...

  14. Ambient TRS Study, Phase II, Pine Hill, Alabama, April 2002

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Study that shows the findings of the first phase of an investigation to identify sources of TRS emission that have a ground level impact on the Weyerhaeuser's Pine Hill, Alabama pulp and paper complex.

  15. Carbon footprint estimator, phase II : volume I - GASCAP model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    The GASCAP model was developed to provide a software tool for analysis of the life-cycle GHG : emissions associated with the construction and maintenance of transportation projects. This phase : of development included techniques for estimating emiss...

  16. Mechanisms of the early phases of plant gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitropism is directed growth of a plant or plant organ in response to gravity and can be divided into the following temporal sequence: perception, transduction, and response. This article is a review of the research on the early events of gravitropism (i.e., phenomena associated with the perception and transduction phases). The two major hypotheses for graviperception are the protoplast-pressure and starch-statolith models. While most researchers support the concept of statoliths, there are suggestions that plants have multiple mechanisms of perception. Evidence supports the hypothesis that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in graviperception/transduction, but the details of these mechanisms remain elusive. A number of recent developments, such as increased use of the molecular genetic approach, magnetophoresis, and laser ablation, have facilitated research in graviperception and have allowed for refinement of the current models. In addition, the entire continuum of acceleration forces from hypo- to hyper-gravity have been useful in studying perception mechanisms. Future interdisciplinary molecular approaches and the availability of sophisticated laboratories on the International Space Station should help to develop new insights into mechanisms of gravitropism in plants.

  17. Hypothermia for Traumatic Brain Injury in Children-A Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Beca, John; McSharry, Brent; Erickson, Simon; Yung, Michael; Schibler, Andreas; Slater, Anthony; Wilkins, Barry; Singhal, Ash; Williams, Gary; Sherring, Claire; Butt, Warwick

    2015-07-01

    To perform a pilot study to assess the feasibility of performing a phase III trial of therapeutic hypothermia started early and continued for at least 72 hours in children with severe traumatic brain injury. Multicenter prospective randomized controlled phase II trial. All eight of the PICUs in Australia and New Zealand and one in Canada. Children 1-15 years old with severe traumatic brain injury and who could be randomized within 6 hours of injury. The control group had strict normothermia to a temperature of 36-37°C for 72 hours. The intervention group had therapeutic hypothermia to a temperature of 32-33°C for 72 hours followed by slow rewarming at a rate compatible with maintaining intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure. Of 764 children admitted to PICU with traumatic brain injury, 92 (12%) were eligible and 55 (7.2%) were recruited. There were five major protocol violations (9%): three related to recruitment and consent processes and two to incorrect temperature management. Rewarming took a median of 21.5 hours (16-35 hr) and was performed without compromise in the cerebral perfusion pressure. There was no increase in any complications, including infections, bleeding, and arrhythmias. There was no difference in outcomes 12 months after injury; in the therapeutic hypothermia group, four (17%) had a bad outcome (pediatric cerebral performance category, 4-6) and three (13%) died, whereas in the normothermia group, three (12%) had a bad outcome and one (4%) died. Early therapeutic hypothermia in children with severe traumatic brain injury does not improve outcome and should not be used outside a clinical trial. Recruitment rates were lower and outcomes were better than expected. Conventional randomized controlled trials in children with severe traumatic brain injury are unlikely to be feasible. A large international trials group and alternative approaches to trial design will be required to further inform practice.

  18. Benzocaine polymorphism: pressure-temperature phase diagram involving forms II and III.

    PubMed

    Gana, Inès; Barrio, Maria; Do, Bernard; Tamarit, Josep-Lluís; Céolin, René; Rietveld, Ivo B

    2013-11-18

    Understanding the phase behavior of an active pharmaceutical ingredient in a drug formulation is required to avoid the occurrence of sudden phase changes resulting in decrease of bioavailability in a marketed product. Benzocaine is known to possess three crystalline polymorphs, but their stability hierarchy has so far not been determined. A topological method and direct calorimetric measurements under pressure have been used to construct the topological pressure-temperature diagram of the phase relationships between the solid phases II and III, the liquid, and the vapor phase. In the process, the transition temperature between solid phases III and II and its enthalpy change have been determined. Solid phase II, which has the highest melting point, is the more stable phase under ambient conditions in this phase diagram. Surprisingly, solid phase I has not been observed during the study, even though the scarce literature data on its thermal behavior appear to indicate that it might be the most stable one of the three solid phases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of DCS III Transmission Alternatives, Phase II, Task 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-31

    Agency Defense Communications Engineering Center Reston, Virginia 22090 Contract No. DCA 100-79-C--0044 ,D ii 2 01982 ONG SPACI IAE K ROONOO IIACH...Transmission Media Alternatives Task 2. Development of Evolving DCS Transmission System Al ternatives Task 3. Identification of Technology and Regulatory...For existing tree growth, add 15 m. For smaller vegetation, add 3 m. 11. Determine the antenna tower heights to insure line-of-sight clearance above the

  20. Validation and refinement of mixture volumetric material properties identified in superpave monitoring project II : phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-02-01

    This study was initiated to validate and refine mixture volumetric material properties identified in the : Superpave Monitoring Project II. It has been found that differences in performance are primarily controlled : by differences in gradation and r...

  1. The Four-Quadrant Phase-Mask Coronagraph. II. Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaud, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Rouan, D.; Lemarquis, F.; Labeyrie, A.

    2001-09-01

    In the first paper in this series, we described the principle of a coronagraph utilizing a four-quadrant phase mask and the results of numerical simulations obtained in the perfect case. In this second paper, we performed additional numerical simulations to assess in more detail the performances and limitations of this coronagraph under real conditions. The effect of geometrical parameters such as shape and size of both the phase mask and the Lyot stop is studied. We also analyze the effect of low- and high-order aberrations generated, for instance, by the atmospheric turbulence. An important issue is the wavelength dependence of the phase mask. We show that the performance decreases rapidly as the spectral bandwidth is increased, and as a consequence, we discuss the manufacturing of achromatized masks using multiple thin films. An optical concept is proposed.

  2. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory

    SciT

    Dalton, B.J., E-mail: bdalton@swin.edu.au; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S.M.

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, thoughmore » fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.« less

  3. SH-2F LAMPS Instructional Systems Development: Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Hymes, Jonah P.

    This project was one of four aircrew training development projects in a continuing study of the methodology, effectiveness, and resource requirements of the Instructional Systems Development (ISD) process. This report covers the Phase II activities of a two-phase project for the development of aircrew training for SH-2F anti-submarine warfare…

  4. Implementation of a Proficiency-Based Diploma System in Maine: Phase II--District Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Stump, Erika K.; McCafferty, Anita Stewart; Hawes, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the findings from Phase II of a study of Maine's implementation of a proficiency-based diploma system. At the request of the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Affairs of the Maine Legislature, the Maine Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) has conducted a two-phased study of the implementation of Maine law…

  5. Laboratory modeling of energy dissipation in broken-back culverts - phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-05-01

    This report represents Phase II of broken-back culverts with a drop of 6 feet. The first phase of this research was performed for a drop of 24 feet. This research investigates the reduction in scour downstream of a broken-back culvert by forming a hy...

  6. Doping-induced disappearance of ice II from water's phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Jacob J.; Slater, Ben; Harvey, Peter; Hart, Martin; Bull, Craig L.; Bramwell, Steven T.; Salzmann, Christoph G.

    2018-06-01

    Water and the many phases of ice display a plethora of complex physical properties and phase relationships1-4 that are of paramount importance in a range of settings including processes in Earth's hydrosphere, the geology of icy moons, industry and even the evolution of life. Well-known examples include the unusual behaviour of supercooled water2, the emergent ferroelectric ordering in ice films4 and the fact that the `ordinary' ice Ih floats on water. We report the intriguing observation that ice II, one of the high-pressure phases of ice, disappears in a selective fashion from water's phase diagram following the addition of small amounts of ammonium fluoride. This finding exposes the strict topologically constrained nature of the ice II hydrogen-bond network, which is not found for the competing phases. In analogy to the behaviour of frustrated magnets5, the presence of the exceptional ice II is argued to have a wider impact on water's phase diagram, potentially explaining its general tendency to display anomalous behaviour. Furthermore, the impurity-induced disappearance of ice II raises the prospect that specific dopants may not only be able to suppress certain phases but also induce the formation of new phases of ice in future studies.

  7. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, J. Preston; And Others

    Phase II of a study on the effectiveness of B. Feingold's recommended diet for hyperactive children involved the nine children (mean age 9 years) who had shown the "best" response to diet manipulation in Phase I. Each child served as his own control and was challenged with specified amounts of placebo and artificial color containing food…

  8. Extension and Public Service in the University of Illinois. Phase II Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana.

    Phase II of the report on the problem outlined in Phase I deals with specific recommendations for expanding and improving the extension and public service functions of the University of Illinois. To be effective, the university needs a master plan in which the four essential ingredients must be (1) broad, strong and explicit policy commitments by…

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS: PHASE II. PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes Phase II of a demonstration of the utilization of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas. This phase consisted primarily of the construction and testing of a Gas Pretreatment Unit (GPU) whose function is to remove those impu...

  10. Early Intervention Services for Early-Phase Psychosis - Centre for integrative psychiatry in Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Croatia.

    PubMed

    Matić, Katarina; Gereš, Natko; Gerlach, Josefina; Prskalo-Čule, Diana; Zadravec Vrbanc, Tihana; Lovretić, Vanja; Librenjak, Dina; Vuk Pisk, Sandra; Ivezić, Ena; Šimunović Filipčić, Ivona; Jeleč, Vjekoslav; Filipčić, Igor

    2018-06-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that early and effective management in the critical early years of schizophrenia can improve long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate time to relapse of the patients with early-phase psychosis treated in the Centre for integrative psychiatry (CIP). We performed a retrospective cohort study on the sample of 373 early-phase psychosis patients admitted to Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Zagreb Croatia: from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. The primary outcome was time to relapse. Patients who were admitted to group psychotherapeutic program after the end of acute treatment had 70% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.30; 95% CI 0.16-0.58). Patients who were included first in the psychotherapeutic program and then treated and controlled in the daily hospital had 74% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.26; 95% CI 0.10-0.67). In early-phase psychosis, integrative early intervention service has relevant beneficial effects compare to treatment as usual. These results justified the implementation of multimodal early intervention services in treatment of patients with early-phase psychosis.

  11. Geographic Mobility of Postsecondary Occupational Education Graduates. Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Gene M.; Fadale, LaVerna M.

    This report of the second phase of a study of the geographic mobility patterns of postsecondary occupational education graduates in New York State provides a further examination of reasons for the mobility of program completers, verifies the general magnitude of the identified mobility trends, and examines the occupational status of program…

  12. LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inexpensive imaging Instrument to quickly locate leaks of methane and other greenhouse and VOC gases would reduce the cost and effort expended by industry to comply with EPA regulations. In Phase I, of this WBIR program, a new gas leak visualization camera was demonstrated...

  13. Window Treatment Phase I and Other Energy II Conservation Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Philip E.

    Six different energy-saving treatments for large window areas were tested by Tompkins-Cortland Community College (TCCC) to coordinate energy saving with building design. The TCCC building has an open space design with 33,000 square feet of external glass and other features causing heating problems and high energy costs. Phase I of the…

  14. ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE, NO VOC AUTOMOTIVE COATING - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA recognizes that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) must be eliminated from automotive coating formulations to improve worker safety and reduce environmental pollution. The phase I project resulted in the production of a polymer-based coating material that was clear, ...

  15. Volatilization Rates from Water to Indoor Air Phase II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated water can lead to volatilization of chemicals to residential indoor air. Previous research has focused on only one source (shower stalls) and has been limited to chemicals in which gas-phase resistance to mass transfer is of marginal significance. As a result, attemp...

  16. Phase-II trials in osteosarcoma recurrences: A systematic review of past experience.

    PubMed

    Omer, Natacha; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Marec-Berard, Perrine; Italiano, Antoine; Corradini, Nadège; Bellera, Carine; Brugières, Laurence; Gaspar, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The most appropriate design of Phase-II trials evaluating new therapies in osteosarcoma remains poorly defined. To study consistency in phase-II clinical trials evaluating new therapies for osteosarcoma recurrences with respect to eligibility criteria, response assessment, end-points, statistical design and reported results. Systematic review of clinical trials registered on clinicaltrials.gov, clinicaltrialsregister.eu and French National Cancer Institute website or referenced in PubMed and American Society of Clinical Oncology websites, between 2003 and 2016, using the following criteria: (osteosarcoma OR bone sarcoma) AND (Phase-II). Among the 99 trials identified, 80 were Phase-II, 17 I/II and 2 II/III, evaluating mostly targeted therapy (n = 40), and chemotherapy alone (n = 26). Results were fully (n = 28) or partially (abstract, n = 6) published. Twenty-four trials were dedicated to osteosarcoma, 22 had an osteosarcoma stratum. Twenty-eight out of 99 trials refer to the age range observed at recurrence (28%). Overall, 65 trials were run in multicentre settings, including 17 international trials. Only 9 trials were randomised. The primary end-point was tumour response in 71 trials (response rate, n = 40 or best response, n = 31), with various definitions (complete + partial ± minor response and stable disease), mainly evaluated with RECIST criteria (n = 69); it was progression-free survival in 24 trials and OS in 3. In single-arm trials evaluating response rate, the null hypothesis tested (when available, n = 12) varied from 5% to 25%. No robust historical data can currently be derived from past efficacy Phase-II trials. There is an urgent need to develop international randomised Phase-II trials across all age ranges with standardised primary end-point. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent Advances in Understanding of Kinetic Interplay Between Phase II Metabolism and Efflux Transport.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Xing, Huijie; Zhao, Mengjing; Lu, Danyi; Li, Zhijie; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of the metabolism-transport interplay assumes great importance in pharmaceutical fields because the knowledge can help to interpret drug/xenobiotic metabolism and disposition studies as well as the drug-drug interactions in vivo. About 10 years ago, it started to recognize that cellular phase II metabolism is strongly influenced by the excretion (efflux transport) of generated metabolites, a kinetic phenomenon termed "phase II metabolism-transport interplay". This interplay is believed to have significant effects on the pharmacokinetics (bioavailability) of drugs/chemicals undergoing phase II metabolism. In this article, we review the studies investigating the phase II metabolism-transport interplay using cell models, perfused rat intestine, and intact rats. The potential confounding factors in exploring such interplay is also summarized. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the phase II metabolism-transport interplay is discussed. Various studies with engineered cells and rodents have demonstrated that there is an interaction (interplay) between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters. This type of interplay mainly refers to the dependence of phase II (conjugative) metabolism on the activities of efflux transporters. In general, inhibiting efflux transporters or decreasing their expression causes the reductions in metabolite excretion, apparent excretion clearance (CLapp) and total metabolism (fmet), as well as an increase in the intracellular level of metabolite (Ci). The deconjugation mediated by hydrolase (acting as a "bridge") is essential for the interplay to play out based on pharmacokinetic modeling/simulations, cell and animal studies. The hydrolases bridge the two processes (i.e., metabolite formation and excretion) and enable the interplay thereof (a bridging effect). Without the bridge, metabolite formation is independent on its downstream process excretion, thus impact of metabolite excretion on its formation is impossible

  18. Research safety vehicle program (Phase II) specification review. Volume II. Final technical report, Jul 1975--Nov 1976

    SciT

    Pugliese, S.M.

    1977-02-01

    In Phase I of the Research Safety Vehicle Program (RSV), preliminary design and performance specifications were developed for a mid-1980's vehicle that integrates crashworthiness and occupant safety features with material resource conservation, economy, and producibility. Phase II of the program focused on development of the total vehicle design via systems engineering and integration analyses. As part of this effort, it was necessary to continuously review the Phase I recommended performance specification in relation to ongoing design/test activities. This document contains the results of analyses of the Phase I specifications. The RSV is expected to satisfy all of the producibility andmore » safety related specifications, i.e., handling and stability systems, crashworthiness, occupant protection, pedestrian/cyclist protection, etc.« less

  19. Maximizing return on socioeconomic investment in phase II proof-of-concept trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Beckman, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    Phase II proof-of-concept (POC) trials play a key role in oncology drug development, determining which therapeutic hypotheses will undergo definitive phase III testing according to predefined Go-No Go (GNG) criteria. The number of possible POC hypotheses likely far exceeds available public or private resources. We propose a design strategy for maximizing return on socioeconomic investment in phase II trials that obtains the greatest knowledge with the minimum patient exposure. We compare efficiency using the benefit-cost ratio, defined to be the risk-adjusted number of truly active drugs correctly identified for phase III development divided by the risk-adjusted total sample size in phase II and III development, for different POC trial sizes, powering schemes, and associated GNG criteria. It is most cost-effective to conduct small POC trials and set the corresponding GNG bars high, so that more POC trials can be conducted under socioeconomic constraints. If δ is the minimum treatment effect size of clinical interest in phase II, the study design with the highest benefit-cost ratio has approximately 5% type I error rate and approximately 20% type II error rate (80% power) for detecting an effect size of approximately 1.5δ. A Go decision to phase III is made when the observed effect size is close to δ. With the phenomenal expansion of our knowledge in molecular biology leading to an unprecedented number of new oncology drug targets, conducting more small POC trials and setting high GNG bars maximize the return on socioeconomic investment in phase II POC trials. ©2014 AACR.

  20. Radiative transfer in spherical shell atmospheres. II - Asymmetric phase functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattawar, G. W.; Adams, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of sphericity on the radiation reflected from a planet with a homogeneous conservative-scattering atmosphere of optical thicknesses of 0.25 and 1.0. A Henyey-Greenstein phase function with asymmetry factors of 0.5 and 0.7 was considered. Significant differences were found when these results were compared with the plane-parallel calculations. Also, large violations of the reciprocity theorem, which is only true for plane-parallel calculations, were noted. Results are presented for the radiance versus height distributions as a function of planetary phase angle. These results will be useful to researchers in the field of remote sensing and planetary spectroscopy.

  1. Command Flight Path Display. Phase I and II. Appendix F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    AD -R145 858 COMMAND FLIGHT PATH DISPLAY PHASE I AND 11 APPENDIX F / (U) SYSTEMS ASSOCIATES INC LONG BEACH CA RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS DIY SEP...34- (Appendix F) .ś. SYSTEMS ASSOCIATES INC* of CALIFORNIA t. Resource Management Systems Division DTICL it~~~ll ELECTE 1 o..-- , ~SEP 2 4 1984...Availability Codos Avail and/or Dist Special "i j L i 7 7 .... Contained in this appendix are the various plots generated dur- ing data reduction. Parameters

  2. Early Visean bryozoans from the Shishtu II Member, Shishtu Formation, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikova, Zoya; Yazdi-Moghadam, Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    Four bryozoan species are described from the upper member (Shishtu II) (Visean, Early Carboniferous=Mississippian) of the Shishtu Formation of central Iran: Nikiforovella ulbensis Nekhoroshev, 1956, Nicklesopora elegantulaformis (Nekhoroshev, 1956), Primorella cf. iranica Gorjunova, 2006, and Nikiforopora intermedia (Nikiforova, 1950). This Visean assemblage shows close palaeogeographical affinities of Iran with Kazakhstan and Russia (eastern Transbaikalia, Kurgan region).

  3. Simple uncertainty propagation for early design phase aircraft sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Annelise

    Many designers and systems analysts are aware of the uncertainty inherent in their aircraft sizing studies; however, few incorporate methods to address and quantify this uncertainty. Many aircraft design studies use semi-empirical predictors based on a historical database and contain uncertainty -- a portion of which can be measured and quantified. In cases where historical information is not available, surrogate models built from higher-fidelity analyses often provide predictors for design studies where the computational cost of directly using the high-fidelity analyses is prohibitive. These surrogate models contain uncertainty, some of which is quantifiable. However, rather than quantifying this uncertainty, many designers merely include a safety factor or design margin in the constraints to account for the variability between the predicted and actual results. This can become problematic if a designer does not estimate the amount of variability correctly, which then can result in either an "over-designed" or "under-designed" aircraft. "Under-designed" and some "over-designed" aircraft will likely require design changes late in the process and will ultimately require more time and money to create; other "over-designed" aircraft concepts may not require design changes, but could end up being more costly than necessary. Including and propagating uncertainty early in the design phase so designers can quantify some of the errors in the predictors could help mitigate the extent of this additional cost. The method proposed here seeks to provide a systematic approach for characterizing a portion of the uncertainties that designers are aware of and propagating it throughout the design process in a procedure that is easy to understand and implement. Using Monte Carlo simulations that sample from quantified distributions will allow a systems analyst to use a carpet plot-like approach to make statements like: "The aircraft is 'P'% likely to weigh 'X' lbs or less, given the

  4. CCR5 receptor antagonists in preclinical to phase II clinical development for treatment of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michelle B.; Giesler, Kyle E.; Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Truax, Valarie M.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Wilson, Lawrence J.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The chemokine receptor CCR5 has garnered significant attention in recent years as a target to treat HIV infection largely due to the approval and success of the drug Maraviroc. The side effects and inefficiencies with other first generation agents led to failed clinical trials, prompting the development of newer CCR5 antagonists. Areas covered This review aims to survey the current status of ‘next generation’ CCR5 antagonists in the preclinical pipeline with an emphasis on emerging agents for the treatment of HIV infection. These efforts have culminated in the identification of advanced second-generation agents to reach the clinic and the dual CCR5/CCR2 antagonist Cenicriviroc as the most advanced currently in phase II clinical studies. Expert opinion The clinical success of CCR5 inhibitors for treatment of HIV infection has rested largely on studies of Maraviroc and a second-generation dual CCR5/CCR2 antagonist Cenicriviroc. Although research efforts identified several promising preclinical candidates, these were dropped during early clinical studies. Despite patient access to Maraviroc, there is insufficient enthusiasm surrounding its use as front-line therapy for treatment of HIV. The non-HIV infection related development activities for Maraviroc and Cenicriviroc may help drive future interests. PMID:27791451

  5. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions

    SciT

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picturemore » of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.« less

  6. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thamires A; Paschoal, Vitor H; Faria, Luiz F O; Ribeiro, Mauro C C; Ferreira, Fabio F; Costa, Fanny N; Giles, Carlos

    2016-06-14

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N1444][NTf2] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N1114][NTf2] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  7. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Phase II field ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Net-zero water (NZW) systems, or water management systems achieving high recycling rates and low residuals generation so as to avoid water import and export, can also conserve energy used to heat and convey water, while economically restoring local eco-hydrology. However, design and operating experience are extremely limited. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the second phase of operation of an advanced oxidation-based NZW pilot system designed, constructed, and operated for a period of two years, serving an occupied four-person apartment. System water was monitored, either continuously or thrice daily, for routine water quality parameters, minerals, and MicroTox® in-vitro toxicity, and intermittently for somatic and male-specific coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, emerging organic constituents (non-quantitative), and the Florida drinking water standards. All 115 drinking water standards with the exception of bromate were met in this phase. Neither virus nor protozoa were detected in the treated water, with the exception of measurement of adenovirus genome copies attributed to accumulation of inactive genetic material in hydraulic dead zones. Chemical oxygen demand was mineralized to 90% in treatment. Total dissolved solids were maintained at ∼500 mg/L at steady state, partially through aerated aluminum electrocoagulation. Bromate accumulation is projected to be controlled by aluminum electrocoagulation with separate dispo

  8. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program (Consortia) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Five cancer research centers lead multiple collaborative networks to assess potential cancer preventive agents and to conduct early clinical development of promising preventive agents. Also called the Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials, the studies require extensive biomarker analysis, investigation of the biologic effects of the cancer preventive agents on their

  9. Spatial harmonics and pattern specification in early Drosophila development. Part II. The four colour wheels model.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, S A; Goodwin, B C

    1990-06-07

    We review the evidence presented in Part I showing that transcripts and protein products of maternal, gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes exhibit increasingly complex, multipeaked longitudinal waveforms in the early Drosophila embryo. The central problem we address in Part II is the use the embryo makes of these wave forms to specify longitudinal pattern. Based on the fact that mutants of many of these genes generate deletions and mirror symmetrical duplications of pattern elements on length scales ranging from about half the egg to within segments, we propose that position is specified by measuring a "phase angle" by use of the ratios of two or more variables. Pictorially, such a phase angle can be thought of as a colour on a colour wheel. Any such model contains a phaseless singularity where all or many phases, or colours, come together. We suppose as well that positional values sufficiently close to the singularity are meaningless, hence a "dead zone". Duplications and deletions are accounted for by deformation of the cycle of morphogen values occurring along the antero-posterior axis. If the cycle of values surrounds the singularity and lies outside the dead zone, pattern is normal. If the curve transects the dead zone, pattern elements are deleted. If the curve lies entirely on one side of the singularity, pattern elements are deleted and others are duplicated with mirror symmetry. The existence of different wavelength transcript patterns in maternal, gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes and the roles of those same genes in generating deletions and mirror symmetrical duplications on a variety of length scales lead us to propose that position is measured simultaneously on at least four colour wheels, which cycle different numbers of times along the anterior-posterior axis. These yield progressively finer grained positional information. Normal pattern specification requires a unique angle, outside of the dead zone, from each of the four wheels

  10. Generation of phase II in vitro metabolites using homogenized horse liver.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Chan, George H M; Leung, David K K; Tang, Francis P W; Wan, Terence S M

    2016-02-01

    The successful use of homogenized horse liver for the generation of phase I in vitro metabolites has been previously reported by the authors' laboratory. Prior to the use of homogenized liver, the authors' laboratory had been using mainly horse liver microsomes for carrying out equine in vitro metabolism studies. Homogenized horse liver has shown significant advantages over liver microsomes for in vitro metabolism studies as the procedures are much quicker and have higher capability for generating more in vitro metabolites. In this study, the use of homogenized liver has been extended to the generation of phase II in vitro metabolites (glucuronide and/or sulfate conjugates) using 17β-estradiol, morphine, and boldenone undecylenate as model substrates. It was observed that phase II metabolites could also be generated even without the addition of cofactors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of homogenized horse liver for the generation of phase II metabolites. It also demonstrates the ease with which both phase I and phase II metabolites can now be generated in vitro simply by using homogenized liver without the need for ultracentrifuges or tedious preparation steps. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Integration, acceptance testing, and clinical operation of the Medical Information, Communication and Archive System, phase II.

    PubMed

    Smith, E M; Wandtke, J; Robinson, A

    1999-05-01

    The Medical Information, Communication and Archive System (MICAS) is a multivendor incremental approach to picture archiving and communications system (PACS). It is a multimodality integrated image management system that is seamlessly integrated with the radiology information system (RIS). Phase II enhancements of MICAS include a permanent archive, automated workflow, study caches, Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Windows NT diagnostic workstations with all components adhering to Digital Information Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standards. MICAS is designed as an enterprise-wide PACS to provide images and reports throughout the Strong Health healthcare network. Phase II includes the addition of a Cemax-Icon (Fremont, CA) archive, PACS broker (Mitra, Waterloo, Canada), an interface (IDX PACSlink, Burlington, VT) to the RIS (IDXrad) plus the conversion of the UNIX-based redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) 5 temporary archives in phase I to NT-based RAID 0 DICOM modality-specific study caches (ImageLabs, Bedford, MA). The phase I acquisition engines and workflow management software was uninstalled and the Cemax archive manager (AM) assumed these functions. The existing ImageLabs UNIX-based viewing software was enhanced and converted to an NT-based DICOM viewer. Installation of phase II hardware and software and integration with existing components began in July 1998. Phase II of MICAS demonstrates that a multivendor open-system incremental approach to PACS is feasible, cost-effective, and has significant advantages over a single-vendor implementation.

  12. A Phase II study of Dovitinib in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Patrick M.; Petroni, Gina R.; Horton, Bethany J.; Moskaluk, Christopher A.; Fracasso, Paula M.; Douvas, Michael G; Varhegyi, Nikole; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; Thomas, Christopher Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Genetic and preclinical studies have implicated fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling in the pathogenesis of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Dovitinib, a suppressor FGFR activity, may be active in ACC. Methods In a two-stage phase II study, 35 patients with progressive ACC were treated with dovitinib 500mg orally for 5 of 7 days continuously. The primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR) and change in tumor growth rate (TGR). Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), metabolic response, biomarker and QOL were secondary endpoints. Results Of thirty-four evaluable patients, two (6%) had a partial response and 22 (65%) had stable disease >4 months. Median PFS was 8.2 months and OS was 20.6 months. The slope of the overall TGR fell from 1.95 to 0.63 on-treatment (p<0.001). Toxicity was moderate; 63% of patients developed grade 3–4 toxicity, 94% required dose modifications, and 21% stopped treatment early. An early metabolic response based on 18FDG-PET scans was seen in 3/15 patients but did not correlate with RECIST response. MYB gene translocation was observed and significantly correlated with over-expression of MYB but did not correlate with FGFR1 phosphorylation or clinical response to dovitinib. Conclusion Dovitinib produced few objective responses in patients with ACC but did suppress the TGR with a PFS that compares favorably to those reported with other targeted agents. Future studies of more potent and selective FGFR inhibitors in biomarker-selected patients will be required to determine if FGFR signaling is a valid therapeutic target in ACC. PMID:28377480

  13. Phase II of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC II): rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Weiland, S K; Björkstén, B; Brunekreef, B; Cookson, W O C; von Mutius, E; Strachan, D P

    2004-09-01

    International comparative studies, investigating whether disease incidence or prevalence rates differ between populations and, if so, which factors explain the observed differences, have made important contributions to the understanding of disease aetiology in many areas. In Phase I of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), the prevalence rates of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in 13-14-yr-olds, assessed by standardised questionnaires, were found to differ >20-fold between the 155 study centres around the world. Phase II of ISAAC aims to identify determinants of these differences by studying informative populations. A detailed study protocol was developed for use in community-based random samples of children aged 9-11 yrs. The study modules include standardised questionnaires with detailed questions on the occurrence and severity of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema, their clinical management, and a broad range of previous and current exposure conditions. In addition, standardised protocols were applied for examination of flexural dermatitis, skin-prick testing, bronchial challenge with hypertonic saline, blood sampling for immunoglobulin E analyses and genotyping, and dust sampling for assessment of indoor exposures to allergens and endotoxin. To date, ISAAC II field work had been completed or started in 30 study centres in 22 countries. The majority of centres are in countries that participated in International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase I and reflect almost the full range of the observed variability in Phase I prevalence rates.

  14. Accelerating clinical development of HIV vaccine strategies: methodological challenges and considerations in constructing an optimised multi-arm phase I/II trial design.

    PubMed

    Richert, Laura; Doussau, Adélaïde; Lelièvre, Jean-Daniel; Arnold, Vincent; Rieux, Véronique; Bouakane, Amel; Lévy, Yves; Chêne, Geneviève; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2014-02-26

    Many candidate vaccine strategies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are under study, but their clinical development is lengthy and iterative. To accelerate HIV vaccine development optimised trial designs are needed. We propose a randomised multi-arm phase I/II design for early stage development of several vaccine strategies, aiming at rapidly discarding those that are unsafe or non-immunogenic. We explored early stage designs to evaluate both the safety and the immunogenicity of four heterologous prime-boost HIV vaccine strategies in parallel. One of the vaccines used as a prime and boost in the different strategies (vaccine 1) has yet to be tested in humans, thus requiring a phase I safety evaluation. However, its toxicity risk is considered minimal based on data from similar vaccines. We newly adapted a randomised phase II trial by integrating an early safety decision rule, emulating that of a phase I study. We evaluated the operating characteristics of the proposed design in simulation studies with either a fixed-sample frequentist or a continuous Bayesian safety decision rule and projected timelines for the trial. We propose a randomised four-arm phase I/II design with two independent binary endpoints for safety and immunogenicity. Immunogenicity evaluation at trial end is based on a single-stage Fleming design per arm, comparing the observed proportion of responders in an immunogenicity screening assay to an unacceptably low proportion, without direct comparisons between arms. Randomisation limits heterogeneity in volunteer characteristics between arms. To avoid exposure of additional participants to an unsafe vaccine during the vaccine boost phase, an early safety decision rule is imposed on the arm starting with vaccine 1 injections. In simulations of the design with either decision rule, the risks of erroneous conclusions were controlled <15%. Flexibility in trial conduct is greater with the continuous Bayesian rule. A 12-month gain in

  15. A Bayesian pick-the-winner design in a randomized phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dung-Tsa; Huang, Po-Yu; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chiappori, Alberto A; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Haura, Eric B; Antonia, Scott J; Gray, Jhanelle E

    2017-10-24

    Many phase II clinical trials evaluate unique experimental drugs/combinations through multi-arm design to expedite the screening process (early termination of ineffective drugs) and to identify the most effective drug (pick the winner) to warrant a phase III trial. Various statistical approaches have been developed for the pick-the-winner design but have been criticized for lack of objective comparison among the drug agents. We developed a Bayesian pick-the-winner design by integrating a Bayesian posterior probability with Simon two-stage design in a randomized two-arm clinical trial. The Bayesian posterior probability, as the rule to pick the winner, is defined as probability of the response rate in one arm higher than in the other arm. The posterior probability aims to determine the winner when both arms pass the second stage of the Simon two-stage design. When both arms are competitive (i.e., both passing the second stage), the Bayesian posterior probability performs better to correctly identify the winner compared with the Fisher exact test in the simulation study. In comparison to a standard two-arm randomized design, the Bayesian pick-the-winner design has a higher power to determine a clear winner. In application to two studies, the approach is able to perform statistical comparison of two treatment arms and provides a winner probability (Bayesian posterior probability) to statistically justify the winning arm. We developed an integrated design that utilizes Bayesian posterior probability, Simon two-stage design, and randomization into a unique setting. It gives objective comparisons between the arms to determine the winner.

  16. Research safety vehicle, Phase II. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report jul 75-dec 76

    SciT

    Struble, D.

    1976-12-01

    Volume I summarizes the results of the Minicars Research Safety Vehicle Phase II program, as detailed in Volumes II and III. Phase I identified trends leading to the desired national social goals of the mid-1980's in vehicle crashworthiness, crash avoidance, damageability, pedestrian safety, fuel economy, emissions and cost, and characterized an RSV to satisfy them. In Phase II an RSV prototype was designed, developed and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of meeting these goals simultaneously. Although further refinement is necessary to assure operational validity, in all categories the results meet or exceed the most advanced performance specified by The Presidentialmore » Task Force on Motor Vehicle Goals beyond 1980.« less

  17. A Phase I/II adaptive design for heterogeneous groups with application to a stereotactic body radiation therapy trial.

    PubMed

    Wages, Nolan A; Read, Paul W; Petroni, Gina R

    2015-01-01

    Dose-finding studies that aim to evaluate the safety of single agents are becoming less common, and advances in clinical research have complicated the paradigm of dose finding in oncology. A class of more complex problems, such as targeted agents, combination therapies and stratification of patients by clinical or genetic characteristics, has created the need to adapt early-phase trial design to the specific type of drug being investigated and the corresponding endpoints. In this article, we describe the implementation of an adaptive design based on a continual reassessment method for heterogeneous groups, modified to coincide with the objectives of a Phase I/II trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy in patients with painful osseous metastatic disease. Operating characteristics of the Institutional Review Board approved design are demonstrated under various possible true scenarios via simulation studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. PTT functional recovery in early stage II PTTD after tendon balancing and calcaneal lengthening osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Brilhault, Jean; Noël, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The decision to offer surgery for Stage II posterior tibial tendon deficiency (PTTD) is a difficult one since orthotic treatment has been documented to be a viable alternative to surgery at this stage. Taking this into consideration we limited our treatment to bony realignment by a lengthening calcaneus Evans osteotomy and tendon balancing. The goal of the study was to clinically evaluate PTT functional recovery with this procedure. The patient population included 17 feet in 13 patients. Inclusion was limited to early Stage II PTTD flatfeet with grossly intact but deficient PTT. Deficiency was assessed by the lack of hindfoot inversion during single heel rise test. The surgical procedure included an Evans calcaneal opening wedge osteotomy with triceps surae and peroneus brevis tendon lengthening. PTT function at follow up was evaluated by an independent examiner. Evaluation was performed at an average of 4 (range, 2 to 6.3) years. One case presented postoperative subtalar pain that required subtalar fusion. Every foot could perform a single heel rise with 13 feet having active inversion of the hindfoot during elevation. The results of this study provide evidence of PTT functional recovery without augmentation in early Stage II. It challenges our understanding of early Stage II PTTD as well as the surgical guidelines recommending PTT augmentation at this specific stage.

  19. Cognitive function in early clinical phase huntington disease after rivastigmine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sešok, Sanja; Bolle, Nika; Kobal, Jan; Bucik, Valentin; Vodušek, David B

    2014-09-01

    In Huntington disease (HD) patients receiving rivastigmine treatment improvement of behavioral symptoms and of cognitive function (assessed with screening diagnostic instruments) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to verify such improvement in cognitive function by cognitive function assessment with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering all relevant cognitive systems expected to be impaired in early phase HD. Eighteen (18) HD patients entered the study and were randomly allocated to the rivastigmine and placebo group. All subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline. Follow-up neuropsychological assessment was applied after 6 months of rivastigmine or placebo treatment. Eighteen (18) healthy controls entered the study to control for practice effect and underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 6 months, without treatment. The neuropsychological battery consisted of assessment tools that are sensitive to cognitive impairment seen in early phase HD: CTMT, SDMT, Stroop (attention and information control), RFFT, TOL, Verbal fluency (executive functioning), CVLT-II, RCFT (learning and memory). Effect of rivastigmine and possible effect of practice was assessed using the mixed ANOVA model. No statistically significant effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients was detected. There was no evidence for practice or placebo effect. Detailed neuropsychological assessment did not confirm previously reported effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients. The limitations of our study are, in particular, small sample size and the lack of a single measure of relevant cognitive functioning in HD patients. Instead of focusing solely on statistical significance, a clinical relevance study is proposed to clarify the issue of rivastigmine effects in HD.

  20. Labeled carbon dioxide (C18O2): an indicator gas for phase II in expirograms.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Holger; Schulz, Anne; Eder, Gunter; Heyder, Joachim

    2004-11-01

    Carbon dioxide labeled with 18O (C18O2) was used as a tracer gas for single-breath measurements in six anesthetized, mechanically ventilated beagle dogs. C18O2 is taken up quasi-instantaneously in the gas-exchanging region of the lungs but much less so in the conducting airways. Its use allows a clear separation of phase II in an expirogram even from diseased individuals and excludes the influence of alveolar concentration differences. Phase II of a C18O2 expirogram mathematically corresponds to the cumulative distribution of bronchial pathways to be traversed completely in the course of exhalation. The derivative of this cumulative distribution with respect to respired volume was submitted to a power moment analysis to characterize volumetric mean (position), standard deviation (broadness), and skewness (asymmetry) of phase II. Position is an estimate of dead space volume, whereas broadness and skewness are measures of the range and asymmetry of functional airway pathway lengths. The effects of changing ventilatory patterns and of changes in airway size (via carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction) were studied. Increasing inspiratory or expiratory flow rates or tidal volume had only minor influence on position and shape of phase II. With the introduction of a postinspiratory breath hold, phase II was continually shifted toward the airway opening (maximum 45% at 16 s) and became steeper by up to 16%, whereas skewness showed a biphasic response with a moderate decrease at short breath holding and a significant increase at longer breath holds. Stepwise bronchoconstriction decreased position up to 45 +/- 2% and broadness of phase II up to 43 +/- 4%, whereas skewness was increased up to twofold at high-carbachol concentrations. Under all circumstances, position of phase II by power moment analysis and dead space volume by the Fowler technique agreed closely in our healthy dogs. Overall, power moment analysis provides a more comprehensive view on phase II of single

  1. Quality of reporting in oncology phase II trials: A 5-year assessment through systematic review.

    PubMed

    Langrand-Escure, Julien; Rivoirard, Romain; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Rancoule, Chloé; Chauvin, Frank; Magné, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Phase II clinical trials are a cornerstone of the development in experimental treatments They work as a "filter" for phase III trials confirmation. Surprisingly the attrition ratio in Phase III trials in oncology is significantly higher than in any other medical specialty. This suggests phase II trials in oncology fail to achieve their goal. Objective The present study aims at estimating the quality of reporting in published oncology phase II clinical trials. A literature review was conducted among all phase II and phase II/III clinical trials published during a 5-year period (2010-2015). All articles electronically published by three randomly-selected oncology journals with Impact-Factors>4 were included: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology and British Journal of Cancer. Quality of reporting was assessed using the Key Methodological Score. 557 articles were included. 315 trials were single-arm studies (56.6%), 193 (34.6%) were randomized and 49 (8.8%) were non-randomized multiple-arm studies. The Methodological Score was equal to 0 (lowest level), 1, 2, 3 (highest level) respectively for 22 (3.9%), 119 (21.4%), 270 (48.5%) and 146 (26.2%) articles. The primary end point is almost systematically reported (90.5%), while sample size calculation is missing in 66% of the articles. 3 variables were independently associated with reporting of a high standard: presence of statistical design (p-value <0.001), multicenter trial (p-value = 0.012), per-protocol analysis (p-value <0.001). Screening was mainly performed by a sole author. The Key Methodological Score was based on only 3 items, making grey zones difficult to translate. This literature review highlights the existence of gaps concerning the quality of reporting. It therefore raised the question of the suitability of the methodology as well as the quality of these trials, reporting being incomplete in the corresponding articles.

  2. Janus kinase inhibitors for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases: developments from phase I and phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Ferdinando; Fiorino, Gionata; Furfaro, Federica; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio

    2018-06-23

    A new pharmacological class, janus kinases (JAK) inhibitors, has been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the JAK inhibitors currently under investigation in phase I and II clinical trials for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), and the possible future perspectives for the treatment of IBD patients with this class of drugs. Areas covered: This review describes the JAK-STAT pathway and analyzes the efficacy and safety of new small molecules such as filgotinib, upadacitinib, TD-1473, peficitinib and Pf-06651600/Pf-06700841, showing data from phase I and II trials. Expert Opinion: JAK inhibitors, if approved by the regulatory authorities, could represent a novel and intriguing drug class. In the next years the approach to patients with IBD will become increasingly personalized.

  3. Phase I/II adaptive design for drug combination oncology trials

    PubMed Central

    Wages, Nolan A.; Conaway, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Existing statistical methodology on dose finding for combination chemotherapies has focused on toxicity considerations alone in finding a maximum tolerated dose combination to recommend for further testing of efficacy in a phase II setting. Recently, there has been increasing interest in integrating phase I and phase II trials in order to facilitate drug development. In this article, we propose a new adaptive phase I/II method for dual-agent combinations that takes into account both toxicity and efficacy after each cohort inclusion. The primary objective, both within and at the conclusion of the trial, becomes finding a single dose combination with an acceptable level of toxicity that maximizes efficacious response. We assume that there exist monotone dose–toxicity and dose–efficacy relationships among doses of one agent when the dose of other agent is fixed. We perform extensive simulation studies that demonstrate the operating characteristics of our proposed approach, and we compare simulated results to existing methodology in phase I/II design for combinations of agents. PMID:24470329

  4. Commissioning and Early Operation Experience of the NSLS-II Storage Ring RF System

    SciT

    Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Cupolo, J.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a 3 GeV electron X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The storage ring RF system, essential for replenishing energy loss per turn of the electrons, consists of digital low level RF controllers, 310 kW CW klystron transmitters, CESR-B type superconducting cavities, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system for beam current up to 200mA.

  5. Stable Low Cloud Phase II: Nocturnal Event Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Barrett, Joe, III

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in developing a database of nights that experienced rapid (< 90 minutes) low cloud formation in a stable atmosphere, resulting in ceilings at the Shuttle Landing Facility (TTS) that violated Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR). This work is the second phase of a similar AMU task that examined the same phenomena during the day. In the first phase of this work, the meteorological conditions favoring the rapid formation of low ceilings include the presence of any inversion below 8000 ft, high relative humidity (RH) beneath the inversion and a clockwise turning of the winds from the surface to the middle troposphere (-15000 ft). The AMU compared and contrasted the atmospheric and thermodynamic conditions between nights with rapid low ceiling formation and nights with low ceilings resulting from other mechanisms. The AMU found that there was little to discern between the rapidly-forming ceiling nights and other low ceiling nights at TTS. When a rapid development occurred, the average RH below the inversions was 87% while non-events had an average RH of 79%. One key parameter appeared to be the vertical wind profile in the Cape Canaveral, FL radiosonde (XMR) sounding. Eighty-three percent of the rapid development events had veering winds with height from the surface to the middle troposphere (-15,000 ft) while 61% of the non-events had veering winds with height. Veering winds indicate a warm-advection regime, which supports large-scale rising motion and ultimately cloud formation in a moist environment. However, only six of the nights (out of 86 events examined) with low cloud ceilings had an occurrence of rapidly developing ceilings. Since only 7% rapid development events were observed in this dataset, it is likely that rapid low cloud development is not a common occurrence during the night, or at least not as common as during the day. In the AMU work on the daytime rapid low cloud development (Case

  6. Project NOAH: Regulating modern sea-level rise. Phase II: Jerusalem Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Walter S.; Fairbridge, Rhodes W.

    This proposal builds a high-speed inter-urban express between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, generates 1500 megawatts of hydroelectric energy, curtails littoral erosion, builds a port along the Israeli Mediterranean coast and demands peaceful cooperation on both sides of the Jordan River. Phase II represents a pilot project demonstrating the feasibility of continuing to regulate world sea-level by a new series of water regulation schemes. Phase I previously described all those projects already completed or underway which have inadvertently and/or unintentionally served the purpose of sea-level regulation. These forms of Phase I sea-level regulation include large and small reservoirs, irrigation projects, water infiltration schemes, farm ponds, and swimming and reflecting pools. All these water storage projects have already exercised a very appreciable brake on 20th century sea-level rise. Phase II outlines a high-visibility proposal which will serve to illustrate the viability of “Project NOAH”.

  7. Extending the Season for Concrete Construction and Repair. Phase II - Defining Engineering Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    dosages, seemed to improve the freeze –thaw durability of concrete. Phase II found what appears to be a maximum dosage after which freeze –thaw...durability becomes a concern. That is because cement hydration can only create a finite amount of space to absorb these chemicals. Thus, for freeze ...protection, admixture dosages should be designed according to water content as specified in Phase I, while, for freeze –thaw durability, admixture dosages

  8. Phase structure of one-dimensional interacting Floquet systems. II. Symmetry-broken phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2016-06-01

    Recent work suggests that a sharp definition of "phase of matter" can be given for periodically driven "Floquet" quantum systems exhibiting many-body localization. In this work, we propose a classification of the phases of interacting Floquet localized systems with (completely) spontaneously broken symmetries; we focus on the one-dimensional case, but our results appear to generalize to higher dimensions. We find that the different Floquet phases correspond to elements of Z (G ) , the center of the symmetry group in question. In a previous paper [C. W. von Keyserlingk and S. L. Sondhi, preceding paper, Phys. Rev. B 93, 245145 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.245145, we offered a companion classification of unbroken, i.e., paramagnetic phases.

  9. Early Childhood Program: Summary of Context Analysis Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Progress made in the field of early childhood development during the past decade is examined to provide the background and rationale for tree programs funded by the National Institute of Education (NIE) in 1974: a parenting information center, a multimedia child care training package, and television spots related to child rearing principles. The…

  10. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - SunCan Dunhuang 100 MW Phase II |

    Concentrating Solar Power | NREL 0 MW Phase II Status Date: January 11, 2017 Project Overview ): Beijing Shouhang IHW Technology: Power tower Turbine Capacity: Net: 100.0 MW Gross: 100.0 MW Status: Under construction Do you have more information, corrections, or comments? Background Technology: Power tower Status

  11. Phase II clinical trial of combination chemotherapy with dexamethasone for lymphoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Chelsea B; Boria, Pedro A; Borgatti-Jeffreys, Antonella; Raskin, Rose E; Lucroy, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Dogs with histologically confirmed lymphoma were treated with a 14-week induction chemotherapy protocol that included dexamethasone. A phase II clinical trial was done using a standard two-stage design. Complete remission occurred in 21 (88%) dogs, with a median initial progression-free interval of 186 days. Toxicity was mild and self-limiting in the majority of dogs.

  12. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis phase II : durable pavement markings.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-04-01

    This report details the Phase II analysis of the life cycle and economic efficiency of inlaid tape : and thermoplastic. Waterborne paint was included as a non-durable for comparison purposes : only. In order to find the most economical product for sp...

  13. Innovative Navigation Systems to Support Digital Geophysical Mapping, ESTCP #200129, Phase II Demonstrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-25

    7 Figure 2-3 Blackhawk/ Applanix GPS/INS System...electro-mechanical system ms millisecond NP navigation processor OE ordnance and explosive POSLV Applanix Positioning and Orientation...demonstration GPS/INS positioning system. In Phase II, a man-portable modified version called the POSLV 310 UXO of the Applanix Positioning and

  14. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised NOX...

  15. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised NOX...

  16. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised NOX...

  17. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised NOX...

  18. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised NOX...

  19. Phase II Report: Design Study for Automated Document Location and Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booz, Allen Applied Research, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of Phase II is the design of a system for document control within the National Agricultural Library (NAL) that will facilitate the processing of the documents selected, ordered, or received; that will avoid backlogs; and that will provide rapid document location reports. The results are set forth as follows: Chapter I, Introduction,…

  20. Definition of the Semisubmersible Floating System for Phase II of OC4

    SciT

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Masciola, M.

    Phase II of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) project involved modeling of a semisubmersible floating offshore wind system as shown below. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which were needed by the OC4 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  1. VTAE Equity Staff Development Workshops and Services--Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldus, Lorayne; Nelson, Orville

    The Phase II Equity Staff Development project was revised in response to a need to develop an equity strategic planning model with a vision statement, goals, and objectives. The Equity Strategic Planning Model was presented to administrators of Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) colleges for their use in district strategic…

  2. LED street lighting evaluation -- phase II : LED specification and life-cycle cost analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-01-01

    Phase II of this study focused on developing a draft specification for LED luminaires to be used by IDOT : and a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool for solid state lighting technologies. The team also researched the : latest developments related to...

  3. 77 FR 43536 - Wireless E911 Phase II Location Accuracy Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Docket No. 07-114; FCC 11-107] Wireless E911 Phase II Location Accuracy Requirements AGENCY: Federal...- 2413, or email: [email protected]fcc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This document announces that, on... Commission's Order, FCC 11-107, published at 76 FR 59916, September 28, 2011. The OMB Control Number is 3060...

  4. Income Verification Pilot Project (Phase II): Results of Quality Assurance Evaluation, 1982-83 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented in this report are selected findings of the Income Verification Pilot Project (IVPP), an investigation examining misreporting of applicant income and family size on applications for government-sponsored school meal benefits. As reported here, Phase II of the project provided for a comprehensive assessment of specific quality assurance…

  5. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action. 300.305 Section 300.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the OSC is informed of their activities in natural resource damage assessment that may affect response...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AND ECONOMICAL PROCESS FOR PLUGGING ABANDONED WELLS (PHASE II)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phase II of this project was successfully completed with field tests being presently underway. It was found from the laboratory study that the fly ash slurry had sufficient thickening time and could be pumped successfully through coiled and straight tubing. Pumping through...

  7. TA 55 Reinvestment Project II Phase C Update Project Status May 23, 2017

    SciT

    Giordano, Anthony P.

    The TA-55 Reinvestment Project (TRP) II Phase C is a critical infrastructure project focused on improving safety and reliability of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 Complex. The Project recapitalizes and revitalizes aging and obsolete facility and safety systems providing a sustainable nuclear facility for National Security Missions.

  8. Iowa High School Industrial Arts Curriculum Project. Report on Year One of Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    Phase II of the Iowa High School Industrial Arts project sought to revise industrial arts content to include the infusion of new technologies, structured mathematics and science content, and a less project-oriented approach to teaching. The project identified a philosophical basis and a content structure; set priorities for development and…

  9. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action. 300.305 Section 300.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS...

  10. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action. 300.305 Section 300.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS...

  11. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action. 300.305 Section 300.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS...

  12. 40 CFR 300.305 - Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phase II-Preliminary assessment and initiation of action. 300.305 Section 300.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS...

  13. Multi-Body Dynamic Contact Analysis. Tool for Transmission Design SBIR Phase II Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    shapes and natural frequencies were computed in COSMIC NASTRAN, and were validated against the published experimental modal analysis [17]. • Using...COSMIC NASTRAN via modal superposition. • Results from the structural analysis (mode shapes or forced response) were converted into IDEAS universal...ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Multi-body Dynamic Contact Analysis Tool for Transmission Design SBIR Phase II Final Report by

  14. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  15. Webcam Delivery of the Camperdown Program for Adolescents Who Stutter: A Phase II Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Brenda; O'Brian, Sue; Lowe, Robyn; Onslow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II clinical trial examined stuttering adolescents' responsiveness to the Webcam-delivered Camperdown Program. Method: Sixteen adolescents were treated by Webcam with no clinic attendance. Primary outcome was percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS). Secondary outcomes were number of sessions, weeks and hours to maintenance,…

  16. Specific threonine-4 phosphorylation and function of RNA polymerase II CTD during M phase progression

    PubMed Central

    Hintermair, Corinna; Voß, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic phosphorylation of Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 heptad-repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit coordinates progression of RNA polymerase (Pol) II through the transcription cycle. Here, we describe an M phase-specific form of Pol II phosphorylated at Thr4, but not at Tyr1, Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 residues. Thr4 phosphorylated Pol II binds to centrosomes and midbody and interacts with the Thr4-specific Polo-like kinase 1. Binding of Pol II to centrosomes does not require the CTD but may involve subunits of the non-canonical R2TP-Prefoldin-like complex, which bind to and co-localize with Pol II at centrosomes. CTD Thr4 mutants, but not Ser2 and Ser5 mutants, display severe mitosis and cytokinesis defects characterized by multipolar spindles and polyploid cells. We conclude that proper M phase progression of cells requires binding of Pol II to centrosomes to facilitate regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis in a CTD Thr4-P dependent manner. PMID:27264542

  17. Specific threonine-4 phosphorylation and function of RNA polymerase II CTD during M phase progression.

    PubMed

    Hintermair, Corinna; Voß, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk

    2016-06-06

    Dynamic phosphorylation of Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 heptad-repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit coordinates progression of RNA polymerase (Pol) II through the transcription cycle. Here, we describe an M phase-specific form of Pol II phosphorylated at Thr4, but not at Tyr1, Ser2, Ser5, and Ser7 residues. Thr4 phosphorylated Pol II binds to centrosomes and midbody and interacts with the Thr4-specific Polo-like kinase 1. Binding of Pol II to centrosomes does not require the CTD but may involve subunits of the non-canonical R2TP-Prefoldin-like complex, which bind to and co-localize with Pol II at centrosomes. CTD Thr4 mutants, but not Ser2 and Ser5 mutants, display severe mitosis and cytokinesis defects characterized by multipolar spindles and polyploid cells. We conclude that proper M phase progression of cells requires binding of Pol II to centrosomes to facilitate regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis in a CTD Thr4-P dependent manner.

  18. Phase I/Phase II Study of Blinatumomab in Pediatric Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    von Stackelberg, Arend; Locatelli, Franco; Zugmaier, Gerhard; Handgretinger, Rupert; Trippett, Tanya M; Rizzari, Carmelo; Bader, Peter; O'Brien, Maureen M; Brethon, Benoît; Bhojwani, Deepa; Schlegel, Paul Gerhardt; Borkhardt, Arndt; Rheingold, Susan R; Cooper, Todd Michael; Zwaan, Christian M; Barnette, Phillip; Messina, Chiara; Michel, Gérard; DuBois, Steven G; Hu, Kuolung; Zhu, Min; Whitlock, James A; Gore, Lia

    2016-12-20

    Purpose Blinatumomab is a bispecific T-cell engager antibody construct targeting CD19 on B-cell lymphoblasts. We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, recommended dosage, and potential for efficacy of blinatumomab in children with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Methods This open-label study enrolled children < 18 years old with relapsed/refractory BCP-ALL in a phase I dosage-escalation part and a phase II part, using 6-week treatment cycles. Primary end points were maximum-tolerated dosage (phase I) and complete remission rate within the first two cycles (phase II). Results We treated 49 patients in phase I and 44 patients in phase II. Four patients had dose-limiting toxicities in cycle 1 (phase I). Three experienced grade 4 cytokine-release syndrome (one attributed to grade 5 cardiac failure); one had fatal respiratory failure. The maximum-tolerated dosage was 15 µg/m 2 /d. Blinatumomab pharmacokinetics was linear across dosage levels and consistent among age groups. On the basis of the phase I data, the recommended blinatumomab dosage for children with relapsed/refractory ALL was 5 µg/m 2 /d for the first 7 days, followed by 15 µg/m 2 /d thereafter. Among the 70 patients who received the recommended dosage, 27 (39%; 95% CI, 27% to 51%) achieved complete remission within the first two cycles, 14 (52%) of whom achieved complete minimal residual disease response. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 adverse events were anemia (36%), thrombocytopenia (21%), and hypokalemia (17%). Three patients (4%) and one patient (1%) had cytokine-release syndrome of grade 3 and 4, respectively. Two patients (3%) interrupted treatment after grade 2 seizures. Conclusion This trial, which to the best of our knowledge was the first such trial in pediatrics, demonstrated antileukemic activity of single-agent blinatumomab with complete minimal residual disease response in children with relapsed/refractory BCP-ALL. Blinatumomab may represent an

  19. Evaluation of phase II toxicity identification evaluation methods for freshwater whole sediment and interstitial water.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Hunt, John W; Clark, Sara L; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Tjeerdema, Ron S; Casteline, Jane; Stewart, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    Phase I whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed to characterize the cause of toxicity as organic chemicals, metals, or ammonia. In Phase II identification treatments, resins added to whole sediment to reduce toxicity caused by metals and organics can be separated and eluted much like solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns are eluted for interstitial water. In this study, formulated reference sediments spiked with toxic concentrations of copper, fluoranthene, and nonylphenol were subjected to whole sediment and interstitial water TIE treatments to evaluate Phase I and II TIE procedures for identifying the cause of toxicity to Hyalella azteca. Phase I TIE treatments consisted of adding adsorbent resins to whole sediment, and using SPE columns to remove spiked chemicals from interstitial water. Phase II treatments consisted of eluting resins and SPE columns and the preparation and testing of eluates for toxicity and chemistry. Whole sediment resins and SPE columns significantly reduced toxicity, and the eluates from all treatments contained toxic concentrations of the spiked chemical except for interstitial water fluoranthene. Toxic unit analysis based on median lethal concentrations (LC50s) allowed for the comparison of chemical concentrations among treatments, and demonstrated that the bioavailability of some chemicals was reduced in some samples and treatments. The concentration of fluoranthene in the resin eluate closely approximated the original interstitial water concentration, but the resin eluate concentrations of copper and nonylphenol were much higher than the original interstitial water concentrations. Phase II whole sediment TIE treatments provided complementary lines of evidence to the interstitial water TIE results.

  20. The STAR Detector Upgrades and Electromagnetic Probes in Beam Energy Scan Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi

    The Beam Energy Scan Phase II at RHIC, BES-II, is scheduled from year 2019 to 2020 and will explore the high baryon density region of the QCD phase diagram with high precision. The program will focus on the interesting energy region determined from the results of BES-I. Some of the key measurements anticipated are the chiral symmetry restoration and QGP thermal radiation in the dilepton and direct photon channels. The measurements will be possible with an order of magnitude better statistics provided by the electron cooling upgrade of RHIC and with the detector upgrades planned to extend STAR experimental reach. The upgrades are: the inner Time Projection Chamber sectors (iTPC), the Event Plane Detector (EPD), and the end-cap Time of Flight (eTOF). We present the BES-II program details and the physics opportunities in the dilepton and direct photon channels enabled by the upgrades.

  1. Phase I/II Trial of Imatinib and Bevacizumab in Patients With Advanced Melanoma and Other Advanced Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Betty K.; Rosen, Mark A.; Amaravadi, Ravi K.; Schuchter, Lynn M.; Gallagher, Maryann; Chen, Helen; Sehgal, Chandra; O’Dwyer, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor signaling in the tumor microenvironment appear to cooperate in promoting tumor angiogenesis. Patients and Methods. We conducted a phase I trial combining bevacizumab (i.v. every 2 weeks) and imatinib (oral daily). Once a recommended phase II dose combination was established, a phase II trial was initiated in patients with metastatic melanoma. A Simon 2-stage design was used with 23 patients required in the first stage and 41 patients in total should the criteria to proceed be met. We required that 50% of the patients be progression-free at 16 weeks. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and power Doppler ultrasonography were performed in patients with metastatic tumors amenable to imaging with these methods at baseline and after 4 weeks. Results. A total of 17 patients were accrued to 4 dose and combination levels. Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks could be safely combined with imatinib 800 mg daily. Common toxicities included fatigue, nausea, vomiting, edema, proteinuria, and anemia, but were not commonly severe. A total of 23 patients with metastatic melanoma (48% with American Joint Commission on Cancer stage M1c; median age, 63 years) were enrolled in the first stage of phase II. The 16-week progression-free survival rate was 35%, leading to termination of phase II after the first stage. In the small subset of patients who remained on study with lesions evaluable by DCE-MRI, significant decreases in tumor vascular permeability were noted, despite early disease progression using the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. Conclusion. Bevacizumab and imatinib can be safely combined at the maximum doses used for each agent. We did not observe significant clinical activity with this regimen in melanoma patients. Implications for Practice: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted antiangiogenic therapy has proven clinical efficacy as a

  2. Phase II Upgrade of the GERDA Experiment for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorovits, B.

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta decay could answer the question regarding the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos. The GERDA experiment utilizes HPGe detectors enriched with the isotope 76Ge to search for this process. Recently the GERDA collaboration has unblinded data of Phase I of the experiment. In order to further improve the sensitivity of the experiment, additionally to the coaxial detectors used, 30 BEGe detectors made from germanium enriched in 76Ge will be deployed in GERDA Phase II. BEGe detectors have superior PSD capability, thus the background can be further reduced. The liquid argon surrounding the detector array will be instrumented in order to reject background by detecting scintillation light induced in the liquid argon by radiation. After a short introduction the hardware preparations for GERDA Phase II as well as the processing and characterization of the 30 BEGe detectors are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase II. Final technical report

    SciT

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Winczewski, L.M.

    1981-06-01

    This evaluation of the hydrothermal resources of North Dakota is based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the Phase II study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermalmore » conductivity of core samples is being done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those hole-of-convenience cased.« less

  4. Phased Retrofits in Existing Homes in Florida Phase II. Shallow Plus Retrofits

    SciT

    K. Sutherland; Parker, D.; Martin, E.

    2016-02-01

    The BAPIRC team and Florida Power and Light (FPL) electric utility pursued a pilot phased energy-efficiency retrofit program in Florida by creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of retrofit - simple and deep. For this Phased Deep Retrofit (PDR) project, a total of 56 homes spread across the utility partner's territory in east central Florida, southeast Florida, and southwest Florida were instrumented between August 2012 and January 2013, and received simple pass-through retrofit measures during the period of March 2013 - June 2013. Ten of these homes received a deeper package of retrofits duringmore » August 2013 - December 2013.« less

  5. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    PubMed Central

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M.; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R.; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling. PMID:26236307

  6. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  7. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1.

    PubMed

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  8. Phase II Trial of Cetuximab With or Without Paclitaxel in Patients With Advanced Urothelial Tract Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu-Ning; Litwin, Samuel; Vaughn, David; Cohen, Seth; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Lee, James; Song, Wei; Dabrow, Michael; Brody, Marion; Tuttle, Holly; Hudes, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The benefit of salvage chemotherapy is modest in metastatic urothelial cancer. We conducted a randomized, noncomparative phase II study to measure the efficacy of cetuximab with or without paclitaxel in patients with previously treated urothelial cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with metastatic urothelial cancer who received one line of chemotherapy in the perioperative or metastatic setting were randomly assigned to 4-week cycles of cetuximab 250 mg/m2 with or without paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 per week. We used early progression as an indicator of futility. Either arm would close if seven of the initial 15 patients in that arm progressed at the first disease evaluation at 8 weeks. Results We enrolled 39 evaluable patients. The single-agent cetuximab arm closed after nine of the first 11 patients progressed by 8 weeks. The combination arm completed the full accrual of 28 patients, of whom 22 patients (78.5%) had visceral disease. Twelve of 28 patients had progression-free survival greater than 16 weeks. The overall response rate was 25% (95% CI, 11% to 45%; three complete responses and four partial responses). The median progression-free survival was 16.4 weeks (95% CI, 12 to 25.1 weeks), and the median overall survival was 42 weeks (95% CI, 30.4 to 78 weeks). Treatment-related grade 3 and 4 adverse events that occurred in at least two patients were rash (six cases), fatigue (five cases), and low magnesium (three cases). Conclusion Although it had limited activity as a single agent, cetuximab appears to augment the antitumor activity of paclitaxel in previously treated urothelial cancers. The cetuximab and paclitaxel combination merits additional study to establish its role in the treatment of urothelial cancers. PMID:22927525

  9. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  10. Medical information, communication, and archiving system (MICAS): Phase II integration and acceptance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Edward M.; Wandtke, John; Robinson, Arvin E.

    1999-07-01

    The Medical Information, Communication and Archive System (MICAS) is a multi-modality integrated image management system that is seamlessly integrated with the Radiology Information System (RIS). This project was initiated in the summer of 1995 with the first phase being installed during the first half of 1997 and the second phase installed during the summer of 1998. Phase II enhancements include a permanent archive, automated workflow including modality worklist, study caches, NT diagnostic workstations with all components adhering to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standards. This multi-vendor phased approach to PACS implementation is designed as an enterprise-wide PACS to provide images and reports throughout our healthcare network. MICAS demonstrates that aa multi-vendor open system phased approach to PACS is feasible, cost-effective, and has significant advantages over a single vendor implementation.

  11. Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS) Phase 1: A Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutinger, Patricia; Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS), a Steppingstones of Technology Innovation Phase 1--Development project, was developed by the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood (the Center) at Western Illinois University as an online instructional system. EC-TIIS' ultimate goal was to improve technology services…

  12. Development of Phased-Array Ultrasonic Testing Acceptability Criteria : (Phase II)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    The preliminary technical approach and scan plans developed during phase I of this research was implemented on testing four butt-weld specimens. The ray path analysis carried out to develop the scan plans and the preliminary data analysis indicated t...

  13. State and county delivered bridge replacement project analysis : phase I and phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the cost of state delivered bridge projects and county delivered bridge projects. A total of 190 different bridge replacement projects were analyzed. The first phase of the project focused on whether or not the...

  14. The effect of early operative stabilization on late displacement of zone I and II sacral fractures.

    PubMed

    Emohare, Osa; Slinkard, Nathaniel; Lafferty, Paul; Vang, Sandy; Morgan, Robert

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect on displacement of early operative stabilization on unstable fractures when compared to stable fractures of the sacrum. Patient consisted of those sustaining traumatic pelvic fractures that also included sacral fractures of Denis type I and type II classification, who were over 18 at the time of the study. Patients were managed emergently, as judged appropriate at the time and then subsequently divided into two cohorts, comprising those who were either treated operatively or non-operatively. The operative group comprised those treated with either internal fixation or external fixation. Twenty-eight patients had zone II fractures, and 20 had zone I fractures. Zone II fractures showed average displacements of 6.5mm and 6.9mm in the rostral-caudal and anteroposterior directions, respectively, at final follow up. Zone I fractures had average displacements of 6.6mm and 6.1mm in both directions. There were no significant differences between zone I and II sacral fractures (rostral-caudal P=0.74, anteroposterior P=0.24). Average changes in fracture displacement in patients with zone I fractures were 0.6-1.0mm in both directions. Average changes in zone II fractures were 1.8-1.5mm in both directions. There were no significant differences between the average changes in zone I and II fractures in any direction (rostral-caudal P=0.64, anteroposterior P=0.68) or in average displacements at final follow up in any of zone or the entire cohort. Statistically significant differences were noted in average changes in displacement in zone II fractures in the anteroposterior plane (P=0.03) and the overall cohort in the anteroposterior plane (P=0.02). Operative fixation for unstable sacral fractures ensures displacement at follow up is comparable with stable fractures treated non operatively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phase II trial of CoQ10 for ALS finds insufficient evidence to justify Phase III

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Petra; Thompson, John L.P.; Levy, Gilberto; Buchsbaum, Richard; Shefner, Jeremy; Krivickas, Lisa S.; Katz, Jonathan; Rollins, Yvonne; Barohn, Richard J.; Jackson, Carlayne E.; Tiryaki, Ezgi; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Armon, Carmel; Tandan, Rup; Rudnicki, Stacy A.; Rezania, Kourosh; Sufit, Robert; Pestronk, Alan; Novella, Steven P.; Heiman-Patterson, Terry; Kasarskis, Edward J.; Pioro, Erik P.; Montes, Jacqueline; Arbing, Rachel; Vecchio, Darleen; Barsdorf, Alexandra; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Levin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Objective Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating, and currently incurable, neuromuscular disease in which oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment are contributing to neuronal loss. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antioxidant and mitochondrial cofactor, has shown promise in ALS transgenic mice, and in clinical trials for neurodegenerative diseases other than ALS. Our aims were to choose between two high doses of CoQ10 for ALS, and to determine if it merits testing in a Phase III clinical trial. Methods We designed and implemented a multi-center trial with an adaptive, two-stage, bias-adjusted, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, Phase II design (n=185). The primary outcome in both stages was decline in the ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRSr) score over 9 months. Stage 1 (dose selection, 35 participants per group) compared CoQ10 doses of 1,800 and 2,700 mg/day. Stage 2 (futility test, 75 patients per group) compared the dose selected in Stage 1 against placebo. Results Stage 1 selected the 2,700 mg dose. In Stage 2, the pre-specified primary null hypothesis that this dose is superior to placebo was not rejected. It was rejected, however, in an accompanying pre-specified sensitivity test, and further supplementary analyses. Pre-specified secondary analyses showed no significant differences between CoQ10 at 2,700 mg/day and placebo. There were no safety concerns. Interpretation CoQ10 at 2,700 mg daily for 9 months shows insufficient promise to warrant Phase III testing. Given this outcome, the adaptive Phase II design incorporating a dose selection and a futility test avoided the need for a much larger conventional Phase III trial. PMID:19743457

  16. 78 FR 5816 - Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarket Evaluation in Early-Phase Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    .... The guidance provides recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and... recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and applied in early-phase clinical... the larger, later adequate, and well-controlled trials (phase 3) that are needed to support marketing...

  17. 76 FR 3624 - Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2657-000] Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  18. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase II: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes Phase II of a project which developed a system for delivering fire safety training to board and care providers who serve adults with developmental disabilities. Phase II focused on developing and pilot testing a "train the trainers" workshop for instructors and field testing the provider's workshop. Evaluation of…

  19. How to improve the clinical development paradigm and its division into phases I, II and III.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Marion; Moore, Nicholas; Lechat, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    of improvement of the medical benefit (ASMR) [level II/III or IV/V]. Such requests mainly concern uncertainties regarding the transposability, the patient profile or correct usage in real life. Among the studies whose results were provided, in 15 cases the results were in line with expectations, in 6 cases they resulted in downward re-evaluations and the final 3 cases were inconclusive. The final recommendations of the round table were: Defining the medical need that is not covered by working in consultation (Industry and Health Authorities); Providing a Complementary Investigations Plan (PIC) after the MA at a very early stage to reinforce the early MA, and/or HTA (health technology assessment) preparation and monitoring (possible constraining actions); Enhanced use of modelling techniques and their transposability; "Intussusception" of phases to optimise the development of a complete dossier; Early "scientific opinions" (EMA, French Health Products Safety Agency [Afssaps], French Health Authority [HAS]); Raising the awareness of the authorities, industry, doctors and patients with regard to controlled observational studies; Developing the use of public data bases. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  20. Observable induced gravitational waves from an early matter phase

    SciT

    Alabidi, Laila; Sasaki, Misao; Kohri, Kazunori

    2013-05-01

    Assuming that inflation is succeeded by a phase of matter domination, which corresponds to a low temperature of reheating T{sub r} < 10{sup 9}GeV, we evaluate the spectra of gravitational waves induced in the post-inflationary universe. We work with models of hilltop-inflation with an enhanced primordial scalar spectrum on small scales, which can potentially lead to the formation of primordial black holes. We find that a lower reheat temperature leads to the production of gravitational waves with energy densities within the ranges of both space and earth based gravitational wave detectors.

  1. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0138 Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...method for early detection of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer’s disease , with three Specific Aims: #1 Develop and optimize an x-ray PCCT to explore the

  2. Targeting delta opioid receptors for pain treatment: drugs in phase I and II clinical development.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Viola; Stein, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Opioids are widely used to treat severe pain. Most clinically used opioids activate µ-opioid receptors (MOR). Their ligands induce potent analgesia but also adverse effects. The δ-opioid receptor (DOR) is another member of the opioid receptor family that has been under intense investigation with the aim to avoid MOR-induced side effects. Areas covered: This article reviews DOR ligands which appeared to be promising after preclinical evaluation. A literature search using Pubmed, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov, EudraCT, AdisInsight database and EBSCO Online Library was conducted. Out of numerous newly synthesized molecules, only few candidates entered phase I and/or II clinical investigation. The publicly accessible results are presented here. Expert opinion: Many compounds showed potent DOR-specific pain inhibition in preclinical studies. ADL5859 and ADL5747 entered clinical trials and successfully passed phase I. However, in phase II studies the primary endpoint (pain reduction) was not met and further investigation was terminated. A third compound, NP2, is in phase II clinical evaluation and results are pending. These findings suggest a potential of DOR ligands according to preclinical studies. Further clinical research and secondary analysis of unpublished data is needed to identify molecules which are useful in humans.

  3. Phase I and II feasibility study report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit

    SciT

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this Phase I/II feasibility study is to assemble and screen a list of alternatives for remediation of the 300-FF-5 operable site on the Hanford Reservation. This screening is based on information gathered in the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) and on currently available information on remediation technologies. The alternatives remaining after screening provide a range of response actions for remediation. In addition, key data needs are identified for collection during a Phase II RI (if necessary). This Phase I/II FS represents a primary document as defined by the Tri-Party Agreement, but will be followed by a Phasemore » III FS that will further develop the alternatives and provide a detailed evaluation of them. The following remedial action objectives were identified for the 300-FF-5 operable unit: Limit current human exposure to contaminated groundwater in the unit; Limit discharge of contaminated groundwater to the Columbia River; Reduce contaminant concentrations in groundwater below acceptable levels by the year 2018.« less

  4. Novel therapies for resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FONT) phase II clinical trial: study design.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, Howard; Vento, Suzanne; Gipson, Debbie; Wickman, Larysa; Gassman, Jennifer; Joy, Melanie; Savin, Virginia; Somers, Michael; Pinsk, Maury; Greene, Tom

    2011-02-10

    The lack of adequate randomized clinical trials (RCT) has hindered identification of new therapies that are safe and effective for patients with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), especially in patients who fail to respond to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies. Recent basic science advances have led to development of alternative treatments that specifically target aberrant pathways of fibrosis which are relevant to disease progression in FSGS. There is a need for a flexible Phase II study design which will test such novel antifibrotic strategies in order to identify agents suitable for phase III testing. The Novel Therapies for Resistant Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FONT) project is a multicenter Phase I/II RCT designed to investigate the potential efficacy of novel therapies for resistant FSGS. Adalimumab and galactose will be evaluated against conservative therapy consisting of the combination of lisinopril, losartan and atorvastatin. The sample size is defined to assure that if one of the treatments has a superior response rate compared to that of the other treatments, it will be selected with high probability for further evaluation. Comparison of primary and secondary endpoints in each study arm will enable a choice to be made of which treatments are worthy of further study in future Phase III RCT. This report highlights the key features of the FONT II RCT including the two-step outcome analysis that will expedite achievement of the study objectives. The proposed phase II study design will help to identify promising agents for further testing while excluding ineffective agents. This staged approach can help to prevent large expenditures on unworthy therapeutic agents in the management of serious but rare kidney diseases.

  5. Metabolic and structural changes during early maturation of Inga vera seeds are consistent with the lack of a desiccation phase.

    PubMed

    Caccere, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Simone P; Centeno, Danilo C; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; Braga, Márcia R

    2013-06-15

    Inga vera, native to South America, is an important leguminous species used for ecological restoration of riparian forests and its seeds are among the most recalcitrant ones described up to date. In this work, we analysed the metabolic profile, cell ultrastructure as well as cell wall polysaccharides of I. vera seeds in order to better understand its maturation, which allows embryo germination without a quiescent phase. Increased amounts of citric, glutamic, pyroglutamic, and aspartic acids from stages I to II (120 and 129 days after flowering (DAF)) corroborate the hypothesis of high metabolism, shifting from fermentative to aerobic respiration at seed maturity. This phase was characterized by an extensive vacuolization of embryonic cells, which also indicate high metabolic activity. The proportion of arabinose in the cell walls of embryonic axis (approx. 20%) was lower than those found in some orthodox seeds (nearly 40%), suggesting that arabinose-containing polysaccharides, which are thought to provide more flexibility to the cell wall during natural drying, are less abundant in I. vera seeds. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the major changes occurred during early stages of seed maturation of I. vera, indicating that the rapid temporary metabolic shift observed between stages I and II may be related to the lack of desiccation phase, moving directly to germination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Early visual processing is enhanced in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Bethany R; Carr, Andrea R; Ranson, Valerie A; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed an early attentional bias in processing unpleasant emotional images in women. Recent neuroimaging data suggests there are significant differences in cortical emotional processing according to menstrual phase. This study examined the impact of menstrual phase on visual emotional processing in women compared to men. ERPs were recorded from 28 early follicular women, 29 midluteal women, and 27 men while they completed a passive viewing task of neutral and low- and high- arousing pleasant and unpleasant images. There was a significant effect of menstrual phase in early visual processing, as midluteal women displayed significantly greater P1 amplitude at occipital regions to all visual images compared to men. Both midluteal and early follicular women displayed larger N1 amplitudes than men (although this only reached significance for the midluteal group) to the visual images. No sex or menstrual phase differences were apparent in later N2, P3, or LPP. A condition effect demonstrated greater P3 and LPP amplitude to highly-arousing unpleasant images relative to all other stimuli conditions. These results indicate that women have greater early automatic visual processing compared to men, and suggests that this effect is particularly strong in women in the midluteal phase at the earliest stage of visual attention processing. Our findings highlight the importance of considering menstrual phase when examining sex differences in the cortical processing of visual stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Equilibrium and kinetic modelling of cadmium (II) biosorption by Dried Biomass Aphanothece sp. from aqueous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awalina; Harimawan, A.; Haryani, G. S.; Setiadi, T.

    2017-05-01

    The Biosorption of cadmium (II) ions on dried biomass of Aphanothece sp.which previously grown in a photobioreactor system with atmospheric carbon dioxide fed input, was studied in a batch system with respect to initial pH, biomass concentration, contact time, and temperature. The biomass exhibited the highest cadmium (II) uptake capacity at 30ºC, initial pH of 8.0±0.2 in 60 minute and initial cadmium (II) ion concentration of 7.76 mg/L. Maximum biosorption capacities were 16.47 mg/g, 54.95 mg/g and 119.05 mg/g at range of initial cadmium (II) 0.96-3.63 mg/L, 1.99-8.10 mg/L and 6.48-54.38 mg/L, respectively. Uptake kinetics follows the pseudo-second order model while equilibrium is best described by Langmuir isotherm model. Isotherms have been used to determine thermodynamic parameter process (free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change). FTIR analysis of microalgae biomass revealed the presence of amino acids, carboxyl, hydroxyl, sulfhydryl and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of metal ions. During repeated sorption/desorption cycles, the ratio of Cd (II) desorption to biosorption decreased from 81% (at first cycle) to only 27% (at the third cycle). Nevertheless, due to its higher biosorption capability than other adsorbent, Aphanothece sp appears to be a good biosorbent for removing metal Cd (II) ions from aqueous phase.

  8. Rational Clinical Experiment: Assessing Prior Probability and Its Impact on the Success of Phase II Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Daniel M.; Lee, J. Jack; Dagohoy, Cecile Gonzales; Yao, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite a robust clinical trial enterprise and encouraging phase II results, the vast minority of oncologic drugs in development receive regulatory approval. In addition, clinicians occasionally make therapeutic decisions based on phase II data. Therefore, clinicians, investigators, and regulatory agencies require improved understanding of the implications of positive phase II studies. We hypothesized that prior probability of eventual drug approval was significantly different across GI cancers, with substantial ramifications for the predictive value of phase II studies. Methods We conducted a systematic search of phase II studies conducted between 1999 and 2004 and compared studies against US Food and Drug Administration and National Cancer Institute databases of approved indications for drugs tested in those studies. Results In all, 317 phase II trials were identified and followed for a median of 12.5 years. Following completion of phase III studies, eventual new drug application approval rates varied from 0% (zero of 45) in pancreatic adenocarcinoma to 34.8% (24 of 69) for colon adenocarcinoma. The proportion of drugs eventually approved was correlated with the disease under study (P < .001). The median type I error for all published trials was 0.05, and the median type II error was 0.1, with minimal variation. By using the observed median type I error for each disease, phase II studies have positive predictive values ranging from less than 1% to 90%, depending on primary site of the cancer. Conclusion Phase II trials in different GI malignancies have distinct prior probabilities of drug approval, yielding quantitatively and qualitatively different predictive values with similar statistical designs. Incorporation of prior probability into trial design may allow for more effective design and interpretation of phase II studies. PMID:26261263

  9. Statistical controversies in clinical research: building the bridge to phase II-efficacy estimation in dose-expansion cohorts.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, P S; Braun, T M; Taylor, J M G; Kidwell, K M; Bellile, E L; Daignault, S; Zhao, L; Griffith, K A; Lawrence, T S; Kalemkerian, G P; Schipper, M J

    2017-07-01

    Regulatory agencies and others have expressed concern about the uncritical use of dose expansion cohorts (DECs) in phase I oncology trials. Nonetheless, by several metrics-prevalence, size, and number-their popularity is increasing. Although early efficacy estimation in defined populations is a common primary endpoint of DECs, the types of designs best equipped to identify efficacy signals have not been established. We conducted a simulation study of six phase I design templates with multiple DECs: three dose-assignment/adjustment mechanisms multiplied by two analytic approaches for estimating efficacy after the trial is complete. We also investigated the effect of sample size and interim futility analysis on trial performance. Identifying populations in which the treatment is efficacious (true positives) and weeding out inefficacious treatment/populations (true negatives) are competing goals in these trials. Thus, we estimated true and false positive rates for each design. Adaptively updating the MTD during the DEC improved true positive rates by 8-43% compared with fixing the dose during the DEC phase while maintaining false positive rates. Inclusion of an interim futility analysis decreased the number of patients treated under inefficacious DECs without hurting performance. A substantial gain in efficiency is obtainable using a design template that statistically models toxicity and efficacy against dose level during expansion. Design choices for dose expansion should be motivated by and based upon expected performance. Similar to the common practice in single-arm phase II trials, cohort sample sizes should be justified with respect to their primary aim and include interim analyses to allow for early stopping. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Quality of reporting in oncology phase II trials: A 5-year assessment through systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Langrand-Escure, Julien; Rivoirard, Romain; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Rancoule, Chloé; Chauvin, Frank; Magné, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Background Phase II clinical trials are a cornerstone of the development in experimental treatments They work as a "filter" for phase III trials confirmation. Surprisingly the attrition ratio in Phase III trials in oncology is significantly higher than in any other medical specialty. This suggests phase II trials in oncology fail to achieve their goal. Objective The present study aims at estimating the quality of reporting in published oncology phase II clinical trials. Data sources A literature review was conducted among all phase II and phase II/III clinical trials published during a 5-year period (2010–2015). Study eligibility criteria All articles electronically published by three randomly-selected oncology journals with Impact-Factors>4 were included: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology and British Journal of Cancer. Intervention Quality of reporting was assessed using the Key Methodological Score. Results 557 articles were included. 315 trials were single-arm studies (56.6%), 193 (34.6%) were randomized and 49 (8.8%) were non-randomized multiple-arm studies. The Methodological Score was equal to 0 (lowest level), 1, 2, 3 (highest level) respectively for 22 (3.9%), 119 (21.4%), 270 (48.5%) and 146 (26.2%) articles. The primary end point is almost systematically reported (90.5%), while sample size calculation is missing in 66% of the articles. 3 variables were independently associated with reporting of a high standard: presence of statistical design (p-value <0.001), multicenter trial (p-value = 0.012), per-protocol analysis (p-value <0.001). Limitations Screening was mainly performed by a sole author. The Key Methodological Score was based on only 3 items, making grey zones difficult to translate. Conclusions & implications of key findings This literature review highlights the existence of gaps concerning the quality of reporting. It therefore raised the question of the suitability of the methodology as well as the quality of these trials

  11. Decrease in early right alpha band phase synchronization and late gamma band oscillations in processing syntax in music.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María Herrojo; Koelsch, Stefan; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with the processing of music-syntactical irregularities as compared with regular syntactic structures in music. Previous studies reported an early ( approximately 200 ms) right anterior negative component (ERAN) by traditional event-related-potential analysis during music-syntactical irregularities, yet little is known about the underlying oscillatory and synchronization properties of brain responses which are supposed to play a crucial role in general cognition including music perception. First we showed that the ERAN was primarily represented by low frequency (<8 Hz) brain oscillations. Further, we found that music-syntactical irregularities as compared with music-syntactical regularities, were associated with (i) an early decrease in the alpha band (9-10 Hz) phase synchronization between right fronto-central and left temporal brain regions, and (ii) a late ( approximately 500 ms) decrease in gamma band (38-50 Hz) oscillations over fronto-central brain regions. These results indicate a weaker degree of long-range integration when the musical expectancy is violated. In summary, our results reveal neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing that operate at different levels of cortical integration, ranging from early decrease in long-range alpha phase synchronization to late local gamma oscillations. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II

    SciT

    WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.

    This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 andmore » September 1998.« less

  13. Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Unit for Fission Power System, Phase II Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Stanley, John

    2016-01-01

    In Phase II, the manufacture and testing of two 6-kW(sub e)Stirling engines was completed. The engines were delivered in an opposed 12-kW(sub e) arrangement with a common expansion space heater head. As described in the Phase I report, the engines were designed to be sealed both hermetically and with a bolted O-ring seal. The completed Phase II convertor is in the bolted configuration to allow future disassembly. By the end of Phase II, the convertor had passed all of the final testing requirements in preparation for delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center. The electronic controller also was fabricated and tested during Phase II. The controller sets both piston amplitudes and maintains the phasing between them. It also sets the operating frequency of the machine. Details of the controller are described in the Phase I final report. Fabrication of the direct-current to direct-current (DC-DC) output stage, which would have stepped down the main controller output voltage from 700 to 120 V(sub DC), was omitted from this phase of the project for budgetary reasons. However, the main controller was successfully built, tested with the engines, and delivered. We experienced very few development issues with this high-power controller. The project extended significantly longer than originally planned because of yearly funding delays. The team also experienced several hardware difficulties along the development path. Most of these were related to the different thermal expansions of adjacent parts constructed of different materials. This issue was made worse by the large size of the machine. Thermal expansion problems also caused difficulties in the brazing of the opposed stainless steel sodium-potassium (NaK) heater head. Despite repeated attempts Sunpower was not able to successfully braze the opposed head under this project. Near the end of the project, Glenn fabricated an opposed Inconel NaK head, which was installed prior to delivery for testing at Glenn. Engine

  14. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F.; Nicolò, D.; Ritt, S.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection.

  15. Analytical data from phases I and II of the Willamette River basin water quality study, Oregon

    Harrison, Howard E.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Rinella, Frank A.; Gasser, Timothy M.; Pogue, Ted R.

    1995-01-01

    The data were collected at 50 sites, representing runoff from agricultural, forested, and urbanized subbasins. In Phase I, water samples were collected during high and low flows in 1992 and 1993 to represent a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Bed-sediment samples were collected during low flows in 1993. In Phase II, water samples were collected in the spring of 1994 after the first high-flow event following the application of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides and in the fall during the first high-flow events following the conclusion of the agricultural season.

  16. Phase II Private Sector Financed Military Family Housing Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and...of Proposed Action and Alternatives Phase II Private Sector Financed Military Family Housing 2-11 Existing mature trees within the housing area...would be retained in place to the maximum extent practicable. Removal of mature trees would be avoided wherever possible in order to retain the

  17. Phase II study of 4'-(9-acridinylamino) methanesulfon-m- anisidide (AMSA) in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Legha, S S; Hall, S W; Powell, K C; Burgess, M A; Benjamin, R S; Gutterman, J U; Bodey, G P

    1980-01-01

    A phase II study of AMSA in previously treated patients with metastatic malignant melanoma was conducted. The dose schedule of AMSA was 40 mg/m2/day for 3 days repeated at 3-week intervals. Among the 30 evaluable patients, one achieved a complete response, one a partial response, and four had minor responses. Side effects included mild nausea and vomiting and moderate degree of myelosuppression. AMSA has poor activity against previously treated metastatic melanoma.

  18. Phase II Final Report on an Intelligent Tutoring System for Teaching Battlefield Command Reasoning Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    and current work is that most developers see unstructured language input as a useful complement to a Socratic tutoring approach. The general...demonstrating the possibility of Socratic tactical tutoring, led us , during the second half of our Phase II effort, away from unrestricted natural language ... language use . This often leads to faster, more useful processing, that is robust in the face of real-world input (ungrammatical, misspelled, or

  19. Bis(tetra­methyl­ammonium) tetra­chlorido­zincate(II), phase VI

    PubMed Central

    Curtiss, Ashley B. S.; Musie, Ghezai T.; Powell, Douglas R.

    2008-01-01

    Phase VI of bis­(tetra­methyl­ammonium) tetra­chloro­zincate(II), (C4H12N)2[ZnCl4], contains three formula units per asymmetric unit. Several short C—H⋯Cl contacts [2.70 (3) and 2.72 (4) Å] are observed, but they are believed to participate only in van der Waals inter­actions. The crystal studied exhibited inversion twinning. PMID:21200531

  20. Functionalized mesoporous silica supported copper(II) and nickel(II) catalysts for liquid phase oxidation of olefins.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Mahasweta; Roy, Partha; Uyama, Hiroshi; Bhaumik, Asim

    2011-12-14

    Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous silica has been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES). This is followed by its condensation with a dialdehyde, 4-methyl-2,6-diformylphenol to produce an immobilized Schiff-base ligand (I). This material is separately treated with methanolic solution of copper(II) chloride and nickel(II) chloride to obtain copper and nickel anchored mesoporous materials, designated as Cu-AMM and Ni-AMM, respectively. The materials have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRS) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N(2) adsorption-desorption studies and (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy. The metal-grafted mesoporous materials have been used as catalysts for the efficient and selective epoxidation of alkenes, viz. cyclohexene, trans-stilbene, styrene, α-methyl styrene, cyclooctene and norbornene to their corresponding epoxides in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under mild liquid phase conditions.

  1. Clinical effects of Angelica dahurica dressing on patients with I-II phase pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fen; Niu, Junzhi; Pei, Xing

    2016-11-02

    Angelica dahurica is a well-known traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), while little information is available about its effects on pressure sores. We aimed to investigate the clinical effect of Angelica dahurica on patients with I-II phase pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. Patients (n = 98) with phase I and phase II pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to control and treated groups. In addition to holistic nursing, patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream, while patients in the treated group received continuous 4 weeks of external application of Angelica dahurica dressing. Therapeutic effect was recorded, along with the levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Besides, HaCaT cells were cultured with different concentrations of Angelica dahurica, and then cell viability, clone formation numbers, cell cycle, and levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 were determined. The total effective rate in the treated group was significantly higher than in the control group. Levels of IL-8, EGF, TGF-β, and VEGF were statistically increased by Angelica dahurica. In addition, the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by Angelica dahurica in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase, and levels of cyclin D1 and CDK2 were significantly elevated. Our results suggest that Angelica dahurica may provide an effective clinical treatment for I-II phase pressure sores.

  2. Dynamic range of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA class II-restricted immune responses in early HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Brumme, Zabrina L; Jessen, Heiko; Brockman, Mark A; Ueno, Takamasa

    2015-07-31

    HLA class II-restricted CD4(+) T lymphocytes play an important role in controlling HIV-1 replication, especially in the acute/early infection stage. But, HIV-1 Nef counteracts this immune response by down-regulating HLA-DR and up-regulating the invariant chain associated with immature HLA-II (Ii). Although functional heterogeneity of various Nef activities, including down-regulation of HLA class I (HLA-I), is well documented, our understanding of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA-II-restricted immune responses during acute/early infection remains limited. Here, we examined the ability of Nef clones from 47 subjects with acute/early progressive infection and 46 subjects with chronic progressive infection to up-regulate Ii and down-regulate HLA-DR and HLA-I from the surface of HIV-infected cells. HLA-I down-regulation function was preserved among acute/early Nef clones, whereas both HLA-DR down-regulation and Ii up-regulation functions displayed relatively broad dynamic ranges. Nef's ability to down-regulate HLA-DR and up-regulate Ii correlated positively at this stage, suggesting they are functionally linked in vivo. Acute/early Nef clones also exhibited higher HLA-DR down-regulation and lower Ii up-regulation functions compared to chronic Nef clones. Taken together, our results support enhanced Nef-mediated HLA class II immune evasion activities in acute/early compared to chronic infection, highlighting the potential importance of these functions following transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Summary - National Dissemination and the Five Target States, Part 3, Final Report for Phase II--Dissemination, Rural Shared Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Montana Coll., Havre.

    The dissemination phase (Phase II) of the Rural Shared Services Project is reported in this document. Efforts of the dissemination phase were concentrated in 5 target states: Vermont, Georgia, Wyoming, Montana, and New Mexico; national dissemination was limited to attendance at national conferences, the U. S. Office of Education PREP materials for…

  4. Development of Environmental Load Estimation Model for Road Drainage Systems in the Early Design Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Dong-Eun; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing concern about climate change, efforts to reduce environmental load are continuously being made in construction industry, and LCA (life cycle assessment) is being presented as an effective method to assess environmental load. Since LCA requires information on construction quantity used for environmental load estimation, however, it is not being utilized in the environmental review in the early design phase where it is difficult to obtain such information. In this study, computation system for construction quantity based on standard cross section of road drainage facilities was developed to compute construction quantity required for LCA using only information available in the early design phase to develop and verify the effectiveness of a model that can perform environmental load estimation. The result showed that it is an effective model that can be used in the early design phase as it revealed a 13.39% mean absolute error rate.

  5. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Crea, Simona; Cempini, Marco; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Posteraro, Federico; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients. Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy , the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle) as secondary outcomes. Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days) and after (3-4 months follow-up) the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the secondary outcomes

  6. Phase-II Clinical Validation of a Powered Exoskeleton for the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Crea, Simona; Cempini, Marco; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Posteraro, Federico; Vitiello, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Spasticity is a typical motor disorder in patients affected by stroke. Typically post-stroke rehabilitation consists of repetition of mobilization exercises on impaired limbs, aimed to reduce muscle hypertonia and mitigate spastic reflexes. It is currently strongly debated if the treatment's effectiveness improves with the timeliness of its adoption; in particular, starting intensive rehabilitation as close as possible to the stroke event may counteract the growth and postpone the onset of spasticity. In this paper we present a phase-II clinical validation of a robotic exoskeleton in treating subacute post-stroke patients. Methods: Seventeen post-stroke patients participated in 10 daily rehabilitation sessions using the NEUROExos Elbow Module exoskeleton, each one lasting 45 min: the exercises consisted of isokinetic passive mobilization of the elbow, with torque threshold to detect excessive user's resistance to the movement. We investigated the safety by reporting possible adverse events, such as mechanical, electrical or software failures of the device or injuries or pain experienced by the patient. As regards the efficacy, the Modified Ashworth Scale, was identified as primary outcome measure and the NEEM metrics describing elbow joint resistance to passive extension (i.e., maximum extension torque and zero-torque angle) as secondary outcomes. Results: During the entire duration of the treatments no failures or adverse events for the patients were reported. No statistically significant differences were found in the Modified Ashworth Scale scores, between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between post-treatment and follow-up sessions, indicating the absence of spasticity increase throughout (14 days) and after (3–4 months follow-up) the treatment. Exoskeleton metrics confirmed the absence of significant difference in between pre- and post-treatment data, whereas intra-session data highlighted significant differences in the secondary outcomes

  7. On the polymorphism of benzocaine; a low-temperature structural phase transition for form (II).

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric J; Rae, A David; Welberry, T Richard

    2009-08-01

    A low-temperature structural phase transition has been observed for form (II) of benzocaine (BZC). Lowering the temperature doubles the b-axis repeat and changes the space group from P2(1)2(1)2(1) to P112(1) with gamma now 99.37 degrees. The structure is twinned, the twin rule corresponding to a 2(1) screw rotation parallel to a. The phase transition is associated with a sequential displacement parallel to a of zigzag bi-layers of ribbons perpendicular to b*. No similar phase transition was observed for form (I) and this was attributed to the different packing symmetries of the two room-temperature polymorphic forms.

  8. NASA's GeneLab Phase II: Federated Search and Data Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Tran, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    GeneLab is currently being developed by NASA to accelerate 'open science' biomedical research in support of the human exploration of space and the improvement of life on earth. Phase I of the four-phase GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS) project emphasized capabilities for submission, curation, search, and retrieval of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics ('omics') data from biomedical research of space environments. The focus of development of the GLDS for Phase II has been federated data search for and retrieval of these kinds of data across other open-access systems, so that users are able to conduct biological meta-investigations using data from a variety of sources. Such meta-investigations are key to corroborating findings from many kinds of assays and translating them into systems biology knowledge and, eventually, therapeutics.

  9. NASAs GeneLab Phase II: Federated Search and Data Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Costes, Sylvain; Tran, Peter

    2017-01-01

    GeneLab is currently being developed by NASA to accelerate open science biomedical research in support of the human exploration of space and the improvement of life on earth. Phase I of the four-phase GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS) project emphasized capabilities for submission, curation, search, and retrieval of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics (omics) data from biomedical research of space environments. The focus of development of the GLDS for Phase II has been federated data search for and retrieval of these kinds of data across other open-access systems, so that users are able to conduct biological meta-investigations using data from a variety of sources. Such meta-investigations are key to corroborating findings from many kinds of assays and translating them into systems biology knowledge and, eventually, therapeutics.

  10. Gemcitabine plus sorafenib in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase II trial of the University of Chicago Phase II Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, Kristen; Wallace, James A.; Hall, Michael J.; Locker, Gershon; Nattam, Sreenivasa; Agamah, Edem; Stadler, Walter M.; Vokes, Everett E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Sorafenib, an inhibitor of B-raf, VEGFR2, and PDGFR-β, has activity against pancreatic cancer in preclinical models. In a phase I trial of gemcitabine plus sorafenib, 57% of pancreatic cancer patients achieved stable disease. Patients and methods We conducted a multi-center phase II trial of sorafenib plus gemcitabine in chemo-naïve patients with histologicallyconfirmed, advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients received sorafenib 400 mg twice daily and gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28 day cycle. Results Seventeen patients enrolled at 4 centers; 13 were evaluable for response. There were no objective responses; 18% had stable disease. Median overall survival was 4.0 months (95% CI: 3.4, 5.9); median progression-free survival was 3.2 months (95% CI: 1.6, 3.6). Grade 3/4 toxicities included thrombosis in 18% of patients, dehydration or hand-foot syndrome in 12%, and hypertension or gastrointestinal bleeding in 6%. Conclusion Gemcitabine plus sorafenib is inactive in advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:20803052

  11. Three steps to writing adaptive study protocols in the early phase clinical development of new medicines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective. PMID:24980283

  12. Methodology of phase II clinical trials in metastatic elderly breast cancer: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cabarrou, B; Mourey, L; Dalenc, F; Balardy, L; Kanoun, D; Roché, H; Boher, J M; Rougé-Bugat, M E; Filleron, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    As the incidence of invasive breast cancer will increase with age, the number of elderly patients with a diagnosis metastatic breast cancer will also rise. But the use of cytotoxic drugs in elderly metastatic breast cancer patients is not systematic and is dreaded by medical oncologists. The need for prospective oncologic data from this population seems increasingly obvious. The main objective of this review is to investigate design and characteristics of phase II trials that assess activity and feasibility of chemotherapies in elderly advanced/metastatic breast cancer patients. An electronic search in PUBMED allowed us to retrieve articles published in English language on phase II trials in elderly metastatic breast cancer between January 2002 and May 2016. Sixteen publications were finally included in this review. The primary endpoint was a simple, a composite, and a co-primary endpoints in 11, three, and two studies, respectively. Efficacy was the primary objective in 15 studies: simple (n = 10), composite (n = 3), co-primary endpoints (n = 2). Composite or co-primary endpoints combined efficacy and toxicity. Thirteen studies used multistage designs. Only five studies evaluated the feasibility, i.e., to jointly assess efficacy and tolerance to treatment (toxicity, quality of life, etc) as primary endpoint. Development of elderly specific phase III clinical trials might be challenging, it therefore seems essential to conduct phase II clinical trials evaluating jointly efficacy and toxicity in a well-defined geriatric population. Use of multistage designs that take into account heterogeneity would allow to identify a subpopulation at interim analysis and to reduce the number of patients exposed to an inefficient or a toxic treatment regimen. It is crucial to evaluate new therapies (targeted therapies, immunotherapies) using adequate methodologies (Study design, endpoint).

  13. Screened selection design for randomised phase II oncology trials: an example in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As there are limited patients for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia trials, it is important that statistical methodologies in Phase II efficiently select regimens for subsequent evaluation in larger-scale Phase III trials. Methods We propose the screened selection design (SSD), which is a practical multi-stage, randomised Phase II design for two experimental arms. Activity is first evaluated by applying Simon’s two-stage design (1989) on each arm. If both are active, the play-the-winner selection strategy proposed by Simon, Wittes and Ellenberg (SWE) (1985) is applied to select the superior arm. A variant of the design, Modified SSD, also allows the arm with the higher response rates to be recommended only if its activity rate is greater by a clinically-relevant value. The operating characteristics are explored via a simulation study and compared to a Bayesian Selection approach. Results Simulations showed that with the proposed SSD, it is possible to retain the sample size as required in SWE and obtain similar probabilities of selecting the correct superior arm of at least 90%; with the additional attractive benefit of reducing the probability of selecting ineffective arms. This approach is comparable to a Bayesian Selection Strategy. The Modified SSD performs substantially better than the other designs in selecting neither arm if the underlying rates for both arms are desirable but equivalent, allowing for other factors to be considered in the decision making process. Though its probability of correctly selecting a superior arm might be reduced, it still performs reasonably well. It also reduces the probability of selecting an inferior arm. Conclusions SSD provides an easy to implement randomised Phase II design that selects the most promising treatment that has shown sufficient evidence of activity, with available R codes to evaluate its operating characteristics. PMID:23819695

  14. Screened selection design for randomised phase II oncology trials: an example in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Yap, Christina; Pettitt, Andrew; Billingham, Lucinda

    2013-07-03

    As there are limited patients for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia trials, it is important that statistical methodologies in Phase II efficiently select regimens for subsequent evaluation in larger-scale Phase III trials. We propose the screened selection design (SSD), which is a practical multi-stage, randomised Phase II design for two experimental arms. Activity is first evaluated by applying Simon's two-stage design (1989) on each arm. If both are active, the play-the-winner selection strategy proposed by Simon, Wittes and Ellenberg (SWE) (1985) is applied to select the superior arm. A variant of the design, Modified SSD, also allows the arm with the higher response rates to be recommended only if its activity rate is greater by a clinically-relevant value. The operating characteristics are explored via a simulation study and compared to a Bayesian Selection approach. Simulations showed that with the proposed SSD, it is possible to retain the sample size as required in SWE and obtain similar probabilities of selecting the correct superior arm of at least 90%; with the additional attractive benefit of reducing the probability of selecting ineffective arms. This approach is comparable to a Bayesian Selection Strategy. The Modified SSD performs substantially better than the other designs in selecting neither arm if the underlying rates for both arms are desirable but equivalent, allowing for other factors to be considered in the decision making process. Though its probability of correctly selecting a superior arm might be reduced, it still performs reasonably well. It also reduces the probability of selecting an inferior arm. SSD provides an easy to implement randomised Phase II design that selects the most promising treatment that has shown sufficient evidence of activity, with available R codes to evaluate its operating characteristics.

  15. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  16. 37 GHz Methanol Masers : Horsemen of the Apocalypse for the Class II Methanol Maser Phase?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  17. Casein Kinase 1 Coordinates Cohesin Cleavage, Gametogenesis, and Exit from M Phase in Meiosis II.

    PubMed

    Argüello-Miranda, Orlando; Zagoriy, Ievgeniia; Mengoli, Valentina; Rojas, Julie; Jonak, Katarzyna; Oz, Tugce; Graf, Peter; Zachariae, Wolfgang

    2017-01-09

    Meiosis consists of DNA replication followed by two consecutive nuclear divisions and gametogenesis or spore formation. While meiosis I has been studied extensively, less is known about the regulation of meiosis II. Here we show that Hrr25, the conserved casein kinase 1δ of budding yeast, links three mutually independent key processes of meiosis II. First, Hrr25 induces nuclear division by priming centromeric cohesin for cleavage by separase. Hrr25 simultaneously phosphorylates Rec8, the cleavable subunit of cohesin, and removes from centromeres the cohesin protector composed of shugoshin and the phosphatase PP2A. Second, Hrr25 initiates the sporulation program by inducing the synthesis of membranes that engulf the emerging nuclei at anaphase II. Third, Hrr25 mediates exit from meiosis II by activating pathways that trigger the destruction of M-phase-promoting kinases. Thus, Hrr25 synchronizes formation of the single-copy genome with gamete differentiation and termination of meiosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A phase II trial of imatinib mesylate in patients with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer after definitive local therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Amy M; Rini, Brian I; Weinberg, Vivian; Fong, Kristen; Ryan, Charles J; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Fong, Lawrence; Small, Eric J

    2006-10-01

    To determine the biological effects of imatinib mesylate (STI-571, Gleevec; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., East Hanover, NJ, USA), as measured by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics in men with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer after definitive local therapy. Men with prostate cancer, who had had definitive local therapy, with nonmetastatic recurrent disease as manifested by a rising PSA level, were enrolled on this phase II trial. Men received 400 mg of imatinib mesylate orally twice daily and continuously until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The PSA level was measured monthly. In all, 20 men with biochemically relapsed prostate cancer were treated. The median pretreatment PSA level was 5.4 ng/mL. Of the 19 evaluable men, one achieved a >or= 50% reduction in PSA level and two had decreases of <50%. For the 16 men in whom the on-treatment PSA doubling time (PSADT) could be calculated (those with increasing PSA level) the median PSADT did not increase significantly (5.8 vs 7.2 months, P = 0.64). Eleven of 20 men discontinued therapy due to toxicity and the trial was stopped early due to toxicity. Based on the lack of PSA modulation and pronounced toxicities leading to early closure of this trial, further study of single-agent imatinib mesylate at this dose (400 mg twice daily) cannot be recommended in this patient population.

  19. Caltrans WeatherShare Phase II System: An Application of Systems and Software Engineering Process to Project Development

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-08-25

    In cooperation with the California Department of Transportation, Montana State University's Western Transportation Institute has developed the WeatherShare Phase II system by applying Systems Engineering and Software Engineering processes. The system...

  20. Early- and later-phases satellite cell responses and myonuclear content with resistance training in young men.

    PubMed

    Damas, Felipe; Libardi, Cleiton A; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Vechin, Felipe C; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Bacurau, Aline V; Brum, Patricia; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Parise, Gianni; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-01-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are associated with skeletal muscle remodelling after muscle damage and/or extensive hypertrophy resulting from resistance training (RT). We recently reported that early increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during RT appear to be directed toward muscle damage repair, but MPS contributes to hypertrophy with progressive muscle damage attenuation. However, modulations in acute-chronic SC content with RT during the initial (1st-wk: high damage), early (3rd-wk: attenuated damage), and later (10th-wk: no damage) stages is not well characterized. Ten young men (27 ± 1 y, 23.6 ± 1.0 kg·m-2) underwent 10-wks of RT and muscle biopsies (vastus-lateralis) were taken before (Pre) and post (48h) the 1st (T1), 5th (T2) and final (T3) RT sessions to evaluate fibre type specific SC content, cross-sectional area (fCSA) and myonuclear number by immunohistochemistry. We observed RT-induced hypertrophy after 10-wks of RT (fCSA increased ~16% in type II, P < 0.04; ~8% in type I [ns]). SC content increased 48h post-exercise at T1 (~69% in type I [P = 0.014]; ~42% in type II [ns]), and this increase was sustained throughout RT (pre T2: ~65%, ~92%; pre T3: ~30% [ns], ~87%, for the increase in type I and II, respectively, vs. pre T1 [P < 0.05]). Increased SC content was not coupled with changes in myonuclear number. SC have a more pronounced role in muscle repair during the initial phase of RT than muscle hypertrophy resulted from 10-wks RT in young men. Chronic elevated SC pool size with RT is important providing proper environment for future stresses or larger fCSA increases.

  1. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  2. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    PubMed

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming < or =100 mg of caffeine to 45.2 pg/mL for women consuming > or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  3. Webcam Delivery of the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering: A Phase I Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Smith, Kylie; Onslow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering shown with meta-analysis to have a favorable odds ratio. However, many clients are unable to access the treatment because of distance and lifestyle factors. In this Phase I trial, we explored the potential efficacy, practicality, and viability of an Internet webcam Lidcombe…

  4. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Port Arthur, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  5. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Panama City, FL | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  6. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Teachers' Beliefs on Foreign Language Teaching Practices in Early Phases of Primary Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Mustafa; Subasi, Gonca; Kara, Selma

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether teacher beliefs would play a role in their actual practices while teaching target language in early phases of primary education, principally, in kindergarten and first grades in a state school. As it is a very broad research area, the researchers exclusively analyzed teaching practices and teaching…

  8. 75 FR 62530 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Laredo Ridge Wind, LLC; RRI Energy West, Inc.; Goshen Phase II LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...; EG10-52-000; EG10-53-000; EG10- 54-000; EG10-55-000; EG10-56-000] Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Laredo Ridge Wind, LLC; RRI Energy West, Inc.; Goshen Phase II LLC; Solar Partners I, LLC; Solar Partners II, LLC; Solar Partners VIII, LLC; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status October 1...

  9. Phase II design with sequential testing of hypotheses within each stage.

    PubMed

    Poulopoulou, Stavroula; Karlis, Dimitris; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Dafni, Urania

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of a Phase II clinical trial is to decide, whether a particular therapeutic regimen is effective enough to warrant further study. The hypothesis tested by Fleming's Phase II design (Fleming, 1982) is [Formula: see text] versus [Formula: see text], with level [Formula: see text] and with a power [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is chosen to represent the response probability achievable with standard treatment and [Formula: see text] is chosen such that the difference [Formula: see text] represents a targeted improvement with the new treatment. This hypothesis creates a misinterpretation mainly among clinicians that rejection of the null hypothesis is tantamount to accepting the alternative, and vice versa. As mentioned by Storer (1992), this introduces ambiguity in the evaluation of type I and II errors and the choice of the appropriate decision at the end of the study. Instead of testing this hypothesis, an alternative class of designs is proposed in which two hypotheses are tested sequentially. The hypothesis [Formula: see text] versus [Formula: see text] is tested first. If this null hypothesis is rejected, the hypothesis [Formula: see text] versus [Formula: see text] is tested next, in order to examine whether the therapy is effective enough to consider further testing in a Phase III study. For the derivation of the proposed design the exact binomial distribution is used to calculate the decision cut-points. The optimal design parameters are chosen, so as to minimize the average sample number (ASN) under specific upper bounds for error levels. The optimal values for the design were found using a simulated annealing method.

  10. Pharmacokinetic interplay of phase II metabolism and transport: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baojian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the interdependence of cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein in disposition of drugs (also termed "transport-metabolism interplay") has been significantly advanced in recent years. However, whether such "interplay" exists between phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters remains largely unknown. The objective of this article is to explore the role of efflux transporters (acting on the phase II metabolites) in disposition of the parent drug in Caco-2 cells, liver, and intestine via simulations utilizing a catenary model (for Caco-2 system) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models (for the liver and intestine). In all three models, "transport-metabolism interplay" (i.e., inhibition of metabolite efflux decreases the metabolism) can be observed only when futile recycling (or deconjugation) occurred. Futile recycling appeared to bridge the two processes (i.e., metabolite formation and excretion) and enable the interplay thereof. Without futile recycling, metabolite formation was independent on its downstream process excretion, thus impact of metabolite excretion on its formation was impossible. Moreover, in liver PBPK model with futile recycling, impact of biliary metabolite excretion on the exposure of parent drug [(systemic (reservoir) area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(R1))] was limited; a complete inhibition of efflux resulted in AUC(R1) increases of less than 1-fold only. In intestine PBPK model with futile recycling, even though a complete inhibition of efflux could result in large elevations (e.g., 3.5-6.0-fold) in AUC(R1), an incomplete inhibition of efflux (e.g., with a residual activity of ≥ 20% metabolic clearance) saw negligible increases (<0.9-fold) in AUC(R1). In conclusion, this study presented mechanistic observations of pharmacokinetic interplay between phase II enzymes and efflux transporters. Those studying such "interplay" are encouraged to adequately consider potential consequences of

  11. Phase-separation mechanism for C-terminal hyperphosphorylation of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huasong; Yu, Dan; Hansen, Anders S; Ganguly, Sourav; Liu, Rongdiao; Heckert, Alec; Darzacq, Xavier; Zhou, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RPB1 subunit of human RNA polymerase (Pol) II is essential for transcriptional elongation and mRNA processing 1-3 . The CTD contains 52 heptapeptide repeats of the consensus sequence YSPTSPS. The highly repetitive nature and abundant possible phosphorylation sites of the CTD exert special constraints on the kinases that catalyse its hyperphosphorylation. Positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb)-which consists of CDK9 and cyclin T1-is known to hyperphosphorylate the CTD and negative elongation factors to stimulate Pol II elongation 1,4,5 . The sequence determinant on P-TEFb that facilitates this action is currently unknown. Here we identify a histidine-rich domain in cyclin T1 that promotes the hyperphosphorylation of the CTD and stimulation of transcription by CDK9. The histidine-rich domain markedly enhances the binding of P-TEFb to the CTD and functional engagement with target genes in cells. In addition to cyclin T1, at least one other kinase-DYRK1A 6 -also uses a histidine-rich domain to target and hyperphosphorylate the CTD. As a low-complexity domain, the histidine-rich domain also promotes the formation of phase-separated liquid droplets in vitro, and the localization of P-TEFb to nuclear speckles that display dynamic liquid properties and are sensitive to the disruption of weak hydrophobic interactions. The CTD-which in isolation does not phase separate, despite being a low-complexity domain-is trapped within the cyclin T1 droplets, and this process is enhanced upon pre-phosphorylation by CDK7 of transcription initiation factor TFIIH 1-3 . By using multivalent interactions to create a phase-separated functional compartment, the histidine-rich domain in kinases targets the CTD into this environment to ensure hyperphosphorylation and efficient elongation of Pol II.

  12. Product-Improvement Test (Phase II), Jetcal Tester, Model H119A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-03-05

    Ao—A0 51 113 ARMY AVIATION ‘Cs’ BOARD FORT tUCKER ALA — P*OOUCTeII ROVEMCNT TEST ( FHAS ~ I I ) . JETCAL TESTER, MODEL M119A~~’ETC(U) MAR S9...Phase i i ) , Jetcal Tester , Model H 119A , USATECOM Project No. 4-6-5011-03 b . No fur ther consideration be given to the TEMPCAL heater probe as a...essen t i a l component of the Jetcal Tester. e. The service manual instruct ions for con t inu i ty te s t ing of EG1 thermocouples be revised to

  13. Active background suppression with the liquid argon scintillation veto of GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would allow to shed light onto the particle nature of neutrinos. Gerda is aiming to perform a background-free search for this process using high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge operated in liquid argon. This goal relies on the application of active background suppression techniques. A low background light instrumentation has been installed for Phase II to detect events with coincident energy deposition in the nearby liquid argon. The intended background index of ˜10-3 cts/(keV·ky·yr) has been confirmed.

  14. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  15. Phase II Trials for Heterogeneous Patient Populations with a Time-to-Event Endpoint.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a single-arm phase II trial with a time-to-event end-point. We assume that the study population has multiple subpopulations with different prognosis, but the study treatment is expected to be similarly efficacious across the subpopulations. We review a stratified one-sample log-rank test and present its sample size calculation method under some practical design settings. Our sample size method requires specification of the prevalence of subpopulations. We observe that the power of the resulting sample size is not very sensitive to misspecification of the prevalence.

  16. Orbital phase dependent IUE spectra of the nova like binary II Arietis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Sion, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Nine low dispersion IUE spectra of the nova like binary TT Ari over its 3h17m orbital period were obtained. Four short wave spectra and five long wave spectra exhibit marked changes in line strength and continuum shape with orbital phase. The short wave spectra show the presence in absorption of C III, Lyman alpha, SiIII, NV, SiIV, CIV, HeII, AlIII, and NIV. The CIV shows a P Cygni profile on two of the spectra. Implications of these spectra for the nature of nova like variables are discussed.

  17. A Disposable Microfluidic Device with a Screen Printed Electrode for Mimicking Phase II Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadou, Rafaela; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Brown, Nathan J.; Welham, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Human metabolism is investigated using several in vitro methods. However, the current methodologies are often expensive, tedious and complicated. Over the last decade, the combination of electrochemistry (EC) with mass spectrometry (MS) has a simpler and a cheaper alternative to mimic the human metabolism. This paper describes the development of a disposable microfluidic device with a screen-printed electrode (SPE) for monitoring phase II GSH reactions. The proposed chip has the potential to be used as a primary screening tool, thus complementing the current in vitro methods. PMID:27598162

  18. Challenges and perspective of drug repurposing strategies in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Moulder, Stacy L; Ueno, Naoto T; Wheler, Jennifer J; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investments in the development of new agents only 5% of cancer drugs entering Phase I clinical trials are ultimately approved for routine clinical cancer care. Drug repurposing strategies using novel combinations of previously tested anticancer agents could reduce the cost and improve treatment outcomes. At MD Anderson Cancer Center, early phase clinical trials with drug repurposing strategies demonstrated promising outcomes in patients with both rare and common treatment refractory advanced cancers. Despite clinical efficacy advancing drug repurposing strategies in the clinical trial trajectory beyond early phase studies has been challenging mainly due to lack of funding and interest from the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, we delineate our experience and challenges with drug repurposing strategies.

  19. Cytokine expression during early and late phase of acute Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed for both syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate cytokine expression during the course of acute Puumala hantavirus infection. Results We retrospectively studied 64 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala hantavirus infection in 2010 during a hantavirus epidemic in Germany. Hantavirus infection was confirmed by positive anti-hantavirus IgG/IgM. Cytokine expression of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β1 was analysed by ELISA during the early and late phase of acute hantavirus infection (average 6 and 12 days after onset of symptoms, respectively). A detailed description of the demographic and clinical presentation of severe hantavirus infection requiring hospitalization during the 2010 hantavirus epidemic in Germany is given. Acute hantavirus infection was characterized by significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1 and TNF-α in both early and late phase compared to healthy controls. From early to late phase of disease, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α significantly decreased whereas TGF-β1 levels increased. Disease severity characterized by elevated creatinine and low platelet counts was correlated with high pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α but low immunosuppressive TGF-β1 levels and vice versa . Conclusion High expression of cytokines activating T-lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages in the early phase of disease supports the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. In the late phase of disease, immunosuppressive TGF-β1 level increase significantly. We suggest that delayed induction of a protective immune mechanism to downregulate a massive early pro-inflammatory immune response might contribute to the pathologies characteristic of human hantavirus infection

  20. The scaffold protein Nde1 safeguards the brain genome during S phase of early neural progenitor differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Feng, Yuanyi

    2014-01-01

    Successfully completing the S phase of each cell cycle ensures genome integrity. Impediment of DNA replication can lead to DNA damage and genomic disorders. In this study, we show a novel function for NDE1, whose mutations cause brain developmental disorders, in safeguarding the genome through S phase during early steps of neural progenitor fate restrictive differentiation. Nde1 mutant neural progenitors showed catastrophic DNA double strand breaks concurrent with the DNA replication. This evoked DNA damage responses, led to the activation of p53-dependent apoptosis, and resulted in the reduction of neurons in cortical layer II/III. We discovered a nuclear pool of Nde1, identified the interaction of Nde1 with cohesin and its associated chromatin remodeler, and showed that stalled DNA replication in Nde1 mutants specifically occurred in mid-late S phase at heterochromatin domains. These findings suggest that NDE1-mediated heterochromatin replication is indispensible for neuronal differentiation, and that the loss of NDE1 function may lead to genomic neurological disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03297.001 PMID:25245017

  1. Domain structure in biphenyl incommensurate phase II observed by electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Véron, A.; Emery, J.; Spiesser, M.

    1994-11-01

    The domain structure in incommensurate phase II of single biphenyl crystal has been observed by investigations of the optically excited states of the Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (E.P.R.) deuterated naphthalene molecular probes which substitute biphenyl molecules. Our results confirm that this phase is a 1q bi-domain one. The analysis of the spectra obtained in X band (9.5 GHz) experiments, in relation with the spin Hamiltonian parameter properties permits us to show that the E.P.R. probe rotates around a direction perpendicular to its long axis while the biphenyl molecule undergoes a twist movement around this axis. They also account for a regime which is like a “ multi-soliton " regime while the modulation is a plane wave one in the pure single crystal. The two molecules of the high temperature cell do not exactly experience the saure displacement field in the incommensurate phase and consequently the two domains can be distinguished. The spin Hamiltonian parameters which characterize the E.P.R. probes have been determined in the incommensurate phase II of biphenyl. La structure en domaines de la phase II du biphényle est mise en évidence par les investigations dans les états photo-excités des molécules de naphtalène deutéré, utilisées comme sondes de Résonance Paramagnétique Electronique, se substituant de manière diluée dans le mono-cristal de biphényle. Ceci confirme que cette phase est 1q bi-domaine. L'analyse des spectres obtenus dans des expériences en bande X (9.5 GHz) en relation avec les propriétés de l'hamiltonien de spin permet de montrer que la sonde moléculaire tourne autour d'une direction perpendiculaire à son grand axe alors que la molécule de biphényle subit un mouvement de twist autour de cet axe. Les résultats montrent que ces sondes rendent compte d'un régime qui est comme un régime “ multi-solitons " alors que la modulation est plane dans le cristal pur. Les deux molécules sondes de la cellule

  2. Water Quality Management Studies, Lake Seminole, February-December 1979. Phase II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Carbon, Dissolved Organtc X X X X X X X Carbon. Total Organic I I X I X X" X Carbon Dioxide I X X X X X X I trogen. Total Amonia I X I X X X I Nitrogen...were less than 1 mg S04/1. During Phase I and Phase II there were no distinctive trends in measured carbon dioxide levels. However, there was a tendency...6. so 0 To CARSON DIOXIDE (MG C02.01. 0 1.3 Re 1. Re 0. 2* 0 NITROGEN. TOTAL AMMONIA IMG N/’LI 0.02 < 0.02 < 0.02 CO (002 ’ NITROG01. NITPATE.NITT2lYE

  3. A phase II flexible screening design allowing for interim analysis and comparison with historical control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenting; Bot, Brian; Hu, Yan; Geyer, Susan M; Sargent, Daniel J

    2013-07-01

    Sargent and Goldberg [1] proposed a randomized phase II flexible screening design (SG design) which took multiple characteristics of candidate regimens into consideration in selecting a regimen for further phase III testing. In this paper, we extend the SG design by including provisions for an interim analysis and/or a comparison to a historical control. By including a comparison with a historical control, a modified SG design not only identifies a more promising treatment but also assures that the regimen has a clinically meaningful level of efficacy as compared to a historical control. By including an interim analysis, a modified SG design could reduce the number of patients exposed to inferior treatment regimens. When compared to the original SG design, the modified designs increase the sample size moderately, but expand the utility of the flexible screening design substantially. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Combined Phase III and Phase II Cardiac Exercise Therapy for Middle-aged Male Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Wei; Wang, Ji-Hung; Hsieh, Jen-Che; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of cardiac exercise therapy (CET) on exercise capacity and coronary risk factors (CRFs) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). [Methods] Patients who participated in an 8-week supervised, hospital-based phase II and 6-month home-based phase III CET with monthly telephone and/or home visits were defined as the exercise group (EG) (n=20), while those who did not receive phase II or phase III CET were defined as the no-exercise group (NEG) (n=10). CRFs were evaluated pre- and post-phase II and eight months after discharge. One and two-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to perform intra- and inter-group comparisons. [Results] Thirty men with AMI aged 49.3 ± 8.3 years were studied. EG increased their exercise capacity (METs) (6.8 ± 1.6 vs.10.0 ± 1.9) after phase II CET and was able to maintain it at 8-month follow-up. Both groups had significantly fewer persons who kept on smoking compared to the first examination. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased from 38.1 ± 11.0 to 43.7 ± 8.7 mg/dl at follow-up in EG while no significant difference was noted in NEG. [Conclusion] After phase III CET subjects had maintained the therapeutic effects of smoking cessation, and increasing exercise capacity obtained in phase II CET. HDL-C in EG continued to improve during phase III CET. PMID:24396201

  5. Early phase drugs and biologicals clinical trials on worldwide leading causes of death: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    To describe the global effort targeting the major causes of mortality in terms of "open" early phase clinical trials with drugs and biologicals. Sixteen of the 20 leading causes of death were chosen; 9 of these were also amongst the top 10 causes of death in low-income countries. Studies were identified from the ClinicalTrials.gov database and included phase 1 and/or 2 "interventional" "open" trials, i.e. those recruiting or about to start recruitment. Trials were considered in terms of sponsorship [industry, universities and other organisations (UNO), and US federal agencies (NIH included)], genders and age groups included, and whether they were conducted with drugs and/or biologicals. The search was performed in March 2010. A total of 2,298 (824 phase 1; 1,474 phase 2) trials were retrieved. Of these, 67% were on trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (25%); diabetes mellitus (15%); colon and rectum cancers (14%); and HIV/AIDS (12%). In contrast, only 4% were trials on diarrhoeal disease, nephrosis and nephritis, liver cirrhosis, and prematurity and low birth weight. UNO were the first source of funding. Fifty-two percent of phase 1 non-cancer trials were on healthy volunteers. Twenty-nine percent of all trials were co-funded. There were 4.6 times as many drug trials as those with biologicals. Only 7% were conducted with a combination of drugs and biologicals, the majority (78%) on cancers. Discrimination in terms of gender or age group was not observed. Four of the 16 diseases considered represented 2/3 of early phase trials. Cancers were a top priority for all sponsors. Increasing attention should be given to conditions with current and projected global high mortality rates that had few "open" early phase trials.

  6. Phase II enzyme induction by a carotenoid, lutein, in a PC12D neuronal cell line

    SciT

    Miyake, Seiji; Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582; Wakasa Seikatsu Co., Ltd., 134 Chudoujiminami-cho, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8813

    Highlights: • Lutein reduced ROS levels in a PC12D neuronal cell line. • Lutein induced mRNAs of phase II antioxidative enzymes in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein increased protein levels of HO-1, SOD2, and NQO-1 in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein had no effect on intranuclear Nrf2 levels in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein did not activate potential upstream Nrf2 nuclear translocation pathways. - Abstract: The mechanism by which lutein, a carotenoid, acts as an antioxidant in retinal cells is still not fully understood. Here, lutein treatment of a neuronal cell line (PC12D) immediately resulted in reduced intracellular ROS levels,more » implying that it has a direct role in ROS scavenging. Significantly, lutein treatment also induced phase II antioxidative enzyme expression, probably via a nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) independent pathway. This latter mechanism could explain why lutein acts diversely to protect against oxidative/cytotoxic stress, and why it is physiologically involved in the human neural tissue, such as the retina.« less

  7. Using Data Augmentation to Facilitate Conduct of Phase I–II Clinical Trials with Delayed Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ick Hoon; Liu, Suyu; Thall, Peter F.; Yuan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A practical impediment in adaptive clinical trials is that outcomes must be observed soon enough to apply decision rules to choose treatments for new patients. For example, if outcomes take up to six weeks to evaluate and the accrual rate is one patient per week, on average three new patients will be accrued while waiting to evaluate the outcomes of the previous three patients. The question is how to treat the new patients. This logistical problem persists throughout the trial. Various ad hoc practical solutions are used, none entirely satisfactory. We focus on this problem in phase I–II clinical trials that use binary toxicity and efficacy, defined in terms of event times, to choose doses adaptively for successive cohorts. We propose a general approach to this problem that treats late-onset outcomes as missing data, uses data augmentation to impute missing outcomes from posterior predictive distributions computed from partial follow-up times and complete outcome data, and applies the design’s decision rules using the completed data. We illustrate the method with two cancer trials conducted using a phase I–II design based on efficacy-toxicity trade-offs, including a computer stimulation study. PMID:25382884

  8. DoE Phase II SBIR: Spectrally-Assisted Vehicle Tracking

    SciT

    Villeneuve, Pierre V.

    2013-02-28

    The goal of this Phase II SBIR is to develop a prototype software package to demonstrate spectrally-aided vehicle tracking performance. The primary application is to demonstrate improved target vehicle tracking performance in complex environments where traditional spatial tracker systems may show reduced performance. Example scenarios in Figure 1 include a) the target vehicle obscured by a large structure for an extended period of time, or b), the target engaging in extreme maneuvers amongst other civilian vehicles. The target information derived from spatial processing is unable to differentiate between the green versus the red vehicle. Spectral signature exploitation enables comparison ofmore » new candidate targets with existing track signatures. The ambiguity in this confusing scenario is resolved by folding spectral analysis results into each target nomination and association processes. Figure 3 shows a number of example spectral signatures from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The work performed over the two-year effort was divided into three general areas: algorithm refinement, software prototype development, and prototype performance demonstration. The tasks performed under this Phase II to accomplish the program goals were as follows: 1. Acquire relevant vehicle target datasets to support prototype. 2. Refine algorithms for target spectral feature exploitation. 3. Implement a prototype multi-hypothesis target tracking software package. 4. Demonstrate and quantify tracking performance using relevant data.« less

  9. Phase II drugs that are currently in development for the treatment of cachexia.

    PubMed

    Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; de Vos-Geelen, Judith; Langen, Ramon; Schols, Annemie M W

    2014-12-01

    Cachexia is a syndrome presenting with progressive unintentional weight loss and wasting and weakness of skeletal muscle. Cachexia is prevalent in cancer and in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The authors searched trial registers for current Phase II clinical trials on cachexia. Twelve studies were found with 11 compounds, including the anti-inflammatory drugs thalidomide, OHR/AVR118, celecoxib, VT-122, omega-3 supplements, and anabolic agents such as ghrelin analogues, MT-102, BYM338 and ruxolotinib. The authors note that one of the studies related to COPD while the others were related to different cancers. Herein, the authors describe the mechanisms of action and their Phase II study design. The compounds under study affect several pathways involved in cachexia by modulating inflammatory activity, anabolic potential, digestion and direct interaction with the muscle. Due to the multifactorial aspects of cachexia syndrome, combinations of these new drugs with nutritional intervention is probably the most promising approach. Furthermore, future studies should include interventions in pre-cachetic patients, as this stage might be more responsive to treatment. Future studies will benefit from well-defined end points and improved measures of cachexia, providing new insight into the disease. This insight, in combination with the elucidation of cachexia's underlying mechanism, will yield new treatment strategies in the near future.

  10. Anti-IL-23 Phase II Data for Psoriasis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Beroukhim, Kourosh; Danesh, Melissa J; Nguyen, Catherine; Austin, Annemieke; Koo, John; Levin, Ethan

    2015-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that target both Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 have shown great efficacy in the treatment of psoriasis. Recent evidence suggests that IL-23 serves a more critical role than IL-12 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, leading to the development of monoclonal antibodies that specifically target IL-23. We reviewed the results of the phase II clinical trials for the anti-IL-23 agents tildrakizumab and guselkumab, in order to assess the efficacy and safety profile of each agent. By week 16, the proportion of patients achieving Physician Global Assessment (PGA) score of clear (0) or minimal (1) and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 75) was above 70% among the most efficacious dosage of each agent (P < 0.001 compared to placebo for all agents). The safety profiles of the agents were similar, with the most frequently reported adverse events of nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory infections, cough, and headache. The anti-IL-23 agents demonstrated a rapid clinical improvement and favorable short-term safety profile. The results of the phase II trials support IL-23 as an essential target in psoriasis treatment.

  11. Bayesian Phase II optimization for time-to-event data based on historical information.

    PubMed

    Bertsche, Anja; Fleischer, Frank; Beyersmann, Jan; Nehmiz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    After exploratory drug development, companies face the decision whether to initiate confirmatory trials based on limited efficacy information. This proof-of-concept decision is typically performed after a Phase II trial studying a novel treatment versus either placebo or an active comparator. The article aims to optimize the design of such a proof-of-concept trial with respect to decision making. We incorporate historical information and develop pre-specified decision criteria accounting for the uncertainty of the observed treatment effect. We optimize these criteria based on sensitivity and specificity, given the historical information. Specifically, time-to-event data are considered in a randomized 2-arm trial with additional prior information on the control treatment. The proof-of-concept criterion uses treatment effect size, rather than significance. Criteria are defined on the posterior distribution of the hazard ratio given the Phase II data and the historical control information. Event times are exponentially modeled within groups, allowing for group-specific conjugate prior-to-posterior calculation. While a non-informative prior is placed on the investigational treatment, the control prior is constructed via the meta-analytic-predictive approach. The design parameters including sample size and allocation ratio are then optimized, maximizing the probability of taking the right decision. The approach is illustrated with an example in lung cancer.

  12. Development of high-efficiency power amplifiers for PIP2 (Project X), Phase II

    SciT

    Raab, Frederick

    The Fermi Lab PIP II (formerly Project X) accelerator will require the generation of over a megawatt of radio-frequency (RF) power at 325 and 650 MHz. This Phase-II SBIR grant developed techniques to generate this RF power efficienly. The basis of this approach is a system comprising high-efficiency RF power amplifiers, high-efficiency class-S modulators to maintain efficiency at all power levels, and low-loss power combiners. A digital signal processor adjusts signal parameters to obtain the maximum efficiency while producing a signal of the desired amplitude and phase. Components of 4-kW prototypes were designed, assembled, and tested. The 500-W modules producemore » signals at 325 MHz with an overall efficiency of 83 percent and signals at 650 MHz with an overall efficiency of 79 percent. This efficiency is nearly double that available from conventional techniques, which makes it possible to cut the power consumption nearly in half. The system is designed to be scalable to the multi-kilowatt level and can be adapted to other DoE applications.« less

  13. Intestinal disposition of quercetin and its phase-II metabolites after oral administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chalet, Clément; Rubbens, Jari; Tack, Jan; Duchateau, Guus S; Augustijns, Patrick

    2018-05-15

    Quercetin is one of the main dietary flavonoids and undergoes a substantial intestinal phase-II metabolism. Quercetin conjugates have been detected in plasma and in urine, but their presence in the small intestine has not been assessed. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal metabolism and metabolite excretion of quercetin by the human small intestinal wall after oral dosing. Six healthy volunteers were given a capsule of 500 mg of quercetin with 240 ml of water. Duodenal fluids were collected using the intraluminal sampling technique for 4 h and analysed by LC-MS/MS. Phase-II metabolites of quercetin were detected and quantified in aspirated intestinal fluids. Metabolites appeared almost immediately after administration, indicating an intestinal metabolism and apical excretion into the lumen. Quercetin-3'-O-glucuronide was found to be the main intestinal metabolite. Our results could not conclude on the enterohepatic recycling of quercetin or its metabolites, although several individual profiles showed distinctive peaks. This study highlights the intestinal metabolism and excretion of quercetin and its conjugates in humans and gives insights into the relevant concentrations which should be used to investigate potential food-drug interactions in vitro. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Study of the transverse beam motion in the DARHT Phase II accelerator

    SciT

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Fawley, W M; Houck, T L

    1998-08-20

    The accelerator for the second-axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility will accelerate a 4-kA, 3-MeV, 2--µs long electron current pulse to 20 MeV. The energy variation of the beam within the flat-top portion of the current pulse is (plus or equal to) 0.5%. The performance of the DARHT Phase II radiographic machine requires the transverse beam motion to be much less than the beam spot size which is about 1.5 mm diameter on the x-ray converter. In general, the leading causes of the transverse beam motion in an accelerator are the beam breakup instability (BBU) andmore » the corkscrew motion. We have modeled the transverse beam motion in the DARHT Phase II accelerator with various magnetic tunes and accelerator cell configurations by using the BREAKUP code. The predicted sensitivity of corkscrew motion and BBU growth to different tuning algorithms will be presented.« less

  15. A modified varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design.

    PubMed

    Dong, Gaohong; Vandemeulebroecke, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Conventionally, adaptive phase II/III clinical trials are carried out with a strict two-stage design. Recently, a varying-stage adaptive phase II/III clinical trial design has been developed. In this design, following the first stage, an intermediate stage can be adaptively added to obtain more data, so that a more informative decision can be made. Therefore, the number of further investigational stages is determined based upon data accumulated to the interim analysis. This design considers two plausible study endpoints, with one of them initially designated as the primary endpoint. Based on interim results, another endpoint can be switched as the primary endpoint. However, in many therapeutic areas, the primary study endpoint is well established. Therefore, we modify this design to consider one study endpoint only so that it may be more readily applicable in real clinical trial designs. Our simulations show that, the same as the original design, this modified design controls the Type I error rate, and the design parameters such as the threshold probability for the two-stage setting and the alpha allocation ratio in the two-stage setting versus the three-stage setting have a great impact on the design characteristics. However, this modified design requires a larger sample size for the initial stage, and the probability of futility becomes much higher when the threshold probability for the two-stage setting gets smaller. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Adjuvant sunitinib following chemoradiotherapy and surgery for locally advanced esophageal cancer: a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Horgan, A M; Darling, G; Wong, R; Guindi, M; Liu, G; Jonker, D J; Lister, J; Xu, W; MacKay, H M; Dinniwell, R; Kim, J; Pierre, A; Shargall, Y; Asmis, T R; Agboola, O; Seely, A J; Ringash, J; Wells, J; Marginean, E C; Haider, M; Knox, J J

    2016-11-01

    The prognosis for locally advanced esophageal cancer is poor despite the use of trimodality therapy. In this phase II study, we report the feasibility, tolerability and efficacy of adjuvant sunitinib. Included were patients with stage IIa, IIB or III cancer of the thoracic esophagus or gastroesophageal junction. Neoadjuvant therapy involved Irinotecan (65 mg/m 2 ) + Cisplatin (30 mg/m 2 ) on weeks 1 and 2, 4 and 5, 7 and 8 with concurrent radiation (50Gy/25 fractions) on weeks 4-8. Sunitinib was commenced 4-13 weeks after surgery and continued for one year. Sixty-one patients were included in the final analysis, 36 patients commenced adjuvant sunitinib. Fourteen patients discontinued sunitinib due to disease recurrence (39%) within the 12-month period, 12 (33%) discontinued due to toxicity, and 3 (8%) requested cessation of therapy. In the overall population, median survival was 26 months with a 2 and 3-year survival rate of 52% and 35%, respectively. The median survival for the 36 patients treated with sunitinib was 35 months and 2-year survival probability of 68%. In a historical control, a prior phase II study with the same trimodality therapy (n = 43), median survival was 36 months, with a 2-year survival of 67%. Initiation of adjuvant sunitinib is feasible, but poorly tolerated, with no signal of additional benefit over trimodality therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  17. BOP2: Bayesian optimal design for phase II clinical trials with simple and complex endpoints.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng; Lee, J Jack; Yuan, Ying

    2017-09-20

    We propose a flexible Bayesian optimal phase II (BOP2) design that is capable of handling simple (e.g., binary) and complicated (e.g., ordinal, nested, and co-primary) endpoints under a unified framework. We use a Dirichlet-multinomial model to accommodate different types of endpoints. At each interim, the go/no-go decision is made by evaluating a set of posterior probabilities of the events of interest, which is optimized to maximize power or minimize the number of patients under the null hypothesis. Unlike other existing Bayesian designs, the BOP2 design explicitly controls the type I error rate, thereby bridging the gap between Bayesian designs and frequentist designs. In addition, the stopping boundary of the BOP2 design can be enumerated prior to the onset of the trial. These features make the BOP2 design accessible to a wide range of users and regulatory agencies and particularly easy to implement in practice. Simulation studies show that the BOP2 design has favorable operating characteristics with higher power and lower risk of incorrectly terminating the trial than some existing Bayesian phase II designs. The software to implement the BOP2 design is freely available at www.trialdesign.org. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Phase II drugs currently being investigated for the treatment of hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Udedibia, Emeka; Kaminetsky, Jed

    2014-12-01

    Hypogonadism is the most common endocrine disorder, which affects men of all age groups. Recent shifts in public awareness, increased screening and recognition of symptoms and updated diagnostic criteria have led to an increase in men diagnosed as hypogonadal, including middle-aged and older men who previously would have been considered eugonadal. The increase in testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has paralleled an increase in advancements of treatment options. Although current therapies are highly efficacious for many men, there remains a need for newer therapies that are more cost-effective, preserve ease of use and administration, mitigate undesirable effects and closely mimic physiological levels of testosterone. In this review, the authors discuss current TRTs and therapies in development for the treatment of hypogonadism. The focus is on therapies under Phase II investigation or those who have recently completed Phase II study. With several new therapies in development, the authors expect advancements in achieving treatment benchmarks that meet the needs of the individual symptomatic hypogonadal male. Increased public awareness of hypogonadism and TRT has led to a welcomed expansion in the choice of TRT options. These include new delivery systems, formulations, routes of administration and non-testosterone modalities.

  19. A two-step spin crossover mononuclear iron(II) complex with a [HS-LS-LS] intermediate phase.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Sylvestre; Siegler, Maxime A; Costa, José Sánchez; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine; Spek, Anthony L; Gamez, Patrick; Reedijk, Jan

    2008-11-21

    The two-step spin crossover of a new mononuclear iron(ii) complex is studied by magnetic, crystallographic and calorimetric methods revealing two successive first-order phase transitions and an ordered intermediate phase built by the repetition of the unprecedented [HS-LS-LS] motif.

  20. Hazardous Materials Routing Study Phase II: Analysis of Hazardous Materials Truck Routes in Proximity to the Dallas Central Business District

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-10-01

    This report summarizes the findings from the second phase of a two-part analysis of hazardous materials truck routes in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Phase II of this study analyzes the risk of transporting hazardous materials on freeways and arterial ...

  1. Characterization of unpaved road condition through the use of remote sensing project - phase II, deliverable 8-D: final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-03-07

    Building on the success of developing a UAV based unpaved road assessment system in Phase I, the project team was awarded a Phase II project by the USDOT to focus on outreach and implementation. The project team added Valerie Lefler of Integrated Glo...

  2. The effectiveness and safety of traffic and non-traffic related messages presented on changeable message signs : phase II.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-08-01

    In Phase II of this investigation, we used a fully interactive PC-based STISIM driving simulator, to conduct two : experiments which were similar to experiments in Phase I. The participants were 120 licensed drivers from three : age groups18-24, 3...

  3. Solid Phase Extraction of Trace Al(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) Ions in Beverages on Functionalized Polymer Microspheres Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determinations.

    PubMed

    Berber, Hale; Alpdogan, Güzin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, poly(glycidyl methacrylate-methyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene) was synthesized in the form of microspheres, and then functionalized by 2-aminobenzothiazole ligand. The sorption properties of these functionalized microspheres were investigated for separation, preconcentration and determination of Al(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum pH values for quantitative sorption were 2 - 4, 5 - 8, 6 - 8, 4 - 6, 2 - 6 and 2 - 3 for Al(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, and also the highest sorption capacity of the functionalized microspheres was found to be for Cu(II) with the value of 1.87 mmol g -1 . The detection limits (3σ; N = 6) obtained for the studied metals in the optimal conditions were observed in the range of 0.26 - 2.20 μg L -1 . The proposed method was successfully applied to different beverage samples for the determination of Al(III), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, with the relative standard deviation of <3.7%.

  4. Curcumin Affects Phase II Disposition of Resveratrol Through Inhibiting Efflux Transporters MRP2 and BCRP

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Xu, Beibei; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of curcumin on the disposition of resveratrol phase II metabolites in vivo, and explain the observations by performing in vitro studies in transporter-overexpressed cells. Methods Pharmacokinetic studies of resveratrol with and without the co-administration of curcumin were performed in both FVB wild-type and Bcrp1 (−/−) mice. Human UGT1A9-overexpressing HeLa cells and human MRP2-overexpressing MDCK II-UGT1A1 cells were used as in vitro tools to further determine the impact of curcumin as a transporter inhibitor on resveratrol metabolites. Results We observed higher exposure of resveratrol conjugates in Bcrp1 (−/−) mice compared to wild-type mice. In wild-type mice, curcumin increased the AUC of resveratrol glucuronide by 4-fold compared to the mice treated without curcumin. The plasma levels of resveratrol and its sulfate conjugate also increased moderately. In Bcrp1 (−/−) mice, there was a further increase (6-fold increase) in AUC of resveratrol glucuronide observed when curcumin was co-administered compared to AUC values obtained in wild-type mice without curcumin treatment. In the presence of 50nM curcumin, the clearance of resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and resveratrol-3-O-sulfate reduced in both MRP2-overexpressing MDCKII-UGT1A1 cells and Human UGT1A9-overexpressing HeLa cells. Conclusions These results suggest that curcumin alters the phase II distribution of resveratrol through inhibiting efflux transporters including MRP2 and BCRP. PMID:26502886

  5. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). Placental volume, VI, and VFI during early pregnancy were lower in the miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). There was no significant change in FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Chemically modified activated carbon with 1-acylthiosemicarbazide for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) from water samples.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ru; Hu, Zheng; Chang, Xijun; He, Qun; Zhang, Lijun; Tu, Zhifeng; Shi, Jianping

    2009-12-15

    A new sorbent 1-acylthiosemicarbazide-modified activated carbon (AC-ATSC) was prepared as a solid-phase extractant and applied for removing of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The separation/preconcentration conditions of analytes were investigated, including effects of pH, the shaking time, the sample flow rate and volume, the elution condition and the interfering ions. At pH 3, the maximum static adsorption capacity of Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) onto the AC-ATSC were 78.20, 67.80 and 48.56 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorbed metal ions were quantitatively eluted by 3.0 mL of 2% CS(NH2)2 and 2.0 mol L(-1) HCl solution. Common coexisting ions did not interfere with the separation. According to the definition of IUPAC, the detection limits (3sigma) of this method for Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) were 0.20, 0.12 and 0.45 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation under optimum conditions is less than 4.0% (n=8). The prepared sorbent was applied for the preconcentration of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) in certified and water samples with satisfactory results.

  7. 78 FR 39736 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ..., choosing a study population, using a control group and blinding, dose selection, treatment plans...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

  8. Multicenter Phase II Trial of Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hobday, Timothy J.; Qin, Rui; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane; Moore, Malcolm J.; Strosberg, Jonathan; Kaubisch, Andreas; Shah, Manisha; Kindler, Hedy Lee; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Chen, Helen; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There are few effective therapies for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). Recent placebo-controlled phase III trials of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor sunitinib have noted improved progression-free survival (PFS). Preclinical studies have suggested enhanced antitumor effects with combined mTOR and VEGF pathway–targeted therapy. We conducted a clinical trial to evaluate combination therapy against these targets in PNETs. Patients and Methods We conducted a two-stage single-arm phase II trial of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus 25 mg intravenously (IV) once per week and the VEGF-A monoclonal antibody bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV once every 2 weeks in patients with well or moderately differentiated PNETs and progressive disease by RECIST within 7 months of study entry. Coprimary end points were tumor response rate and 6-month PFS. Results A total of 58 patients were enrolled, and 56 patients were eligible for response assessment. Confirmed response rate (RR) was 41% (23 of 56 patients). PFS at 6 months was 79% (44 of 56). Median PFS was 13.2 months (95% CI, 11.2 to 16.6). Median overall survival was 34 months (95% CI, 27.1 to not reached). For evaluable patients, the most common grade 3 to 4 adverse events attributed to therapy were hypertension (21%), fatigue (16%), lymphopenia (14%), and hyperglycemia (14%). Conclusion The combination of temsirolimus and bevacizumab had substantial activity and reasonable tolerability in a multicenter phase II trial, with RR of 41%, well in excess of single targeted agents in patients with progressive PNETs. Six-month PFS was a notable 79% in a population of patients with disease progression by RECIST criteria within 7 months of study entry. On the basis of this trial, continued evaluation of combination mTOR and VEGF pathway inhibitors is warranted. PMID:25488966

  9. Universal scattering response across the type-II Weyl semimetal phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüßmann, P.; Weber, A. P.; Glott, F.; Xu, N.; Fanciulli, M.; Muff, S.; Magrez, A.; Bugnon, P.; Berger, H.; Bode, M.; Dil, J. H.; Blügel, S.; Mavropoulos, P.; Sessi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The discovery of Weyl semimetals represents a significant advance in topological band theory. They paradigmatically enlarged the classification of topological materials to gapless systems while simultaneously providing experimental evidence for the long-sought Weyl fermions. Beyond fundamental relevance, their high mobility, strong magnetoresistance, and the possible existence of even more exotic effects, such as the chiral anomaly, make Weyl semimetals a promising platform to develop radically new technology. Fully exploiting their potential requires going beyond the mere identification of materials and calls for a detailed characterization of their functional response, which is severely complicated by the coexistence of surface- and bulk-derived topologically protected quasiparticles, i.e., Fermi arcs and Weyl points, respectively. Here, we focus on the type-II Weyl semimetal class in which we find a stoichiometry-dependent phase transition from a trivial to a nontrivial regime. By exploring the two extreme cases of the phase diagram, we demonstrate the existence of a universal response of both surface and bulk states to perturbations. We show that quasiparticle interference patterns originate from scattering events among surface arcs. Analysis reveals that topologically nontrivial contributions are strongly suppressed by spin texture. We also show that scattering at localized impurities can generate defect-induced quasiparticles sitting close to the Weyl point energy. These give rise to strong peaks in the local density of states, which lift the Weyl node, significantly altering the pristine low-energy spectrum. Remarkably, by comparing the WTe2 and the MoTe2 cases we found that scattering response and topological transition are not directly linked. Visualizing the existence of a universal microscopic response to scattering has important consequences for understanding the unusual transport properties of this class of materials. Overall, our observations provide

  10. Phase I, open-cycle absorption solar cooling. Part IV. Executive summary analysis and resolution of critical issues and recommendations for Phase II. Final report

    SciT

    Wood, B.D.

    The objective of this project is to advance lower cost solar cooling technology with the feasibility analysis, design and evaluation of proof-of-concept open cycle solar cooling concepts. The work is divided into three phases, with planned completion of each phase before proceeding with the following phase: Phase I - performance/economic/environmental related analysis and exploratory studies; Phase II - design and construction of an experimental system, including evaluative testing; Phase III - extended system testing during operation and engineering modifications as required. For Phase I, analysis and resolution of critical issues were completed with the objective of developing design specifications formore » an improved prototype OCA system.« less

  11. Synthesis and application of surface-imprinted activated carbon sorbent for solid-phase extraction and determination of copper (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenhua; Li, Jingwen; Wang, Yanbin; Wei, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    A new Cu(II)-imprinted amino-functionalized activated carbon sorbent was prepared by a surface imprinting technique for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Cu(II) prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Experimental conditions for effective adsorption of Cu(II) were optimized with respect to different experimental parameters using static and dynamic procedures in detail. Compared with non-imprinted sorbent, the ion-imprinted sorbent had higher selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cu(II). The maximum static adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent for Cu(II) was 26.71 and 6.86 mg g-1, respectively. The relatively selectivity factor values (αr) of Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Ni(II), Cu(II)/Co(II) and Cu(II)/Pb(II) were 166.16, 50.77, 72.26 and 175.77, respectively, which were greater than 1. Complete elution of the adsorbed Cu(II) from Cu(II)-imprinted sorbent was carried out using 2 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 EDTA solution. The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.4% for eleven replicate determinations. The method was validated for the analysis by two certified reference materials (GBW 08301, GBW 08303), the results obtained is in good agreement with standard values. The developed method was also successfully applied to the determination of trace copper in natural water samples with satisfactory results.

  12. Synthesis and application of surface-imprinted activated carbon sorbent for solid-phase extraction and determination of copper (II).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhua; Li, Jingwen; Wang, Yanbin; Wei, Yajun

    2014-01-03

    A new Cu(II)-imprinted amino-functionalized activated carbon sorbent was prepared by a surface imprinting technique for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Cu(II) prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Experimental conditions for effective adsorption of Cu(II) were optimized with respect to different experimental parameters using static and dynamic procedures in detail. Compared with non-imprinted sorbent, the ion-imprinted sorbent had higher selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cu(II). The maximum static adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent for Cu(II) was 26.71 and 6.86 mg g(-1), respectively. The relatively selectivity factor values (αr) of Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Ni(II), Cu(II)/Co(II) and Cu(II)/Pb(II) were 166.16, 50.77, 72.26 and 175.77, respectively, which were greater than 1. Complete elution of the adsorbed Cu(II) from Cu(II)-imprinted sorbent was carried out using 2 mL of 0.1 mol L(-1) EDTA solution. The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.4% for eleven replicate determinations. The method was validated for the analysis by two certified reference materials (GBW 08301, GBW 08303), the results obtained is in good agreement with standard values. The developed method was also successfully applied to the determination of trace copper in natural water samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Risk Reduction Phase 1 FLIR/Laser Designator Window. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    Sandwich-Type FLIR Windows," Air Force AFWAL-TR-83- 4122, Nov 1983. 4-1 Hughes Danbury Optical Systems Final Report, "ATA Window Technology Program," PRBll...Risk Reduction -- Phase I, Optical Properties Measurement Techniques of Three Wide Band Window Materials," 22 August 1991. xii I i 86PR0869 30... Optical Systems, Lexington, MA, 02173, 1 Feb 1991. 5-7 McDonnell Aircraft Company Technical Memorandum TM 256.91.0056.01, "Early Risk Reduction -- Phase

  14. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  15. Perspectives and Open Problems in the Early Phases of Left-Right Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Levin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Summary Embryonic left-right (LR) patterning is a fascinating aspect of embryogenesis. The field currently faces important questions about the origin of LR asymmetry, the mechanisms by which consistent asymmetry is imposed on the scale of the whole embryo, and the degree of conservation of early phases of LR patterning among model systems. Recent progress on planar cell polarity and cellular asymmetry in a variety of tissues and species provides a new perspective on the early phases of LR patterning. Despite the huge diversity in body-plans over which consistent LR asymmetry is imposed, and the apparent divergence in molecular pathways that underlie laterality, the data reveal conservation of physiological modules among phyla and a basic scheme of cellular chirality amplified by a planar cell polarity-like pathway over large cell fields. PMID:19084609

  16. Inside information: Financial conflicts of interest for research subjects in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Helft, Paul R; Ratain, Mark J; Epstein, Richard A; Siegler, Mark

    2004-05-05

    In recent years, several research subjects have told us that they had bought or intended to buy stock in the companies sponsoring the clinical trials in which they were enrolled. This situation has led us to ask what, if any, are physician-investigators' scientific, ethical, and legal responsibilities concerning research subjects who choose to buy stock in the companies sponsoring the clinical trials in which they are participating. Although the scope of this problem is unknown and is likely to be small, this commentary examines the scientific, ethical, and legal concerns raised by such activities on the part of research subjects enrolled in early phase clinical trials. In addition, this commentary also outlines the basis for our opinion that research subjects involved in an early phase clinical trial should avoid the financial conflicts of interest created by trading stock in the company sponsoring the clinical trial.

  17. Ultra-Early Phase pathologies of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    The concept of neurodegenerative diseases and the therapeutics targeting these intractable diseases are changing rapidly. Protein aggregation as the top of pathological cascade is now challenged, and many alternative ideas are proposed. Early molecular pathologies before microscopic detection of diseases protein aggregates, which I propose to call "Ultra-Early Phase pathologies or phase 0 pathologies", are the focus of research that might explain the failures of clinical trials with anti-Aβ antibodies against Alzheimer's disease. In this review article, I summarize the critical issues that should be successfully and consistently answered by a new concept of neurodegeneration. For reevaluating old concepts and reconstructing a new concept of neurodegeneration that will replace the old ones, non-biased comprehensive approaches including proteome combined with systems biology analyses will be a powerful tool. I introduce our recent efforts in this orientation that have reached to the stage of non-clinical proof of concept applicable to clinical trials.

  18. Phase I/II trial of 2-weekly docetaxel combined with cisplatin plus fluorouracil in metastatic esophageal cancer (JCOG0807)

    PubMed Central

    Hironaka, Shuichi; Tsubosa, Yasuhiro; Mizusawa, Junki; Kii, Takayuki; Kato, Ken; Tsushima, Takahiro; Chin, Keisho; Tomori, Akihisa; Okuno, Tatsuya; Taniki, Toshikatsu; Ura, Takashi; Matsushita, Hisayuki; Kojima, Takashi; Doki, Yuichiro; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Fujitani, Kazumasa; Taira, Koichi; Seki, Shiko; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    We carried out a phase I/II trial of adding 2-weekly docetaxel to cisplatin plus fluorouracil (CF) therapy (2-weekly DCF regimen) in esophageal cancer patients to investigate its safety and antimetastatic activity. Patients received 2-weekly docetaxel (30 mg/m2 [dose level (DL)1] or 40 mg/m2 [DL2] with a 3 + 3 design in phase I, on days 1 and 15) in combination with fixed-dose CF (80 mg/m2 cisplatin, day 1; 800 mg/m2 fluorouracil, days 1–5) repeated every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in phase I and central peer review-based response rate in phase II. At least 22 responders among 50 patients were required to satisfy the primary endpoint with a threshold of 35%. Sixty-two patients were enrolled in phase I and II. In phase I, 10 patients were enrolled with DLT of 0/3 at DL1 and 2/7 in DL2. Considering DLT and treatment compliance, the recommended phase II dose was determined as DL1. In phase II, the response rate was 62% (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval, 48–75%); median overall survival and progression-free survival were 11.1 and 5.8 months, respectively. Common grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (25%), anemia (36%), hyponatremia (29%), anorexia (24%), and nausea (11%). No febrile neutropenia was observed. Pneumonitis caused treatment-related death in one patient. The 2-weekly DCF regimen showed promising antimetastatic activity and tolerability. A phase III study comparing this regimen with CF therapy is planned by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group. This study was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN 000001737. PMID:25041052

  19. Impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Chaofeng; Zhu, Xiao; Han, Yajuan

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion. The normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) groups included 16, 8, and 19 subjects, respectively. Subjects underwent continuous glucose monitoring for 3 days, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-l (GLP-1) levels were measured at 30-min increments for 2 h after glucose intake. Differences with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The area under the curve (AUC) of total GIP (120-min GIP-AUC) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC of the NGT group was significantly larger than those of the T2DM and IGT groups. The early-phase insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. Mean amplitudes of glycemic excursions (MAGEs) went in the order of NGT < IGT < T2DM (P < 0.01, IGT vs. NGT; P < 0.001, T2DM vs. IGT). The 120-min GIP-AUC was negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.464), but uncorrelated with ΔI30/ΔG30. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC was positively correlated with ΔI30/ΔG30 (r = 0.580), but negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.606). Incretin may ameliorate glucose excursions, and GLP-1 may exert them by promoting early-phase insulin secretion. No correlation was observed between GIP secretion and early-phase insulin secretion.

  20. Effects of temperature on early-phase transmission of Yersina pestis by the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis.

    PubMed

    Schotthoefer, Anna M; Bearden, Scott W; Vetter, Sara M; Holmes, Jennifer; Montenieri, John A; Graham, Christine B; Woods, Michael E; Eisen, Rebecca J; Gage, Kenneth L

    2011-03-01

    Sharp declines in human and animal cases of plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis (Yersin), have been observed when outbreaks coincide with hot weather. Failure of biofilm production, or blockage, to occur in the flea, as temperatures reach 30 degrees C has been suggested as an explanation for these declines. Recent work demonstrating efficient flea transmission during the first few days after fleas have taken an infectious blood meal, in the absence of blockage (e.g., early-phase transmission), however, has called this hypothesis into question. To explore the potential effects of temperature on early-phase transmission, we infected colony-reared Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild) fleas with a wild-type strain of plague bacteria using an artificial feeding system, and held groups of fleas at 10, 23, 27, and 30 degrees C. Naive Swiss Webster mice were exposed to fleas from each of these temperatures on days 1-4 postinfection, and monitored for signs of infection for 21 d. Temperature did not significantly influence the rates of transmission observed for fleas held at 23, 27, and 30 degrees C. Estimated per flea transmission efficiencies for these higher temperatures ranged from 2.32 to 4.96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-8.74). In contrast, no transmission was observed in mice challenged by fleas held at 10 degrees C (per flea transmission efficiency estimates, 0-1.68%). These results suggest that declines in human and animal cases during hot weather are not related to changes in the abilities of X. cheopis fleas to transmit Y. pestis infections during the early-phase period. By contrast, transmission may be delayed or inhibited at low temperatures, indicating that epizootic spread of Y. pestis by X. cheopis via early-phase transmission is unlikely during colder periods of the year.

  1. The Role of Early-Phase Transmission in the Spread of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    EISEN, REBECCA J.; DENNIS, DAVID T.; GAGE, KENNETH L.

    2015-01-01

    Early-phase transmission (EPT) of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas is a well-documented, replicable phenomenon with poorly defined mechanisms. We review evidence demonstrating EPT and current knowledge on its biological and biomechanical processes. We discuss the importance of EPT in the epizootic spread of Y. pestis and its role in the maintenance of plague bacteria in nature. We further address the role of EPT in the epidemiology of plague. PMID:26336267

  2. Active and separate secretion of fiber and penton base during the early phase of Ad2 or Ad5 infection

    SciT

    Yan, Yuhua; Zhang, Bo; Hou, Weihong

    Fiber and penton base overproduced in adenovirus (Ad) infected cells can be secreted prior to progeny release and thereby regulate progeny spread. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of fiber and penton base secretion in Ad2- or Ad5-infected A549 cells. Our flow cytometry analyses detected abundant surface fiber molecules, but little penton base molecules at 12 h post infection. Immunogold staining combined with transmission electron microscopic analyses revealed separate, non-co-localized release of fiber and penton base in the proximity of the plasma membrane. Depolymerization of microtubule and actin cytoskeletons, and inhibition of Rock kinase and myosin II activity together demonstratedmore » cytoskeletal network-dependent fiber secretion. Inhibition of intracellular calcium [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} signaling caused diminished fiber secretion, which was associated with diminished progeny production. Thus, fiber and penton base are actively and separately secreted during the early stages of Ad2 or Ad5 infection, their secretion may play important role in Ad life cycle. - Highlights: •Excessive production of structural proteins is common to viral infection, which may regulate the host-virus equilibrium and the spreading of viruses. •The adenovirus (Ad) structural proteins, fiber and penton base, are respectively important for Ad binding to its receptor and subsequent internalization in host cells. In Ad infected cells, these two structural proteins are excessively produced. •The mechanisms underlying the release of fiber and penton base molecules at the early phase of Ad infection is yet poorly understood. •Our studies show that in Ad5 or Ad2 infected A549 cells, fiber and penton base molecules are actively and separately secreted. •Fiber secretion is dependent on cytoskeleton-mediated protein traffic. •Inhibition of myosin II motor and Ca{sup 2+} signaling activity significantly diminishes fiber secretion. •These findings could contribute to our

  3. Antigravity treadmill training during the early rehabilitation phase following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: A case series.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Schroeder, E Todd; Powers, Christopher

    2018-02-26

    Patients who have undergone unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been reported to exhibit altered gait 19-25 months post-surgery. The most common gait impairment in this population is inadequate knee flexion and a corresponding decrease in the knee extensor moment during loading response (i.e., quadriceps avoidance). The purpose of this case series was to determine whether incorporation of antigravity treadmill training into a standard physical therapy program can eliminate quadriceps avoidance gait during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA. Four females who underwent UKA were recruited for this study. Participants completed antigravity treadmill training three times per week for 12 weeks in addition to their standard physical therapy program. Instrumented gait analysis was performed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 6 (mid-intervention), and week 12 (post-intervention). We found that peak knee flexion and the peak knee extensor moment during the weight acceptance phase of gait increased to normal values following the 12-week intervention period (14.1 ± 6.5° to 20.6 ± 1.5° and 0.4 ± 0.3 to 0.7 ± 0.2 Nm/kg respectively). The findings of this case series suggest that a standard physical therapy program that incorporates early gait training using an antigravity treadmill may be beneficial in eliminating "quadriceps avoidance" during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA.

  4. Proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong Geun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Lee, Chang-Won; Kim, Jae Won

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) in conjunction with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (P<0.05) at the early phase of the germination stage. Out of these 57 were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Through classification of physiological functions from Conserved Domain Database analysis, among the identified proteins, 21, 13, and 6 proteins were associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and protein folding process, respectively. Interestingly, eight proteins, which are involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including catalase A, thioredoxin reductase, and mitochondrial peroxiredoxin, were also identified. The expression levels of the genes were further confirmed using Northern blot and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses. This study represents the first proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination and will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events involved in conidia germination process. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison between the phase I and phase II 6 m coke oven batteries of C. Still type in China Steel Corporation

    SciT

    Chiao-Hwa, H.; Tai-Heng, C.; Cheng-Hwa, L.

    1983-01-01

    The 98 ovens built for phase II batteries at China Steel Corporation show significant improvements over those of phase I, although they are operated in series with these. Improvements discussed in this paper include those associated with the single collection main, water sealing for the ascension pipe, aspiration by high pressure flushing liquor, self-sealing doors, wall head armour structures, waste gas flues and thermal efficiency.

  6. Axillary radiotherapy in conservative surgery for early-stage breast cancer (stage I and II).

    PubMed

    García Novoa, Alejandra; Acea Nebril, Benigno; Díaz, Inma; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; Varela, Cristina; Cereijo, Carmen; Mosquera Oses, Joaquín; López Calviño, Beatriz; Seoane Pillado, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Several clinical studies analyze axillary treatment in women with early-stage breast cancer because of changes in the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of axillary radiotherapy in disease-free and overall survival in women with early breast cancer treated with lumpectomy. Retrospective study in women with initial stages of breast carcinoma treated by lumpectomy. A comparative analysis of high-risk women with axillary lymph node involvement who received axillary radiotherapy with the group of women with low risk without radiotherapy was performed. Logistic regression was used to determine factors influencing survival and lymphedema onset. A total of 541 women were included in the study: 384 patients (71%) without axillary lymph node involvement and 157 women (29%) with 1-3 axillary lymph node involvement. Patients with axillary radiotherapy had a higher number of metastatic lymph node compared to non-irradiated (1.6±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.6, P=.02). The group of women with axillary lymph node involvement and radiotherapy showed an overall and disease-free survival at 10 years similar to that obtained in patients without irradiation (89.7% and 77.2%, respectively). 3 lymph nodes involved multiplied by more than 7 times the risk of death (HR=7.20; 95% CI: 1.36 to 38.12). The multivariate analysis showed axillary lymph node dissection as the only variable associated with the development of lymphedema. The incidence of axillary relapse on stage I and II breast cancer is rare. In these patients axillary radiotherapy does not improve overall survival, but contributes to regional control in those patients with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia with interleukin-2: a phase II study in 21 patients.

    PubMed

    Vey, N; Blaise, D; Lafage, M; Olive, D; Viens, P; Baume, D; Camerlo, J; Stoppa, A M; Gabus, R; Brandely, M; Hercend, T; Maraninchi, D

    1999-03-01

    We designed a phase II study to assess the activity of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Study population included 11 patients in the chronic phase of CML (6 in hematologic remission and 5 with active disease), 6 patients in the accelerated phase, and 4 in blastic phase of CML. Patients received three 5-day cycles administrated every other week. rIL-2 was given as intravenous bolus infusions of 8 x 10(6) IU/m2 three times a day during cycle 1 and twice a day during cycles 2 and 3. Response to rIL-2 was assessed on day 45. No hematologic response was achieved in the patients with evaluable disease. One patient in hematologic remission with rIL-2 achieved a major response (from 72% to 9% Ph+ metaphases), and two patients had some degree of reduction of Ph+ metaphases. Responses were short-lived (< 6 months), but two of these three patients achieved a new cytogenetic response with interferon given post-rIL-2. A significant immune activation was achieved with rIL-2 including a marked increase in CD3+/CD25+ cells, CD56+ cells, and in natural killer/lymphokine activated killer cell cytotoxic activity. These results confirm preclinical studies, which showed that IL-2 has antileukemic activity in CML. However, the responses observed were short lived and restricted to a subgroup of patients with low disease burden. This invites further studies testing its impact in situations of minimal disease or in combination with other cytokines.

  8. Bayesian sample size calculations in phase II clinical trials using a mixture of informative priors.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Byron J; Mayo, Matthew S

    2006-08-15

    A number of researchers have discussed phase II clinical trials from a Bayesian perspective. A recent article by Mayo and Gajewski focuses on sample size calculations, which they determine by specifying an informative prior distribution and then calculating a posterior probability that the true response will exceed a prespecified target. In this article, we extend these sample size calculations to include a mixture of informative prior distributions. The mixture comes from several sources of information. For example consider information from two (or more) clinicians. The first clinician is pessimistic about the drug and the second clinician is optimistic. We tabulate the results for sample size design using the fact that the simple mixture of Betas is a conjugate family for the Beta- Binomial model. We discuss the theoretical framework for these types of Bayesian designs and show that the Bayesian designs in this paper approximate this theoretical framework. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Near-Term Electric Vehicle Program. Phase II: Mid-Term Summary Report.

    SciT

    None

    1978-08-01

    The Near Term Electric Vehicle (NTEV) Program is a constituent elements of the overall national Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program that is being implemented by the Department of Energy in accordance with the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. Phase II of the NTEV Program is focused on the detailed design and development, of complete electric integrated test vehicles that incorporate current and near-term technology, and meet specified DOE objectives. The activities described in this Mid-Term Summary Report are being carried out by two contractor teams. The prime contractors for these contractormore » teams are the General Electric Company and the Garrett Corporation. This report is divided into two discrete parts. Part 1 describes the progress of the General Electric team and Part 2 describes the progress of the Garrett team.« less

  10. Mitigation of ^{42}Ar/^{42}K background for the GERDA Phase II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubashevskiy, A.; Agostini, M.; Budjáš, D.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Klimenko, A.; Lazzaro, A.; Lehnert, B.; Pelczar, K.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.; Walter, M.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-01-01

    Background coming from the ^{42}Ar decay chain is considered to be one of the most relevant for the Gerda experiment, which searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge. The sensitivity strongly relies on the absence of background around the Q-value of the decay. Background coming from ^{42}K, a progeny of ^{42}Ar, can contribute to that background via electrons from the continuous spectrum with an endpoint at 3.5 MeV. Research and development on the suppression methods targeting this source of background were performed at the low-background test facility LArGe . It was demonstrated that by reducing ^{42}K ion collection on the surfaces of the broad energy germanium detectors in combination with pulse shape discrimination techniques and an argon scintillation veto, it is possible to suppress ^{42}K background by three orders of magnitude. This is sufficient for Phase II of the Gerda experiment.

  11. Nonisovalent Si-III-V and Si-II-VI alloys: Covalent, ionic, and mixed phases

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Joongoo; Park, Ji -Sang; Stradins, Pauls; ...

    2017-07-13

    In this paper, nonequilibrium growth of Si-III-V or Si-II-VI alloys is a promising approach to obtaining optically more active Si-based materials. We propose a new class of nonisovalent Si 2AlP (or Si 2ZnS) alloys in which the Al-P (or Zn-S) atomic chains are as densely packed as possible in the host Si matrix. As a hybrid of the lattice-matched parent phases, Si2AlP (or Si2ZnS) provides an ideal material system with tunable local chemical orders around Si atoms within the same composition and structural motif. Here, using first-principles hybrid functional calculations, we discuss how the local chemical orders affect the electronicmore » and optical properties of the nonisovalent alloys.« less

  12. Nonisovalent Si-III-V and Si-II-VI alloys: Covalent, ionic, and mixed phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Joongoo; Park, Ji-Sang; Stradins, Pauls; Wei, Su-Huai

    2017-07-01

    Nonequilibrium growth of Si-III-V or Si-II-VI alloys is a promising approach to obtaining optically more active Si-based materials. We propose a new class of nonisovalent S i2AlP (or S i2ZnS ) alloys in which the Al-P (or Zn-S) atomic chains are as densely packed as possible in the host Si matrix. As a hybrid of the lattice-matched parent phases, S i2AlP (or S i2ZnS ) provides an ideal material system with tunable local chemical orders around Si atoms within the same composition and structural motif. Here, using first-principles hybrid functional calculations, we discuss how the local chemical orders affect the electronic and optical properties of the nonisovalent alloys.

  13. Solid phase extraction of copper(II) by fixed bed procedure on cation exchange complexing resins.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Maria; Sturini, Michela; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2010-02-19

    The efficiency of the metal ion recovery by solid phase extraction (SPE) in complexing resins columns is predicted by a simple model based on two parameters reflecting the sorption equilibria and kinetics of the metal ion on the considered resin. The parameter related to the adsorption equilibria was evaluated by the Gibbs-Donnan model, and that related to the kinetics by assuming that the ion exchange is the adsorption rate determining step. The predicted parameters make it possible to evaluate the breakthrough volume of the considered metal ion, Cu(II), from different kinds of complexing resins, and at different conditions, such as acidity and ionic composition. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Phase transitions in Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors at high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, S. C.; Liu, C. Y.; Spain, I. L.; Skelton, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    The structures and transition pressures of Group III-V and II-VI semiconductors and of a pseudobinary system (Ga/x/In/1-x/Sb) have been investigated. Results indicate that GaP, InSb, GaSb, GaAs and possible AlP assume Metallic structures at high pressures; a tetragonal, beta-Sn-like structure is adopted by only InSb and GaSb. The rocksalt phase is preferred in InP, InAs, AlSb, ZnO and ZnS. The model of Van Vechten (1973) gives transition pressures which are in good agreement with measured values, but must be refined to account for the occurrence of the ionic rocksalt structure in some compounds. In addition, discrepancies between the theoretical scaling values for volume changes at the semiconductor-to-metal transitions are observed.

  15. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase II. Final report

    SciT

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Winczewski, L.M.

    1981-06-01

    The Phase II activities dealt with three main topical areas: geothermal gradient and heat-flow studies, stratigraphic studies, and water quality studies. Efforts were concentrated on Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. The geothermal gradient and heat-flow studies involved running temperature logs in groundwater observation holes in areas of interest, and locating, obtaining access to, and casing holes of convenience to be used as heat-flow determination sites. The stratigraphic and water quality studies involved two main efforts: updating and expanding WELLFILE and assembling a computer library system (WELLCAT) for all water wells drilled in the state. WATERCAT combines data from the United Statesmore » Geological Survey Water Resources Division's WATSTOR and GWST computer libraries; and includes physical, stratigraphic, and water quality data. Goals, methods, and results are presented.« less

  16. Radiation Hard Silicon Particle Detectors for Phase-II LHC Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A.

    2017-02-01

    The major LHC upgrade is planned after ten years of accelerator operation. It is foreseen to significantly increase the luminosity of the current machine up to 1035 cm-2s-1 and operate as the upcoming High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) . The major detectors upgrade, called the Phase-II Upgrade, is also planned, a main reason being the aging processes caused by severe particle radiation. Within the RD50 Collaboration, a large Research and Development program has been underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance for HL-LHC trackers. In this summary, several results obtained during the testing of the devices after irradiation to HL-LHC levels are presented. Among the studied structures, one can find advanced sensors types like 3D silicon detectors, High-Voltage CMOS technologies, or sensors with intrinsic gain (LGAD). Based on these results, the RD50 Collaboration gives recommendation for the silicon detectors to be used in the detector upgrade.

  17. Chemoradiation in elderly esophageal cancer patients: rationale and design of a phase I/II multicenter study (OSAGE).

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Créhange, Gilles; Bonnetain, Franck; Mertens, Cécile; Brain, Etienne; Bosset, Jean François

    2017-07-13

    The management of elderly patients with cancer is a therapeutic challenge and a public health problem. Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is an accepted standard treatment for patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who cannot undergo surgery. However, there are few reports regarding tolerance to CRT in elderly patients. We previously reported results for CRT in patients aged ≥75 years. Following this first phase II trial, we propose to conduct a phase I/II study to evaluate the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel, with concurrent RT in unresectable esophageal cancer patients aged 75 years or older. This prospective multicenter phase I/II study will include esophageal cancer in patients aged 75 years or older. Study procedures will consist to determinate the tolerated dose of chemotherapy (Carboplatin, paclitaxel) and of radiotherapy (41.4-45 and 50.4 Gy) in the phase I. Efficacy will be assessed using a co-primary endpoint encompassing health related quality of life and the progression-free survival in the phase II with the dose recommended of CRT in the phase I. This geriatric evaluation was defined by the French geriatric oncology group (GERICO). This trial has been designed to assess the tolerated dose of CRT in selected patient aged 75 years or older. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02735057 . Registered on 18 March 2016.

  18. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part II: Inter-annual to decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Nurser, A. J. George; Pirani, Anna; Romanou, Anastasia; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sun, Shan; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yashayaev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their temporal representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which

  19. North Atlantic Simulations in Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments Phase II (CORE-II) . Part II; Inter-Annual to Decadal Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Boening, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; hide

    2015-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which include

  20. Accumulation of unsaturated lipids in monocytes during early phase pyrogen tolerance.

    PubMed

    Szewczenko-Pawlikowski, M; Kozak, W

    2000-04-12

    This paper presents data that inspired a new explanation for the mechanism of early phase endotoxin tolerance. Rabbits injected intravenously with LPS from Salmonella abortus developed a two-phase fever (6 h) and monophasic hyperlipidemia of very low density lipoproteins (two consecutive days). If during these days rabbits were injected with the same dose of LPS at 24-h intervals, the second phase of fever disappeared, i.e. early phase pyrogenic tolerance was obtained. This was correlated with a decrease of lipoprotein hyperlipidemia (measured 1.5 h after LPS injection) and an accumulation of lipids rich in double bonds in monocytes (measured 3.5 h after LPS injection). Results showed that the degree of unsaturation of acyl chains (AC) in monocytes (AC/DB, DB=double bonds) is negatively correlated (r=-0.72) with fever response (fever index). The authors maintain that a gradual increase in monocyte membrane fluidity is an adaptation to repeated exposure of monocytes to lipid A and is responsible for the progressive desensitization of monocytes to endotoxin. It is suggested that disorders of this mechanism lead to an accumulation of abnormal quantities of saturated lipids and cholesterol within macrophages, which, as foam cells, are the starting point for atherosclerosis pathology.

  1. Hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation in early brain development measured using fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hama; Shitara, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Yoshinori; Inoue, Takanobu; Tsuchida, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoto; Taga, Gentaro

    2017-01-01

    A crucial issue in neonatal medicine is the impact of preterm birth on the developmental trajectory of the brain. Although a growing number of studies have shown alterations in the structure and function of the brain in preterm-born infants, we propose a method to detect subtle differences in neurovascular and metabolic functions in neonates and infants. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to obtain time-averaged phase differences between spontaneous low-frequency (less than 0.1 Hz) oscillatory changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and those in deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb). This phase difference was referred to as hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation (hPod) in the cerebral tissue of sleeping neonates and infants. We examined hPod in term, late preterm, and early preterm infants with no evidence of clinical issues and found that all groups of infants showed developmental changes in the values of hPod from an in-phase to an antiphase pattern. Comparison of hPod among the groups revealed that developmental changes in hPod in early preterm infants precede those in late preterm and term infants at term equivalent age but then, progress at a slower pace. This study suggests that hPod measured using fNIRS is sensitive to the developmental stage of the integration of circular, neurovascular, and metabolic functions in the brains of neonates and infants. PMID:28196885

  2. A new insight into the phase transition in the early Universe with two Higgs doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Bian, Ligong; Jiang, Yun

    2018-05-01

    We study the electroweak phase transition in the alignment limit of the CP-conserving two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) of Type I and Type II. The effective potential is evaluated at one-loop, where the thermal potential includes Daisy corrections and is reliably approximated by means of a sum of Bessel functions. Both 1-stage and 2-stage electroweak phase transitions are shown to be possible, depending on the pattern of the vacuum development as the Universe cools down. For the 1-stage case focused on in this paper, we analyze the properties of phase transition and discover that the field value of the electroweak symmetry breaking vacuum at the critical temperature at which the first order phase transition occurs is largely correlated with the vacuum depth of the 1-loop potential at zero temperature. We demonstrate that a strong first order electroweak phase transition (SFOEWPT) in the 2HDM is achievable and establish benchmark scenarios leading to different testable signatures at colliders. In addition, we verify that an enhanced triple Higgs coupling (including loop corrections) is a typical feature of the SFOPT driven by the additional doublet. As a result, SFOEWPT might be able to be probed at the LHC and future lepton colliders through Higgs pair production.

  3. Phase I/II Study of Pre-operative Docetaxel and Mitoxantrone for High-risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garzotto, Mark; Higano, Celestia S.; O’Brien, Catherine; Rademacher, Brooks L.S.; Janeba, Nicole; Fazli, Ladan; Lange, Paul H.; Lieberman, Stephen; Beer, Tomasz M.

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine the 5-year recurrence-free survival in patients with high-risk prostate cancer after neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy followed by surgery. Secondary endpoints included safety, pathologic effects of chemotherapy and predictors of disease recurrence. Patients and Methods Fifty seven patients were enrolled in a Phase I/II study of weekly docetaxel 35 mg/m2 and escalating mitoxantrone to 4 mg/m2 prior to prostatectomy. Patients were treated with 16 weeks of chemotherapy administered weekly on a 3 of every 4 week schedule. A tissue micro-array, constructed from the prostatectomy specimens served to facilitate the exploratory evaluation of biomarkers. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Relapse was defined as a confirmed serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) > 0.4 ng/ml. Results Of the 57 patients, 54 received 4 cycles of docetaxel and mitoxantrone prior to radical prostatectomy. Grade 4 toxicities were limited to leucopenia, neutropenia and hyperglycemia. Serum testosterone levels remained stable after chemotherapy. Negative surgical margins were attained in 67% of cases. Lymph node involvement was detected in 18.5% of cases. With a median follow-up of 63 months, 27 of 57 (47.4%) patients recurred. The Kaplan-Meier relapse-free survival at 2 years was 65.5% (95%CI 53.0% to 78.0%) and 49.8% at 5 years (95%CI 35.5% to 64.1%). Pretreatment serum PSA, lymph node involvement, and post-chemotherapy tissue VEGF expression were independent predictors of early relapse. Conclusions Preoperative chemotherapy with docetaxel and mitoxantrone is feasible. Approximately half of the high risk patients remain relapse free at 5 years and clinical and molecular predictors of early relapse were identified. PMID:20143429

  4. Phase II trial of vinblastine, ifosfamide, and gallium combination chemotherapy in metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Einhorn, L H; Roth, B J; Ansari, R; Dreicer, R; Gonin, R; Loehrer, P J

    1994-11-01

    Phase II trial in metastatic urothelial carcinoma using a novel combination chemotherapy regimen consisting of vinblastine, ifosfamide, and gallium nitrate (VIG). Twenty-seven patients were entered onto this phase II study. Dosages were vinblastine 0.11 mg/kg days 1 and 2, ifosfamide 1.2 gm/m2 days 1 through 5 (with mesna), and gallium 300 mg/m2 as a 24-hour infusion days 1 through 5, with calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) 0.5 microgram/d orally starting 3 days before each course (except the first) and continuing throughout gallium administration, plus recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) (filgrastim) 5 micrograms/kg/d days 7 through 16. Courses were repeated every 21 days for a maximum of six cycles. The major toxicity was granulocytopenia. Fifteen patients (55.6%) had grade 3 or 4 granulocytopenia, including eight patients with granulocytopenic fevers. Eleven patients had grade 3 or 4 anemia and four had grade 3 or 4 nephrotoxicity, which was reversible. Other grade 3 to 4 toxicities included hypocalcemia (three patients), thrombocytopenia (two), encephalopathy (one), and temporary blindness (one). There was one treatment-related mortality. Toxicity was more severe in patients older than 70 years and those with prior pelvic irradiation, prior cisplatin adjuvant therapy, or prior nephrectomy. We now decrease VIG by 20% in this patient population. Eighteen patients (67%) achieved an objective response, including 11 (41%) who attained a disease-free status (five with VIG alone and six with subsequent surgery). Median duration of remission was 20 weeks, with five patients still in remission at 22+ to 56+ weeks. VIG combination chemotherapy is very active in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Toxicity was significant but manageable.

  5. Vapour phase growth and characterization of II-VI mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. R.; Reddy, B. K.

    1992-02-01

    All II-VI semiconductors with melting temperatures well above 1000 degree(s)C and with appreciable congruent vaporization well below their melting temperatures leave little scope for any growth technique except for the slow but efficient vaporphase growth method. Theoretical flaw in diffusion models of vapor phase growth was corrected by Factor and Garrett by incorporating the flow velocity term which otherwise would lead to segregation of constituents. An additional degree of freedom arising from the presence of two components was well utilized to finely control the stoichiometry in binaries. In mixed II-VI systems the components are either three or four, depending on whether the system is a ternary or a quaternary. The added degrees of freedom make it very difficult to control stoichiometry. However, Igaki et al. demonstrated the feasibility of control of stoichiometry in CdSxSe1-x. In this paper, a self-sealing vaporphase growth technique used for both ternary and quaternary system is described. The systems studied are CdSxSe1-x, (ZnSe)x(CdTe)1-x and (ZnTe)x(CdSe)1-x. Results on growth mechanism, miscibility, structure, band gap variation, conductivity type variation with 'x' and transport properties are presented in a comparative way and discussed. CdSxSe1-x system in the entire 'X' has the same crystal structure and type of conductivity. The second system has the same zincblend structure but the type of conductivity is very sensitive to thermal treatment. In the last system both structure and types of conductivity are different. The discontinuities in properties associated with this divergent end compound are presented and discussed. Among the physical properties/parameters studied crystal structure, bandgap and nature of conductivity are tailorable, and magnitudes of conductivity and dielectric properties are very difficult to control in the crystals grown by this vapor phase method.

  6. High-reliability gas-turbine combined-cycle development program: Phase II. Final report

    SciT

    Hecht, K.G.; Sanderson, R.A.; Smith, M.J.

    This three-volume report presents the results of Phase II of the multiphase EPRI-sponsored High-Reliability Gas Turbine Combined-Cycle Development Program whose goal is to achieve a highly reliable gas turbine combined-cycle power plant, available by the mid-1980s, which would be an economically attractive baseload generation alternative for the electric utility industry. The Phase II program objective was to prepare the preliminary design of this power plant. This volume presents information of the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of a representative plant and the preliminary design of the gas turbine, the gas turbine ancillaries, and the balance of plant including themore » steam turbine generator. To achieve the program goals, a gas turbine was incorporated which combined proven reliability characteristics with improved performance features. This gas turbine, designated the V84.3, is the result of a cooperative effort between Kraftwerk Union AG and United Technologies Corporation. Gas turbines of similar design operating in Europe under baseload conditions have demonstrated mean time between failures in excess of 40,000 hours. The reliability characteristics of the gas turbine ancillaries and balance-of-plant equipment were improved through system simplification and component redundancy and by selection of component with inherent high reliability. A digital control system was included with logic, communications, sensor redundancy, and mandual backup. An independent condition monitoring and diagnostic system was also included. Program results provide the preliminary design of a gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant. This power plant has a predicted mean time between failure of nearly twice the 3000-hour EPRI goal. The cost of added reliability features is offset by improved performance, which results in a comparable specific cost and an 8% lower cost of electricity compared to present market offerings.« less

  7. Impact of Precision Medicine in Diverse Cancers: A Meta-Analysis of Phase II Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Schwaederle, Maria; Zhao, Melissa; Lee, J. Jack; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Mendelsohn, John; Lazar, Vladimir; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The impact of a personalized cancer treatment strategy (ie, matching patients with drugs based on specific biomarkers) is still a matter of debate. Methods We reviewed phase II single-agent studies (570 studies; 32,149 patients) published between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012 (PubMed search). Response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared for arms that used a personalized strategy versus those that did not. Results Multivariable analysis (both weighted multiple linear regression and random effects meta-regression) demonstrated that the personalized approach, compared with a nonpersonalized approach, consistently and independently correlated with higher median RR (31% v 10.5%, respectively; P < .001) and prolonged median PFS (5.9 v 2.7 months, respectively; P < .001) and OS (13.7 v 8.9 months, respectively; P < .001). Nonpersonalized targeted arms had poorer outcomes compared with either personalized targeted therapy or cytotoxics, with median RR of 4%, 30%, and 11.9%, respectively; median PFS of 2.6, 6.9, and 3.3 months, respectively (all P < .001); and median OS of 8.7, 15.9, and 9.4 months, respectively (all P < .05). Personalized arms using a genomic biomarker had higher median RR and prolonged median PFS and OS (all P ≤ .05) compared with personalized arms using a protein biomarker. A personalized strategy was associated with a lower treatment-related death rate than a nonpersonalized strategy (median, 1.5% v 2.3%, respectively; P < .001). Conclusion Comprehensive analysis of phase II, single-agent arms revealed that, across malignancies, a personalized strategy was an independent predictor of better outcomes and fewer toxic deaths. In addition, nonpersonalized targeted therapies were associated with significantly poorer outcomes than cytotoxic agents, which in turn were worse than personalized targeted therapy. PMID:26304871

  8. The repeatability of three diagnostic methods (visual using ICDAS II, laser fluorescence, and radiographic) for early caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukmasari, S.; Lestari, W.; Ko, B. B.; Noh, Z.; Asmail, N.; Yaacob, N.

    2017-08-01

    Newly introduced ICDAS II as a visual method, laser fluorescence as another technique that have ability to quantify early mineral loss of tooth structure and intra oral radiograph, are methods can be used in the clinic. To provide standardization for comprehensive caries management at an early stage, all methods supposed to be tested between users. The objective of this research is to evaluate the repeatability of each system. It is a comparative cross sectional study using 100 extracted permanent teeth without obvious cavitation (premolar & molar) that were collected and stored in thymol solution. The teeth were embedded on the wax block and labeled with numbers. All 5 surfaces were examined by 5 examiners using visual (ICDAS II), laser fluorescence (LF) and radiographic examination. The data were then analyzed to measure intra and inter examiner repeatability using Cronbach’s alpha and inter-item correlation matrix. Intra-examiner repeatability for all examiners was >0.7. Chronbach’s a value for inter-examiner repeatability for ICDAS II was >0.8 on 3 surfaces except on buccal and lingual. LF exhibit repeatability of >0.8 on all surfaces. Radiograph shows a low value of inter examiner repeatability (<0.7). Lecturer examiners showed the highest agreement followed by undergraduate students for inter-item correlation while the 2nd and 3rd reading of LF displays the best agreement. ICDAS II score favors more non-invasive treatment compared to LF. ICDAS II showed good repeatability except on buccal and lingual surfaces. In line with some of the previous study, ICDAS II is applicable for caries detection in daily clinical basis. Laser fluorescence exhibits the highest repeatability while the radiograph showed weak inter-examiner repeatability. Treatment decisions of ICDAS II propose more preventive treatment for early caries lesions compared to laser fluorescence.

  9. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Gunnison Site, Gunnison, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    SciT

    None

    1977-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Gunnison, Colorado. The Phase II - Title I services include the preparation of topographic measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 0.5 million tons of tailings at the Gunnison site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblownmore » tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The nine alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through IX). Cost estimates for the nine options range from $480,000 to $5,890,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium does not appear to be economically attractive at present.« less

  10. Beta/gamma and alpha backgrounds in CRESST-II Phase 2

    SciT

    Strauss, R.; Angloher, G.; Ferreiro Iachellini, N.

    2015-06-01

    The experiment CRESST-II aims at the detection of dark matter with scintillating CaWO{sub 4} crystals operated as cryogenic detectors. Recent results on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering from the CRESST-II Phase 2 allowed to probe a new region of parameter space for WIMP masses below 3 GeV/c{sup 2}. This sensitivity was achieved after background levels were reduced significantly. We present extensive background studies of a CaWO{sub 4} crystal, called TUM40, grown at the Technische Universität München. The average beta/gamma rate of 3.51/[kg keV day] (1-40 keV) and the total intrinsic alpha activity from natural decay chains of 3.08±0.04 mBq/kg are the lowestmore » reported for CaWO{sub 4} detectors. Contributions from cosmogenic activation, surface-alpha decays, external radiation and intrinsic alpha/beta emitters are investigated in detail. A Monte-Carlo based background decomposition allows to identify the origin of the majority of beta/gamma events in the energy region relevant for dark matter search.« less

  11. An Overview of Materials Structures for Extreme Environments Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phases I and II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I and II projects that specifically address areas in Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments, one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. Each article describes an innovation, defines its technical objective, and highlights NASA applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Ten technologies are featured: metamaterials-inspired aerospace structures, metallic joining to advanced ceramic composites, multifunctional polyolefin matrix composite structures, integrated reacting fluid dynamics and predictive materials degradation models for propulsion system conditions, lightweight inflatable structural airlock (LISA), copolymer materials for fused deposition modeling 3-D printing of nonstandard plastics, Type II strained layer superlattice materials development for space-based focal plane array applications, hydrogenous polymer-regolith composites for radiation-shielding materials, a ceramic matrix composite environmental barrier coating durability model, and advanced composite truss printing for large solar array structures. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, program managers, and other personnel to learn about innovations in this technology area as well as possibilities for collaboration with innovative small businesses that could benefit NASA programs and projects.

  12. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Durango site, Durango, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    SciT

    Not Available

    1977-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Durango, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.555 million tons of tailings at the Durango site constitutesmore » the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from vegetative stabilization (Option I), to contouring and stabilizing in-place with varying depths of cover material (Options II and III), to removal to an isolated long-term disposal site (Options V to VIII). All options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Costs estimated for the eight options range from $4,340,000 to $13,590,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is sufficiently economically attractive to justify reprocessing in conjunction with each of the options.« less

  13. Celecoxib plus chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: a phase II TCOG study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Wei; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chen, William Tzu-Liang; Lee, Hao-Hsien; Lin, Tzu-Chen; Chen, Hung-Chang; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chien, Chun-Ru; Lin, Tze-Yi; Liu, Tsang-Wu

    2014-05-01

    To report the results of a phase II trial combining celecoxib and preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer were treated with radiotherapy of 44 Gy in 22 fractions. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of oral tegafur-uracil and folinate on days 1-30 and 38-65. Celecoxib (400 mg/day) given from days 1 to 65. Surgery was done on day 70. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in tumor tissues was evaluated microscopically as a prognostic factor. From 2008 to 2011, 53 patients completed CRT+ celecoxib therapy and 47 received radical surgery. Grade 3 diarrhea developed in 5 (9%). Grade 4 anemia was seen in 2 (4%). Pathological complete response (pCR) was seen in 6 (13%). T or N downstaging found in 38 (81%). Sphincter preservation was achieved in 77% of low-positioned tumors. Patients with tumors expressing high-level COX-2 after CRT + celecoxib treatment had inferior pelvic control (P = 0.01), disease-free survival (P = 0.04), and overall survival (P = 0.03) than those with low-level expression. Celecoxib can be safely combined with preoperative CRT for rectal cancer. More intensified adjuvant therapy may be considered for tumors expressing high-level COX-2 after CRT and surgery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Rationale, challenges, and participants in a Phase II trial of a botanical product for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Steven H; Fried, Michael W; Afdhal, Nezam; Navarro, Victor J; Hawke, Roy L; Wahed, Abdus S; Doo, Edward; Meyers, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as a consequence of progression to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. Current treatment for chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin is associated with suboptimal responses and numerous adverse effects. A number of botanical products have been used to treat hepatic disorders. Silymarin, extracted from the milk thistle plant, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn. (Asteraceae), has been most widely used for various liver disorders, including chronic hepatitis C, B, and alcoholic liver disease. However, the safety and efficacy of silymarin have not been studied systematically in chronic hepatitis C. Purpose We describe our strategy for a phased approach for studying the impact of silymarin in hepatitis C, in the context of the unique challenges of botanical product clinical trials and the development of specific and curative antiviral therapy. Methods This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with four clinical centers and a data-coordinating center in the United States, to assess the impact of silymarin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who failed conventional antiviral therapy. Results Key aspects relevant to performing clinical trials of botanical products include early identification of an appropriate product with standard product chemistry, acquisition of pharmacokinetic and dosing information, selection of the appropriate study group, and choosing rigorous outcome variables. Potential limitations Trial participants were chronic hepatitis C patients who were nonsustained virologic responders to IFN-based therapy; therefore, the findings are not generalizable to all hepatitis C populations. Further, alanine aminotransferase, a biochemical liver test, rather than hepatitis viral RNA or liver histology was the primary end point. Conclusions The challenges identified and addressed during

  15. Rationale, challenges, and participants in a Phase II trial of a botanical product for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Rajender; Belle, Steven H; Fried, Michael W; Afdhal, Nezam; Navarro, Victor J; Hawke, Roy L; Wahed, Abdus S; Doo, Edward; Meyers, Catherine M

    2012-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as a consequence of progression to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. Current treatment for chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin is associated with suboptimal responses and numerous adverse effects. A number of botanical products have been used to treat hepatic disorders. Silymarin, extracted from the milk thistle plant, Silybum marianum (L) Gaertn. (Asteraceae), has been most widely used for various liver disorders, including chronic hepatitis C, B, and alcoholic liver disease. However, the safety and efficacy of silymarin have not been studied systematically in chronic hepatitis C. We describe our strategy for a phased approach for studying the impact of silymarin in hepatitis C, in the context of the unique challenges of botanical product clinical trials and the development of specific and curative antiviral therapy. This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with four clinical centers and a data-coordinating center in the United States, to assess the impact of silymarin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who failed conventional antiviral therapy. Key aspects relevant to performing clinical trials of botanical products include early identification of an appropriate product with standard product chemistry, acquisition of pharmacokinetic and dosing information, selection of the appropriate study group, and choosing rigorous outcome variables. POTENTIAL LIMITATIONS: Trial participants were chronic hepatitis C patients who were nonsustained virologic responders to IFN-based therapy; therefore, the findings are not generalizable to all hepatitis C populations. Further, alanine aminotransferase, a biochemical liver test, rather than hepatitis viral RNA or liver histology was the primary end point. The challenges identified and addressed during development of this United States multicenter Phase

  16. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part III. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    Histopathology , Statistical Analysis, and Normal Values ..... ...... ........... 131 I Ii A.mmALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITION COMPOUNDS PHASE II: Effects of...chemistry tests and histopathology , and the normal values are given in Appendix I. The concentrations of Ca 2+, Mg2 +, Na+ and K+ in serum were determined...mice fed 2,6-DNT included focal epicarditis or myocarditis, focal cystitis, chronic murine pneumonia or bronchopneumonia, metritis and focal myositis

  17. Geraniol modulates tongue and hepatic phase I and phase II conjugation activities and may contribute directly to the chemopreventive activity against experimental oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Madankumar, Arumugam; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Rajan, Balan; Raghunandhakumar, Subramanian; Asokkumar, Selvamani; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2013-04-05

    Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are chief determinants in both the susceptibility to mutagenic effect of chemical carcinogens and in the response of tumors to chemotherapy. The present study was aimed to analyze the effect of geraniol administration on the activity of phase I and phase II carcinogen metabolizing enzymes through the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activation against 4-niroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) induced oral carcinogenesis. The well-known chemical carcinogen 4NQO (50 ppm) was used to induce oral carcinogenesis through drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks. The degree of cancer progression at each stage was confirmed by histological examination. At the end of the experimental period, 100% tumor formation was observed in the oral cavity of 4NQO induced animals with significant (P<0.05) alteration in the status of tumor markers, tongue and liver phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes indicating progression of disease. Oral administration of geraniol at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt., thrice a week to 4NQO induced animals was able to inhibit tumor formation and thereby delayed the progression of oral carcinogenesis by modulating tongue and liver phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, as substantiated further by the histological and transmission electron microscopic studies. Our results demonstrate that geraniol exerts its chemopreventive potential by altering activities of phases I and II drug metabolizing enzymes to achieve minimum bioactivation of carcinogen and maximum detoxification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A green separation strategy for neodymium (III) from cobalt (II) and nickel (II) using an ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuehua; Wang, Huiyong; Pei, Yuanchao; Wang, Jianji

    2018-05-15

    It is significant to develop sustainable strategies for the selective separation of rare earth from transition metals from fundamental and practical viewpoint. In this work, an environmentally friendly solvent extraction approach has been developed to selectively separate neodymium (III) from cobalt (II) and nickel (II) by using an ionic liquid-based aqueous two phase system (IL-ATPS). For this purpose, a hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) tetrabutylphosphonate nitrate ([P 4444 ][NO 3 ]) was prepared and used for the formation of an ATPS with NaNO 3 . Binodal curves of the ATPSs have been determined for the design of extraction process. The extraction parameters such as contact time, aqueous phase pH, content of phase-formation components of NaNO 3 and the ionic liquid have been investigated systematically. It is shown that under optimal conditions, the extraction efficiency of neodymium (III) is as high as 99.7%, and neodymium (III) can be selectively separated from cobalt (II) and nickel (II) with a separation factor of 10 3 . After extraction, neodymium (III) can be stripped from the IL-rich phase by using dilute aqueous sodium oxalate, and the ILs can be quantitatively recovered and reused in the next extraction process. Since [P 4444 ][NO 3 ] works as one of the components of the ATPS and the extractant for the neodymium, no organic diluent, extra etractant and fluorinated ILs are used in the separation process. Thus, the strategy described here shows potential in green separation of neodymium from cobalt and nickel by using simple IL-based aqueous two-phase system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sulforaphane-stimulated phase II enzyme induction inhibits cytokine production by airway epithelial cells stimulated with diesel extract.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Stacey A; Wan, Junxiang; Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2007-01-01

    Airborne particulate pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particles, are thought to exacerbate lung and cardiovascular diseases through induction of oxidative stress. Sulforaphane, derived from cruciferous vegetables, is the most potent known inducer of phase II enzymes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics. We postulated that sulforaphane may be able to ameliorate the adverse effects of pollutants by upregulating expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Stimulation of bronchial epithelial cells with the chemical constituents of diesel particles result in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We first demonstrated a role for phase II enzymes in regulating diesel effects by transfecting the airway epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) with the sentinel phase II enzyme NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). IL-8 production in response to diesel extract was significantly reduced in these compared with untransfected cells. We then examined whether sulforaphane would stimulate phase II induction and whether this would thereby ablate the effect of diesel extracts on cytokine production. We verified that sulforaphane significantly augmented expression of the phase II enzyme genes GSTM1 and NQO1 and confirmed that sulforaphane treatment increased glutathione S-transferase activity in epithelial cells without inducing cell death or apoptosis. Sulforaphane pretreatment inhibited IL-8 production by BEAS-2B cells upon stimulation with diesel extract. Similarly, whereas diesel extract stimulated production of IL-8, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1beta from primary human bronchial epithelial cells, sulforaphane pretreatment inhibited diesel-induced production of all of these cytokines. Our studies show that sulforaphane can mitigate the effect of diesel in respiratory epithelial cells and demonstrate the chemopreventative potential of phase II enzyme enhancement.

  20. Search for dark photons using data from CRESST-II Phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gütlein, A.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Ferreiro Iachellini, N.; Gorla, P.; Hauff, D.; Jochum, J.; Kiefer, M.; Kluck, H.; Kraus, H.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Loebell, J.; Mancuso, M.; Münster, A.; Pagliarone, C.; Petricca, F.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Puig, R.; Reindl, F.; Schäffner, K.; Schieck, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stahlberg, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Strandhagen, C.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Uffinger, M.; Ulrich, A.; Usherov, I.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Wüstrich, M.; Zöller, A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the nature and origin of dark matter is one of the most important challenges for modern particle physics. During the previous decade the sensitivities of direct dark matter searches have improved by several orders of magnitude. These experiments focus their work mainly on the search for dark-matter particles interacting with nuclei (e.g. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, WIMPs). However, there exists a large variety of different candidates for dark-matter particles. One of these candidates, the so-called dark photon, is a long-lived vector boson with a kinetic mixing to the standard-model photon. In this work we present the preliminary results of our search for dark photons. Using data from the direct dark matter search CRESST-II Phase 2 we can improve the existing constraints for the kinetic mixing for dark-photon masses between 0.3 and 0.5 keV/c2. In addition, we also present projected sensitivities for the next phases of the CRESST-III experiment showing great potential to improve the sensitivity for dark-photon masses below 1 keV.

  1. Centrifugal slurry pump wear and hydraulic studies. Phase II report. Experimental studies

    SciT

    Mistry, D.; Cooper, P.; Biswas, C.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc., under Phase II, Experimental Studies for the contract entitled, Centrifugal Slurry Pump Wear and Hydraulic Studies. This work was carried out for the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC-82PC50035. The basic development approach pursued this phase is presented, followed by a discussion on wear relationships. The analysis, which resulted in the development of a mathematical wear model relating pump life to some of the key design and operating parameters, is presented. The results, observations, and conclusions of the experimental investigation on small scale pumps that led to themore » selected design features for the prototype pump are discussed. The material investigation was performed at IRRI, ORNL and Battelle. The rationale for selecting the materials for testing, the test methods and apparatus used, and the results obtained are presented followed by a discussion on materials for a prototype pump. In addition, the prototype pump test facility description, as well as the related design and equipment details, are presented. 20 references, 53 figures, 13 tables.« less

  2. Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenyi; Muñoz, Antonio; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Taheri, Bahman

    2002-10-01

    Photonic-bandgap materials, with periodicity in one, two or three dimensions, offer control of spontaneous emission and photon localization. Low-threshold lasing has been demonstrated in two-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials, both with distributed feedback and defect modes. Liquid crystals with chiral constituents exhibit mesophases with modulated ground states. Helical cholesterics are one-dimensional, whereas blue phases are three-dimensional self-assembled photonic-bandgap structures. Although mirrorless lasing was predicted and observed in one-dimensional helical cholesteric materials and chiral ferroelectric smectic materials, it is of great interest to probe light confinement in three dimensions. Here, we report the first observations of lasing in three-dimensional photonic crystals, in the cholesteric blue phase II. Our results show that distributed feedback is realized in three dimensions, resulting in almost diffraction-limited lasing with significantly lower thresholds than in one dimension. In addition to mirrorless lasing, these self-assembled soft photonic-bandgap materials may also be useful for waveguiding, switching and sensing applications.

  3. Stereotactic Injection of DTI-015 into Recurrent Malignant Gliomas: Phase I/II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hassenbusch, Samuel J; Nardone, Emilio M; Levin, Victor A; Leeds, Norman; Pietronigro, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract DTI-015 (BCNU in 100% ethanol) utilizes solvent facilitated perfusion for the intratumoral treatment of gliomas. The ethanol solvent vehicle facilitates a rapid and thorough saturation of the tumor with the dissolved anticancer agent BCNU. We conducted a phase I/II dose escalation study of DTI-015 in 40 heavily pretreated patients with inoperable recurrent malignant glioma. The study goals were to establish a maximally tolerated dose (MTD) for DTI-015 and assess its safety and activity. Patients received stereotactic intratumoral injection of DTI-015 under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Dose escalation was performed in two phases. First, DTI-015 volume was escalated at a set BCNU concentration of 12.5 mg/ml; second, BCNU mg dose was escalated by increasing BCNU concentration to 30, 45, 60, and 75 mg/ml. A MTD of 5 ml and 240 mg was established. Twenty-five of 28 DTI-015 treatments (89%) using ≤MTD were administered safely without producing high-grade drug-related adverse events. Median survival for GBM patients administered DTI-015 at ≤MTD was 55 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated stable disease in 72% of evaluable patients with a median of 10.5 weeks. The results suggest that DTI-015 administered at ≤MTD is well tolerated and active in patients with inoperable recurrent GBM. PMID:12659665

  4. Search for 0νββ-decay with gerda phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorovits, B.

    2018-01-01

    The Gerda experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. From data taken during Phase I of the experiment some knowledge on background contributions important for future experiments could be obtained: limits on the bulk contamination of HPGe with primordial uranium and thorium are presented and first evidence for observation of the decay of the meta-stable state of 77mGe due to neutron capture on 76Ge is discussed. In Phase II of the Gerda experiment 37 HPGe detectors enriched in the isotope 76Ge are deployed into the Gerda cryostat. From non-observation of a peak at 2039 keV a half-life limit on neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge of T1/2 > 5.3 . 1025 yr has been obtained. The background rate in the energy region of interest, after pulse shape discrimination and liquid argon veto cuts is in the range of a few Cts//ROI ton yr). This makes Gerda the first 0νββ-experiment that has a background so low that <1 counts are expected in the RoI within the anticipated life time of the experiment.

  5. A Bragg glass phase in the vortex lattice of a type II superconductor.

    PubMed

    Klein, T; Joumard, I; Blanchard, S; Marcus, J; Cubitt, R; Giamarchi, T; Le Doussal, P

    2001-09-27

    Although crystals are usually quite stable, they are sensitive to a disordered environment: even an infinitesimal amount of impurities can lead to the destruction of crystalline order. The resulting state of matter has been a long-standing puzzle. Until recently it was believed to be an amorphous state in which the crystal would break into 'crystallites'. But a different theory predicts the existence of a novel phase of matter: the so-called Bragg glass, which is a glass and yet nearly as ordered as a perfect crystal. The 'lattice' of vortices that contain magnetic flux in type II superconductors provide a good system to investigate these ideas. Here we show that neutron-diffraction data of the vortex lattice provides unambiguous evidence for a weak, power-law decay of the crystalline order characteristic of a Bragg glass. The theory also predicts accurately the electrical transport properties of superconductors; it naturally explains the observed phase transitions and the dramatic jumps in the critical current associated with the melting of the Bragg glass. Moreover, the model explains experiments as diverse as X-ray scattering in disordered liquid crystals and the conductivity of electronic crystals.

  6. Phase II Study of Bortezomib and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, William J.; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Chiu, Wing-Keung; Carey, Lisa A.; Collichio, Frances A.; Bernard, Philip S.; Stijleman, Inge J.; Perou, Charles; Ivanova, Anastasia; Dees, E. Claire

    2018-01-01

    Background Based on preclinical studies and a phase I trial of the combination of bortezomib and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), which both showed activity in breast cancer, we conducted a phase II study of this regimen in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients and Methods Patients received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of an every-21-day cycle, along with PLD 30 mg/m2 on day 4. The primary objective was to evaluate the response rate of this combination, while secondary objectives were to obtain further safety data about this combination, to evaluate the time to disease progression (TTP), and to evaluate response by the breast cancer subtype. Results One of 12 evaluable patients had a partial response (8%), while 3 (25%) had stable disease. At 26 months follow-up, the median overall survival was 4.3 months (95% CI, 1.2–26.2) and the median TTP was 1.3 months (95% CI, 0.8–14.0 months). The combination was well tolerated, with the most common events including low-grade nausea and vomiting, neutropenia, and neuropathy, and no cardiac toxicity was seen. Of the 7 tumors subtyped, no association was seen between intrinsic subtype or receptor status and response. Conclusion The combination of PLD and bortezomib was well tolerated but has minimal activity in heavily pretreated unselected metastatic breast cancer. PMID:21147690

  7. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    SciT

    Kriz, M.; Hunter, D.; Riley, T.

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5more » day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.« less

  8. Minimizing the Maximum Expected Sample Size in Two-Stage Phase II Clinical Trials with Continuous Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wason, James M. S.; Mander, Adrian P.

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage designs are commonly used for Phase II trials. Optimal two-stage designs have the lowest expected sample size for a specific treatment effect, for example, the null value, but can perform poorly if the true treatment effect differs. Here we introduce a design for continuous treatment responses that minimizes the maximum expected sample size across all possible treatment effects. The proposed design performs well for a wider range of treatment effects and so is useful for Phase II trials. We compare the design to a previously used optimal design and show it has superior expected sample size properties. PMID:22651118

  9. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163 (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The Orion MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a single-piece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment were the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  10. Spin Forming Aluminum Crew Module (CM) Metallic Aft Pressure Vessel Bulkhead (APVBH) - Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Eric K.; Domack, Marcia S.; Torres, Pablo D.; McGill, Preston B.; Tayon, Wesley A.; Bennett, Jay E.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    The principal focus of this project was to assist the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) program in developing a spin forming fabrication process for manufacture of the Orion crew module (CM) aft pressure vessel bulkhead. The spin forming process will enable a single piece aluminum (Al) alloy 2219 aft bulkhead resulting in the elimination of the current multiple piece welded construction, simplify CM fabrication, and lead to an enhanced design. Phase I (NASA TM-2014-218163, (1)) of this assessment explored spin forming the single-piece CM forward pressure vessel bulkhead. The MPCV Program and Lockheed Martin (LM) recently made two critical decisions relative to the NESC Phase I work scope: (1) LM selected the spin forming process to manufacture a singlepiece aft bulkhead for the Orion CM, and (2) the aft bulkhead will be manufactured from Al 2219. Based on the Program's new emphasis related to the spin forming process, the NESC was asked to conduct a Phase II assessment to assist in the LM manufacture of the aft bulkhead and to conduct a feasibility study into spin forming the Orion CM cone. This activity was approved on June 19, 2013. Dr. Robert Piascik, NASA Technical Fellow for Materials at the Langley Research Center (LaRC), was selected to lead this assessment. The project plan was approved by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Review Board (NRB) on July 18, 2013. The primary stakeholders for this assessment are the NASA and LM MPCV Program offices. Additional benefactors are commercial launch providers developing CM concepts.

  11. Current status of amorphous formulation and other special dosage forms as formulations for early clinical phases.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kohsaku

    2009-09-01

    Although most chemists in the pharmaceutical industry have a good understanding on favorable physicochemical properties for drug candidates, formulators must still deal with many challenging candidates. On the other hand, formulators are not allowed to spend much time on formulation development for early phases of the clinical studies. Thus, it is basically difficult to apply special dosage form technologies to the candidates for the first-in-human formulations. Despite the availability of numerous reviews on oral special dosage forms, information on their applicability as the early phase formulation has been limited. This article describes quick review on the oral special dosage forms that may be applied to the early clinical formulations, followed by discussion focused on the amorphous formulations, which still has relatively many issues to be proved for the general use. The major problems that inhibit the use of the amorphous formulation are difficulty in the manufacturing and the poor chemical/physical stability. Notably, the poor physical stability can be critical, because of not the poor stability itself but the difficulty in the timely evaluation in the preclinical developmental timeframes. Research directions of the amorphous formulations are suggested to utilize this promising technology without disturbing the preclinical developmental timelines.

  12. Functional neuroanatomical correlates of episodic memory impairment in early phase psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Hummer, Tom A.; Vohs, Jenifer L.; Yung, Matthew G.; Liffick, Emily; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F.; Radnovich, Alexander J.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that episodic memory (EM) is often preferentially disrupted in schizophrenia. The neural substrates that mediate EM impairment in this illness are not fully understood. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have employed EM probe tasks to elucidate the neural underpinnings of impairment, though results have been inconsistent. The majority of EM imaging studies have been conducted in chronic forms of schizophrenia with relatively few studies in early phase patients. Early phase schizophrenia studies are important because they may provide information regarding when EM deficits occur and address potential confounds more frequently observed in chronic populations. In this study, we assessed brain activation during the performance of visual scene encoding and recognition fMRI tasks in patients with earlyphase psychosis (n=35) and age, sex, and race matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). Patients demonstrated significantly lower activation than controls in the right hippocampus and left fusiform gyrus during scene encoding and lower activation in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and left middle temporal cortex during recognition of target scenes. Symptom levels were not related to the imaging findings, though better cognitive performance in patients was associated with greater right hippocampal activation during encoding. These results provide evidence of altered function in neuroanatomical circuitry subserving EM early in the course of psychotic illness, which may have implications for pathophysiological models of this illness. PMID:25749917

  13. Validation of the phase II feasibility study in a palliative care setting: gastrografin in malignant bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cindy; Vather, Ryash; O'Callaghan, Anne; Robinson, Jackie; McLeod, Briar; Findlay, Michael; Bissett, Ian

    2013-12-01

    Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is common in patients with advanced cancer. To perform a phase II study to assess the feasibility of conducting a phase III trial investigating the therapeutic value of gastrografin in MBO. Randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled feasibility study. Participants received 100 mL of either gastrografin or placebo. Over 8 months, 57 patients were screened and 9 enrolled (15.8% recruitment rate). Of the 9 enrolled, 4 received gastrografin (with 2 completing assessment) and 5 received placebo (with 4 completing assessment). It is not feasible to conduct a phase III trial using the same study protocol. This study validates the use of the phase II feasibility study to assess protocol viability in a palliative population prior to embarking on a larger trial.

  14. Phase I/randomized phase II study of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family blocker, with or without protracted temozolomide in adults with recurrent glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Reardon, David A; Nabors, Louis B; Mason, Warren P; Perry, James R; Shapiro, William; Kavan, Petr; Mathieu, David; Phuphanich, Surasak; Cseh, Agnieszka; Fu, Yali; Cong, Julie; Wind, Sven; Eisenstat, David D

    2015-03-01

    This phase I/II trial evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of afatinib plus temozolomide as well as the efficacy and safety of afatinib as monotherapy (A) or with temozolomide (AT) vs temozolomide monotherapy (T) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Phase I followed a traditional 3 + 3 dose-escalation design to determine MTD. Treatment cohorts were: afatinib 20, 40, and 50 mg/day (plus temozolomide 75 mg/m(2)/day for 21 days per 28-day cycle). In phase II, participants were randomized (stratified by age and KPS) to receive A, T or AT; A was dosed at 40 mg/day and T at 75 mg/m(2) for 21 of 28 days. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival rate at 6 months (PFS-6). Participants were treated until intolerable adverse events (AEs) or disease progression. Recommended phase II dose was 40 mg/day (A) + T based on safety data from phase I (n = 32). Most frequent AEs in phase II (n = 119) were diarrhea (71% [A], 82% [AT]) and rash (71% [A] and 69% [AT]). Afatinib and temozolomide pharmacokinetics were unaffected by coadministration. Independently assessed PFS-6 rate was 3% (A), 10% (AT), and 23% (T). Median PFS was longer in afatinib-treated participants with epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) vIII-positive tumors versus EGFRvIII-negative tumors. Best overall response included partial response in 1 (A), 2 (AT), and 4 (T) participants and stable disease in 14 (A), 14 (AT), and 21 (T) participants. Afatinib has a manageable safety profile but limited single-agent activity in unselected recurrent GBM patients. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Muscle contributions to knee extension in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Kubota, Ryo; Chujo, Yuta; Hirooka, Eiko; Kwang-Ho, Kim; Hase, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze individual muscle contributions to knee angular acceleration using a musculoskeletal simulation analysis and evaluate knee extension mechanics in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The subjects comprised 15 patients with medial knee OA and 14 healthy elderly individuals. All participants underwent gait performance test using 8 infrared cameras and two force plates to measure the kinetic and kinematic data. The simulation was driven by 92 Hill-type muscle-tendon units of the lower extremities and a trunk with 23° of freedom. We analyzed each muscle contribution to knee angular acceleration in the 5%-15% and 15%-25% periods of the stance phase (% SP) using an induced acceleration analysis. We compared accelerations by individual muscles between the two groups using an analysis of covariance for controlling gait speed. Patients with knee OA had a significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles and higher knee acceleration by hip adductors than those in controls in 5-15% SP. In addition, knee OA resulted in significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles in 15-25% SP. These results indicate that patients with knee OA have decreased dependency on the vasti muscles to control knee movements during early stance phase. Hip adductor muscles, which mainly control mediolateral motion, partly compensate for the weak knee extension by the vasti muscles in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting, I-35W Bridge, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Phase II Report

    SciT

    Kinzey, B. R.; Davis, R. G.

    2014-09-30

    On the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the GATEWAY program conducted a two-phase demonstration of LED roadway lighting on the main span, which is one of the country's oldest continuously operated exterior LED lighting installations. The Phase II report documents longer-term performance of the LED lighting system that was installed in 2008, and is the first report on the longer-term performance of LED lighting in the field.

  17. Purinergic receptors contribute to early mesangial cell transformation and renal vessel hypertrophy during angiotensin II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Graciano, Miguel L.; Nishiyama, Akira; Jackson, Keith; Seth, Dale M.; Ortiz, Rudy M.; Prieto-Carrasquero, Minolfa C.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ANG II infusions lead to increases in intrarenal ANG II levels, hypertension, and tissue injury. Increased blood pressure also elicits increases in renal interstitial fluid (RIF) ATP concentrations that stimulate cell proliferation. We evaluated the contribution of purinergic receptor activation to ANG II-induced renal injury in rats by treating with clopidogrel, a P2Y12 receptor blocker, or with PPADS, a nonselective P2 receptor blocker. α-Actin expression in mesangial cells, afferent arteriolar wall thickness (AAWT), cortical cell proliferation, and macrophage infiltration were used as early markers of renal injury. Clopidogrel and PPADS did not alter blood pressure, renin or kidney ANG II content. α-Actin expression increased from control of 0.6 ± 0.4% of mesangial area to 6.3 ± 1.9% in ANG II-infused rats and this response was prevented by clopidogrel (0.4 ± 0.2%) and PPADS. The increase in AAWT from 4.7 ± 0.1 to 6.0 ± 0.1 mm in ANG II rats was also prevented by clopidogrel (4.8 ± 0.1 mm) and PPADS. ANG II infusion led to interstitial macrophage infiltration (105 ± 16 vs. 62 ± 4 cell/mm2) and tubular proliferation (71 ± 15 vs. 20 ± 4 cell/mm2) and these effects were prevented by clopidogrel (52 ± 4 and 36 ± 3 cell/mm2) and PPADS. RIF ATP levels were higher in ANG II-infused rats than in control rats (11.8 ± 1.9 vs. 5.6 ± 0.6 nmol/l, P < 0.05). The results suggest that activation of vascular and glomerular purinergic P2 receptors may contribute to the mesangial cell transformation, renal inflammation, and vascular hypertrophy observed in ANG II-dependent hypertension. PMID:17989111

  18. Restoration of energy level in the early phase of acute pediatric pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mosztbacher, Dóra; Farkas, Nelli; Solymár, Margit; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Rumbus, Zoltán; Varjú, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Párniczky, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious inflammatory disease with rising incidence both in the adult and pediatric populations. It has been shown that mitochondrial injury and energy depletion are the earliest intracellular events in the early phase of AP. Moreover, it has been revealed that restoration of intracellular ATP level restores cellular functions and defends the cells from death. We have recently shown in a systematic review and meta-analysis that early enteral feeding is beneficial in adults; however, no reviews are available concerning the effect of early enteral feeding in pediatric AP. In this minireview, our aim was to systematically analyse the literature on the treatment of acute pediatric pancreatitis. The preferred reporting items for systematic review (PRISMA-P) were followed, and the question was drafted based on participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes: P: patients under the age of twenty-one suffering from acute pancreatitis; I: early enteral nutrition (per os and nasogastric- or nasojejunal tube started within 48 h); C: nil per os therapy; O: length of hospitalization, need for treatment at an intensive care unit, development of severe AP, lung injury (including lung oedema and pleural effusion), white blood cell count and pain score on admission. Altogether, 632 articles (PubMed: 131; EMBASE: 501) were found. After detailed screening of eligible papers, five of them met inclusion criteria. Only retrospective clinical trials were available. Due to insufficient information from the authors, it was only possible to address length of hospitalization as an outcome of the study. Our mini-meta-analysis showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (SD = 0.806, P = 0.034) decreases length of hospitalization compared with nil per os diet in acute pediatric pancreatitis. In this minireview, we clearly show that early enteral nutrition, started within 24-48 h, is beneficial in acute pediatric pancreatitis. Prospective studies and better

  19. Restoration of energy level in the early phase of acute pediatric pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mosztbacher, Dóra; Farkas, Nelli; Solymár, Margit; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Rumbus, Zoltán; Varjú, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Párniczky, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious inflammatory disease with rising incidence both in the adult and pediatric populations. It has been shown that mitochondrial injury and energy depletion are the earliest intracellular events in the early phase of AP. Moreover, it has been revealed that restoration of intracellular ATP level restores cellular functions and defends the cells from death. We have recently shown in a systematic review and meta-analysis that early enteral feeding is beneficial in adults; however, no reviews are available concerning the effect of early enteral feeding in pediatric AP. In this minireview, our aim was to systematically analyse the literature on the treatment of acute pediatric pancreatitis. The preferred reporting items for systematic review (PRISMA-P) were followed, and the question was drafted based on participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes: P: patients under the age of twenty-one suffering from acute pancreatitis; I: early enteral nutrition (per os and nasogastric- or nasojejunal tube started within 48 h); C: nil per os therapy; O: length of hospitalization, need for treatment at an intensive care unit, development of severe AP, lung injury (including lung oedema and pleural effusion), white blood cell count and pain score on admission. Altogether, 632 articles (PubMed: 131; EMBASE: 501) were found. After detailed screening of eligible papers, five of them met inclusion criteria. Only retrospective clinical trials were available. Due to insufficient information from the authors, it was only possible to address length of hospitalization as an outcome of the study. Our mini-meta-analysis showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (SD = 0.806, P = 0.034) decreases length of hospitalization compared with nil per os diet in acute pediatric pancreatitis. In this minireview, we clearly show that early enteral nutrition, started within 24-48 h, is beneficial in acute pediatric pancreatitis. Prospective studies and better

  20. On-line solid phase selective separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) by solid-phase extraction using carbon active modified with methyl thymol blue.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Ghaderi, Ali R

    2007-09-05

    An on-line flow system was used to develop a selective and efficient on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration system for cadmium. The method is based on adsorption of cadmium ions onto the activated carbon modified with methyl thymol blue. Then the adsorbed ions were washed using 0.5M HNO(3) and the eluent was used to determine the Cd(II) ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained show that the modified activated carbon has the greatest adsorption capacity of 80 microg of Cd(II) per 1.0 g of the solid phase. The optimal pH value for the quantitative preconcentration was 9.0 and full desorption is achieved by using 0.5M HNO(3) solution. It is established that the solid phase can be used repeatedly without a considerable adsorption capacity loss. The detection limit was less than 1 ngmL(-1) Cd(II), with an enrichment factor of 1000. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1-2000 ngmL(-1) Cd(II). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace cadmium (II) in water samples and in the following reference materials: sewage sludge (CRM144R), and sea water (CASS.4) with satisfactory results. The accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments.